Sample records for bvi ccd photometry

  1. BVI CCD photometry of 47 Tucanae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.


    CCD BVI main-sequence photometry of 47 Tuc is presented, matched to the recent BVI isochrones of VandenBerg and Bell (1985). The main-sequence turnoffs are found to be at V = 17.60 + or - 0.1, B-V = 0.56 + or - 0.02; V-I = 0.68 + or - 0.02, and B-I = 1.24 + or - 0.02. The magnitude difference between the main-sequence turnoff and the horizontal branch is 3.55 + or - 0.15 for all three color indices. A consistent age for 47 Tuc of 17 Gyr and a consistent distance modulus of (m-M)v = 13.2 are obtained for all three indices, and an absolute magnitude of Mv = 0.85 is determined for the horizontal branch stars. The results also favor the adoption of (Fe/H) near -0.5 as the best abundance value for 47 Tuc. 38 references

  2. CCD BVI c observations of Cepheids (United States)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Sefako, R.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Zhujko, S. V.


    In 2008-2013, we obtained 11333 CCD BVI c frames for 57 Cepheids from the General Catalogue of Variable Stars. We performed our observations with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO, South Africa) and the 40-cm telescope of the Cerro Armazones Astronomical Observatory of the Universidad Católica del Norte (OCA, Chile) using the SBIG ST-10XME CCD camera. The tables of observations, the plots of light curves, and the current light elements are presented. Comparison of our light curves with those constructed from photoelectric observations shows that the differences between their mean magnitudes exceed 0ṃ05 in 20% of the cases. This suggests the necessity of performing CCD observations for all Cepheids.

  3. BVI photometry of globular clusters in M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, J.; Harris, W.E.; Allwright, J.W.B.


    CCD photometry in B, V, and I is presented for a sample of globular clusters in the Virgo central giant elliptical galaxy M87. No detectable gradient of mean cluster color (metallicity) in (B - V) or (V - I) with radial distance is found. The cluster system does, however, display a large dispersion in color at any radius, corresponding to sigma (Fe/H) about 0.6 about a mean metallicity of about -1.1 according to the present color index scale. The difference in mean color between the globular clusters and the underlying halo light of the galaxy itself shows up strongly in all the color indices; virtually no clusters as red as the mean color of the halo stars is found at any radius. 43 refs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kim


    Full Text Available We have undertaken CCD observations of field standard stars with Hβ photometric system to investigate the reliability of Hβ CCD photometry. Flat fielding with dome flat and sky flat for Hβw and Hβn filter was compared with that of B filter in UBV system and, from these, we have not found any difference. It was confirmed that there is a good linear relationship between our Hβ values observed with 2.3m reflector and standard values. However, Hβ values observed with 60cm reflector at Sobaeksan Astronomy Observatory showed very poor relationship. To investigate the accuracy of Hβ CCD photometry for fainter objects, open cluster NGC2437 was observed and reduced with DoPHOT, and the results were compared with those for photoelectric photometry of Stetson (1981.

  5. Southern Clusters for Standardizing CCD Photometry (United States)

    Moon, T. T.


    Standardizing photometric measurements typically involves undertaking all-sky photometry. This can be laborious and time-consuming and, for CCD photometry, particularly challenging. Transforming photometry to a standard system is, however, a crucial step when routinely measuring variable stars, as it allows photoelectric measurements from different observers to be combined. For observers in the northern hemisphere, standardized UBVRI values of stars in open clusters such as M67 and NGC 7790 have been established, greatly facilitating quick and accurate transformation of CCD measurements. Recently the AAVSO added the cluster NGC 3532 for southern hemisphere observers to similarly standardize their photometry. The availability of NGC 3532 standards was announced on the AAVSO Variable Star Observing, Photometry forum on 27 October 2016. Published photometry, along with some new measurements by the author, provide a means of checking these NGC 3532 standards which were determined through the AAVSO's Bright Star Monitor (BSM) program (see: New measurements of selected stars in the open clusters M25 and NGC 6067 are also included.

  6. Flatfielding Errors in Strömvil CCD Photometry

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    Boyle R. P.


    Full Text Available The importance of determining the error of the flat field in CCD photometry is detailed and our methods of doing this are described. We now have reached a precision of 1-1.5 % in our photometry. Color-magnitude diagrams of the open cluster M67 (ours and Laugalys et al. 2003 are compared.

  7. CCD photometry of apparent dwarf galaxies in Fornax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Grimley, P.L.; Disney, M.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.


    Blue and red CCD surface photometry of two apparent dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster region is presented. Luminosity profiles are derived and their form discussed. The fainter galaxy resembles an archetypal diffuse dwarf elliptical but the brighter of the pair is either an unusual red dwarf or a background galaxy in chance juxtaposition. (author)

  8. CCD Photometry of bright stars using objective wire mesh

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    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Zgórz, Marika [Astronomical Observatory Institute, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Słoneczna 36, 60-286 Poznań (Poland); Schwarzenberg-Czerny, Aleksander, E-mail: [Copernicus Astronomical Centre, ul. Bartycka 18, PL 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)


    Obtaining accurate photometry of bright stars from the ground remains problematic due to the danger of overexposing the target and/or the lack of suitable nearby comparison stars. The century-old method of using objective wire mesh to produce multiple stellar images seems promising for the precise CCD photometry of such stars. Furthermore, our tests on β Cep and its comparison star, differing by 5 mag, are very encouraging. Using a CCD camera and a 20 cm telescope with the objective covered by a plastic wire mesh, in poor weather conditions, we obtained differential photometry with a precision of 4.5 mmag per two minute exposure. Our technique is flexible and may be tuned to cover a range as big as 6-8 mag. We discuss the possibility of installing a wire mesh directly in the filter wheel.

  9. CCD UVBY photometry in M67 (United States)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.


    Photometry on the uvby system for 27 members in two fields in M67 has been obtained using the CTIO 4 m PFCCD system. Instrumental indices have been calibrated to the standard Strömgren system in part by comparison to recent photoelectric observations in M67 by Nissen, Twarog, and Crawford (1987). While not independent of their results, the present study derives values of -0.07±0.15 for the metallicity [Fe/H] of the cluster, and a true distance modulus of 9.53±0.14 (s.e.m.) for an adopted reddening of E(b-y) = 0.023. The luminosity dependence of the metallicity parameter δm1 and of the absolute-magnitude calibration are discussed.

  10. BVRI CCD photometry of Omega Centauri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.


    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of V vs B-V, V vs V-I, and V vs B-I have been constructed based on 179 BVRI CCD frames of two adjoining 4x2.5-arcmin fields in Omega Cen (NGC 5139) obtained with the 1.54-m Danish La Silla telescope. The spread in the main sequences noted in the three CMDs indicates that the wide range in chemical composition among the evolved stars in this cluster persists as well in the unevolved stars. This result suggests that the abundance variations are primordial. A difference in magnitude between the turnoff and the horizontal branch of 3.8 + or - 0.15 is found which is greater than a previous value. 38 references

  11. Using a Web Cam CCD to do V Band Photometry (United States)

    Temple, Paul


    With the plethora of cheap web cam based CCD cameras in the market today, it seemed expedient to find out if they can be used to do photometry. An experiment was planned to determine if it was possible to do this kind of exacting measurement. Arne Henden (AAVSO) believed it would be possible to do V band photometry to 0.05 mag accuracy with a web cam CCD. Using a 6" refractor, the heart of M42 was repeatedly imaged. Theta 2 and SAO 132322 were the comparison stars and V361 Orion was the target variable. Since the 1/4 HAD CCD chip only allows for a field of 10x7 arc minutes using the 6" refractor, the number targets was limited. The RGB on the chip itself provides the filters needed for photometry. The G band pass on the chip ranges from 425-650 nm with a peak band pass at 540, V band pass is 475-645 with a peak at 525. The results indicate that a web cam CCD can be used for V band photometry. With a 10 second calibrated exposure without the Peltier cooling being engaged, the results for the 2 target stars were ± 0.18 mag. The star Theta 2 was 0.18 brighter in V than the actual measurement from the Tycho catalog. SAO 132322 was -0.012 mag dimmer than the listed Tycho measurement. Then using SAO 132322 and Theta 2 as comparison stars, V361 Orion was estimated at 7.786 magnitudes. This is inline with visual estimates received before and after this date. With more estimates of known magnitude comparison stars, a correction factor should be estimated and applied to the variable work that will make it more accurate. This correction factor should bring it close to Arne Henden's estimate of 0.05 mag accuracy.

  12. Stellar CCD Photometry: New Approach, Principles and Application (United States)

    El-Bassuny Alawy, A.

    A new approach is proposed and developed to handle pre-processed CCD frames in order to identify stellar images and derive their relevant parameters. It relies on: 1) Identifying stellar images and assigning approximate positions of their centres using an artificial intelligence technique, (Knowledge Based System), 2) Accurate determination of the centre co-ordinates applying an elementary statistical concept and 3) Estimating the image peak intensity as a stellar magnitude measure employing simple numerical analysis approach. The method has been coded for personal computer users. A CCD frame of the star cluster M67 was adopted as a test case. The results obtained are discussed in comparison with the DAOPHOTII ones and the corresponding published data. Exact coincidence has been found between both results except in very few cases. These exceptions have been discussed in the light of the basis of both methods and the cluster plates. It has been realised that the method suggested represents a very simple, extremely fast, high precision method of stellar CCD photometry. Moreover, it is more capable than DAOPHOTII of handling blended and distorted stellar images. These characteristics show the usefulness of the present method in some astronomical applications, such as auto-focusing and auto-guiding, beside the main purpose, viz. stellar photometry.

  13. BV photographic and CCD photometry of IC 4651

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    Anthony-Twarog, B.J.; Mukherjee, K.; Twarog, B.A.; Caldwell, N.


    A BV photometric survey in IC 4651 based on photographic and CCD material calibrated with photoelectric photometry from Eggen (1971) and Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) has been completed. The color-magnitude diagram is consistent with an age of 2.4 + or - 0.3 x 10 to the 9th yr derived by comparison with the isochrones of VandenBerg (1985) if the apparent distance modulus and reddening derived from uvby photometry in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) are employed. While evidence is found of a hook in the upper main sequence, no evidence is found of a significantly bifurcated main sequence for this cluster, although it is similar in age to NGC 752 and NGC 3680, where this phenomenon has been noted. Finally, the survey has not resolved the apparent deficit of main-sequence stars fainter than V = 14.5 noted in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987). 16 references.

  14. BV photographic and CCD photometry of IC 4651 (United States)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Mukherjee, Krishna; Twarog, Bruce A.; Caldwell, Nelson


    A BV photometric survey in IC 4651 based on photographic and CCD material calibrated with photoelectric photometry from Eggen (1971) and Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) has been completed. The color-magnitude diagram is consistent with an age of 2.4 + or - 0.3 x 10 to the 9th yr derived by comparison with the isochrones of VandenBerg (1985) if the apparent distance modulus and reddening derived from uvby photometry in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) are employed. While evidence is found of a hook in the upper main sequence, no evidence is found of a significantly bifurcated main sequence for this cluster, although it is similar in age to NGC 752 and NGC 3680, where this phenomenon has been noted. Finally, the survey has not resolved the apparent deficit of main-sequence stars fainter than V = 14.5 noted in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987).

  15. CCD time-resolved photometry of faint cataclysmic variables. III (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Szkody, Paula; Kreidl, Tobias J.; Mason, Keith O.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.


    CCD time-resolved photometry in V, B, and near-IR for 17 faint cataclysmic variables (CVs) is presented and analyzed. The data are obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Perkins reflector, Lowell Observatory, and the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos from April-June 1989. The degree of variability and periodicities for the CVs are examined. It is observed that the variability of most of the stars is consistent with CV class behavior. Orbital periods for five CVs are determined, and three potential eclipsing systems are detected.

  16. DOPHOT, a CCD photometry program: Description and tests (United States)

    Schechter, Paul L.; Mateo, Mario; Saha, Abhijit


    The design considerations and operational features of DOPHOT, a point-spread function (PSF) fitting photometry program, are described. Some relevant details of the PSF fitting are discussed. The quality of the photometry returned by DOPHOT is assessed via reductions of an 'artificial' globular cluster generated from a list of stars with known magnitudes and colors. Results from comparative tests between DOPHOT and DAOPHOT using this synthetic cluster and real data are also described.

  17. BVRI CCD photometry of the globular cluster NGC 2808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.


    As a part of a continuing program, CCD color-magnitude diagrams are presented for the bright globular cluster NGC 2808 in the four colors comprising BVRI. From a comparison of four different CMDs with theoretical isochrones, an age of 16 + or - 2 Gyr is obtained, assuming a value for Fe/H near -1.3. 28 refs

  18. BVRI CCD photometry of the metal-poor globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.


    BVRI photometry of the low metallicity globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590) was obtained with a CCD camera and the 2.2-m ESO telescope. The resulting BV color-magnitude diagrams are compared with the observations of McClure et al. (1987). The observations are also compared with theoretical isochrones, yielding a cluster age of 13 Gyr with a likely external uncertainty of 2 or 3 Gyr. 25 refs

  19. CCD photometry in the Vilnius photometric system. I. region in Lyra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.P.; Smriglio, F.; Straizys, V.


    Three-dimensional photometric classification can be made for stars measured in the Vilnius seven-color intermediate-band system, even if they are reddened by dust. Such classification is important for questions relating to the structure and evolution of our Galaxy. Presented here for general use is CCD photometry of 231 field stars in Lyra observed with the 0.9 meter telescope of Kitt Peak National Observatory. The measurements are of higher accuracy than those of a photographic study in the same direction in Lyra for which they can also be used for a deeper calibration of the photographic photometry. The data sets cover two small fields each about 31 arcmin 2 and are complete to 90% for all stars up to the faint limit of V = 17.5

  20. CCD photometry in the Vilnius photometric systems. II. Analysis of a region in Lyra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smriglio, F.; Dasgupta, A.K.; Boyle, R.P.; Straizys, V.; Janulis, R.


    Two-dimensional classification of 216 stars down to 17 mag based on their seven color photoelectric and CCD photometry in the Vilnius system is presented. Except for normal stars, several subdwarfs, metal-deficient giants, and stars of other peculiarities are suspected. Interstellar extinction is determined for normal stars in two areas north and south of globular cluster M56, as well as for a 1 square degree area around M56. The mean value of A v outside the galactic dust layer is ∼ 0.75 mag

  1. CCD photometry of stars in the old open cluster NGC 188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, F.; Chieffi, A.; Castellani, V.; Collados, M.; Martinez Roger, C.


    CCD photometry for stars in three fields centered on the old open cluster NGC 188 is presented, with the aim of investigating the HR diagram distribution of cluster main-sequence stars. A sequence of subgiant, turnoff, and main-sequence stars has been detected, extending the observed lower main sequence down to about m(v) = 20 mag. It is found that the observed color-magnitude diagram appears well fitted by a theoretical isochrone for an age of about 6-billion yr, provided that Yale transformations from the theoretical into the observational plane are assumed. From the distribution of the stellar luminosities, it is found that the turnoff stars should have masses of about 1.3 solar mass. The cluster evolutionary scenario is discussed in connection with the reported luminosity of the clump of He-burning giants. 21 refs

  2. CCD ubvy photometry of the bimodal main-sequence cluster NGC 3680

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony-Twarog, B.J.; Twarog, B.A.; Shodhan, S. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence (USA))


    CCD uvby photometry for the intermediate age, southern open cluster, NGC 3680, is analyzed. For a reddening of E(b-y) = 0.034, a true cluster modulus of 9.74 + or - 0.20 and a cluster metallicity of Fe/H abundance = 0.10 + or - 0.09, based on 18 probable nonbinary members of the cluster brighter than V = 14. The color-magnitude diagram for the cluster suggests that, although the main sequence may be subject to the same bimodal distibution as NGC 752, the likely source in both clusters is a combination of binaries and a sharply curved turnoff. The color-magnitude diagram is compared to the theoretical isochrones of Bertelli et al. (1988), showing an age of (1.9 + or - 0.3) X 10 to the 9th yr. 27 refs.

  3. CCD BVRI and 2MASS photometry of the poorly studied open cluster NGC 6631

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    A.L. Tadross


    Full Text Available Here we have obtained the BVRI CCD photometry down to a limiting magnitude of V∼20 for the southern poorly studied open cluster NGC 6631. It is observed from the 1.88 m Telescope of Kottamia Observatory in Egypt. About 3300 stars have been observed in an area of ∼10′×10′ around the cluster center. The main photometric parameters have been estimated and compared with the results that determined for the cluster using JHKs 2MASS photometric database. The cluster’s diameter is estimated to be 10 arcmin; the reddening E(B-V=0.68 ± 0.10 mag, E(J-H=0.21 ± 0.10 mag, the true modulus (m-Mo=12.16 ± 0.10 mag, which corresponds to a distance of 2700 ± 125 pc and age of 500 ± 50 Myr.

  4. CCD photometry of the open clusters NGC 2627, NGC 5617, Pismis 7, and Ruprecht 75 (United States)

    Ahumada, J. A.


    We present broad-band, optical CCD photometry of the galactic open clusters NGC 2627, NGC 5617, Pismis 7, and Ruprecht 75. By means of the comparison between the observed cluster sequences and the theoretical isochrones of Girardi et al. (2000, A&AS 141, 371), we derive the following parameters. For NGC 2627, E(B-V)=0.04-0.02+0.10, log (age)=9.25+0.10-0.05, and (m-M)_0 = 11.33±0.31; for NGC 5617, E(B-V)=0.54-0.08+0.09 , log (age)= 8.15-0.15+0.25, and (m-M)_0 = 11.53-0.43+0.36; for Pismis 7, E(B-V)= 0.69-0.16+0.18, log (age)= 8.70±0.10, and (m-M)_0 =13.46±0.56; and for Ruprecht 75, E(B-V)= 0.24-0.13+0.18, log (age)= 9.15± 0.05, and (m-M)_0 =13.16-0.57+0.60. The isochrones have been renormalized to the solar values (B-V)_⊙=0.65 and M_V=4.84, along the lines established in Ahumada (2003, RMxAA 39, 41), and following, for instance, Twarog, Ashman & Anthony-Twarog (1997, AJ 114, 2556). Besides, a comparison is made between the isochrones by Girardi et al. (2000) and those, also renormalized, by Castellani, Degl'Innocenti & Marconi (1999, MNRAS 303, 265) in the range of ages and metallicities of interest. It is noted that discrepancies arise mainly for the amount of core overshooting incorporated into the models, which implies different ages for a given cluster.

  5. vbyCaHbeta CCD Photometry of Clusters. VI. The Metal-Deficient Open Cluster NGC 2420


    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Tanner, Delora; Cracraft, Misty; Twarog, Bruce A.


    CCD photometry on the intermediate-band vbyCaHbeta system is presented for the metal-deficient open cluster, NGC 2420. Restricting the data to probable single members of the cluster using the CMD and the photometric indices alone generates a sample of 106 stars at the cluster turnoff. The average E(b-y) = 0.03 +/- 0.003 (s.e.m.) or E(B-V) = 0.050 +/- 0.004 (s.e.m.), where the errors refer to internal errors alone. With this reddening, [Fe/H] is derived from both m1 and hk, using b-y and Hbeta...

  6. B and R CCD surface photometry of selected low surface brightness galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.


    The recent discoveries of large numbers of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in clusters and of the extreme LSB giant galaxy Malin 1 are changing our view of the galactic contents of the Universe. In this paper we describe B and R band CCD photometry of a sample of LSB galaxies previously identified from photographic plates of the Fornax cluster. This sample contains some of the lowest surface brightness galaxies known, one having the same central surface brightness as Main 1. The objects in this sample have a wide range of morphologies, and galaxies of similar appearance may have very different (B-R) colours. The range of (B-R) colours for this sample (almost all of which would have been described as dE from their B band morphology alone) is as large as that of the entire Hubble sequence. (author)

  7. Application of CCD uvby photometry to the globular cluster NGC 6397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony-twarog, B.J.


    The CTIO 4-m prime-focus CCD has been used with Stromgren uvby filters to study the turnoff of the globular cluster NGC 6397. A well-defined CM diagram to V about 18 has been achieved. A previously noted correlation between delta m1 and delta c1 for turnoff stars appears to be confirmed by the observations. This correlation is not predicted by model atmosphere synthesis of Stromgren colors, and has not been confirmed by recent observations of metal-poor dwarfs bluer than b-y = 0.40 by Schuster and Nissen (1987). An age of 16.6 + or - 0.7 x 10 to the 9th yr is indicated for a color excess of E(b-y) = 0.13 and (Fe/H) = -2.2. 43 references.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mel 66 CCD photometry (Anthony-Twarog+, 1994) (United States)

    Anthony-Twarog, B. J.; Twarog, B. A.; Sheeran, M.


    A CCD study of the peculiar open cluster, Melotte 66, on the vbyHbeta system is presented. The V,(b-y) color-magnitude diagram of this metal-deficient, old disk cluster confirms the anomalous features found in photographic BV studies and extends the main sequence to V=20. The main sequence exhibits a (b-y) color range significantly larger than expected from photometric errors alone; the (b-y) colors are correlated with Hbeta implying that the dispersion is real and is not the result of variable reddening across the cluster. The m1 indices for the turnoff stars imply a spread in [Fe/H] too small to explain the color range. Though the subgiant region is poorly defined, the region above the turnoff in the Hertzsprung gap is richly populated by a group of "yellow stragglers" whose membership is confirmed by radial star counts and radial velocities. The giant branch is richly populated but shows a smaller spread in color at a given V than one would expect from the turnoff region. More important, the giants exhibit a large scatter in m1, in contradiction with the turnoff observations. Various explanations for these observations are discussed, including CN variations among the giants triggered by either binary evolution or rapid rotation among the main-sequence stars. (1 data file).

  9. Two-Color VR CCD Photometry of the Intermediate Polar 1RXS J062518.2+733433

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    Yonggi Kim


    Full Text Available Results of 7 nights of CCD VR photometry of the intermediate polar 1RXS J062518.2 +733433 obtained at the Korean 1.8m telescope are reported. The corrected ephemeris for the orbital minimum is BJD (Orb.min = 2453023.6159 (42+0.1966431 (33 (E- 1735. The corrected ephemeris for the spin maximum is BJD (spin max = 2452893 .78477 (10+0.01374116815 (17 (E-15382 (cycle numbering corresponds to that of Staude et al.~2003. The variations of the shape of the individual spin variations are highly correlated in V and R. The phase of the spin maximum is found to be dependent on the orbital phase. The corresponding semi-amplitude of sinusoidal variations of phase is 0.11±0.03. This new phenomenon is explained by the changing viewing conditions of the accreting magnetic white dwarf, and should be checked in further observations this star and for other intermediate polars. To avoid influence of this effect on the analysis of the long-term spin period variations, the runs of at least one orbital period are recommended. Results of time series analysis are presented in tables.

  10. Overlapping Open Clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 behind the Taurus Dark Clouds. II. CCD Photometry in the Vilnius System

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    Straižys V.


    Full Text Available Seven-color photometry in the Vilnius system has been obtained for 420 stars down to V = 16 mag in the area containing the overlapping open clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 in Taurus. Spectral and luminosity classes, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances are given for 287 stars. The classification of stars is based on their reddening-free Q-parameters. 18 stars observed photoelectrically were used as standards. The extinction vs. distance diagram exhibits the presence of one dust cloud at a distance of 175 pc which almost coincides with a distance of other dust clouds in the Taurus complex. The clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 are found to be at the same distance of ~760 pc and may penetrate each other. Their interstellar extinction AV is 1.06 mag which corresponds to EB-V = 0.34 mag.

  11. Automated galaxy surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.


    Two-dimensional surface photometry of a very large number of galaxies on a deep Schmidt plate has been obtained using the Automatic Plate Measuring System (APM). A method of photometric calibration, suitable for APM measurements, via pixel-by-pixel comparison with CCD frames of a number of the brighter galaxies is described and its advantages are discussed. The same method is used to demonstrate the consistency of measurement of the APM machine when used for surface photometry. (author)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharias, N.; Finch, C.; Wycoff, G. L.; Einicke, O. H.; Augustesen, K.; Clausen, J. V.; Hoeg, E.


    The Brorfelde Schmidt CCD Catalog (BSCC) contains about 13.7 million stars, north of +49 0 decl. with precise positions and V, R photometry. The catalog has been constructed from the reductions of 18,667 CCD frames observed with the Brorfelde Schmidt Telescope between 2000 and 2007. The Tycho-2 catalog was used for astrometric and photometric reference stars. Errors of individual positions are about 20-200 mas for stars in the R = 10-18 mag range. External comparisons with the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey reveal possible small systematic errors in the BSCC of up to about 30 mas. The catalog is supplemented with J, H, and K s magnitudes from the 2MASS catalog.

  13. Real time 3D photometry (United States)

    Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Vazquez-Molini, D.; García-Botella, A.; Romo, J.; Serrano, Ana


    The photometry and radiometry measurement is a well-developed field. The necessity of measuring optical systems performance involves the use of several techniques like Gonio-photometry. The Gonio photometers are a precise measurement tool that is used in the lighting area like office, luminaire head car lighting, concentrator /collimator measurement and all the designed and fabricated optical systems that works with light. There is one disadvantage in this kind of measurements that obtain the intensity polar curves and the total flux of the optical system. In the industry, there are good Gonio photometers that are precise and reliable but they are very expensive and the measurement time is long. In industry the cost can be of minor importance but measuring time that is around 30 minutes is of major importance due to trained staff cost. We have designed a system to measure photometry in real time; it consists in a curved screen to get a huge measurement angle and a CCD. The system to be measured projects light onto the screen and the CCD records a video of the screen obtaining an image of the projected profile. A complex calibration permits to trace screen data (x,y,z) to intensity polar curve (I,αγ). This intensity is obtained in candels (cd) with an image + processing time below one second.

  14. Astronomical Photometry Past, Present, and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F


    This book brings together experts in the field of astronomical photometry to discuss how their subfields provide the precision and accuracy in astronomical energy flux measurements that are needed to permit tests of astrophysical theories. Differential photometers and photometry, improvements in infrared precision, the improvements in precision and accuracy of CCD photometry, the absolute calibration of flux, the development of the Johnson UBVRI photometric system and other passband systems to measure and precisely classify specific types of stars and astrophysical quantities, and the current capabilities of spectrophotometry and polarimetry to provide precise and accurate data, are all discussed in this volume. The discussion of `differential’ or `two-star’ photometers ranges from early experiments in visual photometry through the Harvard and Princeton polarizing photometers to the pioneering work of Walraven and differential photometers designed to minimize effects of atmospheric extinction and to count...

  15. Helicopter Non-Unique Trim Strategies for Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise Reduction (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.


    An acoustics parametric analysis of the effect of fuselage drag and pitching moment on the Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiated by a medium lift helicopter (S-70UH-60) in a descending flight condition was conducted. The comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II was used for the calculation of vehicle trim, wake geometry and integrated air loads on the blade. The acoustics prediction code PSU-WOPWOP was used for calculating acoustic pressure signatures for a hemispherical grid centered at the hub. This paper revisits the concept of the X-force controller for BVI noise reduction, and investigates its effectiveness on an S-70 helicopter. The analysis showed that further BVI noise reductions were achievable by controlling the fuselage pitching moment. Reductions in excess of 6 dB of the peak BVI noise radiated towards the ground were demonstrated by compounding the effect of airframe drag and pitching moment simultaneously.

  16. Near-infrared photometry of bright elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.

    High-quality visual-infrared color profiles have been determined for elliptical galaxies for the first time. Surface photometry in J and K is presented for 12 bright elliptical galaxies, and the results have been combined with CCD data in visual passbands. It is shown that the galaxies become bluer

  17. A Computational Study of BVI Noise Reduction Using Active Twist Control (United States)

    Fogarty, David E.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.


    The results of a computational study examining the effects of active-twist control on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise using the Apache Active Twist Rotor are presented. The primary goal of this activity is to reduce BVI noise during a low-speed descent flight condition using active-twist control. Rotor aeroelastic behavior was modeled using the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics code and the rotor noise was predicted using the acoustics code PSU-WOPWOP. The accuracy of the analysis was validated through comparisons with experimental acoustic data for the first generation Active Twist Rotor at an advance ratio of mu=0.14. The application of active-twist to the main rotor blade system consisted of harmonic actuation frequencies ranging from 2P to 5P, control phase angles from 0' to 360 , and tip-twist amplitudes ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 . The acoustic analysis was conducted for a single low-speed flight condition of advance ratio =0.14 and shaft angle-of-attack, c^=+6 , with BVI noise levels predicted on a flat plane of observers located 1.1 rotor diameters beneath the rotor. The results indicated reductions of up to 11dB in BVI noise using 1.25 tip-twist amplitude with negligible effects on 4P vertical hub shear.

  18. SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. IV - Photometry from the spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamuy, M.; Suntzeff, N.B.; Bravo, J.; Phillips, M.M.


    Systematic differences in the UBVRI photometry of SN 1987A exist between the published photometry from CTIO and SAAO. The largest differences occur in the I band where the SAAO photometry is up to 0.4 magnitude brighter than the CTIO photometry. The filter/phototube response of the CTIO system has been measured and VRI photometry from the CCD spectrophotometry of SN 1987A obtained at CTIO has been synthesized. The differences between the synthesized and photoelectric photometry for both the CTIO and SAAO natural systems are less than 0.05 magnitude. This confirms a previous suggestion that the nonstellar nature of the supernova spectrum can give rise to large systematic errors in photometry obtained at different sites. The comparison of the light curves of any two supernovae can be in error by a similar amount due to the different natural photometric systems. 25 refs

  19. New BVI C Photometry of Low-Mass Pleiades Stars: Exploring the Effects of Rotation on Broadband Colors (United States)


    wide-field photometric 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...statistical significance, the sug- gestion of Stauffer et al. (2003) that for K and early M dwarfs (1.0 < B−V < 1.45) in the Pleiades rapid rotation

  20. Optical photometry of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.


    The present status of the optical and near-infrared photometry of galaxies is reviewed. Part I introduces to the goals and general methods of both photographic surface photometry and integrated multicolor aperture photoelectric photometry for extended stellar systems, with a summary of the necessary corrections to the observed magnitudes and colors. Part II (surface photometry) summarizes recent results on the empirical luminosity laws for spheroidal systems and the separation of components in disk-plus-bulge systems. Part III (color problems) discusses integrated color effects (color and gas content, color-absolute magnitude relation for early-type systems, colors of interacting galaxies) and color gradient across spheroidal and disk galaxies. In part IV are summarized some constraints on the luminosity function of the stellar population in spheroidal systems given by narrow-band photometry [fr

  1. Vertical structure use by the Stout Iguana (Cyclura pinguis) on Guana Island, BVI (United States)

    Cheek, Christopher A.; Hlavaty, Shay; Perkins, Rebecca N.; Peyton, Mark A.; Ryan, Caitlin N.; Zavaleta, Jennifer C.; Boal, Clint W.; Perry, Gad


    The Stout Iguana (Cyclura pinguis) is a critically endangered species endemic to the Puerto Rico Bank and currently restricted to the British Virgin Islands (BVI). Our study on Guana Island, BVI, focused on vertical structure use. Based on previous incidental observations, we hypothesized that Stout Iguanas use vertical structures and that adults and juveniles use such structures differently. In October 2011, we documented movement and vertical structure use by adult (n = 4) and juvenile (n = 11) iguanas with tracking bobbins. We recorded structure types used, heights attained on structures, distances between structures, and structure sizes. We found that Stout Iguanas used vertical structure more than previously documented. Trees comprised a significantly greater (P Iguanas. Habitat management that provides vertical structure may be advantageous for the conservation of this species.

  2. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  3. The possibilities of searching for new materials based on isocationic analogs of ZnBVI (United States)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Mironova, E. V.; Kosarev, B. A.; Yureva, A. V.; Ekkert, R. V.


    Acid-base properties of chalcogenides - analogs of ZnBVI - were investigated in detail by modern techniques. The regularities of their composition-dependent changes were set, these regularities correlating with the dependencies "bulk physicochemical property - composition". The main reason for such correlations was found, facilitating the search for new materials of corresponding sensors. In this case, it was the sensors for basic gases impurities.

  4. The Effect of Non-Harmonic Active Twist Actuation on BVI Noise (United States)

    Fogarty, David E.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.


    The results of a computational study examining the effects of non-harmonic active-twist control on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise for the Apache Active Twist Rotor are presented. Rotor aeroelastic behavior was modeled using the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics code and the rotor noise was predicted using the acoustics code PSU-WOPWOP. The application of non-harmonic active-twist inputs to the main rotor blade system comprised three parameters: azimuthal location to start actuation, azimuthal duration of actuation, and magnitude of actuation. The acoustic analysis was conducted for a single low-speed flight condition of advance ratio mu=0.14 and shaft angle-of-attack, a(sub s)=+6deg. BVI noise levels were predicted on a flat plane of observers located 1.1 rotor diameters beneath the rotor. The results indicate significant reductions of up to 10dB in BVI noise using a starting azimuthal location for actuation of 90?, an azimuthal duration of actuation of 90deg, and an actuation magnitude of +1.5 ft-lb.

  5. Long-Term Photometry of Very Slow Novae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chochol D.


    Full Text Available Long-term photographic, photoelectric and recent CCD photometry of the classical nova V723 Cas and symbiotic novae V1329 Cyg, PU Vul, V1016 Cyg and HM Sge were used to find their orbital periods. The arguments in favor of the presence of the third components in these systems are given. Physical processes, responsible for the brightness variations, are discussed.

  6. CCD and CMOS sensors (United States)

    Waltham, Nick

    The charge-coupled device (CCD) has been developed primarily as a compact image sensor for consumer and industrial markets, but is now also the preeminent visible and ultraviolet wavelength image sensor in many fields of scientific research including space-science and both Earth and planetary remote sensing. Today"s scientific or science-grade CCD will strive to maximise pixel count, focal plane coverage, photon detection efficiency over the broadest spectral range and signal dynamic range whilst maintaining the lowest possible readout noise. The relatively recent emergence of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor technology is arguably the most important development in solid-state imaging since the invention of the CCD. CMOS technology enables the integration on a single silicon chip of a large array of photodiode pixels alongside all of the ancillary electronics needed to address the array and digitise the resulting analogue video signal. Compared to the CCD, CMOS promises a more compact, lower mass, lower power and potentially more radiation tolerant camera.

  7. Stromvil Photometry of Clusters II. The Open Cluster M67 (United States)

    Boyle, R. P.; Philip, A. G. D.; Straižys, V.


    Use of the Stromgren four-color photometric system with the addition of three filters (P, Z, S) of the Vilnius system allows classifying all the types of stars, even in the presence of significant reddening by interstellar dust (Strai\\v{z}ys et al, 1996). With this Stromvil system we have begun a long-term observational program on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona, (see Philip et al,1996). The Loral 2K by 2K CCD, prepared by M. Lesser of the University of Arizona CCD Lab, gives as high as 90% quantum efficiency in most of the filters and notably 65% at the u filter. To demonstrate the degree of success so far attained in this CCD Stromvil System, we present preliminary results on the open cluster M67. We will compare some of our photometry with the CCD results of B. A. Twarog (1987) and the photoelectric photometry of Nissen et al. (1987). REFERENCES Nissen, P.E., Twarog, B.A., and Crawford, D.L. 1987, A.J. 93,634 Philip, A.G. Davis, Boyle, R.P., Strai\\v{z}ys, V. 1996, Baltic Astronomy,5,445 Strai\\v{z}ys, V., Crawford, D.L., Philip, A.G.Davis 1996, Baltic Astronomy, 5,83 Twarog, B.A. 1987, A.J. 93,647

  8. CCD's at TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, M.E.


    The CCD, Charge Coupled Device, is an analog shift register for which application to the readout of particle detectors has recently been realized. These devices can be used to detect optical information directly, providing an automated readout for streamer or other optical chambers, or as a single input shift register, acting in this instance as a delay line for analog information. A description is given of the latter mode of operation and its utility as a readout method for drift chambers. Most of the information contained herein has been obtained from tests performed in connection with PEP TPC project, PEP-4. That detector will employ approximately 10 4 CCD's making it a reasonable testing ground for ISABELLE size detectors

  9. BRITE Constellation: data processing and photometry (United States)

    Popowicz, A.; Pigulski, A.; Bernacki, K.; Kuschnig, R.; Pablo, H.; Ramiaramanantsoa, T.; Zocłońska, E.; Baade, D.; Handler, G.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.; Rucinski, S. M.; Weiss, W. W.; Koudelka, O.; Orleański, P.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Zwintz, K.


    Context. The BRIght Target Explorer (BRITE) mission is a pioneering space project aimed at the long-term photometric monitoring of the brightest stars in the sky by means of a constellation of nanosatellites. Its main advantage is high photometric accuracy and time coverage which are inaccessible from the ground. Its main drawback is the lack of cooling of the CCD detectors and the absence of good shielding that would protect them from energetic particles. Aims: The main aim of this paper is the presentation of procedures used to obtain high-precision photometry from a series of images acquired by the BRITE satellites in two modes of observing, stare and chopping. The other aim is a comparison of the photometry obtained with two different pipelines and a comparison of the real scatter with expectations. Methods: We developed two pipelines corresponding to the two modes of observing. They are based on aperture photometry with a constant aperture, circular for stare mode of observing and thresholded for chopping mode. Impulsive noise is a serious problem for observations made in the stare mode of observing and therefore in the pipeline developed for observations made in this mode, hot pixels are replaced using the information from shifted images in a series obtained during a single orbit of a satellite. In the other pipeline, the hot pixel replacement is not required because the photometry is made in difference images. Results: The assessment of the performance of both pipelines is presented. It is based on two comparisons, which use data from six runs of the UniBRITE satellite: (I) comparison of photometry obtained by both pipelines on the same data, which were partly affected by charge transfer inefficiency (CTI), (II) comparison of real scatter with theoretical expectations. It is shown that for CTI-affected observations, the chopping pipeline provides much better photometry than the other pipeline. For other observations, the results are comparable only for data

  10. Stellar photometry and polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.; Serkowski, K.


    A critical review of progress made in stellar photometry and polarimetry over the period 1973-1975 is presented. Reports of photometric measurements from various observatories throughout the world are summarized. The summary of work on stellar polarimetry lists the review papers, the catalogues and lists of standard stars, and descriptions of new observing techniques. (B.R.H.)

  11. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben


    At the most fundamental level, main rotor loading noise is caused by the harmonically-varying aerodynamic loads (acoustic pressures) exerted by the rotating blades on the air. Rotorcraft main rotor noise is therefore, in principle, a function of rotor control inputs, and thus the forces and moments required to achieve steady, or "trim", flight equilibrium. In certain flight conditions, the ensuing aerodynamic loading on the rotor(s) can result in highly obtrusive harmonic noise. The effect of the propulsive force, or X-force, on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is well documented. This paper presents an acoustics parametric sensitivity analysis of the effect of varying rotor aerodynamic pitch hub trim moments on BVI noise radiated by an S-70 helicopter main rotor. Results show that changing the hub pitching moment for an isolated rotor, trimmed in nominal 80 knot, 6 and 12 deg descent, flight conditions, alters the miss distance between the blades and the vortex in ways that have varied and noticeable effects on the BVI radiated-noise directionality. Peak BVI noise level is however not significantly altered. The application of hub pitching moment allows the attitude of the fuselage to be controlled; for example, to compensate for the uncomfortable change in fuselage pitch attitude introduced by a fuselage-mounted X-force controller.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry of supernova iPTF13z (Nyholm+, 2017) (United States)

    Nyholm, A.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Fremling, C.; Moriya, T. J.; Ofek, E. O.; Gal-Yam, A.; De Cia, A.; Roy, R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Nugent, P. E.; Masci, F. J.


    The 1.2m Samuel Oschin telescope (also called P48) was equipped with the CFH12K (12Kx8K pixel) CCD camera and a Mould R filter. The 1.52m telescope (also called P60) was equipped with a 2048x2048 pixel CCD camera and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) gri and Johnson B filters. We present AB magnitudes from PSF photometry (relative photometry based on SDSS) on host subtracted images. The magnitudes are given along with their statistical errors (1 sigma). The photometry was done using the FPipe pipeline (2016A&A...593A..68F). The times of the measurements are given both as MJD and relative to time of SN discovery (JD 2456324.98). For the dates given in Table 3, measurements made within 1 day are considered to be simultaneous. The observations were made during 2013 Feb - 2016 Jan. (2 data files).

  13. Development of CCD Imaging System Using Thermoelectric Cooling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsik Park


    Full Text Available We developed low light CCD imaging system using thermoelectric cooling method collaboration with a company to design a commercial model. It consists of Kodak KAF-0401E (768x512 pixels CCD chip,thermoelectric module manufactured by Thermotek. This TEC system can reach an operative temperature of -25deg. We employed an Uniblitz VS25S shutter and it has capability a minimum exposure time 80ms. The system components are an interface card using a Korea Astronomy Observatory (hereafter KAO ISA bus controller, image acquisition with AD9816 chip, that is 12bit video processor. The performance test with this imaging system showed good operation within the initial specification of our design. It shows a dark current less than 0.4e-/pixel/sec at a temperature of -10deg, a linearity 99.9+/-0.1%, gain 4.24e-adu, and system noise is 25.3e- (rms. For low temperature CCD operation, we designed a TEC, which uses a one-stage peltier module and forced air heat exchanger. This TEC imaging system enables accurate photometry (+/-0.01mag even though the CCD is not at 'conventional' cryogenic temperatures (140K. The system can be a useful instrument for any other imaging applications. Finally, with this system, we obtained several images of astronomical objects for system performance tests.

  14. STIS-01 CCD Functional (United States)

    Valenti, Jeff


    This activity measures the baseline performance and commandability of the CCD subsystem. Only primary amplifier D is used. Bias, Dark, and Flat Field exposures are taken in order to measure read noise, dark current, CTE, and gain. Numerous bias frames are taken to permit construction of "superbias" frames in which the effects of read noise have been rendered negligible. Dark exposures are made outside the SAA. Full frame and binned observations are made, with binning factors of 1x1 and 2x2. Finally, tungsten lamp exposures are taken through narrow slits to confirm the slit positions in the current database. All exposures are internals. This is a reincarnation of SM3A proposal 8502 with some unnecessary tests removed from the program.

  15. Improving Lucky Imaging Photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottfelt, Jesper Mirsa

    telescopes and for the Danish 1.54m telescope. The motivation behind the TCI is to enable simultaneous red and visual band observation, thus providing instantaneous colour information and maximising the detected wavelength range without losing spatial information. My main contribution has been developing...... with the TCI, it has, among other things, been possible to obtain high precision time-series photometry of crowded fields. I detail the discovery of two previously unknown variable stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6981, and the search for variable stars in the five metal-rich ([Fe/H] > -1) globular...

  16. A practical guide to lightcurve photometry and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Brian D


    For those with access to even a modest telescope and CCD camera, this new and improved guide delivers all the information needed to take part in the scientific study of asteroids and variable stars. New techniques in photometry continue to be refined, and expert Brian Warner covers the developing territory in detail for those both new and experienced. Updated to reflect changes in telescope and CCD technology, it also includes an expanded chapter on the analysis of asteroid lightcurves to cover some of the common pitfalls that lead to incorrect answers as well as how to discover an asteroid satellite via lightcurves. With this information, amateur astronomers can use commercially available equipment to determine the rotation rate, size, and shape of asteroids. Similarly, it is possible to discover the size, temperature, and orbits of stars in binary systems by using this powerful technique. Brian Warner yet again delivers all the material needed for readers to understand the theory, and avoid the practical pi...

  17. UBVRI photometry in NGC6791

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, K.; Vandenberg, D. A.; Bruntt, H.


    New reduction of photometric B, V, I observations from Stetson et al. (2003, Cat. J/PASP/115/413) with updated photometry zero-points according to Stetson et al. (2005PASP..117..563S), and the same photometry, but empirically corrected for differential reddening using the procedure described in M...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma


    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  19. CCD and IR array controllers (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.


    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  20. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.


    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Polarimetry & photometry of GRB with RINGO2 (Steele+, 2017) (United States)

    Steele, I. A.; Kopac, D.; Arnold, D. M.; Smith, R. J.; Kobayashi, S.; Jermak, H. E.; Mundell, C. G.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Japelj, J.


    Between 2010 and 2012, 19 optical afterglows were observed with the RINGO2 polarimeter on the Liverpool Telescope (LT) at La Palma. Table 2 shows observational properties of the complete sample. In addition to the RINGO2 observations, optical band photometry of each burst was carried out using the RATCam CCD imaging camera on the same telescope, using either g'r'i' or r'i'z' filter sequences, in intervals between and after the RINGO2 observations. (3 data files).

  2. CCD TV camera, TM1300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Mitsuo; Endou, Yukio; Nakayama, Hideo


    Development has been made of a black-and-white TV camera TM 1300 using an interline-transfer CCD, which excels in performance frame-transfer CCDs marketed since 1980: it has a greater number of horizontal picture elements and far smaller input power (less than 2 W at 9 V), uses hybrid ICs for the CCD driver unit to reduce the size of the camera, has no picture distortion, no burn-in; in addition, it has peripheral equipment, such as the camera housing and the pan and till head miniaturized as well. It is also expected to be widened in application to industrial TV. (author)

  3. Interpreting Flux from Broadband Photometry (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Breeveld, Alice; Roming, Peter W. A.; Siegel, Michael


    We discuss the transformation of observed photometry into flux for the creation of spectral energy distributions (SED) and the computation of bolometric luminosities. We do this in the context of supernova studies, particularly as observed with the Swift spacecraft, but the concepts and techniques should be applicable to many other types of sources and wavelength regimes. Traditional methods of converting observed magnitudes to flux densities are not very accurate when applied to UV photometry. Common methods for extinction and the integration of pseudo-bolometric fluxes can also lead to inaccurate results. The sources of inaccuracy, though, also apply to other wavelengths. Because of the complicated nature of translating broadband photometry into monochromatic flux densities, comparison between observed photometry and a spectroscopic model is best done by forward modeling the spectrum into the count rates or magnitudes of the observations. We recommend that integrated flux measurements be made using a spectrum or SED which is consistent with the multi-band photometry rather than converting individual photometric measurements to flux densities, linearly interpolating between the points, and integrating. We also highlight some specific areas where the UV flux can be mischaracterized.

  4. CCD characterization and measurements automation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotov, I.V.; Frank, J.; Kotov, A.I.; Kubánek, Petr; O´Connor, P.; Prouza, Michael; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.


    Roč. 695, Dec (2012), 188-192 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : CCD * characterization * test automation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  5. Project Work Management Addressing the Needs of BVI Learners of EFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Makarova


    Full Text Available Introduction: it is known that inclusive education that opens access to education and facilitates students with special educational needs to socialize successfully is concentrated in special schools whilst mainstream teachers generally lack the methodology of teaching disabled students inclusively. The aim of the article is searching the best ways of educating students with special needs and providing specific conditions of the educational process in mainstream schools. Materials and Methods: the research is based on the results of fulfillment of a number of projects that deal with teaching and educating blind and visually impaired learners and in which all the authors of the article were involved. The problematic approach, the logical method and observation were applied to the research; analysis, comparison, generalization being the most important components of the study. The quantitative data were collected, analyzed and resumed as well. Results: the impact of project work implementation on academic and social skills development of blind and visually impaired students is shown and various types of projects that can be made by visually impaired learners are presented. The authors give their comments when analyzing different ways of adapting research activities to the needs of BVI learners. When speaking in detail on the role of web tools as maximizers of students’ potential the authors refer to their own experience in implementing web tools in project work with blind and visually impaired learners. Discussion and Conclusions: university teacher-training programs should be revised and improved by offering additional courses aimed at educating impaired students through doing research or project work. Special attention should be paid to developing the instructors’ project management skills in terms of teaching English as a foreign language to learners with special needs. It should be noted that different methods and various technological tools

  6. Jig Aligns Shadow Mask On CCD (United States)

    Matus, Carlos V.


    Alignment viewed through microscope. Alignment jig positions shadow mask on charge-coupled device (CCD) so metal film deposited on it precisely. Allows CCD package to be inserted and removed without disturbing alignment of mask. Holds CCD packages securely and isolates it electrostatically while providing electrical contact to each of its pins. When alignment jig assembled with CCD, used to move mask under micrometer control.

  7. CCD Parallaxes for 309 Late-type Dwarfs and Subdwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahn, Conard C.; Harris, Hugh C.; Subasavage, John P.; Ables, Harold D.; Guetter, Harry H.; Harris, Fred H.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice B.; Monet, David G.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Stone, Ronald C.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Walker, Richard L.; Tilleman, Trudy M. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 W. Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86005-8521 (United States); Canzian, Blaise J. [L-3 Communications/Brashear, 615 Epsilon Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15238-2807 (United States); Henden, Arne H. [AAVSO, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Leggett, S. K. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Levine, Stephen E., E-mail: [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-4499 (United States)


    New, updated, and/or revised CCD parallaxes determined with the Strand Astrometric Reflector at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station are presented. Included are results for 309 late-type dwarf and subdwarf stars observed over the 30+ years that the program operated. For 124 of the stars, parallax determinations from other investigators have already appeared in the literature and we compare the different results. Also included here are new or updated VI photometry on the Johnson–Kron-Cousins system for all but a few of the faintest targets. Together with 2MASS JHK{sub s} near-infrared photometry, a sample of absolute magnitude versus color and color versus color diagrams are constructed. Because large proper motion was a prime criterion for targeting the stars, the majority turn out to be either M-type subdwarfs or late M-type dwarfs. The sample also includes 50 dwarf or subdwarf L-type stars, and four T dwarfs. Possible halo subdwarfs are identified in the sample based on tangential velocity, subluminosity, and spectral type. Residuals from the solutions for parallax and proper motion for several stars show evidence of astrometric perturbations.

  8. CCD Parallaxes for 309 Late-type Dwarfs and Subdwarfs (United States)

    Dahn, Conard C.; Harris, Hugh C.; Subasavage, John P.; Ables, Harold D.; Canzian, Blaise J.; Guetter, Harry H.; Harris, Fred H.; Henden, Arne H.; Leggett, S. K.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice B.; Monet, David G.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Stone, Ronald C.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Walker, Richard L.; Tilleman, Trudy M.


    New, updated, and/or revised CCD parallaxes determined with the Strand Astrometric Reflector at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station are presented. Included are results for 309 late-type dwarf and subdwarf stars observed over the 30+ years that the program operated. For 124 of the stars, parallax determinations from other investigators have already appeared in the literature and we compare the different results. Also included here are new or updated VI photometry on the Johnson-Kron-Cousins system for all but a few of the faintest targets. Together with 2MASS JHK s near-infrared photometry, a sample of absolute magnitude versus color and color versus color diagrams are constructed. Because large proper motion was a prime criterion for targeting the stars, the majority turn out to be either M-type subdwarfs or late M-type dwarfs. The sample also includes 50 dwarf or subdwarf L-type stars, and four T dwarfs. Possible halo subdwarfs are identified in the sample based on tangential velocity, subluminosity, and spectral type. Residuals from the solutions for parallax and proper motion for several stars show evidence of astrometric perturbations.

  9. Kepler photometry of KIC10661783

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Pavlovski, K.; Smalley, B.


    We present Kepler satellite photometry of KIC 10661783, a short-period binary star system which shows total eclipses and multiperiodic δ Scuti pulsations. A frequency analysis of the eclipse-subtracted light curve reveals at least 68 frequencies, of which 55 or more can be attributed to pulsation...

  10. Image differencing using masked CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.; Webber, C.J. St. J.


    A charge coupled device has some of its ''pixels'' masked by a material which is opaque to the radiation to which the device is to be exposed, each masked region being employed as a storage zone into which the charge pattern from the unmasked pixels can be transferred to enable a subsequent charge pattern to be established on further exposure of the unmasked pixels. The components of the resulting video signal corresponding to the respective charge patterns read-out from the CCD are subtracted to produce a video signal corresponding to the difference between the two images which formed the respective charge patterns. Alternate rows of pixels may be masked, or chequer-board pattern masking may be employed. In an X-ray imaging system the CCD is coupled to image intensifying and converting means. (author)

  11. Is Flat fielding Safe for Precision CCD Astronomy? (United States)

    Baumer, Michael; Davis, Christopher P.; Roodman, Aaron


    The ambitious goals of precision cosmology with wide-field optical surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) demand precision CCD astronomy as their foundation. This in turn requires an understanding of previously uncharacterized sources of systematic error in CCD sensors, many of which manifest themselves as static effective variations in pixel area. Such variation renders a critical assumption behind the traditional procedure of flat fielding—that a sensor’s pixels comprise a uniform grid—invalid. In this work, we present a method to infer a curl-free model of a sensor’s underlying pixel grid from flat-field images, incorporating the superposition of all electrostatic sensor effects—both known and unknown—present in flat-field data. We use these pixel grid models to estimate the overall impact of sensor systematics on photometry, astrometry, and PSF shape measurements in a representative sensor from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) and a prototype LSST sensor. Applying the method to DECam data recovers known significant sensor effects for which corrections are currently being developed within DES. For an LSST prototype CCD with pixel-response non-uniformity (PRNU) of 0.4%, we find the impact of “improper” flat fielding on these observables is negligible in nominal .7″ seeing conditions. These errors scale linearly with the PRNU, so for future LSST production sensors, which may have larger PRNU, our method provides a way to assess whether pixel-level calibration beyond flat fielding will be required.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IC 4651 uvby photometry (Meibom, 2000) (United States)

    Meibom, S.


    New accurate CCD photometry in the u, v, b and y bands of the Stroemgren system filters has been obtained for 17640 stars to approximately. V=20mag in a approximately 21' x 21' field centered on the intermediate-age open cluster IC 4651. The observations was obtained with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 1 contains information about the Date, Night, Filter, Exposure time, Airmass, CCD rotation angle, and RA- , DE-offsets for all 89 frames. Table 2 gives cross-references between the MEI-system (this paper) and the Lindoff (1972A&AS....7..231L, IC 4651 NNN), Eggen (1971ApJ...166...87E, Cl* IC 4651 Egg NN), Anthony-Twarog & Twarog (1987AJ.....94.1222A, Cl* IC 4651 AT 1-NNN, Cl* IC 4651 AT 2-NN), and Anthony-Twarog et al. (1988AJ.....95.1453A, Cl* IC 4651 AMC I-NNN, Cl* IC 4651 AMC NNNN) identification numbers. Table 3 is the final catalogue of the new Stroemgren uvby photometry, ordered by MEI identification number. For each star, it gives the MEI number, Global CCD x- and y-coordinates, J2000 coordinates , the new y, b, v, and u magnitudes on the standard system, number of detections of the individual stars, and their mean errors. (3 data files).

  13. Photometry of the X-ray transient CI Cam - opportunity for CCD observers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch; Bartolini, C.; Guarnieri, A.; Piccioni, A.; Hanžl, D.

    -, č. 75 (2007), s. 24-29 ISSN 1801-5964. [Conference on Variable Stars Research /38./. Valašské Meziříčí, 17.11.2006-19.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2167 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-ray transients Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. CCD research. [design, fabrication, and applications (United States)

    Gassaway, J. D.


    The fundamental problems encountered in designing, fabricating, and applying CCD's are reviewed. Investigations are described and results and conclusions are given for the following: (1) the development of design analyses employing computer aided techniques and their application to the design of a grapped structure; (2) the role of CCD's in applications to electronic functions, in particular, signal processing; (3) extending the CCD to silicon films on sapphire (SOS); and (4) all aluminum transfer structure with low noise input-output circuits. Related work on CCD imaging devices is summarized.

