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Sample records for bwr nuclear power

  1. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  2. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, J.R. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  3. Near-term improvements for nuclear power plant control room annunciator systems. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Duvernoy, E.G.; Ames, K.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Eckenrode, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    This report sets forth a basic design philosophy with its associated functional criteria and design principles for present-day, hard-wired annunciator systems in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. It also presents a variety of annunciator design features that are either necessary for or useful to the implementation of the design philosophy. The information contained in this report is synthesized from an extensive literature review, from inspection and analysis of control room annunciator systems in the nuclear industry and in related industries, and from discussions with a variety of individuals who are knowledgeable about annunciator systems, nuclear plant control rooms, or both. This information should help licensees and license applicants in improving their hard-wired, control room annunciator systems as outlined by NUREG-0700.

  4. Dose reduction and optimization studies (ALARA) at nuclear power facilities. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at LWR plants. These studies have the following objectives: identify high-dose maintenance tasks; identify dose-reduction techniques; examine incentives for dose reduction; evaluate cost-effectiveness and optimization of dose-reduction techniques; and compile an ALARA handbook on data, engineering modifications, cost-effectiveness calculations, and other information of interest to ALARA practioners.

  5. Study of environmental noise in a BWR plant like the Nuclear Power Plant Laguna Verde; Estudio de ruido ambiental en una planta BWR como la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijerina S, F.; Cruz G, M.; Amador C, C., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In all industry type the health costs generated by the noise are high, because the noise can cause nuisance and to harm the capacity to work when causing tension and to perturb the concentration, and in more severe cases to reach to lose the sense of the hearing in the long term. The noise levels in the industry have been designated for the different types of use like residential, commercial, and industrial and silence areas. The noise can cause accidents when obstructing the communications and alarm signs. For this reason the noise should be controlled and mitigated, at a low level as reasonably is possible, taking into account that the noise is an acoustic contamination. The present study determines a bases line of the environmental noise levels in a nuclear power plant BWR-5 as Laguna Verde, (like reference) to be able to determine and to give pursuit to the possible solutions to eliminate or to limit the noise level in the different job areas. The noise levels were registered with a meter of integrative noise level (sonometer) and areas of noise exposure levels mapping the general areas in the buildings were established, being the registered maximum level of 96.94 dba in the building of the Reactor-elevation 0.65 m under the operation conditions of Extended Power Up rate (EPU) of 120% PTN. Knowing that the exposition to noises and the noise dose in the job place can influence in the health and in the safety of the workers, are extensive topics that they should be analyzed for separate as they are: to) the effects in the health of the exposure to the noise, b) how measuring the noise, c) the methods and technologies to combat and to control the noise in the industry by part of engineering area and d) the function of the industrial safety bodies as delegates of the health and safety in the task against the noise in the job. (author)

  6. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: an organizational overview. Volume 1. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. A model is introduced for the purposes of organizing the literature review and showing key relationships among identified organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. Volume I of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety.

  7. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  8. Procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes and evaluates several procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. These HEPs are currently needed for several purposes, particularly for probabilistic risk assessments. Data do not exist for estimating these HEPs, so expert judgment can provide these estimates in a timely manner. Five judgmental procedures are described here: paired comparisons, ranking and rating, direct numerical estimation, indirect numerical estimation and multiattribute utility measurement. These procedures are evaluated in terms of several criteria: quality of judgments, difficulty of data collection, empirical support, acceptability, theoretical justification, and data processing. Situational constraints such as the number of experts available, the number of HEPs to be estimated, the time available, the location of the experts, and the resources available are discussed in regard to their implications for selecting a procedure for use.

  9. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendices VII, VIII, IX, and X. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the release of radioactivity in reactor accidents; physical processes in reactor meltdown accidents; safety design rationale for nuclear power plants; and design adequacy.

  10. Estimate of radiation-induced steel embrittlement in the BWR core shroud and vessel wall from reactor-grade MOX/UOX fuel for the nuclear power plant at Laguna Verde, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Lisa Rene

    The government of Mexico has expressed interest to utilize the Laguna Verde boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant for the disposition of reprocessed spent uranium oxide (UOX) fuel in the form of reactor-grade mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel. MOX fuel would replace spent UOX fuel as a fraction in the core from 18--30% depending on the fuel loading cycle. MOX fuel is expected to increase the neutron fluence, flux, fuel centerline temperature, reactor core pressure, and yield higher energy neutrons. There is concern that a core with a fraction of MOX fuel (i.e., increased 239Pu wt%) would increase the radiation-induced steel embrittlement within the core shroud and vessel wall as compared to only conventional, enriched UOX fuel in the core. The evaluation of radiation-induced steel embrittlement within the core shroud and vessel wall is a concern because of the potentially adverse affect to plant and public safety, environment, and operating life of the reactor. This dissertation provides computational results of the neutron fluence, flux, energy spectrum, and radiation damage displacements per atom per second (dpa-s-1) in steel within the core shroud and vessel wall of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 BWR. The results were computed using the nuclear data processing code NJOY99 and the continuous energy Monte Carlo Neutral Particle transport code MCNP4B. The MCNP4B model of the reactor core was for maximum core loading fractions of ⅓ MOX and ⅔ UOX reactor-grade fuel in an equilibrium core. The primary conclusion of this dissertation was that the addition of the maximum fraction of ⅓ MOX fuel to the LV1 BWR core did significantly accelerate the radiation-induced steel embrittlement such that without mitigation of steel embrittlement by periodic thermal annealing or reduction in operating parameters such as, neutron fluence, core temperature and pressure, it posed a potentially adverse affect to the plant and public safety, environment, and operating life of the reactor.

  11. Analysis of the microstructural evolution of the damage by neutron irradiation in the pressure vessel of a nuclear power reactor BWR; Analisis de la evolucion microestructural del dano por irradiacion neutronica en la vasija de presion de un reactor nuclear de potencia BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moranchel y R, M.

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear reactor pressure vessel type BWR, installed in Mexico and in many other countries, are made of an alloy of low carbon steel. The American Society for Testing and Materials (Astm) classifies this alloy as A533-B, class 1. Both the vessel and other internal structures are continuously exposed to the neutron flux from the reactions of fission in nuclear fuel. A large number of neutrons reach the vessel and penetrate certain depth depending on their energy. Its penetration in the neutron collides with the nuclei of the atoms out of their positions in the crystal lattice of steel, producing vacancies, interstitial, segregations, among other defects, capable of affecting its mechanical properties. Analyze the micro-structural damage to the vessel due to neutron irradiation, is essential for reasons of integrity of this enclosure and safety of any nuclear power plant. The objective of this thesis work is theoretical and experimentally determine the microstructural damage of a type nuclear reactor vessel steel BWR, due to neutron radiation from the reactor core, using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques as well as Monte Carlo simulation. Microscopy Optical, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersion of X-rays Spectrometry and X-rays Diffractometry were the techniques used in this research. These techniques helped in the characterization of both the basis of design of pressure vessel steel and steel irradiated, after eight years of neutron irradiation on the vessel, allowing know the surface morphology and crystal structures of the previous steel and post-irradiation, analyze the change in the microstructure of the steel vessel, morphological damage to surface level in an irradiated sample, among which are cavities in the order of microns produced by Atomic displacements due to the impact of neutronic, above all in the first layers of thickness of the vessel, the effect of swelling, regions of greater damage and Atomic

  12. Study and characterization of noble metal deposits on similar rusty surfaces to those of the reactor U-1 type BWR of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde; Estudio y caracterizacion de depositos de metales nobles sobre superficies oxidadas similares a las del reactor de la Central de Laguna Verde (CNLV) U1 del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores S, V. H.

    2011-07-01

    In the present investigation work, were determined the parameters to simulate the conditions of internal oxidation reactor circulation pipes of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz. We used 304l stainless steel cylinders with two faces prepared with abrasive paper of No. 600, with the finality to obtain similar surface to the internal circulation piping nuclear reactor. Oxides was formed within an autoclave (Autoclave MEX-02 unit B), which is a device that simulates the working conditions of the nuclear reactor, but without radiation generated by the fission reaction within the reactor. The oxidation conditions were a temperature of 280 C and pressure of 8 MPa, similar conditions to the reactor operating in nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz, Mexico (BWR conditions), with an average conductivity of 4.58 ms / cm and 2352 ppb oxygen to simulate normal water chemistry NWC. Were obtained deposits of noble metal oxides formed on 304l stainless steel samples, in a 250 ml autoclave at a temperature range of 180 to 200 C. The elements that were used to deposit platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) with aqueous Na{sub 2}Pt (OH){sub 6} and Na{sub 3}Rh (NO{sub 2}){sub 6}, Silver (Ag) with an aqueous solution of AgNO{sub 3}, zirconium (Zr) with aqueous Zr O (NO{sub 3}) and ZrO{sub 2}, and zinc (Zn) in aqueous solution of Zn (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} under conditions of normal water chemistry. Also there was the oxidation of 304l stainless steel specimens in normal water chemistry with a solution of Zinc (Zn) (NWC + Zn). Oxidation of the specimens in water chemistry with a solution of zinc (Zn + NWC) was prepared in two ways: within the MEX-02 autoclave unit A in a solution of zinc and a flask at constant temperature in zinc solution. The oxides formed and deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental field analysis and X-ray diffraction. By other hand was evaluated the electrochemical behavior of the oxides

  13. Investigation of control rod worth and nuclear end of life of BWR control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Per

    2008-01-15

    This work has investigated the Control Rod Worth (CRW) and Nuclear End of Life (NEOL) values for BWR control rods. A study of how different parameters affect NEOL was performed with the transport code PHOENIX4. It was found that NEOL, expressed in terms of {sup 10}B depletion, can be generalized beyond the conditions for which the rod is depleted, such as different power densities and void fractions, the corresponding variation in the NEOL will be about 0.2-0.4% {sup 10}B. It was also found that NEOL results for different fuel types and different fuel enrichments have a variation of about 2-3% in {sup 10}B depletion. A comparative study on NHOL and CRW was made between PHOENIX4 and the stochastic Monte Carlo code MCNP. It was found that there is a significant difference, both due to differences in the codes and to limitations in the geometrical modeling in PHOENIX4. Since MCNP is considered more physically correct, a methodology was developed to calculate the nuclear end of life of BWR control rods with MCNP. The advantages of the methodology are that it does not require other codes to perform the depletion of the absorber material, it can describe control rods of any design and it can deplete the control rod absorber material without burning the fuel. The disadvantage of the method is that is it time-consuming.

  14. Design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel for BWR reactors; Diseno y optimizacion axial de combustible nuclear para reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A

    2006-07-01

    In the present thesis, the modifications made to the axial optimization system based on Tabu Search (BT) for the axial design of BWR fuel type are presented, developed previously in the Nuclear Engineering Group of the UNAM Engineering Faculty. With the modifications what is mainly looked is to consider the particular characteristics of the mechanical design of the GE12 fuel type, used at the moment in the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV) and that it considers the fuel bars of partial longitude. The information obtained in this thesis will allow to plan nuclear fuel reloads with the best conditions to operate in a certain cycle guaranteeing a better yield and use in the fuel burnt, additionally people in charge in the reload planning will be favored with the changes carried out to the system for the design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel, which facilitate their handling and it reduces their execution time. This thesis this developed in five chapters that are understood in the following way in general: Chapter 1: It approaches the basic concepts of the nuclear energy, it describes the physical and chemical composition of the atoms as well as that of the uranium isotopes, the handling of the uranium isotope by means of the nuclear fission until arriving to the operation of the nuclear reactors. Chapter 2: The nuclear fuel cycle is described, the methods for its extraction, its conversion and its enrichment to arrive to the stages of the nuclear fuel management used in the reactors are described. Beginning by the radial design, the axial design and the core design of the nuclear reactor related with the fuel assemblies design. Chapter 3: the optimization methods of nuclear fuel previously used are exposed among those that are: the genetic algorithms method, the search methods based on heuristic rules and the application of the tabu search method, which was used for the development of this thesis. Chapter 4: In this part the used methodology to the

  15. A Mechanistic Approach for the Prediction of Critical Power in BWR Fuel Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraker, Dinesh Kumar; Vijayan, Pallipattu Krishnan; Sinha, Ratan Kumar; Aritomi, Masanori

    The critical power corresponding to the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) or dryout condition is an important design parameter for the evaluation of safety margins in a nuclear fuel bundle. The empirical approaches for the prediction of CHF in a rod bundle are highly geometric specific and proprietary in nature. The critical power experiments are very expensive and technically challenging owing to the stringent simulation requirements for the rod bundle tests involving radial and axial power profiles. In view of this, the mechanistic approach has gained momentum in the thermal hydraulic community. The Liquid Film Dryout (LFD) in an annular flow is the mechanism of CHF under BWR conditions and the dryout modeling has been found to predict the CHF quite accurately for a tubular geometry. The successful extension of the mechanistic model of dryout to the rod bundle application is vital for the evaluation of critical power in the rod bundle. The present work proposes the uniform film flow approach around the rod by analyzing individual film of the subchannel bounded by rods with different heat fluxes resulting in different film flow rates around a rod and subsequently distributing the varying film flow rates of a rod to arrive at the uniform film flow rate as it has been found that the liquid film has a strong tendency to be uniform around the rod. The FIDOM-Rod code developed for the dryout prediction in BWR assemblies provides detailed solution of the multiple liquid films in a subchannel. The approach of uniform film flow rate around the rod simplifies the liquid film cross flow modeling and was found to provide dryout prediction with a good accuracy when compared with the experimental data of 16, 19 and 37 rod bundles under BWR conditions. The critical power has been predicted for a newly designed 54 rod bundle of the Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). The selected constitutive models for the droplet entrainment and deposition rates validated for the dryout in tube were

  16. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Interfacial Bonding Efficiency Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiang, Hao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The objective of this project is to perform a systematic study of spent nuclear fuel (SNF, also known as “used nuclear fuel” [UNF]) integrity under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 2013. Under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsorship, ORNL completed four benchmark tests, four static tests, and twelve dynamic or cycle tests on H. B. Robinson (HBR) high burn-up (HBU) fuel. The clad of the HBR fuels was made of Zircaloy-4. Testing was continued in fiscal year (FY) 2014 using Department of Energy (DOE) funds. Additional CIRFT testing was conducted on three HBR rods; two specimens failed, and one specimen was tested to over 2.23 × 107 cycles without failing. The data analysis on all the HBR SNF rods demonstrated that it is necessary to characterize the fatigue life of the SNF rods in terms of (1) the curvature amplitude and (2) the maximum absolute of curvature extremes. The maximum extremes are significant because they signify the maximum tensile stress for the outer fiber of the bending rod. CIRFT testing has also addressed a large variation in hydrogen content on the HBR rods. While the load amplitude is the dominant factor that controls the fatigue life of bending rods, the hydrogen content also has an important effect on the lifetime attained at each load range tested. In FY 15, eleven SNF rod segments from the Limerick BWR were tested using the ORNL CIRFT equipment; one test under static conditions and ten tests under dynamic loading conditions. Under static unidirectional loading, a moment of 85 N·m was obtained at a maximum curvature of 4.0 m-1. The specimen did not show any sign of failure during three repeated loading cycles to a similar maximum curvature. Ten cyclic tests were conducted with amplitudes varying from 15.2 to 7.1 N·m. Failure was observed in nine of

  17. BUTREN-RC an hybrid system for the recharges optimization of nuclear fuels in a BWR; BUTREN-RC un sistema hibrido para la optimizacion de recargas de combustible nuclear en un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Castillo M, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle G, E. del [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The obtained results with the hybrid system BUTREN-RC are presented that obtains recharges of nuclear fuel for a BWR type reactor. The system has implemented the methods of optimization heuristic taboo search and neural networks. The optimization it carried out with the technique of taboo search, and the neural networks, previously trained, were used to predict the behavior of the recharges of fuel, in substitution of commercial codes of reactor simulation. The obtained recharges of nuclear fuel correspond to 5 different operation cycles of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, Veracruz in Mexico. The obtained results were compared with the designs of this cycles. The energy gain with the recharges of fuel proposals is of approximately 4.5% with respect to those of design. The time of compute consumed it was considerably smaller that when a commercial code for reactor simulation is used. (Author)

  18. Results of the benchmarking in radiological protection practices during fuel reloads in the nuclear power plants of Limerick (BWR) and Ginna (PWR) in the United States of North America; Resultados del benchmarking en practicas de proteccion radiologica durante recargas de combustible en las centrales nucleoelectricas de Limerick (BWR) y Ginna (PWR) en los Estados Unidos de Norteamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara H, M. A., E-mail: marco.lara@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, unique in our country, has been imposed several goals related with the continuous improvement of their acting; increase in the quantity of continuous days for operation cycle, improvement in the chemical indexes of the reactor coolant, improvement in the indexes of nuclear security, improvement in the indicators of industrial security, improvement in the standards of radiological protection, etc.; in this last item is precisely where is necessary to search creative solutions to be able to maintain the collective doses of the personnel so low as reasonably it is possible (ALARA) especially due to the last projects of extension of useful life of the nuclear power plant (zinc injection, noble metals and hydrogen) and of power increment of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, same that represent in the short period an increment of collective dose and of exposition levels (until 200%) in very specific points of the primary systems of the reactor. (Author)

  19. Flex concept for US-A BWR extended loss of AC power events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Aoyagi, Y.; Kataoka, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (US-A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (Stp 3 and 4) Combined License Application (Cola) and incorporates numerous design and technology enhancements for improved safety performance. Nuclear Innovation North America (NINA) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The Stp 3 and 4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola, and the final safety evaluation report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in 2015. Following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant, the US-A BWR was reviewed for Beyond Design Basis Event (BDBE) safety using industry and regulatory guidance for US NRC Order EA-12-049 Order Modifying Licenses with Regard to Requirements for Mitigation of Beyond Design Basis External Events (BDBEE). By virtue of the design approach, the US-A BWR is capable of providing an indefinite coping period for a station blackout. The use of installed systems with extended coping times is a significant advantage of the US-A BWR compared to most of the plants currently operating in the U.S. In addition, the Stp 3 and 4 design incorporates enhancements consistent with the current US industry Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies (Flex) initiative. The final technical topic requiring review by the US NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards was the Flex Integrated Plan submitted by NINA, and this review was successfully completed. This paper summarizes the progress of the US-A BWR in licensing the Flex Integrated Plan for the project, and describes the technology and features of the US-A BWR design that contribute to safety post-Fukushima. It also provides an informational comparison of the design capabilities of the US-A BWR for extreme external events, and relates these capabilities to re

  20. Plant analyzer for high-speed interactive simulation of BWR power plant transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.; Wulff, W.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    A combination of advanced modeling techniques and modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer technology is presented which affords realistic predictions of plant transient and severe off-normal events in LWR power plants through on-line simulations at a speed ten times faster than actual process speeds. Results are shown for a BWR plant simulation. The mathematical models account for nonequilibrium, nonhomogeneous two-phase flow effects in the coolant, for acoustical effects in the steam line and for the dynamics of the recirculation loop and feedwater train. Point kinetics incorporate reactivity feedback due to void fraction, fuel temperature, coolant temperature, and boron concentration. Control systems and trip logic are simulated for the nuclear steam supply system. The AD10 of Applied Dynamics International is the special-purpose peripheral processor. It is specifically designed for high-speed digital system simulation, accommodates hardware (instrumentation) in the input/output loop, and operates interactively on-line, like an analog computer. Results are shown to demonstrate computing capacity, accuracy, and speed. Simulation speeds have been achieved which are orders of magnitude faster than those of a CDC-7600 mainframe computer or ten times faster than real-time speed.

  1. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  2. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  3. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  4. Actinides record, power calculations and activity for present isotopes in the spent fuel of a BWR; Historial de actinidos y calculos de potencia y actividad para isotopos presentes en el combustible gastado de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez C, P.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Lucatero, M. A., E-mail: pastor.enriquez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The administration of spent fuel is one of the more important stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, and this has become a problem of supreme importance in countries that possess nuclear reactors. Due to this in this work, the study on the actinides record and present fission products to the discharge of the irradiated fuel in a light water reactor type BWR is shown, to quantify the power and activity that emit to the discharge and during the cooling time. The analysis was realized on a fuel assembly type 10 x 10 with an enrichment average of 3.69 wt % in U-235 and the assembly simulation assumes four cycles of operation of 18 months each one and presents an exposition of 47 G Wd/Tm to the discharge. The module OrigenArp of the Scale 6 code is the computation tool used for the assembly simulation and to obtain the results on the actinides record presents to the fuel discharge. The study covers the following points: a) Obtaining of the plutonium vector used in the fuel production of mixed oxides, and b) Power calculation and activity for present actinides to the discharge. The results presented in this work, correspond at the same time immediate of discharge (0 years) and to a cooling stage in the irradiated fuel pool (5 years). (Author)

  5. Technical Basis for Peak Reactivity Burnup Credit for BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel in Storage and Transportation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Mertyurek, Ugur [ORNL; Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate application of burnup credit for boiling-water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase (1) investigates applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used in spent fuel pools (SFPs) to storage and transportation systems and (2) evaluates validation of both reactivity (keff) calculations and burnup credit nuclide concentrations within these methods. The second phase will focus on extending burnup credit beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents the first phase, including an analysis of lattice design parameters and depletion effects, as well as both validation components. Initial efforts related to extended burnup credit are discussed in a companion paper. Peak reactivity analyses have been used in criticality analyses for licensing of BWR fuel in SFPs over the last 20 years. These analyses typically combine credit for the gadolinium burnable absorber present in the fuel with a modest amount of burnup credit. Gadolinium burnable absorbers are used in BWR assemblies to control core reactivity. The burnable absorber significantly reduces assembly reactivity at beginning of life, potentially leading to significant increases in assembly reactivity for burnups less than 15–20 GWd/MTU. The reactivity of each fuel lattice is dependent on gadolinium loading. The number of gadolinium-bearing fuel pins lowers initial lattice reactivity, but it has a small impact on the burnup and reactivity of the peak. The gadolinium concentration in each pin has a small impact on initial lattice reactivity but a significant effect on the reactivity of the peak and the burnup at which the peak occurs. The importance of the lattice parameters and depletion conditions are primarily determined by their impact on the gadolinium depletion. Criticality code validation for BWR burnup

  6. RETHINKING NUCLEAR POWER SAFETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident sounds alarm bells in China’s nuclear power industry In the wake of the Fukushima nucleara ccident caused by the earthquake andt sunami in Japan,the safety of nuclearp ower plants and the development of nuclear power have raised concerns,

  7. Serpent: an alternative for the nuclear fuel cells analysis of a BWR; SERPENT: una alternativa para el analisis de celdas de combustible nuclear de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva A, L.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: lidi.s.albarran@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In the last ten years the diverse research groups in nuclear engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and Instituto Politecnico Nacional (UNAM, IPN), as of research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ) as well as the personnel of the Nuclear Plant Management of the Comision Federal de Electricidad have been using the codes Helios and /or CASMO-4 in the generation of cross sections (X S) of nuclear fuel cells of the cores corresponding to the Units 1 and 2 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Both codes belong to the Studsvik-Scandpower Company who receives the payment for the use and their respective maintenance. In recent years, the code Serpent appears among the nuclear community distributed by the OECD/Nea which does not has cost neither in its use neither in its maintenance. The code is based on the Monte Carlo method and makes use of the processing in parallel. In the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas of the IPN, the personnel has accumulated certain experience in the use of Serpent under the direction of personal of the ININ; of this experience have been obtained for diverse fuel burned, the infinite multiplication factor for three cells of nuclear fuel, without control bar and with control bar for a known thermodynamic state fixed by: a) the fuel temperature (T{sub f}), b) the moderator temperature (T{sub m}) and c) the vacuums fraction (α). Although was not realized any comparison with the X S that the codes Helios and CASMO-4 generate, the results obtained for the infinite multiplication factor show the prospective tendencies with regard to the fuel burned so much in the case in that is not present the control bar like when it is. The results are encouraging and motivate to the study group to continue with the X S generation of a core in order to build the respective library of nuclear data as a following step and this can be used for the codes PARCS, of USA NRC, DYN3D of HZDR, or others developed locally

  8. Fuel design with low peak of local power for BWR reactors with increased nominal power; Diseno de un combustible con bajo pico de potencia local para reactores BWR con potencia nominal aumentada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia C, R.; Montes, J.L.; Hernandez, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Castillo, A. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mrpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    The Federal Commission of Electricity recently announcement the beginning of the works related with the increase of the power to 120% of the original nominal one in the Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV): In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) are carried out studies of the impact on the design of the recharge of derived fuel of this increase. One of the main effects of the power increase type that it is promoting, is the increment of the flow of generated vapor, what takes, to a bigger fraction of vacuum in the core presenting increased values of the maximum fraction to the limit, so much of the ratio of lineal heat generation (XFLPD) as of the ratio of critic power (MFLCPR). In the made studies, it is found that these fractions rise lineally with the increase of the nominal power. Considering that the reactors of the CLV at the moment operate to 105% of the original nominal power, it would imply an increment of the order of 13.35% in the XFLPD and in the MFLCPR operating to a nominal power of 120% of the original one. This would propitiate bigger problems to design appropriately the fuel cycle and the necessity, almost unavoidable, of to resort to a fuel assembly type more advanced for the recharges of the cores. As option, in the ININ the feasibility of continuing using the same type of it fuel assembles that one has come using recently in the CLV, the type GE12 is analyzed. To achieve it was outlined to diminish the peak factor of local power (LPPF) of the power cells that compose the fuel recharge in 13.35%. It was started of a fuel design previously used in the recharge of the unit 1 cycle 12 and it was re-design to use it in the recharge design of the cycle 13 of the unit 1, considering an increase to 120% of the original power and the same requirements of cycle extension. For the re-design of the fuel assembly cell it was used the PreDiCeldas computer program developed in the ININ. It was able to diminish the LPPF

  9. Nuclear Power Feasibility 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Beltrán, José María; Hill, Barrie Frederick; Kadak, Andrew C.; Shultz, Donald F.; Spitalnik, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology and has the potential to generate virtually limitless energy with no significant greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power can become one of the main options to contribute to substantial cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions. Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues -high capital costs, the risks posed by ...

  10. Impact analysis of modifying the composition of the nuclear fuel of a BWR with beryllium oxide; Analisis del impacto de modificar la composicion del combustible nuclear de un BWR con oxido de berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo V, J. M.; Morales S, J. B., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The beryllium oxide (Be O) presents excellent physical properties, especially its high thermal conductivity that contrasts clearly with that of the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) used at the present as fuel in a great number of nuclear plants. The present work models a nuclear reactor cooled by light water in boiling with two external recirculation loops (BWR/5) using the code for the transitory analysis and postulated accidents Trac-B F1, implementing a UO{sub 2} mixture and different fractions of Be O, with the objective of improving the thermal conductivity of the fuel. The numeric results and the realized analyses indicate that when adding a fraction in volume of 10% the central temperature decreases in 30.4% in stationary state, while during the large break loss of coolant accident the peak cladding temperature diminishes in 7%. Although the real interaction of the mixture has not been determined experimentally, the obtained results are promising. (Author)

  11. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  12. Planning guidance for nuclear-power-plant decontamination. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, L.F.; Divine, J.R.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    Direct and indirect costs of decontamination are considered in the benefit-cost analysis. A generic form of the benefit-cost ratio is evaluated in monetary and nonmonetary terms, and values of dollar per man-rem are cited. Federal and state agencies that may have jurisiction over various aspects of decontamination and waste disposal activities are identified. Methods of decontamination, their general effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. Dilute or concentrated chemical solutions are usually used in-situ to dissolve the contamination layer and a thin layer of the underlying substrate. Electrochemical techniques are generally limited to components but show high decontamination effectiveness with uniform corrosion. Mechanical agents are particularly appropriate for certain out-of-system surfaces and disassembled parts. These processes are catagorized and specific concerns are discussed. The treatment, storage, and disposal or discharge or discharge of liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes generated during the decontamination process are discussed. Radioactive and other hazardous chemical wastes are considered. The monitoring, treatment, and control of radioactive and nonradioactive effluents, from both routine operations and possible accidents, are discussed. Protecting the health and safety of personnel onsite during decontamination is of prime importance and should be considered in each facet of the decontamination process. The radiation protection philosophy of reducing exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable should be stressed. These issues are discussed.

  13. Prediction of the local power factor in BWR fuel cells by means of a multilayer neural network; Prediccion del factor local de potencia en celdas de combustible BWR mediante una red neuronal multicapas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Perusquia C, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Francois, J.L.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jlmt@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    To the beginning of a new operation cycle in a BWR reactor the reactivity of this it increases by means of the introduction of fresh fuel, the one denominated reload fuel. The problem of the definition of the characteristics of this reload fuel represents a combinatory optimization problem that requires significantly a great quantity of CPU time for their determination. This situation has motivated to study the possibility to substitute the Helios code, the one which is used to generate the new cells of the reload fuel parameters, by an artificial neuronal network, with the purpose of predicting the parameters of the fuel reload cell of a BWR reactor. In this work the results of the one training of a multilayer neuronal net that can predict the local power factor (LPPF) in such fuel cells are presented. The prediction of the LPPF is carried out in those condition of beginning of the life of the cell (0.0 MWD/T, to 40% of holes in the one moderator, temperature of 793 K in the fuel and a moderator temperature of 560 K. The cells considered in the present study consist of an arrangement of 10x10 bars, of those which 92 contains U{sup 235}, some of these bars also contain a concentration of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 8 of them contain only water. The axial location inside the one assembles of recharge of these cells it is exactly up of the cells that contain natural uranium in the base of the reactor core. The training of the neuronal net is carried out by means of a retro-propagation algorithm that uses a space of training formed starting from previous evaluations of cells by means of the Helios code. They are also presented the results of the application of the neuronal net found for the prediction of the LPPF of some cells used in the real operation of the Unit One of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power station. (Author)

  14. Nuclear power in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J. (British Nuclear Forum, London (UK))

    1991-04-01

    The 1990s are turning out to be a most crucial phase for the nuclear industries of Europe. A time of uncertainty, as well as considerable opportunity, lies ahead. Despite a measure of public and political opposition to nuclear power, many are beginning to realise that, as a method of generating electricity that produces only 1% of greenhouse gases compared to coal per unit of electricity, nuclear energy may be the best alternative to the burning of fossil fuels. Although advances have been made in renewable energy, nuclear power is still the main non-fossil fuel source that can cope with today's energy demands. (author).

