WorldWideScience

Sample records for buyers

  1. Buyer-driven Greening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano; Lister, Jane

    2016-01-01

    findings suggest that environmental upgrading is more likely to occur when global value chains are characterized by unipolar governance and where the lead firms are consumer-facing companies with reputational risks. Furthermore, environmental upgrading in shipping is not likely to materialize without clear......In this article, we examine the relations between global value chain governance and environmental upgrading in maritime shipping. Drawing from interviews with global shipping companies and major buyers of shipping services (cargo-owners), we reveal the key issues and challenges faced in improving...... the environmental performance of maritime transportation. Contributing to the Global Value Chain (GVC) literature, we compare and analyze the influence of three main external drivers on environmental upgrading in the tanker, bulk and container shipping segments: regulation, cooperation and buyer demands. Our...

  2. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  3. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  4. JCE Online: Equipment Buyers Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-01-01

    The Equipment Buyers Guide was edited by Jo Rita Jordan. The new Equipment Buyers Guide, bound into the back of this issue, is also a new resource of JCE Internet. This resource provides an online source for the information contained in the printed guide. Placing this information online allows us to regularly update it and to provide live links to the suppliers' WWW sites. The organization of the online version parallels that of the print version. There is an alphabetical list of suppliers and a categorical listing. Links to these lists are provided on every page in the left-hand navigation bar. To quickly find information about a particular supplier, you click Supplier List, click the letter that begins the supplier's name, and scroll through the list to find the supplier. To find which suppliers provide a particular type of instrument or equipment, use the Categories link; click the category of the equipment you are looking for and then click the link to a supplier. You will then be taken to an alphabetical supplier listing page where you can scroll until you find the particular supplier of the item for which you are looking. Once you have found a supplier, the online Equipment Buyers Guide gives you the traditional contact information. But in addition, you also get one-click access to the WWW sites of the suppliers that have them. Depending on the site, you should be able to find information about the items that you seek and may even be able to order the items online! We think that you will find the online version of the Equipment Buyers Guide useful. To make it more useful, please send your suggestions, any errors or omissions you find, and any additional categories to the editor at jjordan@world.std.com The online Equipment Buyers Guide can be found at JCE Online at http://JChemEd.chem.wisc.edu/JCEWWW/Resources/EBG/ JCE Online in '99 JCE Online is your online source of "all things JCE". In order to provide you with an even more useful online resource, JCE

  5. Power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorton, Matthew; Angell, Robert; Dries, Liesbeth; Urutyan, Vardan; Jackson, Elizabeth; White, John

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a Multiple Indicators and MultIple Causes (MIMIC) model for explaining the relationships between buyer-seller power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier satisfaction / performance. The model draws on an organizational supply chain perspective of power and is verified using data

  6. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...... to create a better understanding of the nature of the supply task. The operating task concerns the use of the existing supply system, while the system development task concerns the appropriate development of the company’s supply system. Finally, the management task concerns creating consistency between...... of the company’s products and (production) processes, the product and process development task. A number of contingency variables have been identified and described for the delivery task, the product and process development task and the system development task. The contingency variables are used to characterise...

  7. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. MEHTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

  8. Buyer protection for e-commerce transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Laskowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Buyer protection has been a major challenge for e-commerce entrepreneurs and engineers building application for executing transactions on-line. The threat connected with e-commerce is mostly connected with problems in authenticating users performing the buy/sell action. Key webportals such as eBay.com and Paypal.com offer 100% money back buyer protection programs for transactions that were unsuccessful or purchased goods were substantially different from the provided description. The aim of this article is to analyze procedures of acquiring compensation in buyer protection programs procedures. The case study enclosed in the article seem to advocate that buyer protection programs does not insure e-commerce transactions. Any kind of money back guarantee is affected by the current marketing policy of the company. The user agreement does not directly impose an obligation of receiving compensation by the user.

  9. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, D.; Anand GARG; Naveen K MEHTA

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. Th...

  10. The internal competitor: Buyer motives and external supplier marketing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Sloth, Jacob Lerche; Thrane, Claus

    Abstract Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this paper is to identify buyer motives for supporting internal competitors and to suggest relevant marketing strategy elements for external suppliers confronting these internal competitors. Research method: With basis...... in a literature review we identify different buyer motives for choosing to combine external suppliers with internal production, i.e., an internal competitor. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are identified and briefly discussed. Research findings: The paper describes different buyer motives...... relevant buyer motives, the existence of different buyer motives suggests that these buyers should be targeted with different marketing strategies. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are suggested and briefly discussed. Thus, for each buyer motive it is briefly discussed (1) how...

  11. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    performance. We explore the proposed impact of diverging relationship norms on relationship expectations using data from an ongoing field study of Danish buyers and Chinese suppliers. We link these diverging expectations to the business practices of Danish buyers and Chinese and their institutional contexts...... performance. An important reason for this is the diverging beliefs and expectations held by both parties in the buyer-seller dyad. The purpose of this contribution is to develop a framework for understanding the divergences in expectations and relationship norms in cross-cultural business relationships among...... SMEs. We discuss four relational expectations derived from the B2B literature on relational norms for addressing these divergences: Quality, frequency and scope of communication, role specifications and coordination of work nature of planning horizons, and trustworthiness and link these to relationship...

  12. A Lightweight Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.

  13. A Secure and Efficient Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Hu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Digital watermarking technology has become increasing popular in the protection digital copyright. However, in the practical application, the watermarking algorithms should be combined with a secure copyright protection protocol to solve the copyright protection problems completely. In this paper, a novel buyer-seller watermarking protocol is proposed for piracy tracing, in which a memoryless Watermark Certification Authority (WCA can offer a number of watermarks for a buyer simultaneously, avoiding itself being involved in each digital transaction operated between the buyer and the seller. Besides, in order to guarantee the anonymity of the buyer, the WCA can provide the buyer with an encrypted digital certificate and have it submitted directly to the seller by the buyer. In addition, the proposed protocol also can resolve other problems, such as the customer right problem, the binding attack problem, the anonymity problem, the conspiracy problem, the dispute problem. The analyses indicate that the proposed protocol is secure and practical.

  14. Does behaviour of heavy and light wine buyers differ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lockshin, Larry; Habenschuss, Sarah;

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the differences in behaviour between heavy and light wine buyers. This is conducted by comparing heavy and light buyers of wine in terms of their repertoires including the size, purchase frequency and market shares across brands, as well as loyalty...... buyers’ market share for small brands is slightly greater than for the heavy wine buyers. Moreover, attributes such as brand type and brand share seem to drive loyalty more than expected for light wine buyers in comparison to heavy wine buyers. Practical implications: Despite their small purchase volume...... exhibited towards particular wine attributes. Design/methodology/approach: Using panel data of wine purchases in the UK for each buyer group (light and heavy) market shares and loyalty to wine attributes were examined. The polarisation index φ (phi) was used as a measure of loyalty. Findings: The light...

  15. Vendor-buyer ordering policy when demand is trapezoidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digeshkumar B. Shah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A joint vendor-buyer strategy is analyzed which is beneficial to both the players in the supply chain. The demand is assumed to be trapezoidal. It is established numerically that the joint venture decreases the total cost of the supply chain when compared with the independent decision of the buyer. To entice the buyer to order more units, a permissible credit period is offered by the vendor to the buyer. A negotiation factor is incorporated to share the cost savings.

  16. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  17. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  18. Buyer-Seller Interaction Patterns During Ongoing Service Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Valk (Wendy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have t

  19. 9 CFR 201.69 - Furnishing information to competitor buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnishing information to competitor... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.69 Furnishing information to competitor buyers. No packer, dealer, or... operations: (a) Furnish competitor packers, dealers, market agencies, or their buyers or...

  20. Differences in buyers' and suppliers' perceptions of supply chain attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Marian; Molleman, Eric; van der Vaart, Taco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model that explains why and when buyers and suppliers may differ in the ways they perceive certain relationship attributes. Understanding when buyers and suppliers will share perceptions, and when not, can help future researchers in deciding how to measure these attributes. The

  1. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  2. Determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness in transnational companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rašković

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective supplier-buyer relationship management should not be seen only in terms of cost and financial measures, as outlined by Transaction cost economics, but also in terms of other (“softer” relational benefits, like e.g. more comprehensive information sharing, higher levels of trust, better cooperation and increased relationship flexibility. This second view is grounded in both Relationship marketing and Resource-advantage theory. Surprisingly, only a few research papers on supplier-buyer relationships address both of these perspectives equally, as well as in terms of long-term competitiveness (vis-avis a traditional short-term performance. The purpose of this paper is to analyze business relationship determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, where we study the impact of (1 relationship-based information exchange, (2 network spillover effects, (3 transaction-specific investments, (4 trust, (5 cooperation (joint actions and (6 flexibility on perceived (7 supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness. In this regard the main research question of our study is: Which relational and transactional dimensions determine supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, as well as how strongly? To provide the answer this research question we employ an exploratory-type Partial Least Squares (PLS regression in conjunction with a novel perspective of network spillover effects, as a set of independent variables in our model. The data set consists of a sample of 130 international suppliers (approx. 30 % response rate connected to a transnational company (TNC headquartered in Slovenia, which operates in the steel construction solutions’ industry. Our results clearly identify a relational and a transactional set of determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, with the former having a significantly higher impact on competitiveness than the latter. With regards to specific dimensions associated with this relational component

  3. Research on secure buyer-seller watermarking protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Quan; Chen Zheng; Zhou Zude

    2008-01-01

    A new buyer-seller watermarking protocol is proposed by applying a double encryption method and a novel mechanism of embedding a buyer's watermark. The protocol can effectively prevent against collusion attacks and the man in the middle attack if the third party is not trusted. Also, based on the proposed scheme for the first-hand transaction, a new buyer-reseller watermarking protocol and a formal multi-party watermarking protocol are also proposed. The proposed buyer-resell watermarking protocol only needs the original seller to provide transfer certificate and encryption-decryption service to support the second-hand transaction, and the multi-party watermarking protocol with distributed certificate authorities can overcome the difficulty in the combination of multicast mechanism with multiple unique watermarks and allow a seller to multicast the watermarked digital contents and key transaction information to n buyers. Furthermore, the idea of zero knowledge proof is also applied into the proposed scheme to allow the seller to take an effective control on the task performed by the third party.

  4. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten

    Empirical studies of retailer buying behaviour show which attributes are important when retail buyers choose between new products and suppliers. Skytte & Blunch (1998) identified which attributes make a difference to retail buyers in Western Europe when buying fish products, and they identified...... the following five segments of retail buyer policy based on the results: 1) 'Relationship builders' are small chains that focus on long term relationships. 2) 'The traditional chains' are small or medium-sized and include many co-operative chains that demand high product quality. They also want suppliers...... that are able to deliver sufficient quantities. 3) Voluntary chains are dominating the 'large chains' segment. They have a high share of private label products and want long term relationships with suppliers and sufficient quantities. 4) 'Green shops' include many small wholesalers sponsored chains and co...

  5. Integrating Business Communication Skills into a Buyer-Behavior Course Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Alan P.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an undergraduate buyer-behavior course project targeted at improving students' business communication skills through a team-teaching project. Highlights the value of integrating written, oral, and electronic communications pedagogy with buyer-behavior course instruction. (SR)

  6. Responsiveness through buyer-focused cells : Exploring a new supply strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, D.P.; van der Vaart, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The concept of buyer focus has recently been introduced as a new supply chain strategy, although the design and operation of buyer-focused cells have hardly been investigated. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how buyer-focused cells realise responsiveness. Design/methodology/app

  7. Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Clean Cities Light-Duty Vehicle Buyer's Guide is a consumer publication that provides a comprehensive list of commercially available alternative fuel and advanced vehicles in model year 2011. The guide allows for side-by-side comparisons of fuel economy, price, emissions, and vehicle specifications.

  8. Nash and integrated solutions in a just-in-time seller-buyer supply chain with buyer's ordering cost reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    The seller frequently offers the buyer trade credit to settle the purchase amount. From the seller's prospective, granting trade credit increases not only the opportunity cost (i.e., the interest loss on the buyer's purchase amount during the credit period) but also the default risk (i.e., the rate that the buyer will be unable to pay off his/her debt obligations). On the other hand, granting trade credit increases sales volume and revenue. Consequently, trade credit is an important strategy to increase seller's profitability. In this paper, we assume that the seller uses trade credit and number of shipments in a production run as decision variables to maximise his/her profit, while the buyer determines his/her replenishment cycle time and capital investment as decision variables to reduce his/her ordering cost and achieve his/her maximum profit. We then derive non-cooperative Nash solution and cooperative integrated solution in a just-in-time inventory system, in which granting trade credit increases not only the demand but also the opportunity cost and default risk, and the relationship between the capital investment and the ordering cost reduction is logarithmic. Then, we use a software to solve and compare these two distinct solutions. Finally, we use sensitivity analysis to obtain some managerial insights.