  15. Status Of Sofradir IR-CCD Detectors (United States)

    Tribolet, Philippe; Radisson, Patrick


    The topics of this paper deal with the IR-CCD detectors manufactured by SOFRADIR the new French joint venture. Description of the IRCCD technology and the advantages of this approach are given. In conclusion, some IR-CCD typical results are given.

  16. Cryostat and CCD for MEGARA at GTC (United States)

    Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Ferrusca, D.; Tulloch, S.; Velázquez, M.; Carrasco, E.; Gallego, J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez, F. M.; Vílchez Medina, J. M.


    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the new integral field unit (IFU) and multi-object spectrograph (MOS) instrument for the GTC. The spectrograph subsystems include the pseudo-slit, the shutter, the collimator with a focusing mechanism, pupil elements on a volume phase holographic grating (VPH) wheel and the camera joined to the cryostat through the last lens, with a CCD detector inside. In this paper we describe the full preliminary design of the cryostat which will harbor the CCD detector for the spectrograph. The selected cryogenic device is an LN2 open-cycle cryostat which has been designed by the "Astronomical Instrumentation Lab for Millimeter Wavelengths" at INAOE. A complete description of the cryostat main body and CCD head is presented as well as all the vacuum and temperature sub-systems to operate it. The CCD is surrounded by a radiation shield to improve its performance and is placed in a custom made mechanical mounting which will allow physical adjustments for alignment with the spectrograph camera. The 4k x 4k pixel CCD231 is our selection for the cryogenically cooled detector of MEGARA. The characteristics of this CCD, the internal cryostat cabling and CCD controller hardware are discussed. Finally, static structural finite element modeling and thermal analysis results are shown to validate the cryostat model.

  17. CCD-based vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Damerell, C J S


    Over the past 20 years, CCD-based vertex detectors have been used to construct some of the most precise 'tracking microscopes' in particle physics. They were initially used by the ACCMOR collaboration for fixed target experiments in CERN, where they enabled the lifetimes of some of the shortest-lived charm particles to be measured precisely. The migration to collider experiments was accomplished in the SLD experiment, where the original 120 Mpixel detector was later upgraded to one with 307 Mpixels. This detector was used in a range of physics studies which exceeded the capability of the LEP detectors, including the most precise limit to date on the Bs mixing parameter. This success, and the high background hit densities that will inevitably be encountered at the future TeV-scale linear collider, have established the need for a silicon pixel-based vertex detector at this machine. The technical options have now been broadened to include a wide range of possible silicon imaging technologies as well as CCDs (mon...

  18. Development of CCD controller for scientific application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M S; Pathan, F M; Anandarao, B G; Shah, U V; Makwana, D H


    Photoelectric equipment has wide applications such as spectroscopy, temperature measurement in infrared region and in astronomical research etc. A photoelectric transducer converts radiant energy into electrical energy. There are two types of photoelectric transducers namely photo-multiplier tube (PMT) and charged couple device (CCD) are used to convert radiant energy into electrical signal. Now the entire modern instruments use CCD technology. We have designed and developed a CCD camera controller using camera chip CD47-10 of Marconi which has 1K x 1K pixel for space application only.

  19. Silvaco ATLAS model of ESA's Gaia satellite e2v CCD91-72 pixels (United States)

    Seabroke, George; Holland, Andrew; Burt, David; Robbins, Mark


    The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2012. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will achieve its unprecedented accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for CCD radiation damage and CCD geometric distortion. In this paper, the third of the series, we present our 3D Silvaco ATLAS model of the Gaia e2v CCD91-72 pixel. We publish e2v's design model predictions for the capacities of one of Gaia's pixel features, the supplementary buried channel (SBC), for the first time. Kohley et al. (2009) measured the SBC capacities of a Gaia CCD to be an order of magnitude smaller than e2v's design. We have found the SBC doping widths that yield these measured SBC capacities. The widths are systematically 2 μm offset to the nominal widths. These offsets appear to be uncalibrated systematic offsets in e2v photolithography, which could either be due to systematic stitch alignment offsets or lateral ABD shield doping diffusion. The range of SBC capacities were used to derive the worst-case random stitch error between two pixel features within a stitch block to be +/-0.25 μm, which cannot explain the systematic offsets. It is beyond the scope of our pixel model to provide the manufacturing reason for the range of SBC capacities, so it does not allow us to predict how representative the tested CCD is. This open question has implications for Gaia's radiation damage and geometric calibration models.

  20. Four Decades of TiO/CN Classification Photometry (United States)

    Wing, Robert F.


    Photometry on the writer's eight-color narrow-band system has entered its 40th year. This poster, in connection with the HAD Special Session on "Photometry: Past and Present," reviews the history of the system and its applications. Employing interference filters approximately 50 Å in width to measure the strongest bands of TiO, VO, and CN as well as continuum points in the 7000 -- 11000 Å spectral region, the system is used primarily to provide two-dimensional spectral classifications for M stars. A precision of 0.1 spectral subtype is routinely obtained for normal stars of type K4.0 or later. The first two sets of filters were manufactured in 1969, and the first observations were made with the Perkins 1.8-m telescope at Lowell Observatory. A decade later, after some of the original filters had deteriorated, new filter sets were made for several individuals and observatories including KPNO and CTIO. During the 1970s, observations were made with S-1 photomultipliers and the emphasis was on bright stars. Later, with the acquisition of the more sensitive Varian LSE photocells by both KPNO and CTIO, observations extended to red giant cluster members, K and M supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds, and faint suspected Galactic supergiants. Observations were briefly interrupted when the ASCAP photometer at CTIO was taken out of service in 2001, but were resumed in 2003 with the establishment of the SMARTS consortium. Large-format filters representing the first 6 filters of the 8-color system have been acquired to allow work by CCD imaging. At least 15 observers have contributed an estimated 16,000 sets of narrow-band data for approximately 5000 different stars to date.

  1. CCD OBSERVATIONS V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Charged Coupled Device (CCD) cameras from ESO were used by groups to observe the outburst of comet Halley using a variety of telescopes and chip sets.

  2. Visual photometry: accuracy and precision (United States)

    Whiting, Alan


    Visual photometry, estimation by eye of the brightness of stars, remains an important source of data even in the age of widespread precision instruments. However, the eye-brain system differs from electronic detectors and its results may be expected to differ in several respects. I examine a selection of well-observed variables from the AAVSO database to determine several internal characteristics of this data set. Visual estimates scatter around the fitted curves with a standard deviation of 0.14 to 0.34 magnitudes, most clustered in the 0.21-0.25 range. The variation of the scatter does not seem to correlate with color, type of variable, or depth or speed of variation of the star’s brightness. The scatter of an individual observer’s observations changes from star to star, in step with the overall scatter. The shape of the deviations from the fitted curve is non-Gaussian, with positive excess kurtosis (more outlying observations). These results have implications for use of visual data, as well as other citizen science efforts.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST photometry of M31 globular clusters (Federici+, 2012) (United States)

    Federici, L.; Cacciari, C.; Bellazzini, M.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Galleti, S.; Perina, S.


    , sharpness, and the ACS_WFC chip number are listed for each of the selected stars. BVI photometry for the clusters B008-G060, B010-G062, B023-G078, B088-G150, B158-G213, B220-G275, B224-G279, B225-G280, B366-G291, B407-G352,B255D-D072, B292-G010, B336-G067, B337-G068, B350-G162, and B531 has been taken from the CDS catalogs J/A+A/507/1375 (Perina et al., 2009) and J/A+A/531/A155 (Perina et al., 2011). (33 data files).

  4. photPARTY: Python automated square-aperture photometry (United States)

    Symons, Teresa A.; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.


    As CCD’s have drastically increased the amount of information recorded per frame, so too have they increased the time and effort needed to sift through the data. For observations of a single star, information from millions of pixels needs to be distilled into one number: the magnitude. Various computer systems have been used to streamline this process over the years. The CCDPhot photometer, in use at the Kitt Peak 0.9-m telescope in the 1990’s, allowed for user settings and provided real time magnitudes during observation of single stars. It is this level of speed and convenience that inspired the development of the Python-based software analysis system photPARTY, which can quickly and efficiently produce magnitudes for a set of single-star or un-crowded field CCD frames. Seeking to remove the need for manual interaction after initial settings for a group of images, photPARTY automatically locates stars, subtracts the background, and performs square-aperture photometry. Rather than being a package of available functions, it is essentially a self-contained, one-click analysis system, with the capability to process several hundred frames in just a couple of minutes. Results of comparisons against present systems such as IRAF will be presented. The support of the National Science Foundation through grant AST-1211621 is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Technology of substrates for molecular beam homo epitaxy of wide - gap AII-BVI semiconductors and construction of a simplified setup for this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycielski, A.; Szadkowski, A.; Kaliszek, W.


    The technology of 'epi-ready' substrate plates (for MBE) of the wide gap AII-BVI semiconductor compounds, i. e. - preparation of the ultra pure elements, synthesis of the source material, crystallization by the physical vapour transport technique, cutting of the oriented plates, mechano-chemical polishing and preparation of the 'epi-ready' surface - is described, as well as the construction of a simplified version of the MBE setup for covering the substrate plates with the homoepitaxial layer. The results of the characterization of the substrate crystals and plates are presented. (author)

  6. Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs? (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.


    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) are presently the technology of choice for most imaging applications. In the 23 years since their invention in 1970, they have evolved to a sophisticated level of performance. However, as with all technologies, we can be certain that they will be supplanted someday. In this paper, the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology is explored as a possible successor to the CCD. An active pixel is defined as a detector array technology that has at least one active transistor within the pixel unit cell. The APS eliminates the need for nearly perfect charge transfer -- the Achilles' heel of CCDs. This perfect charge transfer makes CCD's radiation 'soft,' difficult to use under low light conditions, difficult to manufacture in large array sizes, difficult to integrate with on-chip electronics, difficult to use at low temperatures, difficult to use at high frame rates, and difficult to manufacture in non-silicon materials that extend wavelength response.

  7. Testing of a Commercial CCD Camera (United States)

    Tulsee, Taran


    The results are presented of the examination and testing of a commercial CCD camera designed for use by amateur astronomers and university astronomy laboratory courses. The characteristics of the CCD chip are presented in graphical and tabular form. Individual and averaged bias frames are discussed. Dark frames were taken and counts are presented as a function of time. Flat field and other images were used to identify and locate bad pixel columns as well as pixels which vary significantly from the mean pixel sensitivity.

  8. Hybrid Fiber-Optic/CCD Chip (United States)

    Goss, W. C.; Janesick, J. R.


    Low noise and linearity of charge-coupled devices (CCD's) combined with optical waveguide components in hybrid, integrated chip package. Concept used to measure laser flux in fiber-gyro application using sensing fibers that range from several to several tens of kilometers in length. Potential applications include optical delay measurement and linear detector of light flux emanating from fiber-optic waveguides.

  9. Protein diffraction experiments with Atlas CCD detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnálek, Jan; Kovaľ, Tomáš; Dušek, Michal


    Roč. 64, Suppl. - abstracts (2008), C192 ISSN 0108-7673. [Congress of the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) /21./. 23.08.2008-31.08.2008, Osaka] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : x-ray data collection * CCD detectors * protein crystallography applications Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  10. Fully depleted back-illuminated p-channel CCD development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebek, Chris J.; Bercovitz, John H.; Groom, Donald E.; Holland, Stephen E.; Kadel, Richard W.; Karcher, Armin; Kolbe, William F.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Palaio, Nicholas P.; Prasad, Val; Turko, Bojan T.; Wang, Guobin


    An overview of CCD development efforts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented. Operation of fully-depleted, back-illuminated CCD's fabricated on high resistivity silicon is described, along with results on the use of such CCD's at ground-based observatories. Radiation damage and point-spread function measurements are described, as well as discussion of CCD fabrication technologies.

  11. L' AND M' Photometry Of Ultracool Dwarfs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marley, M


    We have compiled L' (3.4-4.1 microns) and M' (4.6-4.8 microns) photometry of 63 single and binary M, L, and T dwarfs obtained at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope using the Mauna Kea Observatory filter set...

  12. The Space Stellar Photometry Mission COROT: Asteroseismology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    detect giant extra solar planets (detectable by spectroscopy from the ground) and determine their albedo. As COROT is devoted to stellar photometry, aiming at both a high precision and a long observation time, the search for exoplanets by the transit method can easily be integrated in the payload and in the mission profile.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  14. A self triggered intensified Ccd (Stic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Bendali, M.


    We are developing a new device based on the results reported previously of the successfull coincidence detection of β- particles with a high spatial resolution [1]. The novelty of the device consists in triggering an intensified CCD, i.e. a CCD coupled to an image intensifier (II), by an electrical signal collected from the II itself. This is a suitable procedure for detecting with high efficiency and high resolution low light rare events. The trigger pulse is obtained from the secondary electrons produced by multiplication in a double microchannel plate (MCP) and collected on the aluminized layer protecting the phosphor screen in the II. Triggering efficiencies up to 80% has been already achieved

  15. Design of a multifunction astronomical CCD camera (United States)

    Yao, Dalei; Wen, Desheng; Xue, Jianru; Chen, Zhi; Wen, Yan; Jiang, Baotan; Xi, Jiangbo


    To satisfy the requirement of the astronomical observation, a novel timing sequence of frame transfer CCD is proposed. The multiple functions such as the adjustments of work pattern, exposure time and frame frequency are achieved. There are four work patterns: normal, standby, zero exposure and test. The adjustment of exposure time can set multiple exposure time according to the astronomical observation. The fame frequency can be adjusted when dark target is imaged and the maximum exposure time cannot satisfy the requirement. On the design of the video processing, offset correction and adjustment of multiple gains are proposed. Offset correction is used for eliminating the fixed pattern noise of CCD. Three gains pattern can improve the signal to noise ratio of astronomical observation. Finally, the images in different situations are collected and the system readout noise is calculated. The calculation results show that the designs in this paper are practicable.

  16. A self triggered intensified CCD (STIC) (United States)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Bendali, M.; Gaillard, J. M.; Leblanc, M.; Mastrippolito, R.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L.


    We are developing a new device based on the results reported previously of the successful coincidence detection of β - particles with a high spatial resolution. The novelty of the device consists in triggering and intensified CCD, i.e. a CCD coupled to an image intensifier (II), by an electrical signal collected from the II itself. This is a suitable procedure for detecting low light and rare events with high efficiency and high resolution. The trigger pulse is obtained from the secondary electrons produced by multiplication in a double microchannel plate (MCP) and collected on the aluminized layer protecting the phosphor screen in the II. Triggering efficiencies up to 80% have already been achieved.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: uvbyCaHβ photometry of NGC 752 (Twarog+, 2015) (United States)

    Twarog, B. A.; Anthony-Twarog, B. J.; Deliyannis, C. P.; Thomas, D. T.


    Intermediate and narrow-band images of NGC752 were obtained using the WIYN 0.9m telescope during three observing runs in 2010 November, 2012 November and 2013 December. For the first two observing runs, the S2KB CCD was used at the f/7.5 focus of the telescope for a 20'*20' field with 0.6'' pixels. All seven filters were from the 3''*3'' filter set owned jointly by the University of Kansas and Mt. Laguna Observatory. For the 2013 December run, the telescope was equipped with the Half-Degree-Imager (HDI), a 4K*4K chip with a 29'*29' field with 0.43'' pixels. The seven filters were from the extended Stromgren set recently acquired for specific use with the HDI. Final photometry on the uvbyCaHβ system can be found in Table4. (1 data file).

  18. CCD technology applied to laser cladding (United States)

    Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Renier, Eric; Truchetet, Frederic


    Power lasers are more and more used in aerospace industry or automobile industry; their widespread use through different processes such as: welding, drilling or coating, in order to perform some surface treatments of material, requires a better understanding. In order to control the quality of the process, many technics have been developed, but most of them are based on a post-mortem analysis of the samples, and/or require an important financial investment. Welding, coating or other material treatments involving material transformations are often controlled with a metallurgical analysis. We here propose a new method, a new approach of the phenomena, we control the industrial process during the application. For this, we use information provided by two CCD cameras. One supplies information related to the intensity, and geometry of the melted surface, the second about the shape of the powder distribution within the laser beam. We use data provided by post-mortem metallurgical analysis and correlate those informations with parameters measured by both CCD, we create a datas bank which represents the relation between the measured parameters and the quality of the coating. Both informations, provided by the 2 CCD cameras allows us to optimize the industrial process. We are actually working on the real time aspect of the application and expect an implementation of the system.

  19. Modelling charge storage in Euclid CCD structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A S; Holland, A; Hall, D J; Burt, D


    The primary aim of ESA's proposed Euclid mission is to observe the distribution of galaxies and galaxy clusters, enabling the mapping of the dark architecture of the universe [1]. This requires a high performance detector, designed to endure a harsh radiation environment. The e2v CCD204 image sensor was redesigned for use on the Euclid mission [2]. The resulting e2v CCD273 has a narrower serial register electrode and transfer channel compared to its predecessor, causing a reduction in the size of charge packets stored, thus reducing the number of traps encountered by the signal electrons during charge transfer and improving the serial Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) under irradiation [3]. The proposed Euclid CCD has been modelled using the Silvaco TCAD software [4], to test preliminary calculations for the Full Well Capacity (FWC) and the channel potential of the device and provide indications of the volume occupied by varying signals. These results are essential for the realisation of the mission objectives and for radiation damage studies, with the aim of producing empirically derived formulae to approximate signal-volume characteristics in the devices. These formulae will be used in the radiation damage (charge trapping) models. The Silvaco simulations have been tested against real devices to compare the experimental measurements to those predicted in the models. Using these results, the implications of this study on the Euclid mission can be investigated in more detail.

  20. High-speed CCD camera at NAOC (United States)

    Zhao, Zhaowang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yangbin


    A high speed CCD camera has been completed at the National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). A Kodak CCD was used in the camera. Two output ports are used to read out CCD data and total speed achieved 60M pixels per second. The Kodak KAI-4021 image sensor is a high-performance 2Kx2K-pixel interline transfer device. The 7.4μ square pixels with micro lenses provide high sensitivity and the large full well capacity results in high dynamic range. The inter-line transfer structure provides high quality image and enables electronic shuttering for precise exposure control. The electronic shutter provides a method of precisely controlling the image exposure time without any mechanical components. The camera is controlled by a NIOS II family of embedded processors, which is Altera's second-generation soft-core embedded processor for FPGAs. The powerful embedded processors make the camera with splendid features to satisfy continuously appearing new observational requirements. This camera is very flexible and is easy to implement new special functions. Since FPGA and other peripheral logic signals are triggered by a single master clock, the whole system is perfectly synchronized. By using this technique the camera cuts off the noise dramatically.

  1. Mapping and validation of QTLs for cold tolerance at seedling stage in rice from an indica cultivar Habiganj Boro VI (Hbj.BVI). (United States)

    Biswas, Partha S; Khatun, Hasina; Das, Nomita; Sarker, Md Mahathir; Anisuzzaman, M


    Yellowing, stunting, and seedling death associated with cold stress is a common problem in many Asian countries for winter rice cultivation. Improvement of cultivars through marker-assisted selection of QTLs for cold tolerance at seedling stage from locally adapted germplasm/cultivar is the most effective and sustainable strategy to resolve this problem. A study was undertaken to map QTLs from 151 F 2:3 progenies of a cross between a cold susceptible variety, BR1 and a locally adapted traditional indica cultivar, Hbj.BVI. A total of six significant QTLs were identified for two cold tolerance indices-cold-induced leaf discoloration and survival rate after a recovery period of seven days on chromosomes 6, 8, 11, and 12. Among these QTLs, qCTSL - 8 - 1 and qCTSS - 8 - 1 being co-localized into RM7027-RM339 on chromosome 8 and qCTSL - 12 - 1 and qCTSS - 12 - 1 into RM247-RM2529 on chromosome 12 showed 12.78 and 14.96% contribution, respectively, to the total phenotypic variation for cold tolerance. Validation of QTL effect in BC 1 F 3 population derived a cross between a cold susceptible BRRI dhan28 and Hbj.BVI showed dominating effect of qCTSL - 12 - 1 on cold tolerance at seedling stage and it became stronger when one or more other QTLs were co-segregated with it. These results suggest that the QTLs identified in this study are stable and effective on other genetic background also, which warrant the use of these QTLs for further study aiming to cultivar development for seedling stage cold tolerance.

  2. Thirteen-colour photometry of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Schuster, W.J.


    Thirteen-colour photometry made at the San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, for a number of spectroscopically variable Be and shell stars is presented. Several of these stars also show photometric variability in the ultraviolet and/or infrared over a time base of two to three years. We analyze the more interesting stars in terms of colour-colour diagrams, colour excesses, spectral characteristics and changes in their energy distributions. Prospects for future research are discussed. (author)

  3. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2018 April-June (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.


    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and having either none or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  4. Determination of palladium by flame photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parellada Bellod, R.


    A study on the determination of palladium by lame photometry, fixing the most convent experimental conditions and using solvents to increase the emission of this elements is carried out. Among the organic solvents, acetone has been found the most efficient. The interferences produced by anions and cations have also been studied and an analytical method is related, in which lines of calibration of 0 to 100 ppm palladium re used. (Author) 7 refs


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Schlegel, David J.


    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use a “forced photometry” technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star–galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our “unWISE” coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. However, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the “official” WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at

  6. Gene silencing of CCD7 and CCD8 in Phelipanche aegyptiaca by tobacco rattle virus system retarded the parasite development on the host. (United States)

    Aly, Radi; Dubey, Neeraj Kumar; Yahyaa, Mosaab; Abu-Nassar, Jackline; Ibdah, Mwafaq


    Strigolactones are phytohormones that stimulate seed germination of parasitic plants including Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Strigolactones are derived from carotenoids via a pathway involving the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases CCD7 and CCD8. We report here identification of PaCCD7 and PaCCD8 orthologous genes from P. aegyptiaca. Expression analysis of PaCCD7 and PaCCD8 genes showed significant variation in their transcript levels in seeds and tubercles of P. aegyptiaca at different developmental stages. These two parasitic PaCCD7 and PaCCD8 genes were silenced in P. aegyptiaca using a trans-silencing approach in Nicotiana benthamiana. The transient knock-down of PaCCD7 and PaCCD8 inhibited tubercle development and the infestation process in host plants. Our results suggest an important role of the strigolactone associated genes (PaCCD7 and PaCCD8) in the parasite life cycle.

  7. CCD emulator design for LSST camera (United States)

    Lu, W.; O'Connor, P.; Fried, J.; Kuczewski, J.


    As part of the LSST project, a comprehensive CCD emulator that operates three CCDs simultaneously has been developed for testing multichannel readout electronics. Based on an Altera Cyclone V FPGA for timing and control, the emulator generates 48 channels of simulated video waveform in response to appropriate sequencing of parallel and serial clocks. Two 256Mb serial memory chips are adopted for storage of arbitrary grayscale images. The arbitrary image or fixed pattern image can be generated from the emulator in triple as three real CCDs perform, for qualifying and testing the LSST 3-stripe Science Raft Electronics Board (REB) simultaneously. Using the method of comparator threshold scanning, all 24 parallel clocks and 24 serial clocks from the REB are qualified for sequence, duration and level before the video signal is generated. In addition, 66 channels of input bias and voltages are sampled through the multi-channel ADC to verify that correct values are applied to the CCD. In addition, either a Gigabit Ethernet connector or USB bus can be used to control and read back from the emulator board. A user-friendly PC software package has been developed for controlling and communicating with the emulator.

  8. CCD Camera Detection of HIV Infection. (United States)

    Day, John R


    Rapid and precise quantification of the infectivity of HIV is important for molecular virologic studies, as well as for measuring the activities of antiviral drugs and neutralizing antibodies. An indicator cell line, a CCD camera, and image-analysis software are used to quantify HIV infectivity. The cells of the P4R5 line, which express the receptors for HIV infection as well as β-galactosidase under the control of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, are infected with HIV and then incubated 2 days later with X-gal to stain the infected cells blue. Digital images of monolayers of the infected cells are captured using a high resolution CCD video camera and a macro video zoom lens. A software program is developed to process the images and to count the blue-stained foci of infection. The described method allows for the rapid quantification of the infected cells over a wide range of viral inocula with reproducibility, accuracy and at relatively low cost.

  9. CCD developed for scientific application by Hamamatsu

    CERN Document Server

    Miyaguchi, K; Dezaki, J; Yamamoto, K


    We have developed CCDs for scientific applications that feature a low readout noise of less than 5 e-rms and low dark current of 10-25 pA/cm sup 2 at room temperature. CCDs with these characteristics will prove extremely useful in applications such as spectroscopic measurement and dental radiography. In addition, a large-area CCD of 2kx4k pixels and 15 mu m square pixel size has recently been completed for optical use in astronomical observations. Applications to X-ray astronomy require the most challenging device performance in terms of deep depletion, high CTE, and focal plane size, among others. An abuttable X-ray CCD, having 1024x1024 pixels and 24 mu m square pixel size, is to be installed in an international space station (ISS). We are now striving to achieve the lowest usable cooling temperature by means of a built-in TEC with limited power consumption. Details on the development status are described in this report. We would also like to present our future plans for a large active area and deep depleti...

  10. New Design Concept for Universal CCD Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonyong Han


    Full Text Available Currently, the CCDs are widely used in astronomical observations either in direct imaging use or spectroscopic mode. However according to the recent technical advances, new large format CCDs are rapidly developed which have better performances with higher quantum efficiency and sensitivity. In many cases, some microprocessors have been adopted to deal with necessary digital logic for a CCD imaging system. This could often lack the flexibility of a system for a user to upgrade with new devices, especially of it is a commercial product. A new design concept has been explored which could provide the opportunity to deal with any format of devices from ant manufactures effectively for astronomical purposes. Recently available PLD (Programmable Logic Devices technology makes it possible to develop such digital circuit design, which can be integrated into a single component, instead of using microprocessors. The design concept could dramatically increase the efficiency and flexibility of a CCD imaging system, particularly when new or large format devices are available and to upgrade the performance of a system. Some variable system control parameters can be selected by a user with a wider range of choice. The software can support such functional requirements very conveniently. This approach can be applied not only to astronomical purpose, but also to some related fields, such as remote sensing and industrial applications.

  11. 2MASS NIR photometry for 693 candidate globular clusters in M 31 and the Revised Bologna Catalogue (United States)

    Galleti, S.; Federici, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Macrina, S.


    We have identified in the 2MASS database 693 known and candidate globular clusters in M 31. The 2MASS J, H, K magnitudes of these objects have been transformed to the same homogeneous photometric system of existing near infrared photometry of M 31 globulars, finally yielding J, H, K integrated photometry for 279 confirmed M 31 clusters, 406 unconfirmed candidates and 8 objects with controversial classification. Of these objects 529 lacked any previous estimate of their near infrared magnitudes. The newly assembled near infrared dataset has been implemented into a revised version of the Bologna Catalogue of M 31 globulars, with updated optical (UBVRI) photometry taken, when possible, from the most recent sources of CCD photometry available in the literature and transformed to a common photometric system. The final Revised Bologna Catalogue (available in electronic form) is the most comprehensive list presently available of confirmed and candidate M 31 globular clusters, with a total of 1164 entries. In particular, it includes 337 confirmed GCs, 688 GC candidates, 10 objects with controversial classification, 70 confirmed galaxies, 55 confirmed stars, and 4 H II regions lying within ˜3° from the center of the M 31 galaxy. Using the newly assembled database we show that the V-K color provides a powerful tool to discriminate between M 31 clusters and background galaxies, and we identify a sample of 83 globular cluster candidates, which is not likely to be contaminated by misclassified galaxies. Tables 2-4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  12. Extended Stromgren Photoelectric Photometry in NGC 752


    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Twarog, Bruce A.


    Photoelectric photometry on the extended Stromgren system (uvbyCa) is presented for 7 giants and 21 main sequence stars in the old open cluster, NGC 752. Analysis of the hk data for the turnoff stars yields a new determination of the cluster mean metallicity. From 10 single-star members, [Fe/H] = -0.06 +/- 0.03, where the error quoted is the standard error of the mean and the Hyades abundance is set at [Fe/H] = +0.12. This result is unchanged if all 20 stars within the limits of the hk metall...

  13. Photometry of CPD-48deg 1577

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.A.; Hiltner, W.A.


    U, B, and V photometry is presented for CPD - 48deg 1577, the newly discovered cataclysmic variable with the greatest known apparent brightness. The light curves are dominated by flickering but do suggest an orbital period of nearly 4 hr. Power spectra of 5 nights of U-band observations failed to reveal the presence of any periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations. Autocorrelation functions suggest that two time-scales exist in the flickering activity, one of 77 s and the other 500 s. The implications for a shot noise model of flickering are discussed. (author)

  14. Photometry and mass modeling of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, S.


    Recent estimates of the relative contributions of dark and luminous matter to the mass of spiral galaxies are reviewed. In these studies, the galactic mass distribution is modeled on the basis of photometric and kinematic observational data. The accuracy of current photometry is discussed; the three-dimensional structure of spiral galaxies and the techniques used in bulge-disk decomposition are examined; and mass models incorporating rotation curves are presented. The disk mass/luminosity ratios in the red band (corrected for internal extinction) are found to range from 1.6 to 3.2, with no particular radius at which dark matter dominates. 20 references

  15. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian


    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are

  16. Programmable Clock Waveform Generation for CCD Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.; Marin, J.


    Charge transfer efficiency in CCDs is closely related to the clock waveform. In this paper, an experimental framework to explore different FPGA based clock waveform generator designs is described. Two alternative design approaches for controlling the rise/fall edge times and pulse width of the CCD clock signal have been implemented: level-control and time-control. Both approaches provide similar characteristics regarding the edge linearity and noise. Nevertheless, dissimilarities have been found with respect to the area and frequency range of application. Thus, while the time-control approach consumes less area, the level control approach provides a wider range of clock frequencies since it does not suffer capacitor discharge effect. (Author) 8 refs.

  17. CCD characterization for a range of color cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, P.J.; Groen, F.C.A.; Schutte, K.


    CCD cameras are widely used for remote sensing and image processing applications. However, most cameras are produced to create nice images, not to do accurate measurements. Post processing operations such as gamma adjustment and automatic gain control are incorporated in the camera. When a (CCD)

  18. Programmable charge-coupled device /CCD/ correlator for pattern classification (United States)

    Mayer, D. J.; Eversole, W. L.; Hewes, C. R.; Benz, H. F.


    The potential use of charge coupled device (CCD) programmable digital/analog correlators for multispectral data classification is discussed. CCD digital/analog correlator technology and the experimental evaluation of a 32-stage 4-bit test device are presented. The design of an IC for use in a multispectral classification system for 16 sensors and 8 bit accuracy is reviewed.

  19. A luminescence imaging system based on a CCD camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Markey, B.G.


    of the spectrum, the CCD system is less sensitive than the standard bi-alkali photocathode photomultipliers that are commonly used. However, the CCD has a peak performance between 500 and 900 nm. and is more sensitive than the photomultiplier tube over this range. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  20. Photometry of 2004 RZ164: a probable binary asteroid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kwiatkowski, T.; Kryszczynska, A.; Marciniak, A.; Borczyk, W.; Masi, G.; Galád, Adrián; Goncalves, R.; Colas, F.


    Roč. 462, č. 1 (2007), s. 341-344 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids, photometry * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2007

  1. The NOAO Data Lab PHAT Photometry Database (United States)

    Olsen, Knut; Williams, Ben; Fitzpatrick, Michael; PHAT Team


    We present a database containing both the combined photometric object catalog and the single epoch measurements from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT). This database is hosted by the NOAO Data Lab (, and as such exposes a number of data services to the PHAT photometry, including access through a Table Access Protocol (TAP) service, direct PostgreSQL queries, web-based and programmatic query interfaces, remote storage space for personal database tables and files, and a JupyterHub-based Notebook analysis environment, as well as image access through a Simple Image Access (SIA) service. We show how the Data Lab database and Jupyter Notebook environment allow for straightforward and efficient analyses of PHAT catalog data, including maps of object density, depth, and color, extraction of light curves of variable objects, and proper motion exploration.

  2. Infrared photometry of cool white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Allen, D.A.; Bessell, M.S.


    The results are presented of a search for the effects of pressure induced H 2 dipole opacity on the infrared JHK magnitudes of cool white dwarfs. LHS 1126 is found to be a very cool (Tsub(e) approximately 4250 K) DC white dwarf with a H rich atmospheric composition dominated by H 2 dipole opacity in the infrared. JHK photometry also favours a H rich atmospheric composition for the DK white dwarfs LP 658-2 and W 489. The surprisingly high proportion of hydrogen rich white dwarfs in the sample appears to suggest that the mechanism which inhibits the accretion of hydrogen in the hotter helium stars becomes less effective at low (Tsub(e) approximately 3 + ion in cool hydrogen rich white dwarf atmospheres is pointed out and it is suggested that the opacity due to this ion may be responsible for the blanketing observed in the U and B magnitudes of some cool white dwarfs. (author)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir, Diana; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Payne, Alan; Ramirez, Solange V.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Wyatt, Pamela; Pilyavsky, Genady; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wright, Jason T.; Zachary Gazak, J.; Rabus, Markus


    The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey conducts radial velocity and photometric monitoring of known exoplanets in order to refine planetary orbits and predictions of possible transit times. This effort is primarily directed toward planets not known to transit, but a small sample of our targets consists of known transiting systems. Here we present precision photometry for six WASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) planets acquired during their transit windows. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis for each planet and combine these data with previous measurements to redetermine the period and ephemerides for these planets. These observations provide recent mid-transit times which are useful for scheduling future observations. Our results improve the ephemerides of WASP-4b, WASP-5b, and WASP-6b and reduce the uncertainties on the mid-transit time for WASP-29b. We also confirm the orbital, stellar, and planetary parameters of all six systems.

  4. Supernova Classification Using Swift UVOT Photometry (United States)

    Smith, Madison; Brown, Peter J.


    With the great influx of supernova discoveries over the past few years, the observation time needed to acquire the spectroscopic data needed to classify supernova by type has become unobtainable. Instead, using the photometry of supernovae could greatly reduce the amount of time between discovery and classification. For this project we looked at the relationship between colors and supernova types through machine learning packages in Python. Using data from the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT), each photometric point was assigned values corresponding to colors, absolute magnitudes, and the relative times from the peak brightness in several filters. These values were fed into three classifying methods, the nearest neighbors, decision tree, and random forest methods. We will discuss the success of these classification systems, the optimal filters for photometric classification, and ways to improve the classification.

  5. Linearity measurement for image-intensified CCD (United States)

    Zhao, Yuhuan; Zhang, Liwei; Yan, Feng; Gu, Yongqiang; Wan, Liying


    To the characteristic of the ultraviolet CCD (UV ICCD), technique of the linearity measurement of the UV ICCD camera is studied based on the theory of radiometry. Approach of linearity measurement is discussed, and a kind of measurement system of the UV ICCD has been developed based on the method of neutral density filter. It is very important that the transmittance of the filter is independent of the wavelength in the method of neutral density filter. Black metal screen mesh with different transmittance is used in our system, and calibration of the filters' transmittance in different working positions has been done. Meanwhile, to assure the uniform of the received radiation on the target of the detector at any test points, an integrating sphere is placed behind the neutral filter to balance light. The whole measurement system mainly consists of a deuterium lamp with high stabilization, the attenuation film with transmission, integrating sphere, optical guide and electro-shift platform. Auto control is realized via special software during the test. With this instrument, the linearity of the UV ICCD was measured. Experimental results show that the nonlinearity of the UV ICCD under fixed-gain is less than 2% and the uncertainty of measurement system is less than 4%.

  6. A new approach to modelling radiation noise in CCD's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugg, A.; Hopkinson, G.


    The energy depositions reported by Monte Carlo electron-photon irradiation transport codes are subject to a random error due to the finite number of particle histories used to generate the results. These statistical variations, normally a nuisance, may also be identified with the real radiation noise effects experienced by CCD pixels in persistent radiation environments. This paper explores the practicability of such radiation noise modelling by applying the ACCEPT code from the ITS suite to the case of a shielded CCD exposed to an electron flux. The results are compared with those obtained in a subsequent electron irradiation of the CCD by a Van de Graaff accelerator

  7. Enzymatic study on AtCCD4 and AtCCD7 and their potential to form acyclic regulatory metabolites

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark


    The Arabidopsis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (AtCCD4) is a negative regulator of the carotenoid content of seeds and has recently been suggested as a candidate for the generation of retrograde signals that are thought to derive from the cleavage of poly-cis-configured carotene desaturation intermediates. In this work, we investigated the activity of AtCCD4 in vitro and used dynamic modeling to determine its substrate preference. Our results document strict regional specificity for cleavage at the C9–C10 double bond in carotenoids and apocarotenoids, with preference for carotenoid substrates and an obstructing effect on hydroxyl functions, and demonstrate the specificity for all-trans-configured carotenes and xanthophylls. AtCCD4 cleaved substrates with at least one ionone ring and did not convert acyclic carotene desaturation intermediates, independent of their isomeric states. These results do not support a direct involvement of AtCCD4 in generating the supposed regulatory metabolites. In contrast, the strigolactone biosynthetic enzyme AtCCD7 converted 9-cis-configured acyclic carotenes, such as 9-cis-ζ-carotene, 9\\'-cis-neurosporene, and 9-cis-lycopene, yielding 9-cis-configured products and indicating that AtCCD7, rather than AtCCD4, is the candidate for forming acyclic retrograde signals.

  8. A CCD photometric analysis of the old open cluster NGC 2420

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony-Twarog, B.J.; Twarog, B.A.; Kaluzny, J.; Shara, M.M. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence (USA) Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Warsaw (Poland) Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))


    Precision CCD photometry on the BV system of the core of the old open cluster NGC 2420 is analyzed to explore the value of such an approach for open clusters, particularly in the areas of Galactic and stellar evolution. The unevolved main sequence is shown to be narrow and well defined to the completeness limit of V = 18.5, and the distribution of stars away from the main sequence is shown to be bimodal, with a secondary peak located approximately 0.7 mag above the fiducial main sequence. It is estimated that 50 percent of the cluster systems are binary. Near the turnoff the cluster exhibits some detailed structure. Fiducial relations are given for the cluster extending from the lower main sequence to the red giant branch 1.5 mag above the clump. Comparisons are made between the NGC 2420 cluster and NGC 2506, the isochrones of VandenBerg (1985), and 47 Tuc, in order to estimate cluster parameters, including reddening and metallicity. 68 refs.

  9. Extended Aperture Photometry of K2 RR Lyrae stars (United States)

    Plachy, Emese; Klagyivik, Péter; Molnár, László; Sódor, Ádám; Szabó, Róbert


    We present the method of the Extended Aperture Photometry (EAP) that we applied on K2 RR Lyrae stars. Our aim is to minimize the instrumental variations of attitude control maneuvers by using apertures that cover the positional changes in the field of view thus contain the stars during the whole observation. We present example light curves that we compared to the light curves from the K2 Systematics Correction (K2SC) pipeline applied on the automated Single Aperture Photometry (SAP) and on the Pre-search Data Conditioning Simple Aperture Photometry (PDCSAP) data.

  10. Extended Aperture Photometry of K2 RR Lyrae stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plachy Emese


    Full Text Available We present the method of the Extended Aperture Photometry (EAP that we applied on K2 RR Lyrae stars. Our aim is to minimize the instrumental variations of attitude control maneuvers by using apertures that cover the positional changes in the field of view thus contain the stars during the whole observation. We present example light curves that we compared to the light curves from the K2 Systematics Correction (K2SC pipeline applied on the automated Single Aperture Photometry (SAP and on the Pre-search Data Conditioning Simple Aperture Photometry (PDCSAP data.

  11. Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC) Gaussian Corrections for Automated Background Normalization of Rate-Tracked Satellite Imagery (United States)

    Griesbach, J.; Wetterer, C.; Sydney, P.; Gerber, J.

    Photometric processing of non-resolved Electro-Optical (EO) images has commonly required the use of dark and flat calibration frames that are obtained to correct for charge coupled device (CCD) dark (thermal) noise and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects respectively. It is necessary to account/calibrate for these effects so that the brightness of objects of interest (e.g. stars or resident space objects (RSOs)) may be measured in a consistent manner across the CCD field of view. Detected objects typically require further calibration using aperture photometry to compensate for sky background (shot noise). For this, annuluses are measured around each detected object whose contained pixels are used to estimate an average background level that is subtracted from the detected pixel measurements. In a new photometric calibration software tool developed for AFRL/RD, called Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC), an automated background normalization technique is proposed that eliminates the requirement to capture dark and flat calibration images. The proposed technique simultaneously corrects for dark noise, shot noise, and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects. With this, a constant detection threshold may be applied for constant false alarm rate (CFAR) object detection without the need for aperture photometry corrections. The detected pixels may be simply summed (without further correction) for an accurate instrumental magnitude estimate. The noise distribution associated with each pixel is assumed to be sampled from a Poisson distribution. Since Poisson distributed data closely resembles Gaussian data for parameterized means greater than 10, the data may be corrected by applying bias subtraction and standard-deviation division. EPIC performs automated background normalization on rate-tracked satellite images using the following technique. A deck of approximately 50-100 images is combined by performing an independent median

  12. Micrometer and CCD measurements of double stars (Series 51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović G.M.


    Full Text Available 36 micrometric measurements of 20 double or multiple systems carried out with the Zeiss 65/1055 cm Refractor of Belgrade Observatory are communicated. Also 35 CCD measurements of 15 double or multiple systems are included.

  13. Correlation and image compression for limited-bandwidth CCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Douglas G.


    As radars move to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with limited-bandwidth data downlinks, the amount of data stored and transmitted with each image becomes more significant. This document gives the results of a study to determine the effect of lossy compression in the image magnitude and phase on Coherent Change Detection (CCD). We examine 44 lossy compression types, plus lossless zlib compression, and test each compression method with over 600 CCD image pairs. We also derive theoretical predictions for the correlation for most of these compression schemes, which compare favorably with the experimental results. We recommend image transmission formats for limited-bandwidth programs having various requirements for CCD, including programs which cannot allow performance degradation and those which have stricter bandwidth requirements at the expense of CCD performance.

  14. Analysis of tap weight errors in CCD transversal filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricco, Bruno; Wallinga, Hans


    A method is presented to determine and evaluate the actual tap weight errors in CCD split-electrode transversal filters. It is concluded that the correlated part in the tap weight errors dominates the random errors.

  15. Target Image Matching Algorithm Based on Binocular CCD Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li


    Full Text Available This paper proposed target image in a subpixel level matching algorithm for binocular CCD ranging, which is based on the principle of binocular CCD ranging. In the paper, firstly, we introduced the ranging principle of the binocular ranging system and deduced a binocular parallax formula. Secondly, we deduced the algorithm which was named improved cross-correlation matching algorithm and cubic surface fitting algorithm for target images matched, and it could achieve a subpixel level matching for binocular CCD ranging images. Lastly, through experiment we have analyzed and verified the actual CCD ranging images, then analyzed the errors of the experimental results and corrected the formula of calculating system errors. Experimental results showed that the actual measurement accuracy of a target within 3 km was higher than 0.52%, which meet the accuracy requirements of the high precision binocular ranging.

  16. CCD vertex detector for the future linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, K D


    The R and D program at the LCFI collaboration is dedicated to the building of CCD-based vertex detector, satisfying the challenging requirements of the proposed future linear colliders. The mechanical part of the program targets the development of precision thin detector ladders, using large back-thinned unsupported CCDs under tension. Another part of the program aims to achieve very fast readout of the sensors using column-parallel CCDs, bump bonded to a dedicated CMOS readout chip. Each column of the CCD is read and processed independently, which gives the ultimate speed performance. Some results on modelling of the proposed column parallel CCD with device simulator CAD tools are presented. Tests on fast commercial CCD are being carried out to provide information on noise performance and handling of MIP-like charges at high clock frequencies.

  17. Design of a CCD Camera for Space Surveillance (United States)


    Analog to Digital Converter (A/D) a reference above ground. When the actual pixel voltage is clocked through, the reset level is subtracted and the bias...low leakage to minimize input current errors. Figure 5 CDS Block Diagram 5. CCD DRIVE CIRCUIT The CCD requires image clocks to move the collected...the image clocks . The 4427 is a single ended driver which requires level translating. In this design analog switches convert the 3.3 V digital

  18. Collection and processing data for high quality CCD images.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    Coherent Change Detection (CCD) with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is a technique whereby very subtle temporal changes can be discerned in a target scene. However, optimal performance requires carefully matching data collection geometries and adjusting the processing to compensate for imprecision in the collection geometries. Tolerances in the precision of the data collection are discussed, and anecdotal advice is presented for optimum CCD performance. Processing considerations are also discussed.

  19. Near infrared photometry of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.L.; Menzies, J.W.


    Photographic photometry on the V, Isub(K) system has been obtained for giant stars in the metal-rich globular clusters NGC 5927, 6171, 6352, 6356, 6388, 6522, 6528, 6712 and 6723. Colour-magnitude diagrams are presented. These data, with earlier observations of NGC 104 (47 Tuc), yield new parameters to describe the giant branch. These are the colour of the red variables, represented by their mean colour (V - Isub(K)) 0 or by the colour (V - Isub(K))sub(BO) of the bluest red variable on the giant branch of a cluster, and ΔV' which is the magnitude difference between the horizontal branch and the highest point on the giant branch. The latter is independent of reddening, since the giant branch of the most metal-rich clusters passes through a maximum in the V, V - Isub(K) plane. These parameters are correlated with the metal content, deduced from integrated photometry: the red variables are redder and the giant branch fainter the higher the metal content. Comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracks suggests that the range in metal content of these clusters is at most a factor of 10, the most metal-rich clusters possibly approaching the solar value. The cluster giant branches and those of open clusters, groups and field stars of the old disk population are compared. The assumption that all the globular clusters have an absolute magnitude on the horizontal branch of Msub(v) = + 0.9, as found recently for 47 Tuc, gives good agreement between the magnitudes of giant stars in the most metal rich of the globular clusters and those of field stars deduced from statistical parallaxes and moving group parallaxes. The values of the parameters ΔV' and (V - Isub(k))sub(BO) also approach those in the moving groups. The globular clusters have a longer horizontal branch, however, and the subgiants are bluer even when the values of ) 7Fe/H{ appear to be the same. (author). )

  20. UBV photometry of 262 southern galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, G.


    Multi-aperture photometry of 262 bright southern galaxies in the Johnson UBV system is given. Most of these are south of delta = -30 0 , although some northward to delta = -10 0 are included. A total of 169 objects have published radial velocity determinations. These provide distances, and enable construction of colour-magnitude diagrams for this subset of objects througha physical diameter of 2.0 kpc (with H 0 = 100). The two-colour diagrams for the inner regions of the galaxies differ from those of integrated galaxies due to the colour changes towards their centres. Comparison with theoretical models of Larson and Tinsley (1978) suggest that the colours of the inner portions of most ellipticals and lenticulars are consistent with their having all stars formed at nearly one epoch with little subsequent star formation, while for spirals larger amounts of star formation, either in bursts of continuously, are suggested. This simple picture is complicated by the presence of certain objects having peculiar colours indicative of large amounts of recent star formation. (Auth.)

  1. Investigating the Bright End of LSST Photometry (United States)

    Ojala, Elle; Pepper, Joshua; LSST Collaboration


    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will begin operations in 2022, conducting a wide-field, synoptic multiband survey of the southern sky. Some fraction of objects at the bright end of the magnitude regime observed by LSST will overlap with other wide-sky surveys, allowing for calibration and cross-checking between surveys. The LSST is optimized for observations of very faint objects, so much of this data overlap will be comprised of saturated images. This project provides the first in-depth analysis of saturation in LSST images. Using the PhoSim package to create simulated LSST images, we evaluate saturation properties of several types of stars to determine the brightness limitations of LSST. We also collect metadata from many wide-field photometric surveys to provide cross-survey accounting and comparison. Additionally, we evaluate the accuracy of the PhoSim modeling parameters to determine the reliability of the software. These efforts will allow us to determine the expected useable data overlap between bright-end LSST images and faint-end images in other wide-sky surveys. Our next steps are developing methods to extract photometry from saturated images.This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation through Cooperative Agreement 1258333 managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), and the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515 with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Additional LSST funding comes from private donations, grants to universities, and in-kind support from LSSTC Institutional Members.Thanks to NSF grant PHY-135195 and the 2017 LSSTC Grant Award #2017-UG06 for making this project possible.

  2. CCD Astrophotography High-Quality Imaging from the Suburbs

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Adam


    This is a reference book for amateur astronomers who have become interested in CCD imaging. Those glorious astronomical images found in astronomy magazines might seem out of reach to newcomers to CCD imaging, but this is not the case. Great pictures are attainable with modest equipment. Adam Stuart’s many beautiful images, reproduced in this book, attest to the quality of – initially – a beginner’s efforts. Chilled-chip astronomical CCD-cameras and software are also wonderful tools for cutting through seemingly impenetrable light-pollution. CCD Astrophotography from the Suburbs describes one man’s successful approach to the problem of getting high-quality astronomical images under some of the most light-polluted conditions. Here is a complete and thoroughly tested program that will help every CCD-beginner to work towards digital imaging of the highest quality. It is equally useful to astronomers who have perfect observing conditions, as to those who have to observe from light-polluted city skies.

  3. Purification and crystallization of Vibrio fischeri CcdB and its complexes with fragments of gyrase and CcdA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jonge, Natalie, E-mail:; Buts, Lieven; Vangelooven, Joris [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mine, Natacha; Van Melderen, Laurence [Laboratoire de Génétique des Procaryotes, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies (Belgium); Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    A CcdB homologue from V. fischeri was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. The free protein was crystallized, as were its complexes with fragments of E. coli and V. fischeri gyrase and with the F-plasmid CcdA C-terminal domain. The ccd toxin–antitoxin module from the Escherichia coli F plasmid has a homologue on the Vibrio fischeri integron. The homologue of the toxin (CcdB{sub Vfi}) was crystallized in two different crystal forms. The first form belongs to space group I23 or I2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameter a = 84.5 Å, and diffracts to 1.5 Å resolution. The second crystal form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.5, b = 43.6, c = 37.5 Å, β = 110.0°, and diffracts to 1.7 Å resolution. The complex of CcdB{sub Vfi} with the GyrA14{sub Vfi} fragment of V. fischeri gyrase crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.5, b = 94.6, c = 58.1 Å, and diffracts to 2.2 Å resolution. The corresponding mixed complex with E. coli GyrA14{sub Ec} crystallizes in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 130.1, b = 90.8, c = 58.1 Å, β = 102.6°, and diffracts to 1.95 Å. Finally, a complex between CcdB{sub Vfi} and part of the F-plasmid antitoxin CcdA{sub F} crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.9, b = 62.6, c = 82.0 Å, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution.

  4. Digital autoradiography using room temperature CCD and CMOS imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Jorge; Bailey, Alexis; Kitchen, Ian; Prydderch, Mark; Clark, Andy; Turchetta, Renato; Wells, Kevin


    CCD (charged coupled device) and CMOS imaging technologies can be applied to thin tissue autoradiography as potential imaging alternatives to using conventional film. In this work, we compare two particular devices: a CCD operating in slow scan mode and a CMOS-based active pixel sensor, operating at near video rates. Both imaging sensors have been operated at room temperature using direct irradiation with images produced from calibrated microscales and radiolabelled tissue samples. We also compare these digital image sensor technologies with the use of conventional film. We show comparative results obtained with 14 C calibrated microscales and 35 S radiolabelled tissue sections. We also present the first results of 3 H images produced under direct irradiation of a CCD sensor operating at room temperature. Compared to film, silicon-based imaging technologies exhibit enhanced sensitivity, dynamic range and linearity

  5. Noise analysis for CCD-based ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Davenport, John J; Hodgkinson, Jane; Saffell, John R; Tatam, Ralph P


    We present the results of a detailed analysis of the noise behavior of two CCD spectrometers in common use, an AvaSpec-3648 CCD UV spectrometer and an Ocean Optics S2000 Vis spectrometer. Light sources used include a deuterium UV/Vis lamp and UV and visible LEDs. Common noise phenomena include source fluctuation noise, photoresponse nonuniformity, dark current noise, fixed pattern noise, and read noise. These were identified and characterized by varying light source, spectrometer settings, or temperature. A number of noise-limiting techniques are proposed, demonstrating a best-case spectroscopic noise equivalent absorbance of 3.5×10(-4)  AU for the AvaSpec-3648 and 5.6×10(-4)  AU for the Ocean Optics S2000 over a 30 s integration period. These techniques can be used on other CCD spectrometers to optimize performance.

  6. Technology of Sand Level Detection Based on CCD Images (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Li, Xianglin; Chen, Xiaohui; Zhang, Tengfei; Feng, Chi; Zhang, Fei

    Heavy oil takes advantage of proportion in world petroleum resources. Thermal recovery technology, the chief means of heavy-oil exploitation, has been widely applied in development of world heavy-oil reservoir. To study the effect of sand-control technology in the process of heavy-oil thermal recovery, A HTRSTS (Heavy-oil Thermal Recovery Simulation Testing System) has been build. The detection of sand level in sand container is very important. The sand level detection technology adopted in this system is image processing technique based on CCD. Sand container image is taken by CCD, and then HTRSTS locks the interface between sand and liquid through CCD scanning. The preliminary experimental result shows that the standard deviation is about 0.02 liter, which could satisfy practical requirement quite well.

  7. CCD image sensor induced error in PIV applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, M; Nogueira, J; Vargas, A A; Ventas, R; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, M C


    The readout procedure of charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is known to generate some image degradation in different scientific imaging fields, especially in astrophysics. In the particular field of particle image velocimetry (PIV), widely extended in the scientific community, the readout procedure of the interline CCD sensor induces a bias in the registered position of particle images. This work proposes simple procedures to predict the magnitude of the associated measurement error. Generally, there are differences in the position bias for the different images of a certain particle at each PIV frame. This leads to a substantial bias error in the PIV velocity measurement (∼0.1 pixels). This is the order of magnitude that other typical PIV errors such as peak-locking may reach. Based on modern CCD technology and architecture, this work offers a description of the readout phenomenon and proposes a modeling for the CCD readout bias error magnitude. This bias, in turn, generates a velocity measurement bias error when there is an illumination difference between two successive PIV exposures. The model predictions match the experiments performed with two 12-bit-depth interline CCD cameras (MegaPlus ES 4.0/E incorporating the Kodak KAI-4000M CCD sensor with 4 megapixels). For different cameras, only two constant values are needed to fit the proposed calibration model and predict the error from the readout procedure. Tests by different researchers using different cameras would allow verification of the model, that can be used to optimize acquisition setups. Simple procedures to obtain these two calibration values are also described. (paper)

  8. Digital Printing Quality Detection and Analysis Technology Based on CCD (United States)

    He, Ming; Zheng, Liping


    With the help of CCD digital printing quality detection and analysis technology, it can carry out rapid evaluation and objective detection of printing quality, and can play a certain control effect on printing quality. It can be said CDD digital printing quality testing and analysis of the rational application of technology, its digital printing and printing materials for a variety of printing equipments to improve the quality of a very positive role. In this paper, we do an in-depth study and discussion based on the CCD digital print quality testing and analysis technology.

  9. Mid-IR image acquisition using a standard CCD camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Sørensen, Knud Palmelund; Pedersen, Christian


    Direct image acquisition in the 3-5 µm range is realized using a standard CCD camera and a wavelength up-converter unit. The converter unit transfers the image information to the NIR range were state-of-the-art cameras exist.......Direct image acquisition in the 3-5 µm range is realized using a standard CCD camera and a wavelength up-converter unit. The converter unit transfers the image information to the NIR range were state-of-the-art cameras exist....

  10. FR Cnc revisited: photometry, polarimetry and spectroscopy (United States)

    Golovin, A.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Hernán-Obispo, M.; Andreev, M.; Barnes, J. R.; Montes, D.; Pavlenko, E.; Pandey, J. C.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R.; Medhi, B. J.; Parihar, P. S.; Henden, A.; Sergeev, A.; Zaitsev, S. V.; Karpov, N.


    This paper is part of a multiwavelength study aimed at using complementary photometric, polarimetric and spectroscopic data to achieve an understanding of the activity process in late-type stars. Here, we present the study of FR Cnc, a young, active and spotted star. We performed analysis of All Sky Automated Survey 3 (ASAS-3) data for the years 2002-08 and amended the value of the rotational period to be 0.826518 d. The amplitude of photometric variations decreased abruptly in the year 2005, while the mean brightness remained the same, which was interpreted as a quick redistribution of spots. BVRC and IC broad-band photometric calibration was performed for 166 stars in FR Cnc vicinity. The photometry at Terskol Observatory shows two brightening episodes, one of which occurred at the same phase as the flare of 2006 November 23. Polarimetric BVR observations indicate the probable presence of a supplementary source of polarization. We monitored FR Cnc spectroscopically during the years 2004-08. We concluded that the radial velocity changes cannot be explained by the binary nature of FR Cnc. We determined the spectral type of FR Cnc as K7V. Calculated galactic space-velocity components (U, V, W) indicate that FR Cnc belongs to the young disc population and might also belong to the IC 2391 moving group. Based on Li Iλ6707.8 measurement, we estimated the age of FR Cnc to be between 10 and 120 Myr. Doppler tomography was applied to create a starspot image of FR Cnc. We optimized the goodness of fit to the deconvolved profiles for axial inclination, equivalent width and v sin i, finding v sin i=46.2 km s-1 and i= 55°. We also generated a synthetic V-band light curve based on Doppler imaging that makes simultaneous use of spectroscopic and photometric data. This synthetic light curve displays the same morphology and amplitude as the observed one. The starspot distribution of FR Cnc is also of interest since it is one of the latest spectral types to have been imaged. No

  11. UBV-photometry of flare stars in pleiades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavushyan, O.S.; Garibdzhanyan, A.T.


    The results are presented of UBV-photometry of 283 flare stars at the minimum of brightness in the Pleiad region. A new method has been developed and used of taking into account the background in photographic UBV-photometry with an iris microphotometer. The data obtained indicate that the flare Pleiad stars are located on both sides of the main sequence in the light-luminosity (V,B-V) diagram, while in the (U-B,B-V) diagram they are largely located above the main sequence

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and spectroscopy of EPIC 201702477 (Bayliss+, 2017) (United States)

    Bayliss, D.; Hojjatpanah, S.; Santerne, A.; Dragomir, D.; Zhou, G.; Shporer, A.; Colon, K. D.; Almenara, J.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barrado, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bento, J.; Boisse, I.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Brown, T.; Cameron, A.; Cochran, W. D.; Demangeon, O.; Deleuil, M.; Diaz, R. F.; Fulton, B.; Horne, K.; Hebrard, G.; Lillo-Box, J.; Lovis, C.; Mawet, D.; Ngo, H.; Osborn, H.; Palle, E.; Petigura, E.; Pollacco, D.; Santos, N.; Sefako, R.; Siverd, R.; Sousa, S. G.; Tsantaki, M.


    The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a network of fully automated telescopes. Currently there are 10 LCOGT 1m telescopes operating as part of this network, eight of which are in the southern hemisphere: three at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile, three at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in South Africa, and two at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in Australia. Each telescope is equipped with an imaging camera; either a "Sinistro" or an SBIG STX-16803. The Sinistro is LCOGT's custom built imaging camera that features a back-illuminated 4K*4K Fairchild Imaging CCD with 15μm pixels (CCD486 BI). With a plate scale of 0.387''/pixel, the Sinistro cameras deliver a FOV of 26.6'*26.6', which is important for monitoring a sufficient number of reference stars for high-precision differential photometry. The cameras are read out by four amplifiers with 1*1 binning, with a readout time of ~45s. The SBIG STX-16803 cameras are commercial CCD cameras which feature a frontside-illuminated 4K*4K CCD with 9μm pixels-giving a field of view of 15.8'*15.8'. These cameras are typically read out in 2*2 binning mode, which results in a read-out time of 12s. The Transiting Exoplanet CHaracterisation (TECH; project uses the 1m telescopes in the LCOGT network to photometrically characterize transiting planets and transiting planet candidates. The first transit event for EPIC201702477b monitored by the TECH project was on 2015 March 15 from CTIO. We observed the target from 01:00 UT to 08:13 UT using a Sinistro in the r-band. The exposure times were 240s, the observing conditions were photometric, and the airmass ranged from 2.3 to 1.2. We detected a full transit of EPIC 201702477b with a depth and duration consistent with that seen in the K2 data. The next transit event occurred 41 days later on 2015 April 28, and was observable from SAAO. EPIC201702477 was monitored between 17:00 UT

  13. Calibration of the CCD photonic measuring system for railway inspection (United States)

    Popov, D. V.; Ryabichenko, R. B.; Krivosheina, E. A.


    Increasing of traffic speed is the most important task in Moscow Metro. Requirements for traffic safety grow up simultaneously with the speed increasing. Currently for track inspection in Moscow Metro is used track measurement car has built in 1954. The main drawbacks of this system are absence of automated data processing and low accuracy. Non-contact photonic measurement system (KSIR) is developed for solving this problem. New track inspection car will be built in several months. This car will use two different track inspection systems and car locating subsystem based on track circuit counting. The KSIR consists of four subsystems: rail wear, height and track gauge measurement (BFSM); rail slump measurement (FIP); contact rail measurement (FKR); speed, level and car locating (USI). Currently new subsystem for wheel flange wear (IRK) is developed. The KSIR carry out measurements in real-time mode. The BFSM subsystem contains 4 matrix CCD cameras and 4 infrared stripe illuminators. The FIP subsystem contains 4 line CCD cameras and 4 spot illuminators. The FKR subsystem contains 2 matrix CCD cameras and 2 stripe illuminators. The IRK subsystem contains 2 CCD cameras and 2 stripe illuminators. Each system calibration was carried out for their adjustment. On the first step KSIR obtains data from photonic sensors which is valued in internal measurement units. Due to the calibration on the second step non-contact system converts the data to metric measurement system.

  14. Programmable CCD imaging system for synchrotron radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodricks, B.; Brizard, C.


    A real-time imaging system for x-ray detection has been developed. The CAMAC-based system has a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) as its active detection element. The electronics consists of a CAMAC-crate-based dedicated microprocessor coupled to arbitrary waveform generators, programmable timing, and ADC modules. The hardware flexibility achievable through this system enables one to use virtually any commercially available CCD. A dedicated CAMAC-based display driver allows for real-time imaging on a high-resolution color monitor. An optional front end consisting of a fiber-optic taper and a focusing optical lens system coupled to a phosphor screen allows for large area imaging. Further, programming flexibility, in which the detector can be used in different read-out modes, enables it to be exploited for time-resolved experiments. In one mode, sections of the CCD can be read-out with millisecond time-resolution and, in another, the use of the CCD as a storage device is exploited resulting microsecond time-resolution. Three different CCDs with radically different read-out timings and waveforms have been tested. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Multicolour CCD Photometric Study of Galactic Star Clusters SAI 63 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    colour–magnitude (CMD) and colour–colour diagrams of star clusters, it is possible to determine the underlying properties ... The reality of these newly discovered open clusters was confirmed by means of their J, (J −H) and Ks, (J − Ks) CMDs. ... The data were obtained using the 2 K×2 K. CCD system at the f/13 Cassegrain ...

  16. Developments in X-ray and astronomical CCD imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, J.A.; Burke, B.E.; Kosicki, B.B.; Reich, R.K.


    There have been many recent developments in the attributes and capabilities of silicon-based CCD detectors for use in space and ground-based astronomy. The imagers used as X-ray detectors require very low noise and excellent quantum efficiency over the energy range of 200-10000 eV. This is achieved using a combination of front and back-illuminated imagers fabricated on a 5000 Ω-cm resistivity material. A requirement for ground-based imagers is very good sensitivity between 350 and 1000 nm, as well as low noise and a high degree of spatial uniformity. We will describe the fabrication and performance of these imagers. Special features integrated into the CCD pixel architecture have increased the capability of the imagers. A fast electronic shutter has been developed for a wavefront sensor in an adaptive optics system. An orthogonal transfer CCD has been designed to compensate for the image motion relative to the CCD focal plane. Also, an antiblooming drain process has been developed so bright sources do not extend spatially into adjacent pixels in back- and front-illuminated imagers. Aspects of the design, fabrication, and performance of imagers with these features will be described

  17. Technical challenges and recent progress in CCD imagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosiers, Jan T. [DALSA Professional Imaging, High Tech Campus 12a, M/S 01 (WAD01), 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Peters, Inge M. [DALSA Professional Imaging, High Tech Campus 12a, M/S 01 (WAD01), 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Draijer, Cees [DALSA Professional Imaging, High Tech Campus 12a, M/S 01 (WAD01), 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Theuwissen, Albert [DALSA Semiconductor, High Tech Campus 12a, M/S 01 (WAD01), 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    This paper gives a review of the performance of charge-coupled device (CCD) imagers for use in consumer, professional and scientific applications. An overview of recent developments and the current state-of-the-art are presented. An extensive list of references is included.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 18, 2008 ... 3. Data Processing. The microcontroller, the CCD sensor, the stepper motor and the rest of the system are interfaced to the PC where data processing and overall control are done. A software program in. QUICKBASIC is used to process the pixels. First the 1024 pixels of an image line are received from the.

  19. Application Of CCD Camera And Computer In Interferometry (United States)

    Wang, Wensheng


    In this article we have theoretically and experimentally dicussed how scanning interference fringes are automatically recorded with a ccd camera and a computer. This new measure technique can be used to any length measurement by interferomtry. As a practical example, we have automatically in real-time measured the shrinking of 2- components adhesive in a hardening process.

  20. Multicolour CCD Photometric Study of Galactic Star Clusters SAI 63 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2014) 35, 143–156 c Indian Academy of Sciences. Multicolour CCD Photometric Study of Galactic Star Clusters. SAI 63 and SAI 75. R. K. S. Yadav1,∗, S. I. Leonova2, R. Sagar1 & E. V. Glushkova2. 1Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak,. Nainital 263 129, India.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Toledo, H. M.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Aceves, H.; OlguIn, L.


    relative to an isolated galaxy control sample is also interpreted as consistent with interactions in physically bounded aggregates. Our results lead us to suggest that non-negligible populations of physical triplets might be found in complete and well-observed samples. We provide individual mosaics for the 54 galaxies containing (1) logarithmic-scaled R-band images, (2) R-band sharp/filtered images, (3) (B - I) color index maps, (4) RGB images from the SDSS database, (5) co-added J + H + K images generated from the 2MASS archives that were also sharp/filtered, and (6) ε, position angle radial profiles from a surface photometry analysis of (a) the R band and (b) the co-added near-infrared images, all used for the present analysis.

  2. Programmable CCD imaging system for synchrotron radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodricks, B.; Brizard, C.


    A real-time imaging system for x-ray detection has been developed. The CAMAC-based system has a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) as its active detection element. The electronics consist of a CAMAC-crate-based dedicated microprocessor coupled to arbitrary waveform generators, programmable timing, and ADC modules. The hardware flexibility achievable through this system enables one to use virtually any commercially available CCD. A dedicated CAMAC-based display driver allows for real-time imaging on a high-resolution color monitor. An optional front end consisting of a fiber-optic taper and a focusing optical lens system coupled to a phosphor screen allows for large area imaging. Further, programming flexibility, in which the detector can be used in different read-out modes, enables it to be exploited for time-resolved experiments. In one mode, sections of the CCD can be read-out with millisecond time-resolution and, in another, the use of the CCD as a storage device is exploited resulting in microsecond time-resolution. Three different CCDs with radically different read-out timings and waveforms have been tested: the TI 4849, a 39Ox584 pixel array; TC 215, a 1024x1O24 pixel array; and the TH 7883, a 576x384 pixel array. The TC 215 and TI 4849 are single-phase CCDs manufactured by Texas Instruments, and the TH 7883 is a four-phase device manufactured by Thomson-CSF. The CCD characterized for uniformity, charge transfer efficiency (CTE), linearity, and sensitivity is the TC215

  3. Study of x-ray CCD image sensor and application (United States)

    Wang, Shuyun; Li, Tianze


    In this paper, we expounded the composing, specialty, parameter, its working process, key techniques and methods for charge coupled devices (CCD) twice value treatment. Disposal process for CCD video signal quantification was expatiated; X-ray image intensifier's constitutes, function of constitutes, coupling technique of X-ray image intensifier and CCD were analyzed. We analyzed two effective methods to reduce the harm to human beings when X-ray was used in the medical image. One was to reduce X-ray's radiation and adopt to intensify the image penetrated by X-ray to gain the same effect. The other was to use the image sensor to transfer the images to the safe area for observation. On this base, a new method was presented that CCD image sensor and X-ray image intensifier were combined organically. A practical medical X-ray photo electricity system was designed which can be used in the records and time of the human's penetrating images. The system was mainly made up with the medical X-ray, X-ray image intensifier, CCD vidicon with high resolution, image processor, display and so on. Its characteristics are: change the invisible X-ray into the visible light image; output the vivid images; short image recording time etc. At the same time we analyzed the main aspects which affect the system's resolution. Medical photo electricity system using X-ray image sensor can reduce the X-ray harm to human sharply when it is used in the medical diagnoses. At last we analyzed and looked forward the system's application in medical engineering and the related fields.

  4. First-light instrument for the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope: 4Kx4K CCD Imager (United States)

    Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Yadav, Rama Kant Singh; Nanjappa, Nandish; Yadav, Shobhit; Reddy, Bheemireddy Krishna; Sahu, Sanjit; Srinivasan, Ramaiyengar


    As a part of in-house instrument developmental activity at ARIES, the 4Kx4K CCD Imager is designed and developed as a first-light instrument for the axial port of the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT). The f/9 beam of the telescope having a plate-scale of 6.4"/mm is utilized to conduct deeper photom-etry within the central 10' field of view. The pixel size of the blue-enhanced liquid nitrogen cooled STA4150 4Kx4K CCD chip is 15 μm, with options to select gain and speed values to utilize the dynamic range. Using the Imager, it is planned to image the central 6.5'x6.5' field of view of the telescope for various science goals by getting deeper images in several broad-band filters for point sources and objects with low surface brightness. The fully assembled Imager along with automated filter wheels having Bessel UBV RI and SDSS ugriz filters was tested in late 2015 at the axial port of the 3.6-m DOT. This instrument was finally mounted at the axial port of the 3.6-m DOT on 30 March 2016 when the telescope was technically activated jointly by the Prime Ministers of India and Belgium. It is expected to serve as a general purpose multi-band deep imaging instrument for a variety of science goals including studies of cosmic transients, active galaxies, star clusters and optical monitoring of X-ray sources discovered by the newly launched Indian space-mission called ASTROSAT, and follow-up of radio bright objects discovered by the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope.

  5. MISR Level 1A CCD Science data, all cameras V002 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MISR Level 1A camera charge-coupled device (CCD) Science Instrument Data are the primary archive of the MISR instrument. The MISR CCD Science Instrument Data...

  6. Milli-Magnitude Time-Resolved Photometry with BEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Rauer, H.; Erikson, E.


    We present a comparative test of different photometry algorithms. The test has been made in order to optimize the number of stars for which light curves with milli-magnitude precision can be achieved in observations made by the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope (BEST), a small wide-angle telescop...

  7. Photometry and models of eight near-Earth asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaasalainen, M.; Pravec, Petr; Krugly, Yu. N.; Kotková, Lenka; Torppa, J.; Virtanen, J.; Kaasalainen, S.; Erikson, A.; Nathues, A.; Ďurech, J.; Wolf, M.; Lagerros, J. S. V.; Lindgren, M.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Koff, R.; Davies, J.; Mann, R.; Kušnirák, Peter; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Chiorny, V. G.; Belskaya, I. N.


    Roč. 167, č. 1 (2004), s. 178-196 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204; GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : asteroids * rotation * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.074, year: 2004

  8. Blue band photometry of Cygnus X-1. [and Fourier analysis (United States)

    Walker, E. N.


    Results of blue band photometry of HDE 226868 in the years 1972-3-4 and provisional results for 1975 are presented. A mean light curve is obtained from the first three years observations which is based on 192 nights observations. Intercomparison of the results from the different years shows that the light curve is not constant.

  9. 3-color photometry of a sunspot using speckle masking techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehr, E.; Sütterlin, P.


    A three-colour photometry is used to deduce the temperature of sunspot fine-structures. Using the Speckle-Masking method for image restoration, the resulting images (one per colour and burst) have a spatial resolution only limited by the telescope's aperture, i.e. 95km (blue), 145 km (red) and

  10. Strömgren photometry in globular clusters: M55 & M22 (United States)

    Richter, P.; Hilker, M.; Richtler, T.


    We present Strömgren CCD photometry for the two galactic globular clusters M55 (NGC 6809) and M22 (NGC 6656). We find average Strömgren metallicities of -1.71+/- 0.04 dex for M55 and -1.62+/- 0.08 dex for M22. The determination of metal abundances in cluster giants with the Strömgren m_1 index in comparison with spectroscopic data from Briley et al. (1993) and Norris & Freeman (1982, 1983) shows that M55 and M22 have different distributions of cyanogen strengths. In M55, no CN abundance variations are visible among the giant-branch stars. In striking contrast, a large dispersion of cyanogen strengths is seen in M22. For M22 we find patchily distributed variations in the foreground reddening of Delta E(B-V) ~ 0.07, which explain the colour dispersion among the giant-branch stars. There is no evidence for a spread in iron within M22 since the variations in m_1 are dominated by the large range in CN abundances, as already found by Anthony-Twarog et al. (1995). The difference between M55 and M22 may resemble the difference in integral CN band strength between M31 globular clusters and the galactic system. The colour-magnitude diagram of M55 shows the presence of a population of 56 blue-straggler stars that are more centrally concentrated than the red giant-branch stars. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, V. F.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R. [Department of Physics, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Stetson, P. B. [NRC-Herzberg, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Dall’Ora, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Castellani, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Fiorentino, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Freyhammer, L. M. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute of Astrophysics, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Marengo, M.; Neeley, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Valenti, E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Calamida, A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Da Silva, R.; Fabrizio, M.; Giuffrida, G. [ASDC, via del Politecnico snc, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Degl’Innocenti, S. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa (Italy); Di Cecco, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini snc, Loc. Collurania, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Freedman, W. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others


    New accurate and homogeneous optical UBVRI photometry has been obtained for variable stars in the Galactic globular cluster ω Cen (NGC 5139). We secured 8202 CCD images covering a time interval of 24 years and a sky area of 84 × 48 arcmin. The current data were complemented with data available in the literature and provided new, homogeneous pulsation parameters (mean magnitudes, luminosity amplitudes, periods) for 187 candidate ω Cen RR Lyrae (RRLs). Among them we have 101 RRc (first overtone) and 85 RRab (fundamental) variables, and a single candidate RRd (double-mode) variable. Candidate Blazhko RRLs show periods and colors that are intermediate between the RRc and RRab variables, suggesting that they are transitional objects. A comparison of the period distribution and the Bailey diagram indicates that RRLs in ω Cen show a long-period tail not present in typical Oosterhoff II (OoII) globulars. The RRLs in dwarf spheroidals and in ultra-faint dwarfs have properties between Oosterhoff intermediate and OoII clusters. Metallicity plays a key role in shaping the above evidence. These findings do not support the hypothesis that ω Cen is the core remnant of a spoiled dwarf galaxy. Using optical period–Wesenheit relations that are reddening-free and minimally dependent on metallicity we find a mean distance to ω Cen of 13.71 ± 0.08 ± 0.01 mag (semi-empirical and theoretical calibrations). Finally, we invert the I -band period–luminosity–metallicity relation to estimate individual RRLs’ metal abundances. The metallicity distribution agrees quite well with spectroscopic and photometric metallicity estimates available in the literature.

  12. High quality neutron radiography imaging using cooled CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hisao


    An electronic imaging technique using cooled charge-coupled-device camera (C-CCD) was applied to neutron radiography. The camera was examined for linearities of signal outputs and its dynamic ranges about the number of photons generated in a converter by an incident neutron beam. It is expected that the camera can be applied to high quality NR imaging especially to tomographic imaging for static objects. When the C-CCD camera is applied to get tomogram on the basis of its excellent characteristics, the results will be discussed about the quality of the image through a dynamic range of CT value which is defined in this paper, and a guide of dimensional limitation which can reasonably reconstruct tomograms. (author)

  13. Two-dimensional spectrophotometry of planetary nebulae by CCD imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.; Africano, J.L.; Quigley, R.J.; Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA)


    The spatial distribution of the electron temperature and density and the ionic abundances of O(+), O(2+), N(+), and S(+) have been derived from CCD images of the planetary nebulae NGC 40 and NGC 6826 taken in the important emission lines of forbidden O II, forbidden O III, H-beta, forbidden N II, and forbidden S II. The steps required in the derivation of the absolute fluxes, line, ratios, and ionic abundances are outlined and then discussed in greater detail. The results show that the CCD imaging technique for two-dimensional spectrophotometry can effectively compete with classical spectrophotometry, providing the added benefits of complete spatial coverage at seeing-disk spatial resolution. The multiplexing in the spatial dimension, however, results in a loss of spectral information, since only one emission line is observed at any one time. 37 references

  14. Optimization of polarimetry sensitivity for X-ray CCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashida, K; Tsunemi, H; Hashimoto, Y; Ohtani, M


    X-ray polarimetry with CCD has been performed using a polarized X-ray beam from an electron impact X-ray source. The standard data reduction method employing double-pixel events yields the modulation factor M of 0.14 at 27 keV and 0.24 at 43 keV for the 12 mu m pixel size CCD chip. We develop a new data reduction method, in which multi-pixel events are employed, and which approximates the charge spread as an oval shape. We optimize the reduction parameters, so that we improve the P sub m sub i sub n (minimum detectable polarization degree) by factor of three from the value obtained through the usual double-pixel event method.

  15. CCD-based thermoreflectance microscopy: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzaneh, M; Maize, K; Shakouri, A; Lueerssen, D; Summers, J A; Hudgings, Janice A; Mayer, P M; Ram, R J; Raad, P E; Pipe, K P


    CCD-based thermoreflectance microscopy has emerged as a high resolution, non-contact imaging technique for thermal profiling and performance and reliability analysis of numerous electronic and optoelectronic devices at the micro-scale. This thermography technique, which is based on measuring the relative change in reflectivity of the device surface as a function of change in temperature, provides high-resolution thermal images that are useful for hot spot detection and failure analysis, mapping of temperature distribution, measurement of thermal transient, optical characterization of photonic devices and measurement of thermal conductivity in thin films. In this paper we review the basic physical principle behind thermoreflectance as a thermography tool, discuss the experimental setup, resolutions achieved, signal processing procedures and calibration techniques, and review the current applications of CCD-based thermoreflectance microscopy in various devices. (topical review)

  16. Stroboscope Based Synchronization of Full Frame CCD Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shen


    Full Text Available The key obstacle to the use of consumer cameras in computer vision and computer graphics applications is the lack of synchronization hardware. We present a stroboscope based synchronization approach for the charge-coupled device (CCD consumer cameras. The synchronization is realized by first aligning the frames from different video sequences based on the smear dots of the stroboscope, and then matching the sequences using a hidden Markov model. Compared with current synchronized capture equipment, the proposed approach greatly reduces the cost by using inexpensive CCD cameras and one stroboscope. The results show that our method could reach a high accuracy much better than the frame-level synchronization of traditional software methods.

  17. CCD readout of GEM-based neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, F A F; Fetal, S T G; Fraga, M; Guérard, B; Manzini, G; Margato, L M S; Oed, A; Policarpo, Armando; Vuure, T V


    We report on the optical readout of the gas electron multiplier (GEM) operated with a gaseous mixture suitable for the detection of thermal neutrons: sup 3 He-CF sub 4. A CCD system operating in the 400-1000 nm band was used to collect the light. Spectroscopic data on the visible and NIR scintillation of He-CF sub 4 are presented. Images of the tracks of the proton and triton recorded with a triple GEM detector are also shown.

  18. Analysis of Dark Current in BRITE Nanostellite CCD Sensors † (United States)

    Popowicz, Adam


    The BRightest Target Explorer (BRITE) is the pioneering nanosatellite mission dedicated for photometric observations of the brightest stars in the sky. The BRITE charge coupled device (CCD) sensors are poorly shielded against extensive flux of energetic particles which constantly induce defects in the silicon lattice. In this paper we investigate the temporal evolution of the generation of the dark current in the BRITE CCDs over almost four years after launch. Utilizing several steps of image processing and employing normalization of the results, it was possible to obtain useful information about the progress of thermal activity in the sensors. The outcomes show a clear and consistent linear increase of induced damage despite the fact that only about 0.14% of CCD pixels were probed. By performing the analysis of temperature dependencies of the dark current, we identified the observed defects as phosphorus-vacancy (PV) pairs, which are common in proton irradiated CCD matrices. Moreover, the Meyer-Neldel empirical rule was confirmed in our dark current data, yielding EMN=24.8 meV for proton-induced PV defects. PMID:29415471

  19. A Bridge Deflection Monitoring System Based on CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Shan


    Full Text Available For long-term monitoring of the midspan deflection of Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction on 309 national roads in Zibo city, this paper proposes Zhang’s calibration-based DIC deflection monitoring method. CCD cameras are used to track the change of targets’ position, Zhang’s calibration algorithm is introduced to acquire the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of CCD cameras, and the DIC method is combined with Zhang’s calibration algorithm to measure bridge deflection. The comparative test between Zhang’s calibration and scale calibration is conducted in lab, and experimental results indicate that the proposed method has higher precision. According to the deflection monitoring scheme, the deflection monitoring software for Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction is developed by MATLAB, and a 4-channel CCD deflection monitoring system for Songjiazhuang cloverleaf junction is integrated in this paper. This deflection monitoring system includes functions such as image preview, simultaneous collection, camera calibration, deflection display, and data storage. In situ deflection curves show a consistent trend; this suggests that the proposed method is reliable and is suitable for the long-term monitoring of bridge deflection.

  20. The TERMS Project: Improved Orbital Parameters and Photometry of HD168443 and the Photometry Pipeline (United States)

    Pilyavsky, Genady; Mahadevan, S.; Kane, S. R.; Howard, A. W.; Ciardi, D. R.; de Pree, C.; Dragomir, D.; Fischer, D.; Henry, G. W.; Jensen, E. L. N.; Laughlin, G.; Marlowe, H.; Rabus, M.; von Braun, K.; Wright, J. T.; Wang, X.


    The discovery of transiting planets around bright stars holds the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of planetary atmospheres. The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey (TERMS) project focuses on updating the ephemerides of known exoplanets, put tighter constraints on the orbital parameters and shrink the large errors on the predicted transit windows, enabling photometric monitoring to search for a transit signature. Here, we present the revised orbital parameters and the photometric coverage during a predicted transit window of HD168443b, a massive planet orbiting the bright star HD 168443 (V = 6.92) with a period of 58.11 days. The high eccentricity of the planetary orbit (e = 0.53) significantly enhances the a-priori transit probability (3.7%) from what is expected for a circular orbit (2.5%). The transit ephemeris was updated using refined orbital parameters from additional Keck-HIRES radial velocities. The photometry obtained at the 1 m telescope in Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) and the T8 0.8 m Automated Photometric Telescope (APT) at Fairborn Observatory achieved the necessary millimag precision. The expected change in flux (0.5%) for HD168443 was not observed during the predicted transit window, thus allowing us to rule out the transit and put tighter constrains on the orbital inclination of HD168443b. Additionally, we present the software used to analyze the CTIO data. Developed by the TERMS team, this IDL based package is a fast, precise, and easy to use program which has eliminated the need for external software and command line prompts by utilizing the functionality of a graphical user interface (GUI).

  1. C.C.D. Readout Of A Picosecond Streak Camera With An Intensified C.C.D. (United States)

    Lemonier, M.; Richard, J. C.; Cavailler, C.; Mens, A.; Raze, G.


    This paper deals with a digital streak camera readout device. The device consists in a low light level television camera made of a solid state C.C.D. array coupled to an image intensifier associated to a video-digitizer coupled to a micro-computer system. The streak camera images are picked-up as a video signal, digitized and stored. This system allows the fast recording and the automatic processing of the data provided by the streak tube. Starting from the output screen of the streak camera, the constitutive elements are : - A fiber optic taper (A.O. Scientific Instruments) set in contact with the fiber optic output window of the streak tube achieves the image demagnification ; - A double proximity focused image intensifier (RTC - XX1410 SP) achieves the bright-ness amplification without any distortion ; - A second fiber optic taper achieves the dimensional matching between intensifier output and C.C.D. sensitive area ;

  2. A High Resolution TDI CCD Camera forMicrosatellite (HRCM) (United States)

    Hao, Yuncai; Zheng, You; Dong, Ying; Li, Tao; Yu, Shijie

    In resent years it is a important development direction in the commercial remote sensing field to obtain (1-5)m high ground resolution from space using microsatellite. Thanks to progress of new technologies, new materials and new detectors it is possible to develop 1m ground resolution space imaging system with weight less than 20kg. Based on many years works on optical system design a project of very high resolution TDI CCD camera using in space was proposed by the authors of this paper. The performance parameters and optical lay-out of the HRCM was presented. A compact optical design and results analysis for the system was given in the paper also. and small fold mirror to take a line field of view usable for TDI CCD and short outer size. The length along the largest size direction is about 1/4 of the focal length. And two 4096X96(grades) line TDI CCD will be used as the focal plane detector. The special optical parts are fixed near before the final image for getting the ground pixel resolution higher than the Nyquist resolution of the detector using the sub-pixel technique which will be explained in the paper. In the system optical SiC will be used as the mirror material, the C-C composite material will be used as the material of the mechanical structure framework. The circle frame of the primary and secondary mirrors will use one time turning on a machine tool in order to assuring concentric request for alignment of the system. In general the HRCM have the performance parameters with 2.5m focal length, 20 FOV, 1/11relative aperture, (0.4-0.8) micrometer spectral range, 10 micron pixel size of TDI CCD, weight less than 20kg, 1m ground pixel resolution at flying orbit 500km high. Design and analysis of the HRCM put up in the paper indicate that HRCM have many advantages to use it in space. Keywords High resolution TDI CCD Sub-pixel imaging Light-weighted optical system SiC mirror


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Bailey, Vanessa; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barman, Travis S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa, E-mail: [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)


    We used the Magellan adaptive optics system and its VisAO CCD camera to image the young low mass brown dwarf companion CT Chamaeleontis B for the first time at visible wavelengths. We detect it at r', i', z', and Y{sub S}. With our new photometry and T {sub eff} ∼ 2500 K derived from the shape of its K-band spectrum, we find that CT Cha B has A{sub V} = 3.4 ± 1.1 mag, and a mass of 14-24 M{sub J} according to the DUSTY evolutionary tracks and its 1-5 Myr age. The overluminosity of our r' detection indicates that the companion has significant Hα emission and a mass accretion rate ∼6 × 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, similar to some substellar companions. Proper motion analysis shows that another point source within 2'' of CT Cha A is not physical. This paper demonstrates how visible wavelength adaptive optics photometry (r', i', z', Y{sub S}) allows for a better estimate of extinction, luminosity, and mass accretion rate of young substellar companions.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Bailey, Vanessa; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip; Barman, Travis S.; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa


    We used the Magellan adaptive optics system and its VisAO CCD camera to image the young low mass brown dwarf companion CT Chamaeleontis B for the first time at visible wavelengths. We detect it at r', i', z', and Y S . With our new photometry and T eff ∼ 2500 K derived from the shape of its K-band spectrum, we find that CT Cha B has A V = 3.4 ± 1.1 mag, and a mass of 14-24 M J according to the DUSTY evolutionary tracks and its 1-5 Myr age. The overluminosity of our r' detection indicates that the companion has significant Hα emission and a mass accretion rate ∼6 × 10 –10 M ☉ yr –1 , similar to some substellar companions. Proper motion analysis shows that another point source within 2'' of CT Cha A is not physical. This paper demonstrates how visible wavelength adaptive optics photometry (r', i', z', Y S ) allows for a better estimate of extinction, luminosity, and mass accretion rate of young substellar companions

  5. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the addiction antidote CcdA in complex with its toxin CcdB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, Lieven; De Jonge, Natalie; Loris, Remy; Wyns, Lode; Dao-Thi, Minh-Hoa


    The CcdA C-terminal domain was crystallized in complex with CcdB in two crystal forms that diffract to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. CcdA and CcdB are the antidote and toxin of the ccd addiction module of Escherichia coli plasmid F. The CcdA C-terminal domain (CcdA C36 ; 36 amino acids) was crystallized in complex with CcdB (dimer of 2 × 101 amino acids) in three different crystal forms, two of which diffract to high resolution. Form II belongs to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 37.6, b = 60.5, c = 83.8 Å and diffracts to 1.8 Å resolution. Form III belongs to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 41.0, b = 37.9, c = 69.6 Å, β = 96.9°, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution

  6. The development of high-speed 100 fps CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffberg, M.; Laird, R.; Lenkzsus, F.; Liu, C.; Rodricks, B.


    This paper describes the development of a high-speed CCD digital camera system. The system has been designed to use CCDs from various manufacturers with minimal modifications. The first camera built on this design utilizes a Thomson 512 x 512 pixel CCD as its sensor, which is read out from two parallel outputs at a speed of 15 MHz/pixel/output. The data undergo correlated double sampling after which it is digitized into 12 bits. The throughput of the system translates into 60 MB/second, which is either stored directly in a PC or transferred to a custom-designed VXI module. The PC data acquisition version of the camera can collect sustained data in real time that is limited to the memory installed in the PC. The VXI version of the camera, also controlled by a PC, stores 512 MB of real-time data before it must be read out to the PC disk storage. The uncooled CCD can be used either with lenses for visible light imaging or with a phosphor screen for X-ray imaging. This camera has been tested with a phosphor screen coupled to a fiber-optic face plate for high-resolution, high-speed X-ray imaging. The camera is controlled through a custom event-driven user-friendly Windows package. The pixel clock speed can be changed from 1 to 15 MHz. The noise was measured to be 1.05 bits at a 13.3 MHz pixel clock. This paper will describe the electronics, software, and characterizations that have been performed using both visible and X-ray photons. (orig.)

  7. Neutral-beam performance analysis using a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Allen, S.L.; Pincosy, P.A.


    We have developed an optical diagnostic system suitable for characterizing the performance of energetic neutral beams. An absolutely calibrated CCD video camera is used to view the neutral beam as it passes through a relatively high pressure (10 -5 Torr) region outside the neutralizer: collisional excitation of the fast deuterium atoms produces H/sub proportional to/ emission (lambda = 6561A) that is proportional to the local atomic current density, independent of the species mix of accelerated ions over the energy range 5 to 20 keV. Digital processing of the video signal provides profile and aiming information for beam optimization. 6 refs., 3 figs

  8. CCD Development Progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


    Kolbe, W.F.; Holland, S.E.; Bebek, C.J.


    P-channel CCD imagers, 200-300um thick, fully depleted, and back-illuminat ed are being developed for scientific applications including ground- and space-based astronomy and x-ray detection. These thick devices have extended IR response, good point-spread function (PSF) and excellent radiation tolerance. Initially, these CCDs were made in-house at LBNL using 100 mm diameter wafers. Fabrication on high-resistivity 150 mm wafers is now proceeding according to a model in which the wafers are fir...

  9. CCD data processor for maximum likelihood feature classification (United States)

    Benz, H. F.; Kelly, W. L.; Husson, C.; Culotta, P. W.; Snyder, W. E.


    The paper describes an advanced technology development which utilizes a high speed analog/binary CCD correlator to perform the matrix multiplications necessary to implement onboard feature classification. The matrix manipulation module uses the maximum likelihood classification algorithm assuming a Gaussian probability density function. The module will process 16 element multispectral vectors at rates in excess of 500 thousand multispectral vector elements per second. System design considerations for the optimum use of this module are discussed, test results from initial device fabrication runs are presented, and the performance in typical processing applications is described

  10. Using Unfiltered Images to Perform Standard Filter Band Photometry (United States)

    Garlitz, J.


    This paper demonstrates that raw instrumental magnitudes of stars measured from a single unfiltered CCD image can be transformed into standard passband magnitudes. Star fields that have good catalogued photometric magnitudes can be used as a reference to transform unfiltered instrumental magnitudes into a standard system. To demonstrate this, the AAVSO (VSP) M-67 catalogued stars are used. It is shown that, within certain constraints, the standard B, V, Rc, and Ic magnitudes can be accurately determined from unfiltered instrumental magnitudes. For well behaved, well calibrated stars, the transformations to standard magnitudes can be done within a standard deviation of better than 0.021 magnitude. The paper further presents a simple spreadsheet tool to automatically derive the "standard" magnitudes from the raw instrumental magnitudes. This greatly simplifies the task of calculating transformation coefficients, and makes it possible to calibrate a CCD imaging system on an image-by-image basis.

  11. Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-W. Kang


    Full Text Available We designed and developed a multi-purpose CCD camera system for three kinds of CCDs; KAF-0401E(768×512, KAF-1602E(1536×1024, KAF-3200E(2184×1472 made by KODAK Co.. The system supports fast USB port as well as parallel port for data I/O and control signal. The packing is based on two stage circuit boards for size reduction and contains built-in filter wheel. Basic hardware components include clock pattern circuit, A/D conversion circuit, CCD data flow control circuit, and CCD temperature control unit. The CCD temperature can be controlled with accuracy of approximately 0.4° C in the max. range of temperature, Δ 33° C. This CCD camera system has with readout noise 6 e^{-}, and system gain 5 e^{-}/ADU. A total of 10 CCD camera systems were produced and our tests show that all of them show passable performance.

  12. Accurate Radiometric Calibration using Mechanically-Shuttered CCD Systems (United States)

    Hall, D.; Liang, D.

    Acquiring accurate radiometric measurements is an essential part of characterizing non-resolvable satellites. For instance, temporal photometric signatures provide information on characteristic size, reflectance, and stability, spin rate, etc., and with more detailed analysis, shape and attitude. Multi-color photometric measurements provide information on material composition and the effects of space weathering. Thermal infrared radiometry provides gray-body temperatures and emissivity properties. Many of these methods rely on accurate radiometric calibration. For CCD systems, the calibration process generally entails removing bias and dark signals from the raw frames, dividing by a flat-field frame to account for non-uniformities, and applying a sensitivity factor to convert the remaining signal into photon-flux or energy-flux units. However, when using mechanically-shuttered camera systems, another effect must be accounted for to obtain accurately calibrated data: the finite time required for the mechanical shutter to open and close. Measurements for both two-bladed and iris mechanical shutters indicate that neglecting this effect can lead to calibration errors of 10% or more in short-duration exposures. We present methods for measuring this effect, either in a laboratory setting or with the instrument mounted on a telescope, and the additional steps required to calibrate CCD data.

  13. Fundamental performance differences of CMOS and CCD imagers: part V (United States)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliott, Tom; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Pinter, Jeff


    Previous papers delivered over the last decade have documented developmental progress made on large pixel scientific CMOS imagers that match or surpass CCD performance. New data and discussions presented in this paper include: 1) a new buried channel CCD fabricated on a CMOS process line, 2) new data products generated by high performance custom scientific CMOS 4T/5T/6T PPD pixel imagers, 3) ultimate CTE and speed limits for large pixel CMOS imagers, 4) fabrication and test results of a flight 4k x 4k CMOS imager for NRL's SoloHi Solar Orbiter Mission, 5) a progress report on ultra large stitched Mk x Nk CMOS imager, 6) data generated by on-chip sub-electron CDS signal chain circuitry used in our imagers, 7) CMOS and CMOSCCD proton and electron radiation damage data for dose levels up to 10 Mrd, 8) discussions and data for a new class of PMOS pixel CMOS imagers and 9) future CMOS development work planned.

  14. An advanced CCD emulator with 32MB image memory (United States)

    O'Connor, P.; Fried, J.; Kotov, I.


    As part of the LSST sensor development program we have developed an advanced CCD emulator for testing new multichannel readout electronics. The emulator, based on an Altera Stratix II FPGA for timing and control, produces 4 channels of simulated video waveforms in response to an appropriate sequence of horizontal and vertical clocks. It features 40MHz, 16-bit DACs for reset and video generation, 32MB of image memory for storage of arbitrary grayscale bitmaps, and provision to simulate reset and clock feedthrough ("glitches") on the video channels. Clock inputs are qualified for proper sequences and levels before video output is generated. Binning, region of interest, and reverse clock sequences are correctly recognized and appropriate video output will be produced. Clock transitions are timestamped and can be played back to a control PC. A simplified user interface is provided via a daughter card having an ARM M3 Cortex microprocessor and miniature color LCD display and joystick. The user can select video modes from stored bitmap images, or flat, gradient, bar, chirp, or checkerboard test patterns; set clock thresholds and video output levels; and set row/column formats for image outputs. Multiple emulators can be operated in parallel to simulate complex CCDs or CCD arrays.

  15. Fast event recorder utilizing a CCD analog shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.; McIntyre, P.M.


    A system of electronics has been developed to allow the capture and recording of relatively fast, low-amplitude analog events. The heart of the system is a dual 455-cell analog shift register charge-coupled device, Fairchild CCD321ADC-3. The CCD is operated in a dual clock mode. The input is sampled at a selectable clock rate of .25-20 MHz. The stored analog data is then clocked out at a slower rate, typically about .25 MHz. The time base expansion of the analog data allows for analog-to-digital conversion and memory storage using conventional medium-speed devices. The digital data is sequentially loaded into a static RAM and may then be block transferred to a computer. The analog electronics are housed in a single-width NIM module, and the RAM memory in a single-width CAMAC module. Each pair of modules provides six parallel channels. Cost is about $200.00 per channel. Applications are described for ionization imaging (TPC, IRC) and long-drift calorimetry in liquid argon

  16. Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) causing respiratory distress syndrome in a newborn infant. A case report. (United States)

    Ringe, Kristina Imeen; Schirg, Eckart; Galanski, Michael


    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), also known as Scheuthauer Marie-Sainton Syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder, characterized by general retardation in bone ossification, hypoplastic clavicles and various craniofacial and dental abnormalities. Early diagnosis of CCD can be difficult, because the majority of craniofacial abnormalities become obvious only during adolescence. We present a rare case of CCD with neonatal manifestation and would like to promote the awareness of this rare disorder and the importance of early diagnosis.

  17. Crowded Field Galaxy Photometry: Precision Colors in the CLASH Clusters (United States)

    Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Kelson, Daniel D.; Moustakas, John; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Melchior, Peter; Umetsu, Keiichi; Voit, G. Mark


    We present a new method for photometering objects in galaxy clusters. We introduce a mode-filtering technique for removing spatially variable backgrounds, improving both detection and photometric accuracy (roughly halving the scatter in the red sequence compared to previous catalogs of the same clusters). This method is based on robustly determining the distribution of background pixel values and should provide comparable improvement in photometric analysis of any crowded fields. We produce new multiwavelength catalogs for the 25 CLASH cluster fields in all 16 bandpasses from the UV through the near-IR, as well as rest-frame magnitudes. A comparison with spectroscopic values from the literature finds a ˜ 30 % decrease in the redshift deviation from previously released CLASH photometry. This improvement in redshift precision, in combination with a detection scheme designed to maximize purity, yields a substantial upgrade in cluster member identification over the previous CLASH galaxy catalog. We construct luminosity functions for each cluster, reliably reaching depths of at least 4.5 mag below M* in every case, and deeper still in several clusters. We measure M* , α, and their redshift evolution, assuming the cluster populations are coeval, and find little to no evolution of α ,-0.9≲ ≲ -0.8, and M* values consistent with passive evolution. We present a catalog of galaxy photometry, photometric and spectroscopic redshifts, and rest-frame photometry for the full fields of view of all 25 CLASH clusters. Not only will our new photometric catalogs enable new studies of the properties of CLASH clusters, but mode-filtering techniques, such as those presented here, should greatly enhance the data quality of future photometric surveys of crowded fields.

  18. Galaxy properties from J-PAS narrow-band photometry (United States)

    Mejía-Narváez, A.; Bruzual, G.; Magris, C. G.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Benítez, N.; Carneiro, S.; Cenarro, A. J.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Dupke, R.; Ederoclite, A.; Marín-Franch, A.; de Oliveira, C. Mendes; Moles, M.; Sodre, L.; Taylor, K.; Varela, J.; Ramió, H. Vázquez


    We study the consistency of the physical properties of galaxies retrieved from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting as a function of spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using a selection of physically motivated star formation histories, we set up a control sample of mock galaxy spectra representing observations of the local Universe in high-resolution spectroscopy, and in 56 narrow-band and 5 broad-band photometry. We fit the SEDs at these spectral resolutions and compute their corresponding stellar mass, the mass- and luminosity-weighted age and metallicity, and the dust extinction. We study the biases, correlations and degeneracies affecting the retrieved parameters and explore the role of the spectral resolution and the SNR in regulating these degeneracies. We find that narrow-band photometry and spectroscopy yield similar trends in the physical properties derived, the former being considerably more precise. Using a galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we compare more realistically the results obtained from high-resolution and narrow-band SEDs (synthesized from the same SDSS spectra) following the same spectral fitting procedures. We use results from the literature as a benchmark to our spectroscopic estimates and show that the prior probability distribution functions, commonly adopted in parametric methods, may introduce biases not accounted for in a Bayesian framework. We conclude that narrow-band photometry yields the same trend in the age-metallicity relation in the literature, provided it is affected by the same biases as spectroscopy, albeit the precision achieved with the latter is generally twice as large as with the narrow-band, at SNR values typical of the different kinds of data.

  19. The terminal vibration of laser spot tail in dual channel type linear CCD (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Deyan; Shi, Yubin; Zhang, Jianmin


    A special phenomenon about laser spot tail in dual channel type linear CCD is studied. In the CCD, the charges packets in odd and even number pixels are respectively transferred by two channels, in which, the threshold difference of surface full well induces the length difference of spot tails. So, the terminal vibration of spot tail is caused. A simulation of this phenomenon is given and qualitatively validated by the experiment results of laser irradiating a dual channel type linear CCD. In the experiment, the phenomenon has been used to estimate relative size of surface full well thresholds in two channels of CCD.

  20. Analysis of lattice spots dazzling to CCD irradiated by CW laser (United States)

    Zhu, Rongzhen; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Hua; Ren, Guangsen; Hao, Yongwang


    The dazzling phenomena such as point saturation, line crosstalk present successively when laser irradiates on the CCD camera. We use CW laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm to irradiate the interline transfer area array CCD, CCD emerges lattice spots under the lens focusing. Based on geometrical optics, we use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to study the mechanization of lattice spots. Laser jamming effects to the same CCD are different between 532 nm and 1064 nm. This is because the 532 nm laser diffracts with the chip, while 1064 nm laser interferences with its reflected light in the transmission process. Meanwhile, the mechanization of the ring surrounding the main spot is analyzed.

  1. OV Bootis: Forty Nights Of World-Wide Photometry (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph; de Miguel, Enrique; Barret, Douglas; Brincat, Stephen; Boardman, James, Jr.; Buczynski, Denis; Campbell, Tut; Cejudo, David; Cook, Lew; Cook, Michael J.; Collins, Donald; Cooney, Walt; Dubois, Franky; Dvorak, Shawn; Halpern, Jules P.; Kroes, Anthony J.; Lemay, Damien; Licchelli, Domenico; Mankel, Dylan; Marshall, Matt; Novak, Rudolf; Oksanen, Arto; Roberts, George; Seargeant, Jim; Sears, Huei; Silcox, Austin; Slauson, Douglas; Stone, Geoff; Thorstensen, J. R.; Ulowetz, Joe; Vanmunster, Tonny; Wallgren, John; Wood, Matt


    Among the 1000 known cataclysmic variables, only one appears to belong to the "Galactic halo" - the Population II stars. We report round-the-world photometry of this star (OV Boo) during March-April 2017, when it staged its first certified dwarf-nova outburst. The star is remarkable for its short binary period (66 minutes), high proper motion, metal-poor composition, substellar secondary, sharp white-dwarf eclipses, and nonradial pulsations. Something for everybody...... and it even had the good manners to erupt in northern springtime, when it transits near local midnight. Move over, SS Cyg and WZ Sge; there's a new celebrity in town!

  2. OV Bootis: Forty Nights of World-Wide Photometry (Abstract) (United States)

    Patterson, J.; de Miguel, E.; Barret, D.; Brincat, S.; Boardman, J., Jr.; Buczynski, D.; Campbell, T.; Cejudo, D.; Cook, L.; Cook, M. J.; Collins, D.; Cooney, W.; Dubois, F.; Dvorak, S.; Halpern, J. P.; Kroes, A. J.; Lemay, D.; Licchelli, D.; Mankel, D.; Marshall, M.; Novak, R.; Oksanen, A.; Roberts, G.; Seargeant, J.; Sears, H.; Silcox, A.; Slauson, D.; Stone, G.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Ulowetz, J.; Vanmunster, T.; Wallgren, J.; Wood, M.


    (Abstract only) Among the 1000 known cataclysmic variables, only one appears to belong to the "Galactic halo"-the Population II stars. We report round-the-world photometry of this star (OV Boo) during March-April 2017, when it staged its first certified dwarf-nova outburst. The star is remarkable for its short binary period (66 minutes), high proper motion, metal-poor composition, substellar secondary, sharp white-dwarf eclipses, and nonradial pulsations. Something for everybody - and it even had the good manners to erupt in northern springtime, when it transits near local midnight. Move over, SS Cyg and WZ Sge; there's a new celebrity in town!

  3. MYRaf: An Easy Aperture Photometry GUI for IRAF (United States)

    Niaei, M. S.; KiliÇ, Y.; Özeren, F. F.


    We describe the design and development of MYRaf, a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that aims to be completely open-source under General Public License (GPL). MYRaf is an easy to use, reliable, and a fast IRAF aperture photometry GUI tool for those who are conversant with text-based software and command-line procedures in GNU/Linux OSs. MYRaf uses IRAF, PyRAF, matplotlib, ginga, alipy, and SExtractor with the general-purpose and high-level programming language Python, and uses the Qt framework.

  4. The Photometry Pipeline of the Watcher Robotic Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferrero


    Full Text Available The Watcher robotic telescope was developed primarily to perform rapid optical follow-up observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs. Secondary scientific goals include blazar monitoring and variable star studies. An automated photometry pipeline to rapidly analyse data from Watcher has been implemented. Details of the procedures to get image zero-point, source instrumental measurement, and limiting magnitude are presented. Sources of uncertainty are assessed and the performance of the pipeline is tested by comparison with a number of catalogue sources.

  5. CHEOPS: a space telescope for ultra-high precision photometry of exoplanet transits (United States)

    Cessa, V.; Beck, T.; Benz, W.; Broeg, C.; Ehrenreich, D.; Fortier, A.; Peter, G.; Magrin, D.; Pagano, I.; Plesseria, J.-Y.; Steller, M.; Szoke, J.; Thomas, N.; Ragazzoni, R.; Wildi, F.


    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry whose launch readiness is expected end 2017. The CHEOPS instrument will be the first space telescope dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. By being able to point at nearly any location on the sky, it will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for a subset of those planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based spectroscopic surveys. CHEOPS will also provide precision radii for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The main science goals of the CHEOPS mission will be to study the structure of exoplanets with radii typically ranging from 1 to 6 Earth radii orbiting bright stars. With an accurate knowledge of masses and radii for an unprecedented sample of planets, CHEOPS will set new constraints on the structure and hence on the formation and evolution of planets in this mass range. To reach its goals CHEOPS will measure photometric signals with a precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time for a 9th magnitude star. This corresponds to a signal to noise of 5 for a transit of an Earth-sized planet orbiting a solar-sized star (0.9 solar radii). This precision will be achieved by using a single frame-transfer backside illuminated CCD detector cool down at 233K and stabilized within {10 mK . The CHEOPS optical design is based on a Ritchey-Chretien style telescope with 300 mm effective aperture diameter, which provides a defocussed image of the target star while minimizing straylight using a dedicated field stop and baffle system. As CHEOPS will be in a LEO orbit, straylight suppression is a key point to allow the observation of faint stars. The telescope will be the only payload on a spacecraft platform providing pointing stability of < 8

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New SDSS and Washington photometry in Segue 3 (Hughes+, 2017) (United States)

    Hughes, J.; Lacy, B.; Sakari, C.; Wallerstein, G.; Davis, C. E.; Schiefelbein, S.; Corrin, O.; Joudi, H.; Le, D.; Haynes, R. M.


    We used the Apache Point Observatory (APO) new Astrophysical Research Consortium Telescope Imaging Camera (ARCTIC) imager and the camera it replaced, Seaver Prototype Imaging camera (SPIcam) for our observations with the 3.5m telescope. The ARCTIC camera has a 4096*4096 STA chip giving 7.5'*7.5' as the FOV when the new 5-inch diameter circular filters are used. The older Washington filters are 3''*3'' and vigniette the FOV. SPIcam had a FOV of 4.8'*4.8'. We have several filter wheels that can handle up to ten 3*3 inch square filters (fewer in full-field mode), where binning 1*1 yields 0.11arcseconds/pixel. The fastest readout time in 2*2 binned mode is about 5s. The blue-UV sensitivity of ARCTIC is greater than that of SPIcam, which was a backside-illuminated SITe TK2048E 2048*2048 pixel CCD with 24 micron pixels, which we also binned (2*2), giving a plate scale of 0.28 arcsec per pixel. Where we combined the data sets, we binned ARCTIC 2*2 and slightly degraded its resolution. We found no irreducible color terms between frames taken with both imagers, internally. From 2013 to 2015, we had 11 half-nights total, and 102 frames had seeing better than 2'', many of which were under photometric conditions, and several nights had subarcsecond seeing. Some of the observations were repeated between SPIcam and ARCTIC, which served to test the new imager. We observed Seg 3 in the Washington filters (Canterna 1976AJ.....81..228C) C and T1 and SDSS ugri filters with both SPIcam and ARCTIC. The frames used are listed in Table1, the overlap between this paper and the Vr-data from Fadely et al. 2011 (Cat. J/AJ/142/88) (not the g and r mag values) and Ortolani et al. 2013 (Cat. J/MNRAS/433/1966) is detailed in Table2. Our photometry is presented in Table3 for all 218 objects detected in our field-of-view in CT1ugri-filters, where we required detections in all filters in order to produce spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We include the z-filter from SDSS DR13 and any 2MASS

  7. UBV(RI)C photometry of the open clusters Be 15, Be 80 and NGC 2192 (United States)

    Tapia, M. T.; Schuster, W. J.; Michel, R.; C. Chavarría-K.; Dias, W. S.; Vázquez, R.; Moitinho, A.


    The three open clusters Be 15, Be 80 and NGC 2192 have been observed using CCD UBV(RI)C photometry at the San Pedro Mártir Observatory, México within the framework of our open-cluster survey. The fundamental parameters of interstellar reddening, distance and age have been derived, and also the metallicity for NGC 2192 (solar metallicity has been assumed for the other two). By shifting the colours of Schmidt-Kaler in the (U - B,B - V) two-colour diagram along the appropriate reddening vector, the interstellar reddenings have been derived as E(B - V) = 0.23 +/- 0.03 mag for Be 15, 1.31 +/- 0.05 for Be 80, and 0.16 +/- 0.03 for NGC 2192. Evidence is shown for a variable interstellar extinction across the cluster Be 80. For NGC 2192, a nicely consistent fit is obtained for both the interstellar reddening and the metallicity ([Fe/H] = -0.31) using simultaneously the F-type and red-clump stars. By fitting isochrones to the observed sequences of these three clusters in various colour-magnitude diagrams of different colour indices (B - V,V - I or V - R), the averages of distance moduli and heliocentric distances [(V - MV)o (mag); d(pc)] are the following: (10.74 +/- 0.01; 1202) for Be 15, (10.75 +/- 0.01; 1413) for Be 80 and (12.7 +/- 0.01; 3467) for NGC 2192, and the averages of the inferred best ages [log(age) age(Gyr)] are (8.6 +/- 0.05; 0.4) for Be 80 and (9.15 +/- 0.05; 1.4) for NGC 2192; for Be 15 there are two distinct possibilities for the age fit, depending on the membership of three brighter stars (9.35 or 9.95 +/- 0.05; 2.2 or 8.9). The need for spectroscopic observations in Be 15 is emphasized to select between alternate reddening and age solutions, and for deeper UBV observations in Be 80 to study in greater detail the variable interstellar, or intracluster, reddening across this cluster.

  8. Contribution of the Chromosomal ccdAB Operon to Bacterial Drug Tolerance. (United States)

    Gupta, Kritika; Tripathi, Arti; Sahu, Alishan; Varadarajan, Raghavan


    One of the first identified and best-studied toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in Escherichia coli is the F-plasmid-based CcdAB system. This system is involved in plasmid maintenance through postsegregational killing. More recently, ccdAB homologs have been found on the chromosome, including in pathogenic strains of E. coli and other bacteria. However, the functional role of chromosomal ccdAB genes, if any, has remained unclear. We show that both the native ccd operon of the E. coli O157 strain ( ccd O157 ) and the ccd operon from the F plasmid ( ccd F ), when inserted on the E. coli chromosome, lead to protection from cell death under multiple antibiotic stress conditions through formation of persisters, with the O157 operon showing higher protection. While the plasmid-encoded CcdB toxin is a potent gyrase inhibitor and leads to bacterial cell death even under fully repressed conditions, the chromosomally encoded toxin leads to growth inhibition, except at high expression levels, where some cell death is seen. This was further confirmed by transiently activating the chromosomal ccd operon through overexpression of an active-site inactive mutant of F-plasmid-encoded CcdB. Both the ccd F and ccd O157 operons may share common mechanisms for activation under stress conditions, eventually leading to multidrug-tolerant persister cells. This study clearly demonstrates an important role for chromosomal ccd systems in bacterial persistence. IMPORTANCE A large number of free-living and pathogenic bacteria are known to harbor multiple toxin-antitoxin systems, on plasmids as well as on chromosomes. The F-plasmid CcdAB system has been extensively studied and is known to be involved in plasmid maintenance. However, little is known about the function of its chromosomal counterpart, found in several pathogenic E. coli strains. We show that the native chromosomal ccd operon of the E. coli O157 strain is involved in drug tolerance and confers protection from cell death under multiple

  9. Testing theoretical models of subdwarf B stars using multicolor photometry (United States)

    Reed, Mike; Baran, Andrzej; Ostensen, Roy; O'Toole, Simon


    Pulsating stars allow a direct investigation of their structure and evolutionary history from the evaluation of pulsation modes. However, the observed pulsation frequencies must first be identified with spherical harmonics (modes). For subdwarfs B (sdB) stars, such identifications using white light photometry currently have significant limitations. We intend to use multicolor photometry to identify pulsation modes and constrain structure models. We propose to observe the pulsating sdB star PG0154+182 (BI Ari) with our multicolor instrument GT Cam. Our observations will be compared with perturbative atmospheric models (BRUCE/KYLIE) to identify the pulsation modes. This is part of our NSF grant to obtain seismic tools to test structure and evolution models; constraining stellar parameters including total mass, envelope mass, internal composition discontinuities and internal rotation. During winter/spring 2012, we were allocated three runs on the 2.1 m to collect multicolor data on other promising pulsating subdwarf B stars as part of this work. Those runs were very successful, prompting our continued proposals. In addition, we will obtain 3-color data using MAIA on the Mercator Telescope (using guaranteed institutional time).

  10. Improving the Photometry of the Pi of the Sky System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Żarnecki


    Full Text Available The “Pi of the Sky” robotic telescope was designed to monitor a significant fraction of the sky with good time resolution and range. The main goal of the “Pi of the Sky” detector is to look for short timescale optical transients arising from various astrophysical phenomena, mainly for the optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB. The system design, the observation methodology and the algorithms that have been developed make this detector a sophisticated instrument for looking for novae and supernovae stars and for monitoring blasars and AGNs activity. The final detector will consist of two sets of 12 cameras, one camera covering a field of view of 20◦ ×20◦. For data taken with the prototype detector at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, photometry uncertainty of 0.018–0.024 magnitudo for stars 7–10m was obtained. With a new calibration algorithm taking into account the spectral type of reference stars, the stability of the photometry algorithm can be significantly improved. Preliminary results from the BGInd variable are presented, showing that uncertainty of the order of 0.013 can be obtained.

  11. Orion Project: A Photometry and Spectroscopy Project for Small Observatories (United States)

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L.


    Orion, the hunter, is one of the most famous constellations. Its declination is such that it is visible from most of the civilized world. In addition, most of the stars of Orion are very bright and interesting. Originally this Project was called the Betelgeuse Campaign, but four more stars were added so the name was changed to the Orion Project. The Project now includes Betelgeuse, Rigel and the three stars of Orion's belt, Mintaka, Alnilam and Alnitak. Both photometry and spectroscopy provide data for the Project. The Project has several goals. First is to help beginners with photometry and spectroscopy. The second goal is the actual observations and data. Because these stars are very bright, they are seldom observed in detail. Their brightness also posses a problem for most professional observatories. It is hoped that by having observations over a long time, interesting changes can be seen that will warrant closer investigation. The AAVSO has an excellent archive of photometric data, but is still lacking a means of handling spectroscopic data. As a third goal it is hoped that the procedures refined in this Project for spectroscopic data may help promote a similar system for the AAVSO.

  12. CCD-based optical CT scanning of highly attenuating phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Nowais, Shamsa [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Doran, Simon J [CRUK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    The introduction of optical computed tomography (optical-CT) offers economic and easy to use 3-D optical readout for gel dosimeters. However, previous authors have noted some challenges regarding the accuracy of such imaging techniques at high values of optical density. In this paper, we take a closer look at the 'cupping' artefact evident in both light-scattering polymer systems and highly light absorbing phantoms using our CCD-based optical scanner. In addition, a technique is implemented whereby the maximum measurable optical absorbance is extended to correct for any errors that may have occurred in the estimated value of the dark current or ambient light reaching the detector. The results indicate that for absorbance values up to 2.0, the optical scanner results have good accuracy, whereas this is not the case at high absorbance values for reasons yet to be explained.

  13. Electromagnetic Compatibility Assessment of CCD Detector Acquisition Chains not Synchronized (United States)

    Nicoletto, M.; Boschetti, D.; Ciancetta, E.; Maiorano, E.; Stagnaro, L.


    Euclid is a space observatory managed by the European Space Agency; it is the second medium class mission (see Figure 1) in the frame of Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program.In the frame of this project, the electromagnetic interference between two different and not synchronized Charge Coupled Device (CCD) (see Figure 2) acquisition chains has been evaluated. The key parameter used for this assessment is the electromagnetic noise induced on each other. Taking into account the specificity of the issue, radiation coupling at relative low frequency and in near field conditions, classical approach based on simulations and testing on qualification model cannot be directly applied. Based on that, it has been decided to investigate the issue by test in an incremental way.

  14. Chromatic Modulator for High Resolution CCD or APS Devices (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor); Hull, Anthony B. (Inventor)


    A system for providing high-resolution color separation in electronic imaging. Comb drives controllably oscillate a red-green-blue (RGB) color strip filter system (or otherwise) over an electronic imaging system such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) or active pixel sensor (APS). The color filter is modulated over the imaging array at a rate three or more times the frame rate of the imaging array. In so doing, the underlying active imaging elements are then able to detect separate color-separated images, which are then combined to provide a color-accurate frame which is then recorded as the representation of the recorded image. High pixel resolution is maintained. Registration is obtained between the color strip filter and the underlying imaging array through the use of electrostatic comb drives in conjunction with a spring suspension system.

  15. APASS Landolt-Sloan BVgri Photometry of RAVE Stars. I. Data, Effective Temperatures, and Reddenings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munari, U.; Henden, A.; Frigo, A.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Levine, S. E.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Smith, T. C.; Steinmetz, M.; Templeton, M.; Terrell, D.; Welch, D. L.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.


    We provide AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) photometry in the Landolt BV and Sloan g'r'i' bands for all 425,743 stars included in the fourth RAVE Data Release. The internal accuracy of the APASS photometry of RAVE stars, expressed as the error of the mean of data obtained and separately

  16. Physical properties and membership in the open cluster NGC 6633 through uvby-β photoelectric photometry (United States)

    Peña, J. H.; Robleto-Orús, A.; Piña, D. S.; Rentería, A.; Villarreal, C.; Chow-Martínez, M.; Trejo, O.


    uvby-β photoelectric photometry of stars in the direction of the open clusters NGC 6633 is presented. From the uvby-β photometry of the stars in this direction, we classify the spectral types which allow us to determine the reddening and, hence, their distance. Membership of the stars to the cluster and reddening were determined.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Metallicity calibrations for UBV photometry (Karatas+, 2006) (United States)

    Karatas, Y.; Schuster, W. J.


    UBV photometry [V, (B-V), (U-B)] has been collected from large data bases in conjunction with the derivation of intrinsic-colour, metallicity and absolute magnitude calibrations of F-, G- and early-K-type stars for uvby-beta photometry being derived by Karata & Schuster (in preparation). (2 data files).

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: [Fe/H] & VMAG calibrations for UBV photometry (Karatas+, 2006) (United States)

    Karatas, Y.; Schuster, W. J.


    UBV photometry [V, (B-V), (U-B)] has been collected from large data bases in conjunction with the derivation of intrinsic-colour, metallicity and absolute magnitude calibrations of F-, G- and early-K-type stars for uvby-beta photometry being derived by Karata & Schuster (in preparation). (2 data files).


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We present optical and infrared photometry (BV RI, J H K) and spectra of galaxies in 6 medium redshift clusters covering the redshift range 0.19 less-than-or-equal-to z less-than-or-equal-to 0.4. The array photometry is used to note the radial distribution of the cluster galaxies with optical and

  20. Converting structures to optimize the Synchrotron X radiation detection by CCD systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanella, G.; Zannoni, R.


    It is pointed out how the quantum efficiency of X ray detection for CCD detecting system can be improved enlarging their sensivity range by means of heavy element converting structures. So the problem of fabricating CCD with a deep emptying layer is avoided

  1. Cross calibration of INSAT 3A CCD channel radiances with IRS P6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian National Satellite (INSAT) 3A was launched in the year 2003 with communication and remote sensing payloads. The later payloads contain very high resolution radiometer (VHRR) and charge coupled devices (CCD) camera. In this paper, post-launch calibration of INSAT 3A CCD is discussed. A cross radiometric ...

  2. Precise CCD astrometric observations of minor planets and comets at the Belgrade observatory during 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protitch-Benishek V.


    Full Text Available 73 precise astrometric positions of seven comets and two minor planets from MPC critical list - 1093 Freda and 4954 Eric - were obtained with the CCD equipped Askania astrograph (13.5/160 of Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The SBIG ST-7 and ST-7 CCD cameras were used in the observations.

  3. An Ultraviolet-Visible (UV Photometry System Based on the PDMS-based Microfluidic Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Changhua


    Full Text Available In order to avoid a problem remains with the low accuracy and poor portability of the photometry system, the system based on the photometry method and microfluidic chip technology was built. As the characteristics of cheap, solid and good transmission, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS was chosen as the material of the designed chip in the paper. To the designed UV photometry system, the light-emitting diode with wavelength of 580m is chosen as the light source. The experimental result indicates that there is no significant deviation between the designed UV photometry system and the conventional immuneturbidimetric assay, the correlation coefficient is 0.95 obtained by adopting the linear regression analysis. The linearity of the designed UV photometry system based on the PDMS-based microfluidic chip has increased by 17.3% in comparison with the system based on the silicon-based microfluidic chip.

  4. High-Voltage Clock Driver for Photon-Counting CCD Characterization (United States)

    Baker, Robert


    A document discusses the CCD97 from e2v technologies as it is being evaluated at Goddard Space Flight Center's Detector Characterization Laboratory (DCL) for possible use in ultra-low background noise space astronomy applications, such as Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (TPF-C). The CCD97 includes a photoncounting mode where the equivalent output noise is less than one electron. Use of this mode requires a clock signal at a voltage level greater than the level achievable by the existing CCD (charge-coupled-device) electronics. A high-voltage waveform generator has been developed in code 660/601 to support the CCD97 evaluation. The unit generates required clock waveforms at voltage levels from -20 to +50 V. It deals with standard and arbitrary waveforms and supports pixel rates from 50 to 500 kHz. The system is designed to interface with existing Leach CCD electronics.

  5. KIC 8462852: Maria Mitchell Observatory Photographic Photometry 1930 to 1985 (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael; Barker, Thurburn


    KIC 8462852 is an F3V star which decreased 20% in visual brightness twice from 5 to 20 days (Boyajian et al., 2016, MNRAS, 457, 3988) in 2011 and again in 2013. New observations show decreases of a few percent in May 2017 (Waagen 2017, AAVSO Alert Notice, 579), and reanalysis of Kepler data shows a variation of 928.25 days and 22 dimming events (Kiefer et al. 2017, accepted). Photometry from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae and the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) indicate two brightening episodes and a steady decrease in magnitude of 6.3 +/- 1.4 mmag/yr (Simon et al 2017, accepted). Photometric studies from photographic plate collections include a light curve from 1338 Harvard College Observatory plates over the period 1890 to 1989 (Schaefer 2016, ApJ, 822, L34) that indicates KIC 8462852 is dimming 0.164 +/- 0.013 magnitudes per century. Hippke et al. (2016, ApJ, 825, 73) present B and V light curves from photometry from the Sonneberg Observatory photographic plate collection (Brauer and Fuhrmann 1992, Die Sterne, 68, 19) covering the period from 1934 to 1995. The light curve suggests less than 3% or 0.03 magnitude per century decrease in brightness, consistent with the ASAS light curve and Kepler data.Another consistent set of astronomical photographic plates with KIC 8462852 are in the Maria Mitchell Observatory (MMO) collection (Strelnitski 2009 in ASP Conference Series Vol. 410 p. 96). This collection is located in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute. We extracted the photographic magnitudes of KIC 8462852 from 743 plates from 1930 to 1988. We chose 8 nearby comparison stars within one spectral subclass and within 0.05 magnitudes of KIC 8462852, and not identified as variables. The photometry is calibrated to the USNO B filter, closest in bandpass to the emulsion wavelength sensitivity. The light curve of KIC 8462852 suggests a trend of about 0.1 +/- 0.07 magnitudes per century decrease, an

  6. Asteroid models from photometry and complementary data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasalainen, Mikko [Department of Mathematics, Tampere University of Technology (Finland)


    I discuss inversion methods for asteroid shape and spin reconstruction with photometry (lightcurves) and complementary data sources such as adaptive optics or other images, occultation timings, interferometry, and range-Doppler radar data. These are essentially different sampling modes (generalized projections) of plane-of-sky images. An important concept in this approach is the optimal weighting of the various data modes. The maximum compatibility estimate, a multi-modal generalization of the maximum likelihood estimate, can be used for this purpose. I discuss the fundamental properties of lightcurve inversion by examining the two-dimensional case that, though not usable in our three-dimensional world, is simple to analyze, and it shares essentially the same uniqueness and stability properties as the 3-D case. After this, I review the main aspects of 3-D shape representations, lightcurve inversion, and the inclusion of complementary data.

  7. Time Resolved Precision Differential Photometry with OAFA's Double Astrograph (United States)

    González, E. P. A.; Podestá, F.; Podestá, R.; Pacheco, A. M.


    For the last 50 years, the Double Astrograph located at the Carlos U. Cesco station of the Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA), San Juan province, Argentina, was used for astrometric observations and research. The main programs involved the study of asteroid positions and proper motions of stars in the Southern hemisphere, being the latter a long time project that is near completion from which the SPM4 catalog is the most recent version (Girard et al. 2011). In this paper, new scientific applications in the field of photometry that can be accomplished with this telescope are presented. These first attempts show the potential of the instrument for such tasks.

  8. Photoelectric UBV and DDO photometry of NGC 5138

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claria, J.J.


    Results of UBV photoelectric photometry in NGC 5138 are presented for 50 stars brighter than 14.0 mag. In addition, four probable red giants were also observed in the DDO system. Sixteen stars previously considered members by Lindoff (1972), were found not to be physically connected with the cluster. NGC 5138 is located 1.80 kpc from the Sun and the visual interstellar absorption determined from the reddened B stars amounts to Asub(v) = 0.75 mag. There of the four red stars observed in the DDO system were found to be cluster members. The mean cyanogen anomaly is = 0.043 +- 0.018(m.e.), which implies that NGC 5138 is richer in CN than the field K giants in the solar neighbourhodd, but poorer than the Hyades giants. The cluster age is estimated to be approx. 1.5 x 10 8 yr. (orig.)

  9. Testbed for High-Acuity Imaging and Stable Photometry (United States)

    Gregory, James

    This proposal from MIT Lincoln Laboratory (LL) accompanies the NASA/APRA proposal enti-tled THAI-SPICE: Testbed for High-Acuity Imaging - Stable Photometry and Image-Motion Compensa-tion Experiment (submitted by Eliot Young, Southwest Research Institute). The goal of the THAI-SPICE project is to demonstrate three technologies that will help low-cost balloon-borne telescopes achieve diffraction-limited imaging: stable pointing, passive thermal stabilization and in-flight monitoring of the wave front error. This MIT LL proposal supplies a key element of the pointing stabilization component of THAI-SPICE: an electronic camera based on an orthogonaltransfer charge-coupled device (OTCCD). OTCCD cameras have been demonstrated with charge-transfer efficiencies >0.99999, noise of 90%. In addition to supplying a camera with an OTCCD detector, MIT LL will help with integration and testing of the OTCCD with the THAI-SPICE payload’s guide camera.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novati, S. Calchi; Beichman, C. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gould, A.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Zhu, W.; Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bryden, G.; Henderson, C. B.; Shvartzvald, Y. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Carey, S. [Spitzer, Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Udalski, A.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Collaboration: Spitzer team; OGLE group; and others


    We develop a new photometry algorithm that is optimized for the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Spitzer time series in crowded fields and that is particularly adapted to faint or heavily blended targets. We apply this to the 170 targets from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign and present the results of three variants of this algorithm in an online catalog. We present detailed accounts of the application of this algorithm to two difficult cases, one very faint and the other very crowded. Several of Spitzer's instrumental characteristics that drive the specific features of this algorithm are shared by Kepler and WFIRST, implying that these features may prove to be a useful starting point for algorithms designed for microlensing campaigns by these other missions.

  11. Characterizing exoplanets atmospheres with space photometry at optical wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Vivien


    Full Text Available Space photometry such as performed by Kepler and CoRoT provides exoplanets radius and phase curves with an exquisite precision. The phase curve constrains the longitudinal variation of the albedo and shed light on the horizontal distribution of clouds. The planet radius constraints thermal evolution of the planet, potentially unveiling its atmospheric composition. We present how the atmospheric circulation can affect the cloud distribution of three different planets, HD209458b, Kepler-7b and HD189733b based on three-dimensional models and analytical calculations. Then we use an analytical atmospheric model coupled to a state-of-the-art interior evolution code to study the role of TiO in shaping the thermal evolution and final radius of the planet.

  12. Surface photometry and mass distributions of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, C.P.


    U, B, V and R surface photometry is presented for the two luminosity class I-II galaxies NGC 1084 and 7331. The reduced profiles of both galaxies have well-defined outer components similar to that described in an earlier paper for NGC 157. The radial variation of M/L has been studied by extrapolating the observed rotation curves. The gross structure and detailed colour and M/L variations for both galaxies are described in terms of the density wave theory of spiral structure, which implies that the rotation curves are not flat at large radii. The outer components of both galaxies are too luminous to form conventional massive haloes. In both galaxies the total luminosity exceeds that expected from their luminosity class. (author)

  13. Mapping Milky Way Dust in 3D with Stellar Photometry (United States)

    Green, Gregory Maurice

    I present a three-dimensional map of interstellar dust reddening, covering three-quarters of the sky out to a distance of several kiloparsecs, based on Pan-STARRS 1 and 2MASS photometry. The map reveals a wealth of detailed structure, from filaments to large cloud complexes. The map has a hybrid angular resolution, with most of the map at an angular resolution of 3.4' to 13.7', and a maximum distance resolution of ˜25%. The three-dimensional distribution of dust is determined in a fully probabilistic framework, yielding the uncertainty in the reddening distribution along each line of sight, as well as stellar distances, reddenings and classifications for 800 million stars detected by Pan-STARRS 1. The method developed here compares observed stellar photometry with empirical stellar templates, incorporating prior knowledge about the structure of the Galaxy. I validate the per-star reddening estimates by comparison with reddening estimates for stars with both SDSS photometry and SEGUE spectral classifications, finding per-star agreement to within ˜0.15 mag out to a stellar E( B-V) of 1 mag. I demonstrate the consistency of the resulting reddening estimates with those of two-dimensional emission-based maps of dust reddening. In particular, I find agreement with the Planck tau 353 GHz-based reddening map to within 0.05 mag in E(B-V ) to a depth of 0.5 mag, and explore systematics at reddenings less than E(B-V) ≈ 0.08 mag. I compare the 3D map developed here to two existing three-dimensional dust maps, by Marshall et al. (2006) and Lallement et al. (2013), exploring the strengths and weaknesses of the different 3D mapping methods. The map presented here has better angular resolution than both 3D maps compared, and it has better distance resolution than Marshall et al. (2006) within ˜3 kpc, but shows radial "finger-of-God" features not contained in Lallement et al. (2013). The map can be queried or downloaded at . I expect the three

  14. Results of the 2017 Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign - Part 1 (United States)

    Sada, Pedro; Loera-Gonzalez, Pablo; Olguin, Lorenzo; Saucedo-Morales, Julio C.; Ayala-Gómez, Sandra A.; Garza, Jaime R.


    We report the results for the first semester of the 2017 Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign. Asteroid 1218 Aster (synodic period of 3.1581 ± 0.0002 h and amplitude of 0.35 mag) was well observed and showed slight variations of its lightcurve at the end of the seven week observing window. An uncertain, but long, period of 93.23 ± 0.02 h and amplitude of 0.36 mag were estimated for 2733 Hamina from sparse data. Asteroid 8443 Svecica was also well observed and yielded a period of 20.9905 ± 0.0015 h and amplitude of 0.65 mag. Observations of NEA (143404) 2003 BD44 also resulted in an uncertain and long period of 78.617 ± 0.009 h and amplitude of 0.66 mag with a sparsely covered lightcurve.

  15. Photometry of High-Redshift Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae (United States)

    Haynie, Annastasia


    Out of more than 1100 well-identified Type Ia Supernovae, only roughly 10 of them are at z> 1.5. High redshift supernovae are hard to detect but this is made easier by taking advantage of the effects of gravitational lensing, which magnifies objects in the background field of massive galaxy clusters. Supernova Nebra (z= ~1.8), among others, was discovered during observations taken as part of the RELICS survey, which focused on fields of view that experience strong gravitational lensing effects. SN Nebra, which sits behind galaxy cluster Abell 1763, is magnified and therefore appears closer and easier to see than with HST alone. Studying high-redshift supernovae like SN Nebra is an important step towards creating cosmological models that accurately describe the behavior of dark energy in the early Universe. Recent efforts have been focused on improving photometry and the building and fitting of preliminary light curves.

  16. Near-infrared photometry of HDE 245770 (A 0535 + 26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persi, P.; Ferrari-Toniolo, M.; Spada, G.; Conti, G.; Di Benedetto, P.; Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.


    A derivation is presented of the optical-infrared energy distribution of the OBe star HDE 245770, the optical counterpart of the transient X-ray source A 0535 + 26, using infrared observations made in the period 1976 November - 1977 March and UBV photometry obtained by other workers in 1976 November. An infrared excess is evident with flux density Ssub(ν) varies as νsup(approximately 0.6). The excess is explained in terms of thermal free-free emission from an ionized gaseous envelope around the OBe star. Assuming a matter outflow through the envelope with uniform velocity of a few hundred km/s, a value is obtained for the mass loss rate in HDE 245770 of about 10 -6 solar masses/yr. (author)

  17. Recovering physical properties from narrow-band photometry (United States)

    Schoenell, W.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Benítez, N.; Vale Asari, N.


    Our aim in this work is to answer, using simulated narrow-band photometry data, the following general question: What can we learn about galaxies from these new generation cosmological surveys? For instance, can we estimate stellar age and metallicity distributions? Can we separate star-forming galaxies from AGN? Can we measure emission lines, nebular abundances and extinction? With what precision? To accomplish this, we selected a sample of about 300k galaxies with good S/N from the SDSS and divided them in two groups: 200k objects and a template library of 100k. We corrected the spectra to z = 0 and converted them to filter fluxes. Using a statistical approach, we calculated a Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for each property of each object and the library. Since we have the properties of all the data from the STARLIGHT-SDSS database, we could compare them with the results obtained from summaries of the PDF (mean, median, etc). Our results shows that we retrieve the weighted average of the log of the galaxy age with a good error margin (σ ≈ 0.1 - 0.2 dex), and similarly for the physical properties such as mass-to-light ratio, mean stellar metallicity, etc. Furthermore, our main result is that we can derive emission line intensities and ratios with similar precision. This makes this method unique in comparison to the other methods on the market to analyze photometry data and shows that, from the point of view of galaxy studies, future photometric surveys will be much more useful than anticipated.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and spectroscopy of KELT-11 (Pepper+, 2017) (United States)

    Pepper, J.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Collins, K. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Fulton, B. J.; Howard, A. W.; Beatty, T. G.; Stassun, K. G.; Isaacson, H.; Colon, K. D.; Lund, M. B.; Kuhn, R. B.; Siverd, R. J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Tan, T. G.; Curtis, I.; Stockdale, C.; Mawet, D.; Bottom, M.; James, D.; Zhou, G.; Bayliss, D.; Cargile, P.; Bieryla, A.; Penev, K.; Latham, D. W.; Labadie-Bartz, J.; Kielkopf, J.; Eastman, J. D.; Oberst, T. E.; Jensen, E. L. N.; Nelson, P.; Sliski, D. H.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; McCrady, N.; Wright, J. T.; Relles, H. M.; Stevens, D. J.; Joner, M. D.; Hintz, E.


    KELT-11b is located in the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT)-South field 23, which is centered at J2000 α=10h43m48s, δ=-20°00'00''. This field was monitored from UT 2010 March 12 to UT 2014 July 9, resulting in 3910 images after post-processing and removal of bad images. We obtained follow-up time-series photometry of KELT-11b. We obtained nine full or partial transits in multiple bands between 2015 January and 2016 February. We observed an ingress of KELT-11b from the Westminster College Observatory (WCO), PA, on UT 2015 January 1 in the I filter. The observations employed a 0.35m f/11 Celestron C14 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and SBIG STL-6303E CCD with a 3k*2k array of 9μm pixels, yielding a 24'*16' field of view and 1.4''/pixel image scale at 3*3 pixel binning. We observed a partial transit of KELT-11b using an 0.6m RCOS telescope at the Moore Observatory (MORC), operated by the University of Louisville. The telescope has an Apogee U16M 4K*4K CCD, giving a 26'*26' field of view and 0.39''/pixel. We observed the transit on UT 2015 February 08 in alternating Sloan g and i filters from before the ingress and past the mid-transit. We observed a transit of KELT-11b in the Sloan i-band using one of the Miniature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) Project telescopes (Swift et al. 2015JATIS...1b7002S) on the night of UT 2015 February 08. MINERVA used four 0.7m PlaneWave CDK-700 telescopes that are located on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory. While the four telescopes are normally used to feed a single spectrograph to discover and characterize exoplanets through radial velocity measurements, for the KELT-11 observations, we used a single MINERVA telescope in its photometric imaging mode. That telescope had an Andor iKON-L 2048*2048 camera, which gave a field of view of 20.9'*20.9' and a plate scale of 0.6''/pixel. The camera has a 2048*2048 back-illuminated deep depletion sensor with fringe suppression. Due to the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Daniel J.; Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Gwyn, Stephen D. J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7 (Canada)


    This paper describes a new catalog that supplements the existing DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey photometric and spectroscopic catalogs with ugriz photometry from two other surveys: the Canada-France-Hawaii Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Each catalog is cross-matched by position on the sky in order to assign ugriz photometry to objects in the DEEP2 catalogs. We have recalibrated the CFHTLS photometry where it overlaps DEEP2 in order to provide a more uniform data set. We have also used this improved photometry to predict DEEP2 BRI photometry in regions where only poorer measurements were available previously. In addition, we have included improved astrometry tied to SDSS rather than USNO-A2.0 for all DEEP2 objects. In total this catalog contains {approx}27, 000 objects with full ugriz photometry as well as robust spectroscopic redshift measurements, 64% of which have r > 23. By combining the secure and accurate redshifts of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey with ugriz photometry, we have created a catalog that can be used as an excellent testbed for future photo-z studies, including tests of algorithms for surveys such as LSST and DES.

  20. Documentation to the 2015-16 Common Core of Data (CCD) Universe Files. NCES 2017-074 (United States)

    Glander, Mark


    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is a national statistical program that collects and compiles administrative data from SEAs covering the universe of all public elementary and secondary schools and school districts in the United States. The first CCD collection was for SY 1986-87. The predecessor to CCD was the Elementary and Secondary General…

  1. Mosaic CCD method: A new technique for observing dynamics of cometary magnetospheres (United States)

    Saito, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Kozuba, Y.; Okamura, S.; Konno, I.; Hamabe, M.; Aoki, T.; Minami, S.; Isobe, S.


    On April 29, 1990, the plasma tail of Comet Austin was observed with a CCD camera on the 105-cm Schmidt telescope at the Kiso Observatory of the University of Tokyo. The area of the CCD used in this observation is only about 1 sq cm. When this CCD is used on the 105-cm Schmidt telescope at the Kiso Observatory, the area corresponds to a narrow square view of 12 ft x 12 ft. By comparison with the photograph of Comet Austin taken by Numazawa (personal communication) on the same night, we see that only a small part of the plasma tail can be photographed at one time with the CCD. However, by shifting the view on the CCD after each exposure, we succeeded in imaging the entire length of the cometary magnetosphere of 1.6 x 106 km. This new technique is called 'the mosaic CCD method'. In order to study the dynamics of cometary plasma tails, seven frames of the comet from the head to the tail region were twice imaged with the mosaic CCD method and two sets of images were obtained. Six microstructures, including arcade structures, were identified in both the images. Sketches of the plasma tail including microstructures are included.

  2. Upgrade of ESO's FIERA CCD Controller and PULPO Subsystem (United States)

    Reyes-Moreno, J.; Geimer, C.; Balestra, A.; Haddad, N.

    An overview of FIERA is presented with emphasis on its recent upgrade to PCI. The PCI board hosts two DSPs, one for real time control of the camera and another for on-the-fly processing of the incoming video data. In addition, the board is able to make DMA transfers, to synchronize to other boards alike, to be synchronized by a TIM bus and to control PULPO via RS232. The design is based on the IOP480 chip from PLX, for which we have developed a device driver for both Solaris and Linux. One computer is able to host more than one board and therefore can control an array of FIERA detector electronics. PULPO is a multifunctional subsystem widely used at ESO for the housekeeping of CCD cryostat heads and for shutter control. The upgrade of PULPO is based on an embedded PC running Linux. The upgraded PULPO is able to handle 29 temperature sensors, control 8 heaters and one shutter, read out one vacuum sensor and log any combination of parameters.

  3. CCD imaging technology and the war on crime (United States)

    McNeill, Glenn E.


    Linear array based CCD technology has been successfully used in the development of an Automatic Currency Reader/Comparator (ACR/C) system. The ACR/C system is designed to provide a method for tracking US currency in the organized crime and drug trafficking environments where large amounts of cash are involved in illegal transactions and money laundering activities. United States currency notes can be uniquely identified by the combination of the denomination serial number and series year. The ACR/C system processes notes at five notes per second using a custom transport a stationary linear array and optical character recognition (OCR) techniques to make such identifications. In this way large sums of money can be " marked" (using the system to read and store their identifiers) and then circulated within various crime networks. The system can later be used to read and compare confiscated notes to the known sets of identifiers from the " marked" set to document a trail of criminal activities. With the ACR/C law enforcement agencies can efficiently identify currency without actually marking it. This provides an undetectable means for making each note individually traceable and facilitates record keeping for providing evidence in a court of law. In addition when multiple systems are used in conjunction with a central data base the system can be used to track currency geographically. 1.

  4. A Pan-STARRS1-based recalibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Schlafly, E.; Green, G.


    We present a recalibration of the SDSS DR9 photometry with new flat fields and zero points derived from Pan-STARRS. Using PSF photometry of 60 million stars with 16 < r < 20, we obtain SDSS flat-field and amplifier gain corrections stable to 3 millimagnitudes (mmag) in g,r,i,z bands and 15 mmag in u band. We also identify transient non-photometric periods in SDSS ("contrails") based on photometric deviations co-temporal in SDSS bands. The recalibrated SDSS and PS1 photometry agree with systematics at the 7 mmag level.

  5. High-Speed and Wide-Field Photometry with TORTORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Greco


    Full Text Available We present the photometric analysis of the extended sky fields observed by the TORTORA optical monitoring system. The technology involved in the TORTORA camera is based on the use of a fast TV-CCD matrix with an image intensifier. This approach can both significantly reduce the readout noise and shorten the focal length following to monitor relatively large sky regions with high temporal resolution and adequate detection limit. The performance of the system has been tested using the relative magnitudes of standard stars by means of long image sequences collected at different airmasses and at various intensities of the moon illumination. As expected from the previous laboratory measurements, artifact sources are negligible and do not affect the photometric results. The following analysis is based on a large sample of images acquired by the TORTORA instrument since July 2006.

  6. Photometry and position observations of Saturnian satellites during their mutual eclipses and occultations in 1995 performed at the Observatories in Russia and Kazakhstan (United States)

    Emelianov, N. V.; Irsmambetova, T. R.; Kiseleva, T. P.; Tejfel, V. G.; Vashkovjak, S. N.; Glushkova, E. A.; Kornilov, V. G.; Charitonova, G. A.


    Photometry of mutual eclipses and occultations of planetary satellites is a powerful technique to explore these bodies. Observations of these rare events are a source of much precise information. In 1995 the Celestial Mechanics Department of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute (SAI) has organized the observations of mutual eclipses and occultations of Saturnian satellites on a number of observatories of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) -- the former Soviet Union (FSU). The ephemerides of satellites and their observing conditions have been computed beforehand and mailed these data to many observatories of CIS. The Crimean laboratory (CL) of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute, two observatories of the Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan (FAI AS RK) in Almaty, and the Main Astronomical Observatory of Russian Academy of Sciences (MAO RAS) in Pulkovo took part in observations. A photoelectric photometer was used in CL of SAI, a CCD was employed to secure satellite images in FAI AS RK, and both CCD and photographic plates were used in MAO RAS. As a result of this observing campaign, photometric data and light curves were obtained for three mutual eclipses and occultations of Saturnian satellites. A number of position observations made allowed us to measure relative coordinates of satellites. Astrometric information has already been derived from photometric data. The mutual apparent positions of satellites were calculated with an accuracy of 0farcs 002 - 0farcs 003. In this paper observations are described and the parameters characterizing the observed phenomena are given. The results of observations are available in electronic form. This work supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects Nos. 95-02-05042, 97-02-16551. Results of observations available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  7. Discriminação de variedades de citros em imagens CCD/CBERS-2 Discrimination of citrus varieties using CCD/CBERS-2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Del'Arco Sanches


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar as imagens CCD/CBERS-2 quanto à possibilidade de discriminarem variedades de citros. A área de estudo localiza-se em Itirapina (SP e, para este estudo, foram utilizadas imagens CCD de três datas (30/05/2004, 16/08/2004 e 11/09/2004. Um modelo que integra os elementos componentes da cena citrícola sensoriada é proposto com o objetivo de explicar a variabilidade das respostas das parcelas de citros em imagens orbitais do tipo CCD/CBERS-2. Foram feitas classificações pelos algoritmos Isoseg e Maxver e, de acordo com o índice kappa, concluiu-se que é possível obterem-se exatidões qualificadas como muito boas, sendo que as melhores classificações foram conseguidas com imagens da estação seca.This paper was aimed at evaluating the possibility of discriminating citrus varieties in CCD imageries from CBERS-2 satellite ("China-Brazil Earth Resouces Satellite". The study area is located in Itirapina, São Paulo State. For this study, three CCD images from 2004 were acquired (May 30, August 16, and September 11. In order to acquire a better understanding and for explaining the variability of the spectral behavior of the citrus areas in orbital images (like as the CCD/CBERS-2 images a model that integrates the elements of the citrus scene is proposed and discussed. The images were classified by Isoseg and MaxVer classifiers. According to kappa index, it was possible to obtain classifications qualified as 'very good'. The best results were obtained with the images from the dry season.

  8. Three-colour photometry of four suspected double-mode cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, C.D.; Andrews, P.J.


    UBV photometry of the cepheids DY Car, EY Car, FZ Car and TZ Mus covering several periods show no evidence for the variable light curves to be expected if they were in fact double-mode cepheids. (author)

  9. Indium antimonide infrared CCD linear imaging arrays with on-chip preprocessing (United States)

    Thom, R. D.; Koch, T. L.; Parrish, W. J.


    A description is presented of the fabrication of a new InSb CCD chip based on an improved process which eliminates the limitations inherent with the earlier techniques. This process includes planar junction formation and an aluminum and SiO2 material system which is amenable to state-of-the-art chemical and plasma delineation techniques. Further, the new chip integrates for the first time in monolithic format InSb IR detectors with an InSb CCD. The reported experiments represent the first operation of an InSb infrared CCD array. In addition to fuller characterization of the 20-element charge-coupled infrared imaging device, several factors which influence device performance are currently being addressed. These include surface state density, the CCD output circuit, and storage time (dark current).

  10. arXiv Single-electron and single-photon sensitivity with a silicon Skipper CCD

    CERN Document Server

    Tiffenberg, Javier; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Essig, Rouven; Guardincerri, Yann; Holland, Steve; Volansky, Tomer; Yu, Tien-Tien


    We have developed ultralow-noise electronics in combination with repetitive, nondestructive readout of a thick, fully depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) to achieve an unprecedented noise level of 0.068  e- rms/pixel. This is the first time that discrete subelectron readout noise has been achieved reproducible over millions of pixels on a stable, large-area detector. This enables the contemporaneous, discrete, and quantized measurement of charge in pixels, irrespective of whether they contain zero electrons or thousands of electrons. Thus, the resulting CCD detector is an ultra-sensitive calorimeter. It is also capable of counting single photons in the optical and near-infrared regime. Implementing this innovative non-destructive readout system has a negligible impact on CCD design and fabrication, and there are nearly immediate scientific applications. As a particle detector, this CCD will have unprecedented sensitivity to low-mass dark matter particles and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, while ...

  11. The interaction of DNA gyrase with the bacterial toxin CcdB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Howells, A J; Maxwell, A


    CcdB is a bacterial toxin that targets DNA gyrase. Analysis of the interaction of CcdB with gyrase reveals two distinct complexes. An initial complex (alpha) is formed by direct interaction between GyrA and CcdB; this complex can be detected by affinity column and gel-shift analysis, and has...... of this initial complex with ATP in the presence of GyrB and DNA slowly converts it to a second complex (beta), which has a lower rate of ATP hydrolysis and is unable to catalyse supercoiling. The efficiency of formation of this inactive complex is dependent on the concentrations of ATP and CcdB. We suggest...

  12. Software design of control system of CCD side-scatter lidar (United States)

    Kuang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Dong; Deng, Qian; Zhang, Zhanye; Wang, Zhenzhu; Yu, Siqi; Tao, Zongming; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian


    Because of the existence of blind zone and transition zone, the application of backscattering lidar in near-ground is limited. The side-scatter lidar equipped with the Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) can separate the transmitting and receiving devices to avoid the impact of the geometric factors which is exited in the backscattering lidar and, detect the more precise near-ground aerosol signals continuously. Theories of CCD side-scatter lidar and the design of control system are introduced. The visible control of laser and CCD and automatic data processing method of the side-scatter lidar are developed by using the software of Visual C #. The results which are compared with the calibration of the atmospheric aerosol lidar data show that signals from the CCD side- scatter lidar are convincible.

  13. Development of a Portable 3CCD Camera System for Multispectral Imaging of Biological Samples


    Lee, Hoyoung; Park, Soo Hyun; Noh, Sang Ha; Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Moon S.


    Recent studies have suggested the need for imaging devices capable of multispectral imaging beyond the visible region, to allow for quality and safety evaluations of agricultural commodities. Conventional multispectral imaging devices lack flexibility in spectral waveband selectivity for such applications. In this paper, a recently developed portable 3CCD camera with significant improvements over existing imaging devices is presented. A beam-splitter prism assembly for 3CCD was designed to ac...

  14. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD and bee age impact honey bee pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis vanEngelsdorp

    Full Text Available Honey bee (Apis mellifera colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies. We identified a set of pathological physical characteristics that occurred at different rates in CCD diagnosed colonies prior to their collapse: rectum distension, Malpighian tubule iridescence, fecal matter consistency, rectal enteroliths (hard concretions, and venom sac color. The multiple differences in rectum symptomology in bees from CCD apiaries and colonies suggest effected bees had trouble regulating water. To ensure that pathologies we found associated with CCD were indeed pathologies and not due to normal changes in physical appearances that occur as an adult bee ages (CCD colonies are assumed to be composed mostly of young bees, we documented the changes in bees of different ages taken from healthy colonies. We found that young bees had much greater incidences of white nodules than older cohorts. Prevalent in newly-emerged bees, these white nodules or cellular encapsulations indicate an active immune response. Comparing the two sets of characteristics, we determined a subset of pathologies that reliably predict CCD status rather than bee age (fecal matter consistency, rectal distension size, rectal enteroliths and Malpighian tubule iridescence and that may serve as biomarkers for colony health. In addition, these pathologies suggest that CCD bees are experiencing disrupted excretory physiology. Our identification of these symptoms is an important first step in understanding the physiological pathways that underlie CCD and

  15. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and bee age impact honey bee pathophysiology. (United States)

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Traynor, Kirsten S; Andree, Michael; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chen, Yanping; Saegerman, Claude; Cox-Foster, Diana L


    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies. We identified a set of pathological physical characteristics that occurred at different rates in CCD diagnosed colonies prior to their collapse: rectum distension, Malpighian tubule iridescence, fecal matter consistency, rectal enteroliths (hard concretions), and venom sac color. The multiple differences in rectum symptomology in bees from CCD apiaries and colonies suggest effected bees had trouble regulating water. To ensure that pathologies we found associated with CCD were indeed pathologies and not due to normal changes in physical appearances that occur as an adult bee ages (CCD colonies are assumed to be composed mostly of young bees), we documented the changes in bees of different ages taken from healthy colonies. We found that young bees had much greater incidences of white nodules than older cohorts. Prevalent in newly-emerged bees, these white nodules or cellular encapsulations indicate an active immune response. Comparing the two sets of characteristics, we determined a subset of pathologies that reliably predict CCD status rather than bee age (fecal matter consistency, rectal distension size, rectal enteroliths and Malpighian tubule iridescence) and that may serve as biomarkers for colony health. In addition, these pathologies suggest that CCD bees are experiencing disrupted excretory physiology. Our identification of these symptoms is an important first step in understanding the physiological pathways that underlie CCD and factors

  16. A Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Oh


    Full Text Available We present a software which we developed for the multi-purpose CCD camera. This software can be used on the all 3 types of CCD - KAF-0401E (768×512, KAF-1602E (15367times;1024, KAF-3200E (2184×1472 made in KODAK Co.. For the efficient CCD camera control, the software is operated with two independent processes of the CCD control program and the temperature/shutter operation program. This software is designed to fully automatic operation as well as manually operation under LINUX system, and is controled by LINUX user signal procedure. We plan to use this software for all sky survey system and also night sky monitoring and sky observation. As our results, the read-out time of each CCD are about 15sec, 64sec, 134sec for KAF-0401E, KAF-1602E, KAF-3200E., because these time are limited by the data transmission speed of parallel port. For larger format CCD, the data transmission is required more high speed. we are considering this control software to one using USB port for high speed data transmission.

  17. Design of area array CCD image acquisition and display system based on FPGA (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Ning; Li, Tianting; Pan, Yue; Dai, Yuming


    With the development of science and technology, CCD(Charge-coupled Device) has been widely applied in various fields and plays an important role in the modern sensing system, therefore researching a real-time image acquisition and display plan based on CCD device has great significance. This paper introduces an image data acquisition and display system of area array CCD based on FPGA. Several key technical challenges and problems of the system have also been analyzed and followed solutions put forward .The FPGA works as the core processing unit in the system that controls the integral time sequence .The ICX285AL area array CCD image sensor produced by SONY Corporation has been used in the system. The FPGA works to complete the driver of the area array CCD, then analog front end (AFE) processes the signal of the CCD image, including amplification, filtering, noise elimination, CDS correlation double sampling, etc. AD9945 produced by ADI Corporation to convert analog signal to digital signal. Developed Camera Link high-speed data transmission circuit, and completed the PC-end software design of the image acquisition, and realized the real-time display of images. The result through practical testing indicates that the system in the image acquisition and control is stable and reliable, and the indicators meet the actual project requirements.

  18. Integrated radar-photometry sensor based on constrained optical flow (United States)

    Fablet, Youenn; Agam, Gady; Cohen, Paul


    Robotic teleoperation is a major research area with numerous applications. Efficient teleoperation, however, greatly depends on the provided sensory information. In this paper, an integrated radar- photometry sensor is presented. The developed sensor relies on the strengths of the two main modalties: robust radar-based range data, and high resolution dynamic photometric imaging. While radar data has low resolution and depth from motion in photometric images is susceptible to poor visibility conditions, the integrated sensor compensates for the flaws of the individual components. The integration of the two modalities is achieved by us ing the radar based range data in order to constrain the optical flow estimation, and fusing the resulting depth maps. The optical flow computation is constrained by a model flow field based upon the radar data, by using a rigidity constraint, and by incorporating edge information into the optical flow estimation. The data fusion is based upon a confidence estimation of the image based depth computation. Results with simulated data demonstrate the good potential of the approach.

  19. Photometry of some more neglected bright cataclysmic variables and candidates (United States)

    Bruch, Albert


    As part of an effort to better characterize bright cataclysmic variables (CVs) and related systems which have received little attention in the past light curves of four systems (V504 Cen, KT Eri, Ret 1 and CTCV 2056-3014) are analyzed. For some of these stars no time resolved photometry has been published previously. While flickering is observed in all systems except Ret 1, it is particularly strong in V504 Cen and CTCV 2056-3014. In the latter star, a previously observed 15.4 m period, leading to its tentative classification as an intermediate polar, is probably spurious. Variations on time scales of hundredths of days observed in the pre-outburst light curve of the classical nova KT Eri continue after the outburst but appear not to be strictly periodic. Furthermore, the long term post-outburst light curve exhibits modulations with quasi-periods of quite different length. Thus, these variations cannot be due to aspect related variations in a system with a giant component similar to some recurrent novae. Instead, the system possibly exhibits variations with a period of 0.1952 d which may be orbital. However, any such conclusion still requires confirmation. The absence of flickering in Ret 1 indicates that the system probably does not contain an accretion disk. Instead, the observation of slow variations supports a previous suspicion of low amplitude variability with a period >12 h.

  20. macula: Rotational modulations in the photometry of spotted stars (United States)

    Kipping, David M.


    Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.

  1. Photographic surface photometry of NGC 2855 and NGC 6771 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M. de F.S.


    Photographic surface photometry in the BV system was carried out two Southern SO's galaxies, NGC 2855 and NGC 6771. B and V isophote maps were obtained as well as geometric and integrated parameters as position angles, inclination, diameters, magnitudes and integrated colors. Each luminosity profile was decomposed into bulge and disk contributions, each component being fitted to convenient laws. For NGC 2855 de Vaucouleurs law described well the bulge whereas the disk showed an exponential distribution. For NGC 6771 the barred nuclear bulge as well as the disk was best fitted by exponential laws. Additional luminosity components due to an inner fragmented ring were identified in NGC 2855 and due to both a quite prominent lens and well defined ring in NGC 6771. In this galaxy the minor axis, oriented almost edge-on, present clues of another luminosity component besides the bulge and the thin disk. For both galaxies the disk central surface brightness was found to be fainter than the standard value observed by Freeman. The fitting parameters were used to determine the bulge-to-disk luminosity ratios as well as their contribution to total luminosity. The domination by the bulge light over the disk light was clear in both galaxies. From the B and V luminosity profile the color gradients were estimated. For both objects the local color indices decreased from inner to outer regions, this effect being relatively smooth in NGC 2855 and more prominent in NGC 6771 [pt

  2. Light Curves and Low Phase Angle Photometry for Jupiter Trojans. (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph P.; Henry, Todd J.; Scott, Nicholas J.; French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert D.


    We propose to make light curve observations in both the V and I filters as well as phase curve observations of the 26 brightest Jupiter Trojans, evenly selected from the L4 (Greek) and L5 (Trojan) Lagrangian camps. We are observing these objects as part of a comprehensive effort including 113 Greeks and Trojans using the CTIO 1.0m. With these light curve data we will update previously calculated variation amplitudes and look for color variations that can give details about shapes, orientations, surface features, and ages. None of these targets have published simultaneous color information. The phase information can provide insight into surface detail and composition. These data will also enable calibration of our ongoing photometry program that will reveal the possible origins of the two camps, which remain surprisingly obscure. Furthermore, the light curves are necessary to produce proper phase curves by allowing for the removal of any changes in brightness due to rotation. The proposed observations will comprise a significant portion of the PI's PhD thesis.

  3. Combined Photometry and Spectroscopy of Globular Cluster Tidal Streams (United States)

    Powell, W. L.; Wilhelm, R.; McWilliam, A.; Westfall, A.; Lauchner, A.


    Globular cluster tidal streams are of interest for what they can tell us of the dynamical evolution of the clusters and our Galaxy. Recent studies have used photometric and statistical subtraction methods to attempt to separate potential streams from the field stars that contaminate the samples. We chose instead to use photometry to select blue stars that match the horizontal branch of the clusters and make spectroscopic observations of these candidates to determine their metallicity and radial velocities. Combining these results with the photometric data offers a better picture of the structure and formation of tidal streams. We present preliminary photometric and spectroscopic results for the globular clusters and surrounding fields of NGC 6934, M 10, M 92 and Pal 13. Data obtained at McDonald Observatory, Kitt Peak, and Las Campanas Observatory. WLP acknowledges the support of a Sigma Xi Grant-In-Aid of research, and the Texas Space Grant Consortium Graduate Fellowship. RW acknowledges the support of a AAS Small Research Grant.

  4. Síntese, caracterização e estudos de interação de um análogo da antitoxina CcdA empregando fluorescência no estado estacionário Synthesis, characterization and interaction studies of an analog of CcdA antitoxin by steady state fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aparecida Cotrim


    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems contribute to plasmid stability by a mechanism called post-segregational killing. The ccd was the first TA system to be discovered with CcdB being the toxin and CcdA the antitoxin. CcdA, an 8.3 kDa protein, interacts with CcdB (11.7 kDa, preventing the cytotoxic activity of CcdB on the DNA gyrase. As an approach to understanding this interaction, CcdA41, a polypeptide derived from CcdA, was synthesized by solid-phase methodology and its interaction with CcdB was analyzed by steady state fluorescence. CcdA41 formed a stable complex with CcdBET2, a peptide based on CcdB, the more recently described bacterial topoisomerase inhibitor.

  5. Chromatic Modulator for a High-Resolution CCD or APS (United States)

    Hartley, Frank; Hull, Anthony


    A chromatic modulator has been proposed to enable the separate detection of the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of the same scene by a single charge-coupled device (CCD), active-pixel sensor (APS), or similar electronic image detector. Traditionally, the RGB color-separation problem in an electronic camera has been solved by use of either (1) fixed color filters over three separate image detectors; (2) a filter wheel that repeatedly imposes a red, then a green, then a blue filter over a single image detector; or (3) different fixed color filters over adjacent pixels. The use of separate image detectors necessitates precise registration of the detectors and the use of complicated optics; filter wheels are expensive and add considerably to the bulk of the camera; and fixed pixelated color filters reduce spatial resolution and introduce color-aliasing effects. The proposed chromatic modulator would not exhibit any of these shortcomings. The proposed chromatic modulator would be an electromechanical device fabricated by micromachining. It would include a filter having a spatially periodic pattern of RGB strips at a pitch equal to that of the pixels of the image detector. The filter would be placed in front of the image detector, supported at its periphery by a spring suspension and electrostatic comb drive. The spring suspension would bias the filter toward a middle position in which each filter strip would be registered with a row of pixels of the image detector. Hard stops would limit the excursion of the spring suspension to precisely one pixel row above and one pixel row below the middle position. In operation, the electrostatic comb drive would be actuated to repeatedly snap the filter to the upper extreme, middle, and lower extreme positions. This action would repeatedly place a succession of the differently colored filter strips in front of each pixel of the image detector. To simplify the processing, it would be desirable to encode information on

  6. pnCCD for photon detection from near-infrared to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Holl, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Strueder, Lothar


    A pnCCD is a special type of charge-coupled device developed for spectroscopy and imaging of X-rays with high time resolution and quantum efficiency. Its most famous application is the operation on the XMM-Newton satellite, an X-ray astronomy mission that was launched by the European space agency in 1999. The excellent performance of the focal plane camera has been maintained for more than 6 years in orbit. The energy resolution in particular has shown hardly any degradation since launch. In order to satisfy the requirements of future X-ray astronomy missions as well as those of ground-based experiments, a new type of pnCCD has been developed. This 'frame-store pnCCD' shows an enhanced performance compared to the XMM-Newton type of pnCCD. Now, more options in device design and operation are available to tailor the detector to its respective application. Part of this concept is a programmable analog signal processor, which has been developed for the readout of the CCD signals. The electronic noise of the new detector has a value of only 2 electrons equivalent noise charge (ENC), which is less than half of the figure achieved for the XMM-Newton-type pnCCD. The energy resolution for the Mn-K α line at 5.9 keV is approximately 130 eV FWHM. We have close to 100% quantum efficiency for both low- and high-energy photon detection (e.g. the C-K line at 277 eV, and the Ge-K α line at 10 keV, respectively). Very high frame rates of 1000 images/s have been achieved due to the ultra-fast readout accomplished by the parallel architecture of the pnCCD and the analog signal processor. Excellent spectroscopic performance is shown even at the relatively high operating temperature of -25 deg. C that can be achieved by a Peltier cooler. The applications of the low-noise and fast pnCCD detector are not limited to the detection of X-rays. With an anti-reflective coating deposited on the photon entrance window, we achieve high quantum efficiency also for near-infrared and optical

  7. Aperture Photometry Tool Versus SExtractor for Noncrowded Fields (United States)

    Laher, Russ R.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Masci, Frank J.; Fowler, John W.; Grillmair, Carl; Surace, Jason; Mattingly, Sean; Jackson, Ed; Hacopeans, Eugean; Hamam, Nouhad; Groom, Steve; Teplitz, Harry; Mi, Wei; Helou, George; van Eyken, Julian C.; Law, Nicholas M.; Dekany, Richard G.; Rahmer, Gustavo; Hale, David; Smith, Roger; Quimby, Robert M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Zolkower, Jeff; Velur, Viswa; Walters, Richard; Henning, John; Bui, Khahn; McKenna, Dan; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.


    Outputs from new software program Aperture Photometry Tool (APT) are compared with similar outputs from SExtractor for sources extracted from R-band optical images acquired by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), infrared mosaics constructed from Spitzer Space Telescope images, and a processed visible/near-infrared image from the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA). Two large samples from the PTF images are studied, each containing around 3 × 103 sources from noncrowded fields. The median values of source-intensity relative percentage differences between the two software programs, computed separately for two PTF samples, are +0.13% and +0.17%, with corresponding statistical dispersions of 1.43% and 1.84%, respectively. For the Spitzer mosaics, a similar large sample of extracted sources for each of channels 1-4 of Spitzer’s Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) are analyzed with two different sky annulus sizes, and we find that the median and modal values of source-intensity relative percentage differences between the two software programs are between -0.5% and +2.0%, and the corresponding statistical dispersions range from 1.4 to 6.7%, depending on the Spitzer IRAC channel and sky annulus. The results for the HLA image are mixed, as might be expected for a moderately crowded field. The comparisons for the three different kinds of images show that there is generally excellent agreement between APT and SExtractor. Differences in source-intensity uncertainty estimates for the PTF images amount to less than 3% for the PTF sources, and these are potentially caused by SExtractor’s omission of the sky background uncertainty term in the formula for source-intensity uncertainty, as well as differing methods of sky background estimation.

  8. UBVRI photometry of variable red dwarf emission objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, D.H.


    A review of the history and nature of small scale variability of red dwarf emission line stars is presented. This discussion is accompanied by a description of equipment developed for the purpose of expediting data acquisition for photoelectric photometry of faint stars. Data obtained at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Lowell Observatory, and the Rosemary Hill Observatory of the University of Florida are tabulated and analyzed to determine their implications with respect to the known variability of four stars. BY Draconis, GT Pegasus, FF Andromeda, and LP101-15 (an eclipsing binary) are studied. LP101-15 and BY Draconis were observed on the Johnson UBVRI system at Kitt Peak while BY Draconis, GT Pegasus, and FF Andromeda were observed on the Johnson RI system at the Lowell Observatory. UBV''R'' observations were carried out on all four objects at Rosemary Hill Observatory since the spring of 1972. Analysis of the data centers on discussions relative to the proposed ''spot model'' to account for the observed variations in V, R, B--V, V--R, and R--I. After allowance is made for the influence of flare activity (found to be very important), the spot model appears to be adequate in its predictions when compared with observations. A period of 0.63398 day is supported for LP101-15, and a possible secondary minimum is proposed (this secondary eclipse would be less than 0.05 magnitude deep in V), assuming the above period to be correct. This star also appears to exhibit small scale variability with a period of 0.63398 day implying synchronous rotation and revolution. Flare activity is seen to be very important on this star as well. Continued observation of these stars and similar objects is suggested, since further data are essential for complete understanding of their behavior. (U.S.)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukugita, Masataka; Yasuda, Naoki; Doi, Mamoru; Gunn, James E.; York, Donald G.


    We study the photometric properties of stars in the data archive of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the prime aim being to understand the photometric calibration over the entire data set. It is confirmed that the photometric calibration of point sources is accurately on the system defined by the SDSS standard stars. We have also confirmed that the photometric synthesis of the SDSS spectrophotometric data gives broadband fluxes that agree with the photometry with errors of no more than 0.04 mag and little systematic tilt with wavelength. This verifies that the response functions of the 2.5 m telescope system are well characterized. We locate stars in the SDSS photometric system, so that stars can roughly be classified into spectral classes from the color information. We show how metallicity and surface gravity affect colors, and that stars contained in the SDSS general catalog, plotted in color space, show a distribution that matches well with what is anticipated from the variations of metallicity and surface gravity. The color-color plots are perfectly consistent among the three samples-stars in the SDSS general catalog, SDSS standard stars, and spectrophotometric stars of Gunn and Stryker-especially when some considerations are taken into account of the differences (primarily metallicity) of the samples. We show that the g - r-inverse temperature relation is tight and can be used as a good estimator of the effective temperature of stars over a fairly wide range of effective temperatures. We also confirm that the colors of G2V stars in the SDSS photometric system match well with the Sun.

  10. High-precision ground-based photometry of exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mooij Ernst J.W.


    Full Text Available High-precision photometry of transiting exoplanet systems has contributed significantly to our understanding of the properties of their atmospheres. The best targets are the bright exoplanet systems, for which the high number of photons allow very high signal-to-noise ratios. Most of the current instruments are not optimised for these high-precision measurements, either they have a large read-out overhead to reduce the readnoise and/or their field-of-view is limited, preventing simultaneous observations of both the target and a reference star. Recently we have proposed a new wide-field imager for the Observatoir de Mont-Megantic optimised for these bright systems (PI: Jayawardhana. The instruments has a dual beam design and a field-of-view of 17' by 17'. The cameras have a read-out time of 2 seconds, significantly reducing read-out overheads. Over the past years we have obtained significant experience with how to reach the high precision required for the characterisation of exoplanet atmospheres. Based on our experience we provide the following advice: Get the best calibrations possible. In the case of bad weather, characterise the instrument (e.g. non-linearity, dome flats, bias level, this is vital for better understanding of the science data. Observe the target for as long as possible, the out-of-transit baseline is as important as the transit/eclipse itself. A short baseline can lead to improperly corrected systematic and mis-estimation of the red-noise. Keep everything (e.g. position on detector, exposure time as stable as possible. Take care that the defocus is not too strong. For a large defocus, the contribution of the total flux from the sky-background in the aperture could well exceed that of the target, resulting in very strict requirements on the precision at which the background is measured.

  11. Precision Photometry to Study the Nature of Dark Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Schubnell, Michael


    Over the past decade scientists have collected convincing evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, leading to the conclusion that the content of our universe is dominated by a mysterious 'dark energy'. The fact that present theory cannot account for the dark energy has made the determination of the nature of dark energy central to the field of high energy physics. It is expected that nothing short of a revolution in our understanding of the fundamental laws of physics is required to fully understand the accelerating universe. Discovering the nature of dark energy is a very difficult task, and requires experiments that employ a combination of different observational techniques, such as type-Ia supernovae, gravitational weak lensing surveys, galaxy and galaxy cluster surveys, and baryon acoustic oscillations. A critical component of any approach to understanding the nature of dark energy is precision photometry. This report addresses just that. Most dark energy missions will require photometric calibration over a wide range of intensities using standardized stars and internal reference sources. All of the techniques proposed for these missions rely on a complete understanding of the linearity of the detectors. The technical report focuses on the investigation and characterization of 'reciprocity failure', a newly discovered count-rate dependent nonlinearity in the NICMOS cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope. In order to quantify reciprocity failure for modern astronomical detectors, we built a dedicated reciprocity test setup that produced a known amount of light on a detector, and to measured its response as a function of light intensity and wavelength.

  12. DustPedia: Multiwavelength photometry and imagery of 875 nearby galaxies in 42 ultraviolet-microwave bands (United States)

    Clark, C. J. R.; Verstocken, S.; Bianchi, S.; Fritz, J.; Viaene, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Baes, M.; Casasola, V.; Cassara, L. P.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; De Vis, P.; Evans, R.; Galametz, M.; Jones, A. P.; Lianou, S.; Madden, S.; Mosenkov, A. V.; Xilouris, M.


    Aims: The DustPedia project is capitalising on the legacy of the Herschel Space Observatory, using cutting-edge modelling techniques to study dust in the 875 DustPedia galaxies - representing the vast majority of extended galaxies within 3000 km s-1 that were observed by Herschel. This work requires a database of multiwavelength imagery and photometry that greatly exceeds the scope (in terms of wavelength coverage and number of galaxies) of any previous local-Universe survey. Methods: We constructed a database containing our own custom Herschel reductions, along with standardised archival observations from GALEX, SDSS, DSS, 2MASS, WISE, Spitzer, and Planck. Using these data, we performed consistent aperture-matched photometry, which we combined with external supplementary photometry from IRAS and Planck. Results: We present our multiwavelength imagery and photometry across 42 UV-microwave bands for the 875 DustPedia galaxies. Our aperture-matched photometry, combined with the external supplementary photometry, represents a total of 21 857 photometric measurements. A typical DustPedia galaxy has multiwavelength photometry spanning 25 bands. We also present the Comprehensive & Adaptable Aperture Photometry Routine (CAAPR), the pipeline we developed to carry out our aperture-matched photometry. CAAPR is designed to produce consistent photometry for the enormous range of galaxy and observation types in our data. In particular, CAAPR is able to determine robust cross-compatible uncertainties, thanks to a novel method for reliably extrapolating the aperture noise for observations that cover a very limited amount of background. Our rich database of imagery and photometry is being made available to the community. Photometry data tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains photometric measurements of comet 9P/Tempel 1 from images taken with the Medium Resolution CCD Instrument during the approach phase of the Deep...

  14. Cryogenic design of the high speed CCD60 camera for wavefront sensing (United States)

    He, Kai; Ma, Wenli; Wang, Mingfu; Zhou, Xiangdong


    CCD60, developed by e2v technologies, is a 128x128 pixel frame-transfer back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This kind of detector has some attractive characteristics, such as high frame rate, low noise and high quantum efficiency. So, it is suitable for Adaptive Optical Wave Front Sensor (AO WFS) applications. However, the performance of this detector is strongly depended on its temperature. In order to achieve high multiplication gain and low dark current noise, CCD60 should be cooled under -45°. For this reason, we had designed a cooling system to cool down the CCD60 detector base on thermoelectric cooler. Detail of the design, thermal analysis and the cooling experiment are presented in this paper. The performance of multiplication gain after cooling had been tested too. The result of cooling experiment shows that the thermoelectric cooler can cool the CCD to below -60 °C under air cooled operation and an air temperature of 20 °C. The multiplication gain test tell us the multiplication gain of CCD60 can exceed 500 times on -60°.

  15. Shielding of cosmic-ray-induced background in CCD detectors for X-ray astronomy (United States)

    Pfeffermann, Elmar; Friedrich, Peter; Freyberg, Michael; Kettenring, Günther; Krämer, Ludwig; Meidinger, Norbert; Predehl, Peter; Strüder, Lothar


    An active anticoincidence detector system for background reduction cannot be integrated in CCD detectors for X-ray astronomy. The background rate within an integration-readout interval would result in an unacceptable dead time of about 50% or more. Events of minimum ionizing particles can be discriminated in CCD detectors due to their high energy deposit and their image pattern. Events of X-rays or charged particles within the accepted energy band originating from cosmic ray interaction with the material surrounding the CCD cannot be distinguished from valid cosmic X-ray events and therefore contribute to the background noise. Graded-Z shielding is an efficient method to shift the energy of the locally produced X-rays to low energies. At low energies low-Z shielding material can be used, which rather produces Auger electrons than fluorescent X-rays. Low energy electrons can be stopped in the passivation layer of the CCD. Due to the low operating temperature of the CCD (~170 K) the shielding material has to have a similar thermal expansion coefficient as silicon. With regard to future X-ray missions the properties of several shielding materials like aluminium oxide, aluminium nitride, silicon nitride and boron carbide were investigated in more detail. The results are presented.

  16. Application of conventional CCD cameras with Fabry-Perot spectrometers for airglow observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, M.M.; Roesler, F.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics


    This paper describes Fabry-Perot/CCD annular summing applied to airglow observations. Criteria are developed for determining the optimal rectangular format CCD chip configuration which minimizes dark and read noise. The relative savings in integration time of the imaging Fabry-Perot/CCD system over the pressure-scanned Fabry-Perot/PMT system is estimated for the optimal configuration through calculations of the signal to noise ratios for three extreme (but typical) cases of source and background intensity. The largest savings in integration time in estimated for the daysky thermospheric [O{sup 1}D] (6,300 {angstrom}) case where the bright ({approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 6}R/{angstrom}) Rayleigh-scattered background dominates the read noise. The long integration times required to obtain useful signal to noise ratios for the faint ({approximately} 10R) nightsky exospheric hydrogen Balmer-{alpha} (6,563 {angstrom}) reduce the importance of the read noise term and yield large savings in integration time. The significance of the read noise term is greatly increased with the very short estimated integration times required for bright ({approximately} 200 R) nightsky lines such as thermospheric [O{sup 1}D]. Alternate CCD formats and applications methods that reduce read noise and provide improved performance in the latter case are compared against the CCD annular summing technique.

  17. Development and evaluation of a CCD-based digital imaging system for mammography (United States)

    Piccaro, Michele F.; Toker, Emre


    We have developed a CCD-based, high performance, filmless imaging system for stereotactic biopsy procedures in mammography. The CCD camera is based on a 1024 X 1024 pixel format, full-frame, scientific grade, front-illuminated, MPP mode CCD, directly coupled to an X-ray intensifying screen via a 2:1 fiber optic reducer. The CCD is cooled to -10 degree(s)C, and is digitized in slow-scan, correlated double sampling mode at 500 Kpixels/second with 12-bit contrast resolution. X-ray images acquired with the system are processed and displayed on a high resolution monitor within 20 seconds of exposure. System design and specifications will be described, and evaluation of physical performance characteristics will be discussed. The system has been used in over 100 stereotactic breast biopsy procedures to date, and has been shown to significantly improve the speed and accuracy of the biopsy procedure, due to the near real-time acquisition and display of x-ray images. Initial results also indicate that the fiber optic coupled CCD-based imaging system provides superior detectability of low contrast breast lesions and microcalcifications at lower patient dose, as compared to conventional film-screen detectors.

  18. Searching Minor Planets and Photometric Quality of 60cm Reflector in Gimhae Astronomical Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Lee


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented the observational result for the photometric quality of main telescopes in Gimhae Astronomical Observatory. Also we performed the observation of searching new minor planets as competitive work in public observatories. The observation was carried out using 60cm telescope of Gimhae Astronomical Observatory on 2007 January 13. And, Schüler BVI filters and 1K CCD camera (AP8p were used. To define the quality of CCD photometry, we observed the region of well-known standard stars in the open cluster M67. From observed data, The transformation coefficients and airmass coefficients were obtained, and the accuracy of CCD photometry was investigated. From PSF photometry, we obtained the color-magnitude diagram of M67, and considered the useful magnitude limit and the physical properties of M67. This method can be successfully used to confirm the photometric quality of main telescope in public observatories. To investigate the detection possibility of unknown object as astroid, we observed the near area of the opposition in the ecliptic plane. And we discussed the result. Our result show that it can be possible to detect minor planets in solar system brighter than V ˜18.3mag. and it can carry out photometric study brighter than V~16mag. in Gimhae Astronomical Observatory. These results imply that the public observatories can make the research work.

  19. High performance CCD camera system for digitalisation of 2D DIGE gels. (United States)

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Roesler, Stefan; Feenders, Christoph; Danzer, Daniel; Riemenschneider, Udo; Blasius, Bernd; Rabus, Ralf


    An essential step in 2D DIGE-based analysis of differential proteome profiles is the accurate and sensitive digitalisation of 2D DIGE gels. The performance progress of commercially available charge-coupled device (CCD) camera-based systems combined with light emitting diodes (LED) opens up a new possibility for this type of digitalisation. Here, we assessed the performance of a CCD camera system (Intas Advanced 2D Imager) as alternative to a traditionally employed, high-end laser scanner system (Typhoon 9400) for digitalisation of differential protein profiles from three different environmental bacteria. Overall, the performance of the CCD camera system was comparable to the laser scanner, as evident from very similar protein abundance changes (irrespective of spot position and volume), as well as from linear range and limit of detection. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A fluorescent screen + CCD system for quality assurance of therapeutic scanned ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, E., E-mail: [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Furukawa, T., E-mail: [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Inaniwa, T., E-mail: [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Sato, S., E-mail: [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Himukai, T., E-mail: [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shirai, T., E-mail: [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Noda, K., E-mail: [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)


    A fluorescent screen + a charge coupled device (CCD) system were developed to verify the performance of scanned ion beams at the HIMAC. The fluorescent light from the screen is observed by the CCD camera. Two-dimensional fields, produced by the scanning process, i.e., the position and the size of the beam for each scan, represent of the important issues in scanning irradiation. In the developed system, the two-dimensional relative fluence and the flatness of the irradiation field were measured in a straightforward technique from the luminance distribution on the screen. The position and the size of the beams were obtained from centroid computation results of the brightness. By the good sensitivity and spatial resolution of the fluorescent screen + CCD system, the scanned ion beams were verified as the measurements at the HIMAC prototype scanning system.

  1. A fluorescent screen + CCD system for quality assurance of therapeutic scanned ion beams (United States)

    Takeshita, E.; Furukawa, T.; Inaniwa, T.; Sato, S.; Himukai, T.; Shirai, T.; Noda, K.


    A fluorescent screen + a charge coupled device (CCD) system were developed to verify the performance of scanned ion beams at the HIMAC. The fluorescent light from the screen is observed by the CCD camera. Two-dimensional fields, produced by the scanning process, i.e., the position and the size of the beam for each scan, represent of the important issues in scanning irradiation. In the developed system, the two-dimensional relative fluence and the flatness of the irradiation field were measured in a straightforward technique from the luminance distribution on the screen. The position and the size of the beams were obtained from centroid computation results of the brightness. By the good sensitivity and spatial resolution of the fluorescent screen + CCD system, the scanned ion beams were verified as the measurements at the HIMAC prototype scanning system.

  2. Application of compound measuring method with laser and CCD to sphericity error detection of ICF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Zhigen; Guo Junjie; Ma Xiaojun; Gao Dangzhong


    A novel compound measuring method for sphericity error detection of ICF target is proposed. Combining the advantages of laser probe and CCD camera, this method can effectively integrate the data captured by laser probe and CCD camera into the same coordinate system by means of calibrating the position relationship of the two optical axes with a standard ball. The quasi-Newton method is employed to process the measured data with the noise data eliminated. Meanwhile, the diameter of target derived by CCD camera is used as partial initial conditions, which prevents the occurrence of local optimization due to inappropriate initial parameter selection. The experiment has been carried out on the experiment platform of a compact five-coordinate measuring machine under two kinds of measuring mode, demonstrating the validity and robustness of this method. (authors)

  3. Signal Detection of Multi-Channel Capillary Electrophoresis Chip Based on CCD (United States)

    Lv, Hongfeng; Yan, Weiping; Yang, Xiaobo; Li, Jiechao; Zhu, Jieying


    A kind of multi-channel capillary electrophoresis (CE) chip signal detection system based on CCD was developed. The output signal of the CCD sensor was processed by a series of pre-processing circuits and ADC, and then it was collected by the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip which communicated with a host computer. The core in FPGA was designed to control the signal flow of the CCD and transfer the data to PC based on a Nios II embedded soft-processor. The application of PC was used to store the data and demonstrate the curve. The measurement of the fluorescent signals for different concentration Rhodamine B dyes is presented and the comparison with other detection systems is also discussed.

  4. High-aperture monochromator-reflectometer and its usefulness for CCD calibration (United States)

    Vishnyakov, Eugene A.; Shcherbakov, Alexander V.; Pertsov, Andrei A.; Polkovnikov, Vladimir N.; Pestov, Alexey E.; Pariev, Dmitry E.; Chkhalo, Nikolai I.


    We present a laboratory high-aperture monochromator-reflectometer employing laser-plasma radiation source and three replaceable Schwarzschild objectives for a certain range of applications in the soft X-ray spectral waveband. Three sets of X-ray multilayer mirrors for the Schwarzschild objectives enable operation of the reflectometer at the wavelengths of 135, 171 and 304 Å, while a goniometer with three degrees of freedom allows different measurement modes. We have used the facility for a laboratory CCD calibration at the wavelengths specified. Combined with the results of the CCD sensitivity measurements conducted in the VUV spectral waveband, the total outcome provides a more comprehensive understanding of the CCD effectivity in a wide spectral range.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and spectra of SN 2017dio (Kuncarayakti+, 2018) (United States)

    Kuncarayakti, H.; Maeda, K.; Ashall, C. J.; Prentice, S. J.; Mattila, S.; Kankare, E.; Fransson, C.; Lundqvist, P.; Pastorello, A.; Leloudas, G.; Anderson, J. P.; Benetti, S.; Bersten, M. C.; Cappellaro, E.; Cartier, R.; Denneau, L.; Della Valle, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Folatelli, G.; Fraser, M.; Galbany, L.; Gall, C.; Gal-Yam, A.; Gutierrez, C. P.; Hamanowicz, A.; Heinze, A.; Inserra, C.; Kangas, T.; Mazzali, P.; Melandri, A.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Reynolds, T.; Roy, R.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.; Sollerman, J.; Somero, A.; Stalder, B.; Stritzinger, M.; Taddia, F.; Tomasella, L.; Tonry, J.; Weiland, H.; Young, D. R.


    ugriz + JHK photometry and optical spectra of SN 2017dio. Optical photometry was obtained in ugriz filters using ALFOSC at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), IO:O at the Liverpool Telescope (LT), and Spectral at the 2 m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory. JHK photometry was obtained using NOT/NOTCam at one epoch, 2017 July 27. Optical slit-spectroscopy was obtained using ALFOSC at the NOT, EFOSC2 at the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT, through the ePESSTO program), and SPRAT 45 at the LT. ALFOSC spectra cover 3300-9500Å, with a resolution of 16Å. With EFOSC2, grism #13, the coverage was 3500-9300Å, at a 21Å resolution. Additionally, in two epochs the EFOSC2 spectra were taken using grism #11 (16Å resolution). SPRAT covers 4000-8000Å, with a 18Å resolution. (10 data files).

  6. ASTERIA: A CubeSat for Exoplanet Transit and Stellar Photometry (United States)

    Knapp, Mary; Seager, Sara


    We present ASTERIA, a 6U CubeSat demonstrator for exoplanet transit photometry. ASTERIA, currently in development at JPL and due to be launched in mid to late 2016, is a testbed for a two-stage pointing system capable of thermal control. These two features will allow ASTERIA to achieve very high photometric precision (<100 ppm) in a very small and cost effective package. ASTERIA will be used to search for transits of known RV planets as well as perform long duration, high cadence stellar photometry. The stellar photometry data will be used to study flares and stellar activity on a variety of stellar types. This presentation will focus on ASTERIA's science mission.

  7. An attempt of CCD camera application for concentration distribution imaging of low energy β-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, Z.


    Author presented the possibility of using CCD camera to the surface investigation of the 63 Ni concentration dispersion in different materials (porcelain, SiO 2 ; humic substances). The liquid scintillation, varnish and scintillation screen were applied to convert from β - radiation to the UV-VIS light. It was proved that the number of counts registered by the CCD camera for the varnish or screen samples was proportional to the 63 Ni surface concentration. The radioluminescence of porcelain, dentin and enamel tooth can use in analysis of 63 Ni, 14 C in these materials. The advantages and faults of this method were discussed. (author)

  8. Test technology on divergence angle of laser range finder based on CCD imaging fusion (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-bing; Chen, Zhen-xing; Lv, Yao


    Laser range finder has been equipped with all kinds of weapons, such as tank, ship, plane and so on, is important component of fire control system. Divergence angle is important performance and incarnation of horizontal resolving power for laser range finder, is necessary appraised test item in appraisal test. In this paper, based on high accuracy test on divergence angle of laser range finder, divergence angle test system is designed based on CCD imaging, divergence angle of laser range finder is acquired through fusion technology for different attenuation imaging, problem that CCD characteristic influences divergence angle test is solved.

  9. Study of the dark current in a spectrograph with a CCD camera


    Hanselaer, Peter; Acuna, Paula; Sandoval, Claudia; Colombo, Elisa; Sandoval, José


    The spectral analysis of radiant quantities is usually performed using spectrographs with a CCD camera attached. The pixels of the CCD camera employ the photoelectric effect to generate electrical signals which are proportional to the intensity of light received. However, as a number of electrons will be generated even in the darkness, a “dark current” will be recorded too which adds to the measurement of the signal of the light source being analyzed. In this work we present the study of t...

  10. Design and implementation of high sensitive CCD on gallium arsenide based miniaturized spectrometer (United States)

    Zheng, Jiamin; Shen, Jianhua; Guo, Fangmin


    In this paper, a method on how to design and implement a miniaturized spectrometer with low-light-level (LLL) CCD on GaAs is introduced. The optical system uses a blazed grating as the dispersive element and a 1×64 CCD on GaAs as the sensor. We apply a highly integrated Cortex-M4 MCU (STM32F407), to build the data acquisition and analysis unit, providing Wi-Fi interface to communicate with the PC software. It can complete the tasks like data acquisition, digital filtering, spectral display, network communication, human-computer interaction etc.

  11. Construction of a photochemical reactor combining a CCD spectrophotometer and a LED radiation source. (United States)

    Gombár, Melinda; Józsa, Éva; Braun, Mihály; Ősz, Katalin


    An inexpensive photoreactor using LED light sources and a fibre-optic CCD spectrophotometer as a detector was built by designing a special cell holder for standard 1.000 cm cuvettes. The use of this device was demonstrated by studying the aqueous photochemical reaction of 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone. The developed method combines the highly quantitative data collection of CCD spectrophotometers with the possibility of illuminating the sample independently of the detecting light beam, which is a substantial improvement of the method using diode array spectrophotometers as photoreactors.

  12. A CCD-based area detector for X-ray crystallography using synchrotron and laboratory sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.C.; Li Youli; Stanton, M.; Xie Yuanhui; O'Mara, D.; Kalata, K.


    The design and characteristics of a CCD-based area detector suitable for X-ray crystallographic studies using both synchrotron and laboratory sources are described. The active area is 75 mm in diameter, the FWHM of the point response function is 0.20 mm, and for Bragg peaks the dynamic range is 900 and the DQE ∼0.3. The 1320x1035-pixel Kodak CCD is read out into an 8 Mbyte memory system in 0.14 s and digitized to 12 bits. X-ray crystallographic data collected at the NSLS synchrotron from cubic insulin crystals are presented. (orig.)

  13. Deep and accurate near-infrared photometry of the Galactic globular cluster omega Cen . (United States)

    Calamida, A.; Bono, G.; Corsi, C. E.; Stetson, P. B.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Marchetti, E.; Amico, P.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Monelli, M.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Dall'Ora, M.; Freyhammer, L. M.; Koester, D.; Nonino, M.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pulone, L.; Romaniello, M.

    We present deep and accurate Near-Infrared (NIR) photometry of the Galactic Globular Cluster omega Cen . Data were collected using the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD) mounted on the VLT (ESO). We combined the NIR photometry with optical space data collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) for the same region of the cluster. Our deep optical-NIR CMD indicates that the spread in age among the different stellar populations in omega Cen is at most of the order of 2 Gyr.

  14. Four-color and Hβ photometry for open clusters I: NGC 2516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowden, M.S.


    Extensive uvby and Hβ photometry was obtained for stars in the region of the open cluster NGC 2516. A photometric analysis revealed variable reddening and a mean reddening of E(b - y) = 0.088 m. In addition to determining a new age of 137 x 10 6 years and a new adopted distance modulus of 8.01 m, several possible new variable stars were discovered, one of which may be an eclipsing Ap star. From the photometry of the Si-lambda4200 stars in the cluster it appears the absolute magnitudes and masses for this type of star are not as restricted as previously thought

  15. A transit timing analysis with combined ground- and space-based photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raetz St.


    The CoRoT satellite looks back on six years of high precision photometry of a very high number of stars. Thousands of transiting events are detected from which 27 were confirmed to be transiting planets so far. In my research I search and analyze TTVs in the CoRoT sample and combine the unprecedented precision of the light curves with ground-based follow-up photometry. Because CoRoT can observe transiting planets only for a maximum duration of 150 days the ground-based follow-up can help to refine the ephemeris. Here we present first examples.

  16. A comprehensive study of the young open star cluster NGC 6611 based on deep VRI CCD images and 2MASS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Selim


    Full Text Available In the present study, we have used Deep CCD images of the extremely young open star cluster NGC 6611, up to a limiting magnitude of V ∼ 22.86 mag in V, R and I passbands. The resulting color-magnitude V; (V–I diagram as well as their radial density profiles has been determined. Using 2MASS data, we confirmed the consistency between the 2MASS photometry, by fitting isochrones, the extinction E(V–I = 0.530 ± 0.04 mag, E(J–H = 0.31 ± 0.02, from the color magnitude diagram the cluster distance =2.2 ± 0.21 kpc and age = 3.6 Myr, based on the fitting of theoretical stellar isochrones of solar metallicity Z = 0.019. The distance modulus of the cluster is estimated at 12.3. The radial stellar density profiles and the cluster center have been determined by two methods. The core and cluster radii are determined from the radial stellar density profiles. Only about 40% of the cluster members are present in the core region. The cluster luminosity function has been calculated. The mass function slope of the entire cluster is ∼−0.67 ± 0.12. The effects of mass segregation, most probably due to dynamical evolution, have been observed in the cluster.

  17. BRITE-Constellation: Nanosatellites for precision photometry of bright stars (United States)

    Weiss, W. W.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Koudelka, O. F.; Grant, C. C.; Zee, R. E.; Kuschnig, R.; Mochnacki, St.; Rucinski, S. M.; Matthews, J. M.; Orleański, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.; Pigulski, A.; Alves, J.; Guedel, M.; Handler, G.; Wade, G. A.; Scholtz, A. L.; Scholtz


    BRITE-Constellation (where BRITE stands for BRIght Target Explorer) is an international nanosatellite mission to monitor photometrically, in two colours, brightness and temperature variations of stars brighter than V ~ 4, with precision and time coverage not possible from the ground. The current mission design consists of three pairs of 7 kg nanosats (hence ``Constellation'') from Austria, Canada and Poland carrying optical telescopes (3 cm aperture) and CCDs. One instrument in each pair is equipped with a blue filter; the other, a red filter. The first two nanosats (funded by Austria) are UniBRITE, designed and built by UTIAS-SFL (University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies-Space Flight Laboratory) and its twin, BRITE-Austria, built by the Technical University Graz (TUG) with support of UTIAS-SFL. They were launched on 25 February 2013 by the Indian Space Agency, under contract to the Canadian Space Agency. Each BRITE instrument has a wide field of view (~ 24 degrees), so up to 15 bright stars can be observed simultaneously in 32 × 32 sub-rasters. Photometry (with reduced precision but thorough time sampling) of additional fainter targets will be possible through on-board data processing. A critical technical element of the BRITE mission is the three-axis attitude control system to stabilize a nanosat with very low inertia. The pointing stability is better than 1.5 arcminutes rms, a significant advance by UTIAS-SFL over any previous nanosatellite. BRITE-Constellation will primarily measure p- and g-mode pulsations to probe the interiors and ages of stars through asteroseismology. The BRITE sample of many of the brightest stars in the night sky is dominated by the most intrinsically luminous stars: massive stars seen at all evolutionary stages, and evolved medium-mass stars at the very end of their nuclear burning phases (cool giants and AGB stars). The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for stars brighter than mag V=4 from which the BRITE-Constellation sample

  18. Development of a portable 3CCD camera system for multispectral imaging of biological samples. (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Park, Soo Hyun; Noh, Sang Ha; Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Moon S


    Recent studies have suggested the need for imaging devices capable of multispectral imaging beyond the visible region, to allow for quality and safety evaluations of agricultural commodities. Conventional multispectral imaging devices lack flexibility in spectral waveband selectivity for such applications. In this paper, a recently developed portable 3CCD camera with significant improvements over existing imaging devices is presented. A beam-splitter prism assembly for 3CCD was designed to accommodate three interference filters that can be easily changed for application-specific multispectral waveband selection in the 400 to 1000 nm region. We also designed and integrated electronic components on printed circuit boards with firmware programming, enabling parallel processing, synchronization, and independent control of the three CCD sensors, to ensure the transfer of data without significant delay or data loss due to buffering. The system can stream 30 frames (3-waveband images in each frame) per second. The potential utility of the 3CCD camera system was demonstrated in the laboratory for detecting defect spots on apples.

  19. Opinion rating of comparison photographs of television pictures from CCD cameras under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, V.M.; Dumbreck, A.A.


    As part of the development of a general method of testing the effects of gamma radiation on CCD television cameras, this is a report of an experimental study on the optimisation of still photographic representation of video pictures recorded before and during camera irradiation. (author)

  20. Research on Double CCD Dimensional Metrology Applying in Large Forge Piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, C H; Xiong, Z


    As development of computer vision, stereoscopic vision sensors have been used more and more widely, and double CCD vision sensor with its simplicity of operator, highaccuracy and high-efficiency has been used in many spheres. It can be used in dimensional metrology of large forge piece, which greatly improves the efficiency and accuracy of large forge piece measurement

  1. MiCPhot: A prime-focus multicolor CCD photometer on the 85-cm Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Aiying; Jiang Xiaojun; Wei Jianyan; Zhang Yanping


    We describe a new BV RI multicolor CCD photometric system situated at the prime focus of the 85-cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of NAOC. Atmospheric extinction effects, photometric accuracy and color calibration dependence of the system are investigated. Additional attention was paid to giving observers guidance in estimating throughput, detection limit, signal-to-noise ratio and exposure time. (invited reviews)

  2. Absolute spectral calibration of an intensified CCD camera using twin beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haderka, O.; Peřina Jr., J.; Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin


    Roč. 31, č. 10 (2014), B1-B7 ISSN 0740-3224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spectral calibration * intensified CCD camera * twin beams * photon pairs Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  3. Ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity color camera with 300,000-pixel single CCD (United States)

    Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Yonai, J.; Hayashida, T.; Ohtake, H.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Namiki, J.; Yanagi, T.; Yoshida, T.; van Kuijk, H.; Bosiers, Jan T.; Etoh, T. G.


    We have developed an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity portable color camera with a new 300,000-pixel single CCD. The 300,000-pixel CCD, which has four times the number of pixels of our initial model, was developed by seamlessly joining two 150,000-pixel CCDs. A green-red-green-blue (GRGB) Bayer filter is used to realize a color camera with the single-chip CCD. The camera is capable of ultrahigh-speed video recording at up to 1,000,000 frames/sec, and small enough to be handheld. We also developed a technology for dividing the CCD output signal to enable parallel, highspeed readout and recording in external memory; this makes possible long, continuous shots up to 1,000 frames/second. As a result of an experiment, video footage was imaged at an athletics meet. Because of high-speed shooting, even detailed movements of athletes' muscles were captured. This camera can capture clear slow-motion videos, so it enables previously impossible live footage to be imaged for various TV broadcasting programs.

  4. The study of interferometer spectrometer based on DSP and linear CCD (United States)

    Kang, Hua; Peng, Yuexiang; Xu, Xinchen; Xing, Xiaoqiao


    In this paper, general theory of Fourier-transform spectrometer and polarization interferometer is presented. A new design is proposed for Fourier-transform spectrometer based on polarization interferometer with Wollaston prisms and linear CCD. Firstly, measured light is changed into linear polarization light by polarization plate. And then the light can be split into ordinary and extraordinary lights by going through one Wollaston prism. At last, after going through another Wollaston prism and analyzer, interfering fringes can be formed on linear CCD behind the analyzer. The linear CCD is driven by CPLD to output amplitude of interfering fringes and synchronous signals of frames and pixels respectively. DSP is used to collect interference pattern signals from CCD and the digital data of interfering fringes are processed by using 2048-point-FFT. Finally, optical spectrum of measured light can be display on LCD connected to DSP with RS232. The spectrometer will possess the features of firmness, portability and the ability of real-time analyzing. The work will provide a convenient and significant foundation for application of more high accuracy of Fourier-transform spectrometer.

  5. CCD astrometric observations of comets at the Belgrade observatory during 1998 - 2000 (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protitch-Benishek V.


    Full Text Available 143 precise astrometric positions of seven comets were obtained with the CCD equipped Askania astrograph (13.5/160 of Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The SBIG ST-8(1530 × 1020 pixel array camera was used in the observations.

  6. Fast neutron fields imaging with a CCD-based luminescent detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mikerov, V


    The paper considers some questions concerned with the development of an imaging system based on a CCD-detector for visualising fast neutron fields. From those the most important are: development of fast neutron screens, detector resistance to irradiation fields, and feasibility of fast neutron radiography and tomography at various neutron sources.

  7. A toolkit for the characterization of CCD cameras for transmission electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulovic, M.; Rieger, B.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Koster, A.J.; Ravelli, R.B.G.


    Charge-coupled devices (CCD) are nowadays commonly utilized in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for applications in life sciences. Direct access to digitized images has revolutionized the use of electron microscopy, sparking developments such as automated collection of tomographic data, focal

  8. AzCam: A Windows-based CCD/CMOS Client/Server Data Acquisition System (United States)

    Lesser, M.; Parthasarathy, M.

    AzCam is a software package developed to utilize a common architecture for the characterization of CCD and CMOS imagers in both laboratory and astronomical observatory environments. It follows a standard client/server model in which the server runs on a PC under the Microsoft Windows operating system to allow easy integration with the many CMOS imager cameras.

  9. Numerical simulations and analyses of temperature control loop heat pipe for space CCD camera (United States)

    Meng, Qingliang; Yang, Tao; Li, Chunlin


    As one of the key units of space CCD camera, the temperature range and stability of CCD components affect the image's indexes. Reasonable thermal design and robust thermal control devices are needed. One kind of temperature control loop heat pipe (TCLHP) is designed, which highly meets the thermal control requirements of CCD components. In order to study the dynamic behaviors of heat and mass transfer of TCLHP, particularly in the orbital flight case, a transient numerical model is developed by using the well-established empirical correlations for flow models within three dimensional thermal modeling. The temperature control principle and details of mathematical model are presented. The model is used to study operating state, flow and heat characteristics based upon the analyses of variations of temperature, pressure and quality under different operating modes and external heat flux variations. The results indicate that TCLHP can satisfy the thermal control requirements of CCD components well, and always ensure good temperature stability and uniformity. By comparison between flight data and simulated results, it is found that the model is to be accurate to within 1°C. The model can be better used for predicting and understanding the transient performance of TCLHP.

  10. Development of a Portable 3CCD Camera System for Multispectral Imaging of Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoung Lee


    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested the need for imaging devices capable of multispectral imaging beyond the visible region, to allow for quality and safety evaluations of agricultural commodities. Conventional multispectral imaging devices lack flexibility in spectral waveband selectivity for such applications. In this paper, a recently developed portable 3CCD camera with significant improvements over existing imaging devices is presented. A beam-splitter prism assembly for 3CCD was designed to accommodate three interference filters that can be easily changed for application-specific multispectral waveband selection in the 400 to 1000 nm region. We also designed and integrated electronic components on printed circuit boards with firmware programming, enabling parallel processing, synchronization, and independent control of the three CCD sensors, to ensure the transfer of data without significant delay or data loss due to buffering. The system can stream 30 frames (3-waveband images in each frame per second. The potential utility of the 3CCD camera system was demonstrated in the laboratory for detecting defect spots on apples.

  11. Experimental research on femto-second laser damaging array CCD cameras (United States)

    Shao, Junfeng; Guo, Jin; Wang, Ting-feng; Wang, Ming


    Charged Coupled Devices (CCD) are widely used in military and security applications, such as airborne and ship based surveillance, satellite reconnaissance and so on. Homeland security requires effective means to negate these advanced overseeing systems. Researches show that CCD based EO systems can be significantly dazzled or even damaged by high-repetition rate pulsed lasers. Here, we report femto - second laser interaction with CCD camera, which is probable of great importance in future. Femto - second laser is quite fresh new lasers, which has unique characteristics, such as extremely short pulse width (1 fs = 10-15 s), extremely high peak power (1 TW = 1012W), and especially its unique features when interacting with matters. Researches in femto second laser interaction with materials (metals, dielectrics) clearly indicate non-thermal effect dominates the process, which is of vast difference from that of long pulses interaction with matters. Firstly, the damage threshold test are performed with femto second laser acting on the CCD camera. An 800nm, 500μJ, 100fs laser pulse is used to irradiate interline CCD solid-state image sensor in the experiment. In order to focus laser energy onto tiny CCD active cells, an optical system of F/5.6 is used. A Sony production CCDs are chose as typical targets. The damage threshold is evaluated with multiple test data. Point damage, line damage and full array damage were observed when the irradiated pulse energy continuously increase during the experiment. The point damage threshold is found 151.2 mJ/cm2.The line damage threshold is found 508.2 mJ/cm2.The full-array damage threshold is found to be 5.91 J/cm2. Although the phenomenon is almost the same as that of nano laser interaction with CCD, these damage thresholds are substantially lower than that of data obtained from nano second laser interaction with CCD. Then at the same time, the electric features after different degrees of damage are tested with electronic multi

  12. Absolute photometry of small main-belt asteroids in 2007-2009

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiorny, V. G.; Galád, Adrián; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Világi, J.; Husárik, M.; Kanuchová, Z.; Krišandová, Z.; Higgins, D.; Pray, D. P.; Durkee, R.; Dyvig, R.; Reddy, V.; Oey, J.; Marchis, F.; Stephens, R.


    Roč. 59, č. 13 (2011), s. 1482-1489 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * photometry * light curve Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.224, year: 2011

  13. Relative photometry of numbered asteroids (1314), (2257), (3541), (4080), (4155), (12081) and (15415)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Husárik, M.; Kušnirák, Peter


    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2008), s. 47-60 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. Photographic photometry of 16000 galaxies on ESO blue and red survey plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauberts, A.; Valentijn, E. A.


    An ongoing photometric survey of 16,000 galaxies on ESO red and blue plates is described. The galaxies of the ESO/Uppsala Catalog (Lauberts, 1982) are being PDS scanned, and the results are combined with existing photometry and supplementary observational data obtained at the 1-m ESO telescope to

  15. Photometry and imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley in the 2010-2011 apparition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milani, G.; Bryssinck, E.; Nicolini, M.; Mikuž, H.; Sostero, G.; Bacci, P.; Borghini, W.; Castellano, D.; Facchini, M.C.; Favero, G.; Galli, G.; Guidou, E.; Hausler, B.; Hornoch, Kamil; Howes, N.; Ligustri, R.; Perrella, C.; Prosperi, E.; Skvarc, J.; Srba, J.; Trabatti, R.; Vinante, C.; Szabo, G.


    Roč. 222, č. 2 (2013), s. 786-798 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : comets * dust * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.840, year: 2013

  16. Ultracam Photometry of Pulsating Subdwarf B Stars rf B Binaries in the Edinburgh-Cape Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Aerts, C.C.; Dhillon, V.S.; Marsh, T.R.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Maxted, P.F.L.; Kilkenny, D.; O'Donoghue, D.


    High-speed multicolor photometry with ultracam promises to revolutionize the study of pulsating subdwarf B stars. As well as providing high S/N light curves with excellent temporal resolution, color amplitude ratios may be used to discriminate between different pulsation modes. In this paper we

  17. Photoelectric five-colour photometry of the asteroids 16 Psyche, 201 Penelope and 702 Alauda (United States)

    Pfleiderer, J.; Pfleiderer, M.; Hanslmeier, A.


    UBVRI photometry of 16 Psyche, 201 Penelope, and 702 Alauda have yielded light curves, colour indices, periods and phase effects. We find evidence for selective absorption on the planetoidal surfaces, and a rather uncertain indication of a large directively reflecting surface feature on Penelope.

  18. Photometry and Multipolar Magnetic Field Modeling of Polars: BY Camelopardalis and FL Ceti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Mason


    Full Text Available We present new broad band optical photometry of two magnetic cataclysmic variable stars, the asynchronous polar BY Camelopardalis and the short period polar FL Ceti. Observations were obtained at the 2.1-m Otto Struve Telescope of McDonald Observatory with 3s and 1s integration times respectively. In an attempt to understand the observed complex changes in accretion flow geometry observed in BY Cam, we performed full 3D MHD simulations assuming a variety of white dwarf magnetic field structures. We investigate fields with increasing complexity including both aligned and non-aligned dipole plus quadrupole field components. We compare model predictions with photometry at various phases of the beat cycle and find that synthetic light curves derived from a multipolar field structure are broadly consistent with optical photometry. FL Ceti is observed to have two very small accretion regions at the foot-points of the white dwarf’s magnetic field. Both accretion regions are visible at the same time in the high state and are about 100 degrees apart. MHD modeling using a dipole plus quadrupole field structure yields quite similar accretion regions as those observed in FL Ceti. We conclude that accretion flows calculated from MHD modeling of multi-polar magnetic fields produce synthetic light curves consistent with photometry of these magnetic cataclysmic variables.

  19. McDonald 2.1-m and CRTS Photometry of Eclipsing Polars (United States)

    Wells, Natalie; Mason, Paul


    We present broadband optical photometry of five polars made using the 2.1-m telescope of McDonald Observatory. Four of the polars are eclipsing (EP Dra, FL Cet, V2301 Oph, and a Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) polar candidate). In addition, a pre-polar (MQ Dra) was observed. Typical integration times were 1-3 seconds with no dead time. At this time resolution, eclipse structure can be seen in both one- and two-pole accretors. McDonald 2.1-m data over several years is phased together with CSS photometry covering up to 7 years, in search of indications of period variation. Combining the high-resolution, high-speed photometry obtained using the ProEm camera on the McDonald 2.1-m with the sparse, but high-quality multi-year baseline photometry of the CSS places strong constraints on the time variability of the eclipse periods in these binary systems. In most cases, eclipse variations do not perfectly fit a linear ephemeris. We investigate the source of variations using standard O-C diagram techniques and period search algorithms.

  20. ASAS-SN photometry of the Galactic nova TCP J17394608-2457555 (United States)

    Strader, J.; Chomiuk, L.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, S.; Bose, S.; Chen, P.; Brimacombe, J.


    We report ASAS-SN photometry of the Galactic nova TCP J17394608-2457555 (CBAT; ATel #10366). ASAS-SN recovered the source with a first detection (V=14.9) on Apr 21.43 UT, 17 days before the discovery by K. Itagaki.

  1. Temperature mapping of sunspots and pores from speckle reconstructed three colour photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sütterlin, P.; Wiehr, E.


    The two-dimensional temperature distribution in a highly structured sunspot and in two small umbrae is determined from a three-colour photometry in narrow spectral continua. Disturbing influences from the earth’s atmosphere are removed by speckle masking techniques, yielding a spatial resolution


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains aperture photometry of known transiting planet systems GJ 436, HAT-P-4, HAT-P-7, TrES-2, TrES-3, and WASP-3 derived from radiance calibrated,...

  3. Time-series Analysis of Broadband Photometry of Neptune from K2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowe, Jason F.; Gaulme, Patrick; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marley, Mark S.; Simon, Amy A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Barclay, Thomas; Benomar, Othman; Boumier, Patrick; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Casewell, Sarah L.; Chaplin, William J.; Colón, Knicole D.; Corsaro, Enrico; Davies, G. R.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Garcia, Rafael A.; Gizis, John E.; Haas, Michael R.; Mosser, Benot; Schmider, Francois Xavier


    We report here on our search for excess power in photometry of Neptune collected by the K2 mission that may be due to intrinsic global oscillations of the planet Neptune. To conduct this search, we developed new methods to correct for instrumental effects such as intrapixel variability and gain

  4. Development of a CCD-based pyrometer for surface temperature measurement of casting billets (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Lang, Xianli; Hu, Zhenwei; Shu, Shuangbao


    In order to achieve high accuracy and good stability of temperature measurement results, an online vision-based temperature field measurement system for continuous casting billets is developed instead of the conventional single-point radiation pyrometer in this paper. This system is a hybrid temperature measurement system which consists of a monochrome array CCD camera with high resolution and a single spot colorimetric thermometer simultaneously. In this system, a narrow-band spectrum radiation temperature measurement model is established for the optical CCD-based pyrometer system, and the non-uniformity of the temperature field measurement due to the inter-element sensitivity deviations of the CCD-array detector and photometric distortion caused by the vignetting in the optical system is analyzed in detail and compensated. Furthermore, in order to eliminate the temperature fluctuation caused by the stripped iron oxide scale on billets, a temperature field reconstruction approach, which took full advantage of the high resolution characteristic of CCD and the distribution character of the surface temperature field of billets, is introduced in this system. Meanwhile, based on the narrow band spectral thermometry theory, the spot temperature measured by the colorimetric thermometer is used to correct the temperature field measured by the CCD camera on-line so as to reduce the temperature measurement error caused by the inconclusive absolute emissivity of different grades of steel and the interference of industrial dust. Currently, the system has been successfully applied and verified in some continuous casting production lines. Industrial trials indicate that the system could effectively eliminate false temperature variation caused by striped iron oxide scale and provide information about changes of processing parameters in the continuous casting production line in real time.

  5. A configurable distributed high-performance computing framework for satellite's TDI-CCD imaging simulation (United States)

    Xue, Bo; Mao, Bingjing; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang


    This paper renders a configurable distributed high performance computing(HPC) framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation. It uses strategy pattern to adapt multi-algorithms. Thus, this framework help to decrease the simulation time with low expense. Imaging simulation for TDI-CCD mounted on satellite contains four processes: 1) atmosphere leads degradation, 2) optical system leads degradation, 3) electronic system of TDI-CCD leads degradation and re-sampling process, 4) data integration. Process 1) to 3) utilize diversity data-intensity algorithms such as FFT, convolution and LaGrange Interpol etc., which requires powerful CPU. Even uses Intel Xeon X5550 processor, regular series process method takes more than 30 hours for a simulation whose result image size is 1500 * 1462. With literature study, there isn't any mature distributing HPC framework in this field. Here we developed a distribute computing framework for TDI-CCD imaging simulation, which is based on WCF[1], uses Client/Server (C/S) layer and invokes the free CPU resources in LAN. The server pushes the process 1) to 3) tasks to those free computing capacity. Ultimately we rendered the HPC in low cost. In the computing experiment with 4 symmetric nodes and 1 server , this framework reduced about 74% simulation time. Adding more asymmetric nodes to the computing network, the time decreased namely. In conclusion, this framework could provide unlimited computation capacity in condition that the network and task management server are affordable. And this is the brand new HPC solution for TDI-CCD imaging simulation and similar applications.

  6. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-luminous Infrared Galaxy Candidates (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen; Yan, Lin


    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 μm ~ 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (>20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of ~7.33 × 105 objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, S. K.; Burningham, Ben; Jones, H. R. A.; Lucas, P. W.; Pinfield, D. J.; Saumon, D.; Marley, M. S.; Warren, S. J.; Smart, R. L.; Tamura, Motohide


    We present new Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) photometry of 12 very late-type T dwarfs: nine have [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] photometry and three have [3.6] and [4.5] photometry only. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. The online appendix provides a collation of MKO-system YJHKL'M' and IRAC photometry for a sample of M, L, and T dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T eff ) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 μm, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T eff at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 μm) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T eff with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 μm) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus, near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are 12 dwarfs currently known with H- [4.5] >3.0, and 500 K ∼ eff ∼<800 K, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1-1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3-12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e., near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H] = -0.3 to [m/H] = +0.3. The small number of T8-T9 dwarfs found in the UK Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions, warm-Spitzer and Wide-Field Infrared

  8. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; hide


    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  9. Development of low-noise CCD drive electronics for the world space observatory ultraviolet spectrograph subsystem (United States)

    Salter, Mike; Clapp, Matthew; King, James; Morse, Tom; Mihalcea, Ionut; Waltham, Nick; Hayes-Thakore, Chris


    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major Russian-led international collaboration to develop a large space-borne 1.7 m Ritchey-Chrétien telescope and instrumentation to study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm, exceeding the current capabilities of ground-based instruments. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph subsystem (WUVS) is led by the Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences and consists of two high resolution spectrographs covering the Far-UV range of 115-176 nm and the Near-UV range of 174-310 nm, and a long-slit spectrograph covering the wavelength range of 115-305 nm. The custom-designed CCD sensors and cryostat assemblies are being provided by e2v technologies (UK). STFC RAL Space is providing the Camera Electronics Boxes (CEBs) which house the CCD drive electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. This paper presents the results of the detailed characterisation of the WUVS CCD drive electronics. The electronics include a novel high-performance video channel design that utilises Digital Correlated Double Sampling (DCDS) to enable low-noise readout of the CCD at a range of pixel frequencies, including a baseline requirement of less than 3 electrons rms readout noise for the combined CCD and electronics system at a readout rate of 50 kpixels/s. These results illustrate the performance of this new video architecture as part of a wider electronics sub-system that is designed for use in the space environment. In addition to the DCDS video channels, the CEB provides all the bias voltages and clocking waveforms required to operate the CCD and the system is fully programmable via a primary and redundant SpaceWire interface. The development of the CEB electronics design has undergone critical design review and the results presented were obtained using the engineering-grade electronics box. A variety of parameters and tests are included ranging from general system metrics, such as the power and mass

  10. Discovery of a Probable Nova in M81 and Photometry of Three M81 Novae (United States)

    Hornoch, K.; Errmann, R.; Carlisle, Ch.; Vaduvescu, O.


    We report the discovery of a probable nova in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~1.6" seeing on 2015 Jan.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 7142 Vilnius photometry (Straizys+, 2014) (United States)

    Straizys, V.; Maskoliunas, M.; Boyle, R. P.; Zdanavicius, K.; Zdanavicius, J.; Laugalys, V.; Kazlauskas, A.


    The observations were obtained by one of the authors (RPB) in 2009 October 18-21 with the 1.8-m telescope of the Vatican Observatory on Mt. Graham (Arizona) equipped with a 4K backside illuminated CCD camera and liquid nitrogen cooling. (1 data file).

  12. Infrared Photometry of Solar Active Regions Μ. Sobotka1,2, Μ. V ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    of convective energy transport and the lateral radiative heating. Key words. Solar photosphere—faculae—pores. 2. Observations and data analysis. Series of broad band CCD images of active regions were obtained at the Swedish. Vacuum Solar Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma) simul.

  13. A Real-Time Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Intelligent CCD Parameters Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-shu Ge


    Full Text Available Lane departure warning system (LDWS has been regarded as an efficient method to lessen the damages of road traffic accident resulting from driver fatigue or inattention. Lane detection is one of the key techniques for LDWS. To overcome the contradiction between complexity of algorithm and the real-time requirement for vehicle onboard system, this paper introduces a new lane detection method based on intelligent CCD parameters regulation. In order to improve the real-time capability of the system, a CCD parameters regulating method is proposed which enhances the contrast between lane line and road surfaces and reduces image noise, so it lays a good foundation for the following lane detection. Hough transform algorithm is improved by selection and classification of seed points. Finally the lane line is extracted through some restrictions. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improves not only real-time capability but also the accuracy of the system.

  14. Determining the Spectral Resolution of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Raman Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chuan; Berg, Rolf W.


    A new method based on dispersion equations is described to express the spectral resolution of an applied charge-coupled device (CCD) Czerny-Turner Raman instrument entirely by means of one equation and principal factors determined by the actual setup. The factors involved are usual quantities...... resolution of the Raman instrument. An essential feature of the new method is a proposed way to compensate for non-ideality (diffractions, aberrations, etc.) by use of a hyperbola model function to describe the relationship between the width of the entrance slit and the image signal width on the CCD....... The model depends on the spectrometer magnification and a diffraction and aberration compensation factor denoted as A. A could be approximated as a constant that can be determined by the experimental method. The validity of the new expression has been examined by measuring the band width of the 1332.4 cm(-1...

  15. Matching CCD images to a stellar catalog using locality-sensitive hashing (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Jia-Zong; Peng, Qing-Yu


    The usage of a subset of observed stars in a CCD image to find their corresponding matched stars in a stellar catalog is an important issue in astronomical research. Subgraph isomorphic-based algorithms are the most widely used methods in star catalog matching. When more subgraph features are provided, the CCD images are recognized better. However, when the navigation feature database is large, the method requires more time to match the observing model. To solve this problem, this study investigates further and improves subgraph isomorphic matching algorithms. We present an algorithm based on a locality-sensitive hashing technique, which allocates quadrilateral models in the navigation feature database into different hash buckets and reduces the search range to the bucket in which the observed quadrilateral model is located. Experimental results indicate the effectivity of our method.

  16. CCD camera-based analysis of thin film growth in industrial PACVD processes (United States)

    Zauner, G.; Schulte, T.; Forsich, C.; Heim, Daniel


    In this paper we present a method for the characterization of (semi-transparent) thin film growth during PACVD processes (plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition), based on analysis of thermal radiation by means of nearinfrared imaging. Due to interference effects during thin film growth, characteristic emissivity signal variations can be observed which allow very detailed spatio-temporal analysis of growth characteristics (e.g. relative growth rates). We use a standard CCD camera with a near-infrared band-pass filter (center wavelength 1030 nm, FWHM 10nm) as a thermal imaging device. The spectral sensitivity of a Si-CCD sensor at 1μm is sufficient to allow the imaging of thermal radiation at temperatures above approx. 400°C, whereas light emissions from plasma discharges (which mainly occur in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum) barely affect the image formation.

  17. Brayton Isotope Power System. Phase I. (Ground demonstration system) Configuration Control Document (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The configuration control document (CCD) defines the BIPS-GDS configuration. The GDS configuration is similar to a conceptual flight system design, referred to as the BIPS-FS, which is discussed in App. I. The BIPS is being developed by ERDA as a 500 to 2000 W(e), 7-y life, space power system utilizing a closed Brayton cycle gas turbine engine to convert thermal energy (from an isotope heat source) to electrical energy at a net efficiency exceeding 25 percent. The CCD relates to Phase I of an ERDA Program to qualify a dynamic system for launch in the early 1980's. Phase I is a 35-month effort to provide an FS conceptual design and GDS design, fabrication, and test. The baseline is a 7-year life, 450-pound, 4800 W(t), 1300 W(e) system which will use two multihundred watt (MHW) isotope heat sources being developed

  18. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy using a diode laser and CCD detector for tissue diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, U.


    This paper surveys the possibility to observe high-quality NIR Raman spectra of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent samples with the use of a diode laser, a fibre optic sample, a single spectrometer and a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. A shifted excitation difference technique was implemented for removing the broad-band fluorescence emission from Raman spectra of the highly fluorescent samples. Raman spectra of 1.4-dioxane, toluene, rhodamine 6G, and HITCI in the 640 to 1840 cm -1 spectral region and 1.4-dioxane and toluene in the 400 to 3400 cm -1 spectral region have been recorded. The results open the field of sensitive tissue characterisation and the possibility of optical biopsy in vivo by using NIR Raman spectroscopy with fibre optic sampling, a single spectrometer, and a CCD detector

  19. Design method of general-purpose driving circuit for CCD based on CPLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Zujun; Huang Shaoyan


    It is very important for studying the radiation damage effects and mechanism systematically about CCD to develop a general-purpose test platform. The paper discusses the design method of general-purpose driving circuit for CCD based on CPLD and the realization approach. A main controller has being designed to read the data file from the outer memory, setup the correlative parameter registers and produce the driving pulses according with parameter request strictly, which is based on MAX7000S by using MAX-PLUS II software. The basic driving circuit module has being finished based on this method. The output waveform of the module is the same figure as the simulation waveform. The result indicates that the design method is feasible. (authors)

  20. An X-ray CCD signal generator with true random arrival time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Jia; Xu Yuming; Chen Yong; Cui Weiwei; Li Wei; Zhang Ziliang; Han Dawei; Wang Yusan; Wang Juan


    An FPGA-based true random signal generator with adjustable amplitude and exponential distribution of time interval is presented. Since traditional true random number generators (TRNG) are resource costly and difficult to transplant, we employed a method of random number generation based on jitter and phase noise in ring oscillators formed by gates in an FPGA. In order to improve the random characteristics, a combination of two different pseudo-random processing circuits is used for post processing. The effects of the design parameters, such as sample frequency are discussed. Statistical tests indicate that the generator can well simulate the timing behavior of random signals with Poisson distribution. The X-ray CCD signal generator will be used in debugging the CCD readout system of the Low Energy X-ray Instrument onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). (authors)

  1. Characterization and Compensation of the Fixed Pattern Noise in the Output of a CCD Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W. WINKLER


    Full Text Available A monochrome CCD camera is used in a reflectometer in order to measure the luminance of light reflected by a specimen. This application requires a compensation of the non-uniformities introduced by the optical system, also known as fixed pattern noise. We provide an image formation model and characterize the bias and the dark signal of the CCD sensor and we use a self-built integrating sphere with an inner diameter of 500 mm as a uniform light source in order to characterize the photo sensitivity of the whole optical system. Finally, a new effective approach to compensate the fixed pattern noise pixel by pixel and in dependence of the exposure time is proposed.

  2. Thermal IR imaging system using a self-scanned HgCdTe/CCD detector array (United States)

    Husain-Abidi, A. S.; Ostrow, H.; Rubin, B.


    It is likely that future high resolution earth observation imaging systems will utilize self-scanned IR detectors. In an initial step toward this goal, an IR imaging system operating in the 10 to 12 micron spectral region has been developed. This system uses a 9-element HgCdTe/CCD linear array operating in the photoconductive mode, nine pre-amplifiers and a silicon CCD multiplexer integrated into a focal plane assembly. Opto-mechanical techniques are used to scan the scene and images are produced in real time. The imaging performance of this system is described and measurements of noise, responsivity, specific detectivity, and detector sensitivity profiles are presented. The requirements for more advanced detector arrays for use in future NASA remote sensing missions are also discussed.

  3. 3D measurement for archeological artifact using CCD camera and line laser beam (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Hatano, Katsuhiro; Chikatsu, Hirofumi


    In the compilation of archival records for archeological artifacts, true ortho-graphic drawings of these artifacts have to be drawn by the archaeologists themselves or part- timers, taking a great deal of time, labor and skill. For saving the labor, the authors have developed ortho projection system using CCD camera. 3D measurement system using ortho projection system are described in this paper. Finally, it demonstrates wireframe model for jomon-pottery by using this system.

  4. Collony Collapse Disorder (CCD). A review of the possible Factors and Agents involved


    Espinosa del Alba, Laura


    Póster Colony collapse disorder is a complex phenomenon that affects managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, whose main trait is a rapid loss of adult worker bees. Adult worker bees are responsible of the majority of the hive tasks, so their absence means shortly after the collapse and dead of the colony. CCD has been reported mainly from USA, but also from Europe.

  5. Novel plasma torch diagnostic method based on multiple exposition CCD and correlation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonský, Jiří; Něnička, Václav


    Roč. 56, - (2006), B1371-B1376 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /22./. Prague, 26.06.2006-29.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/1341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : plasma torch * CCD * correlation analysis Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  6. Using NIST Crystal Data Within Siemens Software for Four-Circle and SMART CCD Diffractometers (United States)

    Byram, Susan K.; Campana, Charles F.; Fait, James; Sparks, Robert A.


    NIST Crystal Data developed at The National Institute for Standards and Technology has been incorporated with Siemens single crystal software for data collection on four-circle and two-dimensional CCD diffractometers. Why this database is useful in the process of single crystal structure determination, and how the database is searched, are described. Ideas for future access to this and other databases are presented. PMID:27805166

  7. Versatile ultrafast pump-probe imaging with high sensitivity CCD camera


    Pezeril , Thomas; Klieber , Christoph; Temnov , Vasily; Huntzinger , Jean-Roch; Anane , Abdelmadjid


    International audience; A powerful imaging technique based on femtosecond time-resolved measurements with a high dynamic range, commercial CCD camera is presented. Ultrafast phenomena induced by a femtosecond laser pump are visualized through the lock-in type acquisition of images recorded by a femtosecond laser probe. This technique allows time-resolved measurements of laser excited phenomena at multiple probe wavelengths (spectrometer mode) or conventional imaging of the sample surface (ima...

  8. Miniature CCD X-Ray Imaging Camera Technology Final Report CRADA No. TC-773-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conder, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mummolo, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The goal of the project was to develop a compact, large active area, high spatial resolution, high dynamic range, charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating X-rays. The camera head and controller needed to be capable of operation within a vacuum environment and small enough to be fielded within the small vacuum target chambers at LLNL.

  9. Smear correction of highly variable, frame-transfer CCD images with application to polarimetry. (United States)

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Feller, Alex; Nagaraju, Krishnappa


    Image smear, produced by the shutterless operation of frame-transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report, we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  10. The use of a CCD imaging system for X-ray film intensity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, M.W.; Barnea, Z.


    The use of a simple CCD-based imaging system for digitizing and x-ray film image is demonstrated. A method of extending the region of linear response of the film based upon an analytic representation of the observed response to a series of increasing exposures is described. The validity of the procedure is illustrated through an example of the absolute intensity measurement of a reflection of cadmium sulphide. 3 refs., 7 figs

  11. A method for measuring modulation transfer function of CCD device in remote camera with grating pattern (United States)

    Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Shen, Weimin


    The remote camera that is developed by us is the exclusive functional load of a micro-satellite. Modulation transfer function (MTF) is a direct and accurate parameter to evaluate the system performance of a remote camera, and the MTF of a camera is jointly decided by the MTF of camera lens and its CCD device. The MTF of the camera lens can be tested directly with commercial optical system testing instrument, but it is indispensable to measure the MTF of the CCD device accurately before setting up the whole camera to evaluate the performance of the whole camera in advance. Compared with other existed MTF measuring methods, this method using grating pattern requires less equipment and simpler arithmetic. Only one complete scan of the grating pattern and later data processing and interpolation are needed to get the continuous MTF curves of the whole camera and its CCD device. High-precision optical system testing instrument guarantees the precision of this indirect measuring method. This indirect method to measure MTF is of reference use for the method of testing MTF of electronic device and for gaining MTF indirectly from corresponding CTF.

  12. Online inspection of thermo-chemical heat treatment processes with CCD camera system (United States)

    Zauner, Gerald; Darilion, Gerald; Pree, Ronald; Heim, Daniel; Hendorfer, G.


    Plasma nitriding belongs to the group of the thermo chemical surface heat treatments. During this process nitrogen is dissociated into the surface of the material increasing hardness, wear resistance, endurance strength and/or corrosion resistance. This paper presents a new inspection system based on a CCD camera system for monitoring such heat treatment processes (PACVD, plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition). Treatment temperatures commonly used are within the range of 350 °C to 600 °C. A near infrared enhanced CCD camera system equipped with specifically chosen spectral filters is used to measure spectral emittances during the surface modification. In particular the spectral operating range of 950nm to 1150nm of the silicon CCD camera is utilized. The measurement system is based on the principles of ratio pyrometry (dual-band method) known from non-contact temperature measurements, in which two images of the same scene, each taken at slightly different spectral bands, are used to determine the spectral light characteristics. This results in an improved relative sensitivity for spectral changes (i.e. deviations from the gray-body hypothesis) during the surface modification.

  13. Color balancing in CCD color cameras using analog signal processors made by Kodak (United States)

    Kannegundla, Ram


    The green, red, and blue color filters used for CCD sensors generally have different responses. It is often necessary to balance these three colors for displaying a high-quality image on the monitor. The color filter arrays on sensors have different architectures. A CCD with standard G R G B pattern is considered for the present discussion. A simple method of separating the colors using CDS/H that is a part of KASPs (Analog Signal Processors made by Kodak) and using the gain control, which is also a part of KASPs for color balance, is presented. The colors are separated from the video output of sensor by using three KASPs, one each for green, red, and blue colors and by using alternate sample pulses for green and 1 in 4 pulses for red and blue. The separated colors gain is adjusted either automatically or manually and sent to the monitor for direct display in the analog mode or through an A/D converter digitally to the memory. This method of color balancing demands high-quality ASPs. Kodak has designed four different chips with varying levels of power consumption and speed for analog signal processing of video output of CCD sensors. The analog ASICs have been characterized for noise, clock feedthrough, acquisition time, linearity, variable gain, line rate clamp, black muxing, affect of temperature variations on chip performance, and droop. The ASP chips have met their design specifications.

  14. A machine vision system with CCD cameras for patient positioning in radiotherapy: a preliminary report. (United States)

    Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yamaguchi, Toshihiro; Toba, Takashi; Anai, Shigeo; Terashima, Hiromi; Honda, Hiroshi


    To determine positioning accuracy of a machine vision system in radiotherapy. The machine vision system was composed of 640 x 480 pixel CCD cameras and computerized control systems. For image acquisition, the phantom was set up for the reference position and a single CCD camera was positioned 1.5 m from the isocenter. The image data of the fiducial marker with 1.5 mm lead pellet on the lateral surface of the phantom was captured onto the CCD, and then the position of the marker was accurately calculated. The phantom was moved 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 2.00, and 3.00 mm from the reference position, using a micrometer head. The position of the fiducial marker was analyzed using a kilo-voltage fluoroscopic imaging system and a machine vision system. Using fluoroscopic images, the discrepancy between the actual movement of the phantom by micrometer heads and the measurement was found to be 0.12 +/- 0.05 mm (mean +/- standard deviation). In contrast, the detection of the movement by the machine vision system coincided with the discrepancy of 0.0067 +/- 0.0048 mm. This study suggests that the machine vision system can be used to measure small changes in patient position with a resolution of less than 0.1 mm.

  15. Cooling System for a Frame-Store PN-CCD Detector for Low Background Application

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, H; Santos Silva, P; Kuster, M; Lang, P


    The astroparticle physics experiment CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) aims to detect hypothetical axions or axion-like particles produced in the Sun by the Primakoff process. A Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype superconducting dipole magnet provides a 9 T transverse magnetic field for the conversion of axions into detectable X-ray photons. These photons are detected with an X-ray telescope and a novel type of frame-store CCD detector built from radio-pure materials, installed in the optics focal plane. A novel type of cooling system has been designed and built based on krypton-filled cryogenic heat pipes, made out of oxygen-free radiopure copper, and a Stirling cryocooler as cold source. The heat pipes provide an efficient thermal coupling between the cryocooler and the CCD which is kept at stable temperatures between 150 and 230 K within an accuracy of 0.1 K. A graded-Z radiation shield, also serving as a gas cold-trap operated at 120 K, is implemented to reduce the surface contamination of the CCD wind...

  16. Trap pumping schemes for the Euclid CCD273 detector: characterisation of electrodes and defects (United States)

    Skottfelt, J.; Hall, D. J.; Dryer, B.; Bush, N.; Campa, J.; Gow, J. P. D.; Holland, A. D.; Jordan, D.; Burt, D.


    The VISible imager instrument (VIS) on board the Euclid mission will deliver high resolution shape measurements of galaxies down to very faint limits (R ~ 25 at 10σ) in a large part of the sky, in order to infer the distribution of dark matter in the Universe. To help mitigate radiation damage effects that will accumulate in the detectors over the mission lifetime, the properties of the radiation induced traps needs to be known with as high precision as possible. For this purpose the trap pumping method will be employed as part of the in-orbit calibration routines. Using trap pumping it is possible to identify and characterise single traps in a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD), thus providing information such as the density, emission time constants and sub-pixel positions of the traps in the detectors. This paper presents the trap pumping algorithms used for the radiation testing campaign of the CCD273 detectors, performed by the Centre for Electronic Imaging (CEI) at the Open University, that will be used for the VIS instrument. The CCD273 is a four-phase device with uneven phase widths, which complicates the trap pumping analysis. However, we find that by optimising the trap pumping algorithms and analysis routines, it is possible to obtain sub-pixel and even sub-phase positional information about the traps. Further, by comparing trap pumping data with simulations, it is possible to gain more information about the effective electrode widths of the device.

  17. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  18. Large area high-resolution CCD-based X-ray detector for macromolecular crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Pokric, M; Jorden, A R; Cox, M P; Marshall, A; Long, P G; Moon, K; Jerram, P A; Pool, P; Nave, C; Derbyshire, G E; Helliwell, J R


    An X-ray detector system for macromolecular crystallography based on a large area charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor has been developed as part of a large research and development programme for advanced X-ray sensor technology, funded by industry and the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) in the UK. The prototype detector consists of two large area three-sides buttable charge-coupled devices (CCD 46-62 EEV), where the single CCD area is 55.3 mmx41.5 mm. Overall detector imaging area is easily extendable to 85 mmx110 mm. The detector consists of an optically coupled X-ray sensitive phosphor, skewed fibre-optic studs and CCDs. The crystallographic measurement requirements at synchrotron sources are met through a high spatial resolution (2048x1536 pixel array), high dynamic range (approx 10 sup 5), a fast readout (approx 1 s), low noise (<10e sup -) and much reduced parallax error. Additionally, the prototype detector system has been optimised by increasing its efficiency at low X-ray ene...

  19. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do


    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  20. Development of X-ray CCD camera system with high readout rate using ASIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Anabuki, Naohisa; Miyata, Emi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Doty, John P.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Katayama, Haruyoshi


    We report on the development of an X-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) camera system with high readout rate using application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and Camera Link standard. The distinctive ΔΣ type analog-to-digital converter is introduced into the chip to achieve effective noise shaping and to obtain a high resolution with relatively simple circuits. The unit test proved moderately low equivalent input noise of 70μV with a high readout pixel rate of 625 kHz, while the entire chip consumes only 100 mW. The Camera Link standard was applied for the connectivity between the camera system and frame grabbers. In the initial test of the whole system, we adopted a P-channel CCD with a thick depletion layer developed for X-ray CCD camera onboard the next Japanese X-ray astronomical satellite. The characteristic X-rays from 109 Cd were successfully read out resulting in the energy resolution of 379(±7)eV (FWHM) at 22.1 keV, that is, ΔE/E=1.7% with a readout rate of 44 kHz.

  1. CCD [charge-coupled device] sensors in synchrotron x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.G.; Naday, I.; Sherman, I.S.; Kraimer, M.R.; Westbrook, E.M.; Zaluzec, N.J.


    The intense photon flux from advanced synchrotron light sources, such as the 7-GeV synchrotron being designed at Argonne, require integrating-type detectors. Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are well suited as synchrotron x-ray detectors. When irradiated indirectly via a phosphor followed by reducing optics, diffraction patterns of 100 cm 2 can be imaged on a 2 cm 2 CCD. With a conversion efficiency of ∼1 CCD electron/x-ray photon, a peak saturation capacity of >10 6 x rays can be obtained. A programmable CCD controller operating at a clock frequency of 20 MHz has been developed. The readout rate is 5 x 10 6 pixels/s and the shift rate in the parallel registers is 10 6 lines/s. The test detector was evaluated in two experiments. In protein crystallography diffraction patterns have been obtained from a lysozyme crystal using a conventional rotating anode x-ray generator. Based on these results we expect to obtain at a synchrotron diffraction images at the rate of ∼1 frame/s or a complete 3-dimensional data set from a single crystal in ∼2 min. 16 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Jonckheere Double Star Photometry – Part IX: Sagitta (United States)

    Knapp, Wilfried


    If any double star discoverer is in urgent need of photometry then it is Jonckheere. There are over 3000 Jonckheere objects listed in the WDS catalog and a good part with magnitudes obviously far too bright. This report covers a part of the Jonckheere objects in the constellation Sagitta including a check if physical by means of UCAC5 proper motion data. In most cases only one image per object is taken for differential photometry as even a single image based measurement is better than the currently often given mere estimation. As by-product a new CPM candidate pair was discovered and as appendix the UCAC5 proper motion data quality was counter-checked with GAIA DR1 (TGAS).

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bright white dwarfs for high-speed photometry (Raddi+, 2017) (United States)

    Raddi, R.; Gentile Fusillo, N. P.; Pala, A. F.; Hermes, J. J.; Gansicke, B. T.; Chote, P.; Hollands, M. A.; Henden, A.; Catalan, S.; Geier, S.; Koester, D.; Munari, U.; Napiwotzki, R.; Tremblay, P.-E.


    This photometric and reduced proper motion catalogue was created to identify suitable targets for the space-borne mission TESS, which will acquire all- sky time-series photometry for at least two years searching for exoplanet transits and enabling asteroseismology for numerous classes of stars. We cross-matched APASS, GALEX, 2MASS, and WISE, with PPMXL.The attached data include current-epoch positions and photometry of known white dwarfs, candidate white dwarfs, and new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs. For the new stars, we estimated the atmospheric parameters (temperature and surface gravity), masses, and ages. Nine white dwarfs have low mass secondaries, for which we estimate temperatures and ages. (6 data files).

  4. Combining Photometry from Kepler and TESS to Improve Short-Period Exoplanet Characterization (United States)

    Placek, Ben; Knuth, Kevin H.; Angerhausen, Daniel


    Planets emit thermal radiation and reflect incident light that they receive from their host stars. As a planet orbits its host star the photometric variations associated with these two effects produce very similar phase curves. If observed through only a single bandpass, this leads to a degeneracy between certain planetary parameters that hinder the precise characterization of such planets. However, observing the same planet through two different bandpasses gives much more information about the planet. Here we develop a Bayesian methodology for combining photometry from both Kepler and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. In addition, we demonstrate via simulations that one can disentangle the reflected and thermally emitted light from the atmosphere of a hot-Jupiter as well as more precisely constrain both the geometric albedo and day-side temperature of the planet. This methodology can further be employed using various combinations of photometry from the James Webb Space Telescope, the Characterizing ExOplanet Satellite, or the PLATO mission.

  5. A simple and accurate method for the quality control of the I.I.-DR apparatus using the CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hitoshi; Shiraishi, Akihisa; Kuraishi, Masahiko


    With the advancing development of CCD cameras, the I.I.-DR apparatus has been introduced into the x-ray fluoroscopy television system. Consequently, quality control of the system has become a complicated task. We developed a simple, accurate method for quality control of the I.I.-DR apparatus using the CCD camera. Experiments were separately performed for the imager system [laser imager, DDX (dynamic digital x-ray system)] and the imaging system (I.I., ND-filter, IRIS, CCD camera). Quality control of the imager system was done by simply examining both input and output characteristics with a sliding pattern. Quality control of the imaging system was also conducted by estimating AVE (the average volume element), which was obtained using a phantom under the constant conditions. The results indicated that this simplified method is useful as a weekly quality control check of the I.I.-DR apparatus using the CCD camera. (author)

  6. APASS Landolt-Sloan BVgri photometry of Rave stars. I. Data, effective temperatures, and reddenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Henden, A.; Frigo, A.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Siebert, A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Kordopatis, G.; Helmi, A.; Levine, S. E.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.


    We provide AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) photometry in the Landolt BV and Sloan g'r'i' bands for all 425,743 stars included in the fourth RAVE Data Release. The internal accuracy of the APASS photometry of RAVE stars, expressed as the error of the mean of data obtained and separately calibrated over a median of four distinct observing epochs and distributed between 2009 and 2013, is 0.013, 0.012, 0.012, 0.014, and 0.021 mag for the B, V, g', r', and i' bands, respectively. The equally high external accuracy of APASS photometry has been verified on secondary Landolt and Sloan photometric standard stars not involved in the APASS calibration process and on a large body of literature data on field and cluster stars, confirming the absence of offsets and trends. Compared with the Carlsberg Meridian Catalog (CMC-15), APASS astrometry of RAVE stars is accurate to a median value of 0.098 arcsec. Brightness distribution functions for the RAVE stars have been derived in all bands. APASS photometry of RAVE stars, augmented by 2MASS JHK infrared data, has been χ 2 fitted to a densely populated synthetic photometric library designed to widely explore temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and reddening. Resulting T eff and E B–V , computed over a range of options, are provided and discussed, and will be kept updated in response to future APASS and RAVE data releases. In the process, we find that the reddening caused by a homogeneous slab of dust, extending for 140 pc on either side of the Galactic plane and responsible for E B−V poles = 0.036 ± 0.002 at the Galactic poles, is a suitable approximation of the actual reddening encountered at Galactic latitudes |b| ≥ 25°.

  7. APASS Landolt-Sloan BVgri photometry of Rave stars. I. Data, effective temperatures, and reddenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munari, U.; Siviero, A. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, I-36012 Asiago (VI) (Italy); Henden, A. [AAVSO, Cambridge, MA (United States); Frigo, A. [ANS Collaboration, c/o Astronomical Observatory, Padova (Italy); Zwitter, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bienaymé, O.; Siebert, A. [Observatoire Astronomique, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, 11 rue de l' université F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Freeman, K. C. [Mount Stromlo Observatory, RSAA, Australian National University, Weston Creek, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gibson, B. K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gilmore, G.; Kordopatis, G. [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Helmi, A. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Levine, S. E. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Navarro, J. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Seabroke, G. M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); and others


    We provide AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) photometry in the Landolt BV and Sloan g'r'i' bands for all 425,743 stars included in the fourth RAVE Data Release. The internal accuracy of the APASS photometry of RAVE stars, expressed as the error of the mean of data obtained and separately calibrated over a median of four distinct observing epochs and distributed between 2009 and 2013, is 0.013, 0.012, 0.012, 0.014, and 0.021 mag for the B, V, g', r', and i' bands, respectively. The equally high external accuracy of APASS photometry has been verified on secondary Landolt and Sloan photometric standard stars not involved in the APASS calibration process and on a large body of literature data on field and cluster stars, confirming the absence of offsets and trends. Compared with the Carlsberg Meridian Catalog (CMC-15), APASS astrometry of RAVE stars is accurate to a median value of 0.098 arcsec. Brightness distribution functions for the RAVE stars have been derived in all bands. APASS photometry of RAVE stars, augmented by 2MASS JHK infrared data, has been χ{sup 2} fitted to a densely populated synthetic photometric library designed to widely explore temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and reddening. Resulting T {sub eff} and E {sub B–V}, computed over a range of options, are provided and discussed, and will be kept updated in response to future APASS and RAVE data releases. In the process, we find that the reddening caused by a homogeneous slab of dust, extending for 140 pc on either side of the Galactic plane and responsible for E{sub B−V}{sup poles} = 0.036 ± 0.002 at the Galactic poles, is a suitable approximation of the actual reddening encountered at Galactic latitudes |b| ≥ 25°.

  8. NIR photometry of the Radio Source GB6 J0713+5738 (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Lopez, A.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.


    We report on NIR photometry of the radio source GB6J0713+5738, tentatively identified with the Gamma-ray source Fermi J0713+5739 (ATels #10149, #11056). On January 22nd, 2018, we observed a source coincident with the radio source coordinates, finding that on MJD2458140.8592, its fluxes corresponded to J = 16.448 +/- 0.07, H = 15.865 +/- 0.02 and Ks = 14.931 +/- 0.05.

  9. Comparing the ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS Calibration and Photometry (United States)

    Deustua, S. E.; Mack, J.


    A study was undertaken using synthetic photometry of CALSPEC stars to compare the ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) photometry to the WFC3 UVIS imaging channel in eight similarly named passbands corresponding to the broadband filters F435W (ACS/WFC) F438W (WFC3/UVIS) and F475W, F555W, F606W, F625W, F775W, F814W and F850LP (both ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS). The uncertainty of the photometric calibration of ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS with respect to the white dwarf standard stars is within ± 0.5% for F814W, F775W, F606W and F475W, and within ±1% for F625W and F850LP. For F555W the apparent difference in the calibration is 2% for F555W and 6% for UVIS/F438W and ACS/F435W due to inherent differences in the filter passbands. Comparing the ACS/WFC to WFC3/UVIS mean flux for stars having a range of spectral types shows a color dependence. The WFC to UVIS F814W color dependence is ± 0.02 mags for F814W, F775W, F475W and F606W. For the other filters the range is -0.06 to +0.02 mags. Aperture photometry of the 47 Tucanae cluster confirm the results from using synthetic photometry of CALSPEC stars.

  10. Photometry-based estimation of the total number of stars in the Universe. (United States)

    Manojlović, Lazo M


    A novel photometry-based estimation of the total number of stars in the Universe is presented. The estimation method is based on the energy conservation law and actual measurements of the extragalactic background light levels. By assuming that every radiated photon is kept within the Universe volume, i.e., by approximating the Universe as an integrating cavity without losses, the total number of stars in the Universe of about 6×1022 has been obtained.

  11. Keck i LWS Mid-Ir Images and Photometry of 9P/TEMPEL 1 (United States)

    Fernandez, Y. R.; Lisse, C. M.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Belton, M. J. S.


    This data set contains raw and reduced mid-infrared images and photometry of comet 9P/Tempel 1, the target of the Deep Impact mission. Images were acquired on the night of 21 August 2000, about 7.5 months after perihelion, by Y. Fernandez, C. Lisse, M. A'Hearn and M. Belton using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer instrument at the Keck I telescope.

  12. Determination of palladium by flame photometry; Determinacion de paladio por fotometria de llama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parallada Bellod, R.


    A study on the determination of palladium by lame photometry, fixing the most convent experimental conditions and using solvents to increase the emission of this elements is carried out. Among the organic solvents, acetone has been found the most efficient. The interferences produced by anions and cations have also been studied and an analytical method is related, in which lines of calibration of 0 to 100 ppm palladium re used. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. APASS Landolt-Sloan BVgri Photometry of RAVE Stars. I. Data, Effective Temperatures, and Reddenings (United States)

    Munari, U.; Henden, A.; Frigo, A.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Levine, S. E.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Smith, T. C.; Steinmetz, M.; Templeton, M.; Terrell, D.; Welch, D. L.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.


    We provide AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) photometry in the Landolt BV and Sloan g'r'i' bands for all 425,743 stars included in the fourth RAVE Data Release. The internal accuracy of the APASS photometry of RAVE stars, expressed as the error of the mean of data obtained and separately calibrated over a median of four distinct observing epochs and distributed between 2009 and 2013, is 0.013, 0.012, 0.012, 0.014, and 0.021 mag for the B, V, g', r', and i' bands, respectively. The equally high external accuracy of APASS photometry has been verified on secondary Landolt and Sloan photometric standard stars not involved in the APASS calibration process and on a large body of literature data on field and cluster stars, confirming the absence of offsets and trends. Compared with the Carlsberg Meridian Catalog (CMC-15), APASS astrometry of RAVE stars is accurate to a median value of 0.098 arcsec. Brightness distribution functions for the RAVE stars have been derived in all bands. APASS photometry of RAVE stars, augmented by 2MASS JHK infrared data, has been χ2 fitted to a densely populated synthetic photometric library designed to widely explore temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and reddening. Resulting T eff and E B - V , computed over a range of options, are provided and discussed, and will be kept updated in response to future APASS and RAVE data releases. In the process, we find that the reddening caused by a homogeneous slab of dust, extending for 140 pc on either side of the Galactic plane and responsible for EpolesB-V = 0.036 ± 0.002 at the Galactic poles, is a suitable approximation of the actual reddening encountered at Galactic latitudes |b| >= 25°.

  14. Rethinking CCD's Significance in Estimating Late Neogene Whole Ocean Carbonate Budget (United States)

    Si, W.; Rosenthal, Y.


    The global averaged calcite compensation depth (CCD) record is conventionally used to reconstruct two correlatable parameters of the carbonate system - the alkalinity budget of the ocean and/or the saturation state of the ocean. Accordingly, the available CCD reconstructions have been interpreted to suggest either relative stable (Pearson and Palmer, 2000) or increased alkalinity of the ocean over the past 15 Ma (Tyrrell and Zeebe, 2004; Pälike et al., 2012). However, CCD alone is insufficient to constrain the carbonate system because the weathering flux of alkalinity into the ocean is not only balanced by CaCO3 dissolution on the seafloor but also by the biologic production in the euphotic zone and, the CCD records cannot be readily interpreted as changes in either process. Here, we present evidence of the co-evolution of surface CaCO3 production and deepsea dissolution through the late Neogene. By examining separately the mass accumulation rates (MAR) of coccoliths, planktonic foraminifera, and quantifying dissolution (using a proxy revised from Broecker et al., 1999) in seventeen deepsea cores from multiple depth-transects, we find that 1) MAR of dissolution-resistant coccoliths was substantially higher in the mid Miocene and declining on a global scale towards the present; 2) unlike coccoliths, MAR of planktonic foraminifera, shows no apparent secular trend through that time; 3) the revised dissolution index, shows significantly improved preservation of planktonic foraminiferal shells over that time, particularly at intermediate water depth and exhibits close association between changes in preservation with key climatic events. Our new records have two immediate implications. First, the substantially weakened pelagic biogenic carbonate production from mid Miocene to present alone could account for the improved preservation of deepsea carbonates without calling for a scenario of increased weathering input. Second, with the constrain of global averaged CCD

  15. Investigation of the Extracellular Matrix Effect for the QCM/CCD Cell Activity Monitoring System. (United States)

    Kang, Hyen-Wook; Otani, Naoya; Hiroshi, Muramatsu; Chang, Sang-Mok; Kim, Jong Min


    A real-time quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) cell activity monitoring system coupled with micro CCD cameras was developed to investigate the cultured cell activity, which could measure the viscoelastic characteristics of the cell with the QCM and observe the cell morphology changes with CCD camera simultaneously. Both the viscoelastic characteristics and the shape of the cultured cell are important factors to estimate the cell activity and the cell adhesion. The extracellular matrix (ECM) on the surface of the QCM is essential to culture the cell stably in the QCM monitoring system. To find the ECM optimization condition, the adhesive strength of cultured cells on the ECM modified glass surface was measured by using rotating water stream and CCD camera. After culturing HepG2 cells for 24 hours on the ECM modified glass plates, the glass plates were dipped in the PBS solution and rotated with 1,000, 1,300, and 1,500 rpm for 30 seconds. The adhesiveness of ECMs was investigated by calculating the remained cells after rotating. Four types of ECM, such as amino group, carboxyl group, collagen monomer, and collagen polymer, were used and tested. The current paper improves the sensing system of previous report so that measurements of four ECMs can be simultaneously conducted under the same conditions in order to enhance reliability. A collagen polymer exposed ECM was the most stable on an adhesiveness point of view, but not suitable for the QCM cell activity monitoring due to the decrease of the QCM sensitivity. The sensitivity of the QCM cell activity monitoring system using collagen monomer as ECM is about 2.6 times better than that using collagen polymer. A collagen monomer exposed ECM was more stable than amino group and carboxyl group exposed ECMs based on an adhesiveness point of view. Therefore, a collagen monomer exposed ECM was the most stable and suitable for the QCM cell activity monitoring system among the four ECMs. The changes of the resonance frequency

  16. Improving photometric redshift estimation using GPZ: size information, post processing, and improved photometry (United States)

    Gomes, Zahra; Jarvis, Matt J.; Almosallam, Ibrahim A.; Roberts, Stephen J.


    The next generation of large-scale imaging surveys (such as those conducted with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Euclid) will require accurate photometric redshifts in order to optimally extract cosmological information. Gaussian Process for photometric redshift estimation (GPZ) is a promising new method that has been proven to provide efficient, accurate photometric redshift estimations with reliable variance predictions. In this paper, we investigate a number of methods for improving the photometric redshift estimations obtained using GPZ (but which are also applicable to others). We use spectroscopy from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly Data Release 2 with a limiting magnitude of r Digital Sky Survey visible (ugriz) photometry and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey near-IR (YJHK) photometry. We evaluate the effects of adding near-IR magnitudes and angular size as features for the training, validation, and testing of GPZ and find that these improve the accuracy of the results by ˜15-20 per cent. In addition, we explore a post-processing method of shifting the probability distributions of the estimated redshifts based on their Quantile-Quantile plots and find that it improves the bias by ˜40 per cent. Finally, we investigate the effects of using more precise photometry obtained from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program Data Release 1 and find that it produces significant improvements in accuracy, similar to the effect of including additional features.

  17. Detecting Bias in a Self-Organizing Map of Galaxy Photometry Data (United States)

    Claytor, Zachary R.


    High redshift (very distant) galaxy surveys record broad-band photometry for billions of galaxies in order to measure distances in a faster, more cost-effective way than spectroscopy. Knowing these distances (more specifically, the redshifts) helps cosmologists learn more about the early universe and how it evolved, but calibrating the redshifts from photometry requires a color-selection technique. One such technique is the Self-Organizing Map (SOM), a machine-learning algorithm that projects high-dimensional photometry data onto a visual, two-dimensional map. High-redshift galaxies can be identified efficiently in such a mapping. However, there is a chance that high-redshift galaxies are lost to low-redshift regions and vice versa due to photometric error; this effect was analyzed. A Monte Carlo simulation was run on objects selected from along the boundary between high- and low-redshift regions. Roughly 18% of selected objects scattered from high- to low-redshift, and about 16% scattered the other way. Further research will design a better metric of the scattering percentages based on the number density of galaxies in the map, and future work should use these analysis techniques on other high-redshift data.

  18. Multi-Site Simultaneous Time-Resolved Photometry with a Low Cost Electro-Optics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest Gasdia


    Full Text Available Sunlight reflected off of resident space objects can be used as an optical signal for astrometric orbit determination and for deducing geometric information about the object. With the increasing population of small satellites and debris in low Earth orbit, photometry is a powerful tool in operational support of space missions, whether for anomaly resolution or object identification. To accurately determine size, shape, spin rate, status of deployables, or attitude information of an unresolved resident space object, multi-hertz sample rate photometry is required to capture the relatively rapid changes in brightness that these objects can exhibit. OSCOM, which stands for Optical tracking and Spectral characterization of CubeSats for Operational Missions, is a low cost and portable telescope system capable of time-resolved small satellite photometry, and is field deployable on short notice for simultaneous observation from multiple sites. We present the electro-optical design principles behind OSCOM and light curves of the 1.5 U DICE-2 CubeSat and simultaneous observations of the main body of the ASTRO-H satellite after its fragmentation event.

  19. Multi-Site Simultaneous Time-Resolved Photometry with a Low Cost Electro-Optics System. (United States)

    Gasdia, Forrest; Barjatya, Aroh; Bilardi, Sergei


    Sunlight reflected off of resident space objects can be used as an optical signal for astrometric orbit determination and for deducing geometric information about the object. With the increasing population of small satellites and debris in low Earth orbit, photometry is a powerful tool in operational support of space missions, whether for anomaly resolution or object identification. To accurately determine size, shape, spin rate, status of deployables, or attitude information of an unresolved resident space object, multi-hertz sample rate photometry is required to capture the relatively rapid changes in brightness that these objects can exhibit. OSCOM, which stands for Optical tracking and Spectral characterization of CubeSats for Operational Missions, is a low cost and portable telescope system capable of time-resolved small satellite photometry, and is field deployable on short notice for simultaneous observation from multiple sites. We present the electro-optical design principles behind OSCOM and light curves of the 1.5 U DICE-2 CubeSat and simultaneous observations of the main body of the ASTRO-H satellite after its fragmentation event.

  20. A multiple CCD X-ray detector and its first operation with synchrotron radiation X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayo; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kumasaka, Takashi; Sato, Kazumichi; Toyokawa, Hidenori; Aries, Ian F.; Jerram, Paul A.; Ueki, Tatzuo


    A 4x4 array structure of 16 identical CCD X-ray detector modules, called the multiple CCD X-ray detector system (MCCDX), was submitted to its first synchrotron radiation experiment at the protein crystallography station of the RIKEN beamline (BL45XU) at the SPring-8 facility. An X-ray diffraction pattern of cholesterol powder was specifically taken in order to investigate the overall system performance

  1. A multiple CCD X-ray detector and its first operation with synchrotron radiation X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, M; Kumasaka, T; Sato, K; Toyokawa, H; Aries, I F; Jerram, P A; Ueki, T


    A 4x4 array structure of 16 identical CCD X-ray detector modules, called the multiple CCD X-ray detector system (MCCDX), was submitted to its first synchrotron radiation experiment at the protein crystallography station of the RIKEN beamline (BL45XU) at the SPring-8 facility. An X-ray diffraction pattern of cholesterol powder was specifically taken in order to investigate the overall system performance.

  2. A comparison of film and 3 digital imaging systems for natural dental caries detection: CCD, CMOS, PSP and film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Won Jeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of occlusal and proximal caries detection using CCD, CMOS, PSP and film system. 32 occlusal and 30 proximal tooth surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions using 3 digital systems; CCD (CDX-2000HQ, Biomedysis Co., Seoul, Korea), CMOS (Schick, Schick Inc., Long Island, USA), PSP (Digora FMX, Orion Co./Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) and 1 film system (Kodak Insight, Eastman Kodak, Rochester, USA). 5 observers examined the radiographs for occlusal and proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale. The presence of caries was validated histologically and radiographically. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using ROC curve areas (AZ). Analysis using ROC curves revealed the area under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy. For occlusal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.765, CCD one of 0.730, CMOS one of 0.742 and PSP one of 0.735. For proximal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.833, CCD one of 0.832, CMOS one of 0.828 and PSP one of 0.868. No statistically significant difference was noted between any of the imaging modalities. CCD, CMOS, PSP and film performed equally well in the detection of occlusal and proximal dental caries. CCD, CMOS and PSP-based digital images provided a level of diagnostic performance comparable to Kodak Insight film.

  3. High time resolution CCD camera with X-ray image intensifier for SPring-8 BL40XU

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, T; Yagi, N


    SPring-8 BL40XU is designed to use high flux X-ray for small angle X-ray scattering and multi purpose. The flux at the experimental hutch is about 1 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 photons/sec at 12.4 KeV, which is larger 2 approx 3 figures than other beamlines at SPring-8. To utilize the high flux X-ray efficiently, new high-speed detector is needed. Therefore, a high frame rate CCD camera C7770 (Hamamatsu) and a new 6-inch X-ray image intensifier V5445P (Hamamatsu) were developed for BL40XU. The CCD camera has three CCD chips to increase the readout speed. Three identical images are created by a prism system in the CCD camera and projected onto the three chips. The pixel number of the CCD is 640 x 480 and the frame rate is 291 frames/sec. Reduction of the number of horizontal lines leads to a faster frame rate up to a few thousands. The combination of the CCD and with an X-ray shutter also leads to faster discrete data acquisition. (author)

  4. On-Line High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test of the CCD/CMOS Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, test results of gamma ray irradiation to CCD/CMOS cameras are described. From the CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system) data of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant station, we found out that the gamma ray dose-rate when the hydrogen explosion occurred in nuclear reactors 1{approx}3 is about 160 Gy/h. If assumed that the emergency response robot for the management of severe accident of the nuclear power plant has been sent into the reactor area to grasp the inside situation of reactor building and to take precautionary measures against releasing radioactive materials, the CCD/CMOS cameras, which are loaded with the robot, serve as eye of the emergency response robot. In the case of the Japanese Quince robot system, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras are used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. In the preceding assumptions, a major problem which arises when dealing with CCD/CMOS cameras in the severe accident situations of the nuclear power plant is the presence of high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. In the case of the DBA (design basis accident) situations of the nuclear power plant, in order to use a CCD/CMOS camera as an ad-hoc monitoring unit in the vicinity of high radioactivity structures and components of the nuclear reactor area, a robust survivability of this camera in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore should be verified. The CCD/CMOS cameras of various types were gamma irradiated at a

  5. Transformation of Pan-STARRS1 gri to Stetson BVRI magnitudes. Photometry of small bodies observations. (United States)

    Kostov, A.; Bonev, T.


    The UBVRI broad band photometric system is widely used in CCD astronomy. There are a lot of sets of standard stars for this photometric system, the Landolt's and Stetson's catalogues being the most precise and reliable. Another photometric system, recently considerably spread in CCD observations is ugriz, which originates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and has now many variations based on its 5 broad-band filters. One of the photometric systems based on it is The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). In this paper we compare the BVRI magnitudes in the Stetson catalogue of standard stars with the magnitudes of the corresponding stars in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) grizyw catalogue. Transformations between these two systems are presented and discussed. An algorithm for data reduction and calibration is developed and its functionality is demonstrated in the magnitude determination of an asteroid.

  6. New design for the UCO/Lick Observatory CCD guide camera (United States)

    Wei, Mingzhi; Stover, Richard J.


    A new CCD based field acquisition and telescope guiding camera is being designed and built at UCO/Lick Observatory. Our goal is a camera which is fully computer controllable, compact in size, versatile enough to provide a wide variety of image acquisition modes, and able to operate with a wide variety of CCD detectors. The camera will improve our remote-observing capabilities since it will be easy to control the camera and obtain images over the Observatory computer network. To achieve the desired level of operating flexibility, the design incorporates state-of-the-art technologies such as high density, high speed programmable logic devices and non-volatile static memory. Various types of CCDs can be used in this system without major modification of the hardware or software. Though fully computer controllable, the camera can be operated as a stand-alone unit with most operating parameters set locally. A stand-alone display subsystem is also available. A thermoelectric device is used to cool the CCD to about -45c. Integration times can be varied over a range of 0.1 to 1000 seconds. High speed pixel skipping in both horizontal and vertical directions allows us to quickly access a selected subarea of the detector. Three different read out speeds allow the astronomer to select between high-speed/high-noise and low-speed/low-noise operation. On- chip pixel binning and MPP operation are also selectable options. This system can provide automatic sky level measurement and subtraction to accommodate dynamically changing background levels.

  7. C2D8: An eight channel CCD readout electronics dedicated to low energy neutron detection (United States)

    Bourrion, O.; Clement, B.; Tourres, D.; Pignol, G.; Xi, Y.; Rebreyend, D.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.


    Position-sensitive detectors for cold and ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) are in use in fundamental research. In particular, measuring the properties of the quantum states of bouncing neutrons requires micro-metric spatial resolution. To this end, a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) coated with a thin conversion layer that allows a real time detection of neutron hits is under development at LPSC. In this paper, we present the design and performance of a dedicated electronic board designed to read-out eight CCDs simultaneously and operating under vacuum.

  8. Alignment method for 50 m distance using laser and CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Sakuo; Zhang, Chao


    The interference pattern of laser light on the CCD device is suppressed by removing the cover glass in front of the device. The reference plane of the quadrupole magnets after division and restoration becomes unreliable for six years. The measurement tool for mechanical center of the multipole magnet is useful for checking the alignment. Few magnets of which reference planes were unreliable were aligned by using this tool. This also can measure the twist between the poles. It is quite important for the suppression of light fluctuation to choose pipe material. Temperature gradient refracts the light more in the pipe. Copper pipe is better than the paper one. (author)

  9. White-light fringe detection based on a novel light source and colour CCD camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej


    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2011), 094031:1-6 ISSN 0957-0233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GP102/09/P630; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : low-coherence interferometry * phase-crossing algorithm * CCD camera * gauge block Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.494, year: 2011

  10. Fotometría de imágenes CCD insuficientemente muestreadas (United States)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se enfrenta el problema de la fotometría de imágenes CCD con una escala inadecuada (fwhm menor o igual que el tamaño de un pixel) y psf fuertemente variable con la posición. Se analiza, en particular, la aplicabilidad de una táctica propuesta por Massey, consistente en eliminar las vecinas débiles (utilizando una psf rudimentaria) para luego efectuar una fotometría de apertura sobre las estrellas brillantes. Se determina, mediante experimentos numéricos, la precisión alcanzada mediante esta técnica.

  11. UBVRI CCD photometric studies of open clusters Berkeley 15, Czernik 18 and NGC 2401. (United States)

    Sujatha, S.; Babu, G. S. D.; Ananthamurthy, Sharath


    CCD photometric observations of three open clusters Berkeley 15 (=OCl 414), Czernik 18 (=OCl 426) and NGC 2401 (=OCl 588), obtained for the first time in UBVRI filters down to V=20 mag, are presented here. They are located at distances of 1259, 955 and 3467 parsecs with their respective ages estimated as ~5 x 109 years, ~0.8 to 1 x 109 years and ~1 x 109 years. While OCl 414 and OCl 426 are in the direction of the Auriga - Perseus constellations, OCl 588 is placed in the direction of Ophiuchus constellation in our Galaxy. The clusters studied here are of intermediate and old age category.

  12. The research of digital circuit system for high accuracy CCD of portable Raman spectrometer (United States)

    Yin, Yu; Cui, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin


    The Raman spectrum technology is widely used for it can identify various types of molecular structure and material. The portable Raman spectrometer has become a hot direction of the spectrometer development nowadays for its convenience in handheld operation and real-time detection which is superior to traditional Raman spectrometer with heavy weight and bulky size. But there is still a gap for its measurement sensitivity between portable and traditional devices. However, portable Raman Spectrometer with Shell-Isolated Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) technology can enhance the Raman signal significantly by several orders of magnitude, giving consideration in both measurement sensitivity and mobility. This paper proposed a design and implementation of driver and digital circuit for high accuracy CCD sensor, which is core part of portable spectrometer. The main target of the whole design is to reduce the dark current generation rate and increase signal sensitivity during the long integration time, and in the weak signal environment. In this case, we use back-thinned CCD image sensor from Hamamatsu Corporation with high sensitivity, low noise and large dynamic range. In order to maximize this CCD sensor's performance and minimize the whole size of the device simultaneously to achieve the project indicators, we delicately designed a peripheral circuit for the CCD sensor. The design is mainly composed with multi-voltage circuit, sequential generation circuit, driving circuit and A/D transition parts. As the most important power supply circuit, the multi-voltage circuits with 12 independent voltages are designed with reference power supply IC and set to specified voltage value by the amplifier making up the low-pass filter, which allows the user to obtain a highly stable and accurate voltage with low noise. What's more, to make our design easy to debug, CPLD is selected to generate sequential signal. The A/D converter chip consists of a correlated

  13. Phonons in orientationally disordered neopentane C(CD3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeau, M.; Depondt, P.; Hennion, B.; Reichardt, W.


    The phonons of deuteriated neopentane (C(CD 3 ) 4 single crystals in the orientationally disordered phase were measured at T=173 K by coherent inelastic neutron scattering, yielding very broad bands that spread, at a given energy, over a large portion of the Brillouin zone while sitting on an intense background. No librational mode was detected. Selection rule violations, presumably linked to disorder, were observed. The elastic constants are discussed in terms or rotational-translational coupling, and inelastic scattering results are compared with the molecular center of mass translational disorder as obtained from diffraction experiments providing a confirmation of a previous interpretation of these experiments. (orig.)

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy and photometry for HAT-P-50--HAT-P-53 (Hartman+, 2015) (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bhatti, W.; Bakos, G. A.; Bieryla, A.; Kovacs, G.; Latham, D. W.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Penev, K.; Buchhave, L. A.; Torres, G.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Isaacson, H.; Sato, B.; Boisse, I.; Falco, E.; Everett, M. E.; Szklenar, T.; Fulton, B. J.; Shporer, A.; Kovacs, T.; Hansen, T.; Beky, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.; Sari, P.


    The HATNet network consists of six identical fully automated instruments, with four at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO) in AZ, and two on the roof of the Submillimeter Array Hangar Building at Mauna Kea Observatory (MKO) in HI. The light-gathering elements of each instrument include an 11cm diameter telephoto lens, a Sloan r filter, and a 4K*4K front-side-illuminated CCD camera. Observations made in 2007 and early 2008 were carried out using a Cousins R filter. The instruments have a field of view of 10.6°*10.6° and a pixel scale of 9"/pixel at the center of an image. Additional time-series photometric measurements were obtained for all four of the systems using Keplercam on the FLWO 1.2m telescope. For HAT-P-50 we also obtained follow-up photometry with the CCD imager on the Byrne Observatory at Sedgwick (BOS) 0.8m telescope, located at Sedgwick Reserve in Santa Ynez Valley, CA, and operated by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope institute (LCOGT). HAT-P-50 was observed with HAT-10/G316 on 2008 Nov-2009 May, with HAT-5/G364 on 2009 May, with HAT-9/G364 on 2008 Dec-2009 May, with BOS on 2012 Feb 15, on 2012 Feb 21 and on 2012 Apr 08, and with Keplercam on 2012 Feb 18, on 2012 Nov 28, on 2012 Dec 23, on 2013 Jan 14, and on 2013 Jan 17. HAT-P-51 was observed with HAT-6/G164 on 2007 Sep-2008 Feb, with HAT-9/G164 on 2007 Sep-2008 Feb, with HAT-10/G165 on 2010 Sep-2011 Jan, with HAT-5/G165 on 2010 Nov-2011 Feb, with HAT-8/G165 on 2010 Nov-2011 Feb, with HAT-6/G209 on 2010 Nov-2011 Feb, with HAT-9/G209 on 2010 Nov-2011 Feb, with HAT-7/G210 on 2010 Nov-2011 Jan, and with Keplercam on 2011 Oct 21, on 2012 Jan 05, on 2012 Oct 05, on 2012 Oct 26, and on 2012 Nov 12. HAT-P-52 was observed with HAT-5/G212 on 2010 Sep-Nov, with HAT-8/G212 on 2010 Aug-Nov, and with Keplercam on 2010 Dec 23, on 2011 Sep 05, on 2011 Sep 27, on 2011 Nov 21, and on 2012 Jan 07. HAT-P-53 was observed with HAT-6/G164 on 2007 Sep-2008 Feb, with HAT-9/G164 on 2007 Sep-2008 Feb, with

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBV photometry of MWC560 (Tomov+, 1996) (United States)

    Tomov, T.; Kolev, D.; Ivanov, M.; Antov, A.; Jones, A.; Mikolajewski, M.; Lepardo, A.; Passuello, R.; Saccavino, S.; Sostero, G.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Bellas-Velidis, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; Munari, U.


    We present results of an extensive photometric monitoring campaign of the peculiar emission star MWC 560 that covers the range 1990-1995. The time interval corresponds to the length of the proposed orbital period of this highly peculiar binary, which attracted considerable interest in January-April 1990, when absorption components, shifted by -6000km/s from corresponding emission lines, were observed. Here we present photometric data secured during: 113 nights of conventional UBV photoelectric photometry, 45 nights of high speed UBV photoelectric photometry to study the flickering activity, and 682 visual photometric estimates. MWC 560 has experienced a decrease in magnitude since the bright (V=9.2mag) phase in 1990. After the minimum reached in May 1994 (V=10.7mag), the star is currently increasing slowly in brightness. The decrease has been accompanied in all bands by large fluctuations superimposed on the mean trend. The B-V colour has shown a steady increase by 0.0.33mag/yr. U-B has remained stable at -0.07mag since late 1990. In all the observing nights devoted to high speed photometry we observed flickering activity in MWC 560. The data show that the flickering amplitude {DELTA}U increases with the decrease of the U magnitude. Quasi-periodic variations have always been detected. A period of ~70min has been observed in ~13 nights which is close to the ~60min quasi-period reported by Michalitsianos et al. (1993). However, no coherent variability is traceable throughout the whole set of flickering data. (2 data files).

  16. First evidence of multiple populations along the AGB from Strömgren photometry (United States)

    Gruyters, Pieter; Casagrande, Luca; Milone, Antonino P.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Serenelli, Aldo; Feltzing, Sofia


    Spectroscopic studies have demonstrated that nearly all Galactic globular clusters (GCs) harbour multiple stellar populations with different chemical compositions. Moreover, colour-magnitude diagrams based exclusively on Strömgrem photometry have allowed us to identify and characterise multiple populations along the RGB of a large number of clusters. In this paper we show for the first time that Strömgren photometry is also very efficient at identifying multiple populations along the AGB, and demonstrate that the AGB of M 3, M 92, NGC 362, NGC 1851, and NGC 6752 are not consistent with a single stellar population. We also provide a catalogue of RGB and AGB stars photometrically identified in these clusters for further spectroscopic follow-up studies. We combined photometry and elemental abundances from the literature for RGB and AGB stars in NGC 6752 where the presence of multiple populations along the AGB has been widely debated. We find that, while the MS, SGB, and RGB host three stellar populations with different helium and light element abundances, only two populations of AGB stars are present in the cluster. These results are consistent with standard evolutionary theory. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Full Tables B.1 and B.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, S. K.; Morley, Caroline V.; Marley, M. S.; Saumon, D.


    We present new near-infrared photometry for seven late-type T dwarfs and nine Y-type dwarfs, and lower limit magnitudes for a tenth Y dwarf, obtained at Gemini Observatory. We also present a reanalysis of H-band imaging data from the Keck Observatory Archive, for an 11th Y dwarf. These data are combined with earlier MKO-system photometry, Spitzer and WISE mid-infrared photometry, and available trigonometric parallaxes, to create a sample of late-type brown dwarfs that includes 10 T9-T9.5 dwarfs or dwarf systems, and 16 Y dwarfs. We compare the data to our models, which include updated H 2 and NH 3 opacity, as well as low-temperature condensate clouds. The models qualitatively reproduce the trends seen in the observed colors; however, there are discrepancies of around a factor of two in flux for the Y0-Y1 dwarfs, with T eff ≈ 350-400 K. At T eff ∼ 400 K, the problems could be addressed by significantly reducing the NH 3 absorption, for example by halving the abundance of NH 3 possibly by vertical mixing. At T eff ∼ 350 K, the discrepancy may be resolved by incorporating thick water clouds. The onset of these clouds might occur over a narrow range in T eff , as indicated by the observed small change in 5 μm flux over a large change in J – W2 color. Of the known Y dwarfs, the reddest in J –W2 are WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 and WISE J085510.83–071442.5. We interpret the former as a pair of identical 300-350 K dwarfs, and the latter as a 250 K dwarf. If these objects are ∼3 Gyr old, their masses are ∼10 and ∼5 Jupiter-masses, respectively

  18. Assessment of space proton radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency in the CCD204 for the Euclid space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, J P D; Murray, N J; Holland, A D; Hall, D J; Cropper, M; Burt, D; Hopkinson, G; Duvet, L


    Euclid is a medium class European Space Agency mission candidate for launch in 2019 with a primary goal to study the dark universe using the weak lensing and baryonic acoustic oscillations techniques. Weak lensing depends on accurate shape measurements of distant galaxies. Therefore it is beneficial that the effects of radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) in the Euclid CCDs over the course of the 5 year mission at L2 are understood. This will allow, through experimental analysis and modelling techniques, the effects of radiation induced CTI on shape to be decoupled from those of mass inhomogeneities along the line-of-sight. This paper discusses a selection of work from the study that has been undertaken using the e2v CCD204 as part of the initial proton radiation damage assessment for Euclid. The experimental arrangement and procedure are described followed by the results obtained, thereby allowing recommendations to be made on the CCD operating temperature, to provide an insight into CTI effects using an optical background, to assess the benefits of using charge injection on CTI recovery and the effect of the use of two different methods of serial clocking on serial CTI. This work will form the basis of a comparison with a p-channel CCD204 fabricated using the same mask set as the n-channel equivalent. A custom CCD has been designed, based on this work and discussions between e2v technologies plc. and the Euclid consortium, and designated the CCD273.

  19. Contrast reduction in digital images due to x-ray induced damage to a TV camera's CCD image receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkalides, D.


    The CCD image receptor in a monochrome TV camera was irradiated in the dark with a single-phase 80 kVp narrow beam carrying an additional 0.5 mm Al filter. It was found that the CCD responded to the x-rays with a transient signal which would reach a maximum value at about 70 mR per image frame. The signal's contrast would reach a maximum of about 7%, but was detectable at much lower exposure rates. Continuous irradiation of the CCD image receptor created a 'lesion' at the point of incidence that remained after the x-ray beam was switched off. This signal seemed to be due to permanent damage to the CCD and could be detected after a cumulative exposure of less than 20 R. It was shown that such damage could be created much more effectively if the TV camera was switched off rather than on and the maximum contrast was achieved with about 75 R and 220 R respectively. The maximum contrast achieved was about 8%. Further increase in the cumulative exposure of a particular location on the CCD image receptor was not investigated but it seemed reasonable that much higher contrast values could be reached if irradiation was continued. The latter damage described here was found to persist for at least several weeks and hence it will probably prevent any normal use of the TV camera in the future. (author)

  20. The Cross-Cultural Dementia Screening (CCD): A new neuropsychological screening instrument for dementia in elderly immigrants. (United States)

    Goudsmit, Miriam; Uysal-Bozkir, Özgül; Parlevliet, Juliette L; van Campen, Jos P C M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Schmand, Ben


    Currently, approximately 3.9% of the European population are non-EU citizens, and a large part of these people are from "non-Western" societies, such as Turkey and Morocco. For various reasons, the incidence of dementia in this group is expected to increase. However, cognitive testing is challenging due to language barriers and low education and/or illiteracy. The newly developed Cross-Cultural Dementia Screening (CCD) can be administered without an interpreter. It contains three subtests that assess memory, mental speed, and executive function. We hypothesized the CCD to be a culture-fair test that could discriminate between demented patients and cognitively healthy controls. To test this hypothesis, 54 patients who had probable dementia were recruited via memory clinics. Controls (N = 1625) were recruited via their general practitioners. All patients and controls were aged 55 years and older and of six different self-defined ethnicities (Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic, Moroccan-Berber, Surinamese-Creole, and Surinamese-Hindustani). Exclusion criteria included current or previous conditions that affect cognitive functioning. There were performance differences between the ethnic groups, but these disappeared after correcting for age and education differences between the groups, which supports our central hypothesis that the CCD is a culture-fair test. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) and logistic regression analyses showed that the CCD has high predictive validity for dementia (sensitivity: 85%; specificity: 89%). The CCD is a sensitive and culture-fair neuropsychological instrument for dementia screening in low-educated immigrant populations.

  1. Methods of dark signal determination for CCD array spectroradiometers used in solar UVR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baczynska, K.A.; Khazova, M.


    The methods of the dark signal determination by direct contemporaneous measurements using a light spectrum and modelling of the dark signal based on the dark signal characterisation data were discussed. These techniques were tested with two charge-couple detectors (CCD) array spectroradiometers used in solar UVR measurements. The sensitivity of both instruments was significantly reduced when shutters were used; the measured signal varied by up to 12% depending on the orientation of the shutter. The shutters should be permanently attached to the SSR, so that the orientation cannot be changed to prevent an increase in uncertainty. The method of using blind pixels from the optically inactive part of the CCD array in a light spectrum could be used to derive the dark signal with some limitations for integration times <10 s for the QE65000. An alternative method of deriving the dark signal from light measurements using out-of-range pixels has been proved impossible due to out-of-range stray light in both instruments. The dark signal was characterised for the range of integration times and ambient temperatures of 15-35 deg. C. Based on these data, the model of the dark signal was developed so that a single value of the dark signal can be subtracted over the whole spectral range if the instrument temperature is known. (authors)

  2. A directional fast neutron detector using scintillating fibers and an intensified CCD camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holslin, Daniel; Armstrong, A.W.; Hagan, William; Shreve, David; Smith, Scott


    We have been developing and testing a scintillating fiber detector (SFD) for use as a fast neutron sensor which can discriminate against neutrons entering at angles non-parallel to the fiber axis (''directionality''). The detector/convertor component is a fiber bundle constructed of plastic scintillating fibers each measuring 10 cm long and either 0.3 mm or 0.5 mm in diameter. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were made to optimize the bundle response to a range of fast neutron energies and to intense fluxes of high energy gamma-rays. The bundle is coupled to a set of gamma-ray insenitive electro-optic intensifiers whose output is viewed by a CCD camera directly coupled to the intensifiers. Two types of CCD cameras were utilized: 1) a standard, interline RS-170 camera with electronic shuttering and 2) a high-speed (up to 850 frame/s) field-transfer camera. Measurements of the neutron detection efficiency and directionality were made using 14 MeV neutrons, and the response to gamma-rays was performed using intense fluxes from radioisotopic sources (up to 20 R/h). Recently, the detector was constructed and tested using a large 10 cm by 10 cm square fiber bundle coupled to a 10 cm diameter GEN I intensifier tube. We present a description of the various detector systems and report the results of experimental tests. ((orig.))

  3. Development of a CCD based system called DIGITRACK for automatic track counting and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, J.; Somogyi, G.; Szilagyi, S.; Sepsy, K.


    We have developed, to the best of our knowledge, the first automatic track analysis system (DIGITRACK) in which the video signals are processed by a new type of video-receiver called charge-coupled device (CCD). The photosensitive semi-conductor device is a 2.5 cm long line imager of type Fairchild CCD 121HC which converts one row of the picture seen through a low magnification microscope into 1728 binary signals by a thresholding logic. The picture elements are analysed by a microcomputer equipped with two INTEL 8080 microprocessors and interfaced to a PDP-11/40 computer. The microcomputer also controls the motion of the stage of microscope. For pattern recognition and analysis a software procedure is developed which is able to differentiate between overlapping tracks and to determine the number, surface opening and x-y coordinates of the tracks occurring in a given detector area. The distribution of track densities and spot areas on the detector surface can be visualized on a graphic display. The DIGITRACK system has been tested for analysis of alpha-tracks registered in CR-39 and LR-115 detectors. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Amraei


    Full Text Available CCD Camera is a multi-spectral sensor that is carried by CBERS 2 satellite. Imaging technique in this sensor is push broom. In images acquired by the CCD Camera, some vertical striping noise can be seen. This is due to the detectors mismatch, inter detector variability, improper calibration of detectors and low signal-to-noise ratio. These noises are more profound in images acquired from the homogeneous surfaces, which are processed at level 2. However, the existence of these noises render the interpretation of the data and extracting information from these images difficult. In this work, spatial moment matching method is proposed to modify these images. In this method, the statistical moments such as mean and standard deviation of columns in each band are used to balance the statistical specifications of the detector array to those of reference values. After the removal of the noise, some periodic diagonal stripes remain in the image where their removal by using the aforementioned method seems impossible. Therefore, to omit them, frequency domain Butterworth notch filter was applied. Finally to evaluate the results, the image statistical moments such as the mean and standard deviation were deployed. The study proves the effectiveness of the method in noise removal.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu


    Full Text Available Rational Function Model (RFM is a generic geometric model that has been widely used in geometric processing of high-resolution earth-observation satellite images, due to its generality and excellent capability of fitting complex rigorous sensor models. In this paper, the feasibility and precision of RFM for geometric modeling of China's Chang'E-1 (CE-1 lunar orbiter images is presented. The RFM parameters of forward-, nadir- and backward-looking CE-1 images are generated though least squares solution using virtual control points derived from the rigorous sensor model. The precision of the RFM is evaluated by comparing with the rigorous sensor model in both image space and object space. Experimental results using nine images from three orbits show that RFM can precisely fit the rigorous sensor model of CE-1 CCD images with a RMS residual error of 1/100 pixel level in image space and less than 5 meters in object space. This indicates that it is feasible to use RFM to describe the imaging geometry of CE-1 CCD images and spacecraft position and orientation. RFM will enable planetary data centers to have an option to supply RFM parameters of orbital images while keeping the original orbit trajectory data confidential.

  6. Technical aspects and preliminary results of the CCD camera diagnostics on Extrap T2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecconello, M.; Brzozowski, J.


    During the last months of Extrap T2 operations an imaging acquisition system, based on charge-coupled devices (CCD) cameras, has been operated. CCD cameras are a standard diagnostic used in many fusion experiments: i) to obtain a direct insight of the plasma behaviour during the pulse, of the evolution of plasma-wall interactions and, eventually, of locked modes, ii) to measure local quantities such as the wall temperature and the impurity influxes, iii) to study the hydrogen recycling behaviour and iv) to estimate the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers. One of the aims of our imaging campaign was to check the utility of such diagnostic for T2. The purpose of this report is to describe the technical aspects involved in the use of such diagnostic and to briefly describe the results obtained. In this view, this report aims to be a guide to the development of a dedicated image acquisition system for Extrap T2, after the planned rebuild, by stressing the problems and limitations encountered during this campaign

  7. The X-ray mirror telescope and the pn-CCD detector of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Englhauser, J; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lutz, Gerhard; Moralez, J; Serber, W; Strüder, L


    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope - CAST - uses a prototype 9 Tesla LHC superconducting dipole magnet to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar particle, the axion, which was proposed by theory in the 1980s to solve the strong CP problem and which could be a dark matter candidate. In CAST a strong magnetic field is used to convert the solar axions to detectable photons via inverse Primakoff effect. The resulting X-rays are thermally distributed in the energy range of 1-7 keV and can be observed with conventional X-ray detectors. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector originally developed for XMM-Newton combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. The combination of a focusing X-ray optics and a state of the art pn-CCD detector which combines high quantum efficiency, good spacial and energy resolution, and low background improves the sensitivity of the CAST experiment such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constrai...

  8. First observations from a CCD all-sky spectrograph at Barentsburg (Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Chernouss


    Full Text Available A digital CCD all-sky spectrograph was made by the Polar Geophysical Institute (PGI to support IPY activity in auroral research. The device was tested at the Barentsburg observatory of PGI during the winter season of 2005–2006. The spectrograph is based on a cooled CCD and a transmission grating. The main features of this spectrograph are: a wide field of view (~180°, a wide spectral range (380–740 nm, a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm, a background level of about 100 R at 1-min exposure time. Several thousand spectra of nightglow and aurora were recorded during the observation season. It was possible to register both the strong auroral emissions, as well as weak ones. Spectra of aurora, including nitrogen and oxygen molecular and atomic emissions, as well as OH emissions of the nightglow are shown. A comparison has been conducted of auroral spectra obtained by the film all-sky spectral camera C-180-S at Spitsbergen during IGY, with spectra obtained at Barentsburg during the last winter season. The relationship between the red (630.0 nm and green (557.7 nm auroral emissions shows that the green emission is dominant near the minimum of the solar cycle activity (2005–2006. The opposite situation is observed during 1958–1959, with a maximum solar cycle activity.

  9. Improving quantum efficiency and spectral resolution of a CCD through direct manipulation of the depletion region (United States)

    Brown, Craig; Ambrosi, Richard M.; Abbey, Tony; Godet, Olivier; O'Brien, R.; Turner, M. J. L.; Holland, Andrew; Pool, Peter J.; Burt, David; Vernon, David


    Future generations of X-ray astronomy instruments will require position sensitive detectors in the form of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging with the ability to probe the X-ray universe with greater efficiency. This will require the development of CCDs with structures that will improve their quantum efficiency over the current state of the art. The quantum efficiency improvements would have to span a broad energy range (0.2 keV to >15 keV). These devices will also have to be designed to withstand the harsh radiation environments associated with orbits that extend beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. This study outlines the most recent work carried out at the University of Leicester focused on improving the quantum efficiency of an X-ray sensitive CCD through direct manipulation of the device depletion region. It is also shown that increased spectral resolution is achieved using this method due to a decrease in the number of multi-pixel events. A Monte Carlo and analytical models of the CCD have been developed and used to determine the depletion depths achieved through variation of the device substrate voltage, Vss. The models are also used to investigate multi-pixel event distributions and quantum efficiency as a function of depletion depth.

  10. Flat-Field Calibration of CCD Detector for Long TraceProfilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Franck, Keith D.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison,Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.


    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasersrequires x-ray optical systems with extremely high-performance,generally, of diffraction limited quality. Fabrication and use of suchoptics requires highly accurate metrology. In the present paper, wediscuss a way to improve the performance of the Long Trace Profiler(LTP), a slope measuring instrument widely used at synchrotron facilitiesto characterize x-ray optics at high-spatial-wavelengths fromapproximately 2 mm to 1 m. One of the major sources of LTP systematicerror is the detector. For optimal functionality, the detector has topossess the smallest possible pixel size/spacing, a fast method ofshuttering, and minimal non-uniformity of pixel-to-pixel photoresponse.While the first two requirements are determined by choice of detector,the non-uniformity of photoresponse of typical detectors such as CCDcameras is around 2-3 percent. We describe a flat-field calibration setupspecially developed for calibration of CCD camera photo-response and darkcurrent with an accuracy of better than 0.5 percent. Such accuracy isadequate for use of a camera as a detector for an LTP with performance of~;0.1 microradian (rms). We also present the design details of thecalibration system and results of calibration of a DALSA CCD camera usedfor upgrading our LTP-II instrument at the ALS Optical MetrologyLaboratory.

  11. A USB 2.0 computer interface for the UCO/Lick CCD cameras (United States)

    Wei, Mingzhi; Stover, Richard J.


    The new UCO/Lick Observatory CCD camera uses a 200 MHz fiber optic cable to transmit image data and an RS232 serial line for low speed bidirectional command and control. Increasingly RS232 is a legacy interface supported on fewer computers. The fiber optic cable requires either a custom interface board that is plugged into the mainboard of the image acquisition computer to accept the fiber directly or an interface converter that translates the fiber data onto a widely used standard interface. We present here a simple USB 2.0 interface for the UCO/Lick camera. A single USB cable connects to the image acquisition computer and the camera's RS232 serial and fiber optic cables plug into the USB interface. Since most computers now support USB 2.0 the Lick interface makes it possible to use the camera on essentially any modern computer that has the supporting software. No hardware modifications or additions to the computer are needed. The necessary device driver software has been written for the Linux operating system which is now widely used at Lick Observatory. The complete data acquisition software for the Lick CCD camera is running on a variety of PC style computers as well as an HP laptop.

  12. Results from proton damage tests on the Michelson Doppler Imager CCD for SOHO (United States)

    Zayer, Igor; Chapman, Ira; Duncan, Dexter W.; Kelly, G. A.; Mitchell, Keith E.


    Protons from solar flares represent the major threat to the scientific performance of a CCD in the SOHO orbit at L1, decreasing CTE and thus non-uniformly degrading the MTF of the detector. Lattice damage assessment and prediction rely on accurate radiation damage experiments to 'calibrate' numerical simulations and modeling. The energy ranges where TRIM and NIEL represent valid models overlap around a few MeV. Thus, the proton beam from Lockheed PARL's 0.1 to 3 MeV Van de Graaff generator provides a convenient test facility. We present results from an accurate experiment using 2 MeV protons on the MDI detector (LORAL 1024 X 1024 21 micrometers 3P MPP CCD). A premiere feature in the experiment is the achievement of a stable, uniform low fluence and extremely accurate dosimetry at this relatively low energy. Pre- and post-radiation CTE measurements for our specific mode of operation (relatively fast readout rate of 500 kpix/s) is obtained using Fe55 method over a wide temperature range. They reveal somewhat unexpected results. The damage is more severe to parallel CTE than to serial CTE and the former worsens when cooled down to -50 degree(s)C, then improves when cooled further.

  13. MR-compatible laparoscope with a distally mounted CCD for MR image-guided surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasunaga, Takefumi; Konishi, Kozo; Yamaguchi, Shohei; Okazaki, Ken; Hong, Jae-sung; Nakashima, Hideaki [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Ieiri, Satoshi; Tanoue, Kazuo [Kyushu University Hospital, Department of Advanced Medicine and Innovative Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Fukuyo, Tsuneo [Shinko Optical Co. Ltd, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Hashizume, Makoto [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Kyushu University Hospital, Department of Advanced Medicine and Innovative Technology, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Objects We have developed a new MR-compatible laparoscope that incorporates a distally mounted charge-coupled device (CCD). The MR-compatibility and feasibility of laparoscopy using the new laparoscope were evaluated during MR image-guided laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation therapy (RFA). Materials and methods MR compatibility of the laparoscope was investigated in terms of MR image artifact caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI) and susceptibility. MR images were obtained using spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences with a 0.3 T open MRI unit. We performed an in vivo experiment with MR image-guided laparoscopic RFA on three pigs; near real-time MR images and 3-D navigation were possible using intraoperative MR images. Agarose gel was injected into the pigs' livers as puncture targets; the diameter of each target was approximately 20 mm. Results Artifacts resulting from EMI were not found in phantom experiments. MR image-guided laparoscopic RFA was successfully performed in all procedures. Both the laparoscopic vision and near real-time MR images were clear. No artifact was detected on the MR images and the surgeon was able to confirm the true position of the probe and target during treatment using the near real-time MR images. Conclusion Laparoscopic surgery is feasible under intraoperative MR image-guidance using a newly developed MR-compatible laparoscope with a distally mounted CCD. (orig.)

  14. A fast CCD detector for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Gohil, P.


    Charge Exchange Recombination (CER) spectroscopy has become a standard diagnostic for tokamaks. CER measurements have been used to determine spatially and temporally resolved ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal ion rotation speed, impurity density and radial electric field. Knowledge of the spatial profile and temporal evolution of the electric field shear in the plasma edge is crucial to understanding the physics of the L to H transition. High speed CER measurements are also valuable for Edge Localized Mode (ELM) studies. Since the 0.52 ms minimum time resolution of our present system is barely adequate to study the time evolution of these phenomena, we have developed a new CCD detector system with about a factor of two better time resolution. In addition, our existing system detects sufficient photons to utilize the shortest time resolution only under exceptional conditions. The new CCD detector has a quantum efficiency of about 0.65, which is a factor of 7 better than our previous image intensifier-silicon photodiode detector systems. We have also equipped the new system with spectrometers of lower f/number. This combination should allow more routine operation at the minimum integration time, as well as improving data quality for measurements in the divertor-relevant region outside of the separatrix. Construction details, benchmark data and initial tokamak measurements for the new system will be presented

  15. A CCD-based system for the detection of DNA in electrophoresis gels by UV absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, A.R.; MacDonald, J.H.; Mainwood, A.; Ott, R.J.


    A method and apparatus for the detection and quantification of large fragments of unlabelled nucleic acids in agarose gels is presented. The technique is based on ultraviolet (UV) absorption by nucleotides. A deuterium source illuminates individual sample lanes of an electrophoresis gel via an array of optical fibres. As DNA bands pass through the illuminated region of the gel the amount of UV light transmitted is reduced because of absorption by the DNA. During electrophoresis the regions of DNA are detected on-line using a UV-sensitive charge coupled device (CCD). As the absorption coefficient is proportional to the mass of DNA the technique is inherently quantitative. The mass of DNA in a region of the gel is approximately proportional to the integrated signal in the corresponding section of the CCD image. This system currently has a detection limit of less than 1.25 ng compared with 2-10 ng for the most popular conventional technique, ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining. In addition the DNA sample remains in its native state. The removal of the carcinogenic dye from the detection procedure greatly reduces associated biological hazards. (author)

  16. Development of a programmable CCD detector for imaging, real time studies and other synchrotron radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, C.


    A new CCD detector has been developed. The working of CCD and programmable detector is detailed in this thesis. The flexibility of the system allows the use of CCDs from different manufactures. The vacuum chamber of the detector is made of a beryllium window for experiments using X-radiation or of a quartz window coupled to a focusing optic system. Its temporal resolution is 2 microseconds with a X-radiation imaging. Images with a high spatial resolution have been obtained with the focusing system having a set of optical lenses and filters. The first X-ray diffraction experiments in the range of milliseconds and microseconds for the study of semiconductor heterostructures have been performed at X16 beam line at NSLS (National Synchrotron Light Source) with the detector illuminated by X-rays. For the first time, a X-ray beam, horizontally focused has been used to record a X-ray diffraction spectra on a 2-D detector. Finally, a X-ray diffraction method has been used to study the first steps of the crystallisation of Fe 8 0B 2 0 amorphous metallic alloy at X6 beam line at NSLS

  17. Applications in radiation therapy of a scintillating screen viewed by a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schippers, J.M.; Boon, S.N.; Luijk, P. van


    A two-dimensional (2D) dosimetry system has been designed for position-sensitive dose-measurement applications in modern radiation therapy. The system consists of a scintillating screen (Gd 2 O 2 S : Tb), observed by a low-noise CCD camera with a long integration time. The system allows reliable and accurate simultaneous 2D imaging of therapeutic dose distributions in the scintillator with sub millimeter spatial resolution. This system has been applied successfully at different applications in radiation therapy. Results of dose measurements in a treatment modality using a scanning proton beam are reported. It is shown that a quick and reliable measurement can be done. The screen+CCD system has proven to perform accurate dosimetry in applications where beams with a small (1-5 mm) diameter are used and where absolute dosimetry by means of standard ionization chambers is not possible due to their relatively large size. For the routine measurements of the alignment of therapeutic beams with respect to the tumor position, the system detects beam misalignments with an accuracy of 0.05 mm, which is more than sufficient to detect the maximum allowed misalignments in radiation therapy

  18. Multi-spectral CCD camera system for ocean water color and seacoast observation (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Shiping; Wu, Yanlin; Huang, Qiaolin; Jin, Weiqi


    One of the earth observing instruments on HY-1 Satellite which will be launched in 2001, the multi-spectral CCD camera system, is developed by Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics & Electricity (BISME), Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). In 798 km orbit, the system can provide images with 250 m ground resolution and a swath of 500 km. It is mainly used for coast zone dynamic mapping and oceanic watercolor monitoring, which include the pollution of offshore and coast zone, plant cover, watercolor, ice, terrain underwater, suspended sediment, mudflat, soil and vapor gross. The multi- spectral camera system is composed of four monocolor CCD cameras, which are line array-based, 'push-broom' scanning cameras, and responding for four spectral bands. The camera system adapts view field registration; that is, each camera scans the same region at the same moment. Each of them contains optics, focal plane assembly, electrical circuit, installation structure, calibration system, thermal control and so on. The primary features on the camera system are: (1) Offset of the central wavelength is better than 5 nm; (2) Degree of polarization is less than 0.5%; (3) Signal-to-noise ratio is about 1000; (4) Dynamic range is better than 2000:1; (5) Registration precision is better than 0.3 pixel; (6) Quantization value is 12 bit.

  19. Holographic particle image velocimetry: signal recovery from under-sampled CCD data (United States)

    Coupland, J. M.


    Holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV) has now been demonstrated by several research groups as a method to make three-component velocity measurements from a three-dimensional fluid flow field. More recently digital HPIV has become a hot topic with the promise of near-real-time measurements without the often cumbersome optics and wet processing associated with traditional holographic methods. It is clear, however, that CCD cameras have a limited number of pixels and are not capable of resolving more than a small fraction of the interference pattern that is recorded by a typical particulate hologram. In this paper, we consider under-sampling of the interference pattern to reduce the information content and to allow recordings to be made on a CCD sensor. We describe the basic concept of model fitting to under-sampled data and demonstrate signal recovery through computer simulation. A three-dimensional analysis shows that in general, periodic sampling strategies can result in multiple particle images in the reconstruction. It is shown, however, that the significance of these peaks is reduced in the case of high numerical aperture (NA) reconstruction and can be virtually eliminated by dithering the position of sampling apertures.

  20. Rapid photometry of EZ Canis Majoris - Searching for flare activity in Wolf-Rayet stars (United States)

    Matthews, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Marchenko, S. V.


    EZ CMa was chosen for a trial run of high-speed photometry to search for flare activity in W-R stars. Data were collected during UT November 27-December 2, 1991 with the 1.0-telescope + ASCAP photometer and the 0.6-m telescope + manual photometer of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. A period near 22.7 min was found. A brightness increase of about 1 percent, lasting for about 10 min in the otherwise smooth light curve, was observed. Fourier analysis of the data sets an upper limit of 0.0005 mag on any variations with periods less than about 10 min.

  1. Colour photographic photometry of the inner zodiacal light observed from the orbital station Salyut-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchmi, S.; Nikol'skij, G.M.


    The results of the photographic photometry of the best colour picture of the inner zodiacal light, obtained during the joint Soviet-French mission aboard the Salyut-7 orbital laboratory are presented. Isophote-map indicates that the plane of maximum zodiacal light brightness is very near the orbital plane of the planet Venus. Intensity in the plane of maximum brightness can be matched using the law Bsub(ZL) approximately epsilonsup(-2.04) at the elongations 23 deg <= epsilon <= 35 deg, the colorimetric index being bound to be nearly solar

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry in open cluster NGC 5822 (Twarog+, 1993) (United States)

    Twarog, B. A.; Anthony-Twarog, B. J.; McClure, R. D.


    Table 1 and 5 have been combined into a single catalog of the stars observed in the region of NGC 5822. The cross-identification was done by B. Skiff, essentially with 2MASS (Cutry et al., Cat. II/246) and UCAC2 (Zacharias et al. 2004, Cat. I/289). The observations of NGC 5822 combines observations on photographic plates made between 1974 and 1977 at the Cerro-Tololo Observatory (CTIO), photoelectric UBV made at CTIO in 1975 (138 stars) and 1990 (29 stars), and DDO photometry in 1977 (13 stars). (1 data file).

  3. Studying Titan's surface photometry in the 5 microns atmospheric window with the Cassini/VIMS instrument (United States)

    Cornet, T.; Altobelli, N.; Sotin, C.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Philippe, S.; Brown, R. H.; Barnes, J. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.


    Due to the influence of methane gas and a thick aerosols haze in the atmosphere, Titan's surface is only visible in 7 spectral atmospheric windows centered at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.7-2.8 and 5 microns with the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The 5 microns atmospheric window constitutes the only one being almost insensitive to the haze scattering and which presents only a reduced atmospheric absorption contribution to the signal recorded by the instrument. Despite these advantages leading to the almost direct view of the surface, the 5 microns window is also the noisiest spectral window of the entire VIMS spectrum (an effect highly dependent on the time exposure used for the observations), and it is not totally free from atmospheric contributions, enough to keep "artefacts" in mosaics of several thousands of cubes due to atmospheric and surface photometric effects amplified by the very heterogeneous viewing conditions between each Titan flyby. At first order, a lambertian surface photometry at 5 microns has been used as an initial parameter in order to estimate atmospheric opacity and surface photometry in all VIMS atmospheric windows and to determine the albedo of the surface, yet unknown, both using radiative transfer codes on single cubes or empirical techniques on global hyperspectral mosaics. Other studies suggested that Titan's surface photometry would not be uniquely lambertian but would also contain anisotropic lunar-like contributions. In the present work, we aim at constraining accurately the surface photometry of Titan and residual atmospheric absorption effects in this 5 microns window using a comprehensive study of relevant sites located at various latitudes. Those include bright and dark (dunes) terrains, 5-microns bright terrains (Hotei Regio and Tui Regio), the Huygens Landing Site and high latitudes polar lakes and seas. The VIMS 2004 to 2014 database, composed of more than 40,000 hyperspectral cubes acquired on

  4. Expression of MdCCD7 in the scion determines the extent of sylleptic branching and the primary shoot growth rate of apple trees. (United States)

    Foster, Toshi M; Ledger, Susan E; Janssen, Bart J; Luo, Zhiwei; Drummond, Revel S M; Tomes, Sumathi; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; Waite, Chethi N; Funnell, Keith A; van Hooijdonk, Ben M; Saei, Ali; Seleznyova, Alla N; Snowden, Kimberley C


    Branching has a major influence on the overall shape and productivity of a plant. Strigolactones (SLs) have been identified as plant hormones that have a key role in suppressing the outgrowth of axillary meristems. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE (CCD) genes are integral to the biosynthesis of SLs and are well characterized in annual plants, but their role in woody perennials is relatively unknown. We identified CCD7 and CCD8 orthologues from apple and demonstrated that MdCCD7 and MdCCD8 are able to complement the Arabidopsis branching mutants max3 and max4 respectively, indicating conserved function. RNAi lines of MdCCD7 show reduced gene expression and increased branching in apple. We performed reciprocal grafting experiments with combinations of MdCCD7 RNAi and wild-type 'Royal Gala' as rootstocks and scion. Unexpectedly, wild-type roots were unable to suppress branching in MdCCD7 RNAi scions. Another key finding was that MdCCD7 RNAi scions initiated phytomers at an increased rate relative to the wild type, resulting in a greater node number and primary shoot length. We suggest that localized SL biosynthesis in the shoot, rather than roots, controls axillary bud outgrowth and shoot growth rate in apple. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Evaluation of the brightness of lightning channels and branches using the magnitude system: Application of astronomical photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Shimoji

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have evaluated the brightness of lightning leaders shown in a digital still image by applying the astronomical magnitude system. In order to analyze the only lightning leaders, these were extracted from the digital still image. For photometry of the lightning leaders, there is no a standard reference source such as Vega in astronomical photometry. Therefore, assuming the maximum pixel value 255 (in 256 levels as the brightness of a standard reference source, the magnitude of the lightning leaders was obtained. The result showed that the magnitude of the lightning leaders vary spatially (i.e. 2D spatial variability. Furthermore, the result suggested that a low current channel is high magnitude and a high current channel is low magnitude. Keywords: Lightning, Fechner’s law, Magnitude system, Astronomical photometry, Image analysis

  6. Improvement in the light sensitivity of the ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD with a microlens array (United States)

    Hayashida, T.,; Yonai, J.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Kitagawa, S.; Hatade, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Iida, K.


    We are advancing the development of ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs for broadcast use that are capable of capturing smooth slow-motion videos in vivid colors even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. We have already developed a 300,000 pixel, ultrahigh-speed CCD, and a single CCD color camera that has been used for sports broadcasts and science programs using this CCD. However, there are cases where even higher sensitivity is required, such as when using a telephoto lens during a baseball broadcast or a high-magnification microscope during science programs. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at further increasing the sensitivity of CCDs using the light-collecting effects of a microlens array.

  7. A method of immediate detection of objects with a near-zero apparent motion in series of CCD-frames (United States)

    Savanevych, V. E.; Khlamov, S. V.; Vavilova, I. B.; Briukhovetskyi, A. B.; Pohorelov, A. V.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Kudak, V. I.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Dikov, E. N.; Melnik, R. G.; Vlasenko, V. P.; Reichart, D. E.


    The paper deals with a computational method for detection of the solar system minor bodies (SSOs), whose inter-frame shifts in series of CCD-frames during the observation are commensurate with the errors in measuring their positions. These objects have velocities of apparent motion between CCD-frames not exceeding three rms errors (3σ) of measurements of their positions. About 15% of objects have a near-zero apparent motion in CCD-frames, including the objects beyond the Jupiter's orbit as well as the asteroids heading straight to the Earth. The proposed method for detection of the object's near-zero apparent motion in series of CCD-frames is based on the Fisher f-criterion instead of using the traditional decision rules that are based on the maximum likelihood criterion. We analyzed the quality indicators of detection of the object's near-zero apparent motion applying statistical and in situ modeling techniques in terms of the conditional probability of the true detection of objects with a near-zero apparent motion. The efficiency of method being implemented as a plugin for the Collection Light Technology (CoLiTec) software for automated asteroids and comets detection has been demonstrated. Among the objects discovered with this plugin, there was the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON). Within 26 min of the observation, the comet's image has been moved by three pixels in a series of four CCD-frames (the velocity of its apparent motion at the moment of discovery was equal to 0.8 pixels per CCD-frame; the image size on the frame was about five pixels). Next verification in observations of asteroids with a near-zero apparent motion conducted with small telescopes has confirmed an efficiency of the method even in bad conditions (strong backlight from the full Moon). So, we recommend applying the proposed method for series of observations with four or more frames.

  8. Updated 34-band Photometry for the SINGS/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, D. A.; Turner, J. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie WY (United States); Cook, D. O. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA (United States); Roussel, H. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, Paris (France); Armus, L.; Helou, G. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Boquien, M. [Unidad de Astronomía, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA (United States); Looze, I. De [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Gent (Belgium); Galametz, M. [European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany); Gordon, K. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore MD (United States); Groves, B. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Jarrett, T. H. [Astronomy Department, University of Capetown, Rondebosch (South Africa); Herrera-Camus, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ (United States); Hunt, L. K. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Murphy, E. J., E-mail: [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); and others


    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and SINGS ( Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX , SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO , 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , Spitzer , Herschel , Planck , JCMT , and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR {sub C} I {sub C} and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  9. RGB color photometry of the solar corona from total solar eclipses (United States)

    Shopov, Y. Y.; Varonov, A.; Stoykova, D. A.


    In the following article we present some of our results from observations of two total solar eclipses (TSE). By combining appropriate photographic equipment and post-processing techniques we show that numerous solar phenomena can be captured in details during TSE. We use color slide RGB photometry technique to visualize invisible regions of the solar corona and to highlight some of the solar phenomena that are very difficult for observation by Earth-based observatories. In fact it reveals more details of the far solar corona than any original image taken from ground-based observations. RGB photometry visualizes different components of the solar corona in one image, which is impossible using conventional observations. This makes it valuable tool for studies of the solar corona. Here we first observe peculiar near infrared emission regions around the upper part of the solar limb during the 1999 TSE. So far its origin is unknown and they need further studies including observations during other solar eclipses. Our observational experiment was designed for other purposes and their registration was completely unexpected.

  10. The Ultimate Catalog of Omega Centauri: 15-BAND Photometry and Proper Motions (United States)

    Anderson, Jay


    We propose to construct the most comprehensive catalog of photometry and proper motions ever assembled for a globular cluster {GC}. The core of Omega Centauri has been imaged nearly 500 times through WFC3's UVIS and IR channels for the purposes of detector calibration. There exist 30 exposures through each of 15 filters, stretching uniformly from F225W in the UV to F160W in the infrared. Furthermore, the 8-year baseline between this data and a 2002 ACS survey will more than double the accuracy and triple the number of well-measured stars compared to our previous groundbreaking effort. This totally unprecedented complete spectral coverage for over 300,000 stars, from the red-giant branch {RGB} down to the white dwarfs {WDs}, provides the best chance yet to understand the multiple-population phenomenon in any GC. A preliminary analysis of the color-magnitude diagrams in different bands already allows us to identify more than 10 distinct sequences.We will make the full catalog of 15-band photometry and proper motions available to the community within 6 months of starting this project. We will then be the first to exploit this tremendous resource. The science we will address includes: {1} identifying all the sequences and tying them together, from the main sequence up to the RGB;{2} continuing the search for a central massive object; {3} examination of the WD sequence for any manifestations of multiple-populations; and{4} searching for cataclysmic variables and He WDs.

  11. A laboratory module on radiometry, photometry and colorimetry for an undergraduate optics course (United States)

    Polak, Robert D.


    The bachelor's degree in Physics at Loyola University Chicago requires both an upper-division course in Optics as well as a companion Optics Laboratory course. Recently, the laboratory course has undergone dramatic changes. Traditional weekly laboratories have been replaced with three laboratory modules, where students focus on a single topic over several weeks after which the students submit a laboratory report written in the style of a journal article following American Institute of Physics style manual. With this method, students are able to gain a deeper understanding of the specific topic areas of radiometry, photometry and colorimetry, lens design and aberrations, and polarization and interference while using industry-standard equipment and simulation software. In particular, this work will provide the details of the laboratory module on radiometry, photometry and colorimetry where students use a photoradiometer and integrating sphere to characterize the optical properties of an LCD monitor, light bulb and a fiber optic light source calculating properties such as luminous flux, luminous intensity, luminance, CIE color coordinates, NTSC ratio, color temperature and luminous efficacy.

  12. Orion Project: A Photometry and Spectroscopy Project for Small Observatories (Abstract) (United States)

    Hopkins, J. L.


    (Abstract only) Orion, the hunter, is one of the most famous constellations. Its declination is such that it is visible from most of the civilized world. In addition, most of the stars of Orion are very bright and interesting. Originally this project was called the Betelgeuse Campaign, but four more stars were added so the name was changed to the Orion Project. The project now includes Betelgeuse, Rigel, and the three stars of Orion’s belt, Mintaka, Alnilam, and Alnitak. Both photometry and spectroscopy provide data for the project. The project has several goals, the first of which is to help beginners with photometry and spectroscopy. The second goal is to obtain the actual observations and data. Because these stars are very bright, they are seldom observed in detail. Their brightness also poses a problem for most professional observatories. It is hoped that by having observations over a long time, interesting changes can be seen that will warrant closer investigation. As a third goal it is hoped that the procedures refined in the project for spectroscopic data may help promote a similar system for the AAVSO, which has an excellent archive of photometric data, but is still lacking a means of handling spectroscopic data.

  13. BVRI and UBV Photometry of Metal-Poor and Horizontal- Branch Stars in the Galactic Halo (United States)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Smith, Horace; Rossi, Silvia; de Lee, Nathan


    We propose to carry out photometry of an additional sample of 750 metal-poor giants, main-sequence turnoff stars, and field horizontal- branch stars selected from the Hamburg/ESO objective prism survey. These stars either have, or soon will have, medium-resolution spectroscopy obtained with various 2.5m - 4m class telescopes, including the SOAR 4.1m. These observations are part of an ongoing search for the most metal-poor stars, which provide fundamental information on the Galaxy's chemical and dynamical history, and horizontal-branch stars, which enable investigations of the kinematics, dynamics, structure, and mass of the Milky Way. We propose to use the SMARTS 0.9m telescope to obtain BVRI and UBV photometry in service (or classical) observing mode. The eventual sample in this long-term program is envisioned to comprise 3000 stars. The first 750 stars on this program will be observed in May during a previously scheduled run.

  14. Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry of 500-750 brown dwarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leggett, Sandy K [GEMINI OBSERVATORY; Albert, Loic [CFH TELESCOPE; Artigau, Etienne [U OF MONTREAL; Burningham, Ben [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Delfosse, Xavier [OBS. GRENOBLE; Delorme, Philippe [ST. ANDREWS U.; Forveille, Thierry [OBS. GRENOBLE; Lucas, Philip W [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Marley, Mark S [NASA AMES; Pinfield, David J [HERTFORDSHIRE U.; Reyle, Celine [OBS. BESANCON; Smart, Richard L [OSS. ASTRON, TORINO; Warren, Stephen J [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON


    Mid-infrared data, including Spitzer warm-IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] photometry, is critical for understanding the cold population of brown dwarfs now being found, objects which have more in common with planets than stars. As effective temperature (T{sub eff}) drops from 800K to 400K, the fraction of flux emitted beyond 3 {mu}m increases rapidly, from about 40% to > 75%. This rapid increase makes a color like H-[4.5] a very sensitive temperature indicator, and it can be combined with a gravity- and metallicity-sensitive color like H-K to constrain all three of these fundamental properties, which in turn gives us mass and age for these slowly cooling objects. Determination of mid-infrared color trends also allows better exploitation of the WISE mission by the community. We use new Spitzer Cycle 6 IRAC photometry, together with published data, to present trends of color with type for L0 to T10 dwarfs. We also use the atmospheric and evolutionary models of Saumon and Marley to investigate the masses and ages of 13 very late-type T dwarfs, which have H-[4.5] > 3.2 and T{sub eff} {approx} 500K to 750K.

  15. Imaging and mapping the impact of clouds on skyglow with all-sky photometry. (United States)

    Jechow, Andreas; Kolláth, Zoltán; Ribas, Salvador J; Spoelstra, Henk; Hölker, Franz; Kyba, Christopher C M


    Artificial skyglow is constantly growing on a global scale, with potential ecological consequences ranging up to affecting biodiversity. To understand these consequences, worldwide mapping of skyglow for all weather conditions is urgently required. In particular, the amplification of skyglow by clouds needs to be studied, as clouds can extend the reach of skyglow into remote areas not affected by light pollution on clear nights. Here we use commercial digital single lens reflex cameras with fisheye lenses for all-sky photometry. We track the reach of skyglow from a peri-urban into a remote area on a clear and a partly cloudy night by performing transects from the Spanish town of Balaguer towards Montsec Astronomical Park. From one single all-sky image, we extract zenith luminance, horizontal and scalar illuminance. While zenith luminance reaches near-natural levels at 5 km distance from the town on the clear night, similar levels are only reached at 27 km on the partly cloudy night. Our results show the dramatic increase of the reach of skyglow even for moderate cloud coverage at this site. The powerful and easy-to-use method promises to be widely applicable for studies of ecological light pollution on a global scale also by non-specialists in photometry.

  16. The Carnegie Supernova Project I. Photometry data release of low-redshift stripped-envelope supernovae (United States)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Anderson, J. P.; Contreras, C.; Heinrich-Josties, E.; Morrell, N.; Phillips, M. M.; Anais, J.; Boldt, L.; Busta, L.; Burns, C. R.; Campillay, A.; Corco, C.; Castellon, S.; Folatelli, G.; González, C.; Holmbo, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Krzeminski, W.; Salgado, F.; Serón, J.; Torres-Robledo, S.; Freedman, W. L.; Hamuy, M.; Krisciunas, K.; Madore, B. F.; Persson, S. E.; Roth, M.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Taddia, F.; Li, W.; Filippenko, A. V.


    The first phase of the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I) was a dedicated supernova follow-up program based at the Las Campanas Observatory that collected science data of young, low-redshift supernovae between 2004 and 2009. Presented in this paper is the CSP-I photometric data release of low-redshift stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae. The data consist of optical (uBgVri) photometry of 34 objects, with a subset of 26 having near-infrared (YJH) photometry. Twenty objects have optical pre-maximum coverage with a subset of 12 beginning at least five days prior to the epoch of B-band maximum brightness. In the near-infrared, 17 objects have pre-maximum observations with a subset of 14 beginning at least five days prior to the epoch of J-band maximum brightness. Analysis of this photometric data release is presented in companion papers focusing on techniques to estimate host-galaxy extinction and the light-curve and progenitor star properties of the sample. The analysis of an accompanying visual-wavelength spectroscopy sample of 150 spectra will be the subject of a future paper. Based on observations collected at Las Campanas Observatory.Tables 2-8 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  17. The young open cluster NGC 7067 using Strömgren photometry (United States)

    Monguió, M.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; González-Fernández, C.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; Costado, M. T.; Casamiquela, L.; López-Corredoira, M.; Molgó, J.; Vilardell, F.; Alfaro, E. J.; Antoja, T.; Figueras, F.; Garcia, M.; Jordi, C.; Romero-Gómez, M.


    NGC 7067 is a young open cluster located in the direction between the first and the second Galactic quadrants and close to the Perseus spiral arm. This makes it useful for studies of the nature of the Milky Way spiral arms. Strömgren photometry taken with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for the observed stars and hence to derive the cluster's physical parameters. Spectra from the 1.93-m telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence helped to check and improve the results. We obtained photometry for 1233 stars, individual physical parameters for 515 and spectra for 9 of them. The 139 selected cluster members lead to a cluster distance of 4.4 ± 0.4 kpc, with an age below log10(t(yr)) = 7.3 and a present mass of 1260 ± 160 M⊙. The morphology of the data reveals that the centre of the cluster is at (α, δ) = (21: 24: 13.69, +48: 00: 39.2) J2000, with a radius of 6.1 arcmin. Strömgren and spectroscopic data allowed us to improve the previous parameters available for the cluster in the literature.

  18. Isochrone Fitting of Hubble Photometry in UV–VIS–IR Bands (United States)

    Barker, Hallie; Paust, Nathaniel E. Q.


    We present new isochrone fits to color–magnitude diagrams from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry of the globular clusters M13 and M80 in five bands from the ultraviolet to near-infrared. Isochrone fits to the photometry using the Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program (DSEP), the PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC), and MESA Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) are examined to study the isochrone morphology. Additionally, cluster ages, extinctions, and distances are found from the visible-infrared color–magnitude diagrams. We conduct careful qualitative analysis on the inconsistencies of the fits across twelve color combinations of the five observed bands, and find that the (F606W‑F814W) color generally produces very good fits, but that there are large discrepancies when the data is fit using colors including UV bands for all three models. We also find that the best fits in the UV are achieved using MIST isochrones, but that they require metallicities that are lower than the other two models, as well published spectroscopic values. Finally, we directly compare DSEP and PARSEC by performing isochrone-isochrone fitting, and find that, for globular cluster aged populations, similar appearing PARSEC isochrones are on average 1.5 Gyr younger than DSEP isochrones. We find that the two models become less discrepant at lower metallicities.

  19. Time-Resolved CubeSat Photometry with a Low Cost Electro-Optics System (United States)

    Gasdia, F.; Barjatya, A.; Bilardi, S.


    Once the orbits of small debris or CubeSats are determined, optical rate-track follow-up observations can provide information for characterization or identification of these objects. Using the Celestron 11" RASA telescope and an inexpensive CMOS machine vision camera, we have obtained time-series photometry from dozens of passes of small satellites and CubeSats over sites in Florida and Massachusetts. The fast readout time of the CMOS detector allows temporally resolved sampling of glints from small wire antennae and structural facets of rapidly tumbling objects. Because the shape of most CubeSats is known, these light curves can be used in a mission support function for small satellite operators to diagnose or verify the proper functioning of an attitude control system or deployed antenna or instrument. We call this telescope system and the accompanying analysis tools OSCOM for Optical tracking and Spectral characterization of CubeSats for Operational Missions. We introduce the capability of OSCOM for space object characterization, and present photometric observations demonstrating the potential of high frame rate small satellite photometry.

  20. Visible photometry of NEOs in support of a Warm Spitzer program (United States)

    Trilling, David E.; Jones, Sarah; Penprase, Bryan; Emery, Josh; Harris, Alan; Spahr, Tim; Delbo, Marco


    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) may act as dynamical and compositional tracers of the history of near-Earth space. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population -- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets -- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have been awarded 500 hours of Warm Spitzer time to study some 700 NEOs. The Spitzer data will allow us to measure thermal fluxes and, in combination with optical data, derive albedos and diameters for a large fraction of all known NEOs. Remarkably, the primary uncertainty in our Spitzer results will derive from a lack of good optical photometry for our targets. Fortunately, our targets are generally bright, and obtaining good V band measurements of them requires only a modest amount of time on modest aperture telescopes. We propose here for 36 hours of SMARTS 1.3-m time or 54 hours of SMARTS 0.9-m time to obtain visible photometry of the 72 southern moderately bright ``B'' semester targets in our Warm Spitzer program. These program is ideal for queue/service observing because each observation requires only ~30 minutes and our targets are all over the sky.

  1. Crowded Field Photometry and Moving Object Detection with Optimal Image Subtraction (United States)

    Lee, Austin A. T.; Scheulen, F.; Sauro, C. M.; McMahon, C. T.; Berry, S. J.; Robinson, C. H.; Buie, M. W.; Little, P.


    High precision photometry and moving object detection are essential in the study of Pluto and the Kuiper Belt. In particular, the New Horizons mission would benefit from an accurate and fast method of performing image subtraction to locate faint Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO) among large data sets. The optimal image subtraction (OIS) algorithm was optimized for IDL to decrease execution time by a factor of about 140 from a previous implementation (Miller 2008, PASP, 120, 449). In addition, a powerful image transformation and interpolation routine was written to provide OIS with well-aligned input images using astrometric fit data. The first half of this project is complete including the code optimization and the alignment routine. The second half of the project is focused on using these tools to search a 5 x 10 degree search area to find KBOs for possible targets for the New Horizons mission. We will present examples of how these tools work and along with resulting Pluto photometry and KBO target lists. The optimized OIS and transformation routines are available in Marc Buie's IDL library at buie/idl/ as and This project was conducted for Harvey Mudd College's Clinic Program with financial support from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program grant number NNX09AB43G.

  2. A PSF photometry tool for NASA's Kepler, K2, and TESS missions (United States)

    Cardoso, Jose Vinicius De Miranda; Barentsen, Geert; Hedges, Christina L.; Gully-Santiago, Michael A.; Cody, Ann Marie; Montet, Ben


    NASA's Kepler and K2 missions have impacted all areas of astrophysics in unique and important ways by delivering high-precision time series data on asteroids, stars, and galaxies. For example, both the official Kepler pipeline and the various community-owned pipelines have been successful at discovering a myriad of transiting exoplanets around a wide range of stellar types. However, the existing pipelines tend to focus on studying isolated stars using simple aperture photometry, and often perform sub-optimally in crowded fields where objects are blended. To address this issue, we present a Point Spread Function (PSF) photometry toolkit for Kepler and K2 which is able to extract light curves from crowded regions, such as the Beehive Cluster, the Lagoon Nebula, and the M67 globular cluster, which were all recently observed by Kepler. We present a detailed discussion on the theory, the practical use, and demonstrate our tool on various levels of crowding. Finally, we discuss the future use of the tool on data from the TESS mission. The code is open source and available on GitHub as part of the PyKE toolkit for Kepler/K2 data analysis.

  3. ImmunoCAP cellulose displays cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant (CCD) epitopes and can cause false-positive test results in patients with high anti-CCD IgE antibody levels. (United States)

    Hemmer, Wolfgang; Altmann, Friedrich; Holzweber, Friedrich; Gruber, Clemens; Wantke, Felix; Wöhrl, Stefan


    Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) in plants and insect venoms are a common cause of irrelevant positive test results during in vitro allergy diagnosis. We observed that some CCD-positive sera show nonspecific IgE binding even with CCD-free recombinant allergens when using the Phadia ImmunoCAP platform. We investigated whether cellulose used as an allergen carrier in ImmunoCAP harbors residual N-glycans, causing nonspecific background binding in CCD-positive sera. IgE binding to 6 samples of blank ImmunoCAPs coupled to either streptavidin (SA-CAP-1 or 2) or nonallergenic maltose-binding protein (MBP; MBP-CAP-1 to 4) and binding to a panel of 4 recombinant allergens were compared in CCD-positive sera before and after inhibition with a CCD inhibitor (MUXF 3 -human serum albumin). Of 52 CCD-positive sera (bromelain, 1.01-59.6 kilounits of antigen per liter [kU A /L]) tested on SA-CAP-1, 35 (67%) showed IgE binding of greater than 0.35 kU A /L (0.41-4.22 kU A /L). Among those with anti-CCD IgE levels of greater than 7.0 kU A /L, 90% (26/29) were positive. IgE binding to SA-CAP-1 correlated with IgE binding to bromelain (r = 0.68) and was completely abolished by serum preincubation with the CCD inhibitor (n = 15). Binding scores with SA-CAP-2 and MBP-CAP-1 to MBP-CAP-4 were generally lower but strongly correlated with those of SA-CAP-1 and bromelain. IgE reactivity of 10 CCD-positive sera (14.0-52.5 kU A /L) with the recombinant allergens rPhl p 12, rFel d 1, rAra h 2, and rPru p 3 was positive to at least 1 allergen in 8 of 10 (0.36-1.63 kU A /L) and borderline in 2 of 10 (0.21-0.25 kU A /L). Binding correlated with antibody binding to bromelain (r = 0.61) and to all blank ImmunoCAPs (r > 0.90) and could be completely blocked by the CCD inhibitor. Overall, mean background binding to cellulose CCDs corresponded to 2% to 3% of the reactivity seen with bromelain. Cellulose used as a solid-phase allergen carrier can contain varying amounts of CCDs

  4. Experience feedback on ccd detectors in orbit: focus on in-flight degradation of several cases of performance (United States)

    Penquer, A.; Lebègue, L.; Herve, D.; Fougnie, B.


    The performance stability of CCD detectors and video electronics during life time is an important issue for most of space missions. Several items are concerned, such as CCD dark signal increase, induced by space radiation environment (dose effects, proton hits, etc... ). Ground tests are performed to predict on-board behaviour and end-of-life performance. But generaly this approach cannot achieve a rigorous representation of mission conditions. Experience feedback from in-flight measurements is therefore very useful in order to infer what really occurs and to allow comparison between actual findings and ground tests.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammer, Skyler H.; Humphreys, Roberta M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gerke, Jill, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)


    We discuss moderate-resolution spectra, multicolor photometry, and light curves of 31 of the most luminous stars and variables in the giant spiral M101. The majority are intermediate A- to F-type supergiants. We present new photometry and light curves for three known “irregular blue variables,” V2, V4, and V9, and identify a new candidate. Their spectra and variability confirm that they are luminous blue variable (LBV) candidates and V9 may be in an LBV-like maximum light state or eruption.

  6. The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - II. R-band surface photometry of late-type dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, RA; Balcells, M

    R-band surface photometry is presented for 171 late-type dwarf and irregular galaxies. For a subsample of 46 galaxies B-band photometry is presented as well. We present surface brightness profiles as well as isophotal and photometric parameters including magnitudes, diameters and central surface

  7. Continuous real-time digital data acquisition with high-resolution visible and infrared CCD cameras (United States)

    Stufflebeam, Joseph L.; Waldie, Arthur H.; Qualtrough, John A.; Soules, David B.; Ambrose, Joseph G.; Reed, Michelle F.


    A high speed digital interface has been developed to accept real time digital pixel data from high resolution CCD cameras. The interface is currently in use with both a 640 X 486 12-bit digital infrared camera operating in non-interlaced mode at 30 frames per second, and a 756 X 484 8-bit digital visible camera operating in interlaced mode at 60 fields per second. Using programmable logic, the interface is reconfigurable to accept digital data from a variety of sensors at data rates of up to 18 megabytes per second. The buffered digital data is recorded on a hard disk array consisting of up to nine individual drives, with a present capacity exceeding 5.9 gigabytes. Continuous recording is achieved by implementing a loop function on the disk array.

  8. Reverse engineering of the homogeneous-entity product profiles based on CCD (United States)

    Gan, Yong; Zhong, Jingru; Sun, Ning; Sun, Aoran


    This measurement system uses delaminated measurement principle, measures the three perpendicular direction values of the entities. When the measured entity is immerged in the liquid layer by layer, every layer's image are collected by CCD and digitally processed. It introduces the basic measuring principle and the working process of the measure method. According to Archimedes law, the related buoyancy and volume that soaked in different layer's depth are measured by electron balance and the mathematics models are established. Through calculating every layer's weight and centre of gravity by computer based on the method of Artificial Intelligence, we can reckon 3D coordinate values of every minute entity cell in different layers and its 3D contour picture is constructed. The experimental results show that for all the homogeneous entity insoluble in water, it can measure them. The measurement velocity is fast and non-destructive test, it can measure the entity with internal hole.

  9. A compact CCD-monitored atomic force microscope with optical vision and improved performances. (United States)

    Mingyue, Liu; Haijun, Zhang; Dongxian, Zhang


    A novel CCD-monitored atomic force microscope (AFM) with optical vision and improved performances has been developed. Compact optical paths are specifically devised for both tip-sample microscopic monitoring and cantilever's deflection detecting with minimized volume and optimal light-amplifying ratio. The ingeniously designed AFM probe with such optical paths enables quick and safe tip-sample approaching, convenient and effective tip-sample positioning, and high quality image scanning. An image stitching method is also developed to build a wider-range AFM image under monitoring. Experiments show that this AFM system can offer real-time optical vision for tip-sample monitoring with wide visual field and/or high lateral optical resolution by simply switching the objective; meanwhile, it has the elegant performances of nanometer resolution, high stability, and high scan speed. Furthermore, it is capable of conducting wider-range image measurement while keeping nanometer resolution. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A rehabilitation training system with double-CCD camera and automatic spatial positioning technique (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Wei, Tzu-Chi; Lu, An-Tsung; Hung, San-Shan; Chen, Wei-Lung; Chang, Chia-Chang


    This study aimed to develop a computer game for machine vision integrated rehabilitation training system. The main function of the system is to allow users to conduct hand grasp-and-place movement through machine vision integration. Images are captured by a double-CCD camera, and then positioned on a large screen. After defining the right, left, upper, and lower boundaries of the captured images, an automatic spatial positioning technique is employed to obtain their correlation functions, and lookup tables are defined for cameras. This system can provide rehabilitation courses and games that allow users to exercise grasp-and-place movements, in order to improve their upper limb movement control, trigger trunk control, and balance training.

  11. Design of a fast multi-hit position sensitive detector based on a CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Renaud, L; Da Costa, G; Deconihout, B


    A new position sensitive detector has been designed for time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It combines a double micro-channel plate stage with a phosphor screen, the conductive coating of which is divided into an array of strip-like-shaped anodes. Time-of-flight signals are measured on the strip array with a 0.5 ns resolution, while a CCD camera records light-spots generated by ion impacts on the phosphor screen. With this particular imaging device, it is possible to accurately assign time-of-flight to positions recorded by the camera. This paper describes the main features of this new position sensitive detector and results obtained with a three-dimensional atom probe are presented.

  12. Software development for studies of diffuse scattering using CCD-detectors and synchrotron radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Paulmann, C; Bismayer, U


    A graphical-user-interface based software system was developed to cover advanced data processing requirements which arise from studies of diffuse scattering in disordered minerals using synchrotron radiation sources and CCD-detectors. The software includes interfaces to standard applications, procedures for numerical processing of large data sets, corrections for sample external scattering and detector-specific distortions, different scaling options to correct the data set against the varying primary beam intensity as well as procedures to reconstruct arbitrary slices in reciprocal space on a regular grid. The software system was successfully applied in studies of diffuse scattering in disordered REE-doped germanates, phase-transition studies of synthetic titanite and studies of the thermal recrystallization behaviour of radiation-damaged (metamict) minerals.

  13. CCD Video Observation of Microgravity Crystallization of Lysozyme and Correlation with Accelerometer Data (United States)

    Snell, E. H.; Boggon, T. J.; Helliwell, J. R.; Moskowitz, M. E.; Nadarajah, A.


    Lysozyme has been crystallized using the ESA Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility onboard the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter during the IML-2 mission. CCD video monitoring was used to follow the crystallization process and evaluate the growth rate. During the mission some tetragonal crystals were observed moving over distances of up to 200 micrometers. This was correlated with microgravity disturbances caused by firings of vernier jets on the Orbiter. Growth-rate measurement of a stationary crystal (which had nucleated on the growth reactor wall) showed spurts and lulls correlated with an onboard activity; astronaut exercise. The stepped growth rates may be responsible for the residual mosaic block structure seen in crystal mosaicity and topography measurements.

  14. Development and characterization of a CCD camera system for use on six-inch manipulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logory, L.M.; Bell, P.M.; Conder, A.D.; Lee, F.D.


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed, constructed, and fielded a compact CCD camera system for use on the Six Inch Manipulator (SIM) at the Nova laser facility. The camera system has been designed to directly replace the 35 mm film packages on all active SIM-based diagnostics. The unit's electronic package is constructed for small size and high thermal conductivity using proprietary printed circuit board technology, thus reducing the size of the overall camera and improving its performance when operated within the vacuum environment of the Nova laser target chamber. The camera has been calibrated and found to yield a linear response, with superior dynamic range and signal-to-noise levels as compared to T-Max 3200 optic film, while providing real-time access to the data. Limiting factors related to fielding such devices on Nova will be discussed, in addition to planned improvements of the current design

  15. CCD Astrometric Measurements of Double Stars BAL 746, BPM 342, KU 92, and STF 897 (United States)

    Smith, Schuyler


    Double stars WDS 06589-0106 (BAL 746), WDS 06579+1430 (BPM 342), WDS 07006+0921 (KU 92), and WDS 06224+2640 (STF 897) were measured as part of a science fair project for the 2016 Greater San Diego Science and Engineering Fair. The goal was to measure the separation and position angles of stars by using a telescope with a charge-coupled device (CCD) on the iTelescope network. Five images were taken of each of the stars. These images were plate solved with Visual PinPoint and measured using Aladin Sky Atlas. Measurements for all five doubles compare well to the more recent values in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

  16. Photon counting imaging and centroiding with an electron-bombarded CCD using single molecule localisation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Barber, Matthew J.; Suhling, Klaus


    Photon event centroiding in photon counting imaging and single-molecule localisation in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy share many traits. Although photon event centroiding has traditionally been performed with simple single-iteration algorithms, we recently reported that iterative fitting algorithms originally developed for single-molecule localisation fluorescence microscopy work very well when applied to centroiding photon events imaged with an MCP-intensified CMOS camera. Here, we have applied these algorithms for centroiding of photon events from an electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD). We find that centroiding algorithms based on iterative fitting of the photon events yield excellent results and allow fitting of overlapping photon events, a feature not reported before and an important aspect to facilitate an increased count rate and shorter acquisition times.

  17. Radiotherapy film densitometry using a slow-scan, cooled, digital CCD imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.E.


    A method of performing high-resolution two-dimensional film densitometry for full size radiographic film (35 x 43 cm) using a cooled CCD camera was proposed. Studies were performed to evaluate the physical characteristics of the camera system and recommendations were made to assure maximum accuracy of density measurement. Test films of various sizes and densities, as well as clinical dosimetry films, were measured with the CCD densitometer and the reference transmission densitometer. The measured densities agreed within the stated accuracy of the transmission densitometer for all films with maximum density less than or equal to 1.5 optical density units. The 0.2 mm spatial resolution with 4096 shades of gray made it possible to study dose distributions even for films containing areas of high dose gradients. Patient verification radiographs were used to study exit beam dose distributions to detect errors in beam placement, patient position, and proper placement of beam modifying devices such as wedges and compensators. For studying photon beam dose distributions within phantoms, a method was developed using lead foils placed lateral to the film plane to filter very low energy scattered photons. The error in measurement of central axis percentage depth dose from film for 4 MV x-rays, 25 x 25 cm field was decreased from 65% to 4%. The method requires only two calibration films for density to dose conversion and represents an important advance in the field of film densitometry for radiotherapy. The technique was applied to the study of dynamic wedge dose distribution from a 6 MV linear accelerator. The phantom modification decreased the error in percentage depth dose from 21% to 1% for the 15 x 15 cm beam with 60 degree wedge angle. Profile off-axis errors for the same beam were decreased from 8% to 3%. The film dosimetry system provides fast, high resolution film density data for use in radiotherapy imaging and quality assurance

  18. On-ground and in-orbit characterisation plan for the PLATO CCD normal cameras (United States)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Walton, D.; Smith, A.; Hailey, M.; Curry, P.; Kennedy, T.


    PLAnetary Transits and Ocillations (PLATO) is the third European Space Agency (ESA) medium class mission in ESA's cosmic vision programme due for launch in 2026. PLATO will carry out high precision un-interrupted photometric monitoring in the visible band of large samples of bright solar-type stars. The primary mission goal is to detect and characterise terrestrial exoplanets and their systems with emphasis on planets orbiting in the habitable zone, this will be achieved using light curves to detect planetary transits. PLATO uses a novel multi- instrument concept consisting of 26 small wide field cameras The 26 cameras are made up of a telescope optical unit, four Teledyne e2v CCD270s mounted on a focal plane array and connected to a set of Front End Electronics (FEE) which provide CCD control and readout. There are 2 fast cameras with high read-out cadence (2.5 s) for magnitude ~ 4–8 stars, being developed by the German Aerospace Centre and 24 normal (N) cameras with a cadence of 25 s to monitor stars with a magnitude greater than 8. The N-FEEs are being developed at University College London's Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) and will be characterised along with the associated CCDs. The CCDs and N-FEEs will undergo rigorous on-ground characterisation and the performance of the CCDs will continue to be monitored in-orbit. This paper discusses the initial development of the experimental arrangement, test procedures and current status of the N-FEE. The parameters explored will include gain, quantum efficiency, pixel response non-uniformity, dark current and Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI). The current in-orbit characterisation plan is also discussed which will enable the performance of the CCDs and their associated N-FEE to be monitored during the mission, this will include measurements of CTI giving an indication of the impact of radiation damage in the CCDs.

  19. CCD-based detector for protein crystallography with synchrotron X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.G.; Westbrook, E.M.; Naday, I.; Coleman, T.A.; Westbrook, M.L.; Travis, D.J.; Sweet, R.M.; Pflugrath, J.W.; Stanton, M.


    A detector with a 114 mm aperture, based on a charge-coupled device (CCD), has been designed for X-ray diffraction studies in protein crystallography. The detector was tested at the National Synchrotron Light Source with a beam intensity, through a 0.3 mm collimator, of greater than 10 9 X-ray photons/s. A fiberoptic taper, an image intensifier, and a lens demagnify, intensity, and focus the image onto a CCD having 512x512 pixels. The statistical uncertainty in the detector output was evaluated as a function of conversion gain. From this, a detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of 0.36 was derived. The dynamic range of 4x4 pixel resolution element, comparable in size to a diffraction peak, was 10 4 . The point-spread function shows FWHM resolution of approximately 1 pixel, where a pixel is 160 μm on the detector face. A data set collected from a chicken egg-white lysozyme crystal, consisting of 495 0.1deg frames, was processed by the MADNES data reduction program. The symmetry R-factors for the data were 3.2-3.5%. In a separate experiment a complete lysozyme data set consisting of 45 1deg frames was obtained in just 36 s of X-ray exposure. Diffraction images from crystals of the myosin S1 head (a=275 A) were also recorded; the Bragg spots, only 5 pixels apart, were separated but not fully resolved. Changes in the detector design that will improve the DQE and spatial resolution are outlined. The overall performance showed that this type of detector is well suited for X-ray scattering investigations with synchrotron sources. (orig.)

  20. CCD-based detector for protein crystallography with synchrotron X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, M.G.; Westbrook, E.M.; Naday, I.; Coleman, T.A.; Westbrook, M.L.; Travis, D.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Sweet, R.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Pflugrath, J.W. (Cold Spring Harbor Lab., NY (USA)); Stanton, M. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))


    A detector with a 114 mm aperture, based on a charge-coupled device (CCD), has been designed for X-ray diffraction studies in protein crystallography. The detector was tested at the National Synchrotron Light Source with a beam intensity, through a 0.3 mm collimator, of greater than 10{sup 9} X-ray photons/s. A fiberoptic taper, an image intensifier, and a lens demagnify, intensity, and focus the image onto a CCD having 512x512 pixels. The statistical uncertainty in the detector output was evaluated as a function of conversion gain. From this, a detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of 0.36 was derived. The dynamic range of 4x4 pixel resolution element, comparable in size to a diffraction peak, was 10{sup 4}. The point-spread function shows FWHM resolution of approximately 1 pixel, where a pixel is 160 {mu}m on the detector face. A data set collected from a chicken egg-white lysozyme crystal, consisting of 495 0.1deg frames, was processed by the MADNES data reduction program. The symmetry R-factors for the data were 3.2-3.5%. In a separate experiment a complete lysozyme data set consisting of 45 1deg frames was obtained in just 36 s of X-ray exposure. Diffraction images from crystals of the myosin S1 head (a=275 A) were also recorded; the Bragg spots, only 5 pixels apart, were separated but not fully resolved. Changes in the detector design that will improve the DQE and spatial resolution are outlined. The overall performance showed that this type of detector is well suited for X-ray scattering investigations with synchrotron sources. (orig.).

  1. Large aperture CCD x-ray detector for protein crystallography using a fiberoptic taper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, M.G.; Westbrook, E.M.; Naday, I.; Coleman, T.A.; Westbrook, M.L.; Travis, D.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Sweet, R.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Pflugrath, J.W. (Cold Spring Harbor Lab., NY (USA)); Stanton, M. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))


    A detector with a 114 mm aperture, based on a charge-coupled device (CCD), has been designed for x-ray diffraction studies in protein crystallography. The detector was tested on a beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory with a beam intensity greater than 10{sup 9} x-ray photons/s. A fiberoptic taper, an image intensifier and a lens demagnify, intensify, and focus the image onto a CCD having 512 {times} 512 pixels. A detective quantum efficiency (DOE) of 0.36 was obtained by evaluating the statistical uncertainty in the detector output. The dynamic range of a 4 {times} 4 pixel resolution element, comparable in size to a diffraction peak, was 10{sup 4}. The point-spread function shows FWHM resolution of approximately 1 pixel, where a pixel on the detector face is 160 {mu}m. A complete data set, consisting of forty-five 1{degree} rotation frames, was obtained in just 36 s of x-ray exposure to a crystal of chicken egg-white lysozyme. In a separate experiment, a lysozyme data set consisting of 495 0.1{degree} frames, was processed by the MADNES data reduction program, yielding symmetry R-factors for the data of 3.2--3.5%. Diffraction images from crystals of the myosin S1 head (a = 275 {Angstrom}) were also recorded. The Bragg spots, only 5 pixels apart, were resolved but were not sufficiently separated to process these data. Changes in the detector design which will improve the DQE and spatial resolution are outlined. The overall performance showed that this type of detector is well suited for x-ray scattering investigations with synchrotron sources. 23 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Large aperture CCD x ray detector for protein crystallography using a fiberoptic taper (United States)

    Strauss, M. G.; Westbrook, E. M.; Naday, I.; Coleman, T. A.; Westbrook, M. L.; Travis, D. J.; Sweet, R. M.; Pflugrath, J. W.

    A detector with a 114 mm aperture, based on a charge-coupled device (CCD), has been designed for x-ray diffraction studies in protein crystallography. The detector was tested on a beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory with a beam intensity greater than 10(exp 9) x-ray photons/s. A fiberoptic taper, an image intensifier and a lens demagnify, intensify, and focus the image onto a CCD having 512 x 512 pixels. A detective quantum efficiency (DOE) of 0.36 was obtained by evaluating the statistical uncertainty in the detector output. The dynamic range of a 4 x 4 pixel resolution element, comparable in size to a diffraction peak, was 10(exp 4). The point-spread function shows FWHM resolution of approximately 1 pixel, where a pixel on the detector face is 160 microns. A complete data set, consisting of forty-five 1 deg rotation frames, was obtained in just 36 s of x-ray exposure to a crystal of chicken egg-white lysozyme. In a separate experiment, a lysozyme data set consisting of 495 0.1 deg frames, was processed by the MADNES data reduction program, yielding symmetry R-factors for the data of 3.2 to 3.5 percent. Diffraction images from crystals of the myosin S1 head (a = 275 A) were also recorded. The Bragg spots, only 5 pixels apart, were resolved but were not sufficiently separated to process these data. Changes in the detector design which will improve the DOE and spatial resolution are outlined. The overall performance showed that this type of detector is well suited for x-ray scattering investigations with synchrotron sources.

  3. CCD-based detector for protein crystallography with synchrotron X-rays (United States)

    Strauss, M. G.; Westbrook, E. M.; Naday, I.; Coleman, T. A.; Westbrook, M. L.; Travis, D. J.; Sweet, R. M.; Pflugrath, J. W.; Stanton, M.


    A detector with a 114 mm aperture, based on a charge-coupled device (CCD), has been designed for X-ray diffraction studies in protein crystallography. The detector was tested at the National Synchrotron Light Source with a beam intensity, through a 0.3 mm collimator, of greater than 109 X-ray photons/s. A fiberoptic taper, an image intensifier, and a lens demagnify, intensify, and focus the image onto a CCD having 512×512 pixels. The statistical uncertainty in the detector output was evaluated as a function of conversion gain. From this, a detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of 0.36 was derived. The dynamic range of a 4×4 pixel resolution element, comparable in size to a diffraction peak, was 104. The point-spread function shows FWHM resolution of approximately 1 pixel, where a pixel is 160 μm on the detector face. A data set collected from a chicken egg-white lysozyme crystal, consisting of 495 0.1° frames, was processed by the MADNES data reduction program. The symmetry R-factors for the data were 3.2-3.5%. In a separate experiment a complete lysozyme data set consisting of 45 1° frames was obtained in just 36 s of X-ray exposure. Diffraction images from crystals of the myosin S1 head (a = 275 Å) were also recorded; the Bragg spots, only 5 pixels apart, were separated but not fully resolved. Changes in the detector design that will improve the DQE and spatial resolution are outlined. The overall performance showed that this type of detector is well suited for X-ray scattering investigations with synchrotron sources.

  4. Image Quality of Digital Direct Flat-Panel Mammography Versus an Indirect Small-Field CCD Technique Using a High-Contrast Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Barbara Krug


    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the detection of microcalcifications on mammograms of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired by a direct digital flat-panel detector mammography system (FPM versus a stereotactic breast biopsy system utilizing CCD (charge-coupled device technology with either a 1024 or 512 acquisition matrix (1024 CCD and 512 CCD. Materials and Methods. Randomly distributed silica beads (diameter 100–1400 m and anthropomorphic scatter bodies were applied to 48 transparent films. The test specimens were radiographed on a direct digital FPM and by the indirect 1024 CCD and 512 CCD techniques. Four radiologists rated the monitor-displayed images independently of each other in random order. Results. The rate of correct positive readings for the “number of detectable microcalcifications” for silica beads of 100–199 m in diameter was 54.2%, 50.0% and 45.8% by FPM, 1024 CCD and 512 CCD, respectively. The inter-rater variability was most pronounced for silica beads of 100–199 m in diameter. The greatest agreement with the gold standard was observed for beads >400 m in diameter across all methods. Conclusion. Stereotactic spot images taken by 1024 matrix CCD technique are diagnostically equivalent to direct digital flat-panel mammograms for visualizing simulated microcalcifications >400 m in diameter.

  5. OsCCD1, a novel small calcium-binding protein with one EF-hand motif, positively regulates osmotic and salt tolerance in rice. (United States)

    Jing, Pei; Zou, Juanzi; Kong, Lin; Hu, Shiqi; Wang, Biying; Yang, Jun; Xie, Guosheng


    Calcium-binding proteins play key roles in the signal transduction in the growth and stress response in eukaryotes. However, a subfamily of proteins with one EF-hand motif has not been fully studied in higher plants. Here, a novel small calcium-binding protein with a C-terminal centrin-like domain (CCD1) in rice, OsCCD1, was characterized to show high similarity with a TaCCD1 in wheat. As a result, OsCCD1 can bind Ca(2+) in the in vitro EMSA and the fluorescence staining calcium-binding assays. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged OsCCD1 in rice protoplasts showed that OsCCD1 was localized in the nucleus and cytosol of rice cells. OsCCD1 transcript levels were transiently induced by osmotic stress and salt stress through the calcium-mediated ABA signal. The rice seedlings of T-DNA mutant lines showed significantly less tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses than wild type plants (psalt stresses than wild type plants (psalt stresses. In sum, OsCCD1 gene probably affects the DREB2B and its downstream genes to positively regulate osmotic and salt tolerance in rice seedlings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Schombert, James M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)


    We introduce SPARC ( Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves): a sample of 175 nearby galaxies with new surface photometry at 3.6  μ m and high-quality rotation curves from previous H i/H α studies. SPARC spans a broad range of morphologies (S0 to Irr), luminosities (∼5 dex), and surface brightnesses (∼4 dex). We derive [3.6] surface photometry and study structural relations of stellar and gas disks. We find that both the stellar mass–H i mass relation and the stellar radius–H i radius relation have significant intrinsic scatter, while the H i   mass–radius relation is extremely tight. We build detailed mass models and quantify the ratio of baryonic to observed velocity ( V {sub bar}/ V {sub obs}) for different characteristic radii and values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (ϒ{sub ⋆}) at [3.6]. Assuming ϒ{sub ⋆} ≃ 0.5 M {sub ⊙}/ L {sub ⊙} (as suggested by stellar population models), we find that (i) the gas fraction linearly correlates with total luminosity; (ii) the transition from star-dominated to gas-dominated galaxies roughly corresponds to the transition from spiral galaxies to dwarf irregulars, in line with density wave theory; and (iii)  V {sub bar}/ V {sub obs} varies with luminosity and surface brightness: high-mass, high-surface-brightness galaxies are nearly maximal, while low-mass, low-surface-brightness galaxies are submaximal. These basic properties are lost for low values of ϒ{sub ⋆} ≃ 0.2 M {sub ⊙}/ L {sub ⊙} as suggested by the DiskMass survey. The mean maximum-disk limit in bright galaxies is ϒ{sub ⋆} ≃ 0.7 M {sub ⊙}/ L {sub ⊙} at [3.6]. The SPARC data are publicly available and represent an ideal test bed for models of galaxy formation.

  7. Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health and Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) (United States)

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus that was linked with honey bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), the sudden and massive die-off of honey bee colonies in the U.S. in 2006-2007. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence and genetic diversity of IAPV, host transcripti...

  8. 32x32 HgCdTe/CCD infrared camera for the 2-5 micron range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monin, J.L.; Vauglin, I.; Sibille, F.


    The paper presents a complete infrared camera system, based on a high electron capacity detector (HgCdTe/CCD), that has been used under high background conditions to generate astronomical images. The performance of the system and some results are presented, and the use of such a detector in astronomy is discussed. 8 references

  9. Měření absolutní kvantové účinnosti iCCD kamer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin; Haderka, O.; Peřina, J.; Machulka, R.


    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 24-27 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100713; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum efficiency * intensified CCD camera * standardless measurement Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  10. Development and validation of a CCD-laser aerosol detective system for measuring the ambient aerosol phase function (United States)

    Bian, Yuxuan; Zhao, Chunsheng; Xu, Wanyun; Zhao, Gang; Tao, Jiangchuan; Kuang, Ye


    Aerosol phase function represents the angular scattering property of aerosols, which is crucial for understanding the climate effects of aerosols that have been identified as one of the largest uncertainties in the evaluation of radiative forcing. So far, there is a lack of instruments with which to measure the aerosol phase function directly and accurately in laboratory studies and in situ measurements. A portable instrument with high angular range and resolution has been developed for the measurement of the phase function of ambient aerosols in this study. The charge-coupled device-laser aerosol detective system (CCD-LADS) measures the aerosol phase function both across a relatively wide angular range of 10-170° and at a high resolution of 0.1°. The system includes a continuous laser, two charge-coupled device cameras and the corresponding fisheye lenses. The CCD-LADS was validated by both a laboratory study and a field measurement. The comparison between the aerosol phase function retrieved from CCD-LADS and Mie-scattering model shows good agreement. Compared with the TSI polar nephelometer, CCD-LADS has the advantages of wider detection range and better stability.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of GRB 000301C: CCD imaging and near-ultraviolet MAMA spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gull, T.R.


    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of the optical transient (OT) counterpart of the c-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained 5 days after the burst, on 2000 March 6. CCD clear-aperture imaging reveals a R similar or equal to 21.50 +/- 0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy. ...

  12. Hubble Space Telescope STIS Observations of GRB 000301C: CCD Imaging and Near-Ultraviolet MAMA Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gull, Th.R.; Sahu, K.C.; Petro, L.; Ferguson, H.; Rhoads, J.; Lindler, D.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.


    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of the optical transient (OT) counterpart of the gamma-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained 5 days after the burst, on 2000 March 6. CCD clear-aperture imaging reveals a R~=21.50+/-0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy. An 8000 s, 1150

  13. Fallow land mapping for better crop monitoring in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using HJ-1 CCD data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Miao; Wu, Bingfang; Meng, Jihua; Dong, Taifeng; You, Xingzhi


    The prediction of grain production is essential for socio-economic development planning, guidance and control of macro cropping structure adjustment. Fallow areas should be identified each growing season which is critical for grain production prediction. This paper focuses on fallow arable land monitoring during summer grain season in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using China Environment Satellite HJ-1 CCD data. With the two satellites HJ-1A and HJ-1B, high temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be obtained. HJ-1 CCD data were acquired from early March to early June in 2010 over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. Multi-temporal HJ-1 CCD data were pre-processed and time series of NDVI were derived. An algorithm for separating cropped and fallow areas was developed based on three key periods of NDVI in early-March, mid-April and mid-May, 2010. The influence of fallow arable lands to yield estimation and crop condition monitoring over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain were also investigated and analyzed. Preliminary results in this paper showed that HJ-1 CCD data are capable for fallow land monitoring. Information of fallow arable lands is an essential part of crop monitoring and it should be incorporated into crop monitoring systems. In the future, the fallow lands over autumn grain season should also be identified and information of fallow arable lands should be generated yearly in order to get more reliable production prediction

  14. 145CCD astrometric positions of comets and minor planets: Observed during March-September 1998 at the Belgrade observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benishek Vl.


    Full Text Available In this paper we present precise astrometric positions of four comets and four minor planets from the MPC critical list. All the observations were carried out with CCD equipped Askania astrograph (13.5/160. The SBIG ST-8 camera was used. Comet 1998 M5 (Stonehouse occulted an anonymous star on July 9 and that phenomenon was observed successfully.

  15. CCD camera as feasible large-area-size x-ray detector for x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyang; Sakurai, Kenji


    As X-ray fluorescence radiation isotropically spreads from the sample, one of the most important requirements for spectrometers for many years has been a large solid angle. Charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras are quite promising options because they have a fairly large area size, usually larger than 150 mm 2 . The present work has examined the feasibility of a commercially available camera with an ordinary CCD chip (1024 × 1024 pixels, the size of one pixel is 13 μm × 13 μm, designed for visible light) as an X-ray fluorescence detector. As X-ray photons create charges in the CCD chip, reading very quickly the amount is the key for this method. It is very simple if the charges always go into one pixel. As the charges quite often spread to several pixels, and sometimes can be lost, it is important to recover the information by filtering out the unsuccessful events. For this, a simple, versatile, and reliable scheme has been proposed. It has been demonstrated that the energy resolution of the present camera is 150 eV at Mn Kα, and also that its overall achievement in seeing minor elements is almost compatible with conventional X-ray fluorescence detectors. When the CCD camera is combined with a micro-pinhole collimator, full field X-ray fluorescence imaging with a spatial resolution of 20 μm becomes possible. Further feasibility in practical X-ray fluorescence analysis is discussed.

  16. Development of three-wavelength CCD image pyrometer used for the temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets. (United States)

    Xie, Zhi; Bai, Haicheng


    This paper develops an imaging based three-color pyrometer for the monitoring of temperature distribution in a continuous casting billet. A novel optical device, together with an embedded electronic system, is designed to sequentially collect a dark image and three thermal images with specified wavelengths on a same monochromatic charge-coupled-device (CCD). The three thermal images provide the basis for the determination of target temperature, while the dark image is used to online eliminate the dark noise of CCD with a differential method. This image pyrometer is not only independent of target emissivity but also overcomes the dissimilarity of measuring accuracy between the micro-sensors of CCD resulted from the non-uniformity of pixels' intensity response and the vignetting of optical system. Furthermore, a precise two-color temperature field measuring model on the CCD pyrometer is established, based on which a self-adaptive light-integration mechanism is presented. Compared with the traditional fixed light-integration method, the measuring range of the pyrometer is greatly extended and its sensitivity in low temperature segment is improved. The test results in a steel factory demonstrate that the pyrometer is capable of meeting the requirement of surface temperature measurements about casting billets. Reliability and accuracy of measurement results are also discussed herein.

  17. Defect inspection in hot slab surface: multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets method (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Xiaodong; Xiao, Hong; Huang, Chao


    To provide an accurate surface defects inspection method and make the automation of robust image region of interests(ROI) delineation strategy a reality in production line, a multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets method is proposed for hot slab surface quality assessment. The applicability of the presented method and the devised system are mainly tied to the surface quality inspection for strip, billet and slab surface etcetera. In this work we take into account the complementary advantages in two common machine vision (MV) systems(line array CCD traditional scanning imaging (LS-imaging) and area array CCD laser three-dimensional (3D) scanning imaging (AL-imaging)), and through establishing the model of fuzzy-rough sets in the detection system the seeds for relative fuzzy connectedness(RFC) delineation for ROI can placed adaptively, which introduces the upper and lower approximation sets for RIO definition, and by which the boundary region can be delineated by RFC region competitive classification mechanism. For the first time, a Multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets strategy is attempted for CC-slab surface defects inspection that allows an automatic way of AI algorithms and powerful ROI delineation strategies to be applied to the MV inspection field.

  18. An optical test bench for the precision characterization of absolute quantum efficiency for the TESS CCD detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, A.; Villasenor, J.; Kissel, S.; Ricker, G.; Vanderspek, R.


    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will search for planets transiting bright stars with Ic ∼< 13. TESS has been selected by NASA for launch in 2018 as an Astrophysics Explorer mission, and is expected to discover a thousand or more planets that are smaller in size than Neptune. TESS will employ four wide-field optical charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with a band-pass of 650 nm–1050 nm to detect temporary drops in brightness of stars due to planetary transits. The 1050 nm limit is set by the quantum efficiency (QE) of the CCDs. The detector assembly consists of four back-illuminated MIT Lincoln Laboratory CCID-80 devices. Each CCID-80 device consists of 2048×2048 imaging array and 2048×2048 frame store regions. Very precise on-ground calibration and characterization of CCD detectors will significantly assist in the analysis of the science data obtained in space. The characterization of the absolute QE of the CCD detectors is a crucial part of the characterization process because QE affects the performance of the CCD significantly over the redder wavelengths at which TESS will be operating. An optical test bench with significantly high photometric stability has been developed to perform precise QE measurements. The design of the test setup along with key hardware, methodology, and results from the test campaign are presented.

  19. Extended Stromgren Photometry in the Intermediate-age Open Cluster, NGC 5822 (United States)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Twarog, Bruce A.


    Open clusters remain invaluable objects for probing evolution on a galactic scale and testing the finer details of stellar evolution. In recent years we have focused on the study of open clusters as markers of Galactic disk evolution, evaluating the cluster parameters to test the reality and significance of detailed structure within the disk abundance gradient, confirming the apparent change in the slope of the gradient beyond the solar circle, evidence for an apparent inside-out development of the disk (Twarog et al. 1997). The current proposal is built around a comprehensive photometric study of the Hyades-age open cluster NGC 5822 as a prelude to high-dispersion spectroscopic analysis of the Li abundance for stars from the rich giant branch to the main sequence well below the so-called Li-dip. Our proposed CCD study on the extended Stromgren system, the first CCD study of this cluster on any photometric system, will supply reddening, metallicity, distance, and cluster age, while allowing us to identify and eliminate probable non- members and binaries, thereby optimizing the sample for spectroscopic followup.

  20. INT WFC follow-up photometry of the M31 nova M31N 2017-10a (United States)

    Hermosa-Munoz, L.; Garcia-Rivas, M.; Gonzalez-Cuesta, L.; Jimenez-Gallardo, A.; Mantero-Castaneda, E. A.; Arce-Tord, C.; Prendin, M. G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.; Esteban-Gutierrez, A.; Garcia-Broock, E.; Hernandez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Navas, E.; Otero-Santos, J.; Perez-Fournon, I.


    We report follow-up photometry in the Sloan g, r, and i bands, 240s per band, of the nova M31N 2017-10a ( = PNV J00423905+4123006) from observations on the night of 29 October 2017 with the Wide Field Camera of the Isaac Newton Telescope*.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 2014-2017 photometry for ASASSN-13db (Sicilia-Aguilar+, 2017) (United States)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Oprandi, A.; Froebrich, D.; Fang, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K.; Scholz, A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Henning, T.; Gredel, R.; Holoien, T. S. W.; Rabus, M.; Shappee, B. J.; Billington, S. J.; Campbell-White, J.; Zegmott, T. J.


    Table 1 contains the full photometry from the All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) for the variable star ASASSN-13db. Detections with their errors and 5-sigma upper limits are given. Upper limits are marked by the "<" sign and have the error column set to 99.99. (1 data file).

  2. Developing a CCD camera with high spatial resolution for RIXS in the soft X-ray range (United States)

    Soman, M. R.; Hall, D. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B.


    The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) at the Swiss Light Source contains a high resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Using the current CCD-based camera system, the energy-dispersive spectrometer has an energy resolution (E/ΔE) of approximately 12,000 at 930 eV. A recent study predicted that through an upgrade to the grating and camera system, the energy resolution could be improved by a factor of 2. In order to achieve this goal in the spectral domain, the spatial resolution of the CCD must be improved to better than 5 μm from the current 24 μm spatial resolution (FWHM). The 400 eV-1600 eV energy X-rays detected by this spectrometer primarily interact within the field free region of the CCD, producing electron clouds which will diffuse isotropically until they reach the depleted region and buried channel. This diffusion of the charge leads to events which are split across several pixels. Through the analysis of the charge distribution across the pixels, various centroiding techniques can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of the X-ray interaction to the sub-pixel level, greatly improving the spatial resolution achieved. Using the PolLux soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source, a beam of X-rays of energies from 200 eV to 1400 eV can be focused down to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Scanning this spot across the 16 μm square pixels allows the sub-pixel response to be investigated. Previous work has demonstrated the potential improvement in spatial resolution achievable by centroiding events in a standard CCD. An Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) has been used to improve the signal to effective readout noise ratio achieved resulting in a worst-case spatial resolution measurement of 4.5±0.2 μm and 3.9±0.1 μm at 530 eV and 680 eV respectively. A method is described that allows the contribution of the X-ray spot size to be deconvolved from these

  3. [Reproduction of the anatomy (offset, CCD, leg length) with a modern short stem hip design--a radiological study]. (United States)

    Jerosch, J; Grasselli, C; Kothny, P C; Litzkow, D; Hennecke, T


    The purpose of the study was to analyse different parameters before and after implantation of a modern short-stem hip design. In this prospective radiological study 250 consecutive hips with degenerative hip osteoarthritis were included (246 patients). The patients were operated by five different surgeons at 4 different hospitals and a metadiaphysial fixed short-stem prothesis (Mini Hip, Corin) was used. Standardised X-rays were performed with the same technique pre- and postoperatively in all patients. Different anatomic parameters of the hip were documented by using the pre- and postoperative Xrays (ofset, CCD angle, length of leg). All measurements were performed by an independent examiner. The 246 patients included 129 females and 117 males. The average age of the patients was 59.7 years (range: 27-82 years). The offset only changed by + 0.28 cm (SD: 0.45 cm) after surgery. We could document only a small decrease of -0.51° (SD: 4.10°) of the CCD angle. The length of the leg increased on average by + 0.09 cm (SD: 0.34 cm). We found no difference between the measurements of female and male patients. Conspicuous was also the increasing use of small protheses (size 2) for hips with a small CCD angle and the increasing implantation of large protheses (size 9) in hips with a high CCD angle. Our results showed that we could reconstruct the individual geometry of the hip quite well by using the metadiaphysial short-stem prothesis. The tendency of an increasing CCD angle and a decrease of the offset seems not to be existent with the design of this kind of short-stem prothesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Performance Test of Automated Photographic Photometer and Photometry of Cluster Byur 2 (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Hwan; Lee, See-Woo; Lee, Hyun-Gon


    The Automated Eichner Iris Photometer(AEIP) at the Korea Basic Science Center was tested for its function and the proper procedure for photographic photometry. The AEIP requires about three hours for reaching the electrical stability. When the iris is controlled automatically, the repeatability of density unit(DU) is accurate in the uncertainty of (0.0028~0.0048)DU. The iris reading is found to be accurate within the mean error of 0.05m, which could be reduced to 0.02m by the manual control. To check the applicability of the AEIP, each two photographic plates for UBV colors which were taken by Dupuy and Zukauskas(1976) for the open cluster Byur 2, were measured by using the AEIP, and the photographic magnitudes and colors of the stars in Byur 2 were determined, discussing the previous results.

  5. Photometry of long-period Algol binaries. VI. Multicolor photometric solutions for RZ Cancri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.C. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA))


    New intermediate-band photometry of the late-giant eclipsing system RZ CNc is used to obtain photometric solutions, both with the Popper (1976) spectroscopic mass ratio and by allowing the mass ratio and gravity-darkening coefficients to vary. New y observations are combined with earlier V data of Lenouvel (1957) and Broglia and Conconi (1973) in one solution set. Additional solutions are obtained from the new observations. The mean photometric mass ratio is somewhat larger than Popper's spectroscopic values; the general indeterminacy of photometric solutions may explain this apparent discrepancy. Possible photometric effects of a mass-transferring stream are discussed, and it is concluded that such effects cannot account for the mass-ratio discrepancy. 26 refs.

  6. Infrared photometry, extinctions and R values for some Northern Milky Way stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breda, I.G. van; Whittet, D.C.B.


    Infrared wideband photometry for 21 early-type stars in the Northern Milky Way is used to determine extinction values by the colour-difference method. The mean extinction curve is similar to the van de Hulst theoretical curve No. 15, and there is no significant difference in the results for stars lying towards and away from nebulosity. None of the stars exhibit infrared excesses at 3.5 μ. A mean value of R=3.15 +- 0.15 is deduced for the ratio of total to selective extinction. R is found to be normal towards the open cluster IC 1805 for which high values have been suggested; a distance of 2.0 +- 0.2 kpc is deduced for this cluster. (Auth.)

  7. Applicability of Broad-Band Photometry for Determining the Properties of Stars and Interstellar Extinction (United States)

    Sichevskij, S. G.


    The feasibility of the determination of the physical conditions in star's atmosphere and the parameters of interstellar extinction from broad-band photometric observations in the 300-3000 nm wavelength interval is studied using SDSS and 2MASS data. The photometric accuracy of these surveys is shown to be insufficient for achieving in practice the theoretical possibility of estimating the atmospheric parameters of stars based on ugriz and JHK s photometry exclusively because such determinations result in correlations between the temperature and extinction estimates. The uncertainty of interstellar extinction estimates can be reduced if prior data about the temperature are available. The surveys considered can nevertheless be potentially valuable sources of information about both stellar atmospheric parameters and the interstellar medium.

  8. Sub-percent Photometry: Faint DA White Dwarf Spectrophotometric Standards for Astrophysical Observatories (United States)

    Narayan, Gautham; Axelrod, Tim; Calamida, Annalisa; Saha, Abhijit; Matheson, Thomas; Olszewski, Edward; Holberg, Jay; Holberg, Jay; Bohlin, Ralph; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Rest, Armin; Deustua, Susana; Sabbi, Elena; MacKenty, John W.; Points, Sean D.; Hubeny, Ivan


    We have established a network of faint (16.5 Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have developed two independent analyses to forward model all the observed photometry and ground-based spectroscopy and infer a spectral energy distribution for each source using a non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (NLTE) DA white dwarf atmosphere extincted by interstellar dust. The models are in excellent agreement with each other, and agree with the observations to better than 0.01 mag in all passbands, and better than 0.005 mag in the optical. The high-precision of these faint sources, tied directly to the most accurate flux standards presently available, make our network of standards ideally suited for any experiments that have very stringent requirements on absolute flux calibration, such as studies of dark energy using the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST).

  9. Four-color and Hβ photometry for open clusters. II. NGC 6475

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowden, M.N.


    Extensive photometric observations were conducted in the field of the southern open cluster NGC 6475 with the uvby and Hβ systems. The interstellar reddening for the cluster was found to be nonuniform, and a mean color excess of E(b - y) = 0.067m was found. A distance modulus was obtained, and an attempt was made to identify member stars by using as criteria the present photometry and previous astrometric and spectroscopic studies. With the m 1 index, several stars were isolated as possible Am stars. A comparison of the observed data with theoretical models showed this cluster to be 260 x 10 6 years old, and thereby older than the Pleiades. Two stars appear to be blue stragglers

  10. Ca II H and K Filter Photometry on the UVBY System. II. The Catalog of Observations (United States)

    Twarog, Bruce A.; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.


    A catalog of photometry of 1990 stars on the Caby system is presented. The sample includes stars covering an extensive range in spectral type, luminosity class, and metallicity, as well as apparent magnitude. The hk indices are on the standard system defined in Anthony-Twarog et al. (1991), while the V and (b -y) indices have been transformed to the system of Olsen (1993; hereafter referred to as 093), superseding the values in the original catalog of standard stars. Extensive comparisons to three earlier u V by catalogs with a large degree of overlap are made and the residual trends discussed. The qualitative sensitivity of the hk index as a function of temperature is illustrated for the primary spectral ranges.

  11. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids: IX. Introducing interactive service for asteroid models (ISAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Santana-Ros, T.


    occultations, or space probe imaging. Aims. During our ongoing work to increase the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters, there appeared a need for displaying the model plane-of-sky orientations for specific epochs to compare models from different techniques. It would also be instructive...... to be able to track how the complex lightcurves are produced by various asteroid shapes. Methods. Basing our analysis on an extensive photometric observational dataset, we obtained eight asteroid models with the convex lightcurve inversion method. To enable comparison of the photometric models with those......, we increase the sample of asteroid spin and shape models based on disk-integrated photometry to over 200. Three of the shape models obtained here are confirmed by the stellar occultation data; this also allowed independent determinations of their sizes to be made. Conclusions. The ISAM service can...

  12. Optimized determination of uranium traces in iron and steel by absorption photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosturiak, A.


    Optimal conditions were sought for determining uranium by absorption photometry in a complex with 1,8-dihydroxy-2,7-bis(2-arsonophenylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid (arsenazo III). A suitable medium for this determination is a glycine buffer solution with pH 1-2. A high excess of iron and of other interfering ions is removed with diethylether from a HCl medium with a concentration of 6.6 -3 or with n-amyl acetate from a HCl medium with a concentration of more than 9 -3 EDTA in combination with boric acid is used for shielding against a greater number of interfering ions. This procedure may be used to determine U(VI) in Fe-Si-U alloys from 1x10 -3 wt.% and in pig iron or steels from 7x10 -3 wt.%. The results of measurements were statistically verified. (Ha)

  13. Observations of Hot-Jupiter occultations combining Spitzer and Kepler photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutson H.


    Full Text Available We present the status of an ongoing program which aim at measuring occultations by their parent stars of transiting hot giant exoplanets discovered recently by Kepler. The observations are obtained in the near infrared with WarmSpitzer Space Telescope and at optical wavelengths by combining more than a year of Kepler photometry. The investigation consists of measuring the mid-occultation times and the relative occultation depths in each band-passes. Our measurements of occultations depths in the Kepler bandpass is turned into the determination of the optical geometric albedo Ag in this wavelength domain. The brightness temperatures of these planets are deduced from the infrared observations. We combine the optical and near infrared planetary emergent fluxes to obtain broad band emergent spectra of individual planet. We finally compare these spectra to hot Jupiter atmospheric models in order broadly distinguishing these atmospheres between different classes of models.

  14. Spectroscopy and photometry of IP Peg in the near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.S.; Jones, D.H.P.; Smith, R.C.


    Time-resolved spectroscopy in the range lambdalambda7600-8300 A of the dwarf nova IP Peg has been used to derive a radial velocity curve for the secondary star, with semi-amplitude K=288.3+-4 km s -1 . The curve is slightly distorted, giving an orbit with an apparent eccentricity of 0.075+-0.024. The radial velocity curve gives a mass function for the primary of 0.394+-0.016 M(sun). From this constraints are derived on the possible masses of the components and on the inclination of the system. Photometry in a wavelength band around 9300 Angstroms shows the existence of a large ellipsoidal variation in the light from the secondary star. (author)

  15. A preliminary study of serum IgE against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) in client-owned atopic dogs. (United States)

    Levy, Britt J; DeBoer, Douglas J


    Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) are defined carbohydrate portions of glycoprotein cell surface molecules common to many plant and insect species. Mammalian species recognize CCD as foreign antigens and can mount humoral immune responses against them. Approximately 20-37% of grass and venom allergic people possess circulating IgE against CCD; these antibodies are generally considered clinically irrelevant. Anti-CCD IgE is, however, recognized as a cause of false positive, clinically incongruent serum allergen test results in people; this phenomenon has not been investigated in animals. To determine if anti-CCD IgE could be detected in sera of client-owned atopic dogs and how frequently it is found. Sera from 38 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of atopic dermatitis and prior serological evidence of IgE antibodies, defined as a positive result to at least one mite and pollen (of any type). Sera were analysed for IgE against CCD and environmental allergens with a commercially available multiplex enzyme-labelled allergen-specific IgE assay. Anti-CCD IgE was detected in nine of 38 (24%) of atopic dog sera. As with their human counterparts, all dogs with anti-CCD IgE had strong serological reactivity to grass pollens. Anti-CCD IgE can confound serological allergen testing in people; the same might be true in dogs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical implications of anti-CCD IgE in dogs, including the potential for these antibodies to affect serum allergen-specific IgE assays used for clinical diagnosis, and whether they are relevant to clinical disease. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Infrared photometry, extinction curves and R values for stars in the southern Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Breda, I.G. Van; Glass, I.S.


    Infrared photometry in the JHKL bands is combined with photoelectric scanner photometry to give interstellar extinction curves in the range lambda 0.34 to 3.4 μ for 22 early-type stars in the Southern Milky Way. The extinction curves show variations in curvature in the infrared which are related to the well-known change in slope in the near ultraviolet. The curves are extrapolated to lambda -1 = 0 with the aid of Mie theory computations for a graphite-iron-silicate grain model, and values of the ratio of total to selective extinction R = Asub(v)/Esub(B-V) are deduced. R is found to vary between 2.7 and 3.5 with a median value of 3.2 for stars with long-path-length reddening, while two stars in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud have R values of 3.6 and 4.3. The variations found in the extinction curves probably result from regional fluctuations in the mean grain size and/or composition along the line of sight, and any systematic variation in R with galactic longitude is likely to be small. The derived R values are correlated with the wavelength of maximum polarization. R is found to be normal for HD 90706 in the cluster IC 2581, for which a high R value has been suggested. It is noted that R has now been shown to lie in the range 4.1 to 4.4 for stars in the denser regions of the rho Ophiuchi cloud by four independent methods. None of the observed stars show strong infrared excess radiation at 3.4 μ. Small excesses measured for a few high-luminosity stars associated with mass loss may be due to free-free emission in gaseous stellar envelopes. (author)

  17. Calibrating the Near-Infrared Tip of the Red Giant Branch with Multiwavelength Photometry (United States)

    Durbin, Meredith


    The near-infrared (NIR) tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) shows outstanding promise as a distance indicator. In the JWST era, the NIR-TRGB will bridge the gap from local geometric parallax (with Gaia) out to the low-velocity Hubble flow in a single step, in all types of galaxies. However, there currently exist several impediments to JWST's using the TRGB to full advantage. Dalcanton et al. (2012) presented the most comprehensive dataset available for calibrating the TRGB absolute magnitude, with optical and NIR coverage of 23 nearby dwarf and spiral galaxies spanning a wide range of ages and metallicities. However, subtle offsets between this dataset, theoretical models, and globular clusters raise concerns about the calibration.We propose to perform a complete re-reduction and re-analysis of this dataset. We have developed a pipeline that leverages simultaneous fitting of optical and NIR data to produce NIR photometry of higher quality and completeness, with up to 1.5 mag greater depth than can be achieved with the NIR alone. With this added depth, improvements in photometric precision, and updated WFC3/IR PSFs and flux calibration, we will derive uniform, precise, and accurate NIR TRGB measurements, with which we will be able to resolve standing issues with the TRGB color-absolute magnitude relation and its behavior with changing star-formation histories. This work will lay the groundwork for extending the TRGB distance scale out to at least 37 Mpc with JWST. We will release the resulting 4-filter optical-NIR photometry as HLSPs for use by the community before the launch of JWST, to serve as a resource for proposing for stellar population observations in the NIR.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST photometry of stars in HD 97950 (Pang+, 2016) (United States)

    Pang, X.; Pasquali, A.; Grebel, E. K.


    The HD97950 cluster and its immediate surroundings in the giant HII region NGC3603 were observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The ultraviolet (UV) data were taken with the High Resolution Channel (HRC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in 2005 (GO 10602, PI: Jesus Maiz Apellaniz) through the F220W, F250W, F330W, and F435W filters. The HRC is characterized by a spatial resolution of 0.03"/pixel and a field of view of 29''*25''. The optical observations were carried out with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) in two epochs: 1997 (GO 6763, PI: Laurent Drissen) and 2007 (GO 11193, PI: Wolfgang Brandner) through the F555W, F675W, and F814W filters. The Planetary Camera (PC) chip was centered on the cluster (0.045"/pixel, 40''*40'') for both programs. Pang et al. 2013 (cat. J/ApJ/764/73) reduced the two-epoch WFPC2 data and identified more than 400 member stars on the PC chip via relative proper motions. Of these member stars, 142 are in common between the HRC and PC images and thus have UV and optical photometry available (see Table1). Among the HD97950 cluster member stars determined from relative proper motions (Pang et al. 2013, cat. J/ApJ/764/73, Table2), there are five main-sequence (MS) stars located in the cluster with projected distances of r<0.7pc from the center, for which there are also spectral types available from Table3 of Melena et al. (2008AJ....135..878M). The photometry of these five MS stars is presented in Table2. The individual color excesses and extinctions of the member main sequence stars are listed in Table3. (3 data files).

  19. The RMS survey: far-infrared photometry of young massive stars (United States)

    Mottram, J. C.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Urquhart, J. S.; Meade, M. R.; Moore, T. J. T.; Stead, J. J.


    Context. The Red MSX Source (RMS) survey is a multi-wavelength campaign of follow-up observations of a colour-selected sample of candidate massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) in the galactic plane. This survey is returning the largest well-selected sample of MYSOs to date, while identifying other dust contaminant sources with similar mid-infrared colours including a large number of new ultra-compact (UC) H ii regions. Aims: To measure the far-infrared (IR) flux, which lies near the peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MYSOs and UCH ii regions, so that, together with distance information, the luminosity of these sources can be obtained. Methods: Less than 50% of RMS sources are associated with IRAS point sources with detections at 60 μm and 100 μm, though the vast majority are visible in Spitzer MIPSGAL or IRAS Galaxy Atlas (IGA) images. However, standard aperture photometry is not appropriate for these data due to crowding of sources and strong spatially variable far-IR background emission in the galactic plane. A new technique using a 2-dimensional fit to the background in an annulus around each source is therefore used to obtain far-IR photometry for young RMS sources. Results: Far-IR fluxes are obtained for a total of 1113 RMS candidates identified as young sources. Of these 734 have flux measurements using IGA 60 μm and 100 μm images and 724 using MIPSGAL 70 μm images, with 345 having measurements in both data sets. Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  20. The simulated spectrum of the OGRE X-ray EM-CCD camera system (United States)

    Lewis, M.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Lumb, D.; Tutt, J.; McEntaffer, R.; Schultz, T.; Holland, K.


    The X-ray astronomical telescopes in use today, such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, use X-ray grating spectrometers to probe the high energy physics of the Universe. These instruments typically use reflective optics for focussing onto gratings that disperse incident X-rays across a detector, often a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD). The X-ray energy is determined from the position that it was detected on the CCD. Improved technology for the next generation of X-ray grating spectrometers has been developed and will be tested on a sounding rocket experiment known as the Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE). OGRE aims to capture the highest resolution soft X-ray spectrum of Capella, a well-known astronomical X-ray source, during an observation period lasting between 3 and 6 minutes whilst proving the performance and suitability of three key components. These three components consist of a telescope made from silicon mirrors, gold coated silicon X-ray diffraction gratings and a camera that comprises of four Electron-Multiplying (EM)-CCDs that will be arranged to observe the soft X-rays dispersed by the gratings. EM-CCDs have an architecture similar to standard CCDs, with the addition of an EM gain register where the electron signal is amplified so that the effective signal-to-noise ratio of the imager is improved. The devices also have incredibly favourable Quantum Efficiency values for detecting soft X-ray photons. On OGRE, this improved detector performance allows for easier identification of low energy X-rays and fast readouts due to the amplified signal charge making readout noise almost negligible. A simulation that applies the OGRE instrument performance to the Capella soft X-ray spectrum has been developed that allows the distribution of X-rays onto the EM-CCDs to be predicted. A proposed optical model is also discussed which would enable the missions minimum success criteria's photon count requirement to have a high chance of being met with the shortest possible