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Sample records for bycatch jeopardizes endangered

  1. Predicting bycatch hotspots for endangered leatherback turtles on longlines in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, John H; Morreale, Stephen J; Paladino, Frank V; Shillinger, George L; Benson, Scott R; Eckert, Scott A; Bailey, Helen; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrián; Bograd, Steven J; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Dutton, Peter H; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Block, Barbara A; Spotila, James R

    2014-02-22

    Fisheries bycatch is a critical source of mortality for rapidly declining populations of leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea. We integrated use-intensity distributions for 135 satellite-tracked adult turtles with longline fishing effort to estimate predicted bycatch risk over space and time in the Pacific Ocean. Areas of predicted bycatch risk did not overlap for eastern and western Pacific nesting populations, warranting their consideration as distinct management units with respect to fisheries bycatch. For western Pacific nesting populations, we identified several areas of high risk in the north and central Pacific, but greatest risk was adjacent to primary nesting beaches in tropical seas of Indo-Pacific islands, largely confined to several exclusive economic zones under the jurisdiction of national authorities. For eastern Pacific nesting populations, we identified moderate risk associated with migrations to nesting beaches, but the greatest risk was in the South Pacific Gyre, a broad pelagic zone outside national waters where management is currently lacking and may prove difficult to implement. Efforts should focus on these predicted hotspots to develop more targeted management approaches to alleviate leatherback bycatch.

  2. National Bycatch Report (NBR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This system collects bycatch data and fishery landings data from all five NOAA Fisheries Regions and automates the generation of the tables required to publish the...

  3. Spatial and temporal statistical analysis of bycatch data: Patterns of sea turtle bycatch in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, B.; Sullivan, P.J.; Morreale, S.J.; Epperly, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) sea turtle distributions and movements in offshore waters of the western North Atlantic are not well understood despite continued efforts to monitor, survey, and observe them. Loggerhead and leatherback sea turtles are listed as endangered by the World Conservation Union, and thus anthropogenic mortality of these species, including fishing, is of elevated interest. This study quantifies spatial and temporal patterns of sea turtle bycatch distributions to identify potential processes influencing their locations. A Ripley's K function analysis was employed on the NOAA Fisheries Atlantic Pelagic Longline Observer Program data to determine spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal patterns of sea turtle bycatch distributions within the pattern of the pelagic fishery distribution. Results indicate that loggerhead and leatherback sea turtle catch distributions change seasonally, with patterns of spatial clustering appearing from July through October. The results from the space-time analysis indicate that sea turtle catch distributions are related on a relatively fine scale (30-200 km and 1-5 days). The use of spatial and temporal point pattern analysis, particularly K function analysis, is a novel way to examine bycatch data and can be used to inform fishing practices such that fishing could still occur while minimizing sea turtle bycatch. ?? 2008 NRC.

  4. Freshwater Commercial Bycatch: an Understated Conservation Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raby, Graham D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-04-01

    Commercial fisheries bycatch in marine systems has been regarded as a global conservation concern by environmental groups, scientists, government, and the public for decades. Fortunately, some headway has been made to mitigate the negative impacts of bycatch in marine environments. In a survey of the literature, we found that despite freshwater commercial fisheries yields comprising 11% of the global commercial catch, bycatch research focusing on freshwater commercial fisheries represented only {approx}3% of the total bycatch literature. This paucity of research is particularly alarming given that freshwater animals and habitats are some of the world's most imperiled. The limited inland bycatch literature that does exist includes examples of population declines attributed to commercial bycatch (e.g., freshwater dolphins in the Yangtze River in China) and illustrates that in some systems bycatch can be substantial (e.g., lake trout bycatch in the Laurentian Great Lakes). Encouraging results from the marine realm can serve as models for bycatch research in freshwater, and lead to measurable gains in conservation of freshwater ecosystems. We summarize existing work on inland bycatch in an effort to draw attention to this understated and understudied conservation problem.

  5. Extinction is imminent for Mexico’s endemic porpoise unless fishery bycatch is eliminated

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara L Taylor; Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo; Moore, Jeffrey; Jaramillo-Legorreta, Armando; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Cardenas-Hinojosa, Gustavo; Nieto-Garcia, Edwyna; Barlow, Jay; Gerrodette, Tim; Tregenza, Nicholas; Thomas, Len; Hammond, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary funding was by Secretaria del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (Secretario R. Pacchiano). Mexican support was from SEMARNAT, CONABIO, CONANP, PROFEPA, SEMAR, and WWF-Mexico. US support from NOAA-Fisheries-SWFSC and The Marine Mammal Center. The number of Mexico’s endemic porpoise, the vaquita (Phocoena sinus), is collapsing primarily due to bycatch in illegal gillnets set for totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), an endangered fish whose swim bladders are exported to China. Previous res...

  6. 50 CFR 648.18 - Standardized bycatch reporting methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standardized bycatch reporting methodology... Provisions § 648.18 Standardized bycatch reporting methodology. NMFS shall comply with the Standardized Bycatch Reporting Methodology (SBRM) provisions established in the following fishery management...

  7. Assessment of Caspian Seal By-Catch in an Illegal Fishery Using an Interview-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Dmitrieva

    Full Text Available The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica has declined by more than 90% since 1900 and is listed as endangered by IUCN. We made the first quantitative assessment of Caspian seal by-catch mortality in fisheries in the north Caspian Sea by conducting semi-structured interviews in fishing communities along the coasts of Russia (Kalmykia, Dagestan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. We recorded a documented minimum by-catch of 1,215 seals in the survey sample, for the 2008-2009 fishing season, 93% of which occurred in illegal sturgeon fisheries. Due to the illegal nature of the fishery, accurately quantifying total fishing effort is problematic and the survey sample could reflect less than 10% of poaching activity in the north Caspian Sea. Therefore total annual by-catch may be significantly greater than the minimum documented by the survey. The presence of high by-catch rates was supported independently by evidence of net entanglement from seal carcasses, during a mass stranding on the Kazakh coast in May 2009, where 30 of 312 carcasses were entangled in large mesh sturgeon net remnants. The documented minimum by-catch may account for 5 to 19% of annual pup production. Sturgeon poaching therefore not only represents a serious threat to Caspian sturgeon populations, but may also be having broader impacts on the Caspian Sea ecosystem by contributing to a decline in one of the ecosystem's key predators. This study demonstrates the utility of interview-based approaches in providing rapid assessments of by-catch in illegal small-scale fisheries, which are not amenable to study by other methods.

  8. Assessment of Caspian Seal By-Catch in an Illegal Fishery Using an Interview-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Lilia; Kondakov, Andrey A; Oleynikov, Eugeny; Kydyrmanov, Aidyn; Karamendin, Kobey; Kasimbekov, Yesbol; Baimukanov, Mirgaliy; Wilson, Susan; Goodman, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) has declined by more than 90% since 1900 and is listed as endangered by IUCN. We made the first quantitative assessment of Caspian seal by-catch mortality in fisheries in the north Caspian Sea by conducting semi-structured interviews in fishing communities along the coasts of Russia (Kalmykia, Dagestan), Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. We recorded a documented minimum by-catch of 1,215 seals in the survey sample, for the 2008-2009 fishing season, 93% of which occurred in illegal sturgeon fisheries. Due to the illegal nature of the fishery, accurately quantifying total fishing effort is problematic and the survey sample could reflect less than 10% of poaching activity in the north Caspian Sea. Therefore total annual by-catch may be significantly greater than the minimum documented by the survey. The presence of high by-catch rates was supported independently by evidence of net entanglement from seal carcasses, during a mass stranding on the Kazakh coast in May 2009, where 30 of 312 carcasses were entangled in large mesh sturgeon net remnants. The documented minimum by-catch may account for 5 to 19% of annual pup production. Sturgeon poaching therefore not only represents a serious threat to Caspian sturgeon populations, but may also be having broader impacts on the Caspian Sea ecosystem by contributing to a decline in one of the ecosystem's key predators. This study demonstrates the utility of interview-based approaches in providing rapid assessments of by-catch in illegal small-scale fisheries, which are not amenable to study by other methods.

  9. AFSC/ABL: 2007-2013 Chinook Salmon Bycatch Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analyses of samples from the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bycatch from the 2007-2013 Bering Sea-Aleutian Island and Gulf of Alaska trawl...

  10. Chinook Bycatch - Contemporary Salmon Genetic Stock Composition Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to measure and monitor impacts on ESA-listed populations and to estimate overall Chinook salmon stock composition in bycatch...

  11. Dynamic habitat models: using telemetry data to project fisheries bycatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydelis, Ramūnas; Lewison, Rebecca L; Shaffer, Scott A; Moore, Jeffrey E; Boustany, Andre M; Roberts, Jason J; Sims, Michelle; Dunn, Daniel C; Best, Benjamin D; Tremblay, Yann; Kappes, Michelle A; Halpin, Patrick N; Costa, Daniel P; Crowder, Larry B

    2011-11-01

    Fisheries bycatch is a recognized threat to marine megafauna. Addressing bycatch of pelagic species however is challenging owing to the dynamic nature of marine environments and vagility of these organisms. In order to assess the potential for species to overlap with fisheries, we propose applying dynamic habitat models to determine relative probabilities of species occurrence for specific oceanographic conditions. We demonstrate this approach by modelling habitats for Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) using telemetry data and relating their occurrence probabilities to observations of Hawaii-based longline fisheries in 1997-2000. We found that modelled habitat preference probabilities of black-footed albatrosses were high within some areas of the fishing range of the Hawaiian fleet and such preferences were important in explaining bycatch occurrence. Conversely, modelled habitats of Laysan albatrosses overlapped little with Hawaii-based longline fisheries and did little to explain the bycatch of this species. Estimated patterns of albatross habitat overlap with the Hawaiian fleet corresponded to bycatch observations: black-footed albatrosses were more frequently caught in this fishery despite being 10 times less abundant than Laysan albatrosses. This case study demonstrates that dynamic habitat models based on telemetry data may help to project interactions with pelagic animals relative to environmental features and that such an approach can serve as a tool to guide conservation and management decisions.

  12. Vulnerability of oceanic sharks as pelagic longline bycatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Gallagher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bycatch (the unintentional catch of non-target species or sizes is consistently ranked as one of the greatest threats to marine fish populations; yet species-specific rates of bycatch survival are rarely considered in risk assessments. Regulations often require that bycatch of threatened species be released; but, if animals are already dead, their release serves no conservation purpose. We examined the survival of 12 shark species caught as bycatch in the US Atlantic pelagic longline fishery. Shark survival was evaluated in relation to fishery target (swordfish versus tuna and four operational, environmental, and biological variables to evaluate the underlying mechanisms affecting mortality. Survival estimates ranged from 33% (night shark to 97% (tiger shark with seven of the 12 species being significantly affected by at least one variable. We placed our survival results within a framework that assessed each species’ relative vulnerability by integrating survival estimates with reproductive potential and found that the bigeye thresher, dusky, night, and scalloped hammerhead shark exhibited the highest vulnerabilities to bycatch. We suggest that considering ecological and biological traits of species shows promise for designing effective conservation measures, whereas techniques that reduce fisheries interactions in the first place may be the best strategy for highly vulnerable species.

  13. Hierarchical modeling of bycatch rates of sea turtles in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, B.; Sullivan, P.J.; Epperly, S.; Morreale, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the locations of the endangered loggerhead Caretta caretta and critically endangered leatherback Dermochelys coriacea sea turtles are influenced by water temperatures, and that incidental catch rates in the pelagic longline fishery vary by region. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model to examine the effects of environmental variables, including water temperature, on the number of sea turtles captured in the US pelagic longline fishery in the western North Atlantic. The modeling structure is highly flexible, utilizes a Bayesian model selection technique, and is fully implemented in the software program WinBUGS. The number of sea turtles captured is modeled as a zero-inflated Poisson distribution and the model incorporates fixed effects to examine region-specific differences in the parameter estimates. Results indicate that water temperature, region, bottom depth, and target species are all significant predictors of the number of loggerhead sea turtles captured. For leatherback sea turtles, the model with only target species had the most posterior model weight, though a re-parameterization of the model indicates that temperature influences the zero-inflation parameter. The relationship between the number of sea turtles captured and the variables of interest all varied by region. This suggests that management decisions aimed at reducing sea turtle bycatch may be more effective if they are spatially explicit. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  14. 50 CFR 679.21 - Prohibited species bycatch management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... apportionment of a bycatch allowance on the following types of information: (A) Seasonal distribution of prohibited species; (B) Seasonal distribution of target groundfish species relative to prohibited species... section. (3) Allocations of the BS Chinook salmon PSC limits—(i) Seasonal apportionment. NMFS...

  15. Mitigating seabird bycatch during hauling by pelagic longline vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gilman

    Full Text Available Bycatch in longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations. The Hawaii longline swordfish fishery reduced seabird captures by an order of magnitude primarily through mitigating bycatch during setting. Now, 75% of captures occur during hauling. We fit observer data to a generalized additive regression model with mixed effects to determine the significance of the effect of various factors on the standardized seabird haul catch rate. Density of albatrosses attending vessels during hauling, leader length and year had largest model effects. The standardized haul catch rate significantly increased with increased albatross density during hauling. The standardized catch rate was significantly higher the longer the leader: shorter leaders place weighted swivels closer to hooks, reducing the likelihood of baited hooks becoming available to surface-scavenging albatrosses. There was a significant linear increasing temporal trend in the standardized catch rate, possibly partly due to an observed increasing temporal trend in the local abundance of albatrosses attending vessels during hauling. Swivel weight, Beaufort scale and season were also significant but smaller model effects. Most (81% haul captures were on branchlines actively being retrieved. Future haul mitigation research should therefore focus on reducing bird access to hooks as crew coil branchlines, including methods identified here of shorter leaders and heavier swivels, and other potentially effective methods, including faster branchline coiling and shielding the area where hooks becomes accessible. The proportion of Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis captures that occurred during hauling was significantly, 1.6 times, higher than for black-footed albatrosses (P. nigripes, perhaps due to differences in the time of day of foraging and in daytime scavenging competitiveness; mitigating haul bycatch would therefore be a larger benefit to Laysans. Locally, findings

  16. Mitigating seabird bycatch during hauling by pelagic longline vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Eric; Chaloupka, Milani; Wiedoff, Brett; Willson, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Bycatch in longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations. The Hawaii longline swordfish fishery reduced seabird captures by an order of magnitude primarily through mitigating bycatch during setting. Now, 75% of captures occur during hauling. We fit observer data to a generalized additive regression model with mixed effects to determine the significance of the effect of various factors on the standardized seabird haul catch rate. Density of albatrosses attending vessels during hauling, leader length and year had largest model effects. The standardized haul catch rate significantly increased with increased albatross density during hauling. The standardized catch rate was significantly higher the longer the leader: shorter leaders place weighted swivels closer to hooks, reducing the likelihood of baited hooks becoming available to surface-scavenging albatrosses. There was a significant linear increasing temporal trend in the standardized catch rate, possibly partly due to an observed increasing temporal trend in the local abundance of albatrosses attending vessels during hauling. Swivel weight, Beaufort scale and season were also significant but smaller model effects. Most (81%) haul captures were on branchlines actively being retrieved. Future haul mitigation research should therefore focus on reducing bird access to hooks as crew coil branchlines, including methods identified here of shorter leaders and heavier swivels, and other potentially effective methods, including faster branchline coiling and shielding the area where hooks becomes accessible. The proportion of Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) captures that occurred during hauling was significantly, 1.6 times, higher than for black-footed albatrosses (P. nigripes), perhaps due to differences in the time of day of foraging and in daytime scavenging competitiveness; mitigating haul bycatch would therefore be a larger benefit to Laysans. Locally, findings identify opportunities

  17. Endangered Species Act and energy facility planning: compliance and conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreeve, D; Calef, C; Nagy, J

    1978-05-01

    New energy facilities such as coal mines, gasification plants, refineries, and power plants--because of their severe environmental impacts--may, if sited haphazardly, jeopardize endangered species. By law, conflicts between energy-facility siting and endangered species occurrence must be minimized. To assess the likelihood of such conflicts arising, the authors used data from the Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Office, that describe the species' ranges by county. This data set was matched with county-level occurrences of imminent energy developments to find counties of overlap and hence potential conflict. An index was developed to measure the likelihood of actual conflict occurring in such counties. Factors determining the index are: numbers of endangered species inhabiting the county, number of energy-related developments, and to what degree the county remains in a wild or undeveloped state. Maps were prepared showing (1) geographic ranges of endangered species by taxonomic groups (mammals, fish, etc.) and (2) counties of conflict.

  18. The safety of bycatch: South Korean responses to the moratorium on commercial whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Tatar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When the global moratorium on commercial whaling was implemented in 1986, Korea prohibited whaling; however, there was no effort to build the capacity of social institutions to guide local residents to cooperate with the policy. Utilizing a social ecology approach, this research examines the practice of eating whale meat in Ulsan, South Korea, to illustrate the importance of culture for attaining the social acceptance of wildlife conservation policy. The cultural models which influence the consumption of whale meat are here classified as representing four distinct responses to the moratorium: opposition, resistance, evasion and support. The two most important changes are the public utilization of whale meat as a symbol of an endangered culture, and the reliance on meat procured legally from accidental entanglements of whales in fishing nets (cetacean bycatch. These cultural changes have a social function, which is to impart legitimacy and acceptance to the continued consumption of whale meat, from illegal as well as legal sources. Given the cultural acceptance of whale meat, I argue that it will not be possible to eradicate the illegal market through enforcement alone. Instead, the solution is to persuade local consumers of whale meat to cooperate with the moratorium.

  19. Catch, effort and bycatch of longline fishery in central Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ayala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study is to report some characteristics of fishing trips, effort, catches, fishing areas and bycatch through observations on board and logbooks. 85% of sets were in the first 574 Km of distance from the coast (309 nautical miles. Farthest set was located at 1320 Km (712 nautical miles. A total of 382000 hooks were used to catch Mahi mahi, in 224 sets and 29 fishing trips, 94.6% of catch was Mahi mahi, 2.7% blue shark (Prionace glauca y 1,3% mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus. Also, 103790 hooks were used to catch sharks, in 109 sets y 12 trips, 81.9% of catch was blue sharks and 16.8% mako sharks. Catch per Unit of Effort (CPUE for Mahi mahi shows significative difference among seasons; with a peak from November to January. CPUE for shark shows significative difference among seasons, with peaks in September and October. The Green turtle Chelonia mydas agassizii was the most caugth species and two of three were juveniles. All Loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, caught were juveniles. A petrel is reported as bycatch and, probably, mammal bycatch is scarce. Considering the huge effort of this fishery, it is important to monitor it and establish management actions.

  20. Mitigating by-catch of diamondback terrapins in crab pots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic by-catch of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) pots is a concern for terrapin conservation along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Despite the availability of by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) for crab pots, adoption of BRDs has not been mandated and by-catch of terrapins continues. We conducted experimental fishing studies in North Carolina's year-round blue crab fishery from 2000 to 2004 to evaluate the ability of various BRDs to reduce terrapin by-catch without a concomitant reduction in the catch of blue crabs. In 4,822 crab pot days fished, we recorded only 21 terrapin captures. Estimated capture rates were 0.003 terrapins/pot per day in hard crab experimental fishing and 0.008 terrapins/pot per day in peeler experimental fishing. All terrapin captures occurred from April to mid-May within 321.4 m of the shoreline. Longer soak times produced more dead terrapins, with 4 live and 4 dead during hard crab experimental fishing and 11 live and 2 dead during peeler experimental fishing. The 4.0-cm BRDs in fall and 4.5-cm and 5.0-cm BRDs in spring reduced the catch of legal-sized male hard crabs by 26.6%, 21.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. Only the 5.0-cm BRDs did not significantly affect the catch of legal-sized hard male crabs. However, BRDs had no measurable effect on catch of target crabs in the peeler crab fishery. Our results identify 3 complementary and economically feasible tools for blue crab fishery managers to exclude terrapins from commercially fished crab pots in North Carolina: 1) gear modifications (e.g., BRDs); 2) distance-to-shore restrictions; and 3) time-of-year regulations. These measures combined could provide a reduction in terrapin by-catch of up to 95% without a significant reduction in target crab catch.

  1. Assessing incidental bycatch of seabirds in Norwegian coastal commercial fisheries: Empirical and methodological lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Fangel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With diminishing seabird populations and little knowledge on incidental bycatch in fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic, this study aimed to screen seabird bycatch in Norwegian coastal fisheries in 2009. The purpose was to 1 quantify magnitude of seabird bycatch rates and estimate total bycatch from the entire fleet by different estimators 2 evaluate data from an access point survey against monitoring data from a reference fleet as methods for collecting data on bycatch mortality of seabirds and 3 give advice on further bycatch studies. The study focused on three small-vessel fisheries (11 000 birds estimated caught. The black guillemot Cepphus gryllealso stood out as a numerous victim, constituting almost two thirds of the >3000 birds estimated to have drowned in lumpfish gillnets. The two methods were both considered to hold merit and yielded approximately similar estimates of the bycatch in the coastal cod fisheries, however BPUE differs. Further studies are recommended especially on the lumpfish gillnet and Greenland halibut longline fisheries and on temporal and spatial variations in bycatch. More studies are also needed to model effects on seabirds at the population level.

  2. Regional variation in bycatches associated with king scallop (Pecten maximus L.) dredge fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, Claire L; Murray, Lee G; Bell, Ewen; Lambert, Gwladys; Kaiser, Michel J

    2017-02-01

    The biomass and composition of bycatch from king scallop dredge fisheries was assessed and compared between the English Channel, Cardigan Bay in Wales and around the Isle of Man. Bycatch composition varied significantly at localised, and broad, geographic scales. The mean proportion of scallop dredge bycatch biomass in the English Channel was 19% of total catch biomass. The proportion of bycatch was lower in Cardigan Bay (15%) but notably higher around the Isle of Man (53%). The proportion of individual bycatch species in dredge catches were low, therefore scallop dredging is unlikely to cause a substantial increase the population mortality of individual commercially fished species beyond that caused by the target fisheries for those species, or bycatches of other fisheries. The amount and mortality of organisms left on the seabed in the dredge path was not quantified in this study but should also be considered in management of the fishery. The discard rate of finfish and shellfish of commercial value from the king scallop dredge fishery in the English Channel was between 18 and 100%, with a higher rate of discarding occurring in the eastern English Channel compared to the west. The clear regional differences in bycatch composition and variation in the quantity of discards mean that an area by area approach to managing bycatch species is required in relation to the king scallop dredge fishery.

  3. By-Catch Impacts in Fisheries: Utilizing the IUCN Red List Categories for Enhanced Product Level Assessment in Seafood LCAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornborg, Sara; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Per; Ziegler, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species’ vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  4. By-catch impacts in fisheries: utilizing the IUCN red list categories for enhanced product level assessment in seafood LCAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornborg, Sara; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Per; Ziegler, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species' vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  5. Observing incidental harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena bycatch by remote electronic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Dalskov, Jørgen; Stage, Bjarne;

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of marine mammal bycatch is important in relation to conservation and management of protected species. Hitherto, using onboard observers has been the most reliable and accurate method but observer programs can be prohibitively expensive. To investigate the potential of CCTV cameras...... to document bycatch of marine mammals, 6 Danish commercial gillnetters (10 to15 m in length) operating under the Danish catch quota management system were equipped with Remote Electronic Monitoring (REM) systems. The REM systems provided video footage, time and position of all net hauls and bycatches...... of marine mammals. Comparisons between REM results and fishers logbooks showed that the REM system gave more reliable results, since fishers in many cases did not observe the bycatch while working on the deck because the bycatch dropped out of the net before coming on board. Furthermore, very high coverage...

  6. SURVIVAL ESTIMATES OF BYCATCH INDIVIDUALS DISCARDED FROM BIVALVE DREDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leitão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fate of released bycatch is an issue of great interest for fisheries research and management. Survival experiments were carried out to assess the survival capacity of animals damaged and discarded during clam dredging operations. Three common bycatch species, two fish (Trachinus vipera; Dicologlossa cuneata and one crab (Polybius henslowii, were collected during the sorting of catches from a commercial dredging boat. An arbitrary score scale was used to quantify the type and extent of damage to the organisms. Onboard, damaged individuals were placed in tanks containing seawater which were subsequently transferred to the laboratory. Survival experiments were conducted during the subsequent 48h. D. cuneata exhibited the lowest mortality after 48h (54%, followed by P. henslowii (65% and T. vipera (81%. Despite the magnitude of the percentage mortalities determined, the average number of individuals estimated to die during a 15 minutes tow (standard commercial fishing time was relatively small: 1.2, 3.24 and 11 for D. cuneata, T. vipera and P. henslowii, respectively. Nevertheless, when these figures are extrapolated to cover all the dredging fleet the impact of this practice on the populations of the species studied can be significant, particulary for D. cuneata.

  7. Mobility promotes and jeopardizes biodiversity in rock-paper-scissors games

    CERN Document Server

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Frey, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    Biodiversity is essential to the viability of ecological systems. Species diversity in ecosystems is promoted by cyclic, non-hierarchical interactions among competing populations. Such non-transitive relations lead to an evolution with central features represented by the `rock-paper-scissors' game, where rock crushes scissors, scissors cut paper, and paper wraps rock. In combination with spatial dispersal of static populations, this type of competition results in the stable coexistence of all species and the long-term maintenance of biodiversity. However, population mobility is a central feature of real ecosystems: animals migrate, bacteria run and tumble. Here, we observe a critical influence of mobility on species diversity. When mobility exceeds a certain value, biodiversity is jeopardized and lost. In contrast, below this critical threshold all subpopulations coexist and an entanglement of travelling spiral waves forms in the course of temporal evolution. We establish that this phenomenon is robust, it do...

  8. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon bycatch genetic stock identification 1994-1995 Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In some years, the Bering Sea trawl fishery incidentally harvests (bycatch) large numbers of chum salmon. Because chum salmon were declining in some western Alaska...

  9. Bycatch and release of pelagic megafauna in industrial trawler fisheries off Northwest Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeberg, J.J.; Corten, A.A.H.M.; Graaf, de E.

    2006-01-01

    The accidental capture of large animals such as sharks, manta rays, sea turtles, and dolphins in pelagic trawler fisheries remains controversial because it threatens biological diversity in many biogeographical regions, including the subtropical eastern North Atlantic. Bycatch rates observed during

  10. AFSC/ABL: 2012 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch from the 2012 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) trawl fishery was...

  11. AFSC/ABL: 2010 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2010 Bering Sea groundfish trawl fishery was undertaken to determine the...

  12. AFSC/ABL: 2011 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch from the 2011 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  13. AFSC/ABL: 2008 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2008 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  14. AFSC/ABL: 2009 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2009 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  15. AFSC/ABL: 2005 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2005 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  16. AFSC/ABL: 2007 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2007 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  17. AFSC/ABL: 2006 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2006 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  18. Fish bycatch of the laulao catfish Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes, 1840 trawl fishery in the Amazon Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Antunes Jimenez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the composition and seasonal variation in the fish bycatch of the Brachyplatystoma vaillantii trawl fishery in the Amazon Estuary in 2009 by monitoring the trips of 48 vessels. The bycatch represented 29% of the catches, totalling 22,228 specimens and 52 taxa, distributed in 22 families (the principal families were Ariidae, Pimelodidae, and Sciaenidae. Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Plagioscion squamosissimus, and Sciades herzbergii together contributed 69% of the bycatch and were considered consistent bycatch species. Although a higher proportion of bycatch was captured during the rainy season, the seasonal difference was not significant. A multidimensional scaling (MDS ordination analysis and an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM indicated that the species composition of the bycatch was similar across the seasons. However, larger numbers of B. rousseauxii and P. squamosissimus were captured during the rainy season, whereas S. herzbergii predominated during the dry season. The marine migrants and estuarine species guilds showed the greatest richness, whereas freshwater migrants were the most numerous. Among the feeding guilds, the zoobenthivores were the most diverse, whereas the piscivores were the most abundant. The results indicate that fishing pressure primarily affects small- (20-30 cm and medium-sized (30-50 cm individuals, although the catch of P. squamosissimus was composed primarily of adults. However, the catches of both B. rousseauxii and B. vaillantii were composed primarily of juveniles.

  19. Endangered Metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Idström, Anna; Falzett, Tiber FM

    2012-01-01

    When the last speaker of a language dies, s/he takes to oblivion the memories, associations and the rich imagery this language community has once lived by. The cultural heritage encoded in conventional linguistic metaphors, handed down through generations, will be lost forever. This volume consists of fifteen articles about metaphors in endangered languages, from Peru to Alaska, from India to Ghana.The empirical data demonstrate that the assumptions of contemporary cognitive linguistic theory about "universal" metaphors and the underlying cognitive processes are still far from plausible, since

  20. Seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries is grossly underestimated when using only haul data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Brothers

    Full Text Available Hundreds of thousands of seabirds are killed each year as bycatch in longline fisheries. Seabirds are predominantly caught during line setting but bycatch is generally recorded during line hauling, many hours after birds are caught. Bird loss during this interval may lead to inaccurate bycatch information. In this 15 year study, seabird bycatch was recorded during both line setting and line hauling from four fishing regions: Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, Coral Sea and central Pacific Ocean. Over 43,000 albatrosses, petrels and skuas representing over 25 species were counted during line setting of which almost 6,000 seabirds attempted to take the bait. Bait-taking interactions were placed into one of four categories. (i The majority (57% of bait-taking attempts were "unsuccessful" involving seabirds that did not take the bait nor get caught or hooked. (ii One-third of attempts were "successful" with seabirds removing the bait while not getting caught. (iii One-hundred and seventy-six seabirds (3% of attempts were observed being "caught" during line setting, with three albatross species - Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis, black-footed (P. nigripes and black-browed (Thalassarche melanophrys- dominating this category. However, of these, only 85 (48% seabird carcasses were retrieved during line hauling. Most caught seabirds were hooked through the bill. (iv The remainder of seabird-bait interactions (7% was not clearly observed, but likely involved more "caught" seabirds. Bait taking attempts and percentage outcome (e.g. successful, caught varied between seabird species and was not always related to species abundance around fishing vessels. Using only haul data to calculate seabird bycatch grossly underestimates actual bycatch levels, with the level of seabird bycatch from pelagic longline fishing possibly double what was previously thought.

  1. Seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries is grossly underestimated when using only haul data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Nigel; Duckworth, Alan R; Safina, Carl; Gilman, Eric L

    2010-08-31

    Hundreds of thousands of seabirds are killed each year as bycatch in longline fisheries. Seabirds are predominantly caught during line setting but bycatch is generally recorded during line hauling, many hours after birds are caught. Bird loss during this interval may lead to inaccurate bycatch information. In this 15 year study, seabird bycatch was recorded during both line setting and line hauling from four fishing regions: Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, Coral Sea and central Pacific Ocean. Over 43,000 albatrosses, petrels and skuas representing over 25 species were counted during line setting of which almost 6,000 seabirds attempted to take the bait. Bait-taking interactions were placed into one of four categories. (i) The majority (57%) of bait-taking attempts were "unsuccessful" involving seabirds that did not take the bait nor get caught or hooked. (ii) One-third of attempts were "successful" with seabirds removing the bait while not getting caught. (iii) One-hundred and seventy-six seabirds (3% of attempts) were observed being "caught" during line setting, with three albatross species - Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis), black-footed (P. nigripes) and black-browed (Thalassarche melanophrys)- dominating this category. However, of these, only 85 (48%) seabird carcasses were retrieved during line hauling. Most caught seabirds were hooked through the bill. (iv) The remainder of seabird-bait interactions (7%) was not clearly observed, but likely involved more "caught" seabirds. Bait taking attempts and percentage outcome (e.g. successful, caught) varied between seabird species and was not always related to species abundance around fishing vessels. Using only haul data to calculate seabird bycatch grossly underestimates actual bycatch levels, with the level of seabird bycatch from pelagic longline fishing possibly double what was previously thought.

  2. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days. Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05. Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001. For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  3. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Janaina Barros; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida Brandão; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva) and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days). Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM) or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250). Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×). Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001). For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  4. A Bayesian uncertainty analysis of cetacean demography and bycatch mortality using age-at-death data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey E; Read, Andrew J

    2008-12-01

    Wildlife ecologists and managers are challenged to make the most of sparse information for understanding demography of many species, especially those that are long lived and difficult to observe. For many odontocete (dolphin, porpoise, toothed whale) populations, only fertility and age-at-death data are feasibly obtainable. We describe a Bayesian approach for using fertilities and two types of age-at-death data (i.e., age structure of deaths from all mortality sources and age structure of anthropogenic mortalities only) to estimate rate of increase, mortality rates, and impacts of anthropogenic mortality on those rates for a population assumed to be in a stable age structure. We used strandings data from 1977 to 1993 (n = 96) and observer bycatch data from 1989 to 1993 (n = 233) for the Gulf of Maine, USA, and Bay of Fundy, Canada, harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) population as a case study. Our method combines mortality risk functions to estimate parameters describing age-specific natural and bycatch mortality rates. Separate functions are simultaneously fit to bycatch and strandings data, the latter of which are described as a mixture of natural and bycatch mortalities. Euler-Lotka equations and an estimate of longevity were used to constrain parameter estimates, and we included a parameter to account for unequal probabilities of natural vs. bycatch deaths occurring in a sample. We fit models under two scenarios intended to correct for possible data bias due to indirect bycatch of calves (i.e., death following bycatch mortality of mothers) being underrepresented in the bycatch sample. Results from the two scenarios were "model averaged" by sampling from both Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) chains with uniform probability. The median estimate for potential population growth (r(nat)) was 0.046 (90% credible interval [CRI] = 0.004-0.116). The median for actual growth (r) was -0.030 (90% CRI = -0.192 to +0.065). The probability of population decline due to added

  5. Patterns of dolphin bycatch in a north-western Australian trawl fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon J; Tyne, Julian A; Kobryn, Halina T; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H; Loneragan, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel--one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day--the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs)--the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  6. Identification and evaluation of shark bycatch in Georgia's commercial shrimp trawl fishery with implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, C.N.; Jennings, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Many US states have recreational and commercial fisheries that occur in nursery areas occupied by subadult sharks and can potentially affect their survival. Georgia is one of few US states without a directed commercial shark fishery, but the state has a large, nearshore penaeid shrimp trawl fishery in which small sharks occur as bycatch. During our 1995–1998 investigation of bycatch in fishery-dependent sampling events, 34% of 127 trawls contained sharks. This bycatch totalled 217 individuals from six species, with Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson), the most common and finetooth shark, Carcharhinus isodon (Müller & Henle) and spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle), the least common. The highest catch rates for sharks occurred during June and July and coincided with the peak months of the pupping season for many species. Trawl tow speed and tow time did not significantly influence catch rates for shark species. Gear configurations [net type, turtle excluder device (TED), bycatch reduction device] affected catch rates for shark species. Results of this study indicate gear restrictions, a delayed season opening, or reduced bar spacing on TEDs may reduce shark bycatch in this fishery.

  7. Developing ultraviolet illumination of gillnets as a method to reduce sea turtle bycatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John; Barkan, Joel; Fisler, Shara; Godinez-Reyes, Carlos; Swimmer, Yonat

    2013-10-23

    Fisheries bycatch of marine animals has been linked to population declines of multiple species, including many sea turtles. Altering the visual cues associated with fishing gear may reduce sea turtle bycatch. We examined the effectiveness of illuminating gillnets with ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes for reducing green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) interactions. We found that the mean sea turtle capture rate was reduced by 39.7% in UV-illuminated nets compared with nets without illumination. In collaboration with commercial fishermen, we tested UV net illumination in a bottom-set gillnet fishery in Baja California, Mexico. We did not find any difference in overall target fish catch rate or market value between net types. These findings suggest that UV net illumination may have applications in coastal and pelagic gillnet fisheries to reduce sea turtle bycatch.

  8. Pheromone Lure and Trap Color Affects Bycatch in Agricultural Landscapes of Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Lori R; Looney, Chris; Ikerd, Harold; Koch, Jonathan B; Griswold, Terry; Strange, James P; Ramirez, Ricardo A

    2016-08-01

    Aerial traps, using combinations of color and attractive lures, are a critical tool for detecting and managing insect pest populations. Yet, despite improvements in trap efficacy, collection of nontarget species ("bycatch") plagues many insect pest surveys. Bycatch can influence survey effectiveness by reducing the available space for target species and increasing trap screening time, especially in areas where thousands of insects are captured as bycatch in a given season. Additionally, bycatch may negatively impact local nontarget insect populations, including beneficial predators and pollinators. Here, we tested the effect of pheromone lures on bycatch rates of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera), Apoidea (Hymenoptera), and nontarget Lepidoptera. Multicolored (primarily yellow and white) bucket traps containing a pheromone lure for capturing one of three survey target species, Spodoptera litura (F.), S. littoralis (Boisduval), or Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), were placed in alfalfa and corn fields, and compared to multicolored traps without a pheromone lure. All-green traps with and without H. armigera lures were employed in a parallel study investigating the effect of lure and trap color on bycatch. Over 2,600 Coccinellidae representing seven species, nearly 6,400 bees in 57 species, and >9,000 nontarget moths in 17 genera were captured across 180 traps and seven temporal sampling events. Significant effects of lure and color were observed for multiple taxa. In general, nontarget insects were attracted to the H. armigera lure and multicolored trap, but further studies of trap color and pheromone lure specificity are needed to better understand these interactions and to minimize nontarget captures.

  9. Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population - computer code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    PorpoiseModel v.1.0: an individual-based model used for evaluating cumulative effects of by-catch and noise on the harbour porpoise population in the inner Danish waters. This was the model used to generage the results presented in the scientific publication: Nabe-Nielsen, J., Sibly, R.M., Tougaard......, J., Teilmann, J. & Sveegaard, S. (2014) "Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population". Ecological Modelling, 272, 242–251. Please refer to this publication for the full documentation....

  10. Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Sibly, Richard M.; Tougaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Ships and wind turbines generate noise, which can have a negative impact on marine mammal popu- lations by scaring animals away. Effective modelling of how this affects the populations has to take account of the location and timing of disturbances. Here we construct an individual-based model of har...... on the population. Annual by-catch rates ≥10% lead to monotonously decreasing populations and to extinction, and even the esti- mated by-catch rate from the adjacent area (approximately 4.1%) has a strong impact on the population. This suggests that conservation efforts should be more focused on reducing by...

  11. Bait type influences on catch and bycatch in tandem hoop nets set in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.; Shiflet, Jeremy; Balsman, Dane; Shoup, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Tandem hoop nets have become the primary gear for sampling channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but suffer from high incidences of bycatch, particularly aquatic turtles that usually drown as a result. We sought to determine if bait type, ZOTE© soap and ground cheese logs, would influence catch of channel catfish (CPUE and mean TL) and bycatch of fishes and aquatic turtles. We sampled with tandem hoop nets in 13 Kentucky reservoirs (5–73 ha) using a crossover design and two sampling events. We found no difference in channel catfish catch rates between bait types, but mean sizes of fish caught using ZOTE© soap were approximately 24 mm longer compared to cheese. Fish bycatch was similar between bait types, but tandem hoop nets baited with ZOTE© soap caught up to 61% fewer turtles and mortality of turtles that were captured was up to 12% lower than those baited with cheese. Depth of net set, water temperature, and Secchi depth were environmental factors measured that affected catch and bycatch, but varied among species. Using ZOTE© soap as bait in tandem hoop nets appears to be a fairly simple and straightforward method for maintaining high catch rates of channel catfish while minimizing turtle mortality.

  12. Pheromone lure and trap color affects bycatch in agricultural landscapes of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial traps, using combinations of color and attractive lures, are a critical tool for detecting and managing insect pest populations. Yet, despite improvements in trap efficacy, collection of non-target species (“bycatch”) plagues many insect pest surveys. Bycatch can influence survey effectivenes...

  13. Effects of Climate Change and Fisheries Bycatch on Shy Albatross (Thalassarche cauta) in Southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Robin B; Alderman, Rachael L; Tuck, Geoffrey N; Hobday, Alistair J

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on marine species are often compounded by other stressors that make direct attribution and prediction difficult. Shy albatrosses (Thalassarche cauta) breeding on Albatross Island, Tasmania, show an unusually restricted foraging range, allowing easier discrimination between the influence of non-climate stressors (fisheries bycatch) and environmental variation. Local environmental conditions (rainfall, air temperature, and sea-surface height, an indicator of upwelling) during the vulnerable chick-rearing stage, have been correlated with breeding success of shy albatrosses. We use an age-, stage- and sex-structured population model to explore potential relationships between local environmental factors and albatross breeding success while accounting for fisheries bycatch by trawl and longline fisheries. The model uses time-series of observed breeding population counts, breeding success, adult and juvenile survival rates and a bycatch mortality observation for trawl fishing to estimate fisheries catchability, environmental influence, natural mortality rate, density dependence, and productivity. Observed at-sea distributions for adult and juvenile birds were coupled with reported fishing effort to estimate vulnerability to incidental bycatch. The inclusion of rainfall, temperature and sea-surface height as explanatory variables for annual chick mortality rate was statistically significant. Global climate models predict little change in future local average rainfall, however, increases are forecast in both temperatures and upwelling, which are predicted to have detrimental and beneficial effects, respectively, on breeding success. The model shows that mitigation of at least 50% of present bycatch is required to offset losses due to future temperature changes, even if upwelling increases substantially. Our results highlight the benefits of using an integrated modeling approach, which uses available demographic as well as environmental data

  14. Effects of Climate Change and Fisheries Bycatch on Shy Albatross (Thalassarche cauta in Southern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B Thomson

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on marine species are often compounded by other stressors that make direct attribution and prediction difficult. Shy albatrosses (Thalassarche cauta breeding on Albatross Island, Tasmania, show an unusually restricted foraging range, allowing easier discrimination between the influence of non-climate stressors (fisheries bycatch and environmental variation. Local environmental conditions (rainfall, air temperature, and sea-surface height, an indicator of upwelling during the vulnerable chick-rearing stage, have been correlated with breeding success of shy albatrosses. We use an age-, stage- and sex-structured population model to explore potential relationships between local environmental factors and albatross breeding success while accounting for fisheries bycatch by trawl and longline fisheries. The model uses time-series of observed breeding population counts, breeding success, adult and juvenile survival rates and a bycatch mortality observation for trawl fishing to estimate fisheries catchability, environmental influence, natural mortality rate, density dependence, and productivity. Observed at-sea distributions for adult and juvenile birds were coupled with reported fishing effort to estimate vulnerability to incidental bycatch. The inclusion of rainfall, temperature and sea-surface height as explanatory variables for annual chick mortality rate was statistically significant. Global climate models predict little change in future local average rainfall, however, increases are forecast in both temperatures and upwelling, which are predicted to have detrimental and beneficial effects, respectively, on breeding success. The model shows that mitigation of at least 50% of present bycatch is required to offset losses due to future temperature changes, even if upwelling increases substantially. Our results highlight the benefits of using an integrated modeling approach, which uses available demographic as well as

  15. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  16. Bycatch in the purse seine tuna fisheries in the western Indian Ocean.

    OpenAIRE

    Romanov, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    The yield of associated and dependent species taken as bycatch by the purse seine tuna fishery from the Indian Ocean pelagic ecosystem is estimated from data collected by scientific observers aboard Soviet purse seiners in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), 1986-1992. A total of 494 sets on free swimming schools, whale shark associated schools, whale associated schools, and log associated schools were analyzed. More than 40 fish species and other marine animals were registered. Among them onl...

  17. Bycatch as a potential threat to harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Polish Baltic waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof E Skóra

    2003-07-01

    rates of bycatch were reported from bottom set nets, which had a density over 20 times less than that of surface salmon nets in the area in the autumn months. The density and distribution of both types of nets in the surveyed area was comparable during autumn and winter, when the majority of bycaught animals in bottom set nets were reported.

  18. Genetic Evidence Highlights Potential Impacts of By-Catch to Cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin; Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Wells, Randall S.; Stamper, Andrew; Bordino, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Incidental entanglement in fishing gear is arguably the most serious threat to many populations of small cetaceans, judging by the alarming number of captured animals. However, other aspects of this threat, such as the potential capture of mother-offspring pairs or reproductive pairs, could be equally or even more significant but have rarely been evaluated. Using a combination of demographic and genetic data we provide evidence that i) Franciscana dolphin pairs that are potentially reproductive and mother-offspring pairs form temporal bonds, and ii) are entangled simultaneously. Our results highlight potential demographic and genetic impacts of by-catch to cetacean populations: the joint entanglement of mother-offspring or reproductive pairs, compared to random individuals, might exacerbate the demographic consequences of by-catch, and the loss of groups of relatives means that significant components of genetic diversity could be lost together. Given the social nature of many odontocetes (toothed cetaceans), we suggest that these potential impacts could be rather general to the group and therefore by-catch could be more detrimental than previously considered. PMID:21179542

  19. Dolphinfish Bycatch in Spanish Mediterranean Large Pelagic Longline Fisheries, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Macías

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the dolphinfish bycatch rates in the longline fisheries of the Western Mediterranean and modelling the nominal bycatch abundance and distribution of dolphinfish from the Spanish Mediterranean as a function of technical, geographical, and seasonality factors. Our results indicate that the impact of the pelagic and semipelagic longline on the dolphinfish population is relatively low (1.083 fishes per 1000 hooks, in contrast with the greater effect on the target species population. We obtained a statistically significant logistic model, with the following factors: technical characteristics of the fishery, geographical location, and seasonality. Drifting surface longliners targeting albacore is the gear with the highest effect on Mediterranean dolphinfish population. The technical characteristics of the fishery and seasonality factors have an important role in explaining the absence or presence of dolphinfish bycatch in the different boat strata, gear types, and seasons. Moreover, sea surface temperature and lunar phases also present additional explanations. Lunar phase as SST has been frequently used as an explanatory variable affecting catch rates of dolphinfish.

  20. Interannual Differences for Sea Turtles Bycatch in Spanish Longliners from Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Báez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed that regional abundance of loggerhead and leatherback turtles could oscillate interannually according to oceanographic and climatic conditions. The Western Mediterranean is an important fishing area for the Spanish drifting longline fleet, which mainly targets swordfish, bluefin tuna, and albacore. Due to the spatial overlapping in fishing activity and turtle distribution, there is an increasing sea turtle conservation concern. The main goal of this study is to analyse the interannual bycatch of loggerhead and leatherback turtles by the Spanish Mediterranean longline fishery and to test the relationship between the total turtle by-catch of this fishery and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. During the 14 years covered in this study, the number of sea turtle bycatches was 3,940 loggerhead turtles and 8 leatherback turtles, 0.499 loggerhead turtles/1000 hooks and 0.001014 leatherback turtles/1000 hooks. In the case of the loggerhead turtle the positive phase of the NAO favours an increase of loggerhead turtles in the Western Mediterranean Sea. However, in the case of leatherback turtle the negative phase of the NAO favours the presence of leatherback turtle. This contraposition could be related to the different ecophysiological response of both species during their migration cycle.

  1. Biodiversity offsets: a cost-effective interim solution to seabird bycatch in fisheries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pascoe

    Full Text Available The concept of biodiversity offsets is well established as an approach to environmental management. The concept has been suggested for environmental management in fisheries, particularly in relation to the substantial numbers of non-target species--seabirds in particular--caught and killed as incidental bycatch during fishing activities. Substantial areas of fisheries are being closed to protect these species at great cost to the fishing industry. However, other actions may be taken to offset the impact of fishing on these populations at lower cost to the fishing industry. This idea, however, has attracted severe criticism largely as it does not address the underlying externality problems created by the fishing sector, namely seabird fishing mortality. In this paper, we re-examine the potential role of compensatory mitigation as a fisheries management tool, although from the perspective of being an interim management measure while more long-lasting solutions to the problem are found. We re-model an example previously examined by both proponents and opponents of the approach, namely the cost effectiveness of rodent control relative to fishery area closures for the conservation of a seabird population adversely affected by an Australian tuna fishery. We find that, in the example being examined, invasive rodent eradication is at least 10 times more cost effective than area closures. We conclude that, while this does not solve the actual bycatch problem, it may provide breathing space for both the seabird species and the industry to find longer term means of reducing bycatch.

  2. Interannual differences for sea turtles bycatch in Spanish longliners from Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, José C; Macías, David; García-Barcelona, Salvador; Real, Raimundo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed that regional abundance of loggerhead and leatherback turtles could oscillate interannually according to oceanographic and climatic conditions. The Western Mediterranean is an important fishing area for the Spanish drifting longline fleet, which mainly targets swordfish, bluefin tuna, and albacore. Due to the spatial overlapping in fishing activity and turtle distribution, there is an increasing sea turtle conservation concern. The main goal of this study is to analyse the interannual bycatch of loggerhead and leatherback turtles by the Spanish Mediterranean longline fishery and to test the relationship between the total turtle by-catch of this fishery and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the 14 years covered in this study, the number of sea turtle bycatches was 3,940 loggerhead turtles and 8 leatherback turtles, 0.499 loggerhead turtles/1000 hooks and 0.001014 leatherback turtles/1000 hooks. In the case of the loggerhead turtle the positive phase of the NAO favours an increase of loggerhead turtles in the Western Mediterranean Sea. However, in the case of leatherback turtle the negative phase of the NAO favours the presence of leatherback turtle. This contraposition could be related to the different ecophysiological response of both species during their migration cycle.

  3. Management implications of the biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of shrimp trawler by-catch in Bahía de Kino, Sonora, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lorayne; Blinick, Naomi S; Fleishman, Abram B

    2012-01-01

    The shrimp fishery is the most economically important fishery in Mexico. The trawler-based portion of this fishery results in high rates of by-catch. This study quantifies and describes the biodiversity of by-catch associated with trawling in the Bahía de Kino region of Sonora, Mexico. Data were collected from 55 trawls, on six boats, over 14 nights, during November of 2003, 2004, 2006-2009. By-catch rates within trawl samples averaged 85.9% measured by weight. A total of 183 by-catch species were identified during the course of this study, including 97 species of bony fish from 43 families, 19 species of elasmobranchs from 12 families, 66 species of invertebrates from eight phyla, and one species of marine turtle; seven of the documented by-catch species are listed on the IUCN Red List, CITES, or the Mexican NOM-059-ECOL-2010; 35 species documented in the by-catch are also targeted by local artisanal fishers. Some of the species frequently captured as juveniles in the by-catch are economically important to small-scale fishers in the region, and are particularly sensitive to overexploitation due to their life histories. This study highlights the need for further research quantifying the impacts of high levels of by-catch upon small-scale fishing economies in the region and presents strong ecological and economic rationale for by-catch management within the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of California. Site-specific by-catch management plans should be piloted in the Bahía de Kino region to address the growing momentum in national and international fisheries policy regimes toward the reduction of by-catch in shrimp fisheries.

  4. Identification of high-risk areas for harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena bycatch using remote electronic monitoring and satellite telemetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Tougaard, J.;

    2016-01-01

    The bycatch of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena is an issue of major concern for fisheries management and for porpoise conservation. We used high-resolution spatial and temporal data on porpoise abundance and fishing effort from the Danish Skagerrak Sea to identify areas with potentially higher...... telemetry or REM data allow for identification of areas of potential high and low bycatch risk, and better predictions are obtained when combining the 2 sources of data. The final model can thus be used as a tool to identify areas of bycatch risk...... and lower risk of porpoise bycatch. From May 2010 to April 2011, 4 commercial gillnet vessels were equipped with remote electronic monitoring (REM) systems. The REM system recorded time, GPS position and closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage of all gillnet hauls. REM data were used to identify fishing...... grounds, quantify fishing effort and document harbour porpoise bycatch. Movement data from 66 harbour porpoises equipped with satellite transmitters from 1997 to 2012 were used to model population density. A simple model was constructed to investigate the relationship between the response (number...

  5. Identification and evaluation of shark bycatch in Georgia’s commercial shrimp trawl fishery with implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, C.N.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2011-01-01

    Many US states have recreational and commercial fisheries that occur in nursery areas occupied by subadult sharks and can potentially affect their survival. Georgia is one of few US states without a directed commercial shark fishery, but the state has a large, nearshore penaeid shrimp trawl fishery in which small sharks occur as bycatch. During our 1995-1998 investigation of bycatch in fishery-dependent sampling events, 34% of 127 trawls contained sharks. This bycatch totalled 217 individuals from six species, with Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson), the most common and finetooth shark, Carcharhinus isodon (Müller & Henle) and spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle), the least common. The highest catch rates for sharks occurred during June and July and coincided with the peak months of the pupping season for many species. Trawl tow speed and tow time did not significantly influence catch rates for shark species. Gear configurations [net type, turtle excluder device (TED), bycatch reduction device] affected catch rates for shark species. Results of this study indicate gear restrictions, a delayed season opening, or reduced bar spacing on TEDs may reduce shark bycatch in this fishery.

  6. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  7. Bycatch in the tuna purse-seine fisheries of the western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeny V Romanov

    2002-01-01

    Bycatch taken by the tuna purse-seine fishery from the Indian Ocean pelagic ecosystem was estimated from data collected by scientific observers aboard Soviet purse seiners in the western Indian Ocean (WIO) during 1986–92. A total of 494 sets on free-swimming schools, whale-shark-associated schools, whale-associated schools, and log-associated schools were analyzed. More than 40 fish species and other marine animals were recorded. Among them only two species, yellow-fin and skipjack tunas, wer...

  8. Bycatch And Discards: Management INdicators, Trends and locatiON (BADMINTON)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassilopoulou, Vassiliki; Marie-Joëlle Rochet, Marie-Joëlle Rochet; Helmond, A.T.M. van

    2012-01-01

    in European fisheries, evaluate the efficacy of selective devices and other discard management measures that have been implemented in the past, and improve methods to analyse, monitor, and manage bycatch and discarding. Specific objectives included the provision of discard estimates for selected European...... an unavoidable consequence of a series of constraints on the fishing activities and production, managing discards implies taking account of the whole fishery management system. Hence, a discard management strategy should not include only a combination of discard mitigation measures; if discards are to be reduced...

  9. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Cassandra L; White, William T; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended.

  10. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  11. 77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... sectors as well as representatives for the six western Alaska Community Development Quota Program... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  12. 76 FR 77757 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... requires suspension of directed pollock fishing when female spawning biomass is equal to or below 20...://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov . The MSA defines bycatch as fish that are harvested in a fishery that are not sold or... Council recommended the split of 73 percent for the Central GOA and 27 percent for the Western GOA...

  13. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... caught during this period. A historic high of approximately 122,000 Chinook salmon were taken in the... cost of harvesting pollock; and Reduction of the annual bycatch of Chinook salmon. Current Data for..., along with other existing data (e.g., catch accounting and observer data) provide useful information...

  14. Women Protecting Endangered Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ON the Yongding River, 40 kilometers south of Beijing lies the Beijing Center for Breeding Endangered Animals.Built more than 10 years ago it is the only rare and endangered animal base in China, incorporating such functions as Scientific research, raising, breeding and medical treatment. There are more than 30 national and international rare species, with a total of more than 1,000 animals. Among them, the snub-nosed golden monkey, Chinese monal pheasant and eared pheasant account for the largest number of man-bred species in the world.

  15. Characteristics of fishing operations, environment and life history contributing to small cetacean bycatch in the northeast Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Brown

    Full Text Available Fisheries bycatch is a key threat to cetacean species globally. Managing the impact requires an understanding of the conditions under which animals are caught and the sections of the population affected. We used observer data collected on an albacore tuna gillnet fishery in the northeast Atlantic, to assess operational and environmental factors contributing to bycatch of common and striped dolphins, using generalised linear models and model averaging. Life history demographics of the captured animals were also investigated. In both species, young males dominated the catch. The age ratio of common dolphins was significantly different from that estimated for the population in the region, based on life tables (G = 17.1, d.f. = 2, p = 0.002. Skewed age and sex ratios may reflect varying vulnerability to capture, through differences in behaviour or segregation in populations. Adult females constituted the second largest portion of the bycatch for both species, with potential consequences for population sustainability. Depth was the most important parameter influencing bycatch of both species and reflected what is known about common and striped dolphin habitat use in the region as the probability of catching common dolphins decreased, and striped dolphins increased, with increasing depth. Striped dolphin capture was similarly influenced by the extent to which operations were conducted in daylight, with the probability of capture increasing with increased operations in the pre-sunset and post-sunrise period, potentially driven by increased ability of observers to record animals during daylight operations, or by diurnal movements increasing contact with the fishery. Effort, based on net length and soak time, had little influence on the probability of capturing either species. Our results illustrate the importance of assessing the demographic of the animals captured during observer programmes and, perhaps more importantly, suggest that effort

  16. Assessing the impact of bycatch on dolphin populations: the case of the common dolphin in the eastern North Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mannocci

    Full Text Available Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality, age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of -5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality. Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR, based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the

  17. 78 FR 48943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... August 12, 2013 Part II Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for Alewife and... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for Alewife...

  18. Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis bycatch in New Zealand commercial trawl fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finlay N Thompson

    Full Text Available Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows in 2002-03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline was <40 m below the surface, and the model determined that this covariate best explained common dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures.

  19. [Bycatch fish species from shrimp industrial fishery in the Gulf of California, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Juana; Herrera-Valdivia, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Romero, Jesús; Hernández-Vázquez, Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Bycatch fish species from shrimp industrial fishery in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The shrimp fishery in the Gulf of California is one the most important activities of revenue and employment for communities. Nevertheless, this fishery has also created a large bycatch problem, principally fish. To asses this issue, a group of observers were placed on board the industrial shrimp fleet and evaluated the Eastern side of the Gulf during 2004 and 2005. Studies consisted on 20kg samples of the capture for each trawl, and made possible a systematic list of species for this geographic area. Fish represented 70% of the capture. A total of 51 101 fish were collected, belonging to two classes, 20 orders, 65 families, 127 genera, and 241 species. The order Perciformes was the most diverse with 31 families, 78 genera, and 158 species. The best represented families by number of species were: Sciaenidae (34) and Paralichthyidae (18) and Haemulidae and Carangidae (16 each). The best represented genera in number of species were Symphurus (nine) and Diplectrum and Cynoscion (six); other important genera were Larimus and Porichthys with five species each. The best represented species in number were Syacium ovale, Pseudupeneus grandisquamis, Haemulopsis nitidos, Diplectrum pacificum, Synodus scituliceps, Balistes polylepis, Eucinostomus currani, Eucinostomus gracilis, Porichthys analis, Chloroscombrus orqueta, Selene peruviana, Orthopristis reddingi, Etropus crossotus, Scorpaena sonorae and Urobatis halleri. The number of recorded species is notably high, compared with demersal fauna of other areas of the Mexican Pacific, such as Gulf of Tehuantepec (178), Nayarit, Michoacán, Guerrero (174, 120 and 166), Jalisco and Colima (161 species), and those of the Western coast of the Baja California Peninsula (220 species).

  20. Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) bycatch in New Zealand commercial trawl fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Finlay N; Abraham, Edward R; Berkenbusch, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows) in 2002-03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline) was dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures.

  1. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Minimization of late dysphagia without jeopardizing tumor control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modesto, Anouchka; Laprie, Anne; Graff, Pierre; Rives, Michel [Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Vieillevigne, Laure [Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Department of Medical Physics, Toulouse (France); Sarini, Jerome; Vergez, Sebastien; Farenc, Jean-Claude [Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Toulouse (France); Delord, Jean-Pierre [Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Department of Medical Oncology, Toulouse (France); Vigarios, Emmanuelle [Centre Hospitalo Universitaire de Rangueil, Dental Surgery Department, Toulouse (France); Filleron, Thomas [Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Department of Biostatistics, Toulouse (France)

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to retrospectively determine the value of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LHSCC), on outcome and treatment-related toxicity compared to 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). A total of 175 consecutive patients were treated between 2007 and 2012 at our institution with curative intent RT and were included in this study: 90 were treated with 3D-CRT and 85 with IMRT. Oncologic outcomes were estimated using Kaplan-Meier statistics; acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events scale v 3.0. Median follow-up was 35 months (range 32-42 months; 95% confidence interval 95 %). Two-year disease-free survival did not vary, regardless of the technique used (69 % for 3D-CRT vs. 72 %; for IMRT, p = 0.16). Variables evaluated as severe late toxicities were all statistically lower with IMRT compared with 3D-CRT: xerostomia (0 vs. 12 %; p < 0.0001), dysphagia (4 vs. 26 %; p < 0.0001), and feeding-tube dependency (1 vs 13 %; p = 0.0044). The rates of overall grade ≥ 3 late toxicities for the IMRT and 3D-CRT groups were 4.1 vs. 41.4 %, respectively (p < 0.0001). IMRT for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer minimizes late dysphagia without jeopardizing tumor control and outcome. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie war es, retrospektiv den Nutzen der intensitaetsmodulierten Strahlentherapie (IMRT) in der Behandlung von Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinom von Kehlkopf und Hypopharynx (LHSCC) zu bewerten und mit dem Outcome und den Spaetfolgen der 3-D-konformalen Strahlentherapie (3D-CRT) zu vergleichen. Insgesamt wurden zwischen Januar 2007 und Dezember 2012175 LHSCC-Patienten mit einer RT behandelt und in die Studie aufgenommen: 85 Patienten wurden mit 3D-CRT und 90 Patienten mit IMRT behandelt.Das onkologische Outcome wurde mittels Kaplan-Meier-Statistik ermittelt und Akut- und Spaettoxizitaeten anhand der CTCAE

  2. 76 FR 3391 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sheepnose and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered... Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AV93 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered... endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as...

  3. By-catch composition of the Patagonian scallop fishery: the fishes Composición de la captura incidental en la pesquería de vieira patagónica: los peces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schejter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of 24 fish species incidentally caught by the Patagonian scallop fleet in the SW Atlantic Ocean is provided for the first time. The most frequent species were Psammobatis spp. (81.4%, Bathyraja brachyurops (75.1%, B. macloviana (73.5%, Patagonotothen ramsayi (66.1%, Merluccius hubbsi (53.7% and B. albomaculata (50.3%. Many of the recorded chondrichthyes are considered vulnerable or endangered species. The number of taxa (fishes + invertebrates that conforms the by-catch of the fishery was increased and updated to nearly 200 species.Este estudio presenta por primera vez un inventario con 24 especies de peces registradas en la captura incidental de la pesca de la vieira patagónica en el Océano Atlántico sudoccidental por la flota pesquera comercial. Las especies más frecuentes fueron Psammobatis spp. (81,4%, Bathyraja brachyurops (75,1%, B. macloviana (73,5%, Patagonotothen ramsayi (66,1%, Merluccius hubbsi (53,7% y B. albomaculata (50,3%. Muchos de los condrictios registrados se encuentran actualmente considerados como especies vulnerables o en peligro. El número de taxa (peces + invertebrados que conforman la captura incidental de esta pesquería se incrementó y actualizó con estos resultados a aproximadamente 200 especies.

  4. Aspects of the reproductive biology and characterization of Sciaenidae captured as bycatch in the prawn trawling in the northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Beserra da Silva Júnior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian prawn fishery, as other bottom trawling fisheries, is considered quite efficient in catching the target species but with low selectivity and high rates of bycatch. The family Sciaenidae prevails among fish species caught. The study was conducted in the Pernambuco State (Barra de Sirihaém, northeastern Brazil. From August 2011 to July 2012, 3,278 sciaenid specimens were caught, distributed into 16 species, 34.2% males and 41.5% females. Larimus breviceps, Isopisthus parvipinnis, Paralonchurus brasiliensis and Stellifer microps were the most abundant species. The area was considered a recruitment and reproduction area with the highest reproductive activity between December 2011 and July 2012. The constant frequency of mature I. parvipinnis and S. microps in catches throughout the year suggests that these species are multiple spawners and use the area during their reproductive period. Since most individuals caught as bycatch have not reached sexual maturity, evidencing the need for a better monitoring of the area and the Sciaenidae caught as bycatch, once this incidental caught can cause fluctuations in the recruitment, increasing the proportion of immature individuals in the population and negatively affecting the reproductive success of the species.

  5. Sustainability of capture of fish bycatch in the prawn trawling in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Beserra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available The prawn fishery produces more discards than any other type of catch and captures a large quantity of immature individuals. This research aimed to assess the sustainability of capture of fish bycatch in prawn trawling. Each species was assessed according to two groups of criteria: (1 their relative vulnerability to capture by trawl and mortality due to this fishery (2 recovery capacity of the specie after a possible collapse of the population. Within each group, each species was ranked (1-3, being 1 the highest value, meaning the species is highly susceptible to capture or has a low resilience. A total of 8,894 individuals were caught, belonging to 28 families. The species with capture least sustainable were Stellifer rastrifer and Isopisthus parvipinnis. These latter species are highly susceptible since they are either benthic or demersal, and their diet may include benthic organism. Chirocentrodon bleekerianus and Anchoa tricolor were the most likely fishes to be sustainable since they are pelagic, they are least susceptible to capture by trawls, and also have a greater capacity to recover, as most individuals have bred before capture. Due to the fishery's multi-specific nature, it is difficult to implement mitigation measures for specific species. Thus, the creation of fishing exclusion zones should be considered as the most appropriate management measure.

  6. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  7. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  8. Preliminary assessment of the jellyfish bycatch captured off southern and southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Macromedusoid forms of Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa captured by different fishing gears active in south and southeast of Brazil were recorded on board by scientific observers. After each fishing operation, catch composition was quantified and precise information about the position of the catch was taken between 2008 and 2011. Macromedusae records have been systemized in order to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution, the areas of concentration of the identified species and their relationship with other components of the bycatch. Catch composition analyzed in 986 fishing tows, demonstrated that the participation of these organisms ranged from 6-16%, and the hydromedusae Rhacostoma atlanticum L. Agassiz, 1851 and Olindias sambaquiensis Müller, 1861 were the most abundant and widely distributed species. R. atlanticum was recorded between 20 and 140 m deep while O. sambaquiensis presented registers in shallower waters between 10 and 70 m. No other identified species has been recorded in depths greater than 60 m. Areas of high concentration included the north-central coast of Santa Catarina and Paraná, the northern part of São Paulo and the north-central portion of Rio Grande do Sul State. Although the participation of the macromedusae has been relatively low, in areas of elevated concentration, the relative importance was high, making its participation almost exclusive among other zoological groups. Those registers of abundance and the respective areas of high concentration of macromedusae, which were associated to high primary production sites, may serve as a theoretical reference of the abundance of these organisms for future studies that aim to evaluate possible changes in jellyfish populations.

  9. Risk Factors for Seabird Bycatch in a Pelagic Longline Tuna Fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gilman

    Full Text Available Capture in global pelagic longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations. The Hawaii longline tuna fishery annually catches hundreds of seabirds, primarily Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis and black-footed (P. nigripes albatrosses. Since seabird regulations were introduced in 2001, the seabird catch rate has declined 74%. However, over the past decade, seabird catch levels significantly increased due to significant increasing trends in both effort and nominal seabird catch rates. We modelled observer data using a spatio-temporal generalized additive mixed model with zero-inflated Poisson likelihood to determine the significance of the effect of various risk factors on the seabird catch rate. The seabird catch rate significantly increased as annual mean multivariate ENSO index values increased, suggesting that decreasing ocean productivity observed in recent years in the central north Pacific may have contributed to the increasing trend in nominal seabird catch rate. A significant increasing trend in number of albatrosses attending vessels, possibly linked to declining regional ocean productivity and increasing absolute abundance of black-footed albatrosses, may also have contributed to the increasing nominal seabird catch rate. Largest opportunities for reductions are through augmented efficacy of seabird bycatch mitigation north of 23° N where mitigation methods are required and during setting instead of during hauling. Both side vs. stern setting, and blue-dyed vs. untreated bait significantly reduced the seabird catch rate. Of two options for meeting regulatory requirements, side setting had a significantly lower seabird catch rate than blue-dyed bait. There was significant spatio-temporal and seasonal variation in the risk of seabird capture with highest catch rates in April and May and to the northwest of the main Hawaiian Islands.

  10. Habitat fragmentation is associated to gut microbiota diversity of an endangered primate: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Claudia; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Pindo, Massimo; Dallago, Chiara; Rovero, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Tuohy, Kieran Michael; Hauffe, Heidi Christine; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2015-10-07

    The expansion of agriculture is shrinking pristine forest areas worldwide, jeopardizing the persistence of their wild inhabitants. The Udzungwa red colobus monkey (Procolobus gordonorum) is among the most threatened primate species in Africa. Primarily arboreal and highly sensitive to hunting and habitat destruction, they provide a critical model to understanding whether anthropogenic disturbance impacts gut microbiota diversity. We sampled seven social groups inhabiting two forests (disturbed vs. undisturbed) in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. While Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae dominated in all individuals, reflecting their role in extracting energy from folivorous diets, analysis of genus composition showed a marked diversification across habitats, with gut microbiota α-diversity significantly higher in the undisturbed forest. Functional analysis suggests that such variation may be associated with food plant diversity in natural versus human-modified habitats, requiring metabolic pathways to digest xenobiotics. Thus, the effects of changes in gut microbiota should not be ignored to conserve endangered populations.

  11. 75 FR 20621 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service ; Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal...

  12. a Continual Engagement Approach Through Gis-Mcda Conflict Resolution of Loggerhead Sea Turtle Bycatch in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojórquez-Tapia, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Continual engagement is an approach that emphasizes of uninterrupted interaction with the stakeholders with the purpose of fully integrating their knowledge into policymaking process. It focuses on the creation of hybrid scientific-local knowledge highly relevant to community and policy makers needs, while balancing the power asymmetries among stakeholders. Hence, it presupposes a capacity for a continuous revision and adjustment of the analyses that support the policymaking process. While continual engagement implies a capacity for enabling an effective communication, translation and mediation of knowledge among the diverse stakeholders, experts and policymakers, it also means keeping a close eye out for how knowledge evolves and how new data and information is introduced along a policymaking process. Through a case study, the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) fishing bycatch in Mexico, a geographical information system-multicriteria modeling (GIS-MCDA) approach is presented to address the challenges of implementing continual engagement in conflict resolution processes. The GIS-MCDA combined the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and compromise programming (CP) to generate consensus regarding the spatial pattern of conflicts. The AHP was fundamental for synthesizing the different sources of knowledge into a geospatial model. In particular, the AHP enabled the assess the salience, legitimacy, and credibility of the information produced for all involved. Results enabled the development of specific policies based upon an assessment of the risk of the loggerhead population to different levels of fishing bycatch, and the needs of the fishing communities in the region.

  13. Loggerhead sea turtle bycatch data in artisanal fisheries within a marine protected area: fishermen surveys versus scientific observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Loggerhead sea turtles can be incidentally captured by artisanal gears but information about the impact of this fishing is inconsistent and scarce. Recent studies have observed that the bycatch, or incidental catch rate, in fishermen surveys is irregular. The aim of this study was to compare direct data (onboard observers concerning the incidental catch of loggerhead sea turtles by the artisanal vessels versus data from fishermen surveys. The study area was the Cabo de Gata-Níjar marine protected area, situated in the western Mediterranean (southeast of the Iberian peninsula. We observed two loggerhead turtles that were incidentally caught in a total of 165 fishing operations. According to fishermen surveys, a total of nine loggerheads were incidentally caught in 861 fishing operations. The differences between the loggerhead sea turtle bycatch reported by fishermen surveys and scientific observations versus random distribution (x2 = 0.3146, P = 0.575, df = 1 were not significant. We conclude that the surveys are useful but that findings should be interpreted with caution.

  14. Does by-catch pose a threat for the conservation of seabird populations in the southern Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean? A questionnaire based survey of local fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. KARRIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies worldwide have shown that incidental catches (by-catch of seabirds in fishing gear might pose a considerable risk for the conservation of their populations. Nevertheless reliable data on by-catch rates of seabirds in European marine ecosystems are patchy and need to be improved. This study constitutes a first attempt at the evaluation of by-catch rates in the southern Ionian Sea. Data were obtained by distributing a specific questionnaire to the fishers of Zakynthos Island. 150 professional fishers (representing 90% of the local fishing fleet participated in the research, and were interviewed during July-December 2010. The information collected showed that commercial longline and (to a lesser extent gillnet fishery gears caused incidental catches mostly of Scopoli’s Shearwater and Mediterranean Shag. The temporal analysis of the incidental bird mortality showed that seabirds were more susceptible to be trapped in fishery gears set around sunrise during spring and summer whereas spatial analysis of by-catch data indicated variations in the number of seabirds caught in different fishery areas.

  15. 76 FR 50051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout Their Range... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout Their Range... Lists of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife and Plants; section 4 of the Act and its...

  16. 76 FR 74778 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA850 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine..., notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 33703) that a request for a scientific research... with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and Floy tags, if untagged; and sample genetic fin...

  17. Biology and population dynamics of by-catch fish species of the bottom trawl fishery in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. ORDINES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The teleosts Chelidonichthys cuculus, Trigloporus lastoviza, Serranus cabrilla and Trachinus draco, are important by-catch species, in terms of landed biomass and commercial value, from the continental shelf bottom trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean. The main biological parameters of these species were calculated from monthly biological samplings, and were used along with three years pseudo-cohorts (2008-2010 obtained from monitoring on-board of the bottom trawl fleet, to assess their exploitation level through Virtual Population Analysis (VPA and Yield per Recruit (Y/R analysis. Time series of fishery independent indicators based on MEDITS surveys data such as the evolution of the abundance and biomass, the distribution range, and the Conservation Status of Fish b (CSFb, were also analyzed. All four species analyzed showed growth overfishing. The reductions of the fishing effort required to reach the Y/RF0,1 reference point were lower, 66-73% depending on the species, to those reported for the target species M. merluccius (87%, but higher than that reported for M. surmuletus (53%, in the study area in the period 2000-2010. The abundance and biomass, and the distribution range did not show any trend for the period 2001-2011, whereas the CSFb showed signs of recovery that may be due to the displacement of the trawl fishing effort from the shelf to the slope during the last decade. Our results underline the necessary incorporation of monitoring and assessment of by-catch species to the management of fisheries as their populations can show a more pronounced overexploitation than target ones.

  18. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Peterson, Douglas L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  19. Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

  20. Bycatch and catch-release mortality of small sharks in the Gulf coast nursery grounds of Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E Hueter; Manire, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    The bays and estuaries of the southeast United States coast generally are thought to serve as nursery areas for various species of coastal sharks, where juvenile sharks find abundant food and are less exposed to predation by larger sharks. Because these areas typically support substantial commercial and recreational fisheries, fishing mortality of sharks in the nurseries particularly by bycatch, may be significant. This two-year project assessed the relative importance of two estuaries of the...

  1. 78 FR 47582 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Sharpnose Shiner...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY55 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Sharpnose Shiner and Smalleye Shiner AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... procedures for adding species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants....

  2. 78 FR 15925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status and Critical Habitat Designation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...; 4500030113; 4500030114] RIN 1018-AZ20; RIN 1018-AX71 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status and Critical Habitat Designation for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) as endangered and to propose critical habitat for the Gunnison...

  3. 76 FR 33879 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical Habitat Designation... and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX18 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... the currently endangered plant taxon, Monardella linoides ssp. viminea, in which the subspecies...

  4. 77 FR 11061 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Dunes Sagebrush...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AV97 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior..., 2010, proposed endangered status for the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) under...

  5. 76 FR 19304 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Dunes Sagebrush Lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AV97 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Dunes Sagebrush Lizard AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed... rule to list the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) under the Endangered Species Act...

  6. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  7. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  8. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  9. Endangered Species of Florida Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Merlien W.

    This coloring book portrays endangered animal and plant species of Florida in their natural environment. Each picture is to be colored by the student. On the back of each page bearing the picture to be colored is a description of the animal or plant, its preferred habitat, and the reason the animal or plant is endangered. (RE)

  10. Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lynette K.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of "Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions" is to create awareness about a critical environmental issue. There is a special urgency to this project because large numbers of animal species are currently endangered or on the brink of extinction. In addition to being enlightened about this important topic through research, students…

  11. Effects of trawling on the diets of common demersal fish by-catch of a tropical prawn trawl fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Q; Griffiths, S P; Tonks, M L; Rochester, W A; Miller, M J; Duggan, M A; van der Velde, T D; Pillans, R D; Coman, G J; Bustamante, R H; Milton, D A

    2013-03-01

    The ecological effect of prawn trawling on the benthos of the Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia, was investigated by examining stomach contents of common demersal fishes incidentally caught as by-catch in the fishery. Fishes were collected from high and low fishing intensity sites in three regions based on vessel monitoring system data. The diets of eight species of benthic fish predators were compared between regions and fishing intensities. A regional effect on diet was evident for seven species. Only one generalist species had no significant difference in diet among the three regions. For the comparisons within each region, five predator species had significantly different diet between high and low fishing intensities in at least one region. Across the three regions, high fishing intensity sites had predators that consumed a greater biomass of crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms. At low fishing intensity sites, predators had diets comprising a greater biomass of cnidarians and teleosts, and a different assemblage of molluscs, crustaceans and fishes. These changes in diet suggest that there may have been a shift in the structure of the benthic community following intensive fishing. Analysis of predator diets is a useful tool to help identify changes in the benthic community composition after exposure to fishing. This study also provided valuable diet information on a range of abundant generalist benthic predators to improve the ecosystem modelling tools needed to support ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  12. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  13. 75 FR 45650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and... endangered species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on this permit... issuance of enhancement of survival permit to conduct certain activities with endangered species...

  14. Descartes da pesca do camarão sete-barbas como fonte de alimento para aves marinhas Sea-bob-shrimp fishery's by-catch as a feeding source for seabirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available From July 1996 to June 1997, in Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, monthly census were done in three areas of traditional fishery and Itacolomis islands. A total of 10021 seabirds were registered, belonging to eight species, five genus and four families. The average number of seabirds per dragging varied between 80,2 and 113,6. Sterna spp, appeared at first in 43,3% of the released by-catch, followed by Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823, Fregata magnificens Matheus, 1914, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Humboldt, 1805 and Sula leucogaster Boddaert, 1783. The average size of the fish consumed by the seabirds oscillated from 8,3 cm (Sterna spp. to 18,5 cm (F. magnificens, with an average time from 6,12 to 7,55 minutes per by-catch released. In general, seabirds use 84,0% of the by-catch fish as a feeding source.

  15. Present and future potential habitat distribution of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata by-catch species in the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea eLezama Ochoa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By-catch species from tropical tuna purse seine fishery have been affected by fishery pressures since the last century; however, the habitat distribution and the climate change impacts on these species are poorly known. With the objective of predicting the potential suitable habitat for a shark (Carcharhinus falciformis and a teleost (Canthidermis maculata in the Indian, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, a MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM was developed using data collected by observers in tuna purse seiners. The relative percentage of contribution of some environmental variables (depth, sea surface temperature, salinity and primary production and the potential impact of climate change on species habitat by the end of the century under the A2 scenario (scenario with average concentrations of carbon dioxide of 856 ppm by 2100 were also evaluated. Results showed that by-catch species can be correctly modelled using observed occurrence records and few environmental variables with SDM. Results from projected maps showed that the equatorial band and some coastal upwelling regions were the most suitable areas for both by-catch species in the three oceans in concordance with the main fishing grounds. Sea surface temperature was the most important environmental variable which contributed to explain the habitat distribution of the two species in the three oceans in general. Under climate change scenarios, the largest change in present habitat suitability is observed in the Atlantic Ocean (around 16% of the present habitat suitability area of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata, respectively whereas the change is less in the Pacific (around 10% and 8% and Indian Oceans (around 3% and 2 %. In some regions such as Somalia, the Atlantic equatorial band or Peru’s coastal upwelling areas, these species could lose potential habitat whereas in the south of the equator in the Indian Ocean, the Benguela System and in the Pacific coast of

  16. First steps for mitigating bycatch of Pink-footed Shearwaters Ardenna creatopus: Identifying overlap of foraging areas and fisheries in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Ryan; Felis, Jonathan J.; López, Verónica; Adams, Josh; Hodum, Peter; Beck, Jessie; Colodro, Valentina; Vega, Rodrigo; González, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The Pink-footed Shearwater, Ardenna creatopus, is listed as in danger of extinction by Chile and under Annex 1 of ACAP, with an estimated global population of approximately 56,000 individuals. Incidental bycatch of this species in fisheries is thought to be an important cause in population decline (i.e. annual estimated mortality of >1000 adults). This species is an endemic breeder in Chile, nesting only on the Juan Fernandez Archipelago (JFI; 30% of global population), and Isla Mocha (70% of global population). Using miniature GPS and satellite transmitters, we determined foraging areas of Pink-footed Shearwaters during the chick-rearing period in 2002 (JFI) and 2015-2016 (Isla Mocha). We overlaid shearwater tracking data with data from the Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) on fishing effort in Chile (type of fishery, number sets per day, location of sets, and target species) to identify fisheries and fishing zones with the greatest potential for Pink-footed Shearwater bycatch. During the 2002-2006 (N = 28 birds total) and 2015 (N = 18 birds) breeding periods, foraging areas were associated with the continental shelf and shelf-break, generally less than 30 km offshore. All foraging trips occurred between 31.5 and 40.0 degrees south, and birds remained in Chile territorial waters 100% of the time. We identified two primary foraging hotspots, one offshore near Talcahuano, Chile (approximately 36-37.5° south), and one offshore north of Valdivia, Chile (approximately 39-39.5° south). Birds tracked from the Juan Fernández Archipelago foraged in the Talcahuano hotspot but did not visit the southerly hotspot near Valdivia. Birds tracked from Isla Mocha used both areas, with a greater proportion of birds using the Valdivia hotspot than the Talcahuano hotspot. Other major areas of use were around the respective breeding colonies from which the birds were tracked. Overlay of these data with fisheries data is currently in progress. Preliminary results indicate

  17. Buying years to extinction: is compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch a sufficient conservation measure for long-lived seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Igual

    Full Text Available Along the lines of the 'polluter pays principle', it has recently been proposed that the local long-line fishing industry should fund eradication of terrestrial predators at seabird breeding colonies, as a compensatory measure for the bycatch caused by the fishing activity. The measure is economically sound, but a quantitative and reliable test of its biological efficacy has never been conducted. Here, we investigated the demographic consequences of predator eradication for Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, breeding in the Mediterranean, using a population model that integrates demographic rates estimated from individual life-history information with experimental measures of predation and habitat structure. We found that similar values of population growth rate can be obtained by different combinations of habitat characteristics, predator abundance and adult mortality, which explains the persistence of shearwater colonies in islands with introduced predators. Even so, given the empirically obtained values of survival, all combinations of predator abundance and habitat characteristics projected a decline in shearwater numbers. Perturbation analyses indicated that the value and the sensitivity of shearwater population growth rates were affected by all covariates considered and their interactions. A decrease in rat abundance delivered only a small increase in the population growth rate, whereas a change in adult survival (a parameter independent of rat abundance had the strongest impact on population dynamics. When adult survival is low, rat eradication would allow us to "buy" years before extinction but does not reverse the process. Rat eradication can therefore be seen as an emergency measure if threats on adult survival are eliminated in the medium-term period. For species with low fecundity and long life expectancy, our results suggest that rat control campaigns are not a sufficient, self-standing measure to compensate the biological toll

  18. Density of Threatened and Endangered Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...

  19. Status of six endangered California Butterflies 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted from March-September 1977 to determine the current status of six federally endangered butterflies which reside in California. The butterflies...

  20. The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species" and describes a lesson plan for grades five and six that includes library media skills objectives, science objectives, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedure for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (LRW)

  1. Threatened and Endangered Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all U.S. listed threatened and endangered mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in the Middle-Atlantic...

  2. Wildlife Trade and Endangered Species Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Missios

    2013-01-01

    Markets for endangered species potentially generate incentives for both legal supply and poaching. To deter poaching, governments can spend on enforcement or increase legal harvesting to reduce the return from poaching. A leader–follower commitment game is developed to examine these choices in the presence of illegal harvesting and the resulting impacts on species stocks. In addition, current trade restrictions imposed under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild ...

  3. 78 FR 65936 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed..., proposed rules to list the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) as endangered and to...

  4. 75 FR 54908 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal...

  5. 77 FR 69891 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  6. 78 FR 76173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  7. 77 FR 23273 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  8. 77 FR 2311 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  9. 78 FR 32686 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  10. 76 FR 30958 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal...

  11. 77 FR 53223 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  12. 76 FR 50246 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal...

  13. 76 FR 3153 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal...

  14. 78 FR 24768 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  15. 77 FR 39251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  16. Status Survey of the Endangered Watercress Darter, Etheostoma nuchale

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Watercress Darter Etheostoma nuchale is one of the most imperiled fishes in the southeastern U.S. and is listed as endangered on the U.S. endangered species...

  17. FWS Critical Habitat for Threatened and Endangered Species Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service must consider whether there...

  18. ESUSA: US endangered species distribution file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J.; Calef, C.E.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes a file containing distribution data on endangered species of the United States of Federal concern pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Included for each species are (a) the common name, (b) the scientific name, (c) the family, (d) the group (mammal, bird, etc.), (e) Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listing and recovery priorities, (f) the Federal legal status, (g) the geographic distribution by counties or islands, (h) Federal Register citations and (i) the sources of the information on distribution of the species. Status types are endangered, threatened, proposed, formally under review, candidate, deleted, and rejected. Distribution is by Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code and is of four types: designated critical habitat, present range, potential range, and historic range.

  19. ESUSA: U. S. endangered species distribution file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J; Calef, C E

    1978-05-01

    A file containing distribution data on federally listed or proposed endangered species of the United States is described. Included are (a) the common name, (b) the scientific name, (c) the taxonomic family, (d) the OES/FWS/USDI group (mammal, bird, etc.), (e) the status, (f) the geographic distribution by counties, and (g) Federal Register references. Status types are endangered, threatened, proposed, under review, deleted, and rejected. Distribution is by Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code and is of four types: designated critical habitat, present range, potential range, and historic range. The file is currently being used in conjunction with similar data on projected future energy facilities to anticipate possible conflicts. However, the file would be useful to any project correlating endangered species with location information expressed by county. An example is as an aid in evaluating Forest Service or Bureau of Land Management proposed wilderness areas.

  20. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  1. 75 FR 11193 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... survival activities for a plant that was recently added to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants (Phyllostegia hispida). The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), requires that we solicit...

  2. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and... receipt of applications to conduct certain activities pertaining to enhancement of survival of endangered species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on these permit...

  3. 75 FR 27361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and... receipt of applications to conduct certain activities pertaining to enhancement of survival of endangered species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on these permit...

  4. 75 FR 20622 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), we, the U.S. Fish... enhancement of survival activities with endangered species. DATES: To ensure consideration, please send...

  5. 75 FR 28278 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), we, the U.S. Fish... enhancement of survival activities with endangered species. DATES: To ensure consideration, please send...

  6. 76 FR 8374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and... receipt of applications to conduct certain activities pertaining to enhancement of survival of endangered species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on these permit...

  7. 75 FR 52012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and... receipt of applications to conduct certain activities pertaining to enhancement of survival of endangered species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on these permit...

  8. 76 FR 18576 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and... receipt of applications to conduct certain activities pertaining to enhancement of survival of endangered species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on these permit...

  9. 76 FR 10063 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and... receipt of applications to conduct certain activities pertaining to enhancement of survival of endangered species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on these permit...

  10. 75 FR 5101 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and... receipt of applications to conduct certain activities pertaining to enhancement of survival of endangered species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on these permit...

  11. 77 FR 63927 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered and Designating... 17 RIN 1018-AY09 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island... previously listed plant species. Isodendrion pyrifolium, listed as an endangered species on March 4, 1994...

  12. Population dynamics and spatial distribution of flatfish species in shrimp trawl bycatch in the Gulf of California Dinámica poblacional y distribución espacial de los lenguados capturados incidentalmente en arrastres camaroneros en el Golfo de California

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hiram Rábago-Quiroz; Juana López-Martínez; Eloisa Herrera-Valdivia; Manuel O. Nevárez-Martínez; Jesús Rodríguez-Romero

    2008-01-01

    By determining the specific composition, spatial distribution and population dynamics of flatfish species captured in shrimp trawls' bycatch in the Gulf of California, this study aims to contribute to the knowledge of bycatch fish population which has thus far been of little interest. Samplings were taken from shrimp trawls' in two fishing seasons (2002 and 2003) onboard shrimp fleets and also from two research cruises during closed shrimp season. The results showed 15 species of flatfish bel...

  13. 75 FR 54649 - Endangered Wildlife; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Wildlife; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Wildlife Service (Service), invite the public to comment on applications for permits to conduct enhancement..., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 911 NE. 11th Avenue, Portland, OR 97232-4181. FOR...

  14. 78 FR 35953 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant... endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits certain activities...

  15. 77 FR 32130 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  16. 77 FR 16254 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  17. 78 FR 49761 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant... endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits certain activities...

  18. Trends in Stranding and By-Catch Rates of Gray and Harbor Seals along the Northeastern Coast of the United States: Evidence of Divergence in the Abundance of Two Sympatric Phocid Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David W; Frungillo, Jaime; Smith, Ainsley; Moore, Katie; Sharp, Brian; Schuh, Janelle; Read, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Harbor seals and gray seals are sympatric phocid pinnipeds found in coastal waters of the temperate and sub-Arctic North Atlantic. In the Northwest Atlantic, both species were depleted through a combination of subsistence hunts and government supported bounties, and are now re-occupying substantial portions of their original ranges. While both species appear to have recovered during the past 2 decades, our understanding of their population dynamics in US waters is incomplete. Here we describe trends in stranding and bycatch rates of harbor and gray seals in the North East United States (NEUS) over the past 16 years through an exploratory curve-fitting exercise and structural break-point analysis. Variability in gray seal strandings in Southern New England and bycatch in the Northeast Sink Gillnet Fishery were best described by fitting positive exponential and linear models, and exhibited rates of increase as high as 22%. In contrast, neither linear nor exponential models fit the oscillation of harbor seal strandings and bycatch over the study period. However, a breakpoint Chow test revealed that harbor seal strandings in the Cape Cod, Massachusetts region and harbor seal bycatch in the Northeast Sink Gillnet Fishery increased in the 1990s and then started declining in the early to mid-2000s. Our analysis indicates that ongoing variation in natural and anthropogenic mortality rates of harbor and gray seals in the NEUS is not synchronous, and likely represents diverging trends in abundance of these species as they assume new roles in the marine ecosystems of the region.

  19. Trends in Stranding and By-Catch Rates of Gray and Harbor Seals along the Northeastern Coast of the United States: Evidence of Divergence in the Abundance of Two Sympatric Phocid Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Johnston

    Full Text Available Harbor seals and gray seals are sympatric phocid pinnipeds found in coastal waters of the temperate and sub-Arctic North Atlantic. In the Northwest Atlantic, both species were depleted through a combination of subsistence hunts and government supported bounties, and are now re-occupying substantial portions of their original ranges. While both species appear to have recovered during the past 2 decades, our understanding of their population dynamics in US waters is incomplete. Here we describe trends in stranding and bycatch rates of harbor and gray seals in the North East United States (NEUS over the past 16 years through an exploratory curve-fitting exercise and structural break-point analysis. Variability in gray seal strandings in Southern New England and bycatch in the Northeast Sink Gillnet Fishery were best described by fitting positive exponential and linear models, and exhibited rates of increase as high as 22%. In contrast, neither linear nor exponential models fit the oscillation of harbor seal strandings and bycatch over the study period. However, a breakpoint Chow test revealed that harbor seal strandings in the Cape Cod, Massachusetts region and harbor seal bycatch in the Northeast Sink Gillnet Fishery increased in the 1990s and then started declining in the early to mid-2000s. Our analysis indicates that ongoing variation in natural and anthropogenic mortality rates of harbor and gray seals in the NEUS is not synchronous, and likely represents diverging trends in abundance of these species as they assume new roles in the marine ecosystems of the region.

  20. In vitro propagation of endangered Dianthus taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of recent researches regarding the in vitro culture of 30 endangered Dianthus taxa is presented in this paper. Various in vitro protocols developed for selected rare and threatened Dianthus taxa are analysed in order to provide a useful synthesis of the data obtained with the main principles, techniques and recommendations for futher research and practice. The recapitulated data presented in this review can be used as a tool for the micropropagation of other endangered Dianthus taxa, enabling their propagation and obtaining a sufficient amount of plants for reintroduction. In addition, the obtained results represent the basis for ex situ conservation of the investigated taxa, especially for medium-term and long-term conservation (cryopreservation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  1. Rare and endangered plants in Mount Jinggangshan region

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wang; Shi Shi; Wenbo Liao; Chunquan Chen; Zhen Li

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of rare, endangered, and protected plant species is of importance in assessing the status of local biodiversity and the environment as well as developing strategies for nature conservation and management. The abundance and distribution of rare and endangered plants in the Mount Jinggangshan region were investigated as well as the community characteristics of important woody species. The resultsdemonstrate that rare and endangered species have high conservation value and signifi...

  2. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic Invertebrate Species... endemic species of fish, plants, mollusks, and crustaceans, including the six endemic aquatic invertebrate... flowing by 1962 (Brune 1981, p. 358), eliminating all aquatic-dependent plants and animals (Scudday...

  3. 76 FR 59990 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    .... stoneana in Mexico other than observations of plants directly across the Mexican border from occurrences in... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX18 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... follows: ``The term `species' includes any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any...

  4. 78 FR 18938 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing as Endangered and Designation of Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AZ43 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... cultural and natural resources and no acu a cactus plants were located. We are considering withdrawing this... Management Plans; (2) livestock grazing; (3) Barry M. Goldwater Range activities; (4) U.S. Mexican...

  5. 77 FR 5879 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened and Endangered Status for Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... NMFS (collectively, the Services) received a petition from the Biodiversity Legal Foundation requesting...)). Recent case law (In Re Polar Bear Endangered Species Act Listing and Sec. 4(d) Rule Litigation, D.D.C WL... for public participation. The OMB Bulletin, implemented under the Information Quality Act (Public...

  6. Demographic vulnerability of the clonal and endangered meadow thistle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejans, E.; Vere, de N.; Kroon, de H.

    2008-01-01

    For effective management of endangered species it is pivotal to understand why a species is endangered and which key life cycle components are involved in its response to environmental changes. Our objective was to investigate the response of rosettes of the redlisted clonal herb Cirsium dissectum t

  7. ENDANGERED AQUATIC VERTEBRATES: COMPARATIVE AND PROBABILISTIC-BASED TOXICOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has previously been assumed that endangered, threatened, and candidate endangered species (collectively known as “listed” species) are uniquely sensitive to chemicals. The purpose of this cooperative research effort (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Surve...

  8. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2007-01-01

    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  9. 76 FR 26085 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To Revise the List of Endangered and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To Revise the List of Endangered and Threatened... Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX57 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To... the initiation of status reviews specific to gray wolves in the Pacific Northwest and Mexican...

  10. Scientific Encounters of the Endangered Kind. Reading Activities That Explore Nature's Endangered Species. Grades 4-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embry, Lynn

    Many forms of wildlife are being threatened by changing ecological conditions, pollution, pesticides, human carelessness, and conditions. Efforts are being made to preserve endangered wildlife species. This document provides a partial listing of endangered and threatened species of mammals, birds, and reptiles in North America and its nearby…

  11. Cloning of endangered mammalian species: any progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Galli, Cesare; Ptak, Grazyna

    2007-05-01

    Attempts through somatic cell nuclear transfer to expand wild populations that have shrunk to critical numbers is a logical extension of the successful cloning of mammals. However, although the first mammal was cloned 10 years ago, nuclear reprogramming remains phenomenological, with abnormal gene expression and epigenetic deregulation being associated with the cloning process. In addition, although cloning of wild animals using host oocytes from different species has been successful, little is known about the implication of partial or total mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in cloned embryos, fetuses and offspring. Finally, there is a need for suitable foster mothers for inter-intra specific cloned embryos. Considering these issues, the limited success achieved in cloning endangered animals is not surprising. However, optimism comes from the rapid gain in the understanding of the molecular clues underlying nuclear reprogramming. If it is possible to achieve a controlled reversal of the differentiated state of a cell then it is probable that other issues that impair the cloning of endangered animals, such as the inter-intra species oocyte or womb donor, will be overcome in the medium term.

  12. 78 FR 44585 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application..., 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR... endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits certain activities...

  13. 77 FR 73495 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  14. 78 FR 77152 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications..., 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits certain activities...

  15. 78 FR 16291 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant... applications for permits to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  16. 78 FR 8575 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and ] 50 CFR 17.72 for... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  17. 77 FR 16252 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  18. 76 FR 80960 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  19. 77 FR 50152 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant... for a permit to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  20. 78 FR 1878 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  1. 78 FR 57409 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits certain activities with endangered species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we invite...

  2. 77 FR 73494 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  3. Rare and endangered plants in Mount Jinggangshan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of rare, endangered, and protected plant species is of importance in assessing the status of local biodiversity and the environment as well as developing strategies for nature conservation and management. The abundance and distribution of rare and endangered plants in the Mount Jinggangshan region were investigated as well as the community characteristics of important woody species. The resultsdemonstrate that rare and endangered species have high conservation value and significant importance in systematics and biogeography. This area contains two endangered bryophyte species and 199 species of vascular plants. Among them, 50 species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened species, 160 species in the China Species Red List, 49 species in the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch, and 90 species in the Appendices of CITES. The variety and abundance of rare and endangered species in this area are equivalent to those for Mount Emei and higher than those for Mount Wuyi and MountTaibai. Many perfectly preserved communities, covering a large area, exist in the Mount Jinggangshan vicinity, and are dominated by rare and endangered species, such as Abies beshanzuensis var. ziyuanensis,Corylus chinensis, Pseudotaxus chienii, Taxus wallichiana var. mairei, Fokienia hodginsii, Amentotaxus argotaenia, Phoebe bournei, Pieris japonica, Rhododendron jinggangshanicum, etc. The communities where some important rare and endangered plants occur are described in detail and suggestions are made for their protection.

  4. Perceptions of fishers to sea turtle bycatch, illegal capture and consumption in the San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule lagoon complex, Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-González, Myrna E; Luna-González, Antonio; Aguirre, Alonso; Zavala-Norzagaray, Alan A; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; González-Ocampo, Héctor A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 10% of all registered fishermen in the coastal towns of Navachiste in Sinaloa, in northwestern Mexico, answered a survey designed to collect data on their perceptions of the following topics: the impact of turtle meat consumption; human health; bycatch; illegal turtle fishing; the illegal sea turtle market; the local economy; pollution; environmental education; the success of protective legislation; and sea turtle-based ecotourism. Perceptions were analyzed using the fuzzy logic method through classification into 5 fuzzy membership sets: VL, very low; L, low; M, moderate; H, high; VH, very high. The 9 topics generated decision areas upon applying fuzzy inference that revealed the membership level of the answers in each fuzzy set. The economic potential of sea turtle-based ecotourism and the economic profitability of the illegal turtle meat market were perceived as VL. Conservation legislation was perceived as H, although inefficiently applied due to corruption. Ecotourism and impacts on sea turtles were perceived as VL, because they were deemed unprofitable activities at the individual and community levels. Environmental education was perceived as L, because it centers on nesting, hatching and releasing turtles and is directed at elementary and middle-school students. While fishers perceive a serious negative impact of fishing activities on sea turtles in the San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule area, they do not see themselves individually as part of the problem. Achieving sea turtle conservation in this region requires: suitable ecotourism infrastructure, government investments in promotion, and studies to estimate the minimum number of tourists needed to assure profitability.

  5. Morphological representation in an endangered, polysynthetic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Sally; Libben, Gary; Derwing, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the results from an initial psycholinguistic study of patterns of morphological representation in Dene Suliné (Chipewyan), an indigenous and highly endangered language spoken in Northwestern Canada. Our investigation focused on how morphological knowledge in this polysynthetic language is affected across various levels of language attrition by employing a morphological segmentation task and an off-line lexical decision task. We discuss the manner in which these tasks target different aspects of morphological ability and then turn to methodological issues associated with conducting psycholinguistic studies with language users that differ in levels of age, education, literacy, and bilingualism (Dene- English). Finally, we report on the challenges of doing psycholinguistic research outside the confines of a university setting and make some recommendations to other researchers who might wish to undertake similar studies.

  6. Endangered Elements of the Periodic Table

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that nearly 40% of the 118 elements thatmake up everything – from the chemist’s arsenal to a varietyof consumer products, are facing depleting supplies. Basedon this data, in 2011, Mike Pitts and his colleagues at theChemistry Innovation Knowledge Transfer Network developeda new type of periodic table. Their analysis revealedthat 44 elements are facing limited supply, or are under thethreat of becoming scarce or inaccessible. These includes allof the rare earth elements, as well as zinc, gallium, germanium,helium, silver, and even phosphorus. The Royal Societyof Chemistry has also published a color-coded periodictable, indicating the ‘endangered elements’. The objective ofthis article is to draw attention to this issue, and create awarenessabout the scientific, social and economic impacts of thisproblem.

  7. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore.

  8. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H Paiva

    Full Text Available Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers and trophic (stable isotope analysis ecology of a tropical seabird-the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii-during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models, existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing. During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird

  9. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vitor H; Geraldes, Pedro; Rodrigues, Isabel; Melo, Tommy; Melo, José; Ramos, Jaime A

    2015-01-01

    Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers) and trophic (stable isotope analysis) ecology of a tropical seabird-the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii-during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models), existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs) and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing). During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird Areas. Further

  10. A decision-analytic approach to the optimal allocation of resources for endangered species consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Shelley, Kevin J.; Morey, Steve; Chan, Jeffrey; LaTier, Andrea; Scafidi, Carolyn; Crouse, Deborah T.; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The resources available to support conservation work, whether time or money, are limited. Decision makers need methods to help them identify the optimal allocation of limited resources to meet conservation goals, and decision analysis is uniquely suited to assist with the development of such methods. In recent years, a number of case studies have been described that examine optimal conservation decisions under fiscal constraints; here we develop methods to look at other types of constraints, including limited staff and regulatory deadlines. In the US, Section Seven consultation, an important component of protection under the federal Endangered Species Act, requires that federal agencies overseeing projects consult with federal biologists to avoid jeopardizing species. A benefit of consultation is negotiation of project modifications that lessen impacts on species, so staff time allocated to consultation supports conservation. However, some offices have experienced declining staff, potentially reducing the efficacy of consultation. This is true of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Washington Fish and Wildlife Office (WFWO) and its consultation work on federally-threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). To improve effectiveness, WFWO managers needed a tool to help allocate this work to maximize conservation benefits. We used a decision-analytic approach to score projects based on the value of staff time investment, and then identified an optimal decision rule for how scored projects would be allocated across bins, where projects in different bins received different time investments. We found that, given current staff, the optimal decision rule placed 80% of informal consultations (those where expected effects are beneficial, insignificant, or discountable) in a short bin where they would be completed without negotiating changes. The remaining 20% would be placed in a long bin, warranting an investment of seven days, including time for negotiation. For formal

  11. 78 FR 57132 - Endangered Species; File No. 16230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). This permit authorizes... period. The conservation plan includes managing inshore gill net fisheries by dividing estuarine...

  12. Contaminant studies on endangered bats in northeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three federally listed endangered bat species are known to inhabit Oklahoma. The gray bat (Myotis grisescens) is probably the most abundant, and is presently known...

  13. Characterization of endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) habitats in Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) has been listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as an endangered species since 1990. This species, once found in...

  14. 77 FR 19313 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would... Richmond 77 FR 3493: March 15, 2012. Zoo. January 24, 2012. 694126 National 76 FR 80384; March 15,...

  15. 78 FR 17709 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... for an endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted... Point Defiance Zoo 71 FR 53464; March 13, 2013. and Aquarium. September 11, 2006. 73634A...

  16. 77 FR 38653 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) the application was filed in good faith, (2) the granted permit would.... 58210A Point Defiance Zoo & 77 FR 9687; February May 4, 2012. Aquarium. 17, 2012. 65782A, 65783A,...

  17. 76 FR 27660 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would... Zoological 76 FR 12990; March 9, April 21, 2011. Society dba 2011. Brookfield Zoo. 24269A Chelonian...

  18. 77 FR 58406 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would... Zoo and 77 FR 46514; August 3, August 27, 2012. Garden. 2012. Marine Mammals Receipt of...

  19. 76 FR 60863 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would... September 22, 2011. Society dba Gladys 17, 2011. Porter Zoo. Marine Mammals 48293A Red Rock Films 76...

  20. 77 FR 74506 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... conservation responsibilities for affected species, and in consideration of section 10(a)(1)(A) of the... before final action is taken. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Palm Beach Zoo...

  1. 76 FR 14985 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    .... Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, the Endangered... the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park, Syracuse, NY;...

  2. 75 FR 76022 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... include. The comments and recommendations that will be most useful and likely to influence agency..., in interstate commerce specimen cultures from endangered non-human primates for the purpose...

  3. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region....

  4. Protecting Endangered Species: Do the Main Legislative Tools Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine E Gibbs; Currie, David J.

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how mu...

  5. CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED SPECIES: CAN INCENTIVES WORK FOR PRIVATE LANDOWNERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Langpap, Christian

    2003-01-01

    It has been argued that the traditional regulatory approach of the Endangered Species Act, based on land-use restrictions, has failed to protect endangered species on private land. In response, there has been a call for the use of incentives to complement this regulatory approach. This paper examines the potential of incentives programs to elicit conservation-oriented management choices from landowners. Data obtained from a survey of non-industrial private forest owners in Oregon and Washingt...

  6. Endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag

    OpenAIRE

    AKMURADOV ALLAMURAD; SHAIYMOV BABAGULY; HALMEDOV BAZAR; YAKUBOV ATABEG; HALLIYEVA GULYAIYM

    2016-01-01

    The article presents some information of the place of growing of the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag. A monitoring has been carried out and the bioecological peculiarities, resource characteristics and modern state of the natural population of the most important species have been studied. Some scientifically based ways of protection and introduction into culture have been worked out to preserve the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the region.

  7. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ramakrushna

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, human gene pools, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. We propose cryopreservation of germplasms by constructing a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions. Rationale: Under such alarming circumstances, we turned to cryopreservation as an option but over thousands of years economic depression, sabotage, conflicts, warfare or even a brief disruption to the precise cryopreservation can hamper the storage of genetic samples.When we are considering conservation it is always preferable to go for a more secure and permanent solution. It was found out that the climatic and strategic location of the lunar polar craters are adequately hospitable, remote and free of maintenance and human observation as they provide naturally cryogenic temperature, reduced gravity and vacuum environment, non-reactive surface, safety from celestial intrusion and permanent shadow which doesn't allow the temperature to fluctuate thus providing most suitable storage facilities for the germplasms. PSRs provide steady temperature of 40- 60K and immunity to earthquakes due to low seismic activity. At these sites, burial in one meter or more of the regolith will provide protection against the solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays and micrometeorite impact. It provides the minimum necessary barrier from human intervention and at the same time enables easy retrieval for future usage. Genetic samples of endangered species can enable restoration even after its extinction. Preserved

  8. 75 FR 11556 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), will...: Background The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, hereinafter... Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and......

  9. 78 FR 57835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of 6-Month Extension of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act and Reclassify Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata From Threatened to Endangered AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... determined that two Caribbean corals (Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata) currently listed...

  10. Endangered plants persist under phosphorus limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassen, Martin J; Venterink, Harry Olde; Lapshina, Elena D; Tanneberger, Franziska

    2005-09-22

    Nitrogen enrichment is widely thought to be responsible for the loss of plant species from temperate terrestrial ecosystems. This view is based on field surveys and controlled experiments showing that species richness correlates negatively with high productivity and nitrogen enrichment. However, as the type of nutrient limitation has never been examined on a large geographical scale the causality of these relationships is uncertain. We investigated species richness in herbaceous terrestrial ecosystems, sampled along a transect through temperate Eurasia that represented a gradient of declining levels of atmospheric nitrogen deposition--from approximately 50 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) in western Europe to natural background values of less than 5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) in Siberia. Here we show that many more endangered plant species persist under phosphorus-limited than under nitrogen-limited conditions, and we conclude that enhanced phosphorus is more likely to be the cause of species loss than nitrogen enrichment. Our results highlight the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms of phosphorus enrichment, and for a stronger focus on conservation management to reduce phosphorus availability.

  11. Dictionaries of Critically Endangered Languages: Focus on Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanishcheva Olga Nikolajevna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes specific features of dictionaries of endangered languages from the perspective of their user. Dictionaries of the Saami language – the language of the indigenous minority of the North – are used to describe the anthropocentric, cognitive and pragmatic approach to lexicographical description of culture. The article shows that the focus on the dictionary user becomes especially critical for the endangered languages. It proves that the purpose of such dictionaries is not only to preserve the knowledge that the speakers of the endangered language and bearers of the culture still keep, but also to revitalize this knowledge. The article states that contemporary lexicography must consider several factors for making an endangered language dictionary: the present state of the language in the language community and the scope of background knowledge of a language speaker that represents everyday level of the world cognition by indigenous minority. The article shows that the most relevant type of dictionary for the endangered languages is both a learner’s dictionary and a linguoculturological dictionary (active type. We emphasize that on the one hand the Saami dictionaries describe a culture that is often unknown even to most Saami culture bearers and on the other hand, the dictionaries are also intended for Saami who have no command of the native language. The peculiarities of the relevant dictionary comprise the fact that alongside the translation in the basic part of the dictionary there is a culturological commentary that as fully as possible reflects the knowledge of language speakers.

  12. Threatened and endangered fish and wildlife of the midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, D.W.; Robeck, K.E.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains information of federally-listed endangered and/or threatened fish and wildlife occurring in the midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The information was compiled as a support document for the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) project sponsored by the Regional Assessments Division of the Office of Technology Impacts within the Department of Energy. The information on midwestern endangered species distribution, habitats, and reasons for population decline included in this document are designed to help assess the potential for adverse impacts if energy activities are sited within the general range of an endangered species. It is hoped that this document will thereby enhance the reliability of one portion of energy-related assessments performed in the Midwest. This report considers only those species listed prior to October 1979 as endangered and/or threatened in the federal endangered species list published in the Federal Register and that have been known to occur in the region in the last 20 years.

  13. 77 FR 15019 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES... implement the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)...

  14. Refuge Trip Report Endangered Species Meeting - White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report reviews endangered species management activities on White River National Wildlife Refuge with endangered species personnel. Target species include bald...

  15. 75 FR 14496 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Grizzly Bear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and recordkeeping... reinstating the regulatory protections under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA), as amended, for......

  16. 78 FR 54553 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC645 Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals... mammals listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the California (CA) thresher shark/ swordfish drift gillnet (DGN) fishery (>=14 inch mesh) and the incidental, but...

  17. 78 FR 23947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  18. 77 FR 45369 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... for a recovery permit to conduct enhancement of survival activities with endangered species....

  19. 77 FR 24216 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... for a recovery permit to conduct enhancement of survival activities with an endangered species....

  20. 77 FR 74202 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available..., kill, and, for plant species only, remove and reduce to possess) all threatened and endangered...

  1. 78 FR 76638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  2. 78 FR 19730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications..., 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR... applications for permits to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  3. 76 FR 33336 - Endangered Plants and Wildlife; Receipt of Application for Enhancement of Survival Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Plants and Wildlife; Receipt of Application for Enhancement of... application; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act... comment on applications for permits to conduct enhancement of survival activities with endangered...

  4. 78 FR 11217 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  5. 77 FR 16057 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50... applications for permits to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  6. 78 FR 6343 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50... for a permit to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  7. 78 FR 12345 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50... for a permit to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  8. 75 FR 52547 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Ocelot (Leopardus... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jody Mays (see ADDRESSES). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Endangered Species... public comment period. The ocelot was listed as an endangered foreign species in 1972 under the...

  9. 78 FR 37564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  10. 78 FR 15736 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  11. 78 FR 48899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  12. 76 FR 64374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for... application for a recovery permit to conduct enhancement of survival activities with endangered species....

  13. 78 FR 54268 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  14. 78 FR 29150 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  15. 77 FR 13349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  16. 78 FR 64529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  17. 76 FR 29005 - Endangered Plants and Wildlife; Receipt of Applications for Enhancement of Survival Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Plants and Wildlife; Receipt of Applications for Enhancement of... applications; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act... comment on applications for permits to conduct enhancement of survival activities with endangered...

  18. 78 FR 17710 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  19. 76 FR 11258 - Endangered Plants; Receipt of Application for Enhancement of Survival Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Plants; Receipt of Application for Enhancement of Survival Permit...; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act of 1973... an application for a permit to conduct enhancement of survival activities with an endangered...

  20. 76 FR 31866 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Tulotoma Snail From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...; Reclassification of the Tulotoma Snail From Endangered to Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... snail (Tulotoma magnifica) from endangered to threatened, under the authority of the Endangered Species... this snail. DATES: This final rule is effective on July 5, 2011. ADDRESSES: This final rule...

  1. Aspects of the biology of the Atlantic Midshipman, Porichthys porosissimus (Teleostei, Batrachoididae: an important by-catch species of shrimp trawling off southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vianna

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Trawl fishing for pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and F. paulensis catches large quantities of by-catch fish, discarded due to their having no commercial vaue. As these species have rarely been studied, the impact of fisheries on these populations is not known. This contribution studies the biology of a species of no commercial value, the Atlantic midshipman Porichthys porosissimus. The last haul /Tom a commercial trawler, operating on the northern coast of São Paulo State and the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, was preserved (/Tom being discarded and identified at the species leveI. It was observed that this fishery affects the juvenile population which is intluenced by the seasonal variation of the water masses. Growth parameters were estimated: L∞ = 37.0 cm, K = 0.285 year-1. Instantaneous mortality coefficients were estimated: 2=2.14, M=0.63, F= 1.51, S= 11.8 and E=0.71. Considering the intensive activity of the shrimp trawl tleet operating in this area, the deleterious action of trawling is considered as of high impact. The stock management measures applied for pink shrimp are without effect regarding P. porosissimus. which has its spawning period before the closed season and its recruitment peak after it. The results show overfishing and the need to apply measures to reduce trawling action, such as adequate policies, introduction of selectivity devices and the creation of exclusion zones for trawl fishing.A pesca de arrasto para a captura do camarão-rosa (Fm:fantepenaeus brasi/iensis e F. paulensis captura grande quantidade de peixes considerados fauna acompanhante que são descartados por não possuírem valor comercial. Assim, pouco aparecem em trabalhos de biologia pesqueira com dados de desembarque, sendo a ação pesqueira sobre estas populações pouco conhecida. Neste estudo, um arrasto mensal de um barco de pesca foi desembarcado sem que nada do material capturado fosse descartado. Analisou-se Porichthys

  2. 78 FR 58507 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreed to include all... on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon Species as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... species as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as......

  3. 78 FR 60813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY00 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife (List) but to maintain endangered status for the Mexican wolf by...

  4. Age structured dynamical model for an endangered lizard Eulamprus leuraensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriatna, A. K.; Rachmadani, Q.; Ilahi, F.; Anggriani, N.; Nuraini, N.

    2014-02-01

    The Blue Mountains Water Skink, Eulamprus leuraensis, is listed as an endangered species under the IUCN Red List. This lizard species has a typical characteristic of growth with a low fecundity. It is known that the offspring quality may decline with maternal age of the parents despite they can grow rapidly from neonatal size to adult size within two to three years. It is also believed that low adult survival rates and specialization on rare and fragmented type of habitat are the main cause leading to the endangered status of the lizard. A mathematical model with age structure for Eulamprus leuraensis, taking into account the variation of survival rate in each structure and the declining of offspring quality with respect to maternal age is considered here. Stable coexistence of non-trivial equilibriumis shown. It is also shown that an endangered status is due to combination oflow reproductive output and low rates of adult survival. Further, understanding the age structure within populations can facilitate efective management of the endangered species.

  5. 77 FR 7175 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant... recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys of Mexican long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris nivalis... bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Mount Graham...

  6. 78 FR 38731 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... (Neofelis nebulosa), brown hyena (Parahyaena brunnea), and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), to enhance the... amendment of their permit to import one captive-bred male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) from the Hoedspruit Endangered Species Center instead of the De Wildt Cheetah Breeding Center, South Africa, for the purpose...

  7. 75 FR 61513 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... to do so. Applicant: Paul Johnson, Marion, Alabama, TE130300. The applicant requests an amendment to... renewed authority to take endangered species, including seven (7) listed mammal species, four (4) listed..., Florida and Alabama. Applicant: St. Johns Water Management District, Palatka, Florida, TE- 84047....

  8. 77 FR 3495 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would... 15, 2011. Marine Science Center. 2011. 008519 Zoo Atlanta 75 FR 82409, December March 1, 2011. 30... Zoo..... 76 FR 18239, April 1, May 23, 2011. 2011. 013008 777 Ranch Inc 76 FR 7580, February July...

  9. 77 FR 300 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would... Angeles Zoo and 76 FR 60862; September November 23, 2011. Botanical Gardens. 30, 2011. 56760A Los Angeles Zoo and 76 FR 66954; October December 1, 2011. Botanical Gardens. 28, 2011. 57442A Matthew Bindon...

  10. 78 FR 48712 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would... 78 FR 9725; February 11, June 14, 2013. the University of 2013. Illinois. 675484 Birmingham Zoo, Inc..... 78 FR 16292; March 14, May 1, 2013. 2013. 036218 Brevard Zoo 78 FR 1771; March 22, May 1, 2013....

  11. 78 FR 30327 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... for an endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted.... 69575A Star B Property Company 77 FR 26779; May 7, June 21, 2012. 2012. 723430 Micke Grove Zoo........ 77..., July 17, 2012. Of Tropical Ungulates 2012. 690989 Columbus Zoo And 77 FR 30547; May 23, July 17,...

  12. 78 FR 37565 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    .... For each permit for an endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith... January 4, 2013. 16, 2012. 677573 Reid Park Zoo 77 FR 68809; November January 4, 2013. 16, 2012. 002692 Springhill Wildlife 77 FR 68809; November January 4, 2013. Park. 16, 2012. 680356 Utah's Hogle Zoo..........

  13. 78 FR 5779 - Endangered Species; File No. 16248

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    .... ACTION: Issuance of permit. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Riverbanks Zoo and Garden, P.O. Box... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Riverbanks Zoo and Garden has... required by the ESA, was based on a finding that such permit (1) was applied for in good faith, (2)...

  14. 77 FR 1061 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 16229 and 16548

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... Zoo, 4401 Zoo ] Parkway, Asheboro, NC 27203 , and the Springfield Science Museum, 21 Edwards Street... species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The North Carolina Zoo and the Springfield Science Museum have been issued... (1) were applied for in good faith, (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered...

  15. 78 FR 34120 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) the application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would..., 2012. 2012. 704654 Scovill Zoo 77 FR 51819; August 27, October 31, 2012. 2012. 81326A Gomez Development.... 2012. 84250A Burmont, Inc 77 FR 61627; October 10, November 16, 2012. 2012. 681252 Cincinnati...

  16. 76 FR 32222 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would.......... 76 FR 20705; April May 19, 2011. 13, 2011. 37443A Metro Richmond Zoo... 76 FR 18239; April 1, May 23... University, 75 FR 69701; November March 29, 2011. Schubot Exotic Bird 15, 2010. Health Center. 008519...

  17. 78 FR 12780 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would... Moore 77 FR 66476; January 14, 2013. November 5, 2012. 84872A Palm Beach Zoo at 77FR 66476; November... Islands November 16, 2012. Regional Office. 89103A Dallas Zoo 77FR 68809; November February 12, 2013....

  18. 75 FR 54909 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... guarantee that we will be able to do so. II. Background To help us carry out our conservation... applications. ] III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens..., captive-bred at Toronto Zoo for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species....

  19. 78 FR 21627 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... conservation responsibilities for affected species, and in consideration of section 10(a)(1)(A) of the... before final action is taken. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Saint Louis Zoo... deceased captive-born Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somalicus) that was held at San Diego Zoo until...

  20. 75 FR 82409 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    .... Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, the Endangered... enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY; PRT-781606... applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, GA; PRT-008519. The applicant...

  1. 77 FR 14035 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... guarantee that we will be able to do so. II. Background To help us carry out our conservation.... III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: San Diego Zoo Global, Escondido, CA; PRT.... Applicant: Association for the Conservation of Threatened Parrots, ] Inc. (ACTP) Loxahatchee, FL;...

  2. 78 FR 55091 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite local, State...; monitor populations and nest cavities using Swedish climbing ladders and/or video probes...

  3. Endangered fish species of the world - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Hărşan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper summarizes a large part of the endangered and critically endangered fish species of the world. The list was constructed using the comprehensive IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (available in December 2008 and the well elaborated FISHBASE (available on the official website, in 2008 for taxonomy and accepted scientific names of the species. To these two important sources, many scientific papers and communications were added when recent and useful reports were found. However, there is a long way from the fish species list of this review to the world?s complete list of endangered and critically endangered fish species. In our list were not included subspecies, populations, varieties, or species having a debatable taxonomic status. The scope of this review was not to inventorize all the fishes included in these two categories, but to make possible drawing some general conclusions regarding most important possible causes of fish species extinction and to make suggestions concerning fish species conservation possibilities through aquaculture.

  4. Training for Fieldwork in Endangered-Language Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akira Y.

    1999-01-01

    Academic fieldworkers in language-endangered communities must be able to undertake all aspects of linguistic work, elicit linguistic information from speakers, document naturally occurring speech data, present research results in a comprehensible manner to the community and to academia, and develop cooperative programs based on mutual trust.…

  5. 75 FR 30425 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Chief, Endangered Species Division, Ecological Services, P.O. Box 1306, Room 6034, Albuquerque, NM 87103... Ave., SW., Room 6034, Albuquerque, NM. Please refer to the respective permit number for each... Species Division, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 87103; (505) 248-6920. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  6. 78 FR 25243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 3... of these 15 species on the Hawaiian island of Hawaii, and to designate critical habitat for 2 plant... this species in light of this new information. Comments previously submitted on this rulemaking do...

  7. Endangered Languages and Education. Proceedings of the Foundation for Endangered Languages (FEL) Conference (3rd, Maynooth, Ireland, September 17-19, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Nicholas, Ed.

    The theme of the third annual Foundation for Endangered Languages (FEL) Conference was Endangered Languages and Education, focusing on how education can be used to promote, resist, and reverse the decline of a language. The conference papers are broken into several sections covering the topic from a variety of aspects and perspectives.…

  8. 大西洋金枪鱼延绳钓主要兼捕鱼种垂直分布结构研究%VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BYCATCH SPECIES CAPTURED BY TUNA LONGLINE FISHERY IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许友伟; 戴小杰; 庄之栋; 朱江峰; 陈彦

    2012-01-01

    研究延绳钓渔获物的垂直分布结构对于评估延绳钓渔业对目标和兼捕种类的影响具有重要的理论和实际参考价值.根据2007-2010年间2个航次调查采集的热带大西洋公海海域(05°N~15°N,29°W~41°W)金枪鱼延绳钓主要兼捕鱼种的渔获资料,估算了14种渔获物的钓获深度,包括金枪鱼类3种、旗鱼类3种、鲨鱼类3种、其它鱼类3种、海龟2种.当钓钩上浮率假设分别为15%、20%和25%时,最小估算深度分别为122、114和107m,最大估算深度分别为311、293和275m.叉尾长鳍乌鲂的平均钓获深度最深,海龟类的平均钓获深度最浅.四分位距图(IQR)显示,各物种的深度分布范围变化很大,有些种类之间的深度分布中值虽然相近,但深度分布范围却相差很大.除剑鱼外,其余兼捕物种与大眼金枪鱼的深度分布均值均有显著性差异.而除剑鱼和红棱鲂外,其余兼捕物种与大眼金枪鱼的深度分布函数均有显著性差异.聚类分析显示14种渔获物可以分成3种垂直分布结构.%Information of vertical distribution of pelagic species has important value for the assessment of impact of longline fisheries on target and bycatch species. Based on capture hook data of pelagic species in two longline scientific observer trips in the high sea of tropical Atlantic Ocean during 2007~2010, we estimated the capture depths of 14 species, including three species of tunas, three species of billfishes, three species of sharks, two species of sea turtles and others. When the constant shoaling factors were 15%, 20% and 25%, the minimum estimated depths were 122,114 and 107m, and the maximum estimated depths were 311,293 and 275m, respectively. The species with the deepest capture depth was bigscale pomfret. The species with the shallowest capture depth was sea turtles. Interquartile range map (IQR) showed the depth distribution of each species varied greatly. Except for sword-fish, the mean

  9. Conserving endangered marine organisms: causes, trends and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambariyanto

    2017-02-01

    Increasing demand for marine resources in recent decades for human needs has led to intensified exploitation. This increase accelerates the process of extinction of various marine resources. In order to avoid extinction, it requires conservation measures of marine resources appropriately. This paper provides an overview of causes of extinction, trends and challenges in the conservation of endangered marine organisms. The success of conservation measures is highly dependent on various stakeholders such as governments, communities, the private sector and academics. Differences of the interest of these parties often lead to the failure of conservation programs. In general there is an increasing public awareness of the importance of protecting the diversity of marine resources and avoiding extinction of marine organisms, especially endangered organisms. The existence of comprehensive actions, legislation and improved coordination among government, community, private sector, and academics will significantly improve the success in overcoming all the challenges.

  10. Three novel herpesviruses of endangered Clemmys and Glyptemys turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Newton, Alisa L; Chang, Tylis Y; Zarate, Brian; Whitlock, Alison L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The rich diversity of the world's reptiles is at risk due to significant population declines of broad taxonomic and geographic scope. Significant factors attributed to these declines include habitat loss, pollution, unsustainable collection and infectious disease. To investigate the presence and significance of a potential pathogen on populations of critically endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) as well sympatric endangered wood (G. insculpta) and endangered spotted (Clemmys guttata) turtles in the northeastern United States, choanal and cloacal swabs collected from 230 turtles from 19 sites in 5 states were screened for herpesvirus by polymerase chain reaction. We found a high incidence of herpesvirus infection in bog turtles (51.5%; 105/204) and smaller numbers of positive wood (5) and spotted (1) turtles. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed three previously uncharacterized alphaherpesviruses. Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 was the predominant herpesvirus detected and was found exclusively in bog turtles in all states sampled. Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 was found only in wood turtles. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was found in a small number of bog turtles and a single spotted turtle from one state. Based on these findings, Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 appears to be a common infection in the study population, whereas Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 and Emydid herpesvirus 2 were not as frequently detected. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was the only virus detected in more than one species. Herpesviruses are most often associated with subclinical or mild infections in their natural hosts, and no sampled turtles showed overt signs of disease at sampling. However, infection of host-adapted viruses in closely related species can result in significant disease. The pathogenic potential of these viruses, particularly Emydid herpesvirus 2, in sympatric chelonians warrants additional study in order to better understand the relationship of these viruses with their endangered hosts.

  11. DNA capture reveals transoceanic gene flow in endangered river sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chenhong; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Straube, Nicolas; Harris, Mark; Hofreiter, Michael; White, William T.; Naylor, Gavin J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The river sharks of the genus Glyphis, widely feared as man-eaters throughout India, remain very poorly known to science. The group constitutes five described species, all of which are considered highly endangered and restricted to freshwater systems in Australasia and Southeast Asia. DNA sequence data derived from 19th-century dried museum material augmented with contemporary samples indicates that only three of the five currently described species are valid; that there is a genetically dist...

  12. Unexpected demography in the recovery of an endangered primate population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B Strier

    Full Text Available Assessments of the status of endangered species have focused on population sizes, often without knowledge of demographic and behavioral processes underlying population recovery. We analyzed demographic data from a 28-year study of a critically endangered primate, the northern muriqui, to investigate possible changes in demographic rates as this population recovered from near extirpation. As the population increased from 60 to nearly 300 individuals, its growth rate declined due to increased mortality and male-biased birth sex ratios; the increased mortality was not uniform across ages and sexes, and there has been a recent increase in mortality of prime-aged males. If not for a concurrent increase in fertility rates, the population would have stabilized at 200 individuals instead of continuing to grow. The unexpected increase in fertility rates and in adult male mortality can be attributed to the muriquis' expansion of their habitat by spending more time on the ground. The demographic consequences of this behavioral shift must be incorporated into management tactics for this population and emphasize the importance of understanding demographic rates in the recovery of endangered species.

  13. Mortality patterns in endangered Hawaiian geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species.

  14. The Pricelessness of Biodiversity: Using the Endangered Species Act to Help Combat Extinction and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Falberg, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    The science is clear. Climate change is happening, and it has aserious adverse effect on the majority of biodiversity, species,and ecosystems. Currently, there are no laws that serve to protect biodiversity and species from the oncoming changes; however, there is a law that serves to protect endangered and threatened species generally: the Endangered Species Act. This paper proposes using conservation biology principles to suggest several amendments to the Endangered Species Act to help save ...

  15. 76 FR 77006 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... final action is taken. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Mountain Gorilla... samples from Eastern lowland gorillas (Gorilla berengei), for the purpose of enhancement of the...

  16. Language engineering for the Semantic Web: a digital library for endangered languages. Endangered languages, Ontology, Digital library, Multimedia, EMELD, Intelligent querying and retrieval, ImageSpace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shiyong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the effort undertaken at Wayne State University to preserve endangered languages using the state-of-the-art information technologies. In particular, we discuss the issues involved in such an effort, and present the architecture of a distributed digital library for endangered languages which will contain various data of endangered languages in the forms of text, image, video, audio and include advanced tools for intelligent cataloguing, indexing, searching and browsing information on languages and language analysis. We use various Semantic Web technologies such as XML, OLAC, ontologies so that our digital library becomes a useful linguistic resource on the Semantic Web.

  17. 妨害清算罪之立法反思与完善--以我国现行公司、企业①清算制度为背景%Rethinking on the Crime of Jeopardizing Liquidation and Its Legislative Improvement---Based on Our Current Company Liquidation System Theory in Reconnaissance at Criminal Scene of Public Security Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林锋; 邵惠

    2013-01-01

    With the promulgation of new Company Law , Enterprise Bankruptcy Law and their relevant judicial interpretations , our country ’ s legal framework of liquidation in both companies and enterprises has basically formed and the civil and administrative mechanism prosecuting the liquidator , the liquidating obligor and other relative sub-jects for illegal or negative liquidation has also gradually been improved .However , in the level of criminal law , it only contains the crime called jeopardizing liquidation , and due to the inherent defects , it fails to fully reflect all re-quirements of liquidation in both companies and enterprises .Therefore, in order to provide an overall protection to liquidation itself and the interests of creditors , we should learn from the experience of foreign legislation and perfect the crime of jeopardizing liquidation in China from the form of behavior , time element, subject of crime, etc.%随着新《公司法》、《企业破产法》及相关司法解释的出台,我国公司、企业清算制度的法律框架基本形成,对清算人②、清算义务人③等相关主体违法清算或怠于清算的民事和行政责任追究机制亦逐步完善。然而在刑法规制层面上,则仅有妨害清算罪这一罪名,并且由于其立法之内在缺陷,未能完全反映当前公司、企业清算制度在刑法上的要求。因而有必要借鉴国外立法经验,从行为方式、时间要素、犯罪主体等构成要件方面入手,完善妨害清算罪立法,以期实现对公司、企业清算制度及债权人利益的全面刑法保护。

  18. 77 FR 32922 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Cruz cypress (Cupressus abramsiana) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based...). Downlist. Endangered Cupressus abramsiana (Santa Cruz January 8, 1987 (52 FR None September 29, 1998...

  19. China’s Price System Jeopardizes its Grain Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宾

    2008-01-01

    2008 is a year of bumper harvest in summer grain across China. The failure of numerous state-owned grain depots to purchase grain in times of bumper harvest, however, directly threatens grain reserve security and state control over grain prices in the upcoming year. An important factor underpinning the difficulty of state grain depots to purchase grain is the unwillingness of farmers to sell grain due to the excess of the current market price over the government "protected price" aimed at preventing cheap grain from harming farmers. When grassroots grain depots find themselves in trouble, foreign capital stealthily moves in by taking advantage of this situation. To fulfill grain storage tasks and receive various state subsidies, some state-owned grain depots have no alternative but to surreptitiously raise the purchase price. By contrast, some not so courageous state-owned grain depots can only borrow money to finance the purchase of commodity grain at market prices and subsequently figure out a way to pay back such loans. Behind such distorted grain purchase behavior lies a rough and rugged history of grain price reform in China.

  20. Anthropogenic disturbances jeopardize biodiversity conservation within tropical rainforest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Iván A; Piñero, Daniel; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Sarukhán, José

    2016-05-10

    Anthropogenic disturbances affecting tropical forest reserves have been documented, but their ecological long-term cumulative effects are poorly understood. Habitat fragmentation and defaunation are two major anthropogenic threats to the integrity of tropical reserves. Based on a long-term (four decades) study, we document how these disturbances synergistically disrupt ecological processes and imperil biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning at Los Tuxtlas, the northernmost tropical rainforest reserve in the Americas. Deforestation around this reserve has reduced the reserve to a medium-sized fragment (640 ha), leading to an increased frequency of canopy-gap formation. In addition, hunting and habitat loss have caused the decline or local extinction of medium and large herbivores. Combining empirical, experimental, and modeling approaches, we support the hypothesis that such disturbances produced a demographic explosion of the long-lived (≈120 y old, maximum height of 7 m) understory palm Astrocaryum mexicanum, whose population has increased from 1,243-4,058 adult individuals per hectare in only 39 y (annual growth rate of ca 3%). Faster gap formation increased understory light availability, enhancing seed production and the growth of immature palms, whereas release from mammalian herbivory and trampling increased survival of seedlings and juveniles. In turn, the palm's demographic explosion was followed by a reduction of tree species diversity, changing forest composition, altering the relative contribution of trees to forest biomass, and disrupting litterfall dynamics. We highlight how indirect anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., palm proliferation) on otherwise protected areas threaten tropical conservation, a phenomenon that is currently eroding the planet's richest repositories of biodiversity.

  1. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory.

  2. 77 FR 18157 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ipomopsis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... ``Penstemon debilis'' under ``Flowering Plants'' in the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants by removing...--plants. (a) Flowering plants. * * * * * Family Hydrophyllaceae: Phacelia submutica (DeBeque phacelia... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX75 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and...

  3. 75 FR 42489 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Limnanthes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... include wet season grazing (Marty 2004, p. 1629), particularly during the plants' flowering and fruiting... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AW21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation...

  4. Extreme genomic erosion after recurrent demographic bottlenecks in the highly endangered Iberian lynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abascal, Federico; Corvelo, André; Cruz, Fernando;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomic studies of endangered species provide insights into their evolution and demographic history, reveal patterns of genomic erosion that might limit their viability, and offer tools for their effective conservation. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid and...

  5. 50 CFR 224.103 - Special prohibitions for endangered marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mammals. 224.103 Section 224.103 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.103 Special prohibitions for endangered marine mammals. (a) Approaching...

  6. Designing a Dictionary for an Endangered Language Community: Lexicographical Deliberations, Language Ideological Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroskrity, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Dictionaries of endangered languages represent especially important products of language documentation, in part because they are usually the most familiar and useful genre of linguistic representation to endangered language community members. This familiarity, however, can become problematic when it is accompanied by language ideologies that…

  7. 78 FR 64192 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Extending the Public Comment Periods and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...; FXES11130900000C2-134-FF09E32000] RINs 1018-AY00 and 1018-AY46 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... lupus) and the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... to list the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) as an endangered subspecies and to delist the...

  8. Dependence of the endangered black-capped vireo on sustained cowbird management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation-reliant species depend on active management for sustained protection from persistent threats. For species that are listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, being conservation-reliant means that they require continued management even ...

  9. 78 FR 66139 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Delisting of the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Endangered Marine Mammals; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 213 / Monday, November 4, 2013... Protection Measures for Endangered Marine Mammals AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the number of pups born. Some pups die and disappear before the counts are made and a few are...

  10. 78 FR 38161 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing One Distinct Population Segment of Broad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... originating in Argentina, if certain conditions are met prior to exportation to the United States. DATES: This... broad- snouted caiman in Argentina from endangered to threatened in the List of Endangered and...) of the broad- snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris): A DPS in Argentina and a DPS encompassing...

  11. 50 CFR 224.104 - Special requirements for fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... activities to protect endangered sea turtles. 224.104 Section 224.104 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... endangered sea turtles. (a) Shrimp fishermen in the southeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico who comply with rules for threatened sea turtles specified in § 223.206 of this chapter will not be...

  12. 75 FR 36035 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Cumberland Darter, Rush Darter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ...-1024. For information regarding the rush darter, contact Stephen Ricks, Field Supervisor, U.S. Fish and... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AV85 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... Endangered Throughout Their Ranges AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed...

  13. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  14. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a) Background. (1) A variety of plant and animal species of the United States are so reduced in numbers...

  15. 75 FR 35424 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Reclassification of the Tulotoma Snail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...; Proposed Reclassification of the Tulotoma Snail From Endangered to Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...), propose to reclassify the tulotoma snail (Tulotoma magnifica) from endangered to threatened, under the... no longer correctly reflects the status of this snail. We have documented a substantial...

  16. 76 FR 48881 - Recovery Plan for the Endangered Pyne's Ground-plum (Astragalus bibullatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... obtain a copy of the recovery plan by contacting the Tennessee Field Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... endangered or threatened animal or plant to the point where it is again a secure, self-sustaining member of its ecosystem is a primary goal of the endangered species program. To help guide the recovery...

  17. Conservation triage or injurious neglect in endangered species recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Leah R

    2016-03-29

    Listing endangered and threatened species under the US Endangered Species Act is presumed to offer a defense against extinction and a solution to achieve recovery of imperiled populations, but only if effective conservation action ensues after listing occurs. The amount of government funding available for species protection and recovery is one of the best predictors of successful recovery; however, government spending is both insufficient and highly disproportionate among groups of species, and there is significant discrepancy between proposed and actualized budgets across species. In light of an increasing list of imperiled species requiring evaluation and protection, an explicit approach to allocating recovery funds is urgently needed. Here I provide a formal decision-theoretic approach focusing on return on investment as an objective and a transparent mechanism to achieve the desired recovery goals. I found that less than 25% of the $1.21 billion/year needed for implementing recovery plans for 1,125 species is actually allocated to recovery. Spending in excess of the recommended recovery budget does not necessarily translate into better conservation outcomes. Rather, elimination of only the budget surplus for "costly yet futile" recovery plans can provide sufficient funding to erase funding deficits for more than 180 species. Triage by budget compression provides better funding for a larger sample of species, and a larger sample of adequately funded recovery plans should produce better outcomes even if by chance. Sharpening our focus on deliberate decision making offers the potential to achieve desired outcomes in avoiding extinction for Endangered Species Act-listed species.

  18. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: finding the common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Casazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway's Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail, a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora. California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora à - S. foliosa readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict

  19. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose

  20. A bioeconomic perspective on the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salau, K. R.; Fenichel, E. P.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat destruction threatens species existence and has recently accelerated due to population growth, urban sprawl, agricultural development and other profitable land conversions on public and private lands. To exacerbate this issue, the public good nature of species existence creates strong incentives for landowners to engage in free-riding behavior and forego conservation on managed lands. To reverse these negative effects, the United States Congress passed the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1973 to create a set of rules for planning government intervention to protect dwindling fish, wildlife, and plant populations and create a platform for recovery and conservation. The ESA is quite explicit about how to make tradeoffs when listing a species as threatened or endangered - only evaluation of biological risks faced are considered. But the act is unclear about what information can or should be used when determining delisting criteria for endangered species. The ESA mandates federal participation in conservation and, in many cases, agencies must curtail socially beneficial activities (e.g. grazing, renewable energy development, mining, military training) in order to meet species recovery objectives. As funding for conservation on federal lands is limited, this creates an implicit tradeoff between recovering species - to gain post-delisting managerial flexibility - and preventing extinction - to minimize management costs. In this respect, reconciliation of biological recovery goals amidst budget constraints and alternate land-use benefits should be supplemented by economic analysis. Economic tradeoffs are inherent in species recovery under the ESA, but the act does not discuss how agencies should structure a recovery plan in light of such factors. This study outlines a bioeconomic approach to framing the recovery problem under the ESA and provides a framework for simultaneously establishing measurable delisting criteria and a least-cost path to recovery. This

  1. Endangered river fish: factors hindering conservation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Hogan, Zeb

    2012-01-01

    Globally, riverine fish face many anthropogenic threats including riparian and flood plain habitat degradation, altered hydrology, migration barriers, fisheries exploitation, environmental (climate) change, and introduction of invasive species. Collectively, these threats have made riverine fishes some of the most threatened taxa on the planet. Although much effort has been devoted to identifying the threats faced by river fish, there has been less effort devoted to identifying the factors that may hinder our ability to conserve and restore river fish populations and their watersheds. Therefore, we focus our efforts on identifying and discussing 10 general factors (can also be viewed as research and implementation needs) that constrain or hinder effective conservation action for endangered river fish: (1) limited basic natural history information; (2) limited appreciation for the scale/extent of migrations and the level of connectivity needed to sustain populations; (3) limited understanding of fish/river-flow relationships; (4) limited understanding of the seasonal aspects of river fish biology, particularly during winter and/or wet seasons; (5) challenges in predicting the response of river fish and river ecosystems to both environmental change and various restoration or management actions; (6) limited understanding of the ecosystem services provided by river fish; (7) the inherent difficulty in studying river fish; (8) limited understanding of the human dimension of river fish conservation and management; (9) limitations of single species approaches that often fail to address the broader-scale problems; and (10) limited effectiveness of governance structures that address endangered river fish populations and rivers that cross multiple jurisdictions. We suggest that these issues may need to be addressed to help protect, restore, or conserve river fish globally, particularly those that are endangered.

  2. Syzygiumpyneei (Myrtaceae), a new critically endangered endemic species from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byng, James W; Florens, F B Vincent; Baider, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Syzygium Gaertn. (Myrtaceae), Syzygiumpyneei Byng, V. Florens & Baider, is described from Mondrain Reserve on the island of Mauritius. This species is endemic to the island and differs from any other species by its combination of cauliflory, relatively large flowers, light green to cream hypanthium, light pink stamens, short thick petioles, coriaceous leaves and round, cuneate or sub-cordate to cordate leaf bases. Syzygiumpyneei Byng, V. Florens & Baider is known from only two individuals from the type locality and merits the conservation status of Critically Endangered (CR C2a(i,ii); D).

  3. Weapons testing and endangered fish coexist in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelks, Howard; Tate, Bill; Jordan, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae) are small fish found only in a few streams in the Florida panhandle. This species has been listed since 1973 as endangered due to habitat alteration resulting from erosion, the potential competition from brown darters (E. edwini), and a limited geographic distribution. In recent years, however, Okaloosa darters have benefited from improved resource management and adaptive population monitoring techniques developed collaboratively by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Loyola University New Orleans, and Eglin Air Force Base. As a result, the FWS reclassified the Okaloosa darter to the less critical category of threatened in March 2011.

  4. Star-Mapping Tools Enable Tracking of Endangered Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Software programmer Jason Holmberg of Portland, Oregon, partnered with a Goddard Space Flight Center astrophysicist to develop a method for tracking the elusive whale shark using the unique spot patterns on the fish s skin. Employing a star-mapping algorithm originally designed for the Hubble Space Telescope, Holmberg created the Shepherd Project, a photograph database and pattern-matching system that can identify whale sharks by their spots and match images contributed to the database by photographers from around the world. The system has been adapted for tracking other rare and endangered animals, including polar bears and ocean sunfish.

  5. 78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY00 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi), and we...

  6. 78 FR 72058 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Northern Long-Eared Bat as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 ; RIN 1018-AY98 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Northern Long-Eared Bat as an Endangered Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... (Myotis leibii) and the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) as endangered or threatened...

  7. 78 FR 17709 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Rogue and Illinois Valley Vernal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Rogue and.... The recovery plan addresses two endangered plant species that are endemic to southern Oregon, and also... of the species from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. ADDRESSES:...

  8. Monitoring of endangered Roanoke logperch (Percina rex) in Smith River upstream from the Philpott Reservoir on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers property near Martinsville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James H.; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to continue annual monitoring of Roanoke logperch (Percina rex), an endangered fish, in the Smith River immediately upstream from Philpott Reservoir. This river reach is owned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), which must ensure that appropriate actions are undertaken to aid in recovery of logperch. Monitoring of fish abundance and habitat conditions provides a means for assessing the species’ status and its responses to USACE management actions. The Roanoke logperch is a large darter (Percidae: Etheostomatinae) endemic to the Roanoke, Dan, and Nottoway River basins of Virginia and North Carolina, where it occupies third- to sixth-order streams containing relatively silt-free substrate (Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994). Because of its rarity, small range, and vulnerability to siltation, the Roanoke logperch was listed in 1989 as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) (U.S. Federal Register 54:34468-34472). Within the Dan basin, Roanoke logperch have long been known to occupy the Smith River and one of its largest tributaries, Town Creek (Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994). Logperch also recently were discovered in other tributaries of the Dan River, including North Carolina segments of the Mayo River, Cascade Creek, Big Beaver Island Creek, Wolf Island Creek (William Hester, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, personal commun., 2012). Within the Smith River, Roanoke logperch are present both upstream and downstream from Philpott Reservoir, a hydroelectric and water storage project owned and operated by the USACE. Although logperch have not been observed in the reservoir itself, the species is relatively abundant in a free-flowing, ≈ 2.5-km-long segment of Smith River upstream from the reservoir on USACE property (Lahey and Angermeier, 2006). This segment is bounded on the downstream end by the lentic conditions of the reservoir and on the upstream end by White Falls, a natural waterfall that presumably allows fish passage

  9. 热带大西洋金枪鱼延绳钓兼捕鲨鱼种类组成和渔获率及其与表温的关系%Species composition and catch rate of bycatch sharks captured by tuna longline fishery and their relationship with sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜润林; 戴小杰; 许柳雄

    2009-01-01

    根据2007年12月~2008年3月采集的热带大西洋(05°37′~12°01′N、29°00′~36°51′W)金枪鱼延绳钓渔获物数据,分析了金枪鱼延绳钓兼捕鲨鱼的种类组成、渔获量、渔获率及其与表温的关系.本次调查共捕获鲨鱼8种,隶属3目7科7属, 总渔获尾数为633 ind,总渔获量达26 837.4 kg, 其中大青鲨为主要兼捕种类.各种鲨鱼渔获率平均值在0.003~1.524 ind/1 000 hooks之间, 其中大青鲨最高, 其值为1.524 ind/1 000 hooks,大眼砂锥齿鲨最低,其值为0.003 ind/1 000 hooks.各种鲨鱼渔获率月变化不明显(ANOVA, P=0.901).鲨鱼总渔获率和大青鲨渔获率与表温都呈显著性负相关.大青鲨主要出现渔场的表温范围为24.6~25.8 ℃.%Based on catch data collected in the tropical Atlantic Ocean (05°37′N-12°01′N, 29°00′W-36°51′W) from December 2007 to March 2008, the species composition, catch, catch rate of bycatch sharks captured by tuna longline fishery and their relationship with sea surface temperature (SST) are analyzed. Altogether 633 individuals of fish are captured, which belong to 3 orders, 7 families, 7 genera and 8 fish species. The total weight of bycatch sharks is 26837.4kg. And the dominant bycatch shark is blue shark ( Prionace glauca ). Average catch rate of bycatch sharks is 0.003-1.524 individual per 1 000 hooks, of which blue shark is the highest, 1.524 individual per 1 000 hooks, and bigeye sand shark( Odontaspis noronhai ) lowest, 0.003 individual per 1 000 hooks. Catch rate of bycatch sharks shows no obvious monthly fluctuation (ANOVA, P=0.901). An obvious negative correlation is found between SST and catch rate of total bycatch shark and blue shark. The range of SST in the dominant fishing ground where blue sharks appear is 24.6-25.8℃.

  10. Videographic evidence of endangered species depredation by feral cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth; Lippert, Jill S.; Misajon, Kathleen; Hu, Darcy; Hess, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis cafus) have long been implicated as nest predators of endangered 'Ua'u (Hawaiian Petrel; Pterodroma sandwichensis) on Hawaii Island, but until recently, visual confirmation has been limited by available technology. 'Ua'u nest out of view, deep inside small cavities, on alpine lava flows. During the breeding seasons of 2007 and 2008, we monitored known burrows within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Digital infrared video cameras assisted in determining the breeding behaviour and nesting success at the most isolated of burrows. With 7 cameras, we collected a total of 819 videos and 89 still photographs of adult and nestling 'Ua'u at 14 burrows. Videos also confirmed the presence of rats (Rattus spp.) at 2 burrows, 'Ōmao (Myadestes obscurus) at 8 burrows, and feral cats at 6 burrows. A sequence of videos showed a feral cat taking a downy 'Ua'u chick from its burrow, representing the first direct evidence of 'Ua'u depredation by feral cat in Hawai'i. This technique provides greater understanding of feral cat behaviour in 'Ua'u colonies, which may assist in the development of more targeted management strategies to reduce nest predation on endangered insular bird species.

  11. Intelligent Tinkering: the Endangered Species Act and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Harm. Benson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Endangered Species Act (ESA is one of the most powerful and controversial environmental laws in the United States. As a result of its uncompromising position against biodiversity loss, the ESA has become the primary driver of many ecological restoration efforts in the United States. This article explains why the ESA has become the impetus for so many of these efforts and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the ESA as a primary driver from a resilience-based perspective. It argues that in order to accommodate resilience theory, several changes to ESA implementation and enforcement should be made. First and foremost, there is a need to shift management strategies from a species-centered to a systems-based approach. Chief among the shifts required will be a more integrated approach to governance that includes a willingness to reassess demands placed on ecological systems by our social systems. Building resilience will also require more proactive management efforts that support the functioning of system processes before they are endangered and on the brink of regime change. Finally, resilience thinking requires a reorientation of management away from goals associated with achieving preservation, restoration, and optimization and toward goals associated with fostering complexity and adaptive capacity.

  12. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John

    1989-03-01

    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  13. Global distribution of two fungal pathogens threatening endangered sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M; Abella-Pérez, Elena; Phillott, Andrea D; Sim, Jolene; van West, Pieter; Martín, María P; Marco, Adolfo; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Nascent fungal infections are currently considered as one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem health, and have driven several animal species into critical risk of extinction. Sea turtles are one of the most endangered groups of animals and only seven species have survived to date. Here, we described two pathogenic species, i.e., Fusarium falciforme and Fusarium keratoplasticum, that are globally distributed in major turtle nesting areas for six sea turtle species and that are implicated in low hatch success. These two fungi possess key biological features that are similar to emerging pathogens leading to host extinction, e.g., high virulence, and a broad host range style of life. Their optimal growth temperature overlap with the optimal incubation temperature for eggs, and they are able to kill up to 90% of the embryos. Environmental forcing, e.g., tidal inundation and clay/silt content of nests, were correlated to disease development. Thus, these Fusarium species constitute a major threat to sea turtle nests, especially to those experiencing environmental stressors. These findings have serious implications for the survival of endangered sea turtle populations and the success of conservation programs worldwide.

  14. Global distribution of two fungal pathogens threatening endangered sea turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullie M Sarmiento-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Nascent fungal infections are currently considered as one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem health, and have driven several animal species into critical risk of extinction. Sea turtles are one of the most endangered groups of animals and only seven species have survived to date. Here, we described two pathogenic species, i.e., Fusarium falciforme and Fusarium keratoplasticum, that are globally distributed in major turtle nesting areas for six sea turtle species and that are implicated in low hatch success. These two fungi possess key biological features that are similar to emerging pathogens leading to host extinction, e.g., high virulence, and a broad host range style of life. Their optimal growth temperature overlap with the optimal incubation temperature for eggs, and they are able to kill up to 90% of the embryos. Environmental forcing, e.g., tidal inundation and clay/silt content of nests, were correlated to disease development. Thus, these Fusarium species constitute a major threat to sea turtle nests, especially to those experiencing environmental stressors. These findings have serious implications for the survival of endangered sea turtle populations and the success of conservation programs worldwide.

  15. Endangered Species, Provincialism, and a Continental Approach to Bird Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Craig

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available I examined lists of endangered species from northeastern and midwestern United States to assess the extent to which they were dominated by species considered rare due to their vulnerability to anthropogenic stressors or, instead, by species whose rarity might be explained otherwise. Northeastern states had longer species lists than midwestern states, and more species associated with locally rare prairie habitats. More species at the edge of their geographic range appeared on lists from the Northeast than the Midwest. About 70% of listed species overall have shown either no significant population trend, or increases, at the continental scale, but wetland and prairie species were frequently listed, consistent with the generally acknowledged, widespread loss of these habitats. Curiously, midwestern states tended to list fewer forest species, despite evidence that forest fragmentation there has had strongly deleterious effects on regional bird populations. Overall, species appear to be listed locally for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to their risk of extinction generally, potentially contributing to inefficient distributions of limited resources to deal effectively with species that legitimately require conservation attention. I advocate a continental perspective when listing species locally, and propose enhanced criteria for characterizing species as endangered at the local level.

  16. Micropropagation of Dodonea viscosa (L Jacq: an endangered plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alonso Pedroza-Manrique

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient in vitro propagation system was developed for Dodonea viscosa (L Jacq., this being an endangered endemic shrub. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of four growth regulators on the in vitro morphogenetic development of nodes and leaves. The basic culture medium used was Murashige and Skoog (1962, enriched with the following growth regulators: butyric indol acid and benzylaminopurine (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg.L-1 in node culture and 2, 4-dichlorofenoxy acetic acid and kinetin (0, 1, 3 and 5 mg/l-1 in leaves. D. viscosa has been propagated in in vitro conditions by using 2% benlate for one hour and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 5 min. Incubation in the dark has controlled D. viscosa explant oxidation, whereas using citric acid and ascorbic acid has not controlled the oxidation of explants exposed to light. The node is a suitable explant for micro- propagating D. viscous in the absence of phytohormones. The best morphogenetic-inducing treatment of leaves was the eighth one assayed (1.0 mg/l-1 kinetin and 5.0 mg/l-1 2,4-D. This protocol represents a conservation model for endangered species and encourages large-scale Dodonea viscosa (L Jacq. propagation.

  17. West Nile virus in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Ursula; Blanco, Juan M; Crespo, Elena; Naranjo, Victoria; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez, Azucena; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2008-05-25

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is considered to be the most endangered European eagle. The species is an endemic resident in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. We used RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and seroneutralization to test samples from 13 wild and 18 captive eagles. WNV was detected by RT-PCR in tissues and/or oropharyngeal swabs of eight of 10 (80%) imperial eagles analyzed, and both in apparently clinically healthy birds, and in animals that died due to secondary infections but had symptoms/lesions compatible with WNV. Immunohistochemistry detected WNV antigen in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, epithelial cells of the gizzard and duodenum, perivascular inflammatory cells, and in Kupffer-cells and hepatocytes. Serum antibodies against WNV were detected in a total of five out of 21 imperial eagles (23.8%), including free-living nestlings (two out of nine samples, 22.2%) and captive adult eagles (three out of 12 samples, 25%). Our results evidence WNV circulation among free-living and captive Spanish imperial eagles in South-central Spain, a dry inland region with no previous WNV evidence, throughout 6 consecutive years. They also indicate the need for further research into this important zoonosis in order to better understand its epidemiology in the Mediterranean ecosystem and in order to understand the role of WNV in the population dynamics of the critically endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

  18. Probabalistic projections for recovery of the endangered Cui-ui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, John M.; Strekal, Thomas A.; Buchanan , Chester C.

    1993-01-01

    The cui-ui Chamistes cujus, a lake sucker found in only Pyramid Lake, Nevada, is listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and a recovery plan has been formulated in an effort to save it. We used a population simulation model that incorporated environmental stochasticity in water availability to project the persistence of cui-ui over 200 years, Based on this approach, recovery of the species in terms of persistence was evaluated for the existing hydrological situation and for situations involving water supplementation in various amounts. Our calculations indicate that immediate (as of spring 1991) acquisition of 70,000 acre-feet per year of supplemental water to raise levels in Pyramid Lake would have assured recovery and persistence over 200 years with a probability of 0.95. Postponement of acquisition for 3 years followed by incremental increases of 3,000 or 10,000 acre-feet per year would require, respectively, 83,000 and 120,000 acre-feet of annual supplemental water to assure persistence. The approach is applicable to a wide range of species and conditions.

  19. MEDICINAL USES OF ADANSONIA DIGITATA L.: AN ENDANGERED TREE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sugandha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adansonia digitata L. belongs to the Bombacaceae family and is generally known as the African Baobab. It is called “Kalpvriksha” in India and has mythological significance in India and elsewhere. The tree already faces a crisis of survival and is listed as an endangered species in the Red Data Book. It is a massive, deciduous tree up to 25 m in height and may live for hundreds of years. It is considered to be the queen of all carbon storage trees as it absorbs huge quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Currently the tree is suffering from drought and desertification and fear has been expressed about its regeneration. It is also reported that baobab seeds have very hard seed coats and germination rate is usually less than 20%. There is lack of awareness by the local population on the need to plant, protect and manage this endangered tree species. Several parts of the tree are reported to have interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and are used for healing purposes. For the conservation of such a multipurpose tree species, tissue culture studies are found to be the most lucrative and promising alternative as recently some tissue culture reports are coming up. The conservation strategy under Indian subtropical states will help in studying its medicinal properties for further research. To explore its other pharmacological uses and isolation of bioactive components of this species, cell and suspension culture technology will be the most promising in near future.

  20. BIOLOGY AND CPUE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ESCOLAR Lepidocybium flavobrunneum (Smith, 1843 IN EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN (EVOLVING FISHERIES: TODAY’S BY-CATCH IS TOMORROW’S TARGET CATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathur Rochman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of by catch is a significant problem in world fishery. Every commercial fishery such as tuna longline has a suite of bycatch species, escolar fish (LEC. LEC as by catch product has received a little attention because of its lower economic value and given its importance as a secondary market. With time, however, market can become establish for this presently undesirable species. Acknowledging that today’s by catch might become tomorrow’s target fish. The aims of this study areto provide information on biological aspect and catch per unit of effort (CPUE spatial distribution of escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum as by catch in Indonesian longline fishery operating in the Eastern Indian Ocean. Total escolar samples of 1,815 were taken from scientific observer data from 2011-2013. The study area of escolar was between 0.897-33.175°S and 85.366– 138.733°E of Eastern Indian Ocean. Results show that the escolar length (cmFL is distributed from 27-178 cmFL (median=83 cmFL, mode=85 cmFL, mean=83.95 cmFL and n= 1.812 and dominated by the size of 85 cmFL. The length weight relationship was determined to be W=0.0002FL2.2926(W in kg, FL in cm. In terms of CPUEs distribution, the lower CPUEs(1.0001 to 7.382 generally occurred in Western Australian, precisely on grid between 10-35°S and 85-110°E. These grids would be a potential for fishing LEC with the best time to catch in June to August.

  1. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. Production Company (CPDN). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo rat, Tipton kangaroo rat, and Hoover`s wooly-star. All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is ``...the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.`` DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPRC is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during fiscal year 1993.

  2. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  3. [The application of DNA molecular markers in conservation of the rare and endangered medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Tian-Rui

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, the advance in DNA molecular markers techniques in recent years was reviewed. The application of DNA markers in conservation of the rare and endangered medicinal plants was explicated, of which included identification of germ-plasm resource, determination of the habitats unite which should be protected in situ, sampling strategies of ex-situ conservation, evaluation of the conservation effects of the rare and endangered medicinal plants, as well as elucidation of their endangered mechanism etc. The information could help drawing up conservation strategies and conservation measures for references.

  4. Distribution and conservation of endangered Temoleh, Probarbus jullieni (Sauvage, 1880).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M Hazmadi; Amin, S M N; Rahman, M Aminur; Arshad, A; Christianus, A; Siraj, S S

    2012-07-01

    The freshwater fish, Probarbus jullieni (Sauvage), locally referred to as "Temoleh", is a high-valued freshwater fish in Malaysia and has both cultural and conservational significance. It is widely distributed in the North-east Asian countries such as Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Malaysia. During the recent past, the natural stocks of P. jullieni have been decreased severely due to habitat degradation and man-induced hazards in aquatic ecosystem. Despite the vast research that has been conducted on various carp species, little attention has been given to P. jullieni. This study reviewed the published information on the status, distribution, reproduction and biodiversity of this commercially important fish species. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the species conservation and aquaculture development of the highly endangered P. jullieni.

  5. Hybridization and endangered species protection in the molecular era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Robert K; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2016-06-01

    After decades of discussion, there is little consensus on the extent to which hybrids between endangered and nonendangered species should be protected by US law. As increasingly larger, genome-scale data sets are developed, we can identify individuals and populations with even trace levels of genetic admixture, making the 'hybrid problem' all the more difficult. We developed a decision-tree framework for evaluating hybrid protection, including both the processes that produced hybrids (human-mediated or natural) and the ecological impact of hybrids on natural ecosystems. We then evaluated our decision tree for four case studies drawn from our own work and briefly discuss several other cases from the literature. Throughout, we highlight the management outcomes that our approach provides and the nuances of hybridization as a conservation problem.

  6. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of an endangered Mexican sparrow: Spizella wortheni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-del-Castillo, Ricardo; Klicka, John; Favela, Susana; González-Rojas, José I

    2010-12-01

    The Worthen's Sparrow (Spizella wortheni) is an endemic bird species of the Mexican Plateau that is protected by Mexican law. Considering its limited range (25 km(2)), small population size (100-120 individuals), and declining population, it is one of the most endangered avian species in North America. Although it has been assumed to be the sister taxon of the Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), the systematic and evolutionary relationships of Worthen's Sparrow have never been tested using modern molecular phylogenetic methods. We addressed the molecular phylogeny of S. wortheni analyzing six mitochondrial genes (3571 bp) from all of the natural members of the genus Spizella. Our maximum likelihood and Bayeasian analysis indicate that despite the superficial similarity, S. wortheni is not the sister taxon of S. pusilla, but is instead most closely related to the Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri). Also new insights about the phylogenetics relationships of the Spizella genera are presented.

  7. An endangered West African rattan palm: Eremospatha dransfieldii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Cosiaux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eremospatha dransfieldii is a robust rattan palm, climbing up to 40 m in length. It is only known to occur in the south-western region of Ghana, south-eastern part of Côte d'Ivoire and in Sierra Leone. The species' Area of Occupancy (AOO is restricted to just 40 km². This species is confined to moist-evergreen forests with high rainfall. It is known to be facing habitat loss and over-harvesting of its stems. We assess Eremospatha dransfieldii as Endangered based on criteron B2ab(iii, according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (ver 3.1.

  8. Ranging Patterns of Critically Endangered Colobine, Presbytis chrysomelas chrysomelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ampeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbytis chrysomelas chrysomelas endemic only in Sarawak and Kalimantan was categorized by IUCN as a critically endangered primate that require special attention from research and conservation perspectives. A qualitative study on ranging patterns of P. c. chrysomelas was conducted in the Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak. The study was conducted over a period of 13 months from December 2004 to December 2005 with 213 days of observation. Behavioural observation covered 17 groups with special emphasis on two main groups and 1 subadult group. Scanning and focal sampling were employed as the observation methods. Results indicated that P. c. chrysomelas had vertical, straight horizontal, and cross-horizontal types of movement patterns. P. c. chrysomelas was recorded to have a short movement distance (31.8–54.3 m. Distribution, abundance types, and food resources might be the factors that shaped the patterns of movement and distance in P. c. chrysomelas.

  9. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Gibbs

    Full Text Available It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task.

  10. Plant invasion phenomenon enhances reproduction performance in an endangered spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétillon, Julien; Puzin, Charlène; Acou, Anthony; Outreman, Yannick

    2009-10-01

    Current models in evolutionary ecology predict life history alterations in response to habitat suitability to optimize fitness. Only few empirical studies have demonstrated how life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other differ among environments. In Europe, many salt marshes have been recently invaded by the grass Elymus athericus. Previous studies however showed higher densities of the endangered spider Arctosa fulvolineata (Araneae: Lycosidae) in invaded salt marshes compared to natural habitats, which suggests a lower habitat suitability in the latter. The aim of this study was to determine if this emerging habitat (1) affects the amount of resource acquisition and (2) alters the balance between life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other in this stenotopic salt marsh species. As suggested by theoretical studies, an optimization of fitness by increasing egg size at the cost of decreasing fecundity in unsuitable (i.e., natural) habitats was expected. Females presenting cocoon were then collected in close invaded and natural salt marsh areas within the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (France). By considering female mass as covariate, cocoon mass, number of eggs, and egg volume were compared between both habitats. Clutch mass was strongly determined by female mass in both habitats. Clutch mass was however significantly smaller in the natural habitat compared to the invaded habitat, indicating a higher resource acquisition in the latter. When correcting for female size, fecundity was additionally increased in the invaded habitat through a significant decrease in egg size. This phenotypic response can be explained by differences in habitat structure between invaded and natural habitats: the former offers a more complex litter favoring nocturnal wanderers like A. fulvolineata. The existence of such an adaptive reproduction strategy depending on habitat suitability constitutes an original case of an invasion that favors an

  11. 75 FR 77817 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... habitat for the Mississippi gopher frog (Rana sevosa) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended... from Rana capito sevosa to Rana sevosa. (11) Whether our approach to designating critical habitat...

  12. Museum DNA reveals the demographic history of the endangered Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spurgin, Lewis G.; Wright, David J.; van der Velde, Marco; Collar, Nigel J.; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of evolutionary conservation - how understanding evolutionary forces can help guide conservation decisions - is widely recognized. However, the historical demography of many endangered species is unknown, despite the fact that this can have important implications for contemporary ecol

  13. Small range and distinct distribution in a satellite breeding colony of the critically endangered Waved Albatross

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the proximate consequences of the limited breeding distribution of the critically endangered Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata), we present continuous breeding season GPS tracks highlighting differences in behaviour, destinations, and distances travelled between ...

  14. An evaluation of contaminant exposure of three endangered bat species in Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A background contaminant study was conducted on bat guano and insects in Virginia caves to determine the possibility of exposure of endangered species of bats in...

  15. Oral health-related quality of life in socially endangered persons in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov; Østergaard, Peter; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    : The OHRQoL is highly impaired in the socially endangered persons and at least to the level of persons with great tooth loss about to have an RDP. The problems seem to be more handicapping in the socially endangered compared with other patient groups known to have high impairment.......OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate and describe the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in a socially endangered group of people and to compare the OHRQoL to other patient groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: About 294 socially endangered persons attending a volunteer clinic...... in Copenhagen Denmark filled in the OHIP-14 questionnaire. The group was compared in mean score and reported problems to a group of patients with tooth loss and about to have a removable dental prosthesis (RDP), a group with tooth loss about to have a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) and a control group without...

  16. 75 FR 78731 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    .... Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, the Endangered... period. Applicant: Los Angeles Zoo, Los Angeles, CA; PRT-106091 The applicant requests renewal of...

  17. Endangered Species Consultation Request : Opening to Sports & Commercial Fishing Ottawa and Cedar Point NWR’s

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Endangered Species Consultation Request states that the Ottawa and Cedar Point NWRs Fishery Management Plan will not affect bald eagles on the Refuge.

  18. 78 FR 60254 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Applications for three new scientific research permits. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NMFS has received three scientific research permit application requests relating... the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts....

  19. Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rai MK (2010 Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, micropropagation, mycorrhization, genetic transformation and development of DNA banks. These are imperative and important alternatives for the conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants.

  20. Significance of endangered and threatened plant natural products in the control of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Ali; Na, MinKyun; Oh, Joonseok; Schinazi, Raymond F; McBrayer, Tami R; Whitaker, Tony; Doerksen, Robert J; Newman, David J; Zachos, Louis G; Hamann, Mark T

    2013-10-15

    One in five of the world's plant species is threatened with extinction according to the 2010 first global analysis of extinction risk. Tilman et al. predicted a massive ecological change to terrestrial plants within the next 50-100 y, accompanied by an increase in the number of global plant species facing extinction [Tilman D, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(10):5433-5440]. Most of the drug-producing plant families contain endangered species never previously studied for their utility to human health, which strongly validates the need to prioritize protection and assessment of these fragile and endangered groups [Zhu F, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):12943-12948]. With little prior attention given to endangered and rare plant species, this report provides strong justification for conservation of the rare plant Diplostephium rhododendroides Hieron., as well as other potential drug-producing endangered species in this and other groups.

  1. 78 FR 47722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Alabama Sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... the rarest species of fish in the nation and may be close to extinction. Restoring an endangered or threatened animal or plant to the point where it is again a secure, self-sustaining member of its...

  2. Tippecanoe River, Indiana: Defining point source threats to rare endangered mussels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tippecanoe River is one of the nation's most biologically diverse rivers. It remains one of the last strongholds for the federally endangered clubshell mussel...

  3. Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-01-01

    Rai MK (2010) Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and...

  4. Endangered plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    A total of 15 vascular plant taxa, currently appearing on the Endangered Species list, occur in southern Nye County, Nevada, and/or adjacent Inyo County, California. It is the purpose of this report to record in detail the locations of the plant collections upon which the distributions are based, and other information relevant to their status as Endangered Species, and to recommend the areas to be designated critical habitats.

  5. Using expert opinion surveys to rank threats to endangered species: a case study with sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlan, C Josh; Wingfield, Dana K; Crowder, Larry B; Wilcox, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about how specific anthropogenic hazards affect the biology of organisms. Quantifying the effect of regional hazards is particularly challenging for species such as sea turtles because they are migratory, difficult to study, long lived, and face multiple anthropogenic threats. Expert elicitation, a technique used to synthesize opinions of experts while assessing uncertainty around those views, has been in use for several decades in the social science and risk assessment sectors. We conducted an internet-based survey to quantify expert opinion on the relative magnitude of anthropogenic hazards to sea turtle populations at the regional level. Fisheries bycatch and coastal development were most often ranked as the top hazards to sea turtle species in a geographic region. Nest predation and direct take followed as the second and third greatest threats, respectively. Survey results suggest most experts believe sea turtles are threatened by multiple factors, including substantial at-sea threats such as fisheries bycatch. Resources invested by the sea turtle community, however, appear biased toward terrestrial-based impacts. Results from the survey are useful for conservation planning because they provide estimates of relative impacts of hazards on sea turtles and a measure of consensus on the magnitude of those impacts among researchers and practitioners. Our survey results also revealed patterns of expert bias, which we controlled for in our analysis. Respondents with no experience with respect to a sea turtle species tended to rank hazards affecting that sea turtle species higher than respondents with experience. A more-striking pattern was with hazard-based expertise: the more experience a respondent had with a specific hazard, the higher the respondent scored the impact of that hazard on sea turtle populations. Bias-controlled expert opinion surveys focused on threatened species and their hazards can help guide and expedite species recovery plans.

  6. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  7. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-19

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan's protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  8. The potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in protecting endangered plants and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Turnau, Katarzyna; Regvar, Marjana

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened with the extinction of plants and, at the same time, invasion by new species. Plant invasiveness and loss of species can be caused by similar but opposing pressures on the community structures. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can have multiple positive effects on plant growth, productivity, health, and stress relief. Many endangered species live in symbiosis with AMF. However, the list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) indicates that the mycorrhizal status of most of the threatened species has not been assessed. Rare plants often occur in specialized and also endangered habitats and might utilize specialized or unique AMF. The specificity of any endangered plant to its AMF population has not been investigated. Because most of the current AMF isolates that are available colonize a broad range of plant species, selected inocula could be used to promote growth of endangered plants before the proper and more effective indigenous AMF are characterized. Application of AMF in field sites to protect endangered plants is hardly feasible due to the complexity of plant community structures and the large amount of fungal inocula needed. Endangered plants could, however, be grown as greenhouse cultures together with appropriate fungi, and, at the relevant developmental stage, they could be re-planted into native sites to prevent extinction and to preserve plant community ecology.

  9. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  10. 78 FR 12702 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Rule To List 66 Reef-Building Coral Species; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Elkhorn Acropora palmata and Staghorn Acropora cervicornis Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA... (Acropora palmata) and staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) corals under the ESA until April 6, 2013,...

  11. Endangered Languages: What Role for the Specialist? Proceedings of the Foundation for Endangered Languages (FEL) Conference (2nd, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 25-27, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Nicholas, Ed.

    The papers included here examine issues related to the role outside specialists, such as linguists, educators, or media professionals, can play in the preservation of endangered languages. Language communities must continue to use their mother tongues if the languages are to survive, and this has led to questions about whether outside…

  12. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-08-21

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11-28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence.

  13. Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Rideout, Bruce A.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Ledig, David B.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Dubey, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ‘Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is the most endangered corvid in the world, and intensive efforts are being made to reintroduce it to its former native range in Hawaii. We diagnosed Toxoplasma gondii infection in five free-ranging ‘Alala. One ‘Alala, recaptured from the wild because it was underweight and depressed, was treated with diclazuril (10 mg/kg) orally for 10 days. Antibodies were measured before and after treatment by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using whole T. gondii tachyzoites fixed in formalin and mercaptoethanol. The MAT titer decreased four-fold from an initial titer of 1:1,600 with remarkable improvement in physical condition. Lesions of toxoplasmosis also were seen in two partially scavenged carcasses and in a third fresh intact carcass. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed immunohistochemically by using anti-T. gondii specific serum. The organism was also cultured by bioassay in mice from tissues of one of these birds and the brain of a fifth ‘Alala that did not exhibit lesions. The life cycle of the parasite was experimentally completed in cats. This is the first record of toxoplasmosis in ‘Alala, and the parasite appears to pose a significant threat and management challenge to reintroduction programs for ‘Alala in Hawaii.

  14. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Berisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are characterized by low level of principal plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and exceptionally high levels of Mg and Fe. Serpentines play particular importance for flora of the country due to their richness in endemic plant species. The following 11 plant species have been studied: Aristolochia merxmuelleri, Colchicum hungaricum, Crocus flavus, Crocus kosaninii, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana punctata, Gladiolus illyricus, Lilium albanicum, Paeonia peregrina, Tulipa gesneriana and Tulipa kosovarica. Five out of eleven studied geophytes fall within Critically Endangered IUCN based threat category and five out of eleven are local endemics. Aristolochia merxmuelleri and Tulipa kosovarica are steno-endemic plant species that are found exclusively in serpentine soils. Information in our database should prove to be valuable to efforts in ecology, floristics, biosystematics, conservation and land management.

  15. Value for Money: Protecting Endangered Species on Danish Heathland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Niels; Jacobsen, Jette B.; Thorsen, Bo J.; Tarp, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Biodiversity policies in the European Union (EU) are mainly implemented through the Birds and Habitats Directives as well as the establishment of Natura 2000, a network of protected areas throughout the EU. Considerable resources must be allocated for fulfilling the Directives and the question of optimal allocation is as important as it is difficult. In general, economic evaluations of conservation targets at most consider the costs and seldom the welfare economic benefits. In the present study, we use welfare economic benefit estimates concerning the willingness-to-pay for preserving endangered species and for the aggregate area of heathland preserved in Denmark. Similarly, we obtain estimates of the welfare economic cost of habitat restoration and maintenance. Combining these welfare economic measures with expected species coverage, we are able to estimate the potential welfare economic contribution of a conservation network. We compare three simple nonprobabilistic strategies likely to be used in day-to-day policy implementation: i) a maximum selected area strategy, ii) a hotspot selection strategy, and iii) a minimizing cost strategy, and two more advanced and informed probabilistic strategies: i) a maximum expected coverage strategy and ii) a strategy for maximum expected welfare economic gain. We show that the welfare economic performance of the strategies differ considerably. The comparison between the expected coverage and expected welfare shows that for the case considered, one may identify an optimal protection level above which additional coverage only comes at increasing welfare economic loss.

  16. Extreme weather and experience influence reproduction in an endangered bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Brian E; Cattau, Christopher E; Fletcher, Robert J; Kendall, William L; Kitchens, Wiley M

    2012-12-01

    Extreme weather events, such as droughts and heat waves, are expected to become more severe and more frequent in the coming years, and understanding their impacts on demographic rates is of increasing interest to both evolutionary ecologists and conservation practitioners. An individual's breeding probability can be a sensitive indicator of the decision to initiate reproductive behavior under varying environmental conditions, has strong fitness consequences, and can be considered the first step in a life history trade-off between allocating resources for breeding activities or self-survival. Using a 14-year time series spanning large variation in climatic conditions and the entirety of a population's breeding range, we estimated the effects of extreme weather conditions (drought) on the state-specific probabilities of breeding and survival of an endangered bird, the Florida Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus). Our analysis accounted for uncertainty in breeding status assignment, a common source of uncertainty that is often ignored when states are based on field observations. Breeding probabilities in adult kites (> 1 year of age) decreased during droughts, whereas the probability of breeding in young kites (1 year of age) tended to increase. Individuals attempting to breed showed no evidence of reduced future survival. Although population viability analyses of this species and other species often implicitly assume that all adults will attempt to breed, we find that breeding probabilities were significantly reproductive effort may be constrained by an individual's quality and/or despotic behavior among individuals attempting to breed.

  17. SAIGA TATARICA L. RUSSIA’S ENDANGERED SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Minoranskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica L. is the last hoofed mammal surviving in the Russian steppe which is on the verge of extinction today. The aim of this article is to assess the current state of the saiga in Russia, determine the causes of the reduction in its population and area and to develop recommendations for the conservation of this species.Methods. The material, presented in the paper, is the result of the analysis of the available literature sources on the Saiga, personal observations on the animals in the period of 1959-2015 in nature and various nurseries, including the Center for rare animals of European steppes founded in 2004.Results. The article highlights the issues of population dynamics in Saiga distributions in the last century, the reasons for the reduction in its amount, the measures taken for the protection of this species and its present condition. We consider specific measures for Saiga conservation in the modern world. We also take into account the experience of the Association "Wildlife of the Steppe", where they have developed the biotechnology of breeding Saiga in nurseries, zoos and farms. And for many years this association has been home for self-reproducing groupings of this animal.Main conclusions. Currently, Saiga antelope in Russia is an endangered species, and conservation requires the state and public to take serious urgent measures to protect and restore the population, including breeding in artificial conditions and release into the wild.

  18. Capture myopathy in an endangered sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Thomas, N.J.; Reeves, S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite precautions to protect cranes, a 3-year-old endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) was found caught in a leghold trap in Gautier, Mississippi, on 11 November 1987. The bird could have been in the trap for up to 16 hr and was standing and struggling to escape when it was discovered. Serum chemistries of the crane on 12 November revealed elevated lactic dehydrogenase (2,880 IU/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (152 IU/L), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (>1,000 IU/L) values. Following surgical amputation of a fractured toe, the bird never attempted to stand and was unable to stand even when manually supported. Radiographic and physical examination of both legs did not reveal any anatomical abnormalities. Despite medical care, including supportive therapy, no improvement was observed in the bird's ability to stand and to support itself, and the bird died on 19 November. Serum chemistries and the postmortem and histopathologic findings were compatible with capture myopathy described in other species. Because of the possible susceptibility of long-legged birds such as the Mississippi sandhill crane to capture myopathy, special care must be taken when trapping, handling, chemically immobilizing, and transporting these species. In addition, precautions must be taken when conducting a predator-control program to ensure that nontarget wildlife are unlikely to encounter traps. Capture myopathy has only rarely been observed in wild birds, and this case represents the first report in a Mississippi sandhill crane.

  19. In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeq, Manal Ahmed; Pathak, Malabika Roy; Salih, Ahmed Ali; Abido, Mohammed; Abahussain, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting. After 4 weeks of culture, 100 % explants respond to shoot initiation on the medium containing 8.88 μM BAP and 5.71 μM IAA. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration is observed in the same media after second subculture of shoots. The highest rooting frequency is observed in the presence of 2.85 μM IAA. After root development, the plantlets are transferred to pots filled with soil and 60 % of plants survived after 45 days. This plant regeneration protocol is of great value for rapid desert plant propagation program.

  20. Mimetic host shifts in an endangered social parasite of ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeremy A.; Elmes, Graham W.; Sielezniew, Marcin; Stankiewicz-Fiedurek, Anna; Simcox, David J.; Settele, Josef; Schönrogge, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    An emerging problem in conservation is whether listed morpho-species with broad distributions, yet specialized lifestyles, consist of more than one cryptic species or functionally distinct forms that have different ecological requirements. We describe extreme regional divergence within an iconic endangered butterfly, whose socially parasitic young stages use non-visual, non-tactile cues to infiltrate and supplant the brood in ant societies. Although indistinguishable morphologically or when using current mitochondrial and nuclear sequence-, or microsatellite data, Maculinea rebeli from Spain and southeast Poland exploit different Myrmica ant species and experience 100 per cent mortality with each other's hosts. This reflects major differences in the hydrocarbons synthesized from each region by the larvae, which so closely mimic the recognition profiles of their respective hosts that nurse ants afford each parasite a social status above that of their own kin larvae. The two host ants occupy separate niches within grassland; thus, conservation management must differ in each region. Similar cryptic differentiation may be common, yet equally hard to detect, among the approximately 10 000 unstudied morpho-species of social parasite that are estimated to exist, many of which are Red Data Book listed. PMID:23193127

  1. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Henschel

    Full Text Available The African lion has declined to 500 km² PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605 lions remain in West Africa, representing <250 mature individuals. Confirmed lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii for populations with <250 mature individuals. Finally, considering the relative poverty of lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions.

  2. Automatic Detection and Vulnerability Analysis of Areas Endangered by Heavy Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Thomas; Fischer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present a new method for fully automatic detection and derivation of areas endangered by heavy rainfall based only on digital elevation models. Tracking news show that the majority of occuring natural hazards are flood events. So already many flood prediction systems were developed. But most of these existing systems for deriving areas endangered by flooding events are based only on horizontal and vertical distances to existing rivers and lakes. Typically such systems take not into account dangers arising directly from heavy rain events. In a study conducted by us together with a german insurance company a new approach for detection of areas endangered by heavy rain was proven to give a high correlation of the derived endangered areas and the losses claimed at the insurance company. Here we describe three methods for classification of digital terrain models and analyze their usability for automatic detection and vulnerability analysis for areas endangered by heavy rainfall and analyze the results using the available insurance data.

  3. Distinct germination response of endangered and common arable weeds to reduced water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, A T; Eckstein, R L; Otte, A; Donath, T W

    2016-01-01

    Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land-use management are the main causes of their dramatic decline. However, besides the changes in land use, climate change may further challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Therefore, we investigated the response pattern of arable weeds to different water potential and temperature regimes during the phase of germination. We expected that endangered arable weeds would be more sensitive to differences in water availability and temperature than common arable weeds. To this end, we set up a climate chamber experiment where we exposed seeds of five familial pairs of common and endangered arable weed species to different temperatures (5/15, 10/20 °C) and water potentials (0.0 to -1.2 MPa). The results revealed a significant relationship between the reaction of arable weed species to water availability and their Red List status. The effects of reduced water availability on total germination, mean germination time and synchrony were significantly stronger in endangered than in common arable weeds. Therefore, global climate change may present a further threat to the survival of endangered arable weed species.

  4. Structuring decisions for managing threatened and endangered species in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robin; Arvai, Joseph; Gerber, Leah R

    2013-12-01

    The management of endangered species under climate change is a challenging and often controversial task that incorporates input from a variety of different environmental, economic, social, and political interests. Yet many listing and recovery decisions for endangered species unfold on an ad hoc basis without reference to decision-aiding approaches that can improve the quality of management choices. Unlike many treatments of this issue, which consider endangered species management a science-based problem, we suggest that a clear decision-making process is equally necessary. In the face of new threats due to climate change, managers' choices about endangered species require closely linked analyses and deliberations that identify key objectives and develop measurable attributes, generate and compare management alternatives, estimate expected consequences and key sources of uncertainty, and clarify trade-offs across different dimensions of value. Several recent cases of endangered species conservation decisions illustrate our proposed decision-focused approach, including Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recovery framework development, Cultus Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) management, and Upper Columbia River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recovery planning. Estructuración de Decisiones para Manejar Especies Amenazadas y en Peligro en un Clima Cambiante.

  5. Unravelling the Microbiome of Eggs of the Endangered Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Identifies Bacteria with Activity against the Emerging Pathogen Fusarium falciforme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmiento-Ramirez, J.M.; van der Voort, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Dieguez-Uribeondo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. H

  6. Unravelling the microbiome of eggs of the endangered sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata identifies bacteria with activity against the emerging pathogen Fusarium falciforme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmiento-Ramírez, J.M.; Voort, van der M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. H

  7. Captura incidental de tortugas marinas durante El Niño 1997-1998, en el norte del Perú Sea turtles by-catch during El Niño 1997-1998, in northern Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Castro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta evidencia del aumento de capturas incidentales de tortugas marinas en el norte del Perú, durante el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS 1997-1998. El área de estudio se ubica frente a Lambayeque, entre 6°20'S y 7°10'S, y desde la costa hasta 35 mn mar afuera. Se analizaron y describieron los aparejos de enmalle por ser los que más interactuaban con estas tortugas, así como las características de las embarcaciones. Se registraron las tortugas capturadas por la flota artesanal entre enero 1996 y diciembre 1998; se identificó las especies capturadas y se analizó la captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE; la información se correlacionó con la temperatura superficial del mar (TSM. Se analizó un total de 265 operaciones de pesca, capturándose un total de 383 tortugas, correspondiendo 80,4% a la tortuga pico de loro (Lepidochelys olivacea, 19,3% a la tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas y 0.2% a la tortuga carey (Eretmochelys imbricata. Se encontró una correlación altamente significativa entre las capturas de tortugas marinas y la TSM con un intervalo de confianza del 99% (Pearson; r = 0,787; σ = 0,000; N = 36. Se recomienda reforzar la colaboración entre entidades públicas y privadas para implementar medidas de manejo adecuadas para la conservación de estas especies amenazadas, sobre todo ante la eventualidad de un fenómeno ENOS.The main purpose of this work is to present evidence of sea turtles by-catch increase in northern Peru during the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO process. The study area is located off Lambayeque, between 6°20'S and 7°10'S, and from the coastline up to 35 nm offshore. The gillnet artisanal fishery was analyzed and described, since this was the fishing gear which most interact with sea turtles, the boat characteristics were evaluated as well. Sea turtle captures and species identification were registered from January 1996 until December 1998. The catch per unit effort (CPUE was

  8. Brachyuran crustaceans from the bycatch of prawn fisheries at the mouth of the Amazon river Crustáceos Brachyura da fauna acompanhante da pesca artesanal de camarões de água doce na foz do rio Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jô de Farias Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a pioneering study on the Brachyura bycatch associated with the artisan prawn fisheries at the mouth of the Amazon River. The study was conducted at four collection sites distributed along the mouth of the Amazon River between the months of January/2009 and January/2010. The animals were caught using handcrafted traps called "matapi", which are used by prawn fisherman in the region. Twenty matapis were used at each collection site. A total of 145 specimens were captured and six species were identified, all belonging to the Trichodactylidae family - Sylviocarcinus maldonadoensis, S. pictus, S. devillei, Valdivia serrata, Dilocarcinus septemdentatus and D. pagei. The most representative species, S. maldonadoensis, S. pictus and S. devillei were classified as regular. Regarding the composition of the capture, there were three specimens of D. pagei , only one male specimen of D. septemdentatus, forty-eight specimens of S. maldonadoensis, sixty-eight specimens of S. pictus, twenty-two specimens of S. devillei and three specimens of V. serrata. In all months, the brachyuran fauna showed a considerably lower biomass when compared to the prawns, representing only 5% of the catch, in a ratio of 1:0.06. For most species, the number of males was always higher than the number of females in almost all collection months.O presente trabalho constitui um estudo inédito sobre a fauna de Brachyura associada à pesca artesanal de camarões na foz do rio Amazonas. Este estudo foi realizado em quatro pontos de coleta distribuídos na foz do Rio Amazonas, entre os meses de janeiro/2009 e janeiro/2010. Os animais foram capturados utilizando armadilhas artesanais denominadas "matapis" usados por pescadores de camarão na região. Em cada ponto da coleta foram usados 20 matapis. Foram identificados seis espécies em um total de 145 indivíduos capturados, sendo todos pertencentes a família Trichodactylidae: Sylviocarcinus maldonadoensis, S. pictus

  9. Species Composition - Bycatch Reduction Engineering Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through key regional collaborations with the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, and...

  10. Oceanographic Data - Bycatch Reduction Engineering Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through key regional collaborations with the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, and...

  11. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  12. Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagy, Valérie; Wong, Maurice; Vandenbroucke, Henri; Jenny, Christophe; Dubois, Cécile; Ollivier, Anthony; Cardi, Céline; Mournet, Pierre; Tuia, Valérie; Roux, Nicolas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Perrier, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the

  13. Status of endangered and threatened caribou on Canada's arctic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus on the Canadian Arctic Islands occur as several populations which are nationally classified as either endangered or threatened. On the western High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands, Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi declined to an estimated 1100 caribou in 1997. This is the lowest recorded abundance since the first aerial survey in 1961 when a high of ca. 24 363 caribou was estimated on those islands. Peary caribou abundance on the eastern Queen Elizabeth Islands is almost unknown. On the southern Arctic Islands, three caribou populations declined by 95-98% between 1973 and 1994 but our information is unclear about the numerical trends for the two other populations. Diagnosis of factors driving the declines is complicated by incomplete information but also because the agents driving the declines vary among the Arctic's different climatic regions. The available evidence indicates that severe winters caused Peary caribou die-offs on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. On Banks Island, harvesting together with unfavourable snow/ice conditions in some years accelerated the decline. On northwestern Victoria Island, harvesting apparently explains the decline. The role of wolf predation is unknown on Banks and notthwest Victoria islands, although wolf sightings increased during the catibou declines. Reasons for the virtual disappearance of arctic-island caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands are uncertain. Recovery actions have started with Inuit and Inuvialuit reducing their harvesting but it is too soon to evaluate the effect of those changes. Recovery of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands is uncertain if the current trends toward warmer temperatures and higher snowfall persist.

  14. Sperm quality assessments for endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen Texanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Eilts, Bruce E.; Guitreau, Amy M.; Figiel, Chester R.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) and computer-assisted sperm motion analysis (CASA) methods were developed and validated for use with endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus collected (n=64) during the 2006 spawning season. Sperm motility could be activated within osmolality ranges noted during milt collections (here 167–343 mOsm/kg). We hypothesized that sperm quality of milt collected into isoosmotic (302 mOsm/kg) or hyperosmotic (500 mOsm/kg) Hanks' balanced salt solution would not differ. Pre-freeze viabilities were similar between osmolalities (79%±6 (S.E.M.) and 76%±7); however, post-thaw values were greater in hyperosmotic buffer (27%±3 and 12%±2; P=0.0065), as was mitochondrial membrane potential (33%±4 and 13%±2; P=0.0048). Visual estimates of pre-freeze motility correlated with total (r=0.7589; range 23–82%) and progressive motility (r=0.7449) by CASA and were associated with greater viability (r=0.5985; Pr=-0.83; P=0.0116) and mitochondrial function (r=-0.91; P=0.0016). By FCM-based assessments of DNA integrity, whereby increased fluorochrome binding indicated more fragmentation, higher levels were negatively correlated with count (r=-0.77; Pr=-0.66; P=0.0004). Fragmentation was higher in isotonic buffer (P=0.0234). To increase reproductive capacity of natural populations, the strategy and protocols developed can serve as a template for use with other imperiled fish species, biomonitoring, and genome banking.

  15. Establishing endangered species recovery criteria using predictive simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Catlin, Daniel H.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Gratto-Trevor, Cheri L.; Aron, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Listing a species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and developing a recovery plan requires U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to establish specific and measurable criteria for delisting. Generally, species are listed because they face (or are perceived to face) elevated risk of extinction due to issues such as habitat loss, invasive species, or other factors. Recovery plans identify recovery criteria that reduce extinction risk to an acceptable level. It logically follows that the recovery criteria, the defined conditions for removing a species from ESA protections, need to be closely related to extinction risk. Extinction probability is a population parameter estimated with a model that uses current demographic information to project the population into the future over a number of replicates, calculating the proportion of replicated populations that go extinct. We simulated extinction probabilities of piping plovers in the Great Plains and estimated the relationship between extinction probability and various demographic parameters. We tested the fit of regression models linking initial abundance, productivity, or population growth rate to extinction risk, and then, using the regression parameter estimates, determined the conditions required to reduce extinction probability to some pre-defined acceptable threshold. Binomial regression models with mean population growth rate and the natural log of initial abundance were the best predictors of extinction probability 50 years into the future. For example, based on our regression models, an initial abundance of approximately 2400 females with an expected mean population growth rate of 1.0 will limit extinction risk for piping plovers in the Great Plains to less than 0.048. Our method provides a straightforward way of developing specific and measurable recovery criteria linked directly to the core issue of extinction risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Evolutionary Genomics and Conservation of the Endangered Przewalski's Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Schubert, Mikkel; Yang, Melinda A; Librado, Pablo; Fumagalli, Matteo; Jónsson, Hákon; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Albrechtsen, Anders; Vieira, Filipe G; Petersen, Bent; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Magnussen, Kim; Fages, Antoine; Gamba, Cristina; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Polani, Sagi; Steiner, Cynthia; Neuditschko, Markus; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Feh, Claudia; Greenblatt, Charles L; Ludwig, Arne; Abramson, Natalia I; Zimmermann, Waltraut; Schafberg, Renate; Tikhonov, Alexei; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Willerslev, Eske; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Ryder, Oliver A; McCue, Molly; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso; Slatkin, Montgomery; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-10-05

    Przewalski's horses (PHs, Equus ferus ssp. przewalskii) were discovered in the Asian steppes in the 1870s and represent the last remaining true wild horses. PHs became extinct in the wild in the 1960s but survived in captivity, thanks to major conservation efforts. The current population is still endangered, with just 2,109 individuals, one-quarter of which are in Chinese and Mongolian reintroduction reserves [1]. These horses descend from a founding population of 12 wild-caught PHs and possibly up to four domesticated individuals [2-4]. With a stocky build, an erect mane, and stripped and short legs, they are phenotypically and behaviorally distinct from domesticated horses (DHs, Equus caballus). Here, we sequenced the complete genomes of 11 PHs, representing all founding lineages, and five historical specimens dated to 1878-1929 CE, including the Holotype. These were compared to the hitherto-most-extensive genome dataset characterized for horses, comprising 21 new genomes. We found that loci showing the most genetic differentiation with DHs were enriched in genes involved in metabolism, cardiac disorders, muscle contraction, reproduction, behavior, and signaling pathways. We also show that DH and PH populations split ∼45,000 years ago and have remained connected by gene-flow thereafter. Finally, we monitor the genomic impact of ∼110 years of captivity, revealing reduced heterozygosity, increased inbreeding, and variable introgression of domestic alleles, ranging from non-detectable to as much as 31.1%. This, together with the identification of ancestry informative markers and corrections to the International Studbook, establishes a framework for evaluating the persistence of genetic variation in future reintroduced populations.

  17. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Philipp; Coad, Lauren; Burton, Cole; Chataigner, Beatrice; Dunn, Andrew; MacDonald, David; Saidu, Yohanna; Hunter, Luke T B

    2014-01-01

    The African lion has declined to lions from other extant African populations. Interventions to save West African lions are urgently required. However formulating effective conservation strategies has been hampered by a lack of data on the species' current distribution, status, and potential management deficiencies of protected areas (PAs) harboring lions. Our study synthesized available expert opinion and field data to close this knowledge gap, and formulate recommendations for the conservation of West African lions. We undertook lion surveys in 13 large (>500 km²) PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605) lions remain in West Africa, representing lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii) for populations with lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions.

  18. 76 FR 52297 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; U.S. Captive-Bred Inter-Subspecific Crossed or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES... amend the regulations that implement the Endangered Species Act (Act) by removing inter-subspecific... the conservation of the species in the wild consistent with the purposes of the Act. The...

  19. 77 FR 51767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Five Species of Sturgeon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    .... All five of the species are protected under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Acipenser sturio has been protected under CITES Appendix I since... Finding on a Petition To List Five Species of Sturgeon as Threatened or Endangered Under the...

  20. 78 FR 13614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Humphead Wrasse as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... granted with the species' listing in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), there is a body of evidence indicating illegal, unregulated, and... Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  1. 75 FR 65574 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Gray Wolf in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    .... This rule will not affect the gray wolf's Appendix II status under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17... reinstating the regulatory protections under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA), for...

  2. 77 FR 4492 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reissuance of Interim Special Rule for the Polar Bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...), 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq., and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna... under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) or the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Service would not require any......

  3. 76 FR 54711 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Bald Eagles Nesting in Sonoran Desert Area of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... will not affect the bald eagle's Appendix II status under the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). References Cited Driscoll, J.T., K.V. Jacobson, G.L... regulatory protections under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), for the bald...

  4. 76 FR 61781 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of Endangered and... Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened..., January 4, 1974). We listed a third gray wolf subspecies, the Mexican wolf (C. l. baileyi) as...

  5. 75 FR 46894 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Mexican...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Mexican Gray Wolf as an Endangered Subspecies With Critical Habitat AGENCY... finding on two petitions to list the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) (Mexican wolf) as...

  6. 78 FR 8576 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Ocelot and Mexican...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Ocelot and Mexican Spotted Owl in the Southwest Region AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...), of the endangered ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and the threatened Mexican spotted owl...

  7. 78 FR 35663 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi ) by Listing It as Endangered; Proposed Revision to the Nonessential Experimental Population of the...

  8. 77 FR 61375 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Mexican...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Mexican Gray Wolf as an Endangered Subspecies or Distinct Population... two petitions to list the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) (Mexican wolf) as an...

  9. 78 FR 50439 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of Nine Northeastern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... northeastern species. We will review the following endangered species: Peter's Mountain mallow, Jesup's milk... species in the following table. Table 1--Species Under 5-Year Review Where listed/ Listing date and Common...). PLANTS Peter's Mountain mallow........ (Iliamna corei)... Endangered......... Entire: VA........ May...

  10. 78 FR 47277 - Listing Endangered or Threatened Species: 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Delist the Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... are available on our Web page at: http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/protected_species/marine_mammals/killer... Reliability, Empresas Del Bosque, and Coburn Ranch to delist the endangered Southern Resident killer whale DPS... Accuracy and Reliability, Empresas Del Bosque, and Coburn Ranch to delist the endangered Southern...

  11. 78 FR 73173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Straight-Horned Markhor as Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) from endangered to threatened. We propose to combine the straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) and the Kabul markhor (Capra falconeri megaceros) into one subspecies, the straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri megaceros), under the Endangered...

  12. Endangered Species Act listing: three case studies of data deficiencies and consequences of ESA 'threatened' listing on research output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijerman, M.W.; Birkeland, C.; Piniak, G.A.; Miller, M.W.; Eakin, C.M.; McElhany, P.; Dunlap, M.J.; Patterson, M.; Brainard, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a species warrants listing as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act depends on the government's assessment of the species' extinction risk, usually in response to a petition. Deciding whether data are sufficient to make a listing determination is a challe

  13. 76 FR 44566 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Frigid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After reviewing all available scientific and commercial... hearing-impaired or speech-impaired may call the Federal Relay Service at 1-800-877-8337 for TTY... and Endangered Wildlife and Plants that contains substantial scientific or commercial information...

  14. Identifying potential habitat for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Wolcott, Daniel M.; Chow, T. Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The Aleutian shield fern Polystichum aleuticum is endemic to the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska and is listed as endangered pursuant to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite numerous efforts to discover new populations of this species, only four known populations are documented to date, and information is needed to prioritize locations for future surveys. Therefore, we incorporated topographical habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, aspect, distance from coastline, and anthropogenic footprint) found at known Aleutian shield fern locations into a Geographical Information System (GIS) model to create a habitat suitability map for the entirety of the Andreaonof Islands. A total of 18 islands contained 489.26 km2 of highly suitable and moderately suitable habitat when weighting each factor equally. This study reports a habitat suitability map for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics, which can be used to assist current and future recovery efforts for the species.

  15. Public Preferences for Endangered Species Recovery: An Examination of Geospatial Scale and Non-Market Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy eWallmo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-market valuation allows society to express their preferences for goods and services whose economic value is not reflected in traditional markets. One issue that arises in applying non-market values in policy settings is defining the extent of the economic jurisdiction – the area that includes all people who hold values – for a good or service. In this paper we estimate non-market values for recovering eight threatened and endangered marine species in the US for two geographically embedded samples: households on the west coast of the US and households throughout the nation. We statistically compare species values between the two samples to help determine the extent of and variation in the economic jurisdiction for endangered species recovery. Our findings offer support to the tenet that the summation of non-market values across the country is appropriate when evaluating alternative policies for endangered species recovery.

  16. Development of 13 Microsatellite Markers in the Endangered Sinai Primrose (Primula boveana, Primulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite markers for the endangered plant Primula boveana, the Sinai primrose, and assessed the cross-transferability of these markers to six related taxa. Methods and Results: DNA sequences containing microsatellites were isolated from a microsatellite-enriched library. We obtained successful amplification of 13 microsatellite primer pairs, seven of which were polymorphic in P. boveana. Eleven of these primers successfully cross-amplified to related taxa. Conclusions: The markers reported herein will be useful to characterize the genetic diversity of the endangered P. boveana and to evaluate its mating system, and have the potential to be useful for similar studies in close relatives.

  17. Advances in the reintroduction of rare and endangered wild plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai; Jian, ShuGuang; Liu, HongXiao; Zhang, QianMei; Lu, HongFang

    2014-06-01

    Human disturbance and climate change have increased the risk of extinction for rare and endangered wild plant species. One effective way to conserve these rare and endangered species is through reintroduction. In this review, we summarize the advances in wild plant reintroduction from five perspectives: the establishment of reintroduction biology as an important tool for biodiversity conservation; the importance of genetic diversity in reintroduction; reintroduction under global climate change; recruitment limitation in reintroduction; and reintroduction and ecological restoration. In addition, we consider the future of plant reintroduction strategies.

  18. Micropropagation of an endangered species Pinus armandii var. Amamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Ishii

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For micropropagation via organ culture, mature embryos were excised from the seeds of Pinus armandii. Franch. var. amamiana (Koidz. Hatusima, an endangered species only inhabiting the south west islands of Japan. Adventitious buds were induced on the surface of the embryo on 1/2 DCR medium containing BAP, and they grew shoots after subculturing to medium containing activated charcoal or a low concentration of thidiazuron. From the elongated shoots, root primordia and roots were induced in medium containing IBA as an auxine. We found that a low concentration of zeatin or BAP added to the medium was beneficial for plant regeneration of mature embryos of this species. For micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis, embryogenic cell suspensions were induced from a mature and immature seed of P. armandii var. amamiana on MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 ľM 2, 4-D and 3 ľM BAP. The suspensions were incubated in the dark at 250. Induced suspension cells were transferred to ammonium free MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 ľM 2, 4-D, 3 ľM BAP and 30m M L-glutamine and subcultured every 2 weeks. In the other set of the experiment, the induction rate of somatic embryogenesis was high with ammonium free half strength MS medium. In order to develop somatic embryos, the suspension cells were transferred to ammonium free MS medium supplemented with 10 ľM ABA, 0.2% activated charcoal, 10% PEG (MW6000, 30m M L-glutamine and 6% maltose. The cultures were incubated under a 16h light/8h dark photoperiod. After 1-2 months of culture, differentiation of embryos progressed and cotyledonary embryos were obtained. These embryos were transferred on ammonium free MS solid medium under 16 h photoperiod. After 2-3 weeks plantlets with roots and green cotyledons were obtained. Plantlets were transplanted to vermiculite containing modified MS liquid medium in 200 ml culture flasks, then out planted after habituation procedure.

  19. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplement to IUCN Bulletin, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the endangered species of wild animals and plants of the world prompted the drafting of this international convention regulating the import, export, and re-export of such species. Nations signing this document are required to impose strict controls on the international trade of these plants and animals or their recognizable parts. The…

  20. 78 FR 64446 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... another predominantly within the same plant population, but they can move pollen to another plant... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AZ33 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... conservation of the species,'' within the geographical range currently occupied by the species; (c) Where...

  1. 78 FR 17708 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Supplement to the Grizzly Bear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... the Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document... availability of a draft Revised Supplement to the Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan. Specifically, this supplement..., Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) are federally listed as threatened under the Endangered...

  2. [Endangered resources and origin changes of Pinellia ternate in Huanghuai plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Er-Ting; Zhou, Jian-Li

    2013-11-01

    The wild Pinellia ternata resource was surveyed by field investigation, visiting surveys combine with literature study and changing factors of the wild P. ternata in the area of Huanghuai Plain were analyzed. The results indicated that Huanghuai Plain wild P. ternata resources were scarce and nearly extinct. The chemical farming methods in Huanghuai Plain have endangered the survival of the wild P. ternata.

  3. 78 FR 61293 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Brickellia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... growth and flowering of B. mosieri and L. c. var. carteri. These plants also require a limestone... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AZ64 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... var. carteri. The critical habitat areas proposed for these plants overlap, for a combined total...

  4. 77 FR 55788 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... follows: Sec. 17.96 Critical habitat--plants. (a) Flowering plants. * * * * * Family Alliaceae: Allium... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX42 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... submit to the Federal Register proposed revised critical habitat determinations for both plants...

  5. Will current conservation responses save the Critically Endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Rasmus Gren; Payne, Junaidi; Ramono, Widodo

    2016-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis formerly ranged across South-east Asia. Hunting and habitat loss have made it one of the rarest large mammals and the species faces extinction despite decades of conservation efforts. The number of individuals remaining...

  6. 76 FR 11086 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea (Golden Sedge) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... for the Carex lutea (golden sedge) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. In total... critical habitat for Carex lutea under the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). For more information on...

  7. 75 FR 11080 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Critical Habitat for Carex lutea (Golden Sedge) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... the Carex lutea (golden sedge) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. We propose to...). Carex lutea is a perennial member of the sedge family (Cyperaceae). Fertile culms (stems) may reach...

  8. 75 FR 45592 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea (Golden Sedge) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...), proposed rule to designate critical habitat for Carex lutea (golden sedge) under the Endangered Species Act... field surveys at two extant Carex lutea subpopulations indicate that the extent of the golden sedge...

  9. 76 FR 71300 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... species. Also, since publication of the April 12, 2011, proposed rule (76 FR 20464), we have new... brief descriptions of the revised Boneyard Bog Springs Unit and the new Boneyard Creek Springs Unit, and... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AV84 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and...

  10. 76 FR 33035 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Roswell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... is found in wet mud or beneath mats of vegetation, usually within 1 inch (in) (2 to 3 centimeters (cm... stream or spring run margins: (1) That consists of wet mud or occurs beneath mats of vegetation; (2) That... to the endangered Pecos gambusia (Gambusia nobilis) from drilling operations. The BLM...

  11. 78 FR 31518 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The... the draft environmental assessment should be sent to Brett Farman, National Marine Fisheries...

  12. From Documenting to Revitalizing an Endangered Language: Where Do Applied Linguists Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Susan D.; Tucker, Benjamin V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the distance between documenting and revitalizing endangered languages and indicates critical points at which applied linguistics can play a role. We look at language documentation, language revitalization and their relationship. We then provide some examples from our own work. We see the lack of applied linguistics as a…

  13. 75 FR 3711 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Designating Critical Habitat; 12-month...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... habitat of elkhorn (Acropora palmata) and staghorn (A. cervicornis) corals (PBCRR, 2009). On July 27, 2009... proceed with a petition to revise the critical habitat designation for elkhorn (Acropora palmata) and staghorn (A. cervicornis) corals pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(D)(ii) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA)...

  14. Hemangiomas revisited: the useful, the unusual and the new. Pt. 2. Endangering hemangiomas and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Ricardo; Cervantes, Luisa F.; Altman, Nolan R. [Miami Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Palani, Rajaneeshankar [Miami Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Kosair Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Louisville, KY (United States); Duarte, Ana-Margarita [Miami Children' s Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Miami, FL (United States); Amjad, Ibrahim [Plastic Surgery, Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Hemangiomas, although benign tumors, can when located in particular regions threaten vital structures or in certain clinical circumstances be associated with other abnormalities, carrying significant morbidity and mortality. We review these endangering hemangiomas. We also discuss briefly the treatment with emphasis on the recent use of propranolol. (orig.)

  15. 76 FR 23781 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Buena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... impacts, the DEA determines the scope and scale of economic activities within the proposed revised... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We also announce the availability of a draft economic... on proposed revised critical habitat. (4) Any foreseeable economic, national security, or...

  16. 77 FR 49893 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Status for the Gierisch Mallow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ..., Invasive Species'' below. In summary, livestock grazing can have many effects on the plant and its habitat... species and its habitat in Utah. Nonnative, Invasive Species The spread of nonnative, invasive species is... critical habitat for the species under the Endangered Species Act. This action is being......

  17. 76 FR 16440 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley, San Bernardino...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley... expected application from the Town of Apple Valley, CA, for an incidental take permit (ITP) under the... Dale Evans Parkway, Apple Valley, CA 92307. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jen Lechuga,...

  18. 75 FR 24966 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... townsendii ingens), Virginia big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus), Mexican long-nosed...

  19. 78 FR 47268 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY46 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... Nonessential Experimental Population of the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to revise the existing nonessential experimental population designation of the Mexican wolf...

  20. 78 FR 41499 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Northern Mexican...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Northern Mexican Gartersnake and Narrow... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Northern Mexican Gartersnake and..., the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list the northern Mexican...

  1. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus... availability of the Mexican Wolf Conservation Assessment (assessment). The assessment provides scientific information relevant to the conservation of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and New...

  2. 78 FR 35719 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revision To the Nonessential Experimental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY46 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revision To the Nonessential Experimental Population of the Mexican Wolf AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...), propose to revise the existing nonessential experimental population designation of the Mexican wolf...

  3. 78 FR 41549 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Northern Mexican... CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AZ35 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Northern Mexican Gartersnake and Narrow-Headed Gartersnake AGENCY: Fish and...

  4. 78 FR 54613 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revision to the Nonessential Experimental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY46 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revision to the Nonessential Experimental Population of the Mexican Wolf AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... revise the existing nonessential experimental population designation of the Mexican wolf (Canis...

  5. 75 FR 78429 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Preble's Meadow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... for the conservation of endangered and threatened species. Proactive management on U.S. Forest Service... habitat than is our use of distance ] from the stream edge, based on stream order (a classification of... increase in willow growth and a tall, dense herbaceous component of the plant community was observed in...

  6. Endangered, threatened, and rare vascular flora of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.N.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the 30 endangered, threatened, or rare plants found on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. Of these 30 species, eight are under review by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as possible candidates for the proposed threatened and endangered list. Twenty-seven of the species are on the state of South Carolina's list prepared by the South Carolina Advisory Committee on Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Vascular Plants. These 27 plants include regionally threatened species, statewide threatened species, and rare species. Approximately two-thirds of these plants are found in wetland habitats. Also included in this report are summaries of 29 plant species that are likely to occur on the SRS, but have not been found there. Fourteen of these plants are on the federal list and range in status from endangered to possible candidates for deletion from the list. Twenty-eight are on the state of South Carolina list; approximately two-thirds of these also occur in wetland habitats. 31 refs., 45 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).

  8. It is just not fair: the Endangered Species Act in the United States and Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Olive

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The United States and the Canadian province of Ontario have enacted endangered species laws that regulate private land. The rationale for this is that the vast majority of endangered species in the two countries rely on private lands for survival. However, from a landowner perspective the law is deemed unfair. This paper presents analysis from 141 interviews with landowners in three U.S. states and Ontario. In recognition of distributive justice claims, both the U.S. government and the Ontario government have enacted programs aimed at increasing financial incentives for participation and compliance with the law. However, the law is still perceived as unfair. The central argument of this paper is that future amendments and new policies for endangered species should confront two other forms of environmental justice: procedural justice and justice-as-recognition. Landowners in both countries expressed not only concerns about compensation, but also a deep desire to be included in the protection and recovery process, as well as to be recognized by government and society as good stewards of the land. The paper concludes by stating that future policy amendments need to address justice-as-recognition if endangered species conservation on private lands is to be considered fair by landowners.

  9. 77 FR 41198 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... conservation responsibilities for affected species, and in consideration of section 10(a)(1)(A) of the... discretion of the Service Director. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Los Angeles Zoo... facility, Mountain View Conservation and Breeding Center, Langley, BC, Canada, for the purpose...

  10. FY 1994 Endangered Species Recovery Activities on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — St. Vincent NWR received endangered species recovery funds 1113 for the red wolf 25,000 and sea turtles 3,000 in. FY 1994. The refuge also hosted nesting and...

  11. 78 FR 53390 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed... critical habitat for the jaguar (Panthera onca), as revised on July 1, 2013, under the Endangered Species...: Background On August 20, 2012, we published a proposed rule to designate critical habitat for the jaguar...

  12. 50 CFR 648.126 - Protection of threatened and endangered sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sea turtles. 648.126 Section 648.126 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... sea turtles. This section supplements existing regulations issued to regulate incidental take of sea turtles under authority of the Endangered Species Act under 50 CFR parts 222 and 223. In addition to...

  13. 75 FR 66122 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: New Hampshire Fish and Game Department...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... also our policy on CCAAs (64 FR 32726; June 17, 1999). The CCAA that is the subject of this notice is a... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: New Hampshire Fish and Game... Game Department (NHFGD) has applied to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) for an...

  14. 78 FR 68370 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Corrections for Kirtland's Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... bird species listed under section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). The change to the List of... as the hooded warbler (Wilsonia citrine), the northern parula (Parula Americana), and the tropical...'' under Birds to read as set forth below: Sec. 17.11 Endangered and threatened wildlife. * * * * *...

  15. Fish and chips? Implanted transmitters help map the endangered pallid sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Kimberly; DeLonay, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    With a flattened snout, long slender tail and rows of bony plates lining its body, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has a unique, almost pre-historic, appearance. This endangered fish is native to the muddy, free-flowing waters of the Missouri River.

  16. 77 FR 47011 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassifying the Straight-Horned Markhor With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... reclassify the straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) from endangered to threatened under the... Torghar Hills population of the Suleiman markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni or C. f. megaceros), in the... listing the straight-horned markhor, or the Suleiman markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni), and the...

  17. 75 FR 6613 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing with Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... public hearings should contact Stephen Ricks, Mississippi Fish and Wildlife Office, at 601-321-1122, as... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing with... AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment...

  18. Updating Known Distribution Models for Forecasting Climate Change Impact on Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio-Román; Márquez, Ana Luz; Real, Raimundo

    2013-01-01

    To plan endangered species conservation and to design adequate management programmes, it is necessary to predict their distributional response to climate change, especially under the current situation of rapid change. However, these predictions are customarily done by relating de novo the distribution of the species with climatic conditions with no regard of previously available knowledge about the factors affecting the species distribution. We propose to take advantage of known species distribution models, but proceeding to update them with the variables yielded by climatic models before projecting them to the future. To exemplify our proposal, the availability of suitable habitat across Spain for the endangered Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata) was modelled by updating a pre-existing model based on current climate and topography to a combination of different general circulation models and Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our results suggested that the main threat for this endangered species would not be climate change, since all forecasting models show that its distribution will be maintained and increased in mainland Spain for all the XXI century. We remark on the importance of linking conservation biology with distribution modelling by updating existing models, frequently available for endangered species, considering all the known factors conditioning the species' distribution, instead of building new models that are based on climate change variables only. PMID:23840330

  19. A description of the mitogenome of the Endangered Taiwanese angelshark, Squatina formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Cosmann, Paul J; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-01-01

    Squatinid sharks are among the most threatened of cartilaginous fishes. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence (16,690 bp) of the Endangered Taiwanese angelshark, Squatina formosa. It has 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region in the typical vertebrate arrangement.

  20. The Influence of the Academic Conservation Biology Literature on Endangered Species Recovery Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Hudgens

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the volume of the academic conservation biology literature, there is little evidence as to what effect this work is having on endangered species recovery efforts. Using data collected from a national review of 136 endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we evaluated whether recovery plans were changing in response to publication trends in four areas of the academic conservation biology literature: metapopulation dynamics, population viability analysis, conservation corridors, and conservation genetics. We detected several changes in recovery plans in apparent response to publication trends in these areas (e.g., the number of tasks designed to promote the recovery of an endangered species shifted, although these tasks were rarely assigned a high priority. Our results indicate that, although the content of endangered species recovery plans changes in response to the literature, results are not uniform across all topics. We suggest that academic conservation biologists need to address the relative importance of each topic for conservation practice in different settings. [See Erratum

  1. Generation Conservation: Children's Developing Folkbiological and Moral Conceptions of Protecting Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Jolina H.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated folkbiological concepts that structure children's moral reasoning regarding conservation. Participants (N = 52; 7- and 10-year-olds, gender balanced) were interviewed regarding their values, moral obligations, and rights concerns for endangered and extinct animals. Across the 2 ages, children drew on the…

  2. Breeding or Assisted Reproduction? Relevance of the Horse Model Applied to the Conservation of Endangered Equids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, K.; Hoogewijs, M.; Woelders, H.; Daels, P.; Soom, van A.

    2012-01-01

    Many wild equids are at present endangered in the wild. Concurrently, increased mechanization has pushed back the numbers of some old native horse breeds to levels that are no longer compatible with survival of the breed. Strong concerns arose in the last decade to preserve animal biodiversity, incl

  3. Where and how are roads endangering mammals in Southeast Asia's forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Lynam, Antony J; Gaveau, David; Yap, Wei Lim; Lhota, Stanislav; Goosem, Miriam; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and overhunting are two major drivers of mammal population declines and extinctions in tropical forests. The construction of roads can be a catalyst for these two threats. In Southeast Asia, the impacts of roads on mammals have not been well-documented at a regional scale. Before evidence-based conservation strategies can be developed to minimize the threat of roads to endangered mammals within this region, we first need to locate where and how roads are contributing to the conversion of their habitats and illegal hunting in each country. We interviewed 36 experts involved in mammal research from seven Southeast Asian countries to identify roads that are contributing the most, in their opinion, to habitat conversion and illegal hunting. Our experts highlighted 16 existing and eight planned roads - these potentially threaten 21% of the 117 endangered terrestrial mammals in those countries. Apart from gathering qualitative evidence from the literature to assess their claims, we demonstrate how species-distribution models, satellite imagery and animal-sign surveys can be used to provide quantitative evidence of roads causing impacts by (1) cutting through habitats where endangered mammals are likely to occur, (2) intensifying forest conversion, and (3) contributing to illegal hunting and wildlife trade. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to identify specific roads threatening endangered mammals in Southeast Asia. Further through highlighting the impacts of roads, we propose 10 measures to limit road impacts in the region.

  4. 78 FR 29659 - Forfeiture Procedures Under the Endangered Species Act and the Lacey Act Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ....S.C. 1531 et seq.), was passed to prevent the extinction of native and non- native animals and... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 356 RIN 0579-AD50 Forfeiture Procedures Under the Endangered Species Act and the Lacey Act Amendments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  5. Physiological Response and Habituation of Endangered Species to Military Training Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Fick, A. 1870. Uber die Messung des Blutquantums in der Herzventrikeln. Sitz. Physik. Med. Ges. 2:16. Findlay, C.S., and J. Houlahan. 1997... Mexico . Biological Conservation 128:327-334. Kostecke, R. 2006. Birds of Fort Hood, Texas: checklist and monthly abundances, Appendix 1. In Endangered

  6. 75 FR 62850 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Habitat Conservation Plan for Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...' biology and distribution and improve these species' chances of reproductive success to offset the impacts... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Habitat Conservation... Island Utility Cooperative on Kaua`i, Hawai`i AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION:...

  7. 77 FR 17498 - Recovery Plan for the Endangered Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian Pinkroot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., reproductive biology, and seed ecology is accomplished; and Collect viable seeds from at least 50 percent of... Fish and Wildlife Service Recovery Plan for the Endangered Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian Pinkroot) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document availability. SUMMARY: We,...

  8. 77 FR 5913 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Listing Determinations for Two Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... endangered statuses. Existing water allocation issues will likely be compounded by human population growth... and exacerbate nutrient-loading, ] pollution inputs, and lower dissolved oxygen (DO), all of which are... DPS. The Altamaha is one of the rivers with current and pending water allocation issues. We...

  9. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, tier buffer, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'tier buffer'. The extent of these data...

  10. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is found only as a reintroduced population at Mortenson NWR in the Laramie Plains of southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the...

  11. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, dogs 1995, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  12. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, pdogs 2002, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  13. 76 FR 78898 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petition To List the Barndoor Skate, Winter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... site at http://www.nero.noaa.gov/prot_res/CandidateSpeciesProgram/csr.htm . A list of references is...), its evaluation for endangered or threatened status will be based on the ESA's definitions of...

  14. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  15. Assessing Local People's Knowledge of the Endangered Cuban Solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) in Alejandro de Humboldt National Park, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique-Díaz, Lázaro M.; OHDACHI, Satoshi; Kita, Masaki; Begué-Quiala, Gerardo; Páez, Rafael Borroto; Labañino, Jorge L. Delgado; Díez, Jorgelino Gámez; HOSON, Osamu; SAITO, Chiemi

    2014-01-01

    Assessing local people's knowledge of endangered species is important not only for the planning and implementation of environmental education programs, but also to address community-based conservation issues and guarantee an effective engagement of local residents in conservation efforts. A questionnaire-based study conducted in Alejandro de Humboldt National Park assessed local people’s knowledge of the endangered Cuban Solenodon (Solenodon cubanus). From this it was found that although chil...

  16. Annotated Directory of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife on Selected U.S. Army Installations East of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    State Endangered ST.- State Threatened SP -- State Proposed RSE -- Recommended as state endangered RST-- Recommended as state threatened ’A given...VERTEBRATES Birds Henslow’s sparrow, Ammodramous henslowil ( RSE ): Found in low wetland areas covered with brush and sedges, and sometimes in clearings...this bird historically bred in eastern Virginia. Its occurrence on the installation is possible. Northern harrier, Circus cyaneus ( RSE ): Historically

  17. Ecology of Hawaiian marine mammals emphasizing the impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on endangered species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.; Hartwig, E.O.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty-two marine mammal species including 2 baleen whales, 20 toothed whales, and one pinniped occur in Hawaiian waters. Among these are two endangered species, the migratory humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) around the main islands, and the non-migratory Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in the extreme northwestern island chain. The endangered species are among those most commonly sighted, while spinner dolphins (Stenella spp.), bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops sp.), and false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are sighted less frequently. Most Hawaiian cetacean species are Odontoceti, or toothed whales, and feed on fish and squid. The Mysteceti or baleen whales feed on plankton, however the endangered humpback whale, which migrates to Hawaii to breed and calve, presumably does not feed there. The endangered monk seal feeds on cephalopods and fish. The impact of OTEC on endangered and non-endangered marine mammals results from several direct and indirect effects and is discussed in the text. Careful siting of OTEC plants away from humpback breeding areas and monk seal breeding and feeding areas will avoid adverse effects on these populations.

  18. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study.

  19. Biological review of 82 species of coral petitioned to be included in the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Russell E.; Birkeland, Charles; Eakin, C. Mark; McElhany, Paul; Miller, Margaret W.; Patterson, Matt; Piniak, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The petition was based on a predicted decline in available habitat for the species, citing anthropogenic climate change and ocean acidification as the lead factors among the various stressors responsible for the potential decline. The NMFS identified 82 of the corals as candidate species, finding that the petition provided substantive information for a potential listing of these species. The NMFS established a Biological Review Team (BRT) to prepare this Status Review Report that examines the status of these 82 candidate coral species and evaluates extinction risk for each of them. This document makes no recommendations for listing, as that is a separate evaluation to be conducted by the NMFS.

  20. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda) in the endangered fish Profundulus hildebrandi (Cyprinodontiformes), Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Velázquez, Ernesto; González-Solís, David; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2011-09-01

    The Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, has been considered one of the most dangerous parasites for cultured carp and a risk for native freshwater fish populations worldwide. This cestode is highly pathogenic for fishes especially fry. In this paper we record B. acheilognathi parasitizing the endangered and endemic freshwater fish Profundulus hildebrandi from the endorheic basin of San Crist6bal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico. B. acheilognathi was recorded from 10 of the 11 sampled localities, with high values of prevalence (> 60%) and mean abundance (> 4.50). The infection was persistent all through the year; gravid cestodes were recorded in all samples. It is assumed that B. acheilognathi entered to this area through the introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio, for aquacultural purposes. The data presented in this paper document the successful introduction, colonization and establishment of this alien species into the endangered P. hildebrandi.

  1. Critically endangered western gray whales migrate to the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Bruce R; Ilyashenko, Valentin Yu; Bradford, Amanda L; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Tsidulko, Grigory A; Rozhnov, Vyacheslav V; Irvine, Ladd M

    2015-04-01

    Western North Pacific gray whales (WGWs), once considered extinct, are critically endangered with unknown migratory routes and reproductive areas. We attached satellite-monitored tags to seven WGWs on their primary feeding ground off Sakhalin Island, Russia, three of which subsequently migrated to regions occupied by non-endangered eastern gray whales (EGWs). A female with the longest-lasting tag visited all three major EGW reproductive areas off Baja California, Mexico, before returning to Sakhalin Island the following spring. Her 22 511 km round-trip is the longest documented mammal migration and strongly suggests that some presumed WGWs are actually EGWs foraging in areas historically attributed to WGWs. The observed migration routes provide evidence of navigational skills across open water that break the near-shore north-south migratory paradigm of EGWs. Despite evidence of genetic differentiation, these tagging data indicate that the population identity of whales off Sakhalin Island needs further evaluation.

  2. White Band Disease (type I) of endangered caribbean acroporid corals is caused by pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, David I; Vollmer, Steven V

    2011-01-01

    Diseases affecting coral reefs have increased exponentially over the last three decades and contributed to their decline, particularly in the Caribbean. In most cases, the responsible pathogens have not been isolated, often due to the difficulty in isolating and culturing marine bacteria. White Band Disease (WBD) has caused unprecedented declines in the Caribbean acroporid corals, resulting in their listings as threatened on the US Threatened and Endangered Species List and critically endangered on the IUCN Red List. Yet, despite the importance of WBD, the probable pathogen(s) have not yet been determined. Here we present in situ transmission data from a series of filtrate and antibiotic treatments of disease tissue that indicate that WBD is contagious and caused by bacterial pathogen(s). Additionally our data suggest that Ampicillin could be considered as a treatment for WBD (type I).

  3. Xenografting as a Tool to Preserve Endangered Species: Outcomes and Challenges in Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Mota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of testis tissue xenografting as a valuable tool to rescue endangered and genetically valuable individuals that die young or otherwise fail to produce sperm has been the subject of much interest. Although the technique has been successfully applied to a wide variety of species, little is known about what determines the outcome. Furthermore, to improve the applicability of xenografting, new methods to preserve and transport testis tissue from valuable animals are emerging. However, one major issue remains: the application of xenografting implies the development of subsequent ART techniques to produce offspring from the recovered material. This paper focuses on these three aspects of testis tissue xenografting as a tool for rescuing endangered and valuable genetic pools.

  4. Plasticity in carbon acquisition of the heterophyllous Luronium natans: an endangered freshwater species in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Luronium natans (L.) Raf. (Floating Water-plantain) is an endangered amphibious freshwater species endemic to Europe. We examined the plasticity in carbon acquisition and photosynthesis in L. natans to assess if lack of plasticity could contribute to explain the low competitive ability of the spe......Luronium natans (L.) Raf. (Floating Water-plantain) is an endangered amphibious freshwater species endemic to Europe. We examined the plasticity in carbon acquisition and photosynthesis in L. natans to assess if lack of plasticity could contribute to explain the low competitive ability...... concentrations of free-CO2. The photosynthetic apparatus was down-regulated in plants grown at high CO2. Chlorophyll concentration, Rubisco activity and maximum photosynthesis were significantly lower in submerged leaves of plants grown at high CO2 (200μM free-CO2) compared to plants grown at low CO2 (18μM free...

  5. Endangered vascular plants in Japan--present status and a proposal for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus.

  6. New distributional records and conservation implications for the critically endangered greater bamboo lemur Prolemur simus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirina, Laingoniaina; Rajaonson, Andry; Ratolojanahary, Tianasoa; Rafalimandimby, Jean; Fanomezantsoa, Prosper; Ramahefasoa, Bellarmin; Rasolofoharivelo, Tovonanahary; Ravaloharimanitra, Maholy; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Dolch, Rainer; King, Tony

    2011-01-01

    To improve our knowledge of the distribution of the critically endangered greater bamboo lemur Prolemur simus, we surveyed 6 sites in eastern Madagascar. We found its characteristic feeding signs at 5 sites and made a direct sighting at one of these. One site represents a northern extension of 45 km of the known extant range of the species. Two sites are located in a forest corridor approximately halfway between the previously known southern and northern populations, therefore suggesting a broadly continuous distribution of the species within its range rather than the previously suspected distribution of two distinct populations separated by a distance of over 200 km. Our results illustrate the benefit of species-focussed surveys in determining the true distribution of endangered species, a realistic measure which is necessary in order to assess their current status and to prioritise long-term conservation interventions.

  7. Aspects of the grammar of Thulung Rai
    an endangered Himalayan language

    OpenAIRE

    Lahaussois, Aimée

    2002-01-01

    Thulung Rai is an endangered Tibeto-Burman language of eastern Nepal, currentlyspoken by approximately one thousand people. It is a member of the Kiranti group in theHimalayish branch of Tibeto-Burman, along with languages characterized principally by theircomplex pronominalizing verbal inflectional systems.This dissertation provides an overview of the grammar of the Thulung language, alongwith selected texts and a glossary. The aspects of the grammar which are discussed are thosewhich are pa...

  8. Comparative population genetics of mimetic Heliconius butterflies in an endangered habitat; Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso Márcio Z; Quek Swee-Peck; Albuquerque de Moura Priscila; Kronforst Marcus R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on po...

  9. Guidance on the Use of Best Available Science under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Dennis D.; Weiland, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act’s best available science mandate has been widely emulated and reflects a Congressional directive to ensure that decisions made under the Act are informed by reliable knowledge applied using a structured approach. We build on a standing literature by describing the role of the best science directive in the Act’s implementation and best practices that can be employed to realize the directive. Next we describe recurring impediments to realizing determinations by the fe...

  10. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, William D.; Hugh Finn; Jackson Parker; Ken Dods

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025...

  11. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  12. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods.

  13. Isolation and genetic diversity of endangered grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Stow, Adam; Zenger, Kyall; Briscoe, David; Gillings, Michael; Peddemors, Victor; Otway, Nicholas; Harcourt, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts are believed to be the primary threats to the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus), which is listed as critically endangered, and the most threatened population globally. Analyses of 235 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) loci and 700 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region provide the first account of genetic variation and geographical partitioning (east and west coasts of Australia, South Africa) in C. ta...

  14. The Role of the European Union in Relation to the Conservation of Endangered Shark Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hehemann, Lena, 1989-

    2014-01-01

    Scientific evidence demonstrates a global decline of shark populations and encourages the international community to take actions to reverse this trend. As the EU has evolved an influential position in the shaping of international environmental law, also focusing on shark conservation, the objective of this thesis is to theorise, analyse and evaluate the role of the EU in relation to the protection of endangered species, with particular emphasis on sharks. The main features of the CITES, the ...

  15. Characterization of Na+ uptake in the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius (Baird and Girard)

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin V. Brix; Grosell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study provided an initial characterization of Na+ uptake in saline freshwater by the endangered pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This species occurs only in several saline water systems in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, where salinity is largely controlled by water-management practices. Consequently, understanding the osmoregulatory capacity of this species is important for their conservation. The lower acclimation limit of C. macularius in freshwater was found to be 2 mM Na+. ...

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered roughskin sculpin Trachidermus fasciatus (Scorpaeniformes, Cottidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Zhi Zhi; Pan, Lian De; Tang, Shou Jie; Wang, Cong Tao; Tang, Wen Qiao; Yang, Jin Quan

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered roughskin sculpin, Trachidermus fasciatus, was first determined. The mitogenome (16,536 bp) consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. Except for the eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. Mitochondrial DNA information can assist in species identification and conservation of the species' natural resources.

  17. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Feiling Yang; Jinming Hu; Ruidong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that end...

  18. Evaluating human-disturbed habitats for recovery planning of endangered plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie; Hermanutz, Luise

    2015-03-01

    The recovery potential of endangered species is limited by the high prevalence of human-modified habitats, while effective in situ conservation strategies to identify and restore disturbed habitat within species ranges are lacking. Our goal was to determine the impact of human disturbance on the endangered endemic Barrens willow (Salix jejuna) to provide science-based protocols for future restoration of disturbed habitats; a key component of conservation and recovery plans for many rare plant species. Our study examined differences in substrate (e.g., % total plant cover, % species cover, substrate type) and vegetation in naturally- (via frost activity) vs human-disturbed limestone barrens (Newfoundland, Canada), across the entire species range of the endangered Barrens willow. There were distinct differences in substrate conditions and vegetation community structure between naturally- and human-disturbed limestone barrens habitat throughout the narrow range of this endemic willow. Human-disturbed sites are more homogeneous and differ significantly from the naturally-disturbed sites having a much coarser substrate (30% more gravel) with less fine grained sands, less exposed bedrock, decreased soil moisture, increased nitrogen content, and reduced phosphorus content. Substrate differences can inhibit return to the natural freeze-thaw disturbance regime of the limestone barrens, negatively affecting long-term persistence of this, and other rare plants. The structure of associated vegetation (specifically woody species presence) negatively affected willow abundance but was not linked to disturbance type. Human-disturbed sites are potential candidates for endangered plant recovery habitat if natural ecosystem processes, vegetation community structure, and habitat heterogeneity are restored, thereby supporting the establishment of long term viable populations.

  19. Resource Selection by an Endangered Ungulate: A Test of Predator-Induced Range Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We investigated influences of risk of predation by mountain lions (Puma concolor), topographic metrics at multiple scales, and vegetation, land, and snow cover on resource selection by Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), an endangered taxon, during winters 2002–2007, in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. We hypothesized that those mountain ungulates would trade off rewards accrued from using critical low-elevation habitat in winter for the safety of areas with reduced risk...

  20. Potential Risk of Hybridization in Ex Situ Collections of Two Endangered Species of Sinojackia Hu (Styracaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous hybridization in ex situ facilities can undermine the genetic integrity of ex situ collections and potentially contaminate open-pollinated seeds or seedlings destined for the reintroduction of endangered plant species into the wild. In the present study, the potential risk of hybridization between two endangered Chinese endemic species, namely Sinojackia xylocarpa Hu and S. rehderiana Hu, which are naturally allopatric species but were conserved ex situ in Wuhan Botanical Garden (WBG), Wuhan, China, were investigated over three consecutive years from 2003 to 2005. The entire overlapping flowering period of the two species was 14-20 d and the two species shared the same pollinator insects during the entire flowering season in WBG. The floral isolation between the two species was not an issue in the ex situ collection at WBG. The results suggest an opportunity for pollen transfer between species and a potential risk of genetic introgression and loss of genetic identity of open-pollinated seeds produced in the ex situ collection of these two endangered species. An artificial reciprocal cross between S. xylocarpa and S. rehderiana confirmed that the two congener species could readily set seeds, indicating no post-pollination barriers to hybridization and the importance of spatial isolation as a barrier to inter-specific crossing. Therefore, to manage these crossable species with overlapping flowering times and shared pollination vectors in ex situ facilities, spatial isolation should be carefully considered to minimize the possibility of spontaneous hybridization.

  1. Short-term dispersal response of an endangered Australian lizard varies with time of year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehregan; Bull, C Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is an important component in the demography of animal populations. Many animals show seasonal changes in their tendency to disperse, reflecting changes in resource availability, mating opportunities, or in population age structure at the time when new offspring enter the population. Understanding when and why dispersal occurs can be important for the management of endangered species. The pygmy bluetongue lizard is an endangered Australian species that occupies and defends single burrow refuges for extended periods of time, rarely moving far from the burrow entrance. However, previous pitfall trapping data have suggested movement of adult males in spring and of juveniles in autumn of each year. In the current study we compared behaviours of adult lizards each month, over the spring-summer activity period over two consecutive field seasons, to provide deeper understanding of the seasonal dispersal pattern. We released adult pygmy bluetongue lizards into a central area, provided with artificial burrows, within large enclosures, and monitored the behaviour and movements of the released lizards over a four day period. There was a consistent decline in time spent basking, amount of movement around burrow entrances, and rates of dispersal from the central release area from early spring to late summer. Results could be relevant to understanding and managing natural populations and for any translocation attempts of this endangered lizard species.

  2. Incentive structure of and private landowner participation in an endangered species conservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Haider, Wolfgang; Conner, J Richard; Ditton, Robert B

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, voluntary incentive programs that aid conservation of plant and wildlife species on private lands provide a structural solution to the problem of protecting endangered species by reducing costs and enhancing benefits to landowners. We explored the potential for incentives to encourage landowners to manage land cover for the benefit of endangered songbirds in central Texas (U.S.A.) by asking landowners to indicate their preferences for financial incentives, technical assistance, and regulatory assurances. We identified owners of potential songbird habitat and collected data in face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires. We used a latent-class stated-choice model to identify 3 classes of landowners whose choices varied on the basis of their attitudes and perceived social norms: (1) strong positive attitude, perceived social pressure to participate, and willing to participate with relatively few incentives, (2) weak positive attitude, perceived no social pressure to participate, and required strongest incentives, and (3) negative attitude, perceived social pressure not to enroll, and unwilling to participate regardless of incentive structure. Given this heterogeneity in preferences, conservation incentives may increase management of land cover to benefit endangered species on private lands to some degree; however, exclusive reliance on incentives may be insufficient. Promoting conservation on private lands may be enhanced by integrating incentives into an approach that incorporates other strategies for conservation, including social networks and collaborative processes that reinforce social norms.

  3. Public willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2012-10-01

    Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value estimates exist, it is often difficult to compare values from different studies due to variations in study design, implementation, and modeling specifications. We conducted a stated-preference choice experiment to estimate the value of recovering or downlisting 8 threatened and endangered marine species in the United States: loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica), upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), and smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). In May 2009, we surveyed a random sample of U.S. households. We collected data from 8476 households and estimated willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting the 8 species from these data. Respondents were willing to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine taxa. Willingness-to-pay values ranged from $40/household for recovering Puget Sound Chinook salmon to $73/household for recovering the North Pacific right whale. Statistical comparisons among willingness-to-pay values suggest that some taxa are more economically valuable than others, which suggests that the U.S. public's willingness to pay for recovery may vary by species.

  4. Overview on the Role of Advance Genomics in Conservation Biology of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suliman; Nabi, Ghulam; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Yousaf, Muhammad; Manan, Sehrish; Siddique, Rabeea; Hou, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a "sixth" mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various ex situ and in situ measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for developing modern and fast monitoring tools for endangered biodiversity. This review article focuses on the applications of advanced genomics mainly demographic, adaptive genetic variations, inbreeding, hybridization and introgression, and disease susceptibilities, in the conservation of threatened biota. In short, it provides the fundamentals for novice readers and advancement in genomics for the experts working for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species.

  5. Developmental toxicity of two common corn pesticides to the endangered southern bell frog (Litoria raniformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choung, Catherine B., E-mail: Catherine.Choung@mq.edu.au [Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Hyne, Ross V. [Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contaminants Section, Office of Environment and Heritage, PO Box 29, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Mann, Reinier M. [Centre for Environmental Sustainability, University of Technology - Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Stevens, Mark M. [EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (Industry and Investment NSW and Charles Sturt University), Yanco Agricultural Institute, Private Mail Bag, Yanco, NSW 2703 (Australia); Hose, Grant C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    To examine the link between corn agriculture and the observed decline of the endangered southern bell frog (SBF), the effects of two corn crop pesticides on larval growth and development were investigated. Tadpoles were exposed to terbufos sulfone (10 {mu}g/L), a major breakdown product of the insecticide terbufos, and the herbicide atrazine (25 {mu}g/L) individually and as a mixture until the completion of metamorphosis. Atrazine did not interact synergistically with terbufos sulfone or result in significant effects on growth and development alone, although there was some indication of accelerated metamorphosis in the pilot study. Terbufos sulfone alone and as a mixture (terbufos/atrazine) significantly slowed larval development and ultimately delayed metamorphosis. The observed developmental effects from an environmentally relevant concentration of terbufos sulfone indicates a risk posed by this persistent degradation product to the endangered SBF, which breeds and develops in the rice bays adjacent to corn fields treated with pesticides. - Highlights: > The effect of terbufos sulfone and atrazine on larval growth and development was investigated. > Terbufos sulfone alone significantly slowed development and delayed metamorphosis of tadpoles. > Atrazine had no observable effects alone nor did it interact synergistically with terbufos sulfone. > The developmental effects indicates a risk to endangered southern bell frogs in the irrigation area. > The results highlight the toxicological importance of some pesticide breakdown products. - A breakdown product of the insecticide terbufos retards development and delays metamorphosis of southern bell frog tadpoles.

  6. Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as a surrogate species in assessing contaminant risk to two endangered cyprinodontids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecken-Folse, J.; Albrecht, B. [TRAC Labs., Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Mayer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Ellersieck, M. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Sappington, L. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were tested as a surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for the endangered Leon Springs pupfish (C. bovinus) and desert pupfish (C. macularius). Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper sulfate, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accordance with ASTM guidelines. Sheepshead minnows were always more sensitive than pupfish, but the differences were small. 96-h LC50s for sheepshead minnows and Leon Springs pupfish were, respectively: carbaryl (4.2 and 4.6 mg/L), copper sulfate (2.5 and 4.6 mg/L), 4-nonylphenol (0.46 and 0.48 mg/L), pentachlorophenol (0.05 and 0.08 mg/L), permethrin (1 7 and 21 ug/L). Only one test could be conducted with desert pupfish and carbaryl, with the sheepshead minnow being more sensitive (7.3 vs 4.2 mg/L). These data, along with other data from the US NBS, Columbia, MO (two surrogate and six endangered freshwater fishes), indicate that toxicity test data for surrogate fishes can be used reliably to predict chemical toxicity to endangered fishes by interspecies correlations. However, the correlations were generally best within a family, particularly with the Cyprinodontids.

  7. Factors influencing willingness to donate to marine endangered species recovery in the Galapagos National Park, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A Cardenas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Willingness to donate money for the conservation of endangered species may depend on numerous factors. In this paper, we analyze data from a survey given to tourists visiting Ecuador’s Galapagos National Park and Marine Reserve to investigate determinants of their willingness to donate (WTD towards the conservation of two marine endangered species--the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini and the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas. Specifically, we use regression analysis to analyze the influence of attitudes and beliefs toward species conservation, levels of concern for specific species, recreational motivations, and past donation patterns on WTD, while also controlling for individual characteristics such as age, gender, place of residence, and other demographics. Additionally, we evaluate the sensitivity of WTD to the species being protected by conservation efforts. Our results demonstrate that specific concern about the species, beliefs about donating to the protection program, and past donation behavior significantly influence the intention to donate money towards the recovery of the two marine endangered species. The likelihood of donating to green sea turtle conservation efforts is marginally higher than for hammerhead sharks, possibly due to its more charismatic nature. In contrast, visitors who are more willing to donate for shark conservation appear to be those with a strong desire to see them in the wild. The results provide useful information on the heterogeneity of tourist preferences towards donating to species conservation efforts, which has broad implications for resource agencies seeking ways to fund conservation actions.

  8. Testing surrogacy assumptions: can threatened and endangered plants be grouped by biological similarity and abundances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2012-01-01

    There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, among the criticisms of surrogate approaches is the need to test underlying assumptions, which remain rarely examined. In this study, we tested one of the fundamental assumptions underlying use of surrogate species in recovery planning: that there exist groups of threatened and endangered species that are sufficiently similar to warrant similar management or recovery criteria. Using a comprehensive database of all plant species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and tree-based random forest analysis, we found no evidence of species groups based on a set of distributional and biological traits or by abundances and patterns of decline. Our results suggested that application of surrogate approaches for endangered species recovery would be unjustified. Thus, conservation planning focused on individual species and their patterns of decline will likely be required to recover listed species.

  9. Biotechnological approaches for conservation and improvement of rare and endangered plants of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salim; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Nadeem, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation is believed to be a prerequisite for the short-and long-term survival of the plant species in their natural habitat. It depends on many environmental factors which determine the number of alleles on various loci in the genome. Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic composition and structure of the rare and endangered plant species from their natural habitat to develop successful management strategies for their conservation. However, rare and endangered plant species have low genetic diversity due to which their survival rate is decreasing in the wilds. The evaluation of genetic diversity of such species is very important for their conservation and gene manipulation. However, plant species can be conserved by in situ and in vitro methods and each has advantages and disadvantages. DNA banking can be considered as a means of complimentary method for the conservation of plant species by preserving their genomic DNA at low temperatures. Such approach of preservation of biological information provides opportunity for researchers to search novel genes and its products. Therefore, in this review we are describing some potential biotechnological approaches for the conservation and further manipulation of these rare and endangered plant species to enhance their yield and quality traits.

  10. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  11. Overview on the Role of Advance Genomics in Conservation Biology of Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a “sixth” mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various ex situ and in situ measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for developing modern and fast monitoring tools for endangered biodiversity. This review article focuses on the applications of advanced genomics mainly demographic, adaptive genetic variations, inbreeding, hybridization and introgression, and disease susceptibilities, in the conservation of threatened biota. In short, it provides the fundamentals for novice readers and advancement in genomics for the experts working for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species.

  12. Biodiversity and the Recovery of Threatened and Endangered Salmon Species in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report of 8 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, C. R. (Cleveland R.)

    1993-06-01

    The stated purpose of the Endangered Species Act is to provide a means whereby the ecosystem upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved. Conservation of the Columbia River ecosystem and the diversity of gene pools, life histories, species, and communities that comprise it, should become a major objective of species recovery and fish and wildlife management programs in the Columbia River Basin. Biodiversity is important to both species and ecosystem health, and is a prerequisite to long-term sustainability of biological resources. In this paper, I provide an overview of various approaches to defining, measuring, monitoring, and protecting biodiversity. A holistic approach is stressed that simultaneously considers diverse species and resource management needs. Emphasis is on threatened and endangered species of salmon and their associated habitat.

  13. A Holistic Approach to Taxonomic Evaluation of Two Closely Related Endangered Freshwater Mussel Species, the Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis) and Tan Riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jess Walter

    2004-01-01

    A Holistic Approach to Taxonomic Evaluation of Two Closely Related Endangered Freshwater Mussel Species, the Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis) and Tan Riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae) by Jess W. Jones Richard J. Neves, Chairperson Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences (ABSTRACT) Primers for 10 polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were developed and characterized for the endangered oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis from the Clinch River, TN. Microsatellite...

  14. A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu and assessment of potential impacts to waterbirds from the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.; Woodside, D.; Bruegmann, M. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI (United States). Pacific Islands Office

    1994-08-01

    A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu was conducted during August and September 1993 to identify potential waterbird habitats within the general area of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor and to assess the potential impacts to endangered waterbird of installing and operating a high voltage transmission line from the Island of Hawaii to the islands of Oahu and Maui. Annual waterbird survey information and other literature containing information on specific wetland sites were summarized. Literature describing impacts of overhead transmission lines on birds was used to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed project on endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. On Oahu, five wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within 2.5 miles of the proposed transmission line corridor. On Maui, three wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within the general area of the proposed transmission line corridor. Several of the wetlands identified on Oahu and Maui also supported resident wading birds and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. Endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory birds may collide with the proposed transmission lines wires. The frequency and numbers of bird collisions is expected to be greater on Oahu than on Maui because more wetland habitat exists and greater numbers of birds occur in the project area on Oahu. In addition, the endangered Hawaiian goose and the endangered Hawaiian petrel may be impacted by the proposed segment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission line on Maui.

  15. Breeding biology and success of a reintroduced population of the critically endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, E.J.; Foster, J.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Monahan, W.B.; Kellerman, J.L.; Lieberman, A.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate success of reintroduction programs for endangered species depends on the ability of reintroduced animals to breed in the wild. We studied the nesting success and breeding biology of a reintroduced population of Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) on the island of Kaua'i, Hawaii. Thirty-four captive-bred Puaiohi were released into the Alaka'i Swamp in 1999-2001 and monitored using radiotelemetry. Ten females and two males paired with wild and other released birds, including one polygynous trio. From March to September, 31 nests were built. Mean clutch size was 2.0 eggs, daily nest survival was 0.97 ?? 0.01 (mean ?? SE) and overall nest success was 0.40 ?? 0.02. We confirmed predation, most probably by rats (Rattus spp.), as the greatest cause of nest failure, occurring at 38% of active nests with known fates, and causing the death of two nesting adult females. Ground-based rodent control proved ineffective at protecting nest attempts. Successful nests fledged an average of 1.4 young each (n = 10), and 85% of fledglings survived at least two weeks. Importantly, breeding behavior and success were comparable to those of wild Puaiohi. This is the first record of breeding in the wild from captive-bred endangered Hawaiian passerines. The ability of captive-bred Puaiohi to survive and breed successfully in the wild bodes well for future releases of this and other endangered passerines, but high predation rates on nests and nesting females highlights the importance of maintaining and restoring safe habitat for recovery. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006.

  16. An endangered longhorn beetle associated with old oaks and its possible role as an ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, J; Ranius, T; Assmann, T

    2008-04-01

    For more than 10 years, ecologists have been discussing the concept of ecosystem engineering (i.e., nontrophic interactions of an organism that alters the physical state of its environment and affects other species). In conservation biology, the functional role of species is of interest because persistence of some species may be necessary for maintaining an entire assemblage with many threatened species. The great capricorn (Cerambyx cerdo), an endangered beetle listed in the European Union's Habitats Directive, has suffered a dramatic decline in the number of populations and in population sizes in Central Europe over the last century. The damage caused by C. cerdo larvae on sound oak trees has considerable effects on the physiological characteristics of these trees. We investigated the impacts of these effects on the species richness and heterogeneity of the saproxylic beetle assemblage on oaks. We compared the catches made with flight interception traps on 10 oaks colonized and 10 oaks uncolonized by C. cerdo in a study area in Lower Saxony (Germany). Our results revealed a significantly more species-rich assemblage on the trees colonized by C. cerdo. Colonized trees also harbored more red-listed beetle species. Our results suggest that an endangered beetle species can alter its own habitat to create favorable habitat conditions for other threatened beetle species. Efforts to preserve C. cerdo therefore have a positive effect on an entire assemblage of insects, including other highly endangered species. On the basis of the impact C. cerdo seems to have on the saproxylic beetle assemblage, reintroductions might be considered in regions where the species has become extinct.

  17. Conservation education and habitat restoration for the endangered Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) in Sagalla Hill, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    MALONZA, Patrick K

    2016-01-01

    The Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) is an endangered amphibian endemic to Sagalla Hill in the Taita Hills. This burrowing worm-like species prefers soft soil with high moisture and organic matter. The major threats to the Sagalla caecilian are soil erosion caused by steep slopes, bare ground and water siphoning/soil hardening from exotic eucalyptus trees. The purpose of this study was to get a better understanding of the local people’s attitude towards this species and how they can c...

  18. Light attraction in endangered procellariiform birds: Reduction by shielding upward radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J.R.; Sincock, J.L.; Hailman, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Autumnal attraction to man-made lighting causes heavy mortality in fledgling Hawaiian seabirds: Newell's shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli), dark-rumped petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis), and band-rumpted storm-petrel (Oceanodroma castro). These threatened, endangered and rare species (respectively) approach and circle lights on their first flight from mountain nesting colonies on the island of Kauai to the sea. Lights of the largest resort were shielded to prevent upward radiation on alternate nights during 2 fledgling seasons. Shielding decreased attraction by nearly 40%. Most attraction occurred 1-4 h after sunset. Full moon dramatically decreased attraction, a phenomenon that has both theoretical and management implications.

  19. Isolation of endophytic fungi from Coscinium fenestratum- a red listed endangered medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Wilson Goveas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Enumeration of the endophytic fungi from the red listed, critically endangered medicinal plant, Coscinium fenestratum was investigated for the first time. The ubiquitous presence of 41 endophytic fungi belonging to sixteen different taxa was identified from 195 samples of healthy leaves and stem using traditional morphological methods. The overall colonization rate of endophytes in both the leaf and the stem was found to be 21.02%.The stem showed low percentage frequency of colonization of the endophytic fungi when compared to leaf segments. Among the endophytic flora, Phomopsis jacquiniana was found to be the core-group fungus with a colonization frequency of 4.6%.

  20. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the endangered Tarim schizothoracin (Schizothorax biddulphi Günther).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao Ling; Cui, Zhong Kai; Zhang, Xiao Yi; Wang, Cheng Hui

    2012-10-01

    Tarim schizothoracin (Schizothorax biddulphi Günther) is an extremely endangered freshwater fish that thrives only in the Tarim River drainage in China. In this paper, we initially determined the complete mitochondrial genome of schizothoracin fishes. The mitochondrial genome of S. biddulphi was 16,585 bp long, which is similar to most vertebrates. It contains the same gene order and a similar number of gene or region including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 putative control region.