  9. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  10. Measures of Buyer Concentration in the Australian Wool Market

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The study uses empirical measures of market concentration to examine buyer competition in wool between 1974 and 1992. Three measures of concentration are examined, concentration ratios, Herfindahl indices and Lorenz curves. Data from the Australian Council of Wool Exporters are used to obtain estimates of these measures over the sample period. The results indicate that the buying sector in the Australian wool market is relatively concentrated and calculation of Spearman correlation coefficien...

  11. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  12. An Integrated Vendor-Buyer Cooperative Inventory Model for Items with Imperfect Quality and Shortage Backordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Tzer Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a model to determine an integrated vendor-buyer inventory policy for items with imperfect quality and planned backorders. The production process is imperfect and produces a certain number of defective items with a known probability density function. The vendor delivers the items to the buyer in small lots of equally sized shipments. Upon receipt of the items, the buyer will conduct a 100% inspection. Since each lot contains a variable number of defective items, shortages may occur at the buyer. We assume that shortages are permitted and are completely backordered. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical examples show that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction in comparison to an independent decision by the buyer.

  13. An integrated vendor-buyer model with stock-dependent demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    We develop an integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are kept in the buyer's warehouse and are then presented to the end customers...... in a display area. The end-customer demand is assumed to be positively dependent on the amount of items shown in the display area. With the proposed model we determine the buyer's optimal shipment quantity and number of shipments, as well as the vendor's optimal production batch. The objective is to maximize...... total supply chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that it is more profitable for the buyer and the vendor to cooperate in situations when the demand is more stock-dependent. The analysis also shows the effect of double marginalization in this integrated vendor-buyer model....

  14. An Integrated Vendor-Buyer Model with Stock-Dependent Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    An integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain is developed and analyzed. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area and/or are kept......-chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that as long as the maximum display area is not used, it is more valuable for the buyer and the vendor to cooperate in situations when the demand is more stock- dependent. It also shows the effect of double marginalization in this integrated vendor-buyer model....

  15. BUYER SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN BARGAINING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutinon Putthiwanit

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the process of buyers’ subsequent attitudes and subsequent actions and their relationships depended on the bargaining outcomes. Depth interviews were employed in order to explore the success, the failure, and the consequent actions in dyadic bargaining under the condition of one buyer and one seller. Ten international respondents were invited to be interviewed. Approximately one hour of each interview is taken, while English is the medium of the interviews. After the interviews, respondents were given five USD as an incentive. The results show that successful bargainers tended to be younger people and easterner, compared to unsuccessful bargainers who tended to be older people and westerner. When buying product in computer and vehicle category, it might provide higher chance in getting the discount, while buying product in garment category gave the partial tendency to win the bargain. Since garment seems to have fewer profit margins when compared to the other category like computer or vehicle, it thus is obligatory for the seller to avoid discounting this kind of product. During the interviews, author found that confident interviewees shared their successful bargaining experiences; whereas, interviewees with very calm and quiet attitude seemed to express about their unsuccessful bargaining stories. This research also provides insights of buyer as bargainer profoundly. It therefore helps the seller, especially in computer, garment, and vehicle industry, knows how to balance mutualinterest and maintain the strong relationship with customer.

  16. SURVEY ON SOLIDARITY GROUPS OF BUYERS: CRITICAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pennisi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is intended to provide, through the analysis of the dynamics of purchase of solidarity groups of buyers, a contribution to the study of current trends that are affecting the alternative to the dominant agro-food industry. Through the use of a questionnaire the paper investigated the perception as consumers this particular class of buyers have of themselves and how their concepts of “conscious choice” and “responsibility” drive their shopping list and consequently influence the growth and development of the Short Supply Chain, as the work remarked the progressive and notable increment of commerce and families circling around this young but widespreading phenomenon. Particularly striking, in fact, emerge from the role that consumers are becoming part of this phenomenon and the most of them have matured during time the idea that biological and hand-made products are for themselves also Safe, while the Long Supply Chain should incarnate the role of an alienating and wholly food system. The analysis of the questionnaires revealed some problems concerning the methods of transport and storage.

  17. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

  18. The role of brands in the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive versus noncompulsive buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – This article investigates the role that brands play in influencing the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive buyers and whether this role differs for noncompulsive buyers, resulting in four research propositions. - Design/methodology/approach – In-depth interviews, conducted with

  19. 16 CFR 460.16 - What new home sellers must tell new home buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What new home sellers must tell new home buyers. 460.16 Section 460.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.16 What new home sellers must tell new home buyers....

  20. 27 CFR 10.52 - Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Exclusion § 10.52... payments of money to the employee(s) of a trade buyer without the knowledge or consent of the trade buyer-employer in return for the employee agreeing to order distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages from...

  1. Economic Transactions among Friends: Asymmetric Generosity but Not Agreement in Buyers' and Sellers' Offers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments tested the idea that economic transactions among friends are influenced by a norm of generosity. Whereas a fairness norm ought to promote agreement in offers between buyers and sellers, a generosity norm should promote altruistic disagreements caused by sellers offering lower prices than buyers--a reversal of the well-known…

  2. Attitudes and decisions of the motor insurance buyers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor insurance constitutes the most popular type of insurance products purchased in Poland and consequently the largest part of non-life insurance sector. In this paper the selected results of the questionnaire survey concerning attitudes and choices of the motor insurance buyers on the Polish market are presented. First, the current situation on the Polish motor insurance market is discussed. Next, the scope of the motor insurance held by respondents, their forms and used distribution channels are analysed. The stress is put on the level of the customers` loyalty to the current insurer, as well as the factors influencing the choice of a specific insurance company and its offer. Finally, the results of the analysis concerning the statistical interdependencies between selected characteristics of the respondents are considered.The conducted research can be useful in practice for the insurance companies, interested in improving their motor insurance offer, as well as the insurance intermediaries serving individual customers

  3. An integrated vendor-buyer model with stock-dependent demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    We develop an integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain. The vendor manufactures the product and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area. Demand is assumed to be positively dependent...... on the amount of items displayed. The objective is to maximize total supply chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that buyer-vendor coordination is more profitable in situations when demand is more stock dependent. It also shows that the effect of double marginalization provides a link between the non...

  4. 75 FR 39206 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... determine which U.S. firms are interested in meeting with international business visitors and the overseas... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and Exhibitor Data AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice....

  5. Perceptions of technology uncertainty and the consequences for performance in buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, M.; van der Vaart, T.; Molleman, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how buyers' and suppliers' distinct perceptions of technology uncertainty affect the relationship between communication frequency and supplier performance. Information processing theory suggests that a fit is desirable between perceived environmental uncertainty and the

  6. COTTON USA Buyers Tour Brings Global Brands and Retailers to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ MEMPHIS - The COTTON USA Buyers Tour to China delivered representatives from 18 global companies - with a combined annual turnover of $18.5 billion - to China from 26-30 March to meet suppliers of pure cotton woven textiles.

  7. COTTON USA'S Buyers Tour to Be Held in China in June

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ COTTON USA's Supply Chain Marketing Buyers Tour will be held in China from 7th to 11th June.Cotton Council International's ("CCI") representative offices in the U.S.,Europe and North East Asia have recruited nearly 40 renowned global buyers and retailers including,Gardeur,Gerry Weber,Marks & Spencer,Max Mara,K&L Ruppert,Debenhams,Polo Ralph Lauren coming to China to attend Buyers Tour,and 37 COTTON USA licensed suppliers from China and North and South East Asian regions will also participate in the trade fair to demonstrate their quality products,which will not only ensure the buyers to receive quality fabrics and garments,but also assist the suppliers to create a forum to meet their buvers and to thrive their business.

  8. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Hendon, Ebbe

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good...... with large probability, even as friction becomes negligible. We investigate the relationship between the use of Nash and sequential bargaining. Nash bargaining seems applicable only when the sequential approach yields a unique stationary strategy subgame perfect equilibrium...

  9. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Tranæs, Torben

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good...... with large probability, even as friction becomes negligible. We investigate the relationship between the use of Nash and sequential bargaining. Nash bargaining seems applicable only when the sequential approach yields a unique stationary strategy subgame perfect equilibrium....

  10. Coordination buyer-supplier in supply chain models from net present value perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hamontree, Chaowalit

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines four parts of production and inventory models for buyer-supplier in the supply chain under deterministic conditions. The main objective is to find optimal lot-sizing decisions and inventory policies which derive from the classical inventory and Net Present Value (NPV) framework. Firstly, we study the production and inventory models from the classical framework to identify how to value the holding cost for buyer and supplier in the average profit or cost functions. Secondl...

  11. Alternative Approach Strategies For Buyer-Seller Relations With The Peoples Republic Of China

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the issues involved in buyer-seller relations for industrial product sales in the People's Republic of China. The need is genuine in many product categories including plant technology, high technology, and infrastructure. The problem is that buying policies and procedures for foreign firms are still emerging, and therefore, unclear and confusing. Three approach strategies for buyer-seller relations with China are presented: the authorized "buying group," the "agency" repre...

  12. Industrial buyer behavior : A study of the industrial buying behavior in Life Science organizations when faced with a radical innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Belulaj, Arbnor; Celion, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    A central part of the marketing process is to be aware of why a customer or buyer makes a purchase and without such an understanding, businesses find it hard to respond to the customer‟s needs and wants. A large part of the current literature concerned with industrial buyer behavior has tended to focus on modeling and mapping the industrial buyer behavior. However, little research has been found on how the industrial buyer behaves when faced with a radical product innovation. Therefore, the p...

  13. Buyer-seller watermarking protocol based on amplitude modulation and the El Gamal Public Key Crypto System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Nasir D.; Wong, Ping W.

    1999-04-01

    Digital watermarks have recently been proposed for the purposes of copy protection and copy deterrence for multimedia content. In copy deterrence, a content owner (seller) inserts a unique watermark into a copy of the content before it is sold to a buyer. If the buyer resells unauthorized copies of the watermarked content, then these copies can be traced to the unlawful reseller (original buyer) using a watermark detection algorithm. One problem with such an approach is that the original buyer whose watermark has been found on unauthorized copies can claim that the unauthorized copy was created or caused (for example, by a security breach) by the original seller. In this paper we propose an interactive buyer-seller protocol for invisible watermarking in which the seller does not get to know the exact watermarked copy that the buyer receives. Hence the seller cannot create copies of the original content containing the buyer's watermark. In cases where the seller finds an unauthorized copy, the seller can identify the buyer from a watermark in the unauthorized copy, and furthermore the seller can prove this fact to a third party using a dispute resolution protocol. This prevents the buyer from claiming that an unauthorized copy may have originated from the seller.

  14. Coordinating vendor-buyer decisions for imperfect quality items considering trade credit and fully backlogged shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditi; Gautam, Prerna; Jaggi, Chandra K.

    2016-03-01

    Supply chain management has become a critical issue for modern business environments. In today's world of cooperative decision-making, individual decisions in order to reduce inventory costs may not lead to an overall optimal solution. Coordination is necessary among participants of supply chain to achieve better performance. There are legitimate and important efforts from the vendor to enhance the relation with buyer; one such effort is offering trade credit which has been a driver of growth and development of business between them. The cost of financing is a core consideration in effective financial management, in general and in context of business. Also, due to imperfect production a vendor may produce defective items which results in shortages. Motivated with these aspects, an integrated vendor-buyer inventory model is developed for imperfect quality items with allowable shortages; in which the vendor offers credit period to the buyer for payment. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer by using integrated decision making approach. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical analysis shows that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction, in comparison to independent decision policies by the vendor and the buyer.