  15. Nuclear Power in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  16. Connected analysis nuclear-thermo-hydraulic of parallel channels of a BWR reactor using distributed computation; Analisis acoplado nuclear-termohidraulico de canales paralelos de un reactor BWR empleando computacion distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Gonzalez, Rina Margarita

    2007-07-15

    This work consists of the integration of three models previously developed which are described widely in Literature: model of the thermo-hydraulic channel, model of the modal neutronic and the model of the recirculation bows. The tool used for this connection of models is the PVM system, Parallel Virtual Machine that allowed paralleling the model by means of the concept of distributed computation. The purpose of making this connection of models is the one of obtaining a more complete tool than better represents the real configuration and the phenomenology of the nucleus of a BWR reactor, thus obtaining better results. In addition to maintaining the flexibility to improve the resulting model at any time, since the very complex or sophisticated models are difficult to improve being impossible to modify the equations they use and can include variables that are not of primary importance in the tackled problem or that mask relations among variables due to the excess of results. Also maintaining the flexibility for adding component of models or systems of the BWR reactor, all of this following the modeling needs. The Swedish Ringhals power plant was chosen to characterize the resulting connected model for counting on a Stability Benchmark that offers the opportunity to count on real plant data. Besides that in case 9 of cycle 14 of this Benchamark oscillations outside phase appeared, which are from great interest because the detection systems that register the average of the power of the nucleus do not detect them. Additionally in this work the model of the recirculation bows as an independent module is obtained in an individual way, since this model belongs to another work and works connected to the reactor vessel. The model of the recirculation bows is able to model several transients of interest, as it is shown in the Appendix A of this work, among which are found the tripping of recirculation pumps or the transference at low or high velocity of them. The scope of the

  17. Modeling and validation of a mechanistic tool (MEFISTO) for the prediction of critical power in BWR fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsson, Carl, E-mail: carl.adamsson@psi.ch [Westinghouse Electric Sweden, SE-721 63, Vaesteras (Sweden); Le Corre, Jean-Marie, E-mail: lecorrjm@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Sweden, SE-721 63, Vaesteras (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > The MEFISTO code efficiently and accurately predicts the dryout event in a BWR fuel bundle, using a mechanistic model. > A hybrid approach between a fast and robust sub-channel analysis and a three-field two-phase analysis is adopted. > MEFISTO modeling approach, calibration, CPU usage, sensitivity, trend analysis and performance evaluation are presented. > The calibration parameters and process were carefully selected to preserve the mechanistic nature of the code. > The code dryout prediction performance is near the level of fuel-specific empirical dryout correlations. - Abstract: Westinghouse is currently developing the MEFISTO code with the main goal to achieve fast, robust, practical and reliable prediction of steady-state dryout Critical Power in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel bundle based on a mechanistic approach. A computationally efficient simulation scheme was used to achieve this goal, where the code resolves all relevant field (drop, steam and multi-film) mass balance equations, within the annular flow region, at the sub-channel level while relying on a fast and robust two-phase (liquid/steam) sub-channel solution to provide the cross-flow information. The MEFISTO code can hence provide highly detailed solution of the multi-film flow in BWR fuel bundle while enhancing flexibility and reducing the computer time by an order of magnitude as compared to a standard three-field sub-channel analysis approach. Models for the numerical computation of the one-dimensional field flowrate distributions in an open channel (e.g. a sub-channel), including the numerical treatment of field cross-flows, part-length rods, spacers grids and post-dryout conditions are presented in this paper. The MEFISTO code is then applied to dryout prediction in BWR fuel bundle using VIPRE-W as a fast and robust two-phase sub-channel driver code. The dryout power is numerically predicted by iterating on the bundle power so that the minimum film flowrate in the bundle

  18. Safety and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, John; Gunning, Angela.

    1988-05-01

    Representatives of the supporters and opponents of civil nuclear power put forward the arguments they feel the public should consider when making up their mind about the nuclear industry. The main argument in favour of nuclear power is about the low risk in comparison with other risks and the amount of radiation received on average by the population in the United Kingdom from different sources. The aim is to show that the nuclear industry is fully committed to the cause of safety and this has resulted in a healthy workforce and a safe environment for the public. The arguments against are that the nuclear industry is deceitful, secretive and politically motivated and thus its arguments about safety, risks, etc, cannot be trusted. The question of safety is considered further - in particular the perceptions, definitions and responsibility. The economic case for nuclear electricity is not accepted. (U.K.).

  19. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  20. Cause-Effect relationship of the Laguna Verde BWR power instability by empirical mode decomposition; Relacion efecto-causa de la inestabilidad de potencia del BWR de Laguna Verde por descomposicion modal empirica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez, J.; Ruiz, J.; Castillo, R. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The signals coming from natural phenomena are in essence non lineal and not stationary. A recent development, well-known as Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) it presents a novel focus that allows to represent in adaptative form non stationary signals as a sum of components of half zero. These components denominated Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) they help to the analysis of the frequency composition of unidimensional signals. The use of the EMD followed by the Hilbert transform of the IMFs it allows to carry out an analysis in time-frequency of the non lineal and not stationary data. This technique is known as the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT). In this work a power instability event occurred in January 24, 1995 in the unit I of the nuclear power station of Laguna Verde (Mexico), corresponding to a BWR/5 is analyzed. When a Nuclear Plant suffers a power instability event, it is required obligatorily to explain to the Regulator Organism the effects and the causes of the event. The effects are described simply; not in vain there is a registration of signals in the Process Computer of where the required information is extracted. But the causes are not always immediate and easy for to identify. The power instability can happen during the start, when the refrigeration flow is relatively low in front to the power. By reason of that the reactivity coefficient by holes is negative, the power oscillates with a very defined frequency, generally of the order of 0.5 Hz. If the oscillations increase progressively of amplitude, we are in an instability event. It is interesting to include in the report the instant in that the began instability and the actions of the operator before and after the same one. As the actions are registered, the investigation is focused toward the instant of the beginning to be able to identify them. In this work the power signal in five empiric ways of Hilbert-Huang and a residual breaks down. The instability is only reflected in the way of smaller

  1. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  2. Nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-28

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people`s republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  3. An overview of the BWR ECCS strainer blockage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, A.W.; Marshall, M.L. Jr.; Elliott, R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This Paper provides a brief overview of actions taken in the mid 1980s to resolve Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, {open_quotes}Containment Emergency Sump Performance,{close_quotes} and their relationship to the BWR strainer blockage issue; the importance of insights gained from the Barseback-2 (a Swedish BWR) incident in 1992 and from ECCS strainer testing and inspections at the Perry nuclear power plant in 1992 and 1993; an analysis of an US BWR/4 with a Mark I containment; an international community sharing of knowledge relevant to ECCS strainer blockage, additional experimental programs; and identification of actions needed to resolve the strainer blockage issue and the status of such efforts.

  4. Robots cut risks and costs in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, H.T. (PSE and G (US))

    1991-07-01

    The electric utility industry, the third largest user of computers in the United States, is realizing the value of a relatively new computer-related technology; robotics. Since its use in the cleanup of Three Mile Island, 44 utility companies have used robotic devices to save radiation exposure to their employees and to achieve measurable and often significant cost savings. This paper reports on the use of robots to reduce risk and cost in electric utilities especially in PWR and BWR nuclear power plants.

  5. Physical protection of nuclear facilities. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1978. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, L.D. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    Major activities during the fourth quarter of FY78 included (1) the vital area analysis of operational reactors and characterization of the Standardized Nuclear Unit Power Plant System (SNUPPS), (2) the algorithm development of a new pathfinding computer code, (3) the completion of contractor-supported work for the component generic data base, (4) the refinement of tests related to human parameters modeling, and (5) the addition of improvements to and demonstration of the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE), Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP), and Fixed-Site Neutralization Model (FSNM) methodologies.

  6. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  7. Pipe rupture incident of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yushi; Nakagami, Motonori; Hayashi, Haruhisa; Ichikawa, Yoshihiro [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    At the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 (540 MWe of electric output; BWR-4 type) of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd., an incident of pipe rupture of residual heat removal system on steam condenser system occurred on November, 2001. This incident gave no effects on outer parts of the station, because safety system apparatuses in the station worked adequately from a standpoint of accidental phenomenon. On the other hand, on its forming processes, as it is no similar case at the nuclear power stations in and out of Japan, to securely carry out countermeasures for preventing a recurrence of the incidence, its cause was striven to elucidate thoroughly. This paper was introduced about contents and results on site surveys, and surveys such as tests, analysis, and so on performed for about a half year after the incident, for preventing a recurrence of similar incidents. (G.K.)

  8. Validation and Application of the Thermal Hydraulic System Code TRACE for Analysis of BWR Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT is participating on (Code Applications and Maintenance Program CAMP of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC to validate TRACE code for LWR transient analysis. The application of TRACE for the safety assessment of BWR requires a throughout verification and validation using experimental data from separate effect and integral tests but also using plant data. The validation process is normally focused on safety-relevant phenomena for example, pressure drop, void fraction, heat transfer, and critical power models. The purpose of this paper is to validate selected BWR-relevant TRACE-models using both data of bundle tests such as the (Boiling Water Reactor Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Test BFBT and plant data recorded during a turbine trip event (TUSA occurred in a Type-72 German BWR plant. For the validation, TRACE models of the BFBT bundle and of the BWR plant were developed. The performed investigations have shown that the TRACE code is appropriate to describe main BWR-safety-relevant phenomena (pressure drop, void fraction, and critical power with acceptable accuracy. The comparison of the predicted global BWR plant parameters for the TUSA event with the measured plant data indicates that the code predictions are following the main trends of the measured parameters such as dome pressure and reactor power.

  9. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  10. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  11. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant; Implementacion digital, simulacion y pruebas en MATLAB de los modelos de la linea de vapor, las turbinas y el regulador de presion de una central Nucleoelectrica tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, A. [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: andyskamx@yahoo.com.mx

    2004-07-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  12. Overview paper on nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I.; Cope, D.F.

    1980-09-01

    This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power.

  13. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  14. Nuclear power renaissance or demise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossani, Umair

    2010-09-15

    Nuclear power is going through a renaissance or demise is widely debated around the world keeping in mind the facts that there are risks related to nuclear technology and at the same time that is it environmentally friendly. My part of the argument is that there is no better alternative than Nuclear power. Firstly Nuclear Power in comparison to all other alternative fuels is environmentally sustainable. Second Nuclear power at present is at the dawn of a new era with new designs and technologies. Third part of the debate is renovation in the nuclear fuel production, reprocessing and disposal.

  15. BWR Steam Dryer Alternating Stress Assessment Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morante, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hambric, S. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ziada, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) steam dryer design; the fatigue cracking failures that occurred at the Quad Cities (QC) plants and their root causes; a history of BWR Extended Power Uprates (EPUs) in the USA; and a discussion of steam dryer modifications/replacements, alternating stress mechanisms on steam dryers, and structural integrity evaluations (static and alternating stress).

  16. Let us learn nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Wan Sang

    2006-08-15

    This book teach us nuclear power through nine chapters with recommendation and a prolog. The contents of this book are how did Formi become a scientist? what does atom look like? discover of neutron, what is an isotope?, power in the nuclear, various radiation, artificial nuclear transformation, nuclear fission and clinging atomic nucleus. It also has an appendix on SF story ; an atom bomb war. It explains basic nuclear physic in easy way with pictures.

  17. Analysis of the documents about the core envelopment of nuclear reactor at the Laguna Verde U-1 power plant; Analisis de documentos de los materiales de la envolvente del nucleo del reactor nuclear de la CLV U-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora R, L.; Medina F, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The degradation of internal components at BWR type reactors is an important subject to consider in the performance availability of the power plant. The Wuergassen nuclear reactor license was confiscated due to the presence of cracking in the core envelopment. In consequence it is necessary carrying out a detailed study with the purpose to avoid these problems in the future. This report presents a review and analysis of documents and technical information referring to the core envelopment of a BWR/5/6 and the Laguna Verde Unit 1 nuclear reactor in Mexico. In this document are presented design data, documents about fabrication processes, and manufacturing of core envelopment. (Author)

  18. Latest experiences in inspecting the inside of BWR vessel shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, R.; Gonzalez, E.

    2001-07-01

    In the last few years, the owners of BWR nuclear power plants have been forced to address new fuel shield inspection requirements, TECNATOM has responded to this situation by launching the TEIDE projects, which include development of an inspection machine and the corresponding Non-Destructive Tests to examine the inside of this shield. With these projects, TECNATOM has performed more than 12 fuel shield inspections in different countries. This article describes the experience gained in the last three years. (Author)

  19. Analysis of Heat Balance on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using Multi-Stage Steam Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu

    The total space and weight of the feedwater heaters in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can be reduced by replacing low-pressure feedwater heaters with high-efficiency steam injectors (SIs). The SI works as a direct heat exchanger between feedwater from condensers and steam extracted from turbines. It can attain pressures higher than the supplied steam pressure. The maintenance cost is lower than that of the current feedwater heater because of its simplified system without movable parts. In this paper, we explain the observed mechanisms of the SI experimentally and the analysis of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We then describe mainly the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of the innovative-simplified NPP, which adapted to the boiling water reactor (BWR) with the high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiencies of this innovative-simplified BWR with SI are compared with those of a 1100MWe-class BWR. The SI model is adopted in the heat balance simulator as a simplified model. The results show that the plant efficiencies of the innovate-simplified BWR with SI are almost equal to those of the original BWR. They show that the plant efficiency would be slightly higher if the low-pressure steam, which is extracted from the low-pressure turbine, is used because the first-stage of the SI uses very low pressure.

  20. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  1. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  3. Development of a computer program of fast calculation for the pre design of advanced nuclear fuel 10 x 10 for BWR type reactors; Desarrollo de un program de computo de calculo rapido para el prediseno de celdas de combustible nuclear avanzado 10 x 10 para reactores de agua en ebullicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mrpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) a methodology is developed to optimize the design of cells 10x10 of assemble fuels for reactors of water in boil or BWR. It was proposed a lineal calculation formula based on a coefficients matrix (of the change reason of the relative power due to changes in the enrichment of U-235) for estimate the relative powers by pin of a cell. With this it was developed the computer program of fast calculation named PreDiCeldas. The one which by means of a simple search algorithm allows to minimize the relative power peak maximum of cell or LPPF. This is achieved varying the distribution of U-235 inside the cell, maintaining in turn fixed its average enrichment. The accuracy in the estimation of the relative powers for pin is of the order from 1.9% when comparing it with results of the 'best estimate' HELIOS code. With the PreDiCeldas it was possible, at one minimum time of calculation, to re-design a reference cell diminishing the LPPF, to the beginning of the life, of 1.44 to a value of 1.31. With the cell design with low LPPF is sought to even design cycles but extensive that those reached at the moment in the BWR of the Laguna Verde Central. (Author)

  4. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing was a major mobilizing force in the rise of mass environmental movements in the 1970s and 1980s around the globe. Nevertheless, the historiography of anti-nuclear protest remains largely limited to national stories about...

  5. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chengge; Li Shulan

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation, moderate development and active development. So far, there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW. In addition, there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  6. Health Risks of Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

  7. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  8. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D. [MDC-Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  9. Nuclear power plant simulation on the AD10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Stritar, A.

    1985-01-01

    A combination of advanced modeling techniques and the modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer AD10 is presented which affords realistic predictions of plant transient and severe off-normal events in LWR power plants through on-line simulations at a speed ten times greater than actual process speeds. Results are shown for a BWR plant simulation. The mathematical models account for nonequilibrium, nonhomogeneous two-phase flow effects in the coolant, for acoustical effects in the steam line and for the dynamics of the recirculation loop and feedwater train. Point kinetics incorporate reactivity feedback for void fraction, for fuel temperature, for coolant temperature, and for boron concentration. Control systems and trip logic are simulated for the nuclear steam supply system. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Behavior of irradiated BWR fuel under reactivity-initiated-accident conditions; Results of tests FK-1, -2 and -3

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels with burnups of 41 to 45 GWd/tU were pulse-irradiated in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate fuel behavior under cold startup reactivity-initiated-accident (RIA) conditions. BWR fuel segment rods of 8times8BJ (STEP I) type from Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 nuclear power plant were refabricated into short test rods, and they were subjected to prompt enthalpy insertion from 293 to 607 J/g (70 to 145 cal/g) within about 20 ms. The fuel cladding...

  11. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhl, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  12. Design optimization of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station fuel recharge; Optimacion del diseno de recargas de combustible para la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Campos, Carlos Cristobal [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Montes Tadeo, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    It is described, in general terms, the procedure that is followed to accomplish the optimization of the recharge design, and an example is shown where this procedure was applied for the analysis of the type BWR reactor of Unit No. 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. [Espanol] Se describe en terminos generales el procedimiento que se sigue para realizar la optimacion del diseno de recargas, y se muestra un ejemplo en el que se utilizo dicho procedimiento para el analisis del reactor tipo BWR de la unidad 1, de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV).

  13. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  14. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  16. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  17. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation,moderate development and active development.So far,there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW.In addition,there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  18. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.suarez@miem.gub.u, E-mail: rsuarez@ucu.edu.u [Universidad Catolica del Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay). Fac. de Ingenieria y Tecnologias. Dept. de Matematica; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo (Uruguay). Direccion General de Secretaria

    2011-07-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find a suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is generalized and used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived. Introducing a KBM Ansatz, a coupled set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained. Analytical formulae are derived for the frequency of oscillation and the parameters that determine the stability of the steady states, including sub- and supercritical PAH bifurcations. A Bautin's bifurcation scenario seems possible on the power-flow plane: near the boundary of stability, a region where stable steady states are surrounded by unstable limit cycles surrounded at their turn by stable limit cycles. The analytical results are compared with recent digital simulations and applications of semi-analytical bifurcation theory done with reduced order models of BWR. (author)

  19. Climate change and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2000-04-01

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  20. Nuclear power - the glittering prizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, C.C.

    The paper on the benefits of nuclear power is based on a lecture given for the Institution of Nuclear Engineers, London, 1986. Suggestions for short term benefits include a clean environment and a cheap energy source, whereas suggestions for long term benefits include freedom from want in the world and avoidance of 'energy wars'. These benefits are discussed along with alternative energy sources, the financial savings to be saved from nuclear power, world energy wealth, depletion of world energy reserves, and risks due to radiation exposure.

  1. Topics in nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  2. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  3. Severe Accident Simulation of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA simulation in the boiling water reactor (BWR of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP at 105% of rated power is analyzed in this work. The LVNPP model was developed using RELAP/SCDAPSIM code. The lack of cooling water after the LOCA gets to the LVNPP to melting of the core that exceeds the design basis of the nuclear power plant (NPP sufficiently to cause failure of structures, materials, and systems that are needed to ensure proper cooling of the reactor core by normal means. Faced with a severe accident, the first response is to maintain the reactor core cooling by any means available, but in order to carry out such an attempt is necessary to understand fully the progression of core damage, since such action has effects that may be decisive in accident progression. The simulation considers a LOCA in the recirculation loop of the reactor with and without cooling water injection. During the progression of core damage, we analyze the cooling water injection at different times and the results show that there are significant differences in the level of core damage and hydrogen production, among other variables analyzed such as maximum surface temperature, fission products released, and debris bed height.

  4. Nuclear power demonstrating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V. V.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1980-08-12

    Apparatus for demonstrating the operation of a closed loop nuclear steam electric generating plant includes a transparent boiler assembly having immersion heating elements, which may be quartz lamps or stainless steel encased resistive immersion heating units with a quartz iodide lamp providing a source of visible radiation when using the encased immersion heating units. A variable voltage autotransformer is geared to a support rod for simulated reactor control rods for controlling the energy delivered to the heating elements and arranged so that when the voltage is high, the rods are withdrawn from the boiler to produce increased heating and illumination proportional to rod position, thereby simulating nuclear reaction. A relief valve, steam outlet pipe and water inlet pipe are connected to the boiler with a small stainless steel resistive heating element in the steam outlet pipe providing superheat. This heater is connected in series with a rheostat mounted on the front panel to provide superheat adjustments and an interlock switch that prevents the superheater from being energized when the steam valve is off with with no flow through the superheater. A heavy blue plastic radiation shield surrounds the boiler inside a bell jar.

  5. Nuclear power data; Kernenergie in Zahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The report ''nuclear power data'' includes data on the following issues: nuclear power plants in Germany including their operational characteristics, gross data on electricity generation in Germany, primary energy consumption in Germany, nuclear power plants worldwide, top ten nuclear power plants worldwide with respect to electricity generation in 2012.

  6. Nuclear power world report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    At the end of 2013, 435 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number decreased by 2 units compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 398,861 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 378,070 MWe (gross: 392,793 MWe, net: 372,572 MWe, new data base as of 2013: nameplate capacities). Four units were commissioned in 2014; three units in China and one in India. Eight units were shut down permanently in 2013; 2 units in Japan, and four units in the USA. Two units in Canada were declared permanently shut-down after a long-term shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units - 2 more than at the end of 2012 - were under construction in late 2013 in 15 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73,814 MWe and net power of approx. 69,279 MWe. Six new projects have been started in 2013 in four countries (Belarus, China, the Republic of Korea, and the United Arab Emirates). Worldwide, some 125 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2013 achieved a level of approx. 2,364.15 billion (109) kWh (2012: approx. 2,350.80 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 70,310 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,400 reactor years. (orig.)

  7. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhof, Astrid Mignon; Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing played a pivotal role in the rise of a mass environmental movement around the globe in the 1970s and 1980s. Nevertheless, the history of anti-nuclear activism has largely been told from a strictly national perspective....... This focus issue approaches the phenomenon from a transnational perspective for the first time. Against the backdrop of the debate on transnational history, this article develops a framework of analysis, and contextualizes anti-nuclear protest in a broader postwar perspective. The contributions show...... that anti-nuclear movements across the globe were transnationally connected. First, scientific expertise and protest practices were transferred between movements, and subsequently adapted to local requirements. Secondly, transnational cooperation and networks did indeed emerge, playing an important role...

  8. Nuclear power - menace or miracle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porritt, J.; Gittus, J.

    1988-04-01

    The main points of the anti-nuclear lobby are put by the Director of Friends of the Earth. These are on its failure to provide cheaper electricity, reactor safety (the Chernobyl accident is cited), on the problems of radioactive waste disposal and on the public preference for a non-nuclear energy programme. Coal is seen as able to provide most of the United Kingdom's energy needs until the 22nd century. Long-term solutions to the energy and environmental problems are energy conservation and renewable energy sources. The pro-nuclear case is made by the Director of Communication and Information at the UK Atomic Energy Authority. This is that renewable energy sources will not be viable for another 30 years or so and, anyway, do not solve all the environmental problems. The choice of energy is thus coal or nuclear. Coal gives rise to acid rain and, as it is in limited supply, is too valuable simply to burn. Nuclear power can provide the energy economically and safely. The accident at Chernobyl is not possible in the UK. The amount of high level nuclear waste generated is small and measures for its disposal will be taken. The levels of radiation due to the nuclear power industry are small compared with natural radiation levels, and have not been shown to cause higher than normal levels of leukaemia or cancer. (U.K.).

  9. The future of nuclear power

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James

    2012-01-01

    Newly conceived, safer reactor designs are being built in the United States (and around the world) to replace the 104 obsolete operating nuclear power reactors in this country alone. The designs--which once seemed exotic and futuristic--are now 40 years old, and one by one these vintage Generation II plants will reach the end of productive service in the next 30 years. The Future of Nuclear Power examines the advanced designs, practical concepts, and fully developed systems that have yet to be used. This book introduces readers to the traditional, American system of units, with some archaic te

  10. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  11. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Takehito [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  12. Nuclear Power on Energy Agenda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The big debate on whether or not to use nuclear power as an energy option has raged among countries like the U.S., Britain, and Germany for decades, with not even the advent and threat of global warming forcing a conclusion. China, however, has always stressed energy diversity and been determined to develop and use this alternative energy source.

  13. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  14. Thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic in a BWR; Estabilidad termohidraulica acoplada a la neutronica en un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleros M, G.; Zapata Y, M.; Gomez H, R.A.; Mendez M, A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Mpio. Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico); Castlllo D, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5, La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: gcm9acpp@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-01

    In a BWR type reactor the phenomenon of the nuclear fission is presented, in which are liberated in stochastic form neutrons, originating that the population of the same ones varies in statistic form around a mean value. This variation will cause that when the neutron flow impacts on the neutron detectors, its are had as a result neutron flow signals with fluctuations around an average value. In this article it is shown that it conforms it lapses the time, this variations in the neutron flow (and therefore, in the flow signal due only to the fission), they presented oscillations inside a stable range, which won't be divergent. Considering that the BWR is characterized because boiling phenomena are presented, which affect the moderation of the neutrons, additional variations will be had in the signal coming from the neutron detectors, with relationship to the fission itself, which will be influenced by the feedback of the moderator's reactivity and of the temperature of the fuel pellet. Also, as the BWR it has coupled control systems to maintain the coolant level one and of the thermal power of the reactor, for each control action it was affected the neutron population. This means that the reactor could end up straying of a stable state condition. By it previously described, the study of the thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic is complex. In this work it is shown the phenomenology, the mathematical models and the theoretical behavior associated to the stability of the BWR type reactor; the variables that affect it are identified, the models that reproduce the behavior of the thermohydraulic stability coupled to the neutronic, the way to maintain stable the reactor and the instrumentation that can settle to detect and to suppress uncertainties is described. In particular, is make reference to the evolution of the methods to maintain the stability of the reactor and the detection system and suppression of uncertainties implemented in the

  15. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  16. Nuclear power a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, nuclear power has been identified as a viable alternative to traditional energy sources to stem global climate change, and condemned as risky to human health and environmentally irresponsible. Do the advantages of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, especially in light of the meltdown at the Fukushima plant in 2011? This guide provides both a comprehensive overview of this critical and controversial technology, presenting reference tools that include important facts and statistics, biographical profiles, a chronology, and a glossary. It covers major controversies and proposed solutions in detail and contains contributions by experts and important stakeholders that provide invaluable perspective on the topic.

  17. BWR online monitoring system based on noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier [Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, 52750 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jov@nuclear.inin.mx; Castillo-Duran, Rogelio [Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, 52750 (Mexico)]. E-mail: rcd@nuclear.inin.mx; Alonso, Gustavo [Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, 52750 (Mexico)]. E-mail: galonso@nuclear.inin.mx; Calleros-Micheland, Gabriel [Central Nuclear de Laguna Verde, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Carr. Cardel-Nautla, km. 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: gcm9acpp@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-11-15

    A monitoring system for during operation early detection of an anomaly and/or faulty behavior of equipment and systems related to the dynamics of a boiling water reactor (BWR) has been developed. The monitoring system is based on the analysis of the 'noise' or fluctuations of a signal from a sensor or measurement device. An efficient prime factor algorithm to compute the fast Fourier transform allows the continuous, real-time comparison of the normalized power spectrum density function of the signal against previously stored reference patterns in a continuously evolving matrix. The monitoring system has been successfully tested offline. Four examples of the application of the monitoring system to the detection and diagnostic of faulty equipment behavior are presented in this work: the detection of two different events of partial blockage at the jet pump inlet nozzle, miss-calibration of a recirculation mass flow sensor, and detection of a faulty data acquisition card. The events occurred at the two BWR Units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. The monitoring system and its possible coupling to the data and processing information system of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant are described. The signal processing methodology is presented along with the introduction of the application of the evolutionary matrix concept for determining the base signature of reactor equipment or component and the detection of off normal operation conditions.

  18. Improved and safer nuclear power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J J

    1989-04-21

    Recent progress in advanced nuclear power development in the United States is revealing high potential for nuclear reactor systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the present generation. Passive, or intrinsic, characteristics are applied not only to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction but also to ensure continued cooling of the fuel and its containment systems even if a major breakdown of the normal cooling and control functions were to occur. The chance of a severe accident is thereby substantially reduced. The plant designs that are emerging are simpler and more rugged, have a longer life span, and place less burden on equipment and operating personnel. Modular design concepts and design standardization are also used to reduce construction time and engineering costs, giving promise that the cost of generating power from these systems will be competitive with alternative methods.

  19. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  20. Simulation of a scenario of total loss of external and internal power (Sbo) for different vent pressures of the containment of a BWR-5; Simulacion de un escenario de perdida total de potencia externa e interna (SBO) para distintas presiones de venteo de la contencion de un reactor BWR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Godinez S, V., E-mail: Jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The simulation of a Station Black Out (Sbo) was realized with intervention of the vent containment by means of a rigid vent coming from the dry-well and that discharges directly to the atmosphere, with the MELCOR code version 2.1. This scenario was carried out for a BWR-5 and containment type Mark II, with a thermal power of 2317 MWt similar to the reactor of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. For this scenario was considered as only available system for coolant injection to the reactor to the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (Rcic), which remained operating 4 hours with batteries bank. The Security and Relief Valves (SR V) were considered functional (by simplicity) and that they mechanically do not exceed their capacity to liberate pressure due to the performances in their safety way. The operator maneuver to perform the SR V and to de pressurize the vessel until the pressure (13 kg/cm{sup 2}) to operate the low pressure systems was modeled. The results cover approximately 48 hours (172000 seconds), time in which was observed the behavior of the level and pressure in the vessel. Also the scenario evolution was analyzed to different vent pressures of the primary containment (2.0, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 10.0 kg/cm{sup 2}), the temperature profiles of the dry-well, the hydrogen accumulation in the containment, the radio-nuclides liberation through rigid vent to the atmosphere and the inventory of these. In this work an analysis of the pressure behavior in the primary containment is presented, with the purpose of minimizing liberated fission products to the environment. (Author)

  1. The economics of nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Ronald L.

    We extend economic analysis of the nuclear power industry by developing and employing three tools. They are (1) compilation and unification of operating and accounting data sets for plants and sites, (2) an abstract industry model with major economic agents and features, and (3) a model of nuclear power plant operators. We build a matched data set to combine dissimilar but mutually dependant bodies of information. We match detailed information on the activities and conditions of individual plants to slightly more aggregated financial data. Others have exploited the data separately, but we extend the sets and pool available data sets. The data reveal dramatic changes in the industry over the past thirty years. The 1980s proved unprofitable for the industry. This is evident both in the cost data and in the operator activity data. Productivity then improved dramatically while cost growth stabilized to the point of industry profitability. Relative electricity prices may be rising after nearly two decades of decline. Such demand side trends, together with supply side improvements, suggest a healthy industry. Our microeconomic model of nuclear power plant operators employs a forward-looking component to capture the information set available to decision makers and to model the decision-making process. Our model includes features often overlooked elsewhere, including electricity price equations and liability. Failure to account for changes in electricity price trends perhaps misled earlier scholars, and they attributed to other causes the effects on profits of changing price structures. The model includes potential losses resulting from catastrophic nuclear accidents. Applications include historical simulations and forecasts. Nuclear power involves risk, and accident costs are borne both by plant owners and the public. Authorities regulate the industry and balance conflicting desires for economic gain and safety. We construct an extensible model with regulators, plant

  2. BWR Servicing and Refueling Improvement Program: Phase I summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, D.R.

    1978-09-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship, General Electric Co. (GE) undertook a study of boiling water reactor (BWR) refueling outages for the purpose of recommending the development and demonstration of critical path time savings improvements. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) joined the study as a subcontractor, providing monitoring assistance and making the Browns Ferry Site available for improvement demonstrations. Agreement was also reached with Georgia Power Co., Power Authority of the State of New York, and Commonwealth Edison Co. for monitoring and data collection at Hatch 1, FitzPatrick, and Quad Cities 1 nuclear plants, respectively. The objective was to identify, develop, and demonstrate improved refueling, maintenance, and inspection procedures and equipment. The improvements recommended in this study are applicable to BWR nuclear plants currently in operation as well as those in the design and construction phases. The recommendations and outage information can be used as a basis to plan and conduct the first outages of new plants and to improve the planning and facilities of currently operating plants. Many of the recommendations can readily be incorporated in plants currently in the design and construction phases as well as in the design of future plants. Many of these recommended improvements can be implemented immediately by utilities without further technical development.

  3. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R. [Multiple Dynamics Corp., Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  4. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  5. Impact of Reactor Operating Parameters on Cask Reactivity in BWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Betzler, Benjamin R [ORNL; Ade, Brian J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of reactor operating parameters used in fuel depletion calculations on spent fuel cask reactivity, with relevance for boiling-water reactor (BWR) burnup credit (BUC) applications. Assessments that used generic BWR fuel assembly and spent fuel cask configurations are presented. The considered operating parameters, which were independently varied in the depletion simulations for the assembly, included fuel temperature, bypass water density, specific power, and operating history. Different operating history scenarios were considered for the assembly depletion to determine the effect of relative power distribution during the irradiation cycles, as well as the downtime between cycles. Depletion, decay, and criticality simulations were performed using computer codes and associated nuclear data within the SCALE code system. Results quantifying the dependence of cask reactivity on the assembly depletion parameters are presented herein.

  6. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Nuclear Physicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Takaharu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and a report on voluntary activities of Japanese nuclear physicists in this terrible event, including their major outcome.

  7. An analytical study on excitation of nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic instability due to seismically induced resonance in BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a scoping study on seismically induced resonance of nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic instability in BWRs, which was conducted by using TRAC-BF1 within a framework of a point kinetics model. As a result of the analysis, it is shown that a reactivity insertion could occur accompanied by in-surge of coolant into the core resulted from the excitation of the nuclear-coupled instability by the external acceleration. In order to analyze this phenomenon more in detail, it is necessary to couple a thermal-hydraulic code with a three-dimensional nuclear kinetics code.

  8. Nuclear power a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    With the World desperate to find energy sources that do not emit carbon gasses, nuclear power is back on the agenda and in the news, following the increasing cost of fossil fuels and concerns about the security of their future supply. However, the term 'nuclear power' causes anxiety in many people and there is confusion concerning the nature and extent of the associated risks. Here, Maxwell Irvine presents a concise introduction to the development of nuclear physics leading up to the emergence of the nuclear power industry. He discusses the nature of nuclear energy and deals with various aspec

  9. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The total generation of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.1 TWh during 1999, which is slightly more than the mean value for the last five years. The total electricity consumption decreased by one percent, compared with 1998, to a total of 142.3 TWh, due to an unusually warm summer and autumn. The abundant supply of hydroelectric power resulted in comparatively extensive load-following operation by the nuclear plants during the year. Production losses due to low demand totalled 3.0 TWh. The closure of Barsebaeck 1 will result in a capacity reduction exceeding 4 TWh per year. The hydroelectric power production was 70 TWh, which was 6 TWh more than during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. The remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating contributed 9 TWh. Electricity generation by means of wind power is still increasing. There are now about 470 wind power stations, which produced 0.3 TWh during the year. The total electricity generation totalled 149.8 TWh, a three percent decrease compared with 1998. The preliminary figures for export were 15.9 TWh and for import 8.4 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production result. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is provided in the 1999 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. The unit capability factor for the PWRs at Ringhals averaged 91%, while the BWRs averaged 82% mainly due to the extended outages. The BWR reactors at Forsmark averaged as much as 93%. Forsmark 1 experienced the shortest refuelling outage ever in Sweden, only 9 days and 20 hours. In May, Oskarshamn 2 passed a historical milestone - the unit produced 100 TWh since connection to the grid in 1974. The final production day for Barsebaeck 1, which had been in commercial operation since 1975, was on November 30 when a decision by the Swedish Government revoked the operating licence. Three safety-related events

  10. Getting More Out Of Nuclear Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s first nuclear power plant generated 31 billion kw/h electricity from 1991 to 2007 Major repair work on the first phase of the Qinshan nuclear power plant,which began operation in 1991 as China’s first nuclear power plant,was completed on January 13,2008.The overhaul has improved the reliability and safety of the reactors and given the oper- ators experience for running,repairing

  11. Mitigation strategies of intergranular corrosion in systems of reactors of water boiling (BWR). Combined action of the chemistry of the hydrogen and the oxygen; Estrategias de mitigacion de la corrosion intergranular en sistemas de reactores de agua en ebullicion (BWR). Accion combinada de la quimica del hidrogeno y del oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdugo, M.

    2015-07-01

    Inter-Granular Stress Corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in austenitic stainless steel and in austenitic nickel-based alloys has been the subject of many studies the aim of which was to resolve one of the main problems faced by BWR nuclear power plants since the 1960s. This corrosion phenomenon is the result of the combined action of three factors: sensitization of the material, high local stresses and an aggressive medium. This paper deals with these factors separately and analyzes the oxidative chemistry of BWR reactors (aggressivity of the medium) as one the main causes if IGSCC. (Author)

  12. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  13. The NRC staff evaluation of shutdown and low-power operation at nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, G.M.; Caruso, M.A. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's recent evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants are summarized in this paper. The NRC staff's evaluation was initiated following their investigation of the loss during shutdown of all vital alternating current power on March 20, 1990, at the Alvin W. Vogtle nuclear plant. The objective of the evaluation has been to assess risk broadly during shutdown, refueling, and startup, addressing not only issues raised by the Vogtle event, but also a number of other shutdown-related issues that had been identified by foreign regulatory organizations as well as the NRC and any new issues uncovered in the evaluation process. The key issues concerning shutdown risk identified in the integration process described earlier and subsequently addressed by the staff include the following: (1) outage planning and control; (2) stress on personnel and programs; (3) the need to improve training and procedures; (4) technical specifications; and (5) PWR safety during midloop operation. Other technical topics identified for further study by the staff included loss of RHR, containment capability, rapid boron dilution, fire protection, instrumentation, emergency core cooling system recirculation capability, effect of PWR upper internals, on-site emergency planning, fuel handling and heavy loads, potential for draining the BWR reactor vessel, reporting requirements for shutdown events, and need to strengthen inspection program.

  14. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  15. Recurrence plots and its quantification analysis applied to the monitoring and surveillance in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo, Alberto R.; Otero, Maria Elena M.; Poveda, Aylin G. [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mails: rolo@instec.cu; mmontesi@instec.cu; Guerra, Alexeis C. [University of Informatic Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mail: alexeis@uci.cu

    2007-07-01

    The application of non-linear dynamic methods in many scientific fields has demonstrated its great potentiality in the early detection of significant dynamic singularities. The introduction of these methods oriented to the surveillance of anomalies and failures of nuclear reactors and their fundamental equipment have been demonstrated in the last years. Specifically, Recurrence Plot and its Quantification Analysis are methods currently used in many scientific fields. The paper focuses its attention on the estimation of the Recurrence Plots and its Quantification Analysis applied to signal samples obtained from different types of reactors: research reactor TRIGA MARK-III, BWR/5 and PHWR. Different behaviors are compared in order to look for a pattern for the characterization of the power instability events in the nuclear reactor. These outputs have a great importance for its application in systems of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. For its introduction in a real time monitoring system, the authors propose some useful approaches. The results indicate the potentiality of the method for its implementation in a system of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. All the calculations were performed with two computational tools developed by Marwan: Cross Recurrence Plot Toolbox for Matlab (Version 5.7, Release 22) and Visual Recurrence Analysis (Version 4.8). (author)

  16. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  17. Status update of the BWR cask simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durbin, Samuel G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are typically evaluated through detailed numerical analysis of the system's thermal performance. These modeling efforts are performed by the vendor to demonstrate the performance and regulatory compliance and are independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Numerous studies have been previously conducted. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have moved the storage location from above ground to below ground and significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the canister helium pressure. Previous cask performance validation testing did not capture these parameters. The purpose of the investigation described in this report is to produce a data set that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations presently used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern dry casks. These modern cask designs utilize elevated helium pressure in the sealed canister or are intended for subsurface storage. The BWR cask simulator (BCS) has been designed in detail for both the above ground and below ground venting configurations. The pressure vessel representing the canister has been designed, fabricated, and pressure tested for a maximum allowable pressure (MAWP) rating of 24 bar at 400 C. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly is being deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents the canister. The symmetric single assembly geometry with well-controlled boundary conditions simplifies interpretation of results. Various configurations of outer concentric ducting will be used to mimic conditions for above and below ground storage configurations

  18. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R. [Multiple Dynamics Corp., Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  19. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Inc., Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  20. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O`Hearn, E. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Inc., Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  1. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, George W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  2. Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharkin, N. E.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A.

    This chapter contains the information about nuclear power sources for space systems. Reactor nuclear sources are considered that use the energy of heavy nuclei fission generated by controlled chain fission reaction, as well as the isotope ones producing heat due to the energy of nuclei radioactive decay. Power of reactor nuclear sources is determined by the rate of heavy nuclei fission that may be controlled within a wide range from the zero up to the nominal one. Thermal power of isotope sources cannot be controlled. It is determined by the type and quantity of isotopes and decreases in time due to their radioactive decay. Both, in the reactor sources and in the isotope ones, nuclear power is converted into the thermal one that may be consumed for the coolant heating to produce thrust (Nuclear Power Propulsion System, NPPS) or may be converted into electricity (Nuclear Power Source, NPS) dynamically (a turbine generator) or statically (thermoelectric or thermionic converters). Electric power is supplied to the airborne equipment or is used to produce thrust in electric (ionic, plasma) low-thrust engines. A brief description is presented of the different nuclear systems with reactor and isotopic power sources implemented in Russia and the USA. The information is also given about isotopic sources for the ground-based application, mainly for navigation systems.

  3. System control model of a turbine for a BWR; Modelo del sistema de control de una turbina para un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas O, Y. [Universidad del Valle de Mexico, Campus Toluca, Av. Las Palmas No. 136, Col. San Jorge Pueblo Nuevo, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R.; Delfin L, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: rodolfo.amador@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    In this work is presented a design of a control system of a turbine for a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model seeks to implement later on at thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The model is developed for control and protection of turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control could be employed for one or several turbines in series. The quality of present designs of control pattern of turbine it is that it considers the parameters more important in the operation of a turbine besides that is has incorporated at control the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a model more detailed. The development of control model of a turbine will be good in short and medium term to realize analysis about the operation of turbine with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction specific steps of turbine to feed other equipment s, besides analyzing the separate effect and integrated effect. (Author)

  4. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  5. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  6. Phenomenology of severe accidents in BWR type reactors. First part; Fenomenologia de accidentes severos en reactores nucleares de agua en ebullicion. Primera parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval V, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Energia Nuclear, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A Severe Accident in a nuclear power plant is a deviation from its normal operating conditions, resulting in substantial damage to the core and, potentially, the release of fission products. Although the occurrence of a Severe Accident on a nuclear power plant is a low probability event, due to the multiple safety systems and strict safety regulations applied since plant design and during operation, Severe Accident Analysis is performed as a safety proactive activity. Nuclear Power Plant Severe Accident Analysis is of great benefit for safety studies, training and accident management, among other applications. This work describes and summarizes some of the most important phenomena in Severe Accident field and briefly illustrates its potential use based on the results of two generic simulations. Equally important and abundant as those here presented, fission product transport and retention phenomena are deferred to a complementary work. (Author)

  7. Space nuclear power: a strategy for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy: reliable, portable, abundant and low cost will be a most critical factor, perhaps the sine qua non, for the unfolding of man's permanent presence in space. Space-based nuclear power, in turn, is a key technology for developing such space platforms and the transportation systems necessary to service them. A strategy for meeting space power requirements is the development of a 100-kW(e) nuclear reactor system for high earth orbit missions, transportation from Shuttle orbits to geosynchronous orbit, and for outer planet exploration. The component technology for this nuclear power plant is now underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As permanent settlements are established on the Moon and in space, multimegawatt power plants will be needed. This would involve different technology similar to terrestrial nuclear power plants.

  8. Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.

  9. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant..., Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437, Supplement 1), dated......

  10. Neutron activation analysis and activity in the vessel steel of a BWR reactor for their study without radiological risks in microscopy and spectrometry; Analisis de activacion neutronica y actividad en el acero de la vasija de un reactor nuclear tipo BWR para su estudio sin riesgos radiologicos en microscopia y espectrometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moranchel, M.; Garcia B, A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Longoria G, L. C., E-mail: mmoranchel@ipn.mx [IAEA, Department of Technical Cooperation, Division for Latin America, Room B1109 Wagramerstrasse 5, PO Box 100, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    The vessel material of nuclear reactors is subject to irradiation damage induced by the bombardment of neutrons coming from the reactor core. Neutrons are classified as fast and thermal, which produce different effects. Fast neutrons cause damage to the material by dislocation or displacement of atoms in the crystal structure, while the effect of thermal neutrons is a nuclear transmutation that can significantly change the properties of the material. The type and intensity of damage is based on the characteristics of the material, the flow of neutrons and the modes of neutrons interaction with the atomic structures of the material, among others. This work, alluding to nuclear transmutation, makes an analysis of neutron activation of all isotopes in a steel boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR) vessel. An analytical expression is obtained in order to model activity of steel, on the basis of the weight percentage of its atomic components. Its activity is theoretically estimated in a witness sample of the same material as that of the vessel, placed within the nuclear reactor since the beginning of its commercial operation in April 1995, up to August 2010. It was theoretically determined that the witness sample, with a 0.56 g mass (1 x 1 x 0.07 cm{sup 3} dimensions or equivalent) does not present a radiological risks during the stage of preparation, observation and analysis of it in electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction equipment s. The theoretical results were checked experimentally by measuring the activity of the sample by means of gamma spectrometry, measurement of the exposure levels around the sample, as well as the induced level to whole body and limbs, using thermo-luminescent dosimetry (TLD). As a result of the theoretical analysis, new chemical elements are predicted, as a result of the activation phenomena and radioactive decay, whose presence can be a fundamental factor of change in the properties of the vessel. This work is a preamble to the

  11. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... nuclear material control and accounting system requirements for nuclear power plants. This guide applies... Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' ANSI N15.8-2009...

  12. BWR mechanics and materials technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, E.

    1983-05-01

    This paper discusses technical results obtained from a variety of important programs underway at General Electric's Nuclear Engineering Division. The principal objective of these programs is to qualify and improve BWR product related technologies that fall broadly under the disciplines of Applied Mechanics and Materials Engineering. The paper identifies and deals with current technical issues that are of general importance to the LWR industry albeit the specific focus is directed to the development and qualification of analytical predictive methods and criteria, and improved materials for use in the design of the BWR. In this paper, specific results and accomplishments are summarized to provide a braod perspective of technology advances. Results are presented in sections which discuss: dynamic analysis and modeling; fatigue and fracture evaluation; materials engineering advances; and flow induced vibration.

  13. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  14. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaznov, Georgii M.; Zhabotinskii, Evgenii E.; Serbin, Victor I.; Zrodnikov, Anatolii V.; Pupko, Victor Ia.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Usov, V. A.; Nikolaev, Iu. V.

    Compact thermionic nuclear reactor systems with satisfactory mass performance are competitive with space nuclear power systems based on the organic Rankine and closed Brayton cycles. The mass characteristics of the thermionic space nuclear power system are better than that of the solar power system for power levels beyond about 10 kWe. Longlife thermionic fuel element requirements, including their optimal dimensions, and common requirements for the in-core thermionic reactor design are formulated. Thermal and fast in-core thermionic reactors are considered and the ranges of their sensible use are discussed. Some design features of the fast in-core thermionic reactors cores (power range to 1 MWe) including a choice of coolants are discussed. Mass and dimensional performance for thermionic nuclear power reactor system are assessed. It is concluded that thermionic space nuclear power systems are promising power supplies for spacecrafts and that a single basic type of thermionic fuel element may be used for power requirements ranging to several hundred kWe.

  15. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  16. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  17. Coolant Density and Control Blade History Effects in Extended BWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate the application of burnup credit (BUC) for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase investigates the applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used for spent fuel pools to spent fuel storage and transportation casks and the validation of reactivity (keff) calculations and predicted spent fuel compositions. The second phase focuses on extending BUC beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents work performed to date investigating some aspects of extended BUC. (The technical basis for application of peak reactivity methods to BWR fuel in storage and transportation systems is presented in a companion paper.) Two reactor operating parameters are being evaluated to establish an adequate basis for extended BWR BUC: (1) the effect of axial void profile and (2) the effect of control blade utilization during operation. A detailed analysis of core simulator data for one cycle of a modern operating BWR plant was performed to determine the range of void profiles and the variability of the profile experienced during irradiation. Although a single cycle does not provide complete data, the data obtained are sufficient to determine the primary effects and to identify conservative modeling approaches. These data were used in a study of the effect of axial void profile. The first stage of the study was determination of the necessary moderator density temporal fidelity in depletion modeling. After the required temporal fidelity was established, multiple void profiles were used to examine the effect on cask reactivity. The results of these studies are being used to develop recommendations for conservatively modeling the void profile effects for BWR depletion calculations. The second operational parameter studied was control blade history. Control blades are inserted in

  18. The Role of Nuclear Power in Eurpoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The World Energy Council has published the results of an in-depth review of the current state of nuclear power in Europe, and the possible role of this energy source in Europe's energy future. This regional study combines policy insights, technical details and an analysis of the potential for nuclear as a part of the energy-mix.

  19. Argentina: Nuclear power development and Atucha 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2015-08-15

    In 2014, nuclear energy generated about 5,257 GWh of electricity or a total share of 4.05 % of the total electrical energy of about 129,747.63 GWh kWh produced in Argentina and there has been a trend for this production to increase. Argentina currently has a nuclear production capacity of 1,010 megawatts of electrical energy. However, when the Atucha 2 nuclear power plant is completed and starts commercial operation, it will add 745 megawatts to this electrical production capacity. There are two sites with nuclear power plants in Argentina: Atucha and Embalse. The Embalse nuclear power plant went into operation in 1984. At the Atucha site, the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant started operation in 1974. It was the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. Construction of Atucha-2 started in 1981 but advanced slowly due to funding and was suspended in 1994 when the plant was 81 % built. In 2003, new plans were approved to complete the Atucha 2. I summer 2014 the plant went critical for the first time. The construction was completed under a contract with AECL.

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  1. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong Huu Tan [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-03-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  2. Uranium contamination due to nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Garcia Aparicio, A. (Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of uranium isotopes and their daughters in the natural series were performed in the cooling reservoirs and their neighborhood of two nuclear power plants, [alpha] and [gamma] spectrometry of samples were used to measure the natural and artificial radionuclides. The nuclear power plants are in the southwest of Spain and one of them has been in operation since 1982, the other plant is in the construction phase. We compare the results obtained for the two sites. (orig.).

  3. Impact of modeling Choices on Inventory and In-Cask Criticality Calculations for Forsmark 3 BWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Ade, Brian J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, Stephen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Marshall, William BJ J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel depletion poses a challenge for nuclide inventory validation and nuclear criticality safety analyses. This challenge is due to the complex operating conditions and assembly design heterogeneities that characterize these nuclear systems. Fuel depletion simulations and in-cask criticality calculations are affected by (1) completeness of design information, (2) variability of operating conditions needed for modeling purposes, and (3) possible modeling choices. These effects must be identified, quantified, and ranked according to their significance. This paper presents an investigation of BWR fuel depletion using a complete set of actual design specifications and detailed operational data available for five operating cycles of the Swedish BWR Forsmark 3 reactor. The data includes detailed axial profiles of power, burnup, and void fraction in a very fine temporal mesh for a GE14 (10×10) fuel assembly. The specifications of this case can be used to assess the impacts of different modeling choices on inventory prediction and in-cask criticality, specifically regarding the key parameters that drive inventory and reactivity throughout fuel burnup. This study focused on the effects of the fidelity with which power history and void fraction distributions are modeled. The corresponding sensitivity of the reactivity in storage configurations is assessed, and the impacts of modeling choices on decay heat and inventory are addressed.

  4. In-Containment Signal Conditioning and Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Rate Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Steffen; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander [Institute for Electronics Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 9, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes [AREVA GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Signal conditioning and transmission for sensor systems and networks within the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) still poses a challenge to engineers, particularly in the case of equipment upgrades for existing plants, temporary measurements, decommissioning of plants, but also for new builds. This paper presents an innovative method for efficient and cost-effective instrumentation within high dose rate areas inside the containment. A transmitter-receiver topology is proposed that allows simultaneous, unidirectional point-to-point transmission of multiple sensor signals by superimposing them on existing AC or DC power supply cables using power line communication (PLC) technology. Thereby the need for costly installation of additional cables and containment penetrations is eliminated. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. Hardware modularity of the transmitter allows application specific tradeoffs between redundancy and channel bandwidth. At receiver side in non-radiated areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and provided either in analog or digital output format. Laboratory qualification tests and field test results within a boiling water reactor (BWR) are validating the proof of concept of the proposed system. (authors)

  5. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy......

  6. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  7. Implementation of an on-line monitoring system for transmitters in a CANDU nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, A.; Abdul-Nour, G.; Vaillancourt, R.; Komljenovic, D.

    2012-05-01

    Many transmitters (pressure, level and flow) are used in a nuclear power plant. It is necessary to calibrate them periodically to ensure that their measurements are accurate. These calibration tasks are time consuming and often contribute to worker radiation exposure. Human errors can also sometimes degrade their performance since the calibration involves intrusive techniques. More importantly, experience has shown that the majority of current calibration efforts are not necessary. These facts motivated the nuclear industry to develop new technologies for identifying drifting instruments. These technologies, well known as on-line monitoring (OLM) techniques, are non-intrusive and allow focusing the maintenance efforts on the instruments that really need a calibration. Although few OLM systems have been implemented in some PWR and BWR plants, these technologies are not commonly used and have not been permanently implemented in a CANDU plant. This paper presents the results of a research project that has been performed in a CANDU plant in order to validate the implementation of an OLM system. An application project, based on the ICMP algorithm developed by EPRI, has been carried out in order to evaluate the performance of an OLM system. The results demonstrated that the OLM system was able to detect the drift of an instrument in the majority of the studied cases. A feasibility study has also been completed and has demonstrated that the implementation of an OLM system at a CANDU nuclear power plant could be advantageous under certain conditions.

  8. High-speed simulation of transients in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    A combination of advanced modeling techniques and modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer technology is presented which affords realistic predictions of plant transient and severe off-normal events in LWR power plants through on-line simulations at a speed ten times greater than actual process speeds. Results are shown for a BWR plant simulation. Results are shown to demonstrate computing capacity, accuracy, and speed. Simulation speeds have been achieved which are 110 times larger than those of a CDC-7600 mainframe computer or ten times greater than real-time speed.

  9. Nuclear power development and nuclear data activities in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui Ah Auu [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, research activities on nuclear power requirement carried out jointly by MINT and other organizations are described. Also discussed are activities on neutronics such as TRIGA reactor fuel management, storage pool criticality, and reactor fuel transfer cask calculations. In addition, recent work on radiation transport activities in MINT such as skyshine and photon phantom dose calculations using the MCNP and MRIPP computer codes are presented. Finally, nuclear data measurement works by researchers in Malaysian universities are described. (author)

  10. Validation of a methodology for the study of generation cost of electric power for nuclear power plants; Validacion de una metodologia para el estudio de costos de generacion de electricidad de plantas nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega C, R.F.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfortega@mexis.com

    2004-07-01

    It was developed a model for the calculation of costs of electric generation of nuclear plants. The developed pattern was validated with the one used by the United States Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in studies of comparison of alternatives for electric generation of nuclear plants and fossil plants with base of gas and of coal in the United States described in the guides calls Technical Assessment Guides of EPRI. They are mentioned in qualitative form some changes in the technology of nucleo electric generation that could be included in the annual publication of Costs and Parameters of Reference for the Formulation of Projects of Investment in the Electric Sector of the Federal Commission of Electricity. These changes are in relation to the advances in the technology, in the licensing, in the construction and in the operation of the reactors called advanced as the A BWR built recently in Japan. (Author)

  11. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  12. Studies of Fourteen Nuclear-Powered Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, J. N.; McCulloch, J. C.; Schmill, W. C.; Ward, W. H.

    1952-09-01

    A representative series of aircraft which could be powered by a relatively low-temperature liquid-coolant-cycle nuclear power plant are described. Present aircraft such as the B-36, B-52, and B-47 bombers as well as new designs were investigated. Design and performance characteristics of all the aircraft are presented.

  13. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... petitioners'') has requested that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant... with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant (Fitzpatrick), Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  14. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16,...

  15. Full system decontamination experience in BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N.; Sugai, K.; Katayouse, N.; Fujimori, A.; Iida, K.; Hayashi, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Kanasaki, T.; Inami, I. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Strohmer, F. [Framatome ANP Gmbh, Eelangen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 3, unit 2, unit 5 and unit 1 of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), the replacement of the core shroud and internals has been conducted since 1997 in this order. The welded core internals in operating BWR plants were replaced to improve stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance. At present these units are operating smoothly. The developed technology concept is to restore those internals in open air inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). To reduce the radiation dose rate inside the RPV, not only a shielding method was applied to cut the radiation from the irradiated structures but also a chemical decontamination method was applied to dissolve the radioactive crud deposited on the surface by using chemical agents. The calculated decontamination factor (DF) at the RPV bottom reached 35-117. As result, the dose rate decreased to approximately 0.1 mSv/h under water. Before and after the installation of the in-vessel shielding, a mechanical cleaning was extensively applied inside the RPV to remove the residual crud as well as the swarf, chips from cutting. As a result, the dose rate at the RPV bottom decreased to ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 mSv/h in air. A working environment for human access, which was better than expected, was established inside the RPV, resulting in 70, 140, 50 and 70 man-Sv (estimated) saving respectively at unit 3 (1F-3), unit 2(1F-2), unit 5(1F-5) and unit 1(1F-1). All four full system decontamination (FSDs) contributed to the successful realization of the core shroud replacement project under the dry condition in RPV.

  16. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  17. Application of the FFTBM method and the power relative contribution to the discharge transitory of the recirculation pumps of a BWR; Aplicacion del metodo FFTBM y de la contribucion relativa de potencia al transitorio de disparo de las bombas de recirculacion de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo D, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Fuentes M, L., E-mail: rogelio.castillo@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this work was realized the simulation of the discharge transitory of both recirculation pumps of a BWR with the Simulate-3K code. This type of transitory is used in the stability analyses for the licensing of the fuel reload. An analysis of the precision of the simulation is also presented, using the FFTBM method jointly with the power relative contribution. This way, instead of determining the total precision of the calculation, a weighed precision is obtained by the contribution of each relevant parameter of the transitory. The results show that the precision of the simulation is acceptable due to the small magnitude of the merit figure of the width total average. The error in the merit figure comes mainly from the parameters total flow in the core and temperature of the fuel in the core. (Author)

  18. The nuclear power discussion in change. Nuclear controversy has shifted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Kuester, Wolf J.; Popp, Manfred

    2015-07-15

    The public discussion on nuclear energy is not focused on power plant safety anymore. A globally good safety statistic and years of information activity on safety technology provided progress, even though all incidents are still discussed with great dedication. Nevertheless the field of disposal receives more prominence in public discussions since 1976; reprocessing of irradiated fuels and storage of nuclear waste follow the topic of nuclear power plants with temporary shift. During a long preparation time technical and operational know-how was gathered for both fields that is now available for use on large technical scale. For the entire disposal complex exists a comprehensive concept prepared by the federal government, which has to be put into practice together with the industry. The priority assignment for a dialogue with the public is to comprehensively inform on extend and quality of problem solutions and to highlight that even here the safety of the biological-cycle is the guiding principle for all considerations.

  19. Nuclear Power: Entering the Stage of Active Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lianyi; Zhu Li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Development course Since 1970 when the construction preparation of Qinshan No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant started, China's nuclear power industry has grown out of nothing, and then adjusted the step from moderate development to vigorous development. In this course, China's nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry has also been unceasingly developing and strengthening itself with the construction of nuclear power plants one by one.

  20. Thermodynamics in nuclear power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems, honing in on the application of these principles to nuclear reactor powersystems. It includes all the necessary information regarding the fundamental laws to gain a complete understanding and apply them specifically to the challenges of operating nuclear plants. Beginning with definitions of thermodynamic variables such as temperature, pressure and specific volume, the book then explains the laws in detail, focusing on pivotal concepts such as enthalpy and entropy, irreversibilit

  1. Dissolution experiments of commercial PWR (52 MWd/kgU) and BWR (53 MWd/kgU) spent nuclear fuel cladded segments in bicarbonate water under oxidizing conditions. Experimental determination of matrix and instant release fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, E.; Serrano-Purroy, D.; Sureda, R.; Casas, I.; de Pablo, J.

    2015-10-01

    The denominated instant release fraction (IRF) is considered in performance assessment (PA) exercises to govern the dose that could arise from the repository. A conservative definition of IRF comprises the total inventory of radionuclides located in the gap, fractures, and the grain boundaries and, if present, in the high burn-up structure (HBS). The values calculated from this theoretical approach correspond to an upper limit that likely does not correspond to what it will be expected to be instantaneously released in the real system. Trying to ascertain this IRF from an experimental point of view, static leaching experiments have been carried out with two commercial UO2 spent nuclear fuels (SNF): one from a pressurized water reactor (PWR), labelled PWR, with an average burn-up (BU) of 52 MWd/kgU and fission gas release (FGR) of 23.1%, and one from a boiling water reactor (BWR), labelled BWR, with an average BU of and 53 MWd/kgU and FGR of 3.9%. One sample of each SNF, consisting of fuel and cladding, has been leached in bicarbonate water during one year under oxidizing conditions at room temperature (25 ± 5)°C. The behaviour of the concentration measured in solution can be divided in two according to the release rate. All radionuclides presented an initial release rate that after some days levels down to a slower second one, which remains constant until the end of the experiment. Cumulative fraction of inventory in aqueous phase (FIAPc) values has been calculated. Results show faster release in the case of the PWR SNF. In both cases Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Y, Tc, La and Nd dissolve congruently with U, while dissolution of Zr, Ru and Rh is slower. Rb, Sr, Cs and Mo, dissolve faster than U. The IRF of Cs at 10 and 200 days has been calculated, being (3.10 ± 0.62) and (3.66 ± 0.73) for PWR fuel, and (0.35 ± 0.07) and (0.51 ± 0.10) for BWR fuel.

  2. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  3. Optimization of fuel rod enrichment distribution to minimize rod power peaking throughout life within BWR fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Yasushi; Hida, Kazuki; Sakurada, Koichi; Yamamoto, Munenari [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Lab.

    1997-01-01

    A practical method was developed for determining the optimum fuel enrichment distribution within a boiling water reactor fuel assembly. The method deals with two different optimization problems, i.e. a combinatorial optimization problem grouping fuel rods into a given number of rod groups with the same enrichment, and a problem determining an optimal enrichment for each fuel rod under the resultant rod-grouping pattern. In solving these problems, the primary goal is to minimize a predefined objective function over a given exposure period. The objective function used here is defined by a linear combination: C{sub 1}X+C{sub 2}X{sub G}, where X and X{sub G} stand for a control variable to give the constraint respectively for a local power peaking factor and a gadolinium rod power, and C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} are user-definable weighting factor to accommodate the design preference. The algorithm of solving the combinatorial optimization problem starts with finding the optimal enrichment vector without any rod-grouping, and promising candidates of rod-grouping patterns are found by exhaustive enumeration based on the resulting fuel enrichment ordering, and then the latter problem is solved by using the method of approximation programming. The practical application of the present method is shown for a contemporary 8x8 Pu mixed-oxide fuel assembly with 10 gadolinium-poisoned rods. (author)

  4. The Fundamentals and Status of Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear power has enormous potential to provide clean, safe base-load electricity to the world's growing population. Harnessing this potential in an economic and responsible manner is not without challenges. Safety remains the principal tenet of our operating fleet, which currently provides ˜20% of U.S. electricity generated. The performance of this fleet from economic and safety standpoints has improved dramatically over the past several decades. This nuclear generation also represents greater than 70% of the emission free electricity with hydroelectric power providing the majority of the remainder. There have been many lessons learned from the more than 50 years of experience with nuclear power and these have been factored into the new designs now being constructed worldwide. These new designs, which have enhanced safety compared to the operating fleet, have been simplified by employing passive safety systems and modular construction. There are applications for licenses of more than 20 new reactors under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the first of these licenses will be completed in early 2012, and the first new U.S. reactor will start operating in 2016. Yet there are still more improvements that can be made and these are being pursued to achieve an even greater deployment of nuclear power technology.

  5. BWR ASSEMBLY SOURCE TERMS FOR WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-02-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly radiation source term data for use during Waste Package (WP) design. The BWR assembly radiation source terms are to be used for evaluation of radiolysis effects at the WP surface, and for personnel shielding requirements during assembly or WP handling operations. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate BWR assembly radiation source terms that bound selected groupings of BWR assemblies, with regard to assembly average burnup and cooling time, which comprise the anticipated MGDS BWR commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream. The source term data is to be provided in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent shielding/radiation dose calculations. Since these calculations may also be used for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), with appropriate justification provided by TSPA, or radionuclide release rate analysis, the grams of each element and additional cooling times out to 25 years will also be calculated and the data included in the output files.

  6. Entrainment and deposition modeling of liquid films with applications for BWR fuel rod dryout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ruwan Kumara

    While best estimate computer codes provide the licensing basis for nuclear power facilities, they also serve as analytical tools in overall plant and component design procedures. An ideal best estimate code would comprise of universally applicable mechanistic models for all its components. However, due to the limited understanding in these specific areas, many of the models and correlations used in these codes reflect high levels of empiricism. As a result, the use of such models is strictly limited to the range of parameters within which the experiments have been conducted. Disagreements between best estimate code predictions and experimental results are often explained by the mechanistic inadequacies of embedded models. Significant mismatches between calculated and experimental critical power values are common observations in the analyses of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Based on experimental observations and calculations, these mismatches are attributed to the additional entrainment and deposition caused by spacer grids in BWR fuel assemblies. In COBRA-TF (Coolant Boiling in Rod Arrays-Two Fluid); a state of the art industrial best estimate code, these disagreements are hypothesized to occur due the absence of an appropriate spacer grid model. In this thesis, development of a suitably detailed spacer grid model and integrating it to COBRA-TF is documented. The new spacer grid model is highly mechanistic so that the applicability of it is not seriously affected by geometric variations in different spacer grid designs. COBRA-TF (original version) simulations performed on single tube tests and BWR rod bundles with spacer grids showed that single tube predictions were more accurate than those of the rod bundles. This observation is understood to arise from the non-availability of a suitable spacer grid model in COBRA-TF. Air water entrainment experiments were conducted in a test section simulating two adjacent BWR sub channels to visualize the flow behavior at

  7. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  8. Estimation of dose rate around the spent control rods of a BWR; Estimacion de la rapidez de dosis alrededor de las barras de control gastadas de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino P, G.

    2016-10-01

    The energy can come from fossil renewable sources (solar (natural gas, oil), wind, hydro, tidal, geothermal, biomass, bio energy and nuclear. Nuclear power can be obtained by fission reactions and fusion (still under investigation) atomic nuclei. Fission, is a partition of a very heavy nucleus (Uranium 235, for example) into two lighter nuclei. Much of the world's electric power is generated from the energy released by fission processes. In a nuclear power reactor, light water as the BWR, there are many important elements that allow safe driving operation, one of them are the elements or control systems, the burnable poison or neutron absorber inherently allow control power reactor. The control rods, which consist mostly of stainless steel and absorbing elements (such as boron carbide, hafnium, cadmium, among others) of thermal neutrons is able to initiate, regulate or stop the reactor power. These, due to the use of depleted burned or absorbing material and therefore reach their lifespan, which can be 15 years or have other values depending on the manufacturer. Control rods worn should be removed, stored or confined in expressly places. Precisely at this stage arises the importance of knowing their radiological condition to manipulate safely and without incident to the people health responsible for conducting these proceedings state arises. This thesis consists in the estimation of the dose rate in spent control rod made of boron carbide, from a typical BWR reactor. It will be estimated by direct radiation measurements with measurement equipment for radiotherapy ionization chamber, in six spent control rods, which were taken at different reactor operating cycles and are in a spent fuel pool. Using bracket electromechanical and electronic equipment for positioning and lifting equipment for radiation measurement around the control rod in the axial and radial arrangement for proper scanning. Finally will be presented a graphic corresponding to the dose

  9. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit......

  10. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed......

  11. Technical and economic proposal for the extension of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant with an additional nuclear reactor; Propuesta tecnica y economica para la ampliacion de la Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde con un reactor nuclear adicional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal C, C.D.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Circuito Interior, C.U. Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: carlosdanielleal@yahoo.com.mx

    2006-07-01

    The increment of the human activities in the industrial environments and of generation of electric power, through it burns it of fossil fuels, has brought as consequence an increase in the atmospheric concentrations of the calls greenhouse effect gases and, these in turn, serious repercussions about the environment and the quality of the alive beings life. The recent concern for the environment has provoked that industrialized countries and not industrialized carry out international agreements to mitigate the emission from these gases to the atmosphere. Our country, like part of the international community, not is exempt of this problem for what is necessary that programs begin guided toward the preservation of the environment. As for the electric power generation, it is indispensable to diversify the sources of primary energy; first, to knock down the dependence of the hydrocarbons and, second, to reduce the emission of polluting gases to the atmosphere. In this item, the nucleo electric energy not only has proven to be safe and competitive technical and economically, able to generate big quantities of electric power with a high plant factor and a considerable cost, but rather also, it is one of the energy sources that less pollutants it emits to the atmosphere. The main object of this work is to carry out a technical and economic proposal of the extension of the Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant (CNLV) with a new nuclear reactor of type A BWR (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor), evolutionary design of the BWR technology to which belong the two reactors installed at the moment in the plant, with the purpose of increasing the installed capacity of generation of the CNLV and of the Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE) with foundation in the sustainable development and guaranteeing the protection of the environment by means of the exploitation of a clean and sure technology that counts at the moment with around 12,000 year-reactor of operational experience in more of

  12. Analysis of the noise of the jet pumps of the Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Analisis de ruido de las bombas de chorro de la Unidad 2 de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo D, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Ruiz E, J.A. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Calleros M, G. [CFE, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: rcd@nuclear.inin-mx

    2004-07-01

    The use of the analysis of noise for the detection of badly functioning of the components of a BWR it is a powerful tool in the determination of abnormal conditions of operation, during the life of a nuclear plant of power. From the eighties, some nuclear reactors have presented problems related with the jet pumps and the knots of the recirculation. The Regulatory Commission of the United States, in the I E bulletin 80-07, recommended to carry out a periodic supervision of the pressure drop of the jet pumps, to prevent structural failures. In this work, methods of analysis of noise are used for the detection of abnormal conditions of operation of the jet pumps of a BWR. Signals are analysed to low and high frequency of pressure drop with the NOISE software that is in development. The obtained results show the behavior of the jet pumps of jet 6 and 11 before and after a partial blockade in their throats where the pump 6 return to their condition of previous operation and the pump 11 present a new fall of pressure, inside the limit them permissible of operation. The methodology of the analysis of noise demonstrated to be an useful tool for the badly functioning detection, and you could apply to create a database to supervise the dynamic behavior of the jet pumps of an BWR. (Author)

  13. SRT project: tele-robotics maintenance of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Santamaria, J. [Iberdrola SA, Madrid (Spain); Calleja, J.M.; Carmena, P. [Endesa, Madrid (Spain); Avello, A.; Rubio, Y.A. [CEIT-Centro de Estudias e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Guipuzcoa, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The main aim of the SRT project was to develop a family of robots to help in the operation of nuclear power plants. Four robotic systems were developed and this paper focuses on three of them: ANAES -a steam leak detector through noise analysis-, MALIBA -a master-slave tele-operation system with force feedback- and ROBICEN -a compact pneumatic wall climbing robot-. ANAES (the Spanish acronym of spectrum analysis) consists of a set of sensor heads attached to a computer. Each head has two microphones and a video camera installed on it, and a DC motor that rotates the head. The heads are shielded with lead and boron steel, especially near the video camera. The noise generated by the plant is recorded every day at the same time and the software compares the recorded noise with the mean values of past records. The system can discern whether the noise has remarkably changed and, through phase analysis of the sound recorded by both microphones, identifies the direction of arrival (DOA) of the new noise, probably a steam leak. Using several heads, the new noise source can be identified. The video camera can be used to ease the location of the steam leaks. The stationariness of the measured noise has been tested in C.N. Cofrentes -a Spanish BWR-6 reactor-. A finished system with six heads has recently been installed in the MSR (moisture separator reheater) of the same plant. MALIBA is a master-slave tele-operated system with force feedback. It consists of two robots: a Stewart platform used as master robot and an open chain robot used as slave. The slave robot follows faithfully the movements of the master, and the master robot can reflect a force proportional to the force exerted by the slave on the environment. Three tools have been developed for the slave robot: a robot hand that includes a small video camera, a pneumatic drill and a rectifier. The results obtained have shown its effectiveness for the designed operations. ROBICEN is a lightweight pneumatic robot

  14. Public participation and trust in nuclear power development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of nuclear power in China requires not only increasing institutional capacity to prevent and adequately cope with nuclear risks, but also increasing public trust in governmental agencies and nuclear enterprises managing nuclear risks. Using a case study on Haiyang nuclear power plant

  15. CLAD CARBIDE NUCLEAR FUEL, THERMIONIC POWER, MODULES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The general objective is to evaluate a clad carbide emitter, thermionic power module which simulates nuclear reactor installation, design, and...performance. The module is an assembly of two series-connected converters with a single common cesium reservoir. The program goal is 500 hours

  16. Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-07-01

    The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

  17. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  18. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  19. Statistical analysis about corrosion in nuclear power plants; Analisis estadistico de la corrosion en centrales nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquid G, C.; Medina F, A.; Zamora R, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Nowadays, it has been carried out the investigations related with the structure degradation mechanisms, systems or and components in the nuclear power plants, since a lot of the involved processes are the responsible of the reliability of these ones, of the integrity of their components, of the safety aspects and others. This work presents the statistics of the studies related with materials corrosion in its wide variety and specific mechanisms. These exist at world level in the PWR, BWR, and WWER reactors, analysing the AIRS (Advanced Incident Reporting System) during the period between 1993-1998 in the two first plants in during the period between 1982-1995 for the WWER. The factors identification allows characterize them as those which apply, they are what have happen by the presence of some corrosion mechanism. Those which not apply, these are due to incidental by natural factors, mechanical failures and human errors. Finally, the total number of cases analysed, they correspond to the total cases which apply and not apply. (Author)

  20. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide... Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs.'' The......

  1. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  2. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  3. Actinides inventory of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde Unit 1; Inventario de actinidos de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde Unidad 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Alonso V, G., E-mail: eduardo.martinez@inin.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U. P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    At the present time 435 nuclear power reactors exist for the electricity generation operating in the world and 63 in construction. Mexico has two reactors type BWR in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The nuclear fuel that is used in the nuclear reactors is retired of the reactor core when the energy that this contained has been extracted. This used fuel is known as spent nuclear fuel, the problem with this fuel is that was irradiated inside the reactor and continuous emitting a high radiation, as well as a significant heat quantity when being extracted, for what is necessary to maintain it in cooling and with some shielding to be protected of the radiation that emits. This objective is achieved confining the fuel in the spent nuclear fuel pool, where it is cooled and the same pool provides the necessary shielding to maintain the surroundings in safety radiation levels for the personnel that work in the power plant. An inconvenience of the pools is its limited storage capacity and that after certain time is necessary to remove the fuel, according to the established regulation to continue operating. To correct this inconvenience, two alternatives of spent fuel disposition exist, 1) the final disposition in deep geologic repositories and 2) the reprocessing and recycled of spent fuel. Each alternative presents its particularities and specific problems; however taking many years to be able to implement anyone of them. To carry out the second option, is indispensable to estimate the total mass of actinides generated in the spent nuclear fuel, that which represents to develop a methodology for it, this action is the main purpose of the present work. Inside our calculation method was necessary to appeal to diverse computation tools as the codes Origin-S and Keno V.a. Later on the obtained were compared with a problem type Benchmark, being obtained a smaller absolute error to 1.0%. (Author)

  4. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  5. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  6. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  7. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  8. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  9. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants; Fukushima, dos anos despues, requerimientos de modificacion en centrales nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A., E-mail: jerson.sanchez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  10. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, T.J. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  11. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  12. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Chae, Kyu Nam

    1996-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : (1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. (2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. (3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs.

  13. Design and construction of nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, Jürgen; Meiswinkel, Rüdiger; Bergmeister, Konrad; Fingerloos, Frank; Wörner, Johann-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply.Building structures required for nuclear installations whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overv

  14. Estimate of coolant flow in assemblies of a natural circulation BWR applying and equivalent electric model; Estimacion del flujo de refrigerante en los ensambles de un BWR de circulacion natural aplicando un modelo electrico equivalente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J. B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: julfi_jg@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-10-15

    The present work exposes the design and implementation of an advanced controller that it allows to estimate the coolant flow in fuel assemblies of a natural circulation BWR in real time. the complete development of this study is part of a doctoral project in course. In this work the construction of optimal controller is shown that allows to estimate the coolant flows in reactor and its operation applied to an equivalent electric model to natural circulation ESBWR. The controller design that allows the completely automatic starter of natural circulation reactor, required of a variables estimator not meter directly of nuclear power plant and use of local distributions estimates of coolant flow, (this controller type at the moment is utilized in the A BWR and several BWR in operation in Japan). The construction of estimator controller is mathematically based in the theory referring to Kalman filter, whose algorithm provides an advanced control of system. To prove the estimator operation was developed a simplified model that reproduces the basic dynamic of coolant flowing in the ESBWR, a practice way and very interesting of representing this phenomenon is by means the use of an equivalent electric model, which was developed starting from analogies that there is among the relation that keep the pressure differences with the mass flow and differences of electric potential with electric current. A detailed analysis of equivalence among models will be presented in a later article. (Author)

  15. The Development of Nufreq-N AN Analytical Model for the Stability Analysis of Nuclear Coupled Density-Wave Oscillations in Boiling Water Nuclear Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Goon Cherl

    A state-of-the-art one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic model has been developed to be used for the linear analysis of nuclear-coupled density-wave oscillations in a boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR). The model accounts for phasic slip, distributed spacers, subcooled boiling, space/time -dependent power distributions and distributed heated wall dynamics. In addition to a parallel channel stability analysis, a detailed model was derived for the BWR loop analysis of both the natural and forced circulation modes of operation. In its final form, this model constitutes a multi -input, multi-output(MIMO) linear system, which features a general nodal neutron kinetics model. Kinetics parameters for use in the kinetics model have been obtained by utilizing self-consistent nodal data and power distributions. The stability characteristics of a typical BWR/4 has been investigated with the Nyquist criterion. The computer implementation of this model, NUFREQ -N, was used for the parametric study of a typical BWR/4 and comparisons were made with existing in-core and out -of-core data. Also, NUFREQ-N was used to analyze the expected stability characteristics of a typical BWR/4. The parametric results revealed important factors influencing BWR stability margin. It was found that NUFREQ -N generally agreed well with out-of-core data. This was especially true for the predicted power-to-flow transfer function, which is the most important transfer function in thermal-hydraulic stability analysis. In the stability analysis of a typical BWR/4 it was found that it is very important to use accurate models of thermal-hydraulic and neutron kinetic phenomena. Moreover, the accuracy of the nuclear input data is extremely important.

  16. Management of distortion channels in the Cofrentes NPP; Gestion de la deformacion de canales en la central nuclear de Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albendea, J. C.; Garcia, P. J.; Iglesias, J.; Mascarell, R.

    2015-07-01

    Fuel channels distortion in BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) reactors may have implication for safety. This phenomenon is complex and, at the present time it is not known in detail. This article provides the Iberdrola Generacion Nuclear SAU ongoing activities to know, predict and mitigate the consequences that this phenomenon may cause in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant. (Author)

  17. 75 FR 14638 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...Energy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee), for operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant... Manager, Plant Licensing Branch III-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear...

  18. A BWR licensing experience in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J.; Ogura, C. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Arai, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The STP3-4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola through the final meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in the middle of 2015. The next steps are to support the Mandatory Hearing process, and voting by the NRC commissioners on the motion to grant the Combined License, which is scheduled beginning of 2016 according to US NRC schedule as of March 30, 2015. This paper summarizes the history and progress of the US-A BWR licensing, including the experiences of the Licensee, Nina, and Toshiba as the Epc team worked through the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 (10-Cfr) Part 52 process, and provides some perspectives on how the related licensing material would also be of value within a 10-Cfr Part 50, two-step process to minimize schedule and financial risks which could arise from ongoing technical developments and regulatory reviews. (Author)

  19. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background First.... NFP-58, which authorizes operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (PNPP). The license... rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the...

  20. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  1. U.S. Nuclear Power Reactor Plant Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Demographic data on U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors, including: plant name/unit number, docket number, location, licensee, reactor/containment type, nuclear...

  2. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairlie Ian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  3. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow.

  4. Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development : Current Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactor...

  5. Key issues in space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  6. The Resurgence of U.S. Nuclear Power, 2. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The updated report provides an overview of the opportunities for nuclear power in the U.S. electric industry, including a concise look at the challenges faced by nuclear power, the ability of advanced nuclear reactors to address these challenges, and the current state of nuclear power generation. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of U.S. Nuclear Power including its history, the current market environment, and the future of nuclear power in the U.S.; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in nuclear power; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of new nuclear power plants; a description of nuclear power technology including existing reactors, as well as 3rd and 4th generation reactor designs; a review of the economics of new nuclear power projects and comparison to other generation alternatives; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting nuclear power development; profiles of the key reactor manufacturers participating in the U.S. nuclear power market; and, profiles of the leading U.S. utilities participating in the U.S. nuclear power market.

  7. Nuclear power: Is the renaissance real or a mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.-Holger; McDonald, Alan

    2010-09-15

    In 2009, in the midst of the global financial and economic crises that began in 2008, and as the nuclear power industry posted its first two-year decline in installed capacity in history, the IAEA revised its projections for future nuclear power growth upwards. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power in the world today and the status of all steps in the nuclear fuel cycle. It summarizes nuclear power's prospects and important trends in key factors. It explains the reasons for optimism and rising expectations about nuclear power's future, and it acknowledges that there is, nonetheless, much uncertainty.

  8. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operat...

  9. Nuclear Propulsion and Power Non-Nuclear Test Facility (NP2NTF): Preliminary Analysis and Feasibility Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors, which power nuclear propulsion and power systems, and the nuclear radiation and residual radioactivity associated with these systems, impose...

  10. Logical model for the control of a BWR turbine;Modelo logico para el control de una turbina de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas O, Y. [Universidad del Valle de Mexico, Campus Toluca, Av. Las Palmas No. 136, Col. San Jorge Pueblo Nuevo, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R., E-mail: yonaeton@hotmail.co [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a design of a logical model is presented for the turbine control of a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model is sought to implement later on inside the thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The logical model is developed for the control and protection of the turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control will be been able to use for one or several turbines in series. The quality of the present design of the logical model of the turbine control is that it considers the most important parameters in the operation of a turbine, besides that they have incorporated to the logical model the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a detailed model. The development of the logical model of a turbine will be of utility in the short and medium term to carry out analysis on the turbine operation with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction, specific steps of the turbine to feed other equipment s, in addition to analyze the separate and the integrated effect. (Author)

  11. Nuclear Power:Entering the Stage of Active Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Development course Since 1970 when the construction preparation of Qinshan No.1 Nuclear Power Plant started,China's nuclear power industry has grown out of nothing,and then adjusted the step from moderate development to vigorous development.In this course,China's nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry has also been unceasingly developing and strengthening itself with the construction of nuclear power plants one by one.

  12. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  13. Internal Mainland Nuclear Power Liquid Waste Treatment Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU; Xin-feng; ZHANG; Zhen-tao; ZHENG; Wen-jun; WANG; Lei; YANG; Lin-yue; HUA; Xiao-hui; ZHENG; Yu; YANG; Yong-gang; WU; Yan

    2013-01-01

    Taohuajiang power station is the first internal mainland nuclear power station,and it adopts AP1000nuclear technology belongs to the Westinghouse Electric Corporation.To ensure the safety of the environment around the station and satisfy the radio liquid waste discharge standards,our team has researched the liquid waste treatment technology for the internal mainland nuclear power plant.According

  14. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  15. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  16. Operational monitoring in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibold, A. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Suedwest e.V., Filderstadt (Germany); Bartonicek, J. [GKN Neckarwestheim, Im Steinbruch, Neckarwestheim, D-74382 (Germany); Kockelmann, H. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Act requires that measures made feasible by state of the art technology be adopted to avoid damage that could be caused as the result of the construction and operation of a nuclear plant. This stipulation constitutes the basis for deriving requirements for planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning. Ensuring the function and integrity of those components and systems that are relevant to plant safety is of major significance with regard to operation of a nuclear power plant. The basis for ensuring these features is laid in planning, design and construction. Important as these foundations may be, it is absolutely essential to monitor the quality originally planned and achieved in an object as undeniably complex as a nuclear power plant. The RSK-Leitlinien fuer Druckwasserreaktoren (Reactor Safety Commission Guidelines for Pressurized Water Reactors) incorporate fundamental requirements for design, mechanical design, materials, manufacturing, testing and examination, and operation. Meeting these requirements makes it possible to exclude a catastrophic rupture of the components in the reactor cooling system pressure boundary (primary system), as has been demonstrated in detailed research and development work. The term basic safety was defined for this concept. Basic safety coupled with multiple redundancy suffices to exclude the possibility of large ruptures (rupture preclusion). The principle of plant monitoring and documentation (operational monitoring) implements redundancy in a significant manner within this concept. The monitoring techniques used in Germany have reached an advanced state of development and are still being optimized. Thus, operational monitoring is a major contributory factor in the safety and high availability of nuclear power plants. It also provides a means of expanding our knowledge of life time expectation. (orig.).

  17. Nuclear power plant operation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanae, Katsushige [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1997-07-01

    In this report, the system for operation of a nuclear power plant and the qualities required for its operators were summarized. In Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Atomic Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. operation is continuously made by 6 groups containing each 10 workers on three shifts. A group including the person in charge participates in the operation through cooperation of the control center and the respective spots. The group leaders are chosen from those approved as a person responsible to its operation. The conditions for the person responsible were as follows: to receive simulator training for senior operator, to have more than 7 years experience of operating a nuclear power plant, to pass a practical examination on the ordinary operation and the emergency one, to receive a training course to master the knowledge and techniques for operating an atomic reactor and to success the oral examination on practical knowledge required to perform the duty. Further, the simulators for ABWR training produced by Toshiba Corp. and Hitachi Ltd. were introduced as an example. And the practical training procedures to manipulate the simulator were presented. (M.N.)

  18. The future of nuclear power: value orientations and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Stephen C; Rosa, Eugene A; Dan, Amy; Dietz, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a revival of interest in nuclear power. Two decades ago, the expansion of nuclear power in the United States was halted by widespread public opposition as well as rising costs and less than projected increases in demand for electricity. Can the renewed enthusiasm for nuclear power overcome its history of public resistance that has persisted for decades? We propose that attitudes toward nuclear power are a function of perceived risk, and that both attitudes and risk perceptions are a function of values, beliefs, and trust in the institutions that influence nuclear policy. Applying structural equation models to data from a U.S. national survey, we find that increased trust in the nuclear governance institutions reduces perceived risk of nuclear power and together higher trust and lower risk perceptions predict positive attitudes toward nuclear power. Trust in environmental institutions and perceived risks from global environmental problems do not predict attitudes toward nuclear power. Values do predict attitudes: individuals with traditional values have greater support for, while those with altruistic values have greater opposition to, nuclear power. Nuclear attitudes do not vary by gender, age, education, income, or political orientation, though nonwhites are more supportive than whites. These findings are consistent with, and provide an explanation for, a long series of public opinion polls showing public ambivalence toward nuclear power that persists even in the face of renewed interest for nuclear power in policy circles.

  19. Standard technical specifications General Electric plants, BWR/6. Volume 1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  20. BWR spent fuel transport and storage system for KKL: TN trademark 52L, TN trademark 97L, TN trademark 24 BHL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, D.; Verdier, A. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Monsigny, P.A. [NOK/KKL (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    The LEIBSTADT (KKL) nuclear power plant in Switzerland has opted to ship spent fuel to a central facility called ZWILAG for interim storage. In the mid-nineties, COGEMA LOGISTICS was contracted by KKL for the supply of the TN trademark a52L and TN trademark 97L transport and storage casks for BWR fuel types. In 2003, KKL also ordered from COGEMA LOGISTICS the supply of six TNae24 BHL transport and storage casks. This paper shows how all the three cask designs have responded to the KKL needs to ship and store BWR spent fuel. In addition, it highlights the already significant operational feedback of the TN trademark 52L and TN trademark 97L casks by the KKL and ZWILAG operators.

  1. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  2. Future Expectation for China's Nuclear Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China:the future of nuclear power Wang Yonggan:In terms of the highlighted issue of energy security,oil is of paramount importance,coal is the foundation and electricity is the pivot according to China's energy strategy.The national total installed power capacity will hit a record high of 900 GW in 2010,and will probably approach 1 500 GW in 2020 when coal-fired power will continue to dominate,and alternative energy such as nuclear energy,hydroenergy,wind energy,and others will take up only 30% at most.Therefore,China remains in dire need to create more room for alternative energy.To solve this problem,solutions should be found in the diversification of energy,especially large-scale development of alternative energy,by which a lowered-and ultimately zeroed-growth of coal-fired generating units could be realized,and the target of low,even zero carbon emission could come true.

  3. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  4. DCS emulator development for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y. [Hitachi Canada Ltd., Power and Industry Div., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Ishii, K.; Chiba, D. [Hitachi Ltd., Information and Control Systems Div., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Continual training of operators is one of the principal means by which Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operational efficiency can be improved. Since this training cannot take place in the actual NPP, NPP simulator applications must be used instead. While digitalization scope of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems has been expanded to the entire plant by using Distributed Control System (DCS) implementation, Hitachi has implemented DCS emulator on a general purpose Personal Computer (PC) and applied it to simulator applications. This paper reviews such DCS emulator development for NPP by Hitachi. (author)

  5. Nuclear Power and the World's Energy Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, V; Dunning-Davies, J

    2004-01-01

    The global requirements for energy are increasing rapidly as the global population increases and the under-developed nations become more advanced. The traditional fuels used in their traditional ways will become increasingly unable to meet the demand. The need for a review of the energy sources available is paramount, although the subsequent need to develop a realistic strategy to deal with all local and global energy requirements is almost as important. Here attention will be restricted to examining some of the claims and problems of using nuclear power to attempt to solve this major question.

  6. Thermal hydraulics characterization of the core and the reactor vessel type BWR; Caracterizacion termohidraulica del nucleo y de la vasija de un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata Y, M.; Lopez H, L.E. [CFE, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Municipio Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: marxlenin.zapata@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-07-01

    The thermal hydraulics design of a reactor type BWR 5 as the employees in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde involves the coupling of at least six control volumes: Pumps jet region, Stratification region, Core region, Vapor dryer region, Humidity separator region and Reactor region. Except by the regions of the core and reactor, these control volumes only are used for design considerations and their importance as operative data source is limited. It is for that is fundamental to complement the thermal hydraulics relations to obtain major data that allow to determine the efficiency of internal components, such as pumps jet, humidity separator and vapor dryer. Like example of the previous thing, calculations are realized on the humidity of the principal vapor during starting, comparing it with the values at the moment incorporated in the data banks of the computers of process of both units. (Author)

  7. Optimization of fuel reloads for a BWR using the ant colony system; Optimizacion de recargas de combustible para un BWR usando el sistema de colonia de hormigas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50110 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortiz S, J. J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: jaime.es.jaime@gmail.com

    2009-10-15

    In this work some results obtained during the development of optimization systems are presented, which are employees for the fuel reload design in a BWR. The systems use the ant colony optimization technique. As first instance, a system is developed that was adapted at travel salesman problem applied for the 32 state capitals of Mexican Republic. The purpose of this implementation is that a similarity exists with the design of fuel reload, since the two problems are of combinatorial optimization with decision variables that have similarity between both. The system was coupled to simulator SIMULATE-3, obtaining good results when being applied to an operation cycle in equilibrium for reactors of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  8. Analysis of assemblies exchange in the core of a reactor BWR; Analisis del intercambio de ensambles en el nucleo de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauil U, J. S. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Ingenieria, Av. Industrias no contaminantes por Anillo Periferico Norte s/n, Apdo. Postal 150 Cordemex, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Fuentes M, L.; Castillo M, J. A.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Perusquia del Cueto, R., E-mail: san_dino@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The performance of the core of a boiling water reactor (BWR) was evaluated when two assemblies are exchanged during the fuel reload in erroneous way. All with the purpose of analyzing the value of the neutrons effective multiplication factor and the thermal limits for an exchange of assemblies. In their realization the mentioned study was based in a transition cycle of the Unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The obtained results demonstrate that when carrying out an exchange between two fuel assemblies in erroneous way, with regard to the original reload, the changes in the neutrons effective multiplication factor do not present a serious problem, unless the exchange has been carried out among a very burnt assembly with one fresh, where this last is taken to the periphery. (Author)

  9. 77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to Nuclear Management and Resources... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' Part 50, ``Domestic......

  10. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear..., construction, operation and maintenance of the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000), the APR1400...

  11. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... request to generically extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but...

  12. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  13. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide mechanisms...

  14. Neutron measurements at nuclear power reactors [55

    CERN Document Server

    Scherpelz, R I

    2002-01-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute), have performed neutron measurements at a number of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Neutron radiation fields at light water reactor (LWR) power plants are typically characterized by low-energy distributions due to the presence of large amounts of scattering material such as water and concrete. These low-energy distributions make it difficult to accurately monitor personnel exposures, since most survey meters and dosimeters are calibrated to higher-energy fields such as those produced by bare or D sub 2 O-moderated sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf sources. Commercial plants typically use thermoluminescent dosimeters in an albedo configuration for personnel dosimetry and survey meters based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator for dose rate assessment, so their methods of routine monitoring are highly dependent on the energy of the neutron fields. Battelle has participate...

  15. Financing strategy for Indonesian Nuclear Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subki, I.M.; Arbie, B.; Adiwardojo; Seotrisnanto, A.Y. [National Atomic Enegy Agency, Batan (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    In anticipation of the introduction in the early 2000s of a nuclear power plant, the Government of Indonesia (GOI), through the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) , has formulated a Bid Invitation Specification (BIS) in parallel with the completion of the NPP Feasibility Study. This BIS formulation assumed an open international tender for the first unit of the NPP with project financing as a conventional loan. The GOI's recent policy is to minimize government financial support for power development. This paper summarizes a financing strategy for the Indonesian NPP project to make the NPP economically viable, and provides a general discussion on project financing using a conventional approach, Build--Own-Operate (BOO) and a counter-purchase approach. Innovative approaches for financing are still being pursued in order to obtain an optimum solution for investors and owners, to fulfill the Indonesian government's requirements. (author)

  16. Nutherm: A small thermionic nuclear power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.H.; Brown, G.B. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., P.O. Box 158, Madison, Pennsylvania 15663 (United States)); Blackmon, J.B.; Drubka, R.E. (McDonnell Douglas Space System Company, 5301 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, California 92647 (United States)); Hartenstine, J.R. (Thermacore, Inc., 780 Eden Road, Lancaster, Pennsylvania 17601 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    NUTHERM is a 40 kWe space nuclear thermionic power supply with a design life of ten full power years. Thermionic conversion is achieved by Thermionic Heat Pipe Modules (THPM's) located in a central cylindrical channel in each fuel assembly. Heat is transferred by thermal radiation from the fuel to the tungsten emitter and is removed by the molybdenum heat pipe, which also acts as the current collector. The core consists of 61 prismatic graphite-UC (ZrC coated) fuel assemblies. Fifty-seven fuel assemblies carry the THPM's and four contain shutdown rods to prevent criticality in case of reentry and water immersion. A moveable beryllium reflector, which is split in the center with independent electric motor drives for each section, provides reactivity control. The payload is shielded by an optimized, conical, multilayer shield consisting of lithium hydride, boron carbide, stainless steel, and tungsten.

  17. International nuclear power status 2002; International kernekraftstatus 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2003-03-01

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2002, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory: 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2001); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2002; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  18. International nuclear power status 2001; International kernekraftstatus 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2002-04-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  19. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  20. International nuclear power status 1999; International kernekraftstatus 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    2000-03-01

    This report isthe sixth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 1999, the report contains: General trends in the development of nuclear power; The past and possible future of Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant; Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1998); An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 1999; The development in Sweden; The development in Eastern Europe; The development in the rest of the world; Trends in the development of reactor types; Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  1. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  2. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  3. Nuclear Power Important for China’s Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Will China change its nuclear power development goal after the nuclear crisis in Japan? Yu Zhouping, former Head othe Chinese Delegation to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),and Tian jiashu, Director of the Nuclea Safety Center under the Ministry of Environmental Protection believe thatChina’s nuclear power

  4. Risk-informed regulation and safety management of nuclear power plants--on the prevention of severe accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanen, Risto; Julin, Ari; Jänkälä, Kalle; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Virolainen, Reino

    2012-11-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant (NPP) units in Finland. The Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) power company has two 840 MWe BWR units supplied by Asea-Atom at the Olkiluoto site. The Fortum corporation (formerly IVO) has two 500 MWe VVER 440/213 units at the Loviisa site. In addition, a 1600 MWe European Pressurized Water Reactor supplied by AREVA NP (formerly the Framatome ANP--Siemens AG Consortium) is under construction at the Olkiluoto site. Recently, the Finnish Parliament ratified the government Decision in Principle that the utilities' applications to build two new NPP units are in line with the total good of the society. The Finnish utilities, Fenno power company, and TVO company are in progress of qualifying the type of the new nuclear builds. In Finland, risk-informed applications are formally integrated in the regulatory process of NPPs that are already in the early design phase and these are to run through the construction and operation phases all through the entire plant service time. A plant-specific full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is required for each NPP. PRAs shall cover internal events, area events (fires, floods), and external events such as harsh weather conditions and seismic events in all operating modes. Special attention is devoted to the use of various risk-informed PRA applications in the licensing of Olkiluoto 3 NPP.

  5. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  6. Nuclear power and the public: an update of collected survey research on nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Melber, B.D.; Overcast, T.D.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and summarize all of the nuclear power-related surveys conducted in the United States through June 1981, that we could obtain. The surveys collected were national, statewide, and areawide in scope. Slightly over 100 surveys were collected for an earlier, similar effort carried out in 1977. About 130 new surveys were added to the earlier survey data. Thus, about 230 surveys were screened for inclusion in this report. Because of space limitations, national surveys were used most frequently in this report, followed distantly by state surveys. In drawing our conclusions about public beliefs and attitudes toward nuclear power, we placed most of our confidence in survey questions that were used by national polling firms at several points in time. A summary of the research findings is presented, beginning with general attitudes toward nuclear power, followed by a summary of beliefs and attitudes about nuclear power issues, and ended by a summary of beliefs and attitudes regarding more general energy issues.

  7. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  8. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed.

  9. Economics of Nuclear Power Plant and the development of nuclear power in Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Thuy Nguyen Thi; Song, JinHo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwang Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There are many factors affecting the capital costs like: increased plant size, multiple unit construction, improved construct methods, increase the lifetime of plant and so on, and beside is technical to enhancing the safety for NPPs. For the question that whether building a NPP is really economic than other energy resources or not, we will find the answer by comparing the USD per kWh of different energy sources as: nuclear power, coal, oil, hydro natural energy sources. The situation of energy in Vietnam was also mentioned in this paper. Vietnam has an abundant natural resources likes: coal, gas, hydro power etc, but from year 2013 to now Vietnam facing of electricity shortage and to solve the problem, Vietnam Government has chosen nuclear power energy to achieve energy balance between the rate of energy consumption and the ability to energy supply. Eight units will be built in Vietnam and in October 2014 Vietnamese officials have chosen Rosatom's AES-2006 design with VVER-1200/v-491 reactors for country's first nuclear power plant at Ninh Thuan and a second plant should follow based on a partnership with Japan. In this paper, the breakdown of NPP costs is considered. All the costs for building a NPP includes: the investment costs are the largest components (about 60%), fuel costs (15%), O and M costs (25%) and external costs are lower than 1% of the kWh costs. The situation for energy in Vietnam was mentioned with increase annually by 5.5 %, and now the shortage electricity is the big problem in power section. The purpose of this report is to give a general picture to consider the cost of nuclear power. It includes all the costs for building a nuclear power plant like total capital investment costs, production costs, external costs in which the capital investment costs is the largest component of the kWh cost. Nuclear energy Power was chosen to deal with situation of diminishing resources shortages.

  10. An A BWR demonstration simulator for training and developing technical staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Yonezawa, H.; Aoyagi, Y.; Kataoka, K., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. Toshiba has developed a Demonstration Simulator of the A BWR control room that provides a realistic experience for training and education on BWR principles and operations fundamentals. The Demonstration Simulator is located in the Toshiba America Nuclear Energy (Tane) office in Charlotte, North Carolina and is composed of standard office computer equipment set up in a specific arrangement that is representative of the layout of an A BWR control room. The Demonstration Simulator is not intended for licensed operator training, but can provide a framework for encouraging entry level technically oriented nuclear workers to enter the operations field; strengthening the linkage between university energy field curricula and real-life application of theory; and, improving understanding of integrated plant operations for developing station technical staff. This paper describes the A BWR Demonstration Simulator and its applications for training and educating future nuclear workers. (Author)

  11. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.); Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2007-04-15

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  12. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2007; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2008-05-15

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2007 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  13. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  14. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005; Kernekraft of nuklear sikkerhed 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampman, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2006-03-15

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  15. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2004; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The report is the second report in a new series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2004 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  16. A Study on the Economic Feasibility of Nuclear Power Caused by Fukushima Nuclear Power Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwon [Korea Nuclear Energy Promotion Agency, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    It would be necessary to utilize the economic competitiveness of the generation cost calculated based on the previous power plant generation cost and the overall safety related costs taken into account after the Fukushima incident, i. e. expenses related to safety facilities, legal restrictions, environmental expenses and social expenses for the mid and long-term strategy establishment of energy. The above conclusion is premised on utilizing the levelized generation cost method, base load operation (based on a certain utilization rate), straight-line depreciation method, etc. However, this thesis would be significantly meaningful at this point where the general public, including civic groups, etc. are concerned with the economic feasibility and safety of nuclear power plant, and that even after considering the social expenses such as safety related expenses after the Fukushima incident, the generation cost of nuclear power plant still remains competitive.

  17. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

    2005-08-29

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  18. Reframing nuclear power in the UK energy debate: nuclear power, climate change mitigation and radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerstaff, K; Lorenzoni, I; Pidgeon, N F; Poortinga, W; Simmons, P

    2008-04-01

    In the past decade, human influence on the climate through increased use of fossil fuels has become widely acknowledged as one of the most pressing issues for the global community. For the United Kingdom, we suggest that these concerns have increasingly become manifest in a new strand of political debate around energy policy, which reframes nuclear power as part of the solution to the need for low-carbon energy options. A mixed-methods analysis of citizen views of climate change and radioactive waste is presented, integrating focus group data and a nationally representative survey. The data allow us to explore how UK citizens might now and in the future interpret and make sense of this new framing of nuclear power--which ultimately centers on a risk-risk trade-off scenario. We use the term "reluctant acceptance" to describe how, in complex ways, many focus group participants discursively re-negotiated their position on nuclear energy when it was positioned alongside climate change. In the concluding section of the paper, we reflect on the societal implications of the emerging discourse of new nuclear build as a means of delivering climate change mitigation and set an agenda for future research regarding the (re)framing of the nuclear energy debate in the UK and beyond.

  19. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants; Dosimetria en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastra B, J. A. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  20. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  1. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  2. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  3. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  4. Nuclear power's mysterious afterlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-10-10

    As the number of nuclear reactors which have reached the end of their service life or will do so by the end of the 1990s grows, nuclear power plant decommissioning is becoming a major issue. A table shows more than thirty reactors in Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the UK are candidates for decommissioning. Definite plans and cost estimates are being demanded of the plant owners. However it is becoming clear that even the USA, which has the greatest decommissioning experience, has not had to deal with the large reactors which now have to be dealt with. The experience and progress of decommissioning in the UK, France, Germany and the rest of Europe is reviewed. Problems of disposing of the mainly low-level radio-active wastes generated by decommissioning are discussed. The estimation of costs has become complicated by the idea of discounting costs which means relatively small sums set aside now will be sufficient to pay for the decommissioning in the decades to come. (UK).

  5. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  6. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  7. Minor Actinides Loading Optimization for Proliferation Resistant Fuel Design - BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. S. Chang; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-09-01

    One approach to address the United States Nuclear Power (NP) 2010 program for the advanced light water reactor (LWR) (Gen-III+) intermediate-term spent fuel disposal need is to reduce spent fuel storage volume while enhancing proliferation resistance. One proposed solution includes increasing burnup of the discharged spent fuel and mixing minor actinide (MA) transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel. Thus, we can reduce the spent fuel volume while increasing the proliferation resistance by increasing the isotopic ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, MAs are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. A typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of adding MAs (237Np and/or 241Am) to enhance proliferation resistance and improve fuel cycle performance for the intermediate-term goal of future nuclear energy systems. However, adding MAs will increase plutonium production in the discharged spent fuel. In this work, the Monte-Carlo coupling with ORIGEN-2.2 (MCWO) method was used to optimize the MA loading in the UO2 fuel such that the discharged spent fuel demonstrates enhanced proliferation resistance, while minimizing plutonium production. The axial averaged MA transmutation characteristics at different burnup were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality and the ratio of 238Pu/Pu discussed.

  8. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License... M.S. Fertel, Nuclear Energy Institute). The licensee's request for an exemption is...

  9. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  10. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  11. Investigation of valve failure problems in LWR power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    An analysis of component failures from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank shows that for both PWR and BWR plants the component category most responsible for approximately 19.3% of light water reactor (LWR) power plant shutdowns. This investigation by Burns and Roe, Inc. shows that the greatest cause of shutdowns in LWRs due to valve failures is leakage from valve stem packing. Both BWR plants and PWR plants have stem leakage problems (BWRs, 21% and PWRs, 34%).

  12. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods that......

  13. Nuclear Systems (NS): Kilopower Small Fission Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear power systems enable human and robotic exploration missions to solar system locations where other power system alternatives are infeasible,...

  14. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown. A risk perspective with application to the RHR/SSW systems of a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy, Espoo (Finland); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements.

  15. Updating of the costs of the nuclear fuels of the equilibrium reloading of the A BWR and EPR reactors; Actualizacion de los costos de combustible nuclear de la recarga de equilibrio de los reactores ABWR y EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega C, R.F. [FI-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: rortega@fi-b.unam.mx

    2008-07-01

    In the last two and a half years, the price of the uranium in the market spot has ascended of US$20.00 dollars by lb U{sub 3O}8 in January, 2005 to a maximum of US$137.00 dollars by Ib U{sub 3}O{sub 8} by the middle of 2007. At the moment this price has been stabilized in US$90.00 dollars by Ib U{sub 3}O{sub 8} such for the market spot, like for the long term contracts. In this work the reasons of this increment are analyzed, as well as their impact in the fuel prices of the balance recharge of the advanced reactors of boiling water (A BWR) and of the advanced water at pressure reactors (EPR). (Author)

  16. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2003 (in Danish); Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2004-03-01

    The report, 'Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2003' (Nuclear power and nuclear safe-ty 2003) is the first report in a new series of annual reports on the international devel-opment of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nu-clear emergency preparedness. The report series is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency and re-places the previous series, 'International kernekraftstatus' (International Nuclear Po-wer Status). The report for 2003 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production and regional trends, development of reactors and emergency management systems, safety-related events with nuclear power production, and international rela-tions and conflicts. (au)

  17. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part I: BWR/NWC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  18. Prediction of the stability of BWR reactors during the start-up process; Prediccion de la estabilidad de reactores BWR durante el proceso de arranque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz E, J.A.; Castillo D, R. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Blazquez M, J.B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energetics, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) are susceptible of uncertainties of power when they are operated to low flows of coolant (W) and high powers (P), being presented this situation mainly in the start-up process. The start-up process could be made but sure if the operator knew the value of the stability index Decay reason (Dr) before going up power and therefore to guarantee the stability. The power and the flow are constantly measures, the index Dr could also be considered its value in real time. The index Dr depends on the power, flow and many other values, such as, the distribution of the flow axial and radial neutronic, the temperature of the feeding water, the fraction of holes and other thermohydraulic and nuclear parameters. A simple relationship of Dr is derived leaving of the pattern reduced of March-Leuba, where three independent variables are had that are the power, the flow and a parameter that it contains the rest of the phenomenology, that is to say all the other quantities that affect the value of Dr. This relationship developed work presently and verified its prediction with data of start-up of commercial reactors could be used for the design of a practical procedure practice of start-up, what would support to the operator to prevent this type of events of uncertainty. (Author)

  19. Feasibility Research of Nuclear-power System for Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiao-chun; SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xin-ming; LI; Long; XU; Zhi-long; SHAO; Jing

    2013-01-01

    The idea of making nuclear-powered car can dated back to 1950s,and Ford company developed the first nuclear-powered car Nucleon which theoretically based on uranium-235 fission powered engine.Recently,General Motors released its Cadillac"World Thorium Fuel Concept"car at 2009 Chicago Auto Show,which didn’t include a working thorium-powered engine.But it’s claimed that the thorium laser

  20. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  1. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  2. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  3. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  4. International nuclear power status 2000; International kernekraftstatus 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    2001-03-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2000, the report contains: 1. General trends in the development of nuclear power. 2. Deposition of low-level radioactive waste. 3. Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1999). 4. An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2000. 5. The development in Sweden. 6. The development in Eastern Europe. 7. The development in the rest of the world. 8. Trends in the development of reactor types. 9. Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  5. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  6. Nuclear power policy as a differential game

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines nuclear energy output in a differential game framework involving two countries. The countries differ regarding nuclear technology with one being relatively safe and the other less safe. Simulation of a numerical model gives the following results, (i) A cooperative agreement will imply less use of nuclear energy compared with both a noncooperative Nash equilibrium and an uncontrolled market solution, (ii) The country with relatively safe nuclear energy technology benefits m...

  7. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  8. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  9. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-05-15

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  10. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Andrija Volkanovski; Leon Cizelj

    2014-01-01

    The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear ...

  12. The nuclear power option in the Italian energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nucci, M.R.

    2006-07-15

    Italy took a pioneering role in the early development of nuclear power. This source of energy should have provided the answer to the lack of domestic fossil resources. Due to the cheap oil prices, the influence of the state hydrocarbons company ENI and an influential petroleum lobby, following the nationalisation of the electricity sector in the early sixties, the nuclear option was no longer consequently pursued. Italy became heavily dependent on imported oil. Although in the period 1974-1975 an intensive nuclear power development programme was launched, the share of nuclear power remained marginal. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster and following the referendum phasing out nuclear power in 1987, the national energy policy was newly defined. Our analysis will follow the customary practice to subdivide the Italian nuclear power development into three phases: the pioneering years till the mid-1960s; the period between 1966 and 1987 and the post-Chernobyl phase. We discuss the early phase at a certain length, since it is symptomatic of the way in Italy technological and industrial matters are dealt with and well illustrates the alliance games and behaviour of still existing market players. Although disputes about the alleged advantages of nuclear power are revived with certain regularity and are justified with arguments such as climate change and dependence on imported fuel, we argue that a return to nuclear power in Italy is not foreseeable. Nonetheless, the country cannot be considered a nuclear-free area. Nuclear wastes still play a disquieting role and imported electricity is generated also by nuclear power. Moreover, another tendency has set through. Due to a large liquidity provided by the mandated divestments in the framework of the liberalisation of the electricity market, the previous monopolist ENEL is heavily investing in generating capacities, including stakes in nuclear plants abroad, especially in new EU countries. (author)

  13. Nuclear power plants. Site choice; Usinas nucleoeletricas. Escolha de local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    This book establishes the standards for selection and development of criteria for evaluation of new nuclear sites in Brazil. The places where the new nuclear power plants will be installed must be adequate for construction and operation of the power plants will be submitted to Brazilian environmental and nuclear legislation of the Union, states and the local governments, besides to accomplish the world good practices of this activity.

  14. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  15. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  16. Seismic hazard mitigation for nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frieder Seible

    2013-01-01

    The seismic safety of nuclear power plant(NPP) has always been a major consideration in the site selection,design,operation,and more recently recertification of existing installations.In addition to the actual NPP and all their operational and safety related support systems,the storage of spent fuel in temporary or permanent storage facilities also poses a seismic risk.This seismic risk is typically assessed with state-of-the-art modeling and analytical tools that capture everything from the ground rupture or source of the earthquake to the site specific ground shaking,taking geotechnical parameters and soil-foundation-structure-interaction (SFSI) into account to the non-linear structural response of the reactor core,the containment structure,the core cooling system and the emergency cooling system(s),to support systems,piping systems and non-structural components,and finally the performance of spent fuel storage in the probabilistically determined operational basis earthquake (OBE) or the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) scenario.The best and most meaningful validation and verification of these advanced analytical tools is in the form of full or very large scale experimental testing,designed and conducted in direct support of model and analysis tool calibration.This paper outlines the principles under which such calibration testing should be conducted and illustrates with examples the kind of testing and parameter evaluation required.

  17. Integrated diagnostic technique for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofuku, Akio [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The techniques are (1) estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2) a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation) to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4) a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  18. Recent trends in the mitigation of the IGSCC through modifications in the water chemistry of BWR reactors; Tendencias recientes en la mitigacion del IGSCC mediante modificaciones en la quimica del agua de reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz S, A.; Robles, E.F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    During the last years, the Nuclear Power stations had been that to adequate or to modify the parameters and operational conditions, attempting to maintain and to safeguard the integrity and functionality of its components and systems, as well as the personnel safety involved in its operation. In a Boiling water reactor (BWR), the chemical control of the water, constitutes one of the fundamental aspects to get a sure and reliable operation, having as main objectives: (a) The protection of the reactor vessel, of the structural materials of the same one and of the pipes and components of those recirculation systems against the Intergranular stress corrosion phenomena (IGSCC); (b) To guarantee the integrity of the nuclear fuel minimizing the corrosion phenomena in the fuel elements; and (c) The reduction of the operational dose of the personnel involved directly in the operation and maintenance by means of the control of the activated corrosion products. (Author)

  19. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  20. Introduction to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyror, J G; Grant, P J

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to the Neutron Kinetics of Nuclear Power Reactors introduces the reader to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors. Topics covered include the neutron physics of reactor kinetics, feedback effects, water-moderated reactors, fast reactors, and methods of plant control. The reactor transients following faults are also discussed, along with the use of computers in the study of power reactor kinetics. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the reactor physics characteristics of a nuclear power reactor and their influence on system design and

  1. The wear resistance of cobalt free hard surfaced alloys in nuclear power plant conditions. Test results; Kobolttivapaiden pinnoitteiden kulumiskestaevyys ydinvoimalaitosolosuhteissa. Koetulokset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, A.M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-09-01

    Use of cobalt containing materials is restricted in primary circuits of nuclear power plants since the cobalt is activated in the reactor core. The resulting isotope leads to increase of activity in the primary circuit. This report presents the results of the wear resistance tests of four hard facing alloys. The test method was a pin on plate test. The pins were coated with hard-facing alloys and the plates were manufactured from stainless steel. The tested materials were nickel based Stellite 6, wolfram carbide (WC), METCO 442 and cobalt based Stellite 6. Tests were carried out in simulated BWR-environment. According to the results of these tests it is not possible to get any differences between any hard facing alloys if the hardness of the plate material is much lower than that of the hard facing alloys examined. (orig.) (4 refs.).

  2. Resource Needs for Nuclear Power Generation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. B. Nyarko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power is a proven technology that has served humanity for the past fifty years. It has provided electricity for several countries and shall continue to serve as a viable base load source of electric power. The need for skilled human resources for nuclear practice cannot be overlooked in the quest of any nation to adopt the technology. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission and the University of Ghana in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency have thus started a Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences to provide the human resources needed for nuclear power generation in Ghana. The School currently offers second degree courses as well as doctor of philosophy courses. Financial, land and water resource needs for nuclear power generation have been discussed. Availability of the national grid due to the deregulation of the electric power sector has also been discussed. Nuclear Fuel availability has been discussed along with the steps Ghana has to go through to obtain the technology to her development. The legal and legislative framework for nuclear power generation has also been presented. The programs currently available from the IAEA to assist Ghana to develop nuclear power have also been discussed. Conclusions have been drawn based on the discussions made.

  3. The outlook for application of powerful nuclear thermionic reactor - powered space electric jet propulsion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semyonov, Y.P.; Bakanov, Y.A.; Synyavsky, V.V.; Yuditsky, V.D. [Rocket-Space Corp. `Energia`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes main study results for application of powerful space electric jet propulsion unit (EJPUs) which is powered by Nuclear Thermionic Power Unit (NTPU). They are combined in Nuclear Power/Propulsion Unit (NPPU) which serves as means of spacecraft equipment power supply and spacecraft movement. Problems the paper deals with are the following: information satellites delivery and their on-orbit power supply during 10-15 years, removal of especially hazardous nuclear wastes, mining of asteroid resources and others. Evaluations on power/time/mass relationship for this type of mission are given. EJPU parameters are compatible with Russian existent or being under development launch vehicle. (author)

  4. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  5. Statistical analysis in the design of nuclear fuel cells and training of a neural network to predict safety parameters for reactors BWR; Analisis estadistico en el diseno de celdas de combustible nuclear y entrenamiento de una red neuronal para predecir parametros de seguridad para reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui Ch, V.

    2013-07-01

    In this work the obtained results for a statistical analysis are shown, with the purpose of studying the performance of the fuel lattice, taking into account the frequency of the pins that were used. For this objective, different statistical distributions were used; one approximately to normal, another type X{sup 2} but in an inverse form and a random distribution. Also, the prediction of some parameters of the nuclear reactor in a fuel reload was made through a neuronal network, which was trained. The statistical analysis was made using the parameters of the fuel lattice, which was generated through three heuristic techniques: Ant Colony Optimization System, Neuronal Networks and a hybrid among Scatter Search and Path Re linking. The behavior of the local power peak factor was revised in the fuel lattice with the use of different frequencies of enrichment uranium pines, using the three techniques mentioned before, in the same way the infinite multiplication factor of neutrons was analyzed (k..), to determine within what range this factor in the reactor is. Taking into account all the information, which was obtained through the statistical analysis, a neuronal network was trained; that will help to predict the behavior of some parameters of the nuclear reactor, considering a fixed fuel reload with their respective control rods pattern. In the same way, the quality of the training was evaluated using different fuel lattices. The neuronal network learned to predict the next parameters: Shutdown Margin (SDM), the pin burn peaks for two different fuel batches, Thermal Limits and the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor (k{sup eff}). The results show that the fuel lattices in which the frequency, which the inverted form of the X{sup 2} distribution, was used revealed the best values of local power peak factor. Additionally it is shown that the performance of a fuel lattice could be enhanced controlling the frequency of the uranium enrichment rods and the variety of

  6. On the interaction between fuel crud and water chemistry in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiaxin Chen [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    This report has surveyed the current understanding about the characteristics of fuel crud, its deposition and dissolution behaviour, the influences of water chemistry, and the radioactivity transport in nuclear power plants. The references were mainly sought for from the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database and some internal reports of Studsvik Material AB. The characteristics of fuel crud from discharged fuel rods have been extensively investigated over the last three decades. Fuel crud mainly consists of iron, nickel and chromium oxides. For BWR fuel crud the main phases are hematite and nonstoichiometric nickel ferrite spinels. For PWR fuel crud the main phases are nonstoichiometric nickel ferrite and nickel metal or nickel oxide. Fuel crud is usually thin and relatively porous in the outer layer but dense in the inner layer. Important information is lacking about the adhesion property of crud particles or agglomerates on fuel rods. Little, if any, information is reported about the characteristics of fuel crud before discharging in pool. It is uncertain if the fuel crud can, after pool discharge, largely preserve its characteristics appearing during reactor operation. Deposition behaviour of corrosion products on fuel rods, in both solid particles and ionic forms in reactor water, has been well studied in the simulated reactor water environments without irradiation. The influences on deposition rate of pH, heat flux, particle size, crud concentration, and flow rate have also been studied in detail. Most of the experimental observations may be qualitatively explained by the theories developed. However, the importance of each influencing parameter remains largely unknown in the complicated reactor water environments, because irradiation, among various influencing factors, may play an important role. The behaviour of crud dissolution has been extensively studied in various reactor water environments. Generally speaking, the more easily crud

  7. Psychological empowerment in French nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fillol, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Since the eighties, nuclear safety has been discussed in organizational studies and constitutes nowadays a specific stream with several standpoints. Regarding the reliability of nuclear plants, the nuclear safety literature has emphasized on the crucial role of individuals and human factors. Especially, some researchers have noticed rule breaking behavior and the impact of individual self-confidence on thebehavior; but without deepening their analyses. As high self-esteem and confidence, i.e....

  8. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.

    2006-07-15

    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  9. Pressure and temperature analyses using GOTHIC for Mark I containment of the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Shu, E-mail: yschen@iner.org.t [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Yuann, Yng-Ruey; Dai, Liang-Che; Lin, Yon-Pon [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: The Chinshan Mark I containment pressure-temperature responses are analyzed. GOTHIC is used to calculate the containment responses under three pipe break events. This study is used to support the Chinshan Stretch Power Uprate (SPU) program. The calculated peak pressure and temperature are still below the design values. The Chinshan containment integrity can be maintained under SPU condition. - Abstract: Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan is a GE-designed twin-unit BWR/4 plant with original licensed thermal power (OLTP) of 1775 MWt for each unit. Recently, the Stretch Power Uprate (SPU) program for the Chinshan plant is being conducted to uprate the core thermal power to 1858 MWt (104.66% OLTP). In this study, the Chinshan Mark I containment pressure/temperature responses during LOCA at 105% OLTP (104.66% OLTP + 0.34% OLTP power uncertainty = 105% OLTP) are analyzed using the containment thermal-hydraulic program GOTHIC. Three kinds of LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) scenarios are investigated: Recirculation Line Break (RCLB), Main Steam Line Break (MSLB), and Feedwater Line Break (FWLB). In the short-term analyses, blowdown data generated by RELAP5 transient analyses are provided as boundary conditions to the GOTHIC containment model. The calculated peak drywell pressure and temperature in the RCLB event are 217.2 kPaG and 137.1 {sup o}C, respectively, which are close to the original FSAR results (219.2 kPaG and 138.4 {sup o}C). Additionally, the peak drywell temperature of 155.3 {sup o}C calculated by MSLB is presented in this study. To obtain the peak suppression pool temperature, a long-term RCLB analysis is performed using a simplified RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) volume to calculate blowdown flow rate. One RHR (Residual Heat Removal) heat exchanger is assumed to be inoperable for suppression pool cooling mode. The calculated peak suppression pool temperature is 93.2 {sup o}C, which is below the pool temperature used for evaluating the

  10. Golden Nuclear Power:A Big Cake of Irresistible Temptations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Bo; Wang Ben

    2006-01-01

    @@ By 2020, the nuclear power installed capacity in China will go up from 8700 MW in 2005 to 40,000 MW. It signifies that30 generating units with a capacity of 1000 MW each will have been built. In fact, the development of nuclear power wants not merely enthusiasm. "The national policy maintains that we should take a road of localized development This is of great benefit to the expansion of nuclear power in China. However, many people still doubt whether the manufacturing capability and level can meet the requirements of nuclear safety, and multiple introductions are not good for digestion and assimilation, so that there exist potential risks in operation, maintenance and technical support," said Zeng Qingxiong, manager of financing section, Daya Bay Financial Company, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co. Ltd (CGNPC).

  11. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  12. SCORE-EVET: a computer code for the multidimensional transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear fuel rod arrays. [BWR; PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, R. L.; Lords, L. V.; Kiser, D. M.

    1978-02-01

    The SCORE-EVET code was developed to study multidimensional transient fluid flow in nuclear reactor fuel rod arrays. The conservation equations used were derived by volume averaging the transient compressible three-dimensional local continuum equations in Cartesian coordinates. No assumptions associated with subchannel flow have been incorporated into the derivation of the conservation equations. In addition to the three-dimensional fluid flow equations, the SCORE-EVET code ocntains: (a) a one-dimensional steady state solution scheme to initialize the flow field, (b) steady state and transient fuel rod conduction models, and (c) comprehensive correlation packages to describe fluid-to-fuel rod interfacial energy and momentum exchange. Velocity and pressure boundary conditions can be specified as a function of time and space to model reactor transient conditions such as a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or flow blockage.

  13. Knowledge of and Attitude to Nuclear Power among Residents around Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningle Yu, Yimei Zhang, Jin Wang, Xingjiang Cao, Xiangyong Fan, Xiaosan Xu, Furu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aims of this paper were to determine the level of knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear power plant in Jiangsu of China.Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted.Participants: 1,616 eligible participants who lived around the Tianwan nuclear power plant within a radius of 30km and at least 18 years old were recruited into our study and accepted epidemiological survey.Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic sheet. Inferential statistics, t-test, ANOVA test and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare the differences between each subgroup and correlation analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between different factors and dependent variables.Results: Our investigation found that the level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power was generally not high. Respondents' gender, age, marital status, residence, educational level, family income and the distance away from the nuclear power plant are important effect factors to the knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power.Conclusions: The public concerns about nuclear energy's impact are widespread. The level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power needs to be improved urgently.

  14. 75 FR 61779 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and... Operating License No. DPR-18, issued to R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), located in Ontario, New York. In accordance with 10 CFR...

  15. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  16. Moving Beyond Pretense: Nuclear Power and Nonproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Publishing, 2006, pp. 55-86; John Diamond and Judy Keen, “Bush’s Daily Intel Briefing Revamped,” USA Today, August 25, 2005, p. A1; Douglas Jehl...India’s 1974 nuclear explosion, which led the principal ex- 470 porters to organize the Nuclear Suppliers Group to exercise some control over the spread

  17. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  18. MCTP, a code for the thermo-mechanical analysis of a fuel rod of BWR type reactors (Neutron part); MCTP, un codigo para el analisis termo-mecanico de una barra combustible de reactores tipo BWR (Parte Neutronica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez L, H.; Ortiz V, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: hhl@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico a code for the thermo-mechanical analysis of the fuel rods of the BWR type reactors of the Nucleo electric Central of Laguna Verde is developed. The code solves the diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates with several energy groups. The code, likewise, calculates the temperature distribution and power distribution in those fuel rods. The code is denominated Multi groups With Temperatures and Power (MCTP). In the code, the energy with which the fission neutrons are emitted it is divided in six groups. They are also considered the produced perturbations by the changes in the temperatures of the materials that constitute the fuel rods, the content of fission products, the uranium consumption and in its case the gadolinium, as well as the plutonium production. In this work there are present preliminary results obtained with the code, using data of operation of the Nucleo electric Central of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  19. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2009; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thorlaksen, B. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2010-05-15

    The report is the seventh report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2009 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, conflicts and the European safety directive. (LN)

  20. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2010; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    The report is the eighth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2010 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, and conflicts and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  1. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2012; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. (eds.); Oelgaard, P.L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Israelson, C.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J. [Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    The report is the tenth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is prepared in collaboration between DTU Nutech and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2012 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the results of the EU stress test. (LN)

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2011; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nonboel, E. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aage, H.K.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2012-07-15

    The report is the ninth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2011 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  3. BWR stability using a reducing dynamical model; Estabilidad de un BWR con un modelo dinamico reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin Bolea, J. M.; Blazquez Martinez, J. B.

    1990-07-01

    BWR stability can be treated with reduced order dynamical models. When the parameters of the model came from dynamical models. When the parameters of the model came from experimental data, the predictions are accurate. In this work an alternative derivation for the void fraction equation is made, but remarking the physical structure of the parameters. As the poles of power/reactivity transfer function are related with the parameters, the measurement of the poles by other techniques such as noise analysis will lead to the parameters, but the system of equations is non-linear. Simple parametric calculation of decay ratio are performed, showing why BWRs become unstable when they are operated at low flow and high power. (Author)

  4. Valuing modular nuclear power plants in finite time decision horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.; Roelofs, F; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs, (according to IAEA, ‘small’ refers to reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfro

  5. Status for cast stainless steel in older Swedish nuclear power plants, March 1996; Status foer gjutet rostfritt staal i aeldre svenska kaernkraftverk, mars 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trolle, M.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compile what is known about larger cast components primarly in older BWR nuclear power plants with external circulation pumps. The work includes metallurgical data and a compilation on the material that the owner of Oskarshamn 1, OKG AB, has delivered to The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate as a result of the investigation of these components. An overview of the investigations performed on the other Swedish plants of similar design during the annual outage 1995 is also described in this report. International experinece is also reported. The results from OKG AB show that there has been extensive cracking in both valves and pump casings and that they are probably resulting defects from the manufacturing process, but an environmental factor cannot be excluded. In order to get a complete picture of the situation in Swedish nuclear power plants a more extensive survey needs to be performed. Internationally the phenomenon of hot cracking in cast stainless steel is well known, but not as severe as in Oskarshamn 1. One question however that is discussed is the recommended amount of ferrite in these steels in order to avoid hot cracking without risking embrittlement of the ferrite phase. The Swedish utilities specify 3%, some European countries recommend 8%. Japan suggests ferrite contents up to 30%. 25 refs.

  6. Nuclear power program and technology development in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung-Oke

    1994-12-31

    KEPCO has successfully implemented the construction and operation of nuclear power plants since the early 1970s, and will continue to build safer and more efficient nuclear plants in the future in accordance with the nuclear power development plan previously established. KEPCO will also make every effort to enhance nuclear safety and obtain the public`s acceptance for nuclear power. We are, however, facing the same difficulties, as United States and other countries have, in strengthened regulatory requirements, public acceptance, radwaste disposal, and acquisition of new plant sites despite an active nuclear power program. Story of Ted Turner, CNN; {open_quotes}It ain`t as easy as it looks.{close_quotes} Yes! It is difficult. But we will cope with these issues so that we can promote the nuclear power development and continue to supply a highly economical and clean energy to the world. In this regard, it is my sincere wish that each organization participating in the nuclear industry, especially Korea and United States strengthen their ties and help each other so that we together can successfully accomplish our goals.

  7. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.; Waymire, Russell L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  8. The Politics of Nuclear Power and Waste Storage in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)), e-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

    2010-09-15

    A complex interplay of social, economic, and political factors makes anticipating the scale and scope of nuclear power expansion difficult for both established and aspiring nuclear nations. In response, this article investigates the forms of social, political, and economic organization conducive to nuclear power expansion. We define 'socio-political economy' as the dynamic forces of state and society which influence the nuclear power industry. We begin by developing a theoretical framework of nuclear socio-political economy based primarily upon the evolution of nuclear energy in France (with supplemental insights from the former Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States). This emergent framework posits that strong state involvement in guiding economic development, centralization of national energy planning, campaigns to link technological progress to a national revitalization, influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions, subordination of challenges to political authority, and low levels of civic activism were influential factors in supporting the expansion of nuclear power in France. These six catalysts create conducive conditions in unique ways. First, a history of strong government intervention in guiding the direction of economic development is a requisite condition seemingly because nuclear power is a 'socio--technically inflexible' technology that requires a high degree of supply chain coordination which only the government is capable of unifying. Second, a highly centralized energy sector infuses the requisite control for planning and implementing a sustained expansion of nuclear power in the midst of a politicized environment. Third, the presence of a government strategy that attempts to link technological developments to a national renaissance fosters the formation of a national culture which tolerates risks associated with risk-prone technologies. Fourth, the dominance of a technocratic approach to policymaking appears

  9. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Andrew S.; Kuma, Manish [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Seismic isolation is a viable strategy for protecting safety-related nuclear structures from the effects of moderate to severe earthquake shaking. Although seismic isolation has been deployed in nuclear structures in France and South Africa, it has not seen widespread use because of limited new build nuclear construction in the past 30 years and a lack of guidelines, codes and standards for the analysis, design and construction of isolation systems specific to nuclear structures. The funding by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission of a research project to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and MCEER/University at Buffalo facilitated the writing of a soon-to-be-published NUREG on seismic isolation. Funding of MCEER by the National Science Foundation led to research products that provide the technical basis for a new section in ASCE Standard 4 on the seismic isolation of safety-related nuclear facilities. The performance expectations identified in the NUREG and ASCE 4 for seismic isolation systems, and superstructures and substructures are described in the paper. Robust numerical models capable of capturing isolator behaviors under extreme loadings, which have been verified and validated following ASME protocols, and implemented in the open source code OpenSees, are introduced.

  10. Design of a mixed recharge with MOX assemblies of greater relation of moderation for a BWR reactor; Diseno de una recarga mixta con ensambles MOX de mayor relacion de moderacion para un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J.R.; Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jrrs@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The study of the fuel of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium (MOX) it has been topic of investigation in many countries of the world and those are even discussed in many places the benefits of reprocessing the spent fuel to extract the plutonium created during the irradiation of the fuel in the nuclear power reactors. At the moment those reactors that have been loaded partially with MOX fuel, are mainly of the type PWR where a mature technology has been achieved in some countries like they are France, Belgium and England, however the experience with reactors of the type BWR is more limited and it is continued studying the best way to introduce this type of fuel in BWRs, one of the main problems to introduce MOX in reactors BWR is the neutronic design of the same one, existing different concepts to introduce the plutonium in the assemblies of fuel and one of them is the one of increasing the relationship of moderation of the assemble. In this work a MOX fuel assemble design is presented and the obtained results so far in the ININ. These results indicate that the investigated concept has some exploitable advantages in the use of the MOX fuel. (Author)

  11. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In contrast, generation III reactors, which are ...

  12. China's First Salvaging Robot for Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Researchers from the CAS Institute of Optics and Electronics in Chengdu,capital of southwest China's Sichuan Province, have been successful in building China's first robot for searching and retrieving underwater foreign objects in nuclear power stations.

  13. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  14. Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Camiel de [Hilti Corporation, P.O. Box 333, FL-9494 Schaan (Liechtenstein)

    2008-07-01

    Hilti is your reliable partner in nuclear power plant construction, maintenance and demolition worldwide. Professional advice and innovative solutions for virtually every phase of construction and supply technologically leading products and systems to increase your productivity and help to create and maintain safe and lasting plants is offered. The solutions for nuclear power plants construction, maintenance and demolition have been employed with great success in many different countries on a wide variety of projects due in no small way to their worldwide availability. An unbroken, international exchange of experience upholds a permanent innovation process. This assures our customers that they always receive products on the very latest technological standard. This paper is not intended to cover all topics related to nuclear power plants. The idea is more to give a kind of an overview. The paper covers briefly the following topics: safety (corrosion and fire), fastenings, measuring and finally decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  16. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-02-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  17. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Commission. ACTION: Issuance of NUREG documents and interim staff guidance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Supplement 3, ``Guidance for Protective Action Strategies,'' to NUREG... Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development...

  18. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  19. Simulation of an operation cycle of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde with code TACHY and computation package CMS; Simulacion de un ciclo de operacion de la CNLV con el codigo TACHY y el paquete de computo CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Del Valle, E.; Vargas, S.; Xolocostli, J. V. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: joseangel.gonzalez@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    In this work the code TACHY is used, to simulate an operation cycle of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The code TACHY was designed originally to analyze recharge patterns of Hindu plants type BWR, that have near 800 assemblies, that is almost double the reactor of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. For this reason it was necessary to modify the code to be able to apply it to nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The values were modified like: operation power, entrance subcooling, flow through the nucleus, assemblies number in nucleus and dimensions of nucleus. In this work is take like base the cycle 9 of Unit 2 of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This cycle is simulated with code TACHY and with code SIMULATE-3 that is part of computation package Core Management System, with the purpose of comparing the results. The results that are compared with the two codes, for the complete nucleus are: the burnt average of nucleus, the cycle longitude, the effective factor of neutrons multiplication, the pick of radial relative power; and for each assembly: the burnt and the relative power. Of the results obtained with TACHY we can conclude that we have a computation tool that allows to analyze a great number of recharge patterns in a reasonable time. (Author)

  20. Possible genetic damage in the Czech nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J. [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz; Roessner, Pavel [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Rubes, Jiri [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Beskid, Olena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Dusek, Zdik [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Chvatalova, Irena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Schmuczerova, Jana [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Milcova, Alena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Solansky, Ivo [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Bavorova, Hana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Ocadlikova, Dana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Kopecna, Olga [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilova, Petra [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2006-01-29

    The aim of our study was to identify occupational risk of irradiation exposure in the Czech nuclear power plant workers. We analyzed levels of chromosomal aberrations, a well-known biomarker of early biological effects and a predictor of cancer risk. We applied the conventional method of cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, whole chromosome painting for chromosomes 1 and 4, combined with a pancentromeric probe) to three groups: 123 subjects in the Temelin nuclear power plant (2 years in use), 114 subjects in the Dukovany nuclear power plant (20 years in use), and 53 matched controls from Ceske Budejovice. Nuclear power plant workers were divided into two groups: subjects with admittance into the monitored zone, and others. Following factors were also analyzed: GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, XPD, XRCC1, hOGG1, p53, MTHFR, and MS gene polymorphisms, levels of vitamins A, C, E, and folate in plasma, and level of cotinine in urine. Long-term exposure to ionizing radiation in the monitored zone was 0.47 {+-} 1.50 mSv (miliSievert) in the Temelin nuclear power plant and 5.74 {+-} 9.57 mSv in the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Using the conventional cytogenetic analysis, we observed 1.90 {+-} 0.95 and 1.82 {+-} 1.19% AB.C. (percent of aberrant cells) in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.39 {+-} 1.01 and 2.33 {+-} 1.04% AB.C. in the Dukovany nuclear power plant, for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, we found 2.25 {+-} 0.82% AB.C. Genomic frequency of translocations F {sub G}/100 measured by FISH was 1.89 {+-} 1.40 and 2.01 {+-} 1.68 in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.48 {+-} 1.93 and 2.14 {+-} 1.62 in the Dukovany nuclear power plant for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, F {sub G}/100 was 1.83 {+-} 1.19. Following factors were identified as potential confounders by the conventional cytogenetic analysis: XPD-6, by the FISH: age, GSTP1 and p53Bst genotypes, long-term use

  1. Coaxial Ring Cyclotron as a Perspective Nuclear Power Engineering Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Tumanyan, A. R.; Simonyan, Kh. A.; Mkrtchyan, R. L.; Amatuni, A. Ts.; Avakyan, R. O.; Khudaverdyan, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    The circuit arrangement of the proposed coaxial ring cyclotron (CRC) is described, and its main advantages, such as simple injection technique, several injected beams summation option, high efficiency, are considered. The proposed proton accelerator is a perspective machine for the solution of the main problems of the present day nuclear power engineering as well as for the next-generation nuclear power plants, representing a combination of subcritical reactors and particle accelerators. The ...

  2. International nuclear power status 1994; International kernekraftstatus 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Majborn, B.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the first in a planned series of annual reports covering the international development in the field of nuclear power. The report deals with: statistical information on the electricity produced by nuclear power plants; major safety-related incidents in 1994; the development in Sweden, Eastern Europe, and the rest of the world; the trends of development of a number of reactor types; the trends of development in the fuel cycle. (au).

  3. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R B Grover; R R Puri

    2013-10-01

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a wellstructured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities.

  4. Nuclear power in our societies; Le nucleaire dans nos societes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardeau, J.C.

    2011-07-01

    Hiroshima, Chernobyl, Fukushima Daiichi are the well known sad milestones on the path toward a broad development of nuclear energy. They are so well known that they have blurred certainly for long in a very unfair way the positive image of nuclear energy in the public eye. The impact of the media appetite for disasters favours the fear and puts aside all the achievements of nuclear sciences like nuclear medicine for instance and all the assets of nuclear power like the quasi absence of greenhouse gas emission or its massive capacity to produce electricity or heat. The unique solution to enhance nuclear acceptance is the reduction of the fear through a better understanding of nuclear sciences by the public. (A.C.)

  5. Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to establish a systematic approach for future proliferation and environmental analyses of Russia's marine nuclear reactor systems, this paper summarizes and analyzes the available open-source information on the design properties of reactor systems and nuclear fuels. The most distinctive features of Russian marine reactor development are pointed out, and similarities and differences between Russian military and civilian reactor systems and fuel are discussed. Relevant updated information on all Russian vessels using nuclear propulsion is presented in Annex I. The basic analytic division in this paper follows vessel generations first to third generation; and reactor types PWR and LMC technology. Most of the available information is related to nuclear icebreakers. This information is systematically analyzed in order to identify stages in the development of Russia's civilian naval nuclear reactors. Three different reactor models are discussed: OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40, together with several versions of these. Concerning military reactors, it is not possible to identify characteristics for the individual reactor models, so the basic division follows vessel generations first to third generation. From the information available, however, it is possible to identify the main lines along which the design of submarines of especially the first and the second generation has been made. The conclusions contain a discussion of possible implications of the results, in addition to suggestions for further work. (au)

  6. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  7. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  8. A Series Dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station--Summary of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiankun

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary in relation to the construction and operation of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (the Project) at Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, the People' s Republic of China. The breakdown specialty topic shall been given in times to come. In this report, the author attempted to give some general description of the Project, including the Project site' s general layout and geographical conditions. A description of its exposure to the elements is also provided, supported by some data made available to us. The key component parts of the Project are described, namely, the nuclear island which includes the reactor, steam generator and so on; the conventional island and the balance of plant. Wherever possible, the improvements to the reactor design over the operating V320 are highlighted, which result in the V428 reactor model. The supplier and contractor for the major equipment such as the reactor and the turbine is the Russian company, namely Atomstroyexport (ASE). There are third country suppliers who provide other equipment. For instance, Siemens supplies the full digital I&C system and Framatome ANP supplies the emergency diesel generators; the metal-clad switchgear cabinet by ABB of Australia; the main steam isolation valve unit by CCI AG of Switzerland. All these foreign suppliers are well known globally. Their experience and quality of the equipment supplied by them are well recognized by the people in the respective fields. As for the civil work and erection work, the most experienced and trustworthy local contractors have been selected. These contractors have proven their competence in similar contract work before. For the testing of the equipment, stringent and proper procedures which meet international standards are adopted. Finally, the author wished on this report could provide the world a safety and advanced Nuclear Project building in China.

  9. Moldova Power Sources Development including Nuclear Power Plant possible participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions Moldova power sources development options up to 2030 are evaluated, attempting to propose the best solutions in this respect and the ways they be realized.

  10. Estimation of the coolant flow through a natural circulation BWR fuel channel applying and equivalent electrical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J.; Morales S, J. B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Campus Morelos en IMTA, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: julfi_ig@yahoo.com.m [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work presents the design and implementation of an advanced controller for a reduced order model of a BWR reactor core cooled by natural circulating water, which allows real time estimates of coolant flows through fuel assemblies about standard neutron flux strings. Nuclear power plants with boiling water reactors control individual fuel assembly coolant flows by forced circulation using external or internal water pumps and different core support plate orifices. These two elements reduce flow dependency on local channel pressure drops. In BWR reactors using only natural circulation coolant flows, these two elements are not available and therefore individual channel coolant flows are highly dependent in local conditions, such as power distributions and local pressure drops. Therefore it is expected that grater uncertainties in these variables be used during safety, fuel management and other analysis, which in turns may lead to increased operation penalties, such as tighter operating limits. The objective of this work is to asses by computer simulations means to reduce uncertainties in the measurement of fuel assembly coolant flows and eventually the associated penalties. During coolant phase transitions, pressure drops and local power may alter local natural circulation through fuel assemblies and flow estimates can be helped or not by control rod moves. This work presents the construction of an optimal controller for a core flow estimator based on a reduced order model of the coolant going though the reactor vessel components and nuclear core. This model is to be driven by plant signals from standard BWR instrumentation in order to estimate the coolant flows in selected fuel assemblies about a LPRM string. For this purpose an equivalent electrical model has been mathematically developed and numerically tested. The power-flow maps of typical BRW are used as steady state references for this equivalent model. Once these were fully reproduced for steady state

  11. Evaluation of the radial design of fuel cells in an operation cycle of a BWR reactor; Evaluacion del diseno radial de celdas de combustible en un ciclo de operacion de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, J.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jgco@ver.megared.net.mx

    2003-07-01

    This work is continuation of one previous in the one that the application of the optimization technique called Tabu search to the radial design of fuel cells of boiling water reactors (BWR, Boiling Water Reactor) is presented. The objective function used in the optimization process only include neutron parameters (k-infinite and peak of radial power) considering the cell at infinite media. It was obtained to reduce the cell average enrichment completing the characteristics of reactivity of an original cell. The objective of the present work is to validate the objective function that was used for the radial design of the fuel cell (test cell), analyzing the operation of a one cycle of the reactor in which fuels have been fresh recharged that contain an axial area with the nuclear database of the cell designed instead of the original cell. For it is simulated it with Cm-Presto the cycle 10 of the reactor operation of the Unit 1 of the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde (U1-CNLV). For the cycle evaluation its were applied so much the simulation with the Haling strategy, as the simulation of the one cycle with control rod patterns and they were evaluated the energy generation and several power limits and reactivity that are used as design parameters in fuel reloads of BWR reactors. The results at level of an operation cycle of the reactor, show that the objective function used in the optimization and radial design of the cell is adequate and that it can induce to one good use of the fuel. (Author)

  12. SNPSAM - Space Nuclear Power System Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Seo, Jong T.

    The current version of SNPSAM is described, and the results of the integrated thermoeletric SP-100 system performance studies using SNPSAM are reported. The electric power output, conversion efficiency, coolant temperatures, and specific pumping power of the system are calculated as functions of the reactor thermal power and the liquid metal coolant type (Li or NaK-78) during steady state operation. The transient behavior of the system is also discussed.

  13. Neutron dosimetry. Environmental monitoring in a BWR type reactor; Dosimetria de neutrones. Monitoreo ambiental en un reactor del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavera D, L.; Camacho L, M.E

    1991-01-15

    The measurements carried out on reactor dosimetry are applied mainly to the study on the effects of the radiation in 108 materials of the reactor; little is on the environmental dosimetry outside of the primary container of BWR reactors. In this work the application of a neutron spectrometer formed by plastic detectors of nuclear traces manufactured in the ININ, for the environmental monitoring in penetrations around the primary container of the unit I of the Laguna Verde central is presented. The neutron monitoring carries out with purposes of radiological protection, during the operational tests of the reactor. (Author)

  14. SUN-RAH: a nucleoelectric BWR university simulator based in reduced order models; SUN-RAH: simulador universitario de nucleoelectrica BWR basado en modelos de orden reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales S, J.B.; Lopez R, A.; Sanchez B, A.; Sanchez S, R.; Hernandez S, A. [DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jms0620@yahoo.com

    2003-07-01

    The development of a simulator that allows to represent the dynamics of a nucleo electric central, with nuclear reactor of the BWR type, using reduced order models is presented. These models present the characteristics defined by the dominant poles of the system (1) and most of those premature operation transitories in a power station can be reproduced with considerable fidelity if the models are identified with data of plant or references of a code of better estimate like RAMONA, TRAC (2) or RELAP. The models of the simulator are developments or own simplifications starting from the physical laws and retaining the main terms. This work describes the objective of the project and the general specifications of the University student of Nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor type (SUN-RAH) as well as the finished parts that fundamentally are the nuclear reactor, the one of steam supply (NSSS), the plant balance (BOP), the main controllers of the plant and the implemented graphic interfaces. The pendent goals as well as the future developments and applications of SUN-RAH are described. (Author)

  15. Artificial intelligence applied to fuel management in BWR type reactors; Inteligencia artificial aplicada a la administracion de combustible en reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J.J

    1998-10-01

    In this work two techniques of artificial intelligence, neural networks and genetic algorithms were applied to a practical problem of nuclear fuel management; the determination of the optimal fuel reload for a BWR type reactor. This is an important problem in the design of the operation cycle of the reactor. As a result of the application of these techniques, comparable or even better reloads proposals than those given by expert companies in the subject were obtained. Additionally, two other simpler problems in reactor physics were solved: the determination of the axial power profile and the prediction of the value of some variables of interest at the end of the operation cycle of the reactor. Neural networks and genetic algorithms have been applied to solve many problems of engineering because of their versatility but they have been rarely used in the area of fuel management. The results obtained in this thesis indicates the convenience of undertaking further work on this area and suggest the application of these techniques of artificial intelligence to the solution of other problems in nuclear reactor physics. (Author)

  16. Nuclear power: The beginning of the end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The global significance of nuclear energy is greatly overestimated - accounting for share of barely two per cent of worldwide energy consumption, it is a rather phoney giant: The closer one look at facts, the less potential this controversial energy source seems to hold for the future. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear power: on line; Kernenergie Online

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Christian [atw Redaktion, Hattingen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Presentation of these contents in the World Wide Web (WWW): Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) - itu.jrc.ec.europa.eu Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen (Germany) - www.kkw-gundremmingen.de Canadian Nuclear Association (Canada) - www.cna.ca Kernkraftwerk Krsko (Slovenia) - www.nek.si. (orig.)

  18. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  19. Appliance of software engineering in development of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Yun, C. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B. R. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    Application of computer technology in nuclear power plant is also a necessary transformation as in other industry fields. But until now, application of software technology was not wide-spread because of its potential effect to safety in nuclear field. It is an urgent theme to develop evaluation guide and regulation techniques to guarantee safety, reliability and quality assurance. To meet these changes, techniques for development and operation should be enhanced to ensure the quality of software systems. In this study, we show the difference between waterfall model and software life-cycle needed in development of nuclear power plant and propose the consistent framework needed in development of instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant.

  20. Power Counting and Wilsonian Renormalization in Nuclear Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavon

    2016-01-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental ---perhaps unknown or unsolvable--- high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding ...

  1. Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review and analysis of the challenges that nuclear power must overcome in order to be considered sustainable. The results make it clear that not only do innovative technical solutions need to be generated for the fundamental inherent environmental burdens of nuclear energy technology, but the nuclear industry must also address difficult issues of equity both in the present and for future generations. The results show that if the concept of just sustainability is applied to the nuclear energy sector a global large-scale sustainable nuclear energy system to replace fossil fuel combustion requires the following: (i a radical improvement in greenhouse gas emissions intensity by improved technology and efficiency through the entire life cycle to prevent energy cannibalism during rapid growth; (ii the elimination of nuclear insecurity to reduce the risks associated with nuclear power so that the free market can indemnify it without substantial public nuclear energy insurance subsidies; (iii the elimination of radioactive waste at the end of life and minimization of environmental impact during mining and operations; and (iv the nuclear industry must regain public trust or face obsolescence as a swarm of renewable energy technologies quickly improve both technical and economic performance.

  2. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power, and Energy Choices Public Preferences, Perceptions, and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have investigated public perceptions and preferences about nuclear power, waste management, and technology. However there is clear lack of uniformity in the style, aims and methods applied.  Consequently, the body of results is inconsistent and it is difficult to isolate relevant patterns or interpretations. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power and Energy Choices: Public Preferences, Perceptions and Trust presents a theoretical base for public reactions then classifies and reviews the large body of surveys carried out over the past decade.   Particular focus is placed on residents within 50 miles US nuclear waste facilities due to the disproportionate presence of nuclear factors in their lives such as the legacy of nuclear waste disposal and job dependency. The motivations and reasons for their views such as fear, attraction to the economic benefits, trust of site managers and federal agencies, cultural views, personal history, and demographic attributes of the people are also conside...

  3. Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels in BWR Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chopra, O. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gruber, Eugene E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shack, William J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The internal components of light water reactors are exposed to high-energy neutron irradiation and high-temperature reactor coolant. The exposure to neutron irradiation increases the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) because of the elevated corrosion potential of the reactor coolant and the introduction of new embrittlement mechanisms through radiation damage. Various nonsensitized SSs and nickel alloys have been found to be prone to intergranular cracking after extended neutron exposure. Such cracks have been seen in a number of internal components in boiling water reactors (BWRs). The elevated susceptibility to SCC in irradiated materials, commonly referred to as irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), is a complex phenomenon that involves simultaneous actions of irradiation, stress, and corrosion. In recent years, as nuclear power plants have aged and irradiation dose increased, IASCC has become an increasingly important issue. Post-irradiation crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests have been performed to provide data and technical support for the NRC to address various issues related to aging degradation of reactor-core internal structures and components. This report summarizes the results of the last group of tests on compact tension specimens from the Halden-II irradiation. The IASCC susceptibility of austenitic SSs and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials sectioned from submerged arc and shielded metal arc welds was evaluated by conducting crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests in a simulated BWR environment. The fracture and cracking behavior of HAZ materials, thermally sensitized SSs and grain-boundary engineered SSs was investigated at several doses (≤3 dpa). These latest results were combined with previous results from Halden-I and II irradiations to analyze the effects of neutron dose, water chemistry, alloy compositions, and welding and processing conditions on IASCC

  4. 44 BWR Waste Package Loading Curve Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Scaglione

    2001-11-05

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of average initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of fuel into a potential 44 BWR waste package (WP). The potential WP design is illustrated in Attachment I. The scope of this calculation covers a range of initial enrichments from 1.5 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 50 GWd/mtU.

  5. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschbach, M.C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review their decommissioning cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  6. Technological Transfer from Research Nuclear Reactors to New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Laura; Pavelescu, Margarit

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the analysis of the technological transfer role in the nuclear field, with particular emphasis on nuclear reactors domain. The presentation is sustained by historical arguments. In this frame, it is very important to start with the achievements of the first nuclear systems, for instant those with natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, following in time through the history until the New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors. Starting with 1940, the accelerated development of the industry has implied the increase of the global demand for energy. In this respect, the nuclear energy could play an important role, being essentially an unlimited source of energy. However, the nuclear option faces the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide, a significant amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience gained is a strong basis for further improvements. Actually, the nuclear programs of many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors, which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability, improved safety, and proliferation-resistant characteristics in order to overcome the current concerns about nuclear power. Advanced reactors, now under development, may help to meet the demand for energy power of both developed and developing countries as well as for district heating, desalination and for process heat. The paper gives historical examples that illustrate the steps pursued from first research nuclear reactors to present advanced power reactors. Emphasis was laid upon the fact that the progress is due to the great discoveries of the nuclear scientists using the technological transfer.

  7. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  8. Power Spectrum Analyses of Nuclear Decay Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Javorsek, D; Lasenby, R N; Lasenby, A N; Buncher, J B; Fischbach, E; Gruenwald, J T; Hoft, A W; Horan, T J; Jenkins, J H; Kerford, J L; Lee, R H; Longman, A; Mattes, J J; Morreale, B L; Morris, D B; Mudry, R N; Newport, J R; O'Keefe, D; Petrelli, M A; Silver, M A; Stewart, C A; Terry, B; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.06.011

    2010-01-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data were obtained from three distinct data sets: 32Si and 36Cl decays reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), but also performed at BNL, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. All three data sets exhibit the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additional spectral comparisons of the data to local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and their reciprocals were performed. No common phases were found between the factors investigated and those exhibited by the nuclear decay data. This suggests that either a combination of factors was responsible, or that, if it was a single factor, its effects on the decay rate experiments are n...

  9. Development of nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Meng; YANG Yan-Hua; ZHANG Rong-Hua; HU Rui

    2005-01-01

    A nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator was developed based on general-purpose thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5. It main1y consists of three parts: improved thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5, control and protection system and human-machine interface. A normal transient of CHASHMA nuclear power plant turbine step load change from 100% to 90% of full power, was simulated by the engineering simulator as an application example. This paper presents structure and main features of the engineering simulator, and application results are shown and discussed.

  10. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  11. A methodology for obtaining the control rod patterns in a BWR using genetic algorithms; Una metodologia para obtener los patrones de barras de control en un BWR usando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Montes T, J.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Requena R, I. [Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. e-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the GACRP system based on the genetic algorithms technique for the obtaining of the drivers of control bars in a BWR reactor is presented. This methodology was applied to a transition cycle and a one of balance of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station (CNLV). For each one of the studied cycles, it was executed the methodology with a fixed length of the cycle and it was compared the effective multiplication factor of neutrons at the end of the cycle that it is obtained with the proposed drivers of control bars and the multiplication factor of neutrons obtained by means of a Haling calculation. It was found that it is possible to extend several days the length of both cycles with regard to the one Haling calculation. (Author)

  12. Refueling outage services in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants; Servicios en recargas de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landete, J. L.; Soto, M.; Nunuez, A.

    2007-07-01

    DOMINGUIS Group, through its 75 years of business development, has positioned as the Spanish leader Group in Services for the Nuclear Energy and Petrochemical Sectors. In this article, we present the most significant services summary that, through the companies that constitute DOMINGUIS Group, we have developed in Refueling Outage in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  13. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  14. AREVA solutions to licensing challenges in PWR and BWR reload and safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curca-Tivig, Florin [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Regulatory requirements for reload and safety analyses are evolving: new safety criteria, request for enlarged qualification databases, statistical applications, uncertainty propagation.. In order to address these challenges and access more predictable licensing processes, AVERA is implementing consistent code and methodology suites for PWR and BWR core design and safety analysis, based on first principles modeling and extremely broad verification and validation data base. Thanks to the high computational power increase in the last decades methods' development and application now include new capabilities. An overview of the main AREVA codes and methods developments is given covering PWR and BWR applications in different licensing environments.

  15. Reconciling nuclear risk: The impact of the Fukushima accident on comparative preferences for nuclear power in UK electricity generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C.; Elgueta, H.; Eiser, J.

    2015-01-01

    Polls conducted in the United Kingdom following the Fukushima nuclear accident (March 2011) indicated a fairly muted and temporary shift in public approval of nuclear power. This study investigated how: (a) comparative preferences for nuclear power in the U nited Kingdom might have been affected by the accident; and (b) how “supporters” of nuclear power reconciled their pro-nuclear attitude in the wake of the disaster. Between-subjects comparisons with a pre-Fukushima sample revealed our post...

  16. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Solbrig

    2011-01-01

    plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage of already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.

  17. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  18. Role of research reactors for nuclear power program in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soentono, S.; Arbie, B. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Batan (Indonesia)

    1994-12-31

    The main objectives of nuclear development program in Indonesia are to master nuclear science and technology, as well as to utilise peaceful uses of nuclear know-how, aiming at stepwisely socioeconomic development. A Triga Mark II, previously of 250 kW, reactor in Bandung has been in operation since 1965 and its design power has been increased to 1000 kW in 1972. Using core grid of the Triga 250 kW, BATAN designed and constructed the Kartini Reactor in Yogyakarta which started its operation in 1979. Both of these Triga reactors have served a wide spectrum of utilisation, such as training of manpower in nuclear engineering as well as radiochemistry, isotope production and beam research activities in solid state physics. In order to support the nuclear power development program in general and to suffice the reactor experiments further, simultaneously meeting the ever increasing demand for radioisotope, the third reactor, a multipurpose reactor of 30 MW called GA. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS) has been in operation since 1987 at Serpong near Jakarta. Each of these reactors has strong cooperation with Universities, namely the Bandung Institute of Technology at Bandung, the Gadjah Mada University at Yogyakarta, and the Indonesia University at Jakarta and has facilitated the man power development required. The role of these reactors, especially the multipurpose GA. Siwabessy reactor, as essential tools in nuclear power program are described including the experience gained during preproject, construction and commissioning, as well as through their operation, maintenance and utilisation.

  19. Tecnatom support to new nuclear power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. B. [TECNATOM, S. A., Av. Montes de Oca 1, 28709 San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)], e-mail: amanrique@tecnatom.es

    2009-10-15

    Tecnatom is a Spanish engineering company with more than 50 years of experience working for the nuclear industry all over the world. It has worked in over 30 countries in activities related to the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Along this half century of history. Tecnatom has been providing its services to nuclear utilities, regulators, NPP vendors, NPP owners / operators and nuclear fuel manufacturers not only in Spain but also abroad. It started to work in the design of new nuclear power plants in the early 90 s and since then has continued collaborating with different suppliers in the design and licensing of new reactors especially in the areas of plant systems design, man-machine interface design, main control room simulators building, training, qualification of equipment and PSI/ISI engineering services. Some challenges to the reactivation of nuclear power plants construction are common worldwide, including: regulatory processes, workforce availability, construction project management, etc. Being some keys to success the following: apply qualified resources, enough resources for early planning, project leadership, organization and integration, establish a strong integrated management team. The goal of this paper is to inform regarding the capabilities of Tecnatom in the construction of new power plants. (Author)

  20. Optimization Algorithms for Nuclear Reactor Power Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Min; Oh, Won Jong; Oh, Seung Jin; Chun, Won Gee; Lee, Yoon Joon [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    One of the control techniques that could replace the present conventional PID controllers in nuclear plants is the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) method. The most attractive feature of the LQR method is that it can provide the systematic environments for the control design. However, the LQR approach heavily depends on the selection of cost function and the determination of the suitable weighting matrices of cost function is not an easy task, particularly when the system order is high. The purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient and reliable algorithm that could optimize the weighting matrices of the LQR system

  1. Laser applications in nuclear power plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Sanyal

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the state of the art of using a solid-state Nd:YAG laser for material processing applications such as cutting, welding and drilling of several components of operational nuclear reactors in radioactive environment. We have demonstrated several advantages of laserbased material processing over conventional methods, and these are discussed briefly. At NPCIL, we have used laser techniques to cut stainless steel sheets up to 14 mm thickness and stainless steel weld up to a depth of 3 mm. This remotely operable laser system has been engineered for its robustness with proper fixtures and tooling for various material processing operations on industrial scale.

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Volkanovski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear power plant considering the plant safety is developed and presented. The objective function of the optimization is the mean value of the selected risk measure. The risk measure is assessed from the minimal cut sets identified in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The optimal solution of the objective function is estimated with genetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on probabilistic safety analysis model of the selected safety system of the reference nuclear power plant. Obtained results show that optimization of maintenance decreases the risk and thus improves the plant safety. The implications of the consideration of different constraints on the obtained results are investigated and presented. The future prospects for the optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear power plants with the presented method are discussed.

  3. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply.

  4. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.''...

  5. 76 FR 73720 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000 Pressurized..., NUREG-2103, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant...

  6. Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhakainen, M.; Suomela, M

    1999-11-01

    Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main contributor is the radionuclide discharges of the NPPs into the atmosphere, but workers may transmit small amounts through their clothes or skin, or from internal contamination. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the amounts of radionuclides in sewage sludge and to obtain information on transport of the radionuclides from the NPPs to the wastewater treatment plants. Under normal operating conditions and during annual maintenance and refuelling outages at the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, sewage sludge samples were taken at wastewater treatment plants in communities located in the vicinity of the plants. With the exception of {sup 131}I, the most significant activities in discharges into the air from the Loviisa NPP were due to {sup 110}mAg. The latter was also noted most frequently in the sewage sludge at the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Loviisa about 10 km from the Loviisa pressurised water reactor (PWR) NPP. The other nuclides probably originating from the Loviisa NPP were {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, {sup 110}mAg and {sup 124}Sb. In the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Rauma, about 10 km from the Olkiluoto boiling water reactor (BWR) NPP, the only nuclides possibly origination from the NPP were {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co. In the wastewater treatment plant, the variation in concentration of {sup 60}Co in sludge did not correlate with the activities measured in precipitation. The occurrence of the nuclide in the treatment plant did not correlate over time with the amounts of discharge from the NPP. This suggests that at least some of the activity was transported to the wastewater treatment plant via routes other than precipitation

  7. Regulatory practices for nuclear power plants in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Bajaj

    2013-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is the national authority for ensuring that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy does not cause any undue risk to the health of workers, members of the public and to the environment. AERB is responsible for the stipulation and enforcement of rules and regulations pertaining to nuclear and radiological safety. This paper describes the regulatory process followed by AERB for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) during their construction as well as operation. This regulatory process has been continuously evolving to cater to the new developments in reactor technology. Some of the recent initiatives taken by AERB in this direction are briefly described. Today, AERB faces new challenges like simultaneous review of a large number of new projects of diverse designs, a fast growing nuclear power program and functioning of operating plants in a competitive environment. This paper delineates how AERB is gearing up to meet these challenges in an effective manner.

  8. Regenerating the U.S. nuclear power program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowden, Marcus A.; Kraemer, Jay R.; Koehn, Mark R. [Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver and Jacobson, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Through industry planning initiatives, new licensing regulations, favorable court decisions and supportive legislation, the U.A. nuclear community - in both its private and governmental sectors - has, during the last five years, produced fundamental changes in the approach to planning, ordering, licensing and operating future nuclear power plants. Integrated and well-planned initiatives are leading to a more hospitable and promising institutional framework for regeneration of the U.S. nuclear option. While demonstrable progress has been made on many fronts - a streamlined plant licensing framework and standardized design development to name the most apparent - other critical path obstacles must still be surmounted to transform current progress into an order for a new nuclear power plant or a family of plants. Early signs are encouraging, but much work remains to be done. (author).

  9. Assessment of the Prony's method for BWR stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier, E-mail: javier.ortiz@inin.gob.m [Gerencia de Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Castillo-Duran, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelio.castillo@inin.gob.m [Gerencia de Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Palacios-Hernandez, Javier C., E-mail: javier.palacios@inin.gob.m [Gerencia de Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Mexico 52750 (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: This paper describes a method to determine the degree of stability of a BWR. Performance comparison between Prony's and common AR techniques is presented. Benchmark data and actual BWR transient data are used for comparison. DR and f results are presented and discussed. The Prony's method is shown to be a robust technique for BWR stability. - Abstract: It is known that Boiling Water Reactors are susceptible to present power oscillations in regions of high power and low coolant flow, in the power-flow operational map. It is possible to fall in one of such instability regions during reactor startup, since both power and coolant flow are being increased but not proportionally. One other possibility for falling into those areas is the occurrence of a trip of recirculation pumps. Stability monitoring in such cases can be difficult, because the amount or quality of power signal data required for calculation of the stability key parameters may not be enough to provide reliable results in an adequate time range. In this work, the Prony's Method is presented as one complementary alternative to determine the degree of stability of a BWR, through time series data. This analysis method can provide information about decay ratio and oscillation frequency from power signals obtained during transient events. However, so far not many applications in Boiling Water Reactors operation have been reported and supported to establish the scope of using such analysis for actual transient events. This work presents first a comparison of decay ratio and frequency oscillation results obtained by Prony's method and those results obtained by the participants of the Forsmark 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactor Stability Benchmark using diverse techniques. Then, a comparison of decay ratio and frequency oscillation results is performed for four real BWR transient event data, using Prony's method and two other techniques based on an autoregressive modeling. The four

  10. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  11. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear...

  12. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Nealey, S.M.; Hammersla, J.; Rankin, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated.

  13. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difilippo, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  14. Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Petrochenko; Georgy Toshinsky

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral) design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing...

  15. Space nuclear power, propulsion, and related technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Marshall

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is one of the nation's largest research and development (R&D) facilities, with headquarters at Albuquerque, New Mexico; a laboratory at Livermore, California; and a test range near Tonopah, Nevada. Smaller testing facilities are also operated at other locations. Established in 1945, Sandia was operated by the University of California until 1949, when, at the request of President Truman, Sandia Corporation was formed as a subsidiary of Bell Lab's Western Electric Company to operate Sandia as a service to the U.S. Government without profit or fee. Sandia is currently operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by AT&T Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T. Sandia's responsibility is national security programs in defense and energy with primary emphasis on nuclear weapon research and development (R&D). However, Sandia also supports a wide variety of projects ranging from basic materials research to the design of specialized parachutes. Assets, owned by DOE and valued at more than $1.2 billion, include about 600 major buildings containing about 372,000 square meters (m2) (4 million square feet [ft2]) of floor space, located on land totalling approximately 1460 square kilometers (km2) (562 square miles [mi]). Sandia employs about 8500 people, the majority in Albuquerque, with about 1000 in Livermore. Approximately 60% of Sandia's employees are in technical and scientific positions, and the remainder are in crafts, skilled labor, and administrative positions. As a multiprogram national laboratory, Sandia has much to offer both industrial and government customers in pursuing space nuclear technologies. The purpose of this brochure is to provide the reader with a brief summary of Sandia's technical capabilities, test facilities, and example programs that relate to military and civilian objectives in space. Sandia is interested in forming partnerships with industry and government

  16. Nuclear power for energy and for scientific progress

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G

    2012-01-01

    The Introduction in this paper underlines the present general situation for energy and the environment using the words of the US Secretary of Energy. A short presentation is made of some major nuclear power plants used to study one fundamental parameter for neutrino oscillations. The nuclear power status in some Far East Nations is summarized. The 4th generation of nuclear power stations, with emphasis on Fast Neutron Reactors, is recollected. The world consumptions of all forms of energies is recalled, fuel reserves are considered and the opportunities for a sustainable energy future is discussed. These considerations are applied to the italian situation, which is rather peculiar, also due to the many consequencies of the strong Nimby effects in Italy.

  17. Type Selection for Present Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Junyang; Shi Wenbao; Ye Qing

    2006-01-01

    With rapid development of nuclear power in China, in view of reactor type selection, this paper analyzes the current situation that faces nuclear power industry, the technical characteristics of optional reactors and the tendency of nuclear power technology development in the future. The proposals put forward in this paper include choosing and introducing GW-class advanced PWR as main reactors, carrying out self-supporting projects and technical transfer negotiations, in addition, promoting the design of the advanced generation-Ⅱ PWR and initiating small-scaled construction. The ultimate target is to catch up with the world advanced level by means of technical upgrading and recreation based on technology importation and assimilation.

  18. Study on evaluation system for Chinese nuclear power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song-bai; CHENG Jian-xiu

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the meaning, structure, function and assessment methods of a nuclear power plant evaluation system, and the similarities and differences among various assessment methods. Based on this research an integrated and detailed suggestion is proposed on how to establish and improve internal and external evaluation systems for Chinese NPPs. It includes: to prepare and implement the nuclear power plant operational management program, to build an integrated performance indicator system, to improve the present audit system and conduct the comprehensive evaluation system, to set up and implement the integrated corrective action system, to position precisely the status of operation assessment of nuclear power plants, to conduct the assessment activities on constructing NPP, to initiate the specific assessment in some important areas, to establish industry performance indicator system, to improve the assessment methods, to share the assessment results, to select,cultivate and certify the reviewers, and to enhance international communication and cooperation.

  19. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  20. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  1. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  2. Spallator: a new option for nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.R.; Kouts, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    The principles of the spallator reactor are reviewed. Advances in linear accelerator technology allow the design and construction of high current (hundreds of mA) continuous wave high energy (thousands of MeV) proton machines in the near term. Spallation neutronic calculations building on existing experimental results, indicate substantial neutron yields on uranium targets. Spallator target assembly designs based on water cooled reactor technology indicate operable efficient systems. Fuel cycles are presented which supply fissile material to thermal power reactors and reduce fission product waste. Preliminary comparative analysis indicates an economically competitive system in which a single purpose self-sufficient spallator supplies fuel to a number of LWRs. The spallator assures a long-term LWR power reactor economy. International interest in advancing the technology is indicated.

  3. Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-03-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  4. Power counting and Wilsonian renormalization in nuclear effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavón

    2016-05-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental — perhaps unknown or unsolvable — high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding of how to apply these ideas to non-perturbative phenomena and in particular to nuclear physics. Here we review a few of these ideas, explain power counting in two-nucleon scattering and reactions with external probes and hint at how to extend the present analysis beyond the two-body problem.

  5. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  6. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  7. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Dangers associated with civil nuclear power programmes: weaponization and nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Frank

    2015-07-24

    The number of nuclear power plants in the world rose exponentially to 420 by 1990 and peaked at 438 in 2002; but by 2014, as closed plants were not replaced, there were just 388. In spite of using more renewable energy, the world still relies on fossil fuels, but some countries plan to develop new nuclear programmes. Spent nuclear fuel, one of the most dangerous and toxic materials known, can be reprocessed into fresh fuel or into weapons-grade materials, and generates large amounts of highly active waste. This article reviews available literature on government and industry websites and from independent analysts on world energy production, the aspirations of the 'new nuclear build' programmes in China and the UK, and the difficulties in keeping the environment safe over an immense timescale while minimizing adverse health impacts and production of greenhouse gases, and preventing weaponization by non-nuclear-weapons states acquiring civil nuclear technology.

  9. Diffusion bonded matrix of HGMF applied for BWR condensate water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soda, Fumitaka; Yukawa, Takao; Ito, Kazuyuki

    1984-03-01

    A high Gradient Magnetic Filter (HGMF) applied to the purification of power plant primary water has recently attracted much attention. In the application of HGMF to the water treatment of power plants, especially nuclear power plants, reliabillties of matrix (filtering medium) as well as removal performance for cruds (insoluble corrosion products) are considered to be important factors. To satisfy these factors, a new filtering medium named Diffision Bonded Matrix (DBM) has been developed and the test results are reported. Filtering efficiency and mechanical stiffness of DBM were examined using HGMF pilot test units consisting of 160 mm diameters x 240 mm length filter. The filtering velocity and the magnetic flux density used in this test were 800 m/h 5 kG, respectively. The filtering efficiencies and of 85-100% were obtained for artificial cruds for DBM. The DBM indicated slightly better filtering efficiency than for conventional wool matrix under the same filtering and matrix conditions. The DBM kept its original mechanical properties and very few pieces of fibers were broken off while the conventional wool matrix lost its volume elasticities and the considerable amount of fibers was broken off during the test operation. The results described here demonstrated the applicability of DBM for treatment of BWR primary water by High Gradient Magnetic Filter.

  10. Contracting and subcontracting by the French nuclear power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébaud-Mony, A

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear power industry contracts out 80% of the maintenance work in its plants to independent companies. The workers in these companies are seldom protected by unions or by government regulations. The average dose of radiation received by such a worker is four times that received by a permanent employee of the contracting entity. As the contract worker approaches a specified dose limit, he is laid off, with no support other than welfare and no compensation for medical expenses that may arise as a result of the radiation exposure or occupational stress. There is a danger that this pattern of worker exploitation will spread as nuclear power plants proliferate around the world.

  11. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  12. Use of expert systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of technologies, particularly expert systems, to the control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and increase plant safety, reliability, and efficiency. Furthermore, there are a large number of nonoperating activities (testing, routine maintenance, outage planning, equipment diagnostics, and fuel management) in which expert systems can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of overall plant and corporate operations. This document presents a number of potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear power field. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant; Ydinvoimalaitoksen kaapelipaloriski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined. 62 refs.

  14. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  15. Design data and safety features of commerical nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1976-06-01

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 34 nuclear power units in 17 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each plant, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. An aerial perspective is also presented for each plant. This volume covers Light Water Reactors (LWRs) with dockets 50-508 through 50-549, four HTGRs--50-171, 50-267, 50-450/451, 50-463/464, the Atlantic Floating Station 50-477/478, and the Clinch River Breeder 50-537.

  16. Prony's method application for BWR instabilities characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelio.castillo@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Ramírez, J. Ramón, E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier, E-mail: javier.ortiz@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Prony's method application for BWR instability events. • Several BWR instability benchmark are assessed using this method. • DR and frequency are obtained and a new parameter is proposed to eliminate false signals. • Adequate characterization of in-phase and out-of-phase events is obtained. • The Prony's method application is validated. - Abstract: Several methods have been developed for the analysis of reactor power signals during BWR power oscillations. Among them is the Prony's method, its application provides the DR and the frequency of oscillations. In this paper another characteristic of the method is proposed to determine the type of oscillations that can occur, in-phase or out-of-phase. Prony's method decomposes a given signal in all the frequencies that it contains, therefore the DR of the fundamental mode and the first harmonic are obtained. To determine the more dominant pole of the system a normalized amplitude W of the system is calculated, which depends on the amplitude and the damping coefficient. With this term, it can be analyzed which type of oscillations is present, if W of the fundamental mode frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is in-phase, if W of the first harmonic frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is out-of-phase. The method is applied to several stability benchmarks to assess its validity. Results show the applicability of the method as an alternative analysis method to determine the type of oscillations occurred.

  17. Stability prediction of continuous surveillance in BWR reactor; Predictor de estabilidad para la vigilancia continua de un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofino Gomez, Y.

    2006-07-01

    As result of the susceptibility of the Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) to suffer from power instabilities, the program LIP has been developed (LAPUR Input Preprocessor), which automatically determines the decay ratio (DR), as stability margin indication. For DR calculation, LAPUR program is a good predictive alternative: a fast execution for an acceptable precision. LAPUR demands a complex input, dependent on the instantaneous core configuration, requiring an exhaustive control of its generation. LIP, with a modular character, automatically generates the input from the core monitoring system, CAPRICORE (based on Simulate-3), obtaining the DR during the operation. This tool can accelerate the start-up maneuvers and other transients, increasing the plant availability. (Author)

  18. Safety and effective developing nuclear power to realize green and low-carbon development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Zhen Ye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of nuclear power of China's energy structure and industry system. Comparing with other renewable energy the nuclear power chain has very low greenhouse gas emission, so it will play more important role in China's low-carbon economy. The paper also discussed the necessity of nuclear power development to achieve emission reduction, energy structure adjustment, nuclear power safety, environmental protection, enhancement of nuclear power technology, nuclear waste treatment, and disposal, as well as nuclear power plant decommissioning. Based on the safety record and situation of the existing power plants in China, the current status of the development of world nuclear power technology, and the features of the independently designed advanced power plants in China, this paper aims to demonstrate the safety of nuclear power. A nuclear power plant will not cause harm either to the environment and nor to the public according to the real data of radioactivity release, which are obtained from an operational nuclear plant. The development of nuclear power technology can enhance the safety of nuclear power. Further, this paper discusses issues related to the nuclear fuel cycle, the treatment, and disposal strategies of nuclear waste, and the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, all of which are issues of public concern.

  19. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design: Program for advanced nuclear power studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golay, M.W.

    1993-10-10

    The project on ``Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performance`` was been undertaken in order to address the problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Lack of a mature theory has retarded progress in reducing likely frequencies of human errors. Work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subjects who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants, which are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds.

  20. Silicon Carbide Based Power Mangement and Distribution for Space Nuclear Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard, 100's kWe power management and distribution (PMAD) system for space nuclear...

  1. Problems and prospects of nuclear power plants construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergamenshhik Boris Klimentyevich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 60 years ago, in July 1954 in the city of Obninsk near Moscow the world's first nuclear power plant was commissioned with a capacity of 5 MW. Today more than 430 nuclear units with a total capacity of almost 375000 MW are in operation in dozens of the countries worldwide. 72 electrical power units are currently under construction, 8 of them are located in the Russian Federation. There will be no alternative to nuclear energy in the coming decades. Among the factors contributing to the construction of nuclear power plants reckon limited fossil fuel supply, lack of air and primarily carbon dioxide emissions. The holding back factors are breakdown, hazard, radioactive wastes, high construction costs and long construction period. Nuclear accidents in the power plant of «Three-Mile-Island» in the USA, in Chernobyl and in Japan have resulted in termination of construction projects and closure of several nuclear power plants in the Western Europe. The safety systems have become more complex, material consumption and construction costs have significantly increased. The success of modern competing projects like EPR-1600, AP1000, ABWR, national ones AES-2006 and VVER-TOI, as well as several others, depends not only on structural and configuration but also on construction and technological solutions. The increase of the construction term by one year leads to growth of estimated total costs by 3—10 %. The main improvement potentials include external plate reinforcement, pre-fabricated large-block assembly, production and installation of the equipment packages and other. One of the crucial success factors is highly skilled civil engineers training.

  2. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2/sup 0/F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60/sup 0/F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability.

  3. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droeivoldsmo, A.; Porsmyr, J.; Nystad, E. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden (Norway))

    2011-08-15

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  4. On maintenance management of wind and nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Electrical production in Sweden today is mainly from nuclear and hydro power. However, there is large increase in renewable energy like wind power and the installed new capacity goals are large. Several electrical production sources are important for the sustainability of the energy system. Maintenance is an approach for keeping a system sustainable. The importance of structured maintenance for reliable electrical production systems triggers the development of qualitative and quantitative mai...

  5. Power quality considerations for nuclear spectroscopy applications: Grounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Hernández, J.M., E-mail: josemanuel.garcia@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Ramírez-Jiménez, F.J., E-mail: fjr@ieee.org [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Mondragón-Contreras, L.; López-Callejas, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Torres-Bribiesca, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); and others

    2013-11-21

    Traditionally the electrical installations are designed for supplying power and to assure the personnel safety. In nuclear analysis laboratories, additional issues about grounding also must be considered for proper operation of high resolution nuclear spectroscopy systems. This paper shows the traditional ways of grounding nuclear spectroscopy systems and through different scenarios, it shows the effects on the more sensitive parameter of these systems: the energy resolution, it also proposes the constant monitoring of a power quality parameter as a way to preserve or to improve the resolution of the systems, avoiding the influence of excessive extrinsic noise. -- Highlights: •We analyze the performance of nuclear spectroscopy systems with different configurations of the grounding system. •The neutral to ground voltage is an indicator of the ground conditions, a high value may contribute to the increase of the FWHM in nuclear spectroscopy systems. •The use of an isolated ground system is the best option to preserve the best FWHM value. •The application of power quality concepts can help to guaranty the best configuration of the grounding system.

  6. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  7. Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Akos; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power--including fission and fusion processes--is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come. There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields--from material sciences to safety demonstration--to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged.

  8. Nuclear power industry: Tendencies in the world and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, V. A.; Jenkovszky, L. L.; Pavlovych, V. N.

    2007-11-01

    This review deals with new trends in nuclear reactors physics. It opens by an easily understood introduction to nuclear fission energy physics, starting with some history, including the achievements of the Kharkov nuclear physics school. Attention has been given to the development of fission theory, the Strutinsky theory, and the possible use of “nonstandard” fissile elements. The evolution of the design of nuclear reactors, including the merits and demerits of various structures used worldwide, is given in detail. A detailed description of nuclear power plants operating in Ukraine and their (large!) contribution to Ukraine’s total electricity production as compared with other countries is presented. A comparative evaluation of different energy sources influencing environment contamination and the pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident are presented. The lessons of the Chernobyl accident are summarized, including the features of the shelter (“Sarkofag”) covering the remaining of the power plant fourth block and some examples of calculations of the radioactive evolution of the station’s fuel-containing mass (by authors of the present review). The evolution of traditional nuclear reactors designs set forth under the separate heading of next-generation reactors including new projects such as subcritical assemblies controlled by an external beam of particles (neutrons and protons). The Feoktistov reactor operation and the possibility of its realization are discussed among the new ideas.

  9. Recognition of Instrumentation Gauge in the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Nuclear emergency robots were developed in 2001 as the countermeasure following the criticality accident at the JCO (uranium refinery facility) in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. We assumed that these nuclear emergency robots were deployed (or put into) for a mitigation (or management) of severe accident, for example, occurred at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. In the case, the image understanding using a color CCD camera, loaded on the nuclear emergency robot, is important. We proposed an image processing technique to read indication value of the IC water level gauges using the structural characteristics of the instrumentation panels (water level gauges) located inside the reactor building. At first, we recognized the scales on the instrumentation panel using the geometric shape of the panel. And then, we could read the values of the instrumentation gauge by calculating the slope of the needle on the gauge. Using the proposed algorithm, we deciphered instrumentation panels for the four water level gauges and indicators shown on the IC video released by TEPCO and Japanese Nuclear Regulatory Commission of Japan. In this paper, recognition of the instrumentation gauges inside reactor building of the nuclear power plant by an image processing technology is described.

  10. Adaptive Neural Network Algorithm for Power Control in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri Husam Fayiz, Al

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design, test and evaluate a prototype of an adaptive neural network algorithm for the power controlling system of a nuclear power plant. The task of power control in nuclear reactors is one of the fundamental tasks in this field. Therefore, researches are constantly conducted to ameliorate the power reactor control process. Currently, in the Department of Automation in the National Research Nuclear University (NRNU) MEPhI, numerous studies are utilizing various methodologies of artificial intelligence (expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms) to enhance the performance, safety, efficiency and reliability of nuclear power plants. In particular, a study of an adaptive artificial intelligent power regulator in the control systems of nuclear power reactors is being undertaken to enhance performance and to minimize the output error of the Automatic Power Controller (APC) on the grounds of a multifunctional computer analyzer (simulator) of the Water-Water Energetic Reactor known as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor (VVER) in Russian. In this paper, a block diagram of an adaptive reactor power controller was built on the basis of an intelligent control algorithm. When implementing intelligent neural network principles, it is possible to improve the quality and dynamic of any control system in accordance with the principles of adaptive control. It is common knowledge that an adaptive control system permits adjusting the controller’s parameters according to the transitions in the characteristics of the control object or external disturbances. In this project, it is demonstrated that the propitious options for an automatic power controller in nuclear power plants is a control system constructed on intelligent neural network algorithms.

  11. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA. In contrast, generation III reactors, which are an evolution of generation II reactors, incorporate passive or inherent safety features that require no active controls or operational intervention to avoid accidents in the event of malfunction, and may rely on gravity, natural convection or resistance to high temperatures. Today, partly due to the high capital cost of large power reactors generating electricity and partly due to the consideration of public perception, there is a shift towards the development of smaller units. These may be built independently or as modules in a larger complex, with capacity added incrementally as required. Small reactors most importantly benefit from reduced capital costs, simpler units and the ability to produce power away from main grid systems. These factors combined with the ability of a nuclear power plant to use process heat for co-generation, make the small reactors an attractive option. Generally, modern small reactors for power generation are expected to have greater simplicity of design, economy of mass production and reduced installation costs. Many are also designed for a high level of passive or inherent safety in the event of malfunction. Generation III+ designs are generally extensions of the generation III concept, which include advanced passive safety features. These designs can maintain the safe state without the use of any active control components. Generation IV reactors, which are future designs that are currently under research and development, will

  12. The future of nuclear power: A world-wide perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Ismail

    This study analyzes the future of commercial nuclear electric generation worldwide using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) concept. The Tobit panel data estimation technique is applied to analyze the data between 1980 and 1998 for 105 countries. EKC assumes that low-income countries increase their nuclear reliance in total electric production whereas high-income countries decrease their nuclear reliance. Hence, we expect that high-income countries should shut down existing nuclear reactors and/or not build any new ones. We encounter two reasons for shutdowns: economic or political/environmental concerns. To distinguish these two effects, reasons for shut down are also investigated by using the Hazard Model technique. Hence, the load factor of a reactor is used as an approximation for economic reason to shut down the reactor. If a shut downed reactor had high load factor, this could be attributable to political/environmental concern or else economic concern. The only countries with nuclear power are considered in this model. The two data sets are created. In the first data set, the single entry for each reactor is created as of 1998 whereas in the second data set, the multiple entries are created for each reactor beginning from 1980 to 1998. The dependent variable takes 1 if operational or zero if shut downed. The empirical findings provide strong evidence for EKC relationship for commercial nuclear electric generation. Furthermore, higher natural resources suggest alternative electric generation methods rather than nuclear power. Economic index as an institutional variable suggests higher the economic freedom, lower the nuclear electric generation as expected. This model does not support the idea to cut the carbon dioxide emission via increasing nuclear share. The Hazard Model findings suggest that higher the load factor is, less likely the reactor will shut down. However, if it is still permanently closed downed, then this could be attributable to political

  13. EVMS for nuclear power plant construction: status and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, M. S.; Kwak, J. K.; Park, S. Y. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Earned Value Management System (EVMS) method integrates three critical elements of project management scope, cost and time management. It requires the periodic monitoring of actual expenditures and physical scope accomplishments and allows calculation of cost and schedule variances along with performance indices. It allows for casting of project cost and schedule at completion and highlights the possible need for corrective action. It is anticipated that there will be intense competition in the nuclear industry as the cost and time for nuclear power plant construction. In order to attain competitive advantages, utilizing advanced project control systems by integrating cost and time management is of great concern for practitioners. This paper is to review the status of EVMS and its effective implementation to nuclear power plant construction.

  14. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  15. Climate Change or Nuclear Power - Which Risk do we Prefer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Donald [Church of Scotland, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Society, Religion and Technology Project

    2006-09-15

    Climate change and nuclear power provide two of the biggest technological risks of our times. Both involve widespread risks, long-term wastes and inter-generational equity, but in rather different ways. If it came to a choice, which is the worse set of risks to run? Serious doubts have been raised whether the implementation of renewable energies and energy saving are able in practice to deliver quickly enough the radical reductions of CO{sub 2} emissions that are needed to tackle climate change. Some countries may face a dilemma - to continue another generation of nuclear power or to accept that its CO{sub 2} emissions will rise when current nuclear stations finish their time? This paper compares the risks, and explores the ethical issues around which a society would have to weigh up such a choice, the role of the precautionary principle, and the place of expert and lay evaluations of risk (full text of contribution)

  16. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. [TECNATOM SA, BWR General Electric Business Manager, Madrid (Spain); Valdivia, J.C. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Project Manager, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Div. Manager, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  17. The japan a nuclear power?; Le Japon puissance nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumin, D.; Joubert, J.P. [Universite Jean Moulon Lyon-3, Centre Lyonnais d' Etudes de Securite Internationale et de Defense, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2003-07-01

    This work analyzes the Japan nuclear policy, in the frame of its foreign and safety policy in Pacific Asia, since the end of the cold war, especially the relations with the Usa and China. The Japan is a civil power because it has submitted the military institution to juridical restrictions and because it does not rely on the armed force to promote its national interests. The anti nuclear speech is joined with the acknowledgement of the dissuasion necessity, of the control of industrial processes and energy channels susceptible of military applications. Cultivating the ambiguity, the Japanese government can send a dissuasive message, perfectly legible, kind of communication of latent intimidation constituted by the virtual nuclear power of a state that takes part to the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  18. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemian, H M

    2006-01-01

    Compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. This book focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time.

  19. Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.; Borcherding, J.D.; Okes, S.R. Jr.; Rad, P.F.

    1977-12-14

    The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity.

  20. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-15

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems.

  1. Layout of China’s Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Plants in operation Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant-total installed capacity of 2.956 gigawatts The first stage started construction in March 1985, was incorporated into grids in December 1991 and began business operation in April 1994. It has an installed capacity of 300

  2. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1987-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  3. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  5. Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  7. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  8. Edison Electric, Exxon Push Nuclear Power in Nation's Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Dede

    1978-01-01

    Pro-nuclear power "educational materials" designed or promoted by energy and utility companies lack objectivity about alternative energy resources. A free comic book distributed to public schools in New Mexico and a simulation game supplied to Maryland public schools at the expense of utility customers are described. (SW)

  9. Development of TSC SAMG for Nuclear Power Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGDong-xing; PUSheng-di; ZHAOShou-zhi; LIJi-gen

    2003-01-01

    Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) is developed to prevent the severe accident progress and mitigate the consequences of severe accident in nuclear power plant. Technical Support Center (TSC) SAMG is one of important components of the strategies. It contains Severe Accident Guidelines (SAGs) and Severe Challenge Guidelines (SCGs).

  10. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-03-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology.

  11. The Active Field of Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Not Just Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Clemens

    2016-08-01

    " … The number of universities teaching nuclear and radiochemistry has decreased, not least as radiochemistry is erroneously linked to the use of nuclear power … Radiochemistry is essential for a variety of fields, including radiopharmaceuticals, as well as the management of radioactive waste … we are facing a lack of specialists in the area of radiation protection …" Read more in the Editorial by Clemens Walther.

  12. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P

    2005-03-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  13. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  14. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power......

  15. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  16. 76 FR 46856 - Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC considers acceptable for... environmental seals in combination with cables or wires as assemblies for service in nuclear power plants....

  17. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...-2010-0288] Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and applicants with... hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed...

  18. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide applicants and licensees with the most current information on testing safety-related actuators in nuclear power plants. This...

  19. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  20. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant; Aceleracion del suelo en una central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Vega R, E., E-mail: pablo.pena@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  1. Plutonium and Minor Actinides Recycling in Standard BWR using Equilibrium Burnup Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Plutonium (Pu and minor actinides (MA recycling in standard BWR with equilibrium burnup model has been studied. We considered the equilibrium burnup model as a simple time independent burnup method, which can manage all possible produced nuclides in any nuclear system. The equilibrium burnup code was bundled with a SRAC cell-calculation code to become a coupled cell-burnup calculation code system. The results show that the uranium enrichment for the criticality of the reactor, the amount of loaded fuel and the required natural uranium supply per year decrease for the Pu recycling and even much lower for the Pu & MA recycling case compared to those of the standard once-through BWR case. The neutron spectra become harder with the increasing number of recycled heavy nuclides in the reactor core. The total fissile rises from 4.77% of the total nuclides number density in the reactor core for the standard once-through BWR case to 6.64% and 6.72% for the Plutonium recycling case and the Pu & MA recycling case, respectively. The two later data may become the main basis why the required uranium enrichment declines and consequently diminishes the annual loaded fuel and the required natural uranium supply. All these facts demonstrate the advantage of plutonium and minor actinides recycling in BWR.

  2. Nuclear power is not competitive: Climate protection in UK and France also viable without it

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Casimir; Brauers, Hanna; Gerbaulet, Clemens; von Hirschhausen, Christian R.; Kemfert, Claudia; Kendziorski, Mario; Oei, Pao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear power industry is faced with profound challenges- not only in Germany, but throughout Europe as well. New nuclear power plants are very expensive to build and even at high carbon prices, nuclear power is not competitive. Nevertheless, the EU reference scenario assumes that within the next three decades, new nuclear power plants will be built with a total capacity of at least 50 gigawatts (GW), and licenses will be renewed for a further 86 GW. Model calculations show that nuclear p...

  3. Multilevel flow modeling of Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling is a method for modeling complex processes on multiple levels of means-end and part-whole abstraction. The modeling method has been applied on a wide range of processes including power plants, chemical engineering plants and power systems. The modeling method is supported...... functions and structure. The paper will describe how MFM can be used to represent the goals and functions of the Japanese Monju Nuclear Power Plant. A detailed explanation will be given of the model describing the relations between levels of goal, function and structural. Furthermore, it will be explained...

  4. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment.

  5. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply, Phase 1 Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-17

    This Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Boeing Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System (MSNPS). The Boeing Multimegawatt Space Power System is part of the DOE/SDIO Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program. The purpose of this program is to provide a space-based nuclear power system to meet the needs of SDIO missions. The Boeing MSNPS is a category 1 concept which is capable of delivering 10's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds with effluent permitted. A design goal is for the system to have growth or downscale capability for other power system concepts. The growth objective is to meet the category 3 capability of 100's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds, also with effluent permitted. The purpose of this preliminary document is to guide the conceptual design effort throughout the Phase 1 study effort. This document will be updated through out the study. It will thus result in a record of the development of the design effort.

  6. Safety and Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalas, Corinne C.; Schmidt, George R.

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear power sources have been used in space applications for decades. They have been used extensively for electrical power production, and their future potential for propulsion has been recognized since the dawn of the spaceflight era. Nuclear power sources offer many advantages in terms of long duration operation and high power densities independent of distance and orientation with respect to the Sun. However, it is also broadly known that use of radioactive materials do carry more risk that must be addressed to ensure safe operation during all phases of the mission, particularly before and during launch into orbit. Almost all of the nuclear-powered missions to date have been flown by the United States and former Soviet Union, but other space-faring nations have recognized its importance for their future missions. Consequently, many in the space community have advocated the development of a broad set of principles that could be applied on an international basis. This paper examines the current guidelines by the major space-faring nations, and suggests a framework primarily based on the U.S. methodology for ensuring reduction of risk, mitigating environmental impact and promoting launch safety.

  7. [Accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    A massive earthquake of magnitude 9 terribly happened far out at sea of Tohoku area on 11 March, 2011. After this earthquake the hugest tsunami in the history came to the hundreds km of the seashore of Tohoku area. Due to this tsunami all of the four nuclear power plants of Fukushima Daiichi lost every electric power and, soon after this, loss nuclear fuels from number 1 to 3 reactors melt through their power containers. According to this phenomena, large amount of the radio-activities have been released in the air. There were some releases but major contaminations happened at the time of the two releases in the morning of 15 March, 2011. Due to this, to the direction of the northwest until the Iitate Village over 30km zone was contaminated. In this paper I explain the time course of the accidents and that how contaminated.

  8. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Han, Yuting; Hammitt, James K; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-03

    We assessed the influence of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA) on the Chinese public's attitude and acceptance of nuclear power plants in China. Two surveys (before and after the FNA) were administered to separate subsamples of residents near the Tianwan nuclear power plant in Lianyungang, China. A structural equation model was constructed to describe the public acceptance of nuclear power and four risk perception factors: knowledge, perceived risk, benefit, and trust. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between acceptance of nuclear power and the risk perception factors while controlling for demographic variables. Meanwhile, we assessed the median public acceptable frequencies for three levels of nuclear events. The FNA had a significant impact on risk perception of the Chinese public, especially on the factor of perceived risk, which increased from limited risk to great risk. Public acceptance of nuclear power decreased significantly after the FNA. The most sensitive groups include females, those not in public service, those with lower income, and those living close to the Tianwan nuclear power plant. Fifty percent of the survey respondents considered it acceptable to have a nuclear anomaly no more than once in 50 y. For nuclear incidents and serious incidents, the frequencies are once in 100 y and 150 y, respectively. The change in risk perception and acceptance may be attributed to the FNA. Decreased acceptance of nuclear power after the FNA among the Chinese public creates additional obstacles to further development of nuclear power in China and require effective communication strategies.

  9. Simulation in 3 dimensions of a cycle 18 months for an BWR type reactor using the Nod3D program; Simulacion en 3 dimensiones de un ciclo de 18 meses para un reactor BWR usando el programa Nod3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, N.; Alonso, G. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: nhm@nuclear.inin.mx; Valle, E. del [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The development of own codes that you/they allow the simulation in 3 dimensions of the nucleus of a reactor and be of easy maintenance, without the consequent payment of expensive use licenses, it can be a factor that propitiates the technological independence. In the Department of Nuclear Engineering (DIN) of the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics (ESFM) of the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) a denominated program Nod3D has been developed with the one that one can simulate the operation of a reactor BWR in 3 dimensions calculating the effective multiplication factor (kJJ3, as well as the distribution of the flow neutronic and of the axial and radial profiles of the power, inside a means of well-known characteristics solving the equations of diffusion of neutrons numerically in stationary state and geometry XYZ using the mathematical nodal method RTN0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec of index zero). One of the limitations of the program Nod3D is that it doesn't allow to consider the burnt of the fuel in an independent way considering feedback, this makes it in an implicit way considering the effective sections in each step of burnt and these sections are obtained of the code Core Master LEND. However even given this limitation, the results obtained in the simulation of a cycle of typical operation of a reactor of the type BWR are similar to those reported by the code Core Master LENDS. The results of the keJ - that were obtained with the program Nod3D they were compared with the results of the code Core Master LEND, presenting a difference smaller than 0.2% (200 pcm), and in the case of the axial profile of power, the maxim differs it was of 2.5%. (Author)

  10. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  11. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  12. BWR: Development and Validation of KERENA reactor; Les REB: Developpement et validation du reacteur KERENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, F.; Fuchs, M. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH (Germany); Erve, M.; Pasler, D. [AREVA (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    KERENA is an advanced boiling water reactor, combining AREVA's and E.ON's expertise. A project was launched to customize the final basic design for this advanced nuclear power plant having a net power output of about 1, 250 MW, a net efficiency of about 37% and a design service life of 60 years. The development takes into account the technical and accumulated operating experience of the project partners. The plant safety concept is based on an optimized combination of a reduced number of proven active safety systems and passive safety systems, utilizing basic laws of physics, such as gravity, enabling them to function without electrical power supplies or activation by powered instrumentation and control systems. Control of a postulated core melt accident is assured with considerable safety margins thanks to passive flooding of the containment for in-vessel melt retention. All passive safety systems are validated in an experimental test program at AREVA, using 1:1 scale test facilities (INKA test facility Karlstein). The KERENA boiling water reactor is compliant with international nuclear codes and standards, and is also designed to withstand the effects of an aircraft crash involving a military aircraft or a large passenger airline. The safety level of the KERENA reactor has been able to be significantly increased compared to existing BWR plants. The advantages of the new safety concept are: -) Reduced susceptibility of safety systems to failures; -) Larger safety margins; -) Good plant behavior in the event of accidents due to the fact that conditions change at a slower rate; -) Grace periods of several days after an accident before operator intervention is required; -) Significantly reduced impact of operator error on reactor safety; -) No need for large-scale emergency response actions such as temporary evacuation or relocation of the neighboring population following a core melt accident. (A.C.)

  13. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  14. Applied methods for mitigation of damage by stress corrosion in BWR type reactors; Metodos aplicados para la mitigacion del dano por corrosion bajo esfuerzo en reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez C, R.; Diaz S, A.; Gachuz M, M.; Arganis J, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The Boiling Water nuclear Reactors (BWR) have presented stress corrosion problems, mainly in components and pipes of the primary system, provoking negative impacts in the performance of energy generator plants, as well as the increasing in the radiation exposure to personnel involucred. This problem has caused development of research programs, which are guided to find solution alternatives for the phenomena control. Among results of greater relevance the control for the reactor water chemistry stands out particularly in the impurities concentration and oxidation of radiolysis products; as well as the supervision in the materials selection and the stresses levels reduction. The present work presents the methods which can be applied to diminish the problems of stress corrosion in BWR reactors. (Author)

  15. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  16. Automatization of welding for nuclear power equipments and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Koyama, T. (Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works)

    1980-09-01

    For the requirement of high reliability in the construction of nuclear power plants and the reduction of radiation exposure in the modefying works of existing plants, the automation and remote operation of welding have increased their necessity. In this paper, the present state of the automation of welding for making machines, equipments and pipings for nuclear power plants in Hitachi Ltd. is described, and the aim of developing the automation, the features of the equipments and the state of application to actual plants are introduced, centering around the automation of welding for large structures such as reactor containment vessels and the remote type automatic welding system for pipings. By these automations, the large outcomes were obtained in the improvement of welding quality required for the machines and equipments for atomic energy. Moreover, the conspicuous results were also obtained in case of the peculiar works to nuclear power plants, in which the reduction of the radiation exposure related to human bodies and the welding of high quality are demanded. The present state of the automation of welding for nuclear installations in Hitachi Ltd., the development of automatic welding equipments and the present state of application to actual plants, and the development and application of the automatic pipe working machine for reducing radiation exposure are explained.

  17. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1999-07-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  18. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs. A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software: Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschbach, M.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the U.S. Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning BWR power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  19. Hydro and nuclear power for African less-carbon development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gazzar, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Yassin Mohamed; Bedrous, Maher Aziz

    2007-07-01

    Though the overall picture reveal availability of enormous energy resources which far exceed energy requirements of Africa, most of these resources are grossly underutilized, particularly hydro and nuclear resources. It suggests that Africa's problem is not lack of energy resources but its development and utilization. The region will remain a major net exporter of energy for several decades to com. In dealing with its energy problems Africa faces a unique set of initial conditions, defined mainly by its level and pattern of economic growth, social and demographic characteristics, energy resource endowment, location distances between supply sources and consumption areas, technological underdevelopment, and poverty-driven energy-environment conflict. A key challenge is the optimal utilization of the Africa's energy resources to facilitate both individual country and regional energy and economic development. Stronger emphasis on a more integrated energy supply network based on more widespread regional initiatives, particularly in electricity is essential to sustainable energy development in Africa. This paper discusses the prospects for hydro and nuclear power in Africa. The continent is the poorest in the world. The lack of reliable, accessible and affordable energy hinders its development. Hydro and nuclear power promises to be the least-carbon energy sources, while being the cheapest and most reliable among all. The role the hydropower can play in securing a sustainable energy future for Africa is highly emphasized. Also, nuclear power has many advantages to Africa. Opportunities for hydropower and nuclear power in Africa are all considered. Advantages and disadvantages are also all discussed. (auth)

  20. Social responsible communication of nuclear power plant with external stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoncic, Milan [Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia); Zurga, Gordana [Faculty of Organisation Studies in Novo Mesto (Slovenia)

    2016-11-15

    Implications that nuclear technology brings to common physical and social environment, are on daily lists of questions that stakeholders address to owners and operators of nuclear power plants. In this respect, stakeholders expect and demand narrow and explicit answers to concrete questions set. We claim that the acceptability of the NPP in the society can be achieved and maintained also through active communication and trust building between NPP and its stakeholders. A research in this respect was conducted on case of the Krsko NPP, Slovenia. Some institutional and international implications are presented, as well as possible areas for further investigation and research.

  1. Uranium comparison by means of AMS and ICP-MS and Pu and 137Cs results around an Italian Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cesare M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Italy built and commissioned 4 nuclear power plants between 1958-1978, which delivered a total of 1500 MW. All four were closed down after the Chernobyl accident following a referendum in 1987. One of the plants was Garigliano, commissioned in 1959. This plant used a 160 MW BWR1 (SEU of 2.3 % and was operational from 1964 to 1979, when it was switched off for maintenance. It was definitively stopped in 1982, and is presently being decommissioned. We report here details on the chemistry procedure and on the measurements for soil samples, collected up to 4.5 km from the Nuclear Plant. A comparison between uranium (238U concentration as determined by means of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry techniques respectively at the ANU (Australian National University and at the Ecowise company in Canberra, Australia, is reported, as well as 236U and 239;240Pu concentration results detected by AMS. 236U/238U and 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios by means of AMS are also provided. A contamination from Chernobyl is visible in the 137Cs/239+240Pu activity ratio measurements.

  2. Uranium comparison by means of AMS and ICP-MS and Pu and 137Cs results around an Italian Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, M.; Tims, S. G.; Fifield, L. K.

    2015-04-01

    Italy built and commissioned 4 nuclear power plants between 1958-1978, which delivered a total of 1500 MW. All four were closed down after the Chernobyl accident following a referendum in 1987. One of the plants was Garigliano, commissioned in 1959. This plant used a 160 MW BWR1 (SEU of 2.3 %) and was operational from 1964 to 1979, when it was switched off for maintenance. It was definitively stopped in 1982, and is presently being decommissioned. We report here details on the chemistry procedure and on the measurements for soil samples, collected up to 4.5 km from the Nuclear Plant. A comparison between uranium (238U) concentration as determined by means of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) techniques respectively at the ANU (Australian National University) and at the Ecowise company in Canberra, Australia, is reported, as well as 236U and 239;240Pu concentration results detected by AMS. 236U/238U and 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios by means of AMS are also provided. A contamination from Chernobyl is visible in the 137Cs/239+240Pu activity ratio measurements.

  3. Nuclear power research priorities and electricity future of Germany in the context of nuclear phase out

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Nevado, Mireia

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of the German power system in the context of nuclear phase out. An energy system model has been developed to study different scenarios taking into account an immediate or a delayed phase out of the operating reactors. The model has a regional focus considering the plans of the German government regarding renewable technologies expansion and the current installed capacity of all the power generating technologies. The model is developed using OSeMOSYS, an op...

  4. Nuclear power plants making a comeback in Japan; El retorno de la centrales nucleares en Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralbo, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    We reproduce in this magazine the interesting article published by the president of the SNE in issue 46 of Cuadernos de Energia in October 2015, which describes the events that have taken place since the March 11, 2011 earthquake in Japan, the largest in its history, and the subsequent tsunami, which affected the Fukushima power plant, as well as the measures implemented since then and how some of this country nuclear power plants are being started up again. (Author)

  5. Ready for nuclear energy?: An assessment of capacities and motivations for launching new national nuclear power programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, Jessica, E-mail: Jewell_Jessica@ceu-budapest.ed [Central European University, Nador utca 9, 1051 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-03-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency reports that as of July 2009 there were 52 countries interested in building their first nuclear power plant. This paper characterizes and evaluates these 'Newcomer Countries' in terms of their capacity and motivations to develop nuclear power. It quantifies factors historically associated with the development of nuclear energy programs and then benchmarks the Newcomers against these data. Countries with established nuclear power programs, particularly where nuclear facilities are privately owned, are typically larger, wealthier and politically stable economies with high government effectiveness. Nuclear power was historically launched during periods of high electricity consumption growth. Other indicators for the potential of nuclear power include: the size of the national grid, the presence of international grid connections and security of fuel supply for electricity production. We identify 10 Newcomers which most closely resemble the Established Nuclear Power Countries and thus are most likely to deploy nuclear energy, 10 countries where the development of nuclear energy is uncertain due to high political instability, 14 countries with lower capacities where pursuing nuclear energy may require especially strong international cooperation and 18 countries where the development of nuclear power is less likely due to their significantly lower capacities and motivations. - Research Highlights: {yields}Historically, nuclear power was used in larger, wealthier, politically stable economies. {yields}Nuclear power was typically launched in periods of high electricity demand growth. {yields}Only 10 out of 52 'Newcomer' countries share similar characteristics. {yields}10 other 'Newcomers' with high motivations and capacities are politically unstable. {yields}Nuclear power would need international help in 14 countries and is unlikely in the rest (18).

  6. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  7. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S. (ed.)

    1966-09-15

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.

  9. Conceivable new recycling of nuclear waste by nuclear power companies in their plants

    CERN Document Server

    Santilli, R M

    1997-01-01

    We outline the basic principles and the needed experiments for a conceivable new recycling of nuclear waste by the power plants themselves to avoid its transportation and storage to a (yet unknown) dumping area. Details are provided in an adjoining paper and in patents pending.

  10. Periodic safety review of French nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirrier, D.; Debes, M. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    1997-12-01

    The safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is checked through different types of safety evaluations, for example, a continuous process, with followup of operational feedback and over-all evaluation every year by each NPP; specific examination, with the study of generic problems when they occur; and a 10-yr outage inspection. In France, the license does not explicitly require periodic safety reviews (PSRs), but an article has been added to the Decree of December 11, 1963 concerning nuclear installations that states, {open_quotes}The Ministers may jointly request the operating utility at any time to proceed to a review of nuclear safety,{close_quotes} which supports requests for PSRs from the safety authority.

  11. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    This project focuses on developing reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components, and is divided into two parts, development of a life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered in this project: defect assessment method for steam generator tubes, development of fatigue monitoring system, assessment of corroded pipes, domestic round robin analysis for constructing P-T limit curve for RPV, development of probabilistic integrity assessment technique, effect of aging on strength of dissimilar welds, applicability of LBB to cast stainless steel, and development of probabilistic piping fracture mechanics.

  12. Understanding seismic design criteria for Japanese Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the seismic design practice for nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic design codes and standards for both nuclear as well as non-nuclear structures have been reviewed and summarized. Some key documents for understanding Japanese seismic design criteria are also listed with brief descriptions. The paper highlights the design criteria to determine the seismic demand and component capacity in comparison with U.S. criteria, the background studies which have led to the current Japanese design criteria, and a survey of current research activities. More detailed technical descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements.

  13. Nuclear-powered Hysat spacecraft: comparative design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, B.

    1975-08-01

    The study shows that the all-nuclear spacecraft can have a substantial weight advantage over a hybrid (nuclear/solar) or all-solar spacecraft, owing to a further reduction in power requirement, and to the elimination of such equipment as the sensor gimbal and rotating joint assemblies. Because the need for a sun-oriented section is eliminated, the all-nuclear spacecraft can be designed as a monolithic structure, with the sensor and other payload firmly secured in a fixed position on the structure. This enhances attitude stability while minimizing structural weight and eliminating the need for flexible fluid lines. Sensor motion can be produced, varied, and controlled within the limits specified by the study contractors by moving the entire spacecraft in the prescribed pattern. A simple attitude control system using available hardware suffices to meet all requirements.

  14. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2007 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2007/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2007); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2007; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2007; Performance indicator of French PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2007; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2007; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2007; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2007; COL (combined licences) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary.

  15. Signal analysis of acoustic and flow-induced vibrations of BWR main steam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Prieto-Guerrero, A. [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Núñez-Carrera, A. [Comisión Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Doctor Barragán 779, Col. Narvarte, México, D.F. 03020 (Mexico); Vázquez-Rodríguez, A. [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Centeno-Pérez, J. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas Unidad Profesional “Adolfo López Mateos”, Av. IPN, s/n, México, D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Espinosa-Martínez, E.-G. [Departamento de Sistemas Energéticos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Acoustic and flow-induced vibrations of BWR are analyzed. • BWR performance after extended power uprate is considered. • Effect of acoustic side branches (ASB) is analyzed. • The ASB represents a reduction in the acoustic loads to the steam dryer. • Methodology developed for simultaneous analyzing the signals in the MSL. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the signal analysis of acoustic waves due to phenomenon known as singing in Safety Relief Valves (SRV) of the main steam lines (MSL) in a typical BWR5. The acoustic resonance in SRV standpipes and fluctuating pressure is propagated from SRV to the dryer through the MSL. The signals are analyzed with a novel method based on the Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (M-EMD). The M-EMD algorithm has the potential to find common oscillatory modes (IMF) within multivariate data. Based on this fact, we implement the M-EMD technique to find the oscillatory mode in BWR considering the measurements obtained collected by the strain gauges located around the MSL. These IMF, analyzed simultaneously in time, allow obtaining an estimation of the effects of the multiple-SRV in the MSL. Two scenarios are analyzed: the first is the signal obtained before the installation of the acoustic dampers (ASB), and the second, the signal obtained after installation. The results show the effectiveness of the ASB to damp the strong resonances when the steam flow increases, which represents an important reduction in the acoustic loads to the steam dryer.

  16. Process inherent ultimate safety/boiling-water reactor PIUS/BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This document is a series of viewgraphs on: design basis of PIUS/BWR, definition of PIUS/BWR, mechanisms of safe shutdown and afterheat cooling, advantages of PIUS/BWR, and research and development requirements. (DLC)

  17. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  18. COMMERCIAL UTILITY PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.

  19. Nuclear Power Plant Operator Reliability Research Based on Fuzzy Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of the concept and theory of fuzzy number in fuzzy mathematics, to research for the response time of operator in accident of Chinese nuclear power plant. Through the quantitative analysis for the performance shape factors (PSFs which influence the response time of operators, the formula of the operator response time is obtained based on the possibilistic fuzzy linear regression model which is used for the first time in this kind of research. The research result shows that the correct research method can be achieved through the analysis of the information from a small sample. This method breaks through the traditional research method and can be used not only for the reference to the safe operation of nuclear power plant, but also in other areas.

  20. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.