  15. Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying

  16. Coevolution of trustful buyers and cooperative sellers in the trust game

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Many online marketplaces enjoy great success. Buyers and sellers in successful markets carry out cooperative transactions even if they do not know each other in advance and a moral hazard exists. An indispensable component that enables cooperation in such social dilemma situations is the reputation system. Under the reputation system, a buyer can avoid transacting with a seller with a bad reputation. A transaction in online marketplaces is better modeled by the trust game than other social dilemma games, including the symmetric Prisoner's Dilemma. In addition, most individuals participate mostly as buyers or sellers; each individual does not play the two roles with equal probability. Although the reputation mechanism is known to be able to remove the moral hazard in games with asymmetric roles, competition between different strategies and population dynamics of such a game are not sufficiently understood. On the other hand, existing models of reputation-based cooperation, also known as indirect reciprocity, a...

  17. The Practical Teaching Research about“International Buyer Training Program”in Fashion Merchandising Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Fashion Merchandising Course in domestic universities is rising up gradually in recent years. However, there are also some problems existing in either teaching or learning. For example, the lessons always focus on theories, some cases studies are not suitable and professional information lags. This paper compares the Chinese and British education ,especially the practical teaching methods of University of the Arts London. In the same time, this paper also combines with the practice and thinking about international buyer through the working experience in LVMH Group to give some key advices to the teaching reform of fashion merchandising course. This paper uses IBTP, in other words,“International Buyer Training Program”, in the workshop of fashion buying course to realize the course’s creative plan. By this creative program, more and more professional International fashion buyers will be trained in the universities.

  18. Enhancing Buyer-Supplier Collaboration through Daily Conversations at Shopfloor Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardon, Thibaut; Arnaud, Nicolas; Villeseche, Florence

    aspect of this interorganizational communication: the conversations that take place between shop-floor employees of partnering firms. Studying such daily conversations in situ affords insights on the foundations of efficient buyer-supplier communication beyond managerial level strategy making. We rely...... on the strategy as practice perspective that emphasizes the strategic role of conversations at all hierarchical levels as a key means by which strategy develops on a daily basis. This paper provides evidence of how daily conversations between shop-floor employees can enhance buyer-supplier collaboration....... It is based on a case study of the largest and leading European furniture transport firm and its clients. We find that daily conversations enhance buyer-supplier collaboration by allowing operators i) to develop and reinforce mutual commitment ii) to build a common knowledge base, and iii) to create common...

  19. The influence of the sustainability agenda on buyer-supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    The positive effect of supplier-buyer relationships on supply chain performance has al-ready been supported by previous studies. Yet, little empirical research has explored how the sustainability agenda influences these relationships. Thus, this study investi-gates how supplier-buyer relationships...... change when new sustainability targets are in-troduced into the supply chain. To get in-depth knowledge about the phenomenon, a Danish frontrunner company in sustainable solutions serves as a case study. The findings suggest that to achieve common environmental solutions organizations attempt to improve...

  20. Analysing the impact of buyers' personality constructs on the market structure of brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios; Rungie, Cam

    2008-01-01

    In order to operationalize brand loyalty, various models have been applied that estimate brand measures and further describe patterns and the structure of the markets. A well known model in this area is the Dirichlet-NBD model. Despite major advancements to those models, how buyers' characteristics...... and psychographics influence actual brand measures and the overall market structure in repeat purchase occasions is still under-researched. Moreover, measuring the type and magnitude of buyer-related effects on brand loyalty could provide additional valuable information to brand managers. Aim of this paper...

  1. The Single-Vendor-Single-Buyer Integrated Production-Shipment Model with Stock Dependent Demand Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the integrated production-shipment models for the single-vendor-single-buyer system presented hitherto, thedemand rate of items is treated as a constant. However, many researchers have observed that the presence of morequantities of the same product tends to attract more customers. This suggests that the demand rate should depend on thestock level. This paper presents a single-vendor-single-buyer production-shipment model with the stock dependentdemand rate, based on the demand rate linearly depending upon the stock level at any instant of time.

  2. An integrated single-vendor single-buyer production-inventory model for items with imperfect quality and inspection errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Hsu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an integrated vendor-buyer production-inventory model for items with imperfect quality and inspection errors. The production process is imperfect and produces a certain number of defective items with a known probability density function. We consider the policy in which the delivery quantity to the buyer is identical at each shipment. Once the buyer receives the lot, a 100% screening process of the lot is conducted, and the screening process and demand proceed simultaneously. The screening process is not perfect. The inspector may incorrectly classify a non-defective item as defective, or incorrectly classify a defective item as non-defective. The expected integrated total annual cost of the vendor and the buyer is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical examples show that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction in comparison to an independent decision by the buyer.

  3. Do First Time House Buyers Receive Financial Transfers from Their Parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Using Danish longitudinal data with information about wealth for a sample of first-time house buyers and their parents, we test whether there are direct financial transfers from parents to children in connection with the house purchase, or in connection with unemployment spells occurring just after...

  4. COTTON USA’S Buyers Tour to Be Held in China in June

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    COTTON USA’s Supply Chain Marketing Buyers Tour will be held in China from 7th to 11th June.Cotton Council International’s("CCI")representative offices in the U.S.,Europe and North East Asia have recruited nearly 40

  5. Governance Mechanisms and Buyer Supplier Relationship: Static and Dynamic Panel Data Evidence from Tunisian Exporting SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellouma Meryem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand the effect of transactional and relational governance mechanisms on opportunism induced by the buyer supplier relationship. Using panel data of 386 Tunisian export companies between 2003 and 2008, the analysis shows that transactional as well as relational governance mechanisms are negatively related to the opportunistic behavior of the customer. In order to focus on internal corporate characteristics, the level of debt and the size of the buyer are controlled. This study supports the role of contracts as formal governance tool in reducing inter-firm opportunism which corroborates transaction cost economics. It also confirms some main notions in social exchange theory. The role of trust as relational mechanism in governing the buyer-supplier relationship has been verified. Finally, the findings of this paper sustain the complementarity view toward relational and transactional governance mechanisms. The paper offers insights to executives of companies to govern the buyer-supplier relationship in order to dispel opportunism by using simultaneously transactional and relational mechanisms.

  6. Fostering incremental and radical innovation through performance-based contracting in buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumo, Regien; van der Valk, Wendy; Bode, Christoph; van Weele, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While anecdotal evidence suggests that performance-based contracts (PBCs) may foster innovation in buyer-supplier relationships, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited to date. This study draws on transaction cost economics and agency theory to develop a theoretical model

  7. Creating Shared Value In The Buyer-Supplier Relationships Through The Implementation Of Sustainability Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessa, Meulensteen,; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Sikke, Meerman,

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Living Plan has been taken as a case study. This allows for the analysis of the nature of the buyer-supplier interactions. The different partners in this relationship were asked to fill out questionnaires. Correlation and regression analyses were used to quantify the relationship between

  8. Developing a framework based on a psychological perspective for studying buyer-supplier relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Samir S.; Burns, Neil D.

    2001-10-01

    The advent of the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and the Internet with its subsequent use in the field of supply chains, mainly online shopping; web managed purchasing and online auctions have given rise to complex relationships between buyers and suppliers. The manner in which the buyer-supplier transactions occur have a psychological bearing similar to the transactions occurring between humans in the buyer-supplier organizations. The on-going research to study the psychological aspects of the transactions will use Transactional Analysis as a tool to identify these aspects of the relationship. The essential aspect of this view is that organizational culture plays a very strong role in the way organizations operate, and when two organizations transact with each other the individual culture is bound to play a role in the way the transaction is conducted. There are a number of factors that play a role in bringing the culture to the forefront of the transaction process. It is necessary to study these factors in order to understand why the psychological behavior is actually shown by these buyer- supplier organizations.

  9. Opportunism in Buyer-Supplier Relations: New Insights From Quantitative Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-20

    practical implications are developed and discussed. Keywords: opportunism, transaction cost economics, relational exchange theory, buyer-supplier...explication of opportunism’s role in transaction cost analysis (TCA), marketing, economics, and management researchers have attempted to explain the...34Cooperation, Opportunism, and the Invisible Hand: Implications for Transaction Cost Theory." Academy of Management Review 15 (3): 500-513. Hofstede, Geert

  10. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-10-01

    Manufactured, or HUD-Code, homes comprise a growing share of the housing stock in the Northwest, as well as nationally. Their relatively low cost has made them especially attractive to lower income families, first-time home-buyers, and retired persons. The characteristics of manufactured home (MH) buyers, the unique energy consumption characteristics of the homes, and their increasing market share make this market an especially critical one for energy consumption and conservation planning in the Northwest. This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that can potentially assist the design of a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. This study has the objective of assisting BPA in the development of a regional approach in which numerous organizations and parties would participate to achieve conservation in new manufactured homes. A previous survey and information collected for this study from regional dealers and manufacturers provide an indication of the energy conservation options being sold to manufactured home buyers in the PNW. Manufacturers in the Northwest appear to sell homes that usually exceed the HUD thermal requirements. Manufacturers typically offer efficiency improvements in packages that include fixed improvements in insulation levels, glazing, and infiltration control. Wholesale costs of these packages range from about $100 to $1500. Typical packages include significant upgrades in floor insulation values with modest upgrades in ceilings and walls. This study identifies trends and impacts that a marketing plan should consider to adequately address the financial concerns of manufactured home buyers.

  11. The Law and Economics of Buyer Power in EU Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, F.A.H. van

    2015-01-01

    The trend of retail concentration across the European Union has raised concerns on the buyer power that retailers may have in the relation with their suppliers. Specifically, due to the alleged increasing pressure on producer and supplier margins in various distribution chains, but the increased foc

  12. Classifying carbon credit buyers according to their attitudes towards and involvement in CDM sustainability labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnphumeesup, Piya, E-mail: pp66@hw.ac.uk [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kerr, Sandy A. [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Carbon markets are increasingly conscious of the social and environmental 'quality' of credits delivered by CDM projects. Consequently carbon credits are no longer viewed as a homogenous good and buyers now differentiate between credits supplied by different types of CDM project. The objective of this paper is to classify CER buyers according to their attitudes towards and preferences for CDM sustainability labels. K-means clustering was used to segment a sample of buyers into two clusters. The results indicate that two clear clusters exist with distinct profile patterns. Moreover, the results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the two-cluster solution was valid. Finally, the results of the chi-square analysis and a cross-tabulation showed that these two clusters were significantly different in: organization type; level of paid up capital; perception of sustainable development benefits; perception of return on investment; perception of image of the sustainability labeling; participation in the voluntary market; the project priority; knowledge in the sustainability label; attitude towards the host country's duty; and their willingness to pay. - Highlights: > The K-means clustering was used to classify CER buyers in the primary market. > The carbon market is divided into two: the premium market; and the normal market. > Governments tend to be members of the premium market. > 82% of members in the premium market are willing to pay a price premium for CERs.

  13. 76 FR 54428 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2013... educate U.S. exhibitors on the Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy (STOP!), IPR protection...

  14. Buyer social responsibility: a general concept and its implications for marketing management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of sustainability concerns in consumer decision-making poses new challenges to marketing. The existing literature contains a variety of concepts and definitions that pertain to social issues in consumption but lacks an overarching conceptualisation of buyer social responsibility (BSR)

  15. No Jobs Like Homes: Careers in Helping Home Buyers and Sellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people buy and sell homes each year. And because these transactions are often complex, many home buyers and sellers turn to workers who can help with the search or the sale--or both. From preparing to put a home on the market to filing the sales documents, many workers are involved in helping a home change hands. Other key industries…

  16. An analysis of buyer-supplier collaboration in the South African textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore perceptions regarding buyer and supplier collaboration around product development. The aim is to gain an understanding of which factors influence buyer-supplier collaboration outcomes in the South African textile industry. Methodology: This study comprised two data collection stages. The first stage comprised the design and administration of a questionnaire survey. The second stage utilised a qualitative interview methodology and entailed interviewing a subset of the questionnaire respondents in order to probe respondents’ own experiences in collaborative product developments and their perception of the factors that determine collaboration outcome. Findings: This study has shed light on the experiences of South African firms in the textile industry engaging in buyer-supplier collaboration around product development. While this study is exploratory, it has provided evidence that there are certain factors which are perceived to have a significant influence on collaboration. Implications: Under the past protective shield of tariffs, South African clothing and textile manufacturers could afford to allow an adversarial mode of operation to perpetuate inefficiencies. However, the increasing external pressures, including the very real threat of overseas competition, heighten the need for collaboration between buyers and suppliers. This relates, in particular, to collaboration aimed at new product development, which can be seen as a new imperative for the survival and growth of this industry. Currently, there are numerous barriers to effective collaboration. The overwhelming power of retailers in the value chain is one such barrier, as it creates an environment which is pressurised, strained and not conducive to buyer-supplier collaboration. Contribution and Value: Studies on collaborative new product development have primarily been done in developed countries, with a focus on technology intensive

  17. Buyer Search and the Role of Broker in an Emerging Housing Market: A Case Study of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Siqi; LIU Hongyu; Rebecca Lee

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines homebuyer's search process and the role of real estate broker in China's urban housing market, where inactive housing resale transactions and an immature brokerage industry are distinct characteristics. Guangzhou is used as a case study to model the intensity and duration of the search process. This study finds that buyers make trade-off between two search costs, activity cost and duration cost. The study also demonstrates that despite the industry's immature nature, buyers using brokers do increase search intensity and shorten search duration by reducing the activity cost. Empirical results show that there is no specific buyer group who can effectively lower their search cost by their own efforts, due to the poor information transparency in the current housing market. The broker-choice model shows that besides search cost, buyers' confidence in broker's service quality can also greatly influence their choice, so improvement in service quality and reputation has important implications for China's brokerage industry.

  18. Vendor-Buyers relationship model for deteriorating items with shortages, fuzzy trapezoidal costs and inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Chaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated inventory model is developed from the perspective of a single vendor and multi-buyers for deteriorating items under fuzzy environment and inflation. In the development of the model, it is assumed that all costs parameters, demand and the production rates are imprecise in nature; they are represented by the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, as these parameters are not constant and can be disturbed due to daily market changes. We use function principle as arithmetic operations to find the total inventory cost in fuzzy sense and Graded Mean - Integration Representation Method to defuzzify the fuzzy total inventory cost. Inflation is used to find the present worth of total cost. Since the optimal policy of buyers may not be the most economical for a vendor, thus to deal with this situation, integrated cost policy is used to reach the optimal policy. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the model.

  19. Information search behaviour among new car buyers: A two-step cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Satish

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-step cluster analysis of new car buyers in India was performed to identify taxonomies of search behaviour using personality and situational variables, apart from sources of information. Four distinct groups were found—broad moderate searchers, intense heavy searchers, low broad searchers, and low searchers. Dealers can identify the members of each segment by measuring the variables used for clustering, and can then design appropriate communication strategies.

  20. Dynamics of Buyer-Supplier Co-dependency for Optimizing Functional Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, MR

    2007-01-01

    The performance related issues of buyer-supplier relationship have attracted both the academic and corporate managers. The study attempts to make theoretical contributions to the literature on relationships in marketing channels. Compared with the impact of the often-investigated construct of dependence structure, the impact of channel function performance on relationship quality is relatively large. This study has been conducted in reference to the suppliers of office equipments serving to t...

  1. Value Added Elements According to Buyer Companies in a B2B Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Battaglia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how buyer companies perceive the value added to products and services offered by their suppliers and identifies the predominant elements that affect purchasing decisions and establishment of relationships between companies in a B2B context. A multiple case study was developed in 12 buyer companies from three industrial segments in southern Brazil: metal-mechanics, furniture and foods. The findings show that for supplier companies in the metal-mechanics industry to add value, they must identify buyers’ needs, develop technology/innovation, be focused on competitive aspects, keep control of the supply chain, provide different purchasing channels, develop partnerships, and adapt to cultural aspects. Companies in the food industry consider the model for creating value to adapt to meet customer needs, the effective use of purchasing channels, functionality of products, and technical knowledge. The companies in the furniture industry value the methods that suppliers use to capture and implement required changes, effective control of the supply chain, and the representativeness of the suppliers’ brand in the market. This study captures the perception of buyer companies in relation to predominant value-adding elements and could guide decisions for the adoption of managerial actions by supplier companies focused on adding value.

  2. An Integrated Supplier-Buyer Inventory Model with Conditionally Free Shipment under Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsien Su

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that production, distribution, marketing, inventory control, and financing all/each have a positive impact on the performance of a supply chain. Despite the growing interest in the development of integrated inventory models, the interactions between these elements of a supply chain may not be efficiently included, resulting in a restricted supply chain model presentation. To incorporate this phenomenon, a mathematical model that tackles the interdependent relationships between these aforementioned elements is developed in this paper. This study considers the determination of the optimal pricing, ordering, and delivery policies of a profit-maximizing supply chain system, faced with (1 unit wholesale price of the supplier is set based on unit production cost, (2 unit production cost is taken as a function of demand rate and production rate, (3 the supplier's production rate is adjusted according to market demand, (4 market demand depends upon buyer's selling price, (5 a free freight is offered if the buyer's order exceeds a certain minimum requirement, and (6 a constant credit period is offered by the supplier to stimulate the demand of the buyer. Algorithm for computing the optimal policies is derived. The sensitivity of the optimal results with respect to those parameters which directly influence the production and transportation costs is also examined.

  3. Price Discrepancy Between Sellers and Buyers When Making Decisions for the Self and Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Baojun; Li, Zhongquan

    2016-06-01

    In daily life, people make decisions not only for themselves but also on behalf of others. There may be differences in terms of the endowment effect when making decisions in these two situations. In Study 1, this question was investigated with an existing dataset exploring the traditional endowment effect, in which 86 students (M age = 20.8 years, SD = 5.0) at Harvard University were asked to make a decision on selling or buying a coffee mug for themselves or for others as brokers. When making decisions for the self, the average price demanded by sellers was much higher than that offered by buyers; while making decisions for others, the price discrepancy disappeared. In Study 2, a similar study was conducted with a sample of 42 Chinese university students (M age = 22.3 years, SD = 2.5), and a similar pattern of results was obtained. Further analysis indicated that when making decisions for others, only buyers increased their valuations, therefore mitigating the seller-buyer price discrepancy. Finally, the findings were interpreted from the perspective of Construal Level Theory.

  4. Production planning and backup sourcing strategy of a buyer-dominant supply chain with random yield and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kebing; Xiao, Tiaojun

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the backup sourcing strategy of the buyer and the production planning of the supplier in presence of both random yield and random demand. Since the production is susceptible to the randomness of yield beyond the control of the supplier, the buyer may access to a backup sourcing option for the finished items. We analyse the value of backup sourcing for both the decentralised and centralised channels. Backup sourcing strategy of the buyer may lower the supply chain's performance. We show that the order quantity of the buyer does not change the stocking factor of the supplier's input. Meanwhile, compared with the centralised operation, the decentralised operation is more dependent on the backup sourcing to reduce supply shortage of the contracting supplier. From the channel's perspective, an incentive scheme is developed to facilitate the coordination of both the buyer and the contracting supplier, we show that the proposed option contract can allow the supply chain members to share the respective risks involved in the production and selling processes. Finally, we also provide qualitative insights based on numerical examples of the centralised and decentralised solutions.

  5. Benchmarking Supplier Development: An Empirical Case Study of Validating a Framework to Improve Buyer-Supplier Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Khuram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, firms are required to utilize efficiently and effectively all the useful resources to gain competitive advantage. Supplier development has evolved as an important strategic instrument to improve buyer supplier relationships. For that reason, this study focuses on providing the strategic significance of supplier development approaches to improve business relationships. By using qualitative research method, an integrated framework of supplier development and buyer-supplier relationship development has been tested and validated in a Finnish case company to provide empirical evidence. It particularly investigates how supplier development approaches can develop buyer-supplier relationships. The study present a set of propositions that identify significant supplier development approaches critical for the development of buyer-supplier relationships and develop a theoretical framework that specifies how these different supplier development approaches support in order to strengthen the relationships. The results are produced from an in-depth case study by implementing the proposed research framework. The findings reveal that supplier development strategies i.e., supplier incentives and direct involvements strongly effect in developing buyer-supplier relationships. Further research may focus on considering in-depth investigation of trust and communication factors along with propositions developed in the study to find out general applicability in dynamic business environment. Proposed integrated framework along with propositions is a unique combination of useful solutions for tactical and strategic management’s decision making and also valid for academic researchers to develop supplier development theories.

  6. Examining the Customer Roles of Buyers and Users for Servitized Offerings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakkol, Mehmet; Raja, Jawwad; Johnson, Mark

    Prior research on servitization generally adopts a provider perspective to examine the selling and provision of servitized offerings. However a lack of understanding, both in academia and practice, is evident about the buying decision from a customer perspective. In particular, it is necessary...... to identify and examine the emergent customer needs for different servitized offerings. Hence, building on a large-scale survey of 325 respondents, this research examines the needs of different customer centers (i.e. buyers and users) with respect to basic, intermediate and advanced servitized offerings....

  7. A Scent of Lemon—Seller Meets Buyer with a Noisy Quality Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen W. Weibull

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider a market for lemons in which the seller is a monopolistic price setter and the buyer receives a private noisy signal of the product’s quality. We model this as a game and analyze perfect Bayesian equilibrium prices, trading probabilities and gains of trade. In particular, we vary the buyer’s signal precision, from being completely uninformative, as in standard models of lemons markets, to being perfectly informative. We show that high quality units are sold with positive probability even in the limit of uninformative signals, and we identify some discontinuities in the equilibrium predictions at the boundaries of completely uninformative and completely informative signals, respectively.

  8. Buyer Beware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEREMY; CHAN

    2007-01-01

    Forget the teahouses, noodle stalls and crammed bicycle lanes, the quintessential Chinese experience is found at the local clothing market, where bargains abound. It is capitalism Chinese style, although it is for neither the weak of will nor the naive.

  9. Buyers' Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Refractory Products *Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Re-search Co.,Ltd. Products:high-purity oxide products,high quality silicon carlIide bricks,functional refractories for metal-lurgy,monolithic refractories,composite materials,special ceramic materials,refractory ceramic fibres,high temperature testing apparatus,LIRR HuoshenBrand medical apparatus.

  10. The buying motives of European retail buyers: An analysis of buying behaviour for pork in four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    The food retail sector in Europe has become more concentrated in the last decade making it increasingly important for manufacturers to understand the value crea-tion seen from a retailer's point of view. To analyse this gap, a study on the consequences and values sought by retail buyers in Denmar...... to achieve from certain attributes, and what the difference in value means, and this may support manufacturers, when they choose countries and segments of retail buyers on the basis of their strategy and competence profile....

  11. The impact of downstream network subgroups on collaboration and performance. A survey of buyer-supplier relationships in the Dutch flower sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.; Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to identify those network subgroups that enhance the collaborative governance in a focal buyer-supplier relationship. We argue, that partners in a focal buyer-supplier relationship can be seen as embedded in a broader network of business relationships with network subgroups, (e

  12. Vendor-buyer inventory models with trade credit financing under both non-cooperative and integrated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Chang, Chun-Tao; Chern, Maw-Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Most researchers studied vendor-buyer supply chain inventory policies only from the perspective of an integrated model, which provides us the best cooperative solution. However, in reality, not many vendors and buyers are wholly integrated. Hence, it is necessary to study the optimal policies not only under an integrated environment but also under a non-cooperative environment. In this article, we develop a supply chain vendor-buyer inventory model with trade credit financing linked to order quantity. We then study the optimal policies for both the vendor and the buyer under a non-cooperative environment first, and then under a cooperative integrated situation. Further, we provide some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results, compare the differences between these two distinct solutions, and obtain some managerial insights. For example, in a cooperative environment, to reduce the total cost for both parties, the vendor should either provide a simple permissible delay without order quantity restriction or offer a long permissible delay linked order quantity. By contrast, in a non-cooperative environment, the vendor should provide a short permissible delay to reduce its total cost.

  13. The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,China

  14. Identification of junk buyers' contribution to recycling of household waste in Hanoi, Vietnam, through a physical composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Saburo; Dong, Nguyen The

    2012-07-01

    Even in developing countries, the amount of containers and packaging waste are increasing in line with population concentration and lifestyle changes in urban areas. This can cause serious problems for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Through a physical composition analysis of household waste in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, this study aimed to identify the contribution made by junk buyers to recycling. Interviews on the handling of recyclable waste by households were conducted. About 232 kg of recyclable waste was sampled from a total of 115 households, and about 230 kg of municipal solid waste was sampled from a total of 101 households and sorted into 69 categories for measurement by volume and weight. The interview survey revealed that a high proportion of households tended to routinely store recyclable waste for sale or donation to junk buyers. Junk buyers accounted for 8.8% of recycling by weight or 26.0% by volume according to the results of the physical composition analysis. In addition, the results suggested that containers and packaging waste accounted for the largest proportion of household waste by volume. Junk buyers recycled 25.5% by weight of containers and packaging waste. In the formulation of new plans for municipal solid waste management to improve the current situation and handle future challenges, the role of the informal sector should be monitored carefully and reliable data on recyclable waste should be collected continuously.

  15. Procesni pristop kot dejavnik povečanja zadovoljstva odjemalcev = Process Format as a Factor in Increasing Buyer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Verle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Today modern companies are directed by buyers. Successful organizations are aware that the key issue is to satisfy buyers’ needs and to maintain good relationship with them. Such companies perceive problems and opportunities fast and act accordingly. In future only such companies that will be able to substitute mass production and generalized market approach with a flexible production and in addition to this constantly look for market gaps for their products and services will be able to survive. Further on such companies will be able to individualize their offer and in this way adjust and come closer to the buyer. However, the old hierarchical structure does not provide for that, therefore, we are nowadays talking about horizontal relationships, even among the suppliers, organizations and their buyers. The only organizational format providing for relationships and cooperation with buyers and suppliers on the one hand and increasing contentedness and successfulness of the employees on the other is a process format. The changes of the environment demand a thorough change of the traditional way of thinking and consequently the operation and organization of a company which wants to be successful or survive in new conditions.

  16. The behavioural response of the professional buyer on social cues from the vendor and how to measure it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Vendors’ social cues ─ physical or behavioural hints ─ have an impact on the professional buyer. However, little is known about that impact. The purpose of this paper is to place knowledge about the impact of social cues that other disciplines acquired in the context of B2B marketing in orde

  17. Exporting the Buyers Health Care Action Group purchasing model: lessons from other communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Jon B; Feldman, Roger

    2005-01-01

    When first implemented in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, the Buyers Health Care Action Group's (BHCAG) purchasing approach received considerable attention as an employer-managed, consumer-driven health care model embodying many of the principles of managed competition. First BHCAG and, later, a for-profit management company attempted to export this model to other communities. Their efforts were met with resistance from local hospitals and, in many cases, apathy by employers who were expected to be supportive. This experience underscores several difficulties that appear to be inherent in implementing purchasing models based on competing care systems. It also, once again, suggests caution in drawing lessons from community-level experiments in purchasing health care.

  18. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  19. Optimal economic order quantity for buyer-distributor-vendor supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo; Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wee, Hui Ming

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we first complement an inappropriate mathematical error on the total cost in the previously published paper by Chung and Wee [2007, 'Optimal the Economic Lot Size of a Three-stage Supply Chain With Backlogging Derived Without Derivatives', European Journal of Operational Research, 183, 933-943] related to buyer-distributor-vendor three-stage supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives. Then, an arithmetic-geometric inequality method is proposed not only to simplify the algebraic method of completing prefect squares, but also to complement their shortcomings. In addition, we provide a closed-form solution to integral number of deliveries for the distributor and the vendor without using complex derivatives. Furthermore, our method can solve many cases in which their method cannot, because they did not consider that a squared root of a negative number does not exist. Finally, we use some numerical examples to show that our proposed optimal solution is cheaper to operate than theirs.

  20. Perceived Compatibility and the Adoption of B2C E-Commerce by Non-buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, Ángel; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Chaparro-Peláez, Julián; Pascual-Miguel, Félix

    The purpose of this article is to study the factors which affect the intention to buy online for users who have never made any prior purchase using the electronic channel, with special focus to the role of perceived compatibility. To do so, an adoption model for e-commerce was proposed on the basis of the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and the Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT). In order to validate the model, data gathered amongst Spanish consumers who had no experience using e-commerce, were analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) method. The results have demonstrated the importance of perceived compatibility as a significant factor to foster non-buyers' adoption of electronic business-to-consumer e-commerce (eB2C).

  1. A model of buyer-supplier relationships in a transnational company: the role of the business network context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rasković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paradigmatic shift in marketing from the beginning of the 1990’s has transformed marketing in its view of business exchange to increasingly start addressing the relational aspects of market exchanges. This is particularly true in transnational supply exchanges, where specialization and outsourcing have increased the importance of effective and efficient management of buyer-supplier relationships, and their corresponding networks in which they are embedded in. In this regard particularly, TNCs are seen “as a [key] method of organizing international exchange”. The purpose of this paper is to analyze selected elements of buyer-supplier relationships within a specific TNC business-to-business (B2B setting, vis-à-vis their impact on business performance and TNC competitiveness. This is done through the perspective of the TNC’s suppliers. The paper analyzes the impact of the functional aspect of the business network context on selected elements of buyer-supplier relationships, and their impact on business performance and the overall competitiveness. This is analyzed within a confirmatory testing of a reflective structural equation model. A unique feature of the model is its focus on the business network context - namely information obtained from the network and network spillover effects – as key network-embedded determinants of the “traditional” elements of buyer-supplier relationships (i.e. transaction-specific investments, trust, flexibility, and collaboration, where these elements have been so far mostly studied at the dyadic level in buyer-supplier relationships. The dataset includes a sample of 157 suppliers of the focal TNC world-wide (47.9 response rate on a web-based survey.

  2. The role of personal relationships between buyers and suppliers of third-party logistics services: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvinne Mocke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Personal relationships within the context of supply chain management is one of the least understood and researched areas in this field.Research purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the complexities relating to the interaction between buyers and suppliers of logistics services when personal relationships are involved.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive qualitative research strategy was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 suppliers and 8 buyers of logistic services within the South African third-party logistics industry.Main findings: The main findings indicate several benefits related to building personal relationships with a buyer or supplier of logistics services. These benefits include enhanced personal and business understanding, enhanced communication, enhanced trust, increased business volume, ease of doing business, enhanced problem-solving abilities, ease of conflict resolution and risk mitigation. Subsequently, aspects affecting the nature of the personal relationship were also identified. These include gender, relationship asymmetry, and the ability to adapt to different personalities.Practical implications: A long-term commitment towards a buyer or supplier was identified as essential in order to reap the associated benefits of forming personal relationships.Contribution: The main theoretical contribution of this study can be argued as empirically testing an existing personal relationship framework, confirming the transferability of the framework. Testing the framework in a different context yielded four additional benefits of personal relationships, four supplementary factors influencing the interaction between buyers and suppliers and an additional aspect influencing the nature of personal relationships, thus expanding the body of knowledge of this topic.

  3. Optimal transfer, ordering and payment policies for joint supplier-buyer inventory model with price-sensitive trapezoidal demand and net credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Digeshkumar B.; Patel, Dushyantkumar G.

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at formulating an integrated supplier-buyer inventory model when market demand is variable price-sensitive trapezoidal and the supplier offers a choice between discount in unit price and permissible delay period for settling the accounts due against the purchases made. This type of trade credit is termed as 'net credit'. In this policy, if the buyer pays within offered time M1, then the buyer is entitled for a cash discount; otherwise the full account must be settled by the time M2; where M2 > M1 ⩾ 0. The goal is to determine the optimal selling price, procurement quantity, number of transfers from the supplier to the buyer and payment time to maximise the joint profit per unit time. An algorithm is worked out to obtain the optimal solution. A numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. The managerial insights based on sensitivity analysis are deduced.

  4. On how German retail buyers perceive the identity, image and competitive context of the retailers they work for

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    findings of a study of how German food retailers decide what pork products to buy in which retailer buying behaviour was viewed as an ongoing organisational sensemaking process embedded in, at least, social, organisational, competitive and societal contexts. The aim of the study was to gain...... have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. This paper presents some preliminary...... an understanding of how and why retail buyers make certain decisions rather than simply focusing on what they decide. This paper focuses on the beliefs retail buyers have regarding organisational identities and competitive contexts and in particular discusses whether the beliefs regarding organisational identities...

  5. Why are buyers loyal? Exploring the role of psychographics on loyalty performance and market structure of brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios; Rungie, C.

    Research on brand loyalty from the repeat purchase approach has extensively aimed at describing the structure of the market and defining loyalty patterns. Various models, such as the NDB-Dirichlet, have been used successfully to describe patterns and structure of the markets. A drawback...... of such models is their inability to incorporate the way buyers' characteristics and psychographics influence the overall market structure and loyalty performance in repeat purchase occasions. Moreover, measuring the type and magnitude of buyer-related effects on brand loyalty could provide additional valuable...... information to brand managers. This paper aims to provide an approach of estimating the effect of psychographics on loyalty performance and market structure of brands through revealed preference data....

  6. 12 CFR 340.3 - What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the purchase with a loan from the FDIC? 340.3 Section 340.3... on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the purchase with a loan from...

  7. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON RURAL BUYERS' PERCEPTION TOWARDS SELECTED BRANDS OF CONTRACEPTIVES (WITH REFERENCE TO RURAL AREAS OF UJJAIN DISTRICT)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar MEHTA; Dharmendra MEHTA; MEHTA Naveen

    2012-01-01

    The biggest problem in the fast growth Indian economy is country's growing population. With a population of over a billion, India needs an inclusive family planning program and awareness campaign towards the use of contraceptives. The use of appropriate contraceptive product reduces the probability of a pregnancy occurring due to sexual intercourse. Marketing of contraceptives to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners, ...

  8. Northwest home buyers' fuel and energy-efficiency preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Harkreader, S.A.; Bruneau, C.L.; Volke, S.M.

    1990-11-01

    This study for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) investigated home buyers' heating fuel and energy-efficiency preferences, and the influence of incentives on their choices. The study was conducted in four regions of Washington State: Spokane and Pierce Counties, where the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) for new electrically heated homes have been adopted as local code, and King and Clark Counties, where the MCS has been implemented only through a voluntary marketing program. The results of this study provide useful information about energy-efficiency, space heating fuel type, and alternative incentive programs. They provide initial evidence that fuel-specific energy-efficiency standards may significantly affect the shares of different heating fuels in the new home market. They also suggest that cash rebates and utility rate incentives may have a modest effect on the shares for different heating fuels. Because these results are based on a technique relying on hypothetical choices and because they reflect only four metropolitan areas, further study must be conducted to determine whether the results apply to other locations and whether other analytic approaches produce similar findings. 3 refs.

  9. Buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable consumption policy pursued in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Korpysa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable consumption has been actively promoted among modern societies. It has gained a special importance in the context of pursuing sustainable consumption policy and supporting actions taken as part of corporate social responsibility. The fulfilment of strategic goals defined under this concept minimizes negative effects of industrialization and globalization. Furthermore, it contributes to efficient allocation of natural resources and natural environment protection. It is beyond any doubt that a 21st century consumer should take account of a number of issues while buying and subsequently using goods and services. These issues include wastage reduction, lower emission of pollution and limited production of waste, as well as selection of products whose development conforms to the code of ethics and socio-environmental norms. This awareness is observed in most countries all over the world, nevertheless certain differences can be noticed between the developed and developing states. Although the concept of sustainable consumption is being actively promoted among consumers in the developing countries (e.g. in Poland, they are still less aware of the necessity to conform to socio-ecological norms in the process of consumption. The main aim of the article is to analyse buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable development policy pursued in Poland. The first part will be devoted to theoretical issues relating to the subject of the analysis. In the second part of the paper the author will present the results of a survey examining the aforementioned behaviour.

  10. A relook at the motor vehicle buyer after the purchase: dissonance arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957 theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported dissonance, effort, congruence with self-concept, price, persuasiveness, and level of confidence during purchases. The results contribute to a better understanding of human behaviour and cognitions thereby, enabling the development of effective marketing strategies to enhance post-purchase satisfaction. Opsomming Hierdie studie is gebaseer op Leon Festinger (1957 se teorie van kognitiewe dissonansie, wat die relatiewe krag van verskeie opwekkingsfaktore, die impak van prys, asook die sielkundige toestande evalueer wat vir dissonansie-opwekking vereis word soos byvoorbeeld inspanning uitgeoefen. Die empiriese analise is uitgevoer op n steekproef van 200 eienaars van nuwe motorvoertuie. Agt dimensies het n betekenisvolle impak op die vlak van kognitiewe dissonansie uitgeoefen naamlik, hoe bewus verbruikers van hulle verwagtinge is, verwagtinge wat onbevestig is, dissonansie wat gerapporteer word, inspanning, ooreenstemming met die eienaar se selfbeeld, prys, hoe oorredend die verkoper is en die koper se vlak van selfvertroue gedurende die aankope. Die resultate dra by tot n beter begrip van menslike gedrag en van kognisies en bevorder daardeur die ontwikkeling van doeltreffende bemarkingstrategie- om na-verkooptevredenheid te verhoog.

  11. Investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the economic recession: A qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Samanta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper described the in-depth interviews used in investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the e-commerce world during the economic recession in Greece. The data collected from these interviews were analyzed. The qualitative research findings identified how B2B e-commerce has started to change the future of the participating organizations in Greece. Οn the one hand, a number of benefits have occurred from the development of e-business and on the other hand B2B firms need to adopt an innovation culture and redefine  their relationships with their partners from the e-marketing point of view in order to survive in the rapidly changing environment. The results of this research are used to assist the author in the future  to examine a larger sample of B2B firms in order to validate the intention of companies to move from the traditional environment and to establish e-relationships in an e-business context.

  12. A discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm with local search for a production-based two-echelon single-vendor multiple-buyer supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifbarghy, Mehdi; Kalani, Masoud Mirzaei; Hemmati, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    This paper formulates a two-echelon single-producer multi-buyer supply chain model, while a single product is produced and transported to the buyers by the producer. The producer and the buyers apply vendor-managed inventory mode of operation. It is assumed that the producer applies economic production quantity policy, which implies a constant production rate at the producer. The operational parameters of each buyer are sales quantity, sales price and production rate. Channel profit of the supply chain and contract price between the producer and each buyer is determined based on the values of the operational parameters. Since the model belongs to nonlinear integer programs, we use a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm (DPSO) to solve the addressed problem; however, the performance of the DPSO is compared utilizing two well-known heuristics, namely genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. A number of examples are provided to verify the model and assess the performance of the proposed heuristics. Experimental results indicate that DPSO outperforms the rival heuristics, with respect to some comparison metrics.

  13. The Risk of Goods in International Sales. An Approach from the Breach of Contract and Remedies of the Buyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Vidal Olivares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the regime risks in the CISG with the aim of showing that the regime that it is incorporated, is based on functional criteria to the interests of the parties to solve the problems that originated in the loss and prior to the transfer of risk to the buyer will have recourse to remedies system and thus achieve the connection with the breach of contract. In its development we used the dogmatic method, from the systematic analysis of the rules of the CISG, doctrine and case law.

  14. Understanding the Factors That Enable and Inhibit Value Creation in Buyer-Supplier Relationships Within the Outsourcing of IT Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Kinra, Aseem; Das, Ajay

    This study contributes to literature on value creation in buyer-supplier relationships as well as literature on IT service provision. It makes a first attempt at building a comprehensive model of the factors that enable and inhibit value creation within buyersupplier relationships. A distinction...... is made between value drivers with a direct influence on value creation, operational- and strategic performance, and moderating contextual factors that may enable or inhibit value creation from taking place. Initial application of the model to an IT service provision context is provided. Further case...

  15. Strategy for Improving Efficiency of Supply Chain Quality Management in Buyer-Supplier Dyads: The Suppliers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the efficiency of supply chain quality management (SCQM by grouping buyers and suppliers and conducting an empirical analysis of aspects affecting SCQM efficiency from the supplier’s perspective. Two stages of data analysis were conducted: (1 classify buyer and supplier efficiency by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA and sort the data results into a 2×2 matrix and (2 conduct a statistical analysis to verify influential aspects. The results depict the average value of Group I to be higher than that of Group II, while the average value of Group IV was found to be much lower than that of Group III. In addition, specific aspects have a significant impact on certain groups: Groups I and II are affected by infrastructure, delivery of quality, talent development, and risk management in that order; Groups II and III are likewise influenced by risk management, talent development, and delivery of quality, whereas Groups III and IV are influenced by talent development, delivery of quality, and risk management in that order.

  16. THE MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICT IN BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIPS: A CASE STUDY OF AN AUSTRALIAN EXPORTER IN ASIAN AND US MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Freeman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will extend the conflict management stream by examining the complexity of conflict in buyer-seller relationships, comparing Western and Asian markets and their "contextual boundaries". Specifically, a model is developed linking different dimensions of cross-cultural business relationships to different dissolution and communication strategies for managing conflict. Multiple in-depth interviews in a single case study provide support for the theoretical development of a model of five key factors important in the selection of appropriate conflict management styles by the focal firm when managing buyer relationships in psychically distant markets.

  17. 供应链多边谈判中的买方承诺战术%Buyer's commitment tactic in supply chain multilateral negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 苏秦

    2012-01-01

    The choice of the optimal strategy in the buyer's commitment tactic is discussed by embedding the buyer's strategies in the analytical framework of supply chain multilateral negotiation. In the buyer's commitment stage, the buyer's three strategies are backward looking strategy, naive strategy, and forward looking strategy. The multilateral negotiation is considered as a dynamic game with perfect information. The subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium is derived and the numerical simulation is pursued. The results illustrate that the forward looking strategy is the buyer's inferior strategy, and the choice between the backward looking strategy and the naive strategy rests with the supplier number and the single supplier's bargaining power. If the supplier's bargaining power is strong enough or the supplier number is big enough, the buyer's main concern is local bilateral negotiation; when the buyer's bargaining power is weak enough or the supplier number is small enough, the buyer's main concern is global multilateral negotiation.%通过将买方策略纳入供应链多边谈判,探讨了买方承诺战术的最优策略选择.承诺阶段买方的三种策略为后视策略、朴素策略和前视策略.将多边谈判看作一个完美信息动态博弈,进而给出了其子博弈完美Nash均衡解.结果表明,前视策略为买方承诺战术的劣势策略,而后视策略和朴素策略的选取依据单个供应商讨价还价力和供应商个数而定.当供应商讨价还价力足够强或供应商个数足够多时,买方关注的重点应为局部的双边谈判;当供应商讨价还价力足够弱或供应商个数足够少时,买方关注的重点应为多边谈判全局.

  18. Managing business networks and buyer-supplier relationships. How information obtained from the business network affects trust, transaction specific investments, collaboration and performance in the Dutch Potted Plant and Flower Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Managing networks and buyer-supplier relationships " attempt to provide scientific sound discussion for problems faced in business linkages. Business networks, supply chains and buyer-supplier relationships all refer to business linkages, from a web of connected relationships to a dyadic relationshi

  19. 网络零售中的新客户与老客户购买行为差异基于淘宝网的实证对比研究%The Initial Buyers and Repeat Buyers in Online Retailing: an Empirical Study based on TaoBao. com

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦二娃; 卢向华

    2012-01-01

    网络零售中新客户与老客户的行为差异性,与传统零售相比更为显著也更有规律。基于“锚定与调整”的理论架构,本文结合网络零售的特征,对网络零售中的新客户与老客户购买行为的服务需求进行了分析,并基于淘宝网的数据进行了实证对比研究。研究结果表明,商家的信息获取服务、商品比较服务、信用保障服务、售后支持服务都对新客户和老客户的购买行为造成了显著区别。其中,新客户对商家的信息获取服务、信用保障服务、售后支持服务的需求较老客户的大;而老客户则对商家的商品比较服务有着更大的需求。本研究对更好地认识网络零售中新客户与老客户购买行为差异的差异,进而指导网络商家更有效地运营有着重要意义。%With the rapid growth of online businesstocustomer ( B2C ) ecommerce, many researchers are in terested in the service quality of online retailers. Some researchers suggested that service quality is one of the signif icant determinants of online retailers' success. There are two reasons : 1 ) online retailers' service quality direcflyin fluences buyers' purchase and repurchase intention in key determinant to attract potential buyers. In this online retailing. 2)Online retailers' service quality is also the regard , understanding the buyers' expectation of service quality is critical for online retailers for to attract potential buyers and retain repeat buyers. In the traditional retailing market, understanding the differences between initial buyers and repeat buyers is very important for the retailers to take differentiated marketing and management activities. Although most of the knowledge about this difference between initial buyers and repeat buyers can be transferred to online marketing to guide the operation of online retailer, we have to agree that online markets are significantly different with

  20. Understanding buyers' loyalty to a C2C platform : The roles of social capital, satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of E-commerce institutional mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Q.; Chen, X.Y.; Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Hua, Z.S.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing upon social capital theory, this study aims to investigate how different dimensions of social capital affect online buyers' satisfaction and ultimately boost their loyalty to a Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) platform. Specifically, we propose that three dimensions of social capital (i.e., cognit

  1. ON IMPROVING AN INTEGRATED INVENTORY MODEL FOR A SINGLE VENDOR AND MULTIPLE BUYERS WITH A RELAXED MATERIAL ORDERING CYCLE POLICY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yugang YU; Feng CHU; Haoxun CHEN

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model for improving the lot size obtained with the model of Woo, Hsu, and Wu (2001) proposed in their paper "An integrated inventory model for a single vendor and multiple buyers with ordering cost reduction" (Int. J. Production Economics 73 203-215). The new model can provide a lower or equal joint total cost as compared to Woo, Hsu, and Wu's model due to the relaxation of their integral multiple material ordering cycle policy to a fractional-integral multiple material ordering cycle policy. The proposed model is analyzed and an algorithm for calculating the optimal lot size of the model is developed. A numerical study based on the example used by Woo, Hsu, and Wu is presented.

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility in Buyer-Supplier Relationships: Is it Beneficial for Top-Tier Suppliers to Market their Capability to Ensure a Responsible Supply Chain?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Leppelt; Kai Foerstl; Evi Hartmann

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR)-related supply management practices affects the reputation of top-tier suppliers in business-to-business (B2B) markets. In a cross-functional multiple-case study involving marketing, purchasing, and sustainability executives of five supplier organizations in Central Europe, we explored four...

  3. A Dynamic Model for Sharing Reputation of Sellers Among Buyers for Enhancing Trust in Agent Mediated E-Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Gaur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reputation systems aim to reduce the risk of loss due to untrustworthy participants. This loss is aggravated by dishonest advisors trying to pollute the e-market environment for their self-interest. A major task of a reputation system is to promote and encourage advisors who repeatedly respond with fair advice and to apply an opinion filtering or honesty checking mechanism to detect and resist dishonest advisors. This paper provides a dynamic approach to compute the aggregated shared reputation component by filtering out unfair advice and then generating the aggregated shared reputation value. The proposed approach is dynamic in nature as it is sensitive to the behaviour of advisors, value of the current transaction and encourages the cooperation among buyers as advisors. It provides incentive to honest advisors in lieu of repeated sharing of honest opinion by increasing the weight of their opinion and by making the increase in the reputation of honest advisors monotonically proportional to the value of a transaction.

  4. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmen-tal degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the com-panies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into par-ticular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto- matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  5. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmental degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the companies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into particular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto-matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  6. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: a survey of new solar-home and onventional-home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    Comsumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped new home when the non-solar or conventional model was also available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home, and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample. (MHR)

  7. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: A survey of new solar-home and conventional-home buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C. K.

    1981-02-01

    Consumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped home when the nonsolar or conventional model was available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home; and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample.

  8. Protecting the Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Almost all of the 25,100 tons of defective milk powder seized in the 2008 toxic baby food probe had been incinerated and buried,and none had been found to have re-entered the market,China's National Food Safety Rectification Office(NFSRO)said on March 15.

  9. Investigating the Effect of Social Stimulants of Store Atmosphere on Buyer Extra-role Behavior A Study of Refah Chain Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mansouri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is impossible for retailers to establish a competitive and successful store Atmosphere in the marketplace via making a distinction in the outer facades of their stores, altering the pricing system, and diversifying the products offered in the store, due to the intense competition emerged in retailing markets. In addition to the economic effect on buyers’ behavior, the stores should try their best to attain their goals by less costing. Furthermore, as retailers can change the buyers’ behavior to the extra-role behavior, they can attain more appropriate goals. The social stimulants of store Atmosphere is one of the most important and effective factors on buyers’ behavior at shopping place. So, In this research We’ve connected these variables according to the different studies and designed our model. The statistical society of this study is customers of Refah chain stores in Tehran and The number of sample is 413 people that they were in sore. Validity of questionnaire was calculated based on opinions of university professors, vendors and also through factor analysis. We’ve also used Coefficient alpha (Cronbach, 87 percent and split half (83 percent for getting the reliability(83 percent. According to the results, it was confirmed that Social Stimulants of store atmosphere in Refah chain stores have effect on emotional-cognitive indicators and at a result, they have effect on buyer extra role behavior and this effect is not affected by buyers gender and age

  10. Analysis on the Game of Online Buyers and Sellers%浅析网购买卖双方的博弈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜维权; 张莹

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of games can be found in the area of e-commerce, such as, game between network and general retail outlets, sellers and buyer, seller and seller, and so on. This article conducted game theory modeling of the online buyers and sellers from three directions, static game theory under complete information, dynamic games of complete and perfect information and repeat game.%电子商务领域中存在着各种博弈,网络零售商与普通零售商的博弈、买方和卖方的博弈、销售商之间的博弈等等。本文以完全信息下的静态博弈、完全且完美信息动态博弈以及重复博弈三个方向对网购买卖双方进行博弈论角度的建模研究。

  11. 安全信息通信产品与服务采购指南%Purchasing Secure ICT Products and Services: A Buyers Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    美国东西方研究所

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the EastWest Institute's (EWI) published Purchasing Secure ICT Products and Services: A Buyers Guide, compiled by its Breakthrough Group on Increasing the Global Availability and Use of Secure ICT Products and Services. This group came to the conclusion in 2015 that government and industry act in multiple roles as stakeholders in the ICT marketplace. The government acts as a policymaker and sometimes as a regulator of ICT, industry develops and provides ICT products and services, and both the government and industry are buyers of ICT products and services. Accordingly, cyberspace stakeholders have varying responsibilities and capabilities to increase the security of ICT products and services. Created based on surveys, the Guide is intended to help buyers, suppliers, and users of information and communications technologies better understand and address the cybersecurity and privacy risks inherent in ICT products and services. These individuals include senior executives and members of their governing boards and parent organizations, chief information and information security officers, risk management professionals, acquisition officers, insurers, auditors, and other third-party risk evaluators, and design, manufacturing and supply chain professionals. The version 1.0 of the Guide provides three recommendations for ICT buyers and suppliers: 1. Engage in a dialogue about risk management; 2. Use questions in this guide to frame the dialogue; 3. Rely on international standards to increase confidence in the results.%美国东西方研究所(EWI)于2016年发布了由其全球安全ICT产品和服务可及性与使用突破小组编制的"安全信息通信产品与服务采购指南".早在2015年,该小组就明确表示,政府和企业在ICT市场中扮演着多重角色.政府是政策制定者,有时也是ICT行业的监管者,而企业开发和提供ICT产品和服务.政府和企业又都是ICT产品和服务的采购商.因此,网络空间的利益相关

  12. The Development of Gambling Addiction Diagnostic Scale for Lottery Buyer%彩民购彩成瘾诊断量表初步编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁军; 刘炳伦; 边延艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a new diagnostic scale of gambling addiction for lottery buyer on the basis of item response theory(IRT).Methods 29itemsweredesignedaccordingwithgamblingaddictiontheoryandthebehaviorcharacteristicsofthe lottery buyers and all were assigned as one-or-two score.Reliability and validity test were performed in 1 142 lottery buyers and additional 110 criterion samples.Results The final version of the scale were composed of 13 items screened from the 29 items when the measurement error was 0.201 3.The item discrimination of the scale ranged from 1.321 9 to 2.320 5 and the item difficulty ranged from 0.610 3 to 1.053 1.There was significant correlation between the scale and criterion ( K=0.913, P<0.001).The optimal cut-off value was 5, the sensitivity was at 91.7%and the false positive rate was at 3.3%for the scale. Conclusion The diagnostic scale of gambling addiction has good quality, validity and reliability.It can be used for clinical diagnoses for lottery buyer with gambling addiction.%目的:根据项目反应理论( IRT)编制适用于彩民购彩成瘾的诊断量表,对该量表进行信度和效度检验。方法根据彩民购彩成瘾相关理论和彩民的行为特征初步制定29个条目,采用二值评分法,在样本彩民1142名和另外的110例效标样本中进行信效度检验。结果基于测量误差在0.2013的水平,从29个条目中选取了13个条目组成最终量表。其条目的区分度为1.3219~2.3205,难(程)度为0.6103~1.0531。该量表与效标相关性显著( K=0.913,P<0.01)。该量表的最佳划界值是5,敏感度是91.7%,假阳性率是3.3%。结论该量表条目的质量、信度、效度均符合相关要求,可以用于对彩民购彩成瘾进行临床诊断。

  13. The Renewal of Cost Behavior in The Buyer-based Market Environment%买方市场环境下的成本习性创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳辉

    2001-01-01

    Traditional cost behavior refers to cost quantitativebehavior.The formation of buyer-based environment makes cost behavior renew.This paper intends to combine the principle of competitive strategy and evaluation choice of competitive stategy in different analysis of cost behavior.%传统的成本习性指的是成本数量习性,买方市场环境的形成,使成本习性得以创新,本文将成本习性分析与竞争战略原理相结合,对不同成本习性分析下的竞争战略选择进行评价。

  14. Introduction of Fashion Buyer's Mechanism in the Domestic Shoe Retail Terminal%国内鞋业零售终端引入时尚买手机制的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雨果

    2016-01-01

    时尚买手机制作为一种新兴的品牌运营形式,将对产业链的各个环节进行整合,充分发挥无形资产的优势,它的快速发展,对我国时尚产业的发展以及鞋类行业的转型升级都将有十分重要的作用。然而,国内除了少量的时尚媒体的报道,学界较少有深入研究。因此,本研究的目的是对国内鞋业零售终端引入时尚买手机制的探讨。我们首先对国内鞋业零售终端现状进行分析,在此基础上介绍了时尚买手机制,并对目前国内时尚买手现状进行分析;然后论述了国内鞋业零售终端引入时尚买手机制的意义,最后提出了引入时尚买手机制的几点建议。%As a kind of new mode, fashion buyer's system is a new area in the study of fashion academic. Therefore this study was aim to investigate the introduction of fashion buyer's mechanism in the domestic shoe retail terminal. At first, we analyzed current situation of domestic shoe retail terminal and the domestic fashion buyer system; then domestic shoe retail terminal leading fashion buyer mechanism were interpreted;finally suggestions were proposed for its development.

  15. Development of an Internet Questionnaire System for Sports Lottery Buyers%体育彩票彩民网上问卷调查系统研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖毅; 李海; 吴殷

    2012-01-01

    Due to the deficiencies of paper questionnaire,such as insufficient samples,unreal data,long survey period,high cost,low efficiency of statistics analysis,etc,the author,based on the merits of the traditional questionnaire design and web design,shifts the paper questionnaire for identifying the purchasing behavior of problem lottery buyers to web questionnaire.A system for internet questionnaire and statistics analysis has been designed and developed.The article introduces the design concept,structure,function module and application of the system.%针对目前彩民购彩行为纸质问卷调查存在的样本量不够、数据不真实、调查周期长、成本较高、统计分析效率低等不足,结合传统调查问卷的设计方法和网页设计的优点,将用于甄别问题彩民购彩行为的纸质问卷转换为网络问卷,设计并开发了一套彩民购彩行为网上问卷调查与统计分析系统,介绍了系统的设计思路、架构、功能模块及其应用。

  16. Providing a Model to Predict Purchase Behavior of Mobile Phone Buyers in Iran: Identify Cultural, Social, Personal and Psychological Factors of Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiumars Mohsenimehr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowing an insight on factors affecting intentions of customers not enables marketers for better understanding and predicting demand for products or services, but raises motivation and frequency of purchase products or services. More importantly, if the factors are considered for developing new products, those developing products will have a higher probability of success. Therefore, in this research, we will analyze theoretical aspects of consumer’s purchasing behavior and the factors affecting the behavior. The present research is applicable objectively; while it is descriptivesurvey and correlation type in terms of method. Its population consist students of Islamic Azad University's Business Administration. The research data were collected from 386 students according the standardized questionnaires with Likert five-point. Finally, we tested its hypotheses by considering to normality of the data and using parametric methods as well as Pearson Correlation Coefficient and regression. The results indicated a positive impact of all cultural, social, personal and psychological factors on purchasing behavior of mobile phone buyers. Therefore, this article will help marketing managers to better understand of consumers’ decision-making that helping them causes that they use better the factors for providing marketing strategy. Finally, this study will help companies to affect consumers’ decisions by adopting detailed marketing strategies and full knowledge and insight.

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility in Buyer-Supplier Relationships: Is it Beneficial for Top-Tier Suppliers to Market their Capability to Ensure a Responsible Supply Chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Leppelt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR-related supply management practices affects the reputation of top-tier suppliers in business-to-business (B2B markets. In a cross-functional multiple-case study involving marketing, purchasing, and sustainability executives of five supplier organizations in Central Europe, we explored four distinct approaches for marketing superior CSR management abilities in B2B markets that potentially foster long-term comparative advantages: (1 Fact-based communication of measurable CSR capabilities, (2 targeting of indirect customers and influencers, (3 marketing through education, and (4 marketing of CSR as a service. Moreover, our inductive results provide evidence that the effective marketing of CSR capabilities enhances a supplier’s reputation only if it sends consistent signals to the market. Therefore, a close integration of marketing and purchasing is crucial for achieving signaling consistency. Building on an established framework of purchasing-marketing integration in the particular context of CSR we developed a crossfunctional theory on the link between marketing, supply chain alignment and reputation, which is expressed in four sets of testable research propositions.

  18. Outsourcing Operational Logistics: Buyer Beware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    Privatized Military Logistics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Chairman, JMO Dept...CONTENTS Abstract i Introduction 1 Historical Examples of Privatized Military Logistics 2 Analysis: Problems of Outsourcing Military Logistics 5...to combat operations contribute to the argument not to privatize military logistics . 2 In the current vocabulary of the American military

  19. Greater Buyer Effectiveness through Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    FOB = free on board FPAC = Federal Procurement Automation Council FPDS = Federal Procurement Data System 4GL = fourth generation language GAO = General...Procurement Automation Council ( FPAC ), entitled Compendium of Automated Procurement Systems in Federal Agencies. The FPAC inventory attempted to identify...In some cases we have updated descriptions of systems identified by the FPAC study, but many of the newer systems are identified here for the first

  20. Research on Factors Influencing Buyer -supplier Relationship in Electronic Reverse Auction Environment%电子反向拍卖环境下采供关系影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高攀; 田剑; 刘欣

    2012-01-01

    Electronic reverse auction has obvious advantages in e - commerce environment. It accords with the enterprise primary supply chain management mode as far as possible so that the manager can adopt this new technology easily. The influence of electronic reverse auction on buyer - supplier incomes and relationships was analyzed, based on which the influence factors of buyer - supplier relationship under electronic reverse auction environment were analyzed in order to provide learning and reference for the healthy development of electronic reverse auction.%反拍卖电子采购在电子商务环境下有着突出的优势,它尽量地符合了企业原有的供应链管理方式,使企业管理人员容易接受这一新技术.分析了电子反向拍卖对采供双方收益及采供双方关系的影响,在此基础上对电子反向拍卖环境下采供关系的影响因素进行了分析,以期对电子反向拍卖的健康发展提供借鉴和参考.

  1. Buyer-seller coordination and quantity discount pricing model in the supply-chain%供应链中的买-卖协调及数量折扣定价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓军; 陈秋双

    2000-01-01

    供应链中买方与卖方之间的协调.涉及到采购、组织生产、库存管理和双方用于贸易的必不可少的通讯、交通等多个环节.研究买方、卖方如何协调以节约各个环节的费用,对于降低买卖双方的成本,提高经济效益是非常重要的.国内外学者在这方面已经做了大量的工作,本文就买方-卖方联合系统及数量折扣定价模型进行了总结和分析.%One of the three coordinations defined by operational planning in supply-chain management is the buyerseller coordination. It includes several stages ,such as purchase ,production,inventroy control,communication and transportation used to the trade. It is important for buyer and seller how toreduce the cost and improve the benefit for both sides. There is a lot of literatures on this topic. This paper makes a summary about the buyer-seller joint system and quantity discount pricing model.

  2. 浅析拐卖人口案件侦查之买方市场的防控%Analysis of Prevention and Control of Buyer's Market in the Investigation of Human Trafficking Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 匡爱明

    2015-01-01

    拐卖人口现象屡禁不止,根本原因之一是买方市场的存在及发展.本研究基于对拐卖人口买方市场存在发展的背景条件以及当前形势和防控难点进行分析研究,指出买方市场组成结构的复杂性与单方面打击不协调等问题.针对当前背景下采取系统作战方式应对拐卖人口新特点的重要性,通过咨询专家、文献研究以及与主要案发地区一线民警深入沟通,给买方市场防控措施提出相关建议,以期望对拐卖人口案件侦查有一定借鉴意义.%The phenomenon of human trafficking continues despite repeated prohibition, and one of the fundamental reasons for which lies in the existence and development of the buyer's market. Based on the research of the background conditions for the existence and development of the buy's market of the trafficked population, and on the analysis of the present situation and prevention and control difficulties, the paper has pointed out the complexity of the composition structure of the buyer's market and the lack of coordination for one-sided combat. Through expert consultation, literature review and in-depth communication with the front-line policemen at the major regions of criminal cases, the paper has summed up practical measures. In particular, it has stressed the importance of adopting a systematic combat method to cope with the new characteristics of existing population trafficking. Relevant suggestions on the measures of prevention and control of the buyer's market are proposed, which have certain guiding significance for the investigation of human trafficking cases.

  3. 基于身份认证的买方-卖方数字水印协议%A Buyer-Seller Digital Watermarking Protocol based on Identity Authentication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德丽; 崔新春; 耿海亭; 王静

    2015-01-01

    鉴于目前协议中存在的身份认证、版权追踪、买卖方工作量过大等问题,提出了一个基于身份认证的数字水印协议。在协议中引入了可信第三方,减少了买卖方的工作量;由第三方进行水印加载和数字作品的分发,有效防止了水印信息的滥用。同时,在水印中加入身份认证信息,并将各实体信息及时间戳放入一个安全的数据库中以便查询,在版权追踪时能更高效、准确地确认版权所有者。%In light of the problems existing in current protocols, such as identity authentication, copyright tracking, excessive workload of buyer and seller, a digital watermarking protocol based on identity authen-tication is proposed in which a trusted third-party is introduced to decrease the workload of buyer and sell-er. Watermark embedding and digital products distribution by the third party could effectively prevent the a-buse of watermarking information. Meanwhile, the adding of identity authentication information to the wa-termark, and furthermore, the storing of entity information and a timestamp in the secure database for later query could provide more efficient and accurate determination of copyright owner in copyright tracking.

  4. 绿色供应链买方视角下的合作影响因素实证研究%Empirical Research on Affecting Factor for Cooperation in Green Supply Chain from the Buyers'Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 赵嵩正; 刘静

    2012-01-01

    The management of green supply chain integrates the concept of environmental protection, and therefore more and more enterprises place emphasis on it. The factors that impact the green supply chain cooperation have been investigated from the buyer's perspective by empirical research method. The factors that impact the cooperation cover the inter -departmental barriers, the desires to participate in decision-making and durative relationship, environmental pressures and routing practices. AMOS is adopted to verify the conceptual model while its results are discussed. The factors impacting the cooperation are investigated from the buyer's point of view for the first time, so as to provide some constructive suggestions for enterprises and suppliers in their green supply chain partnership.%绿色供应链管理融合了环境保护的观念,因此受到了越来越多企业的重视.采用实证研究的方法,从买方视角研究了绿色供应链合作的影响因素.合作的影响因素包括跨部门障碍、参与决策制定、持续性关系的愿望、环境压力和惯例,用AMOS对概念模型进行验证,并对其结果进行了讨论.首次从买方角度来研究合作的影响因素,从而为企业与供应商在绿色供应链中建立合作关系提供了一些建设性意见.

  5. A collaborative vendor-buyer production-inventory systems with imperfect quality items, inspection errors, and stochastic demand under budget capacity constraint: a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdhi, N. A.; Nurhayati, R. A.; Wiyono, S. B.; Handajani, S. S.; Martini, T. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an integrated inventory model considering the imperfect quality items, inspection error, controllable lead time, and budget capacity constraint. The imperfect items were uniformly distributed and detected on the screening process. However there are two types of possibilities. The first is type I of inspection error (when a non-defective item classified as defective) and the second is type II of inspection error (when a defective item classified as non-defective). The demand during the lead time is unknown, and it follows the normal distribution. The lead time can be controlled by adding the crashing cost. Furthermore, the existence of the budget capacity constraint is caused by the limited purchasing cost. The purposes of this research are: to modify the integrated vendor and buyer inventory model, to establish the optimal solution using Kuhn-Tucker’s conditions, and to apply the models. Based on the result of application and the sensitivity analysis, it can be obtained minimum integrated inventory total cost rather than separated inventory.

  6. 论二手船买卖下卖方无负担保证的违反与买方的法律救济%Discussion on Violation of No Burden Warranty of the Seller and the Remedies of the Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志健

    2011-01-01

    买卖合同中,卖方除了对货物负有品质担保义务之外,还负有船舶无负担保证义务。但实践中,被出售的船舶往往存在一些无需登记,买方也很难查找到的各种负担。虽然卖方有义务赔偿买方因发生在交船前的索赔而遭受的损失,但是在买方遇到此类索赔时,可能卖方已经破产,或已宣布清盘,所谓的担保也就成为一纸空文,故买方应注意事前的防范而非事后补救,以保护自己的利益。本文从二手船买卖的特点出发,解析其特点下卖方的无负担保证义务的内容和买方可能面临的风险,以及在卖方违反其义务时买方的法律救济问题。%Business contract,the seller of goods besides undertaking quality guarantee obligations,still have ship no burden warranty obligations.But in practice,being sold ships tend to have the kinds of burden without registration and the buyer is also hard to locate.Although the seller is bound to compensate buyer due to occur in before delivering the ship to claim the losses suffered by the buyer,but in met such claim,the seller may have already declared bankruptcy,liquidation,or the so-called guarantee is old parchment,so the buyer should pay attention to advance prevention rather than remedial,in order to protect their interests.Based on the characteristics of buying and selling second-hand vessel,analyzing its characteristics under the seller's no burden warranty obligations the content and the buyer may face the risk,and in the seller in breach of its obligation by the buyer's legal relief problem.

  7. Technology Acquisition of Public Goods Technological Innovation under Buyer-determined Scenaro%买方决定条件下公共产品技术创新技术获取策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海江涛; 仲伟俊; 梅姝娥

    2013-01-01

    政府部门可以通过直接采购包含所需技术的产品或进行研发采购的方式向社会提供非排他性的公共产品.以买方决定的在线逆向拍卖理论和寻租竞争理论为基础,构建了相应的离散选择模型,分析了预期的市场规模、投标企业技术特征以及获得研发采购合同投标商的研发成本等因素对政府部门技术获取策略的影响,得到了政府部门进行研发采购的条件以及进行研发采购时最优的技术采购规则.%Government departments generally purchases available technologies directly or undertake pre-commercial procurement to provide non-excludable public goods. Based on the buyer determined online reverse auction theory and rent-seeking contests models, we construct a discrete choice model and demonstrate future market size, technical characteristics and R&D cost of the bidding companies to fully obtain pre-commercial procurement as the major factors that influence the technology acquisition policies. We present the necessary condition for pre-commercial procurement and the optimal procurement rules of state-of-the-art technology for public sectors.

  8. Investigation of supplier/buyer coordination performance in chinese companies Investigação sobre o desempenho da coordenação cliente/fornecedor em empresas chinesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhixiang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of supplier/buyer coordination in supply chain systems in China based on data from a survey of that country's business sector. The survey indicates that the rapidly expanding economy has raised the awareness of an increasing number of Chinese firms to the importance of cooperating and coordinating with partners in supply chain management. However, although coordinated delivery, quality and responsiveness show an upward trend, such is not the case in information sharing and in cooperative efforts to reduce inventory and costs. Hence, many companies have yet to form close cooperative relationships with partners. This study may be useful for both Chinese and foreign companies, serving to underpin the development of new strategies for operating supply chains in the changing global economy.Este artigo discute o desempenho da coordenação entre cliente/fornecedor em cadeias de suprimento da China com base em dados de uma pesqquisa de avaliação (survey. Os resultados indicam que a rápida expansão da economia fez com que um número crescente de empresas chinesas passasse a dar mais atenção para a importância da cooperação e coordenação entre os parceiros na gestão da cadeia de suprimentos. Embora entrega, qualidade e responsividade apresentem uma tendência de melhora o mesmo não é observado para compartilhamento da informação e esforços conjuntos para redução de custos e inventários. Portanto, muitas empresas ainda precisam estabelecer relacionamentos cooperatives com os seus parceiros. Este estudo pode ser útil tanto para empresas chinesas quanto para empresas estrangeiras, servindo de base para o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias para a gestão de cadeias de suprimentos numa economia global em mudança.

  9. BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT IN STRUCTURED CONTRACTS ENVIRONMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN A MULTINATIONAL FIRM GESTIÓN DE RELACIONAMIENTO COMPRADOR-PROVEEDOR EN AMBIENTES CON CONTRATOS ESTRUCTURADOS: EL CASO DE UNA GRAN MULTINACIONAL GESTÃO DO RELACIONAMENTO COMPRADOR-FORNECEDOR EM AMBIENTES COM CONTRATOS ESTRUTURADOS: O CASO DE UMA GRANDE MULTINACIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Pagiola de Oliveira; Helio Zanquetto Filho

    2013-01-01

    The article objective is to analyze the relationships between buyers and sellers in organizational environments where structured contracts are used, more specifically when it is used to ruled relational aspects in these relationships.  The focus of this analysis was a big multinational company and its suppliers. Five relationships were selected, and three categories were chosen by which was structured the interviews script, to be applied to eleven managers. The results had shown that there is...

  10. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  11. Wooing the Chinese Car-Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; CHRISTINE TSANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Zhu Ce is a 22-year old salesman at Beijing's largest car market, North Asia Car Market, or Beiya Cheshi (北亚车市). He has been working there a few months, and on average makes about IO sales a month. But Zhu knows next to nothing about cars. He doesn't own one himself, and his employers simply provided him with a small information pamphlet by way of training.

  12. 2005 buyer's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-01

    The guide gives contact details of about 90 companies in the USA specialising in a full range of equipment for use in the coal industry. The companies are listed by category. Equipment for coal preparation, materials handling, haulage, and transport, coal mining and fire and environmental protection is included.

  13. Buyer-supplier relationships and planning solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.; Steger-Jensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on supply chain relationships and segmented planning and ICT concepts. Major supplier segments are distinguished based on literature: capacity suppliers, standard suppliers, system suppliers and key suppliers. Next, current supply chain planning solutions are distinguished: vendor

  14. The Relationship between Virtual Try-On,Buyer Show and Impulsive Buying Based on Virtual Haptic%基于触觉视角的虚拟试穿、买家展示对消费者冲动性购买意愿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚旭彤

    2015-01-01

    In this paper ,the theoretical model of the relationship between virtual try‐on ,buyer show and consumer’s impulsive buying intentions is established from the virtual haptical perspective. Then ,the theoretical model is tested through structural equation model. Results show that vir‐tual try‐on and buyer show have both direct and indirect effects on impulsive buying intentions ,and virtual haptic acts an intermediary role in the indirect effect.%从虚拟触觉的视角,构建了虚拟试穿、买家展示与消费者冲动性购买意愿关系的理论模型。并基于结构方程的方法对理论模型进行了验证。验证结果表明,虚拟试穿和买家展示对消费者冲动性购买意愿既有直接作用又有间接作用,虚拟触觉在两者对冲动购买意愿的间接作用中充当了中介作用。

  15. Understanding Knowledge Transfer in Sino-Foreign Buyer-Supplier Relationships%中外企业间差异对知识转移的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢恩; 梁杰

    2015-01-01

    Effective knowledge transfer is critical to the success of inter-organizational alliances. However, achie-ving effective knowledge transfer is often problematic in cross-cultural strategic cooperations, and is a primary cause of failure in many such relationships. The article first identified inter-firm diversity in management and tech-nology as two major impediments of knowledge transfer, and posited that selecting appropriate communication me-dia and employing control mechanisms could help organizations reduce the impact of inter-firm diversity on know-ledge transfer. Based on a cross-sectional survey of 178 Chinese manufacturing firms that have entered into strate-gic buyer-supplier relationships with foreign Western firms, the research found that inter-firm diversity, more speci-fically managerial diversity, indeed has a negative influence on knowledge transfer. The empirical results also sup-ported the hypotheses on the moderating effects of communication media and control mechanisms, indicating that while IT-based communication media are more effective in alleviating the effect of technological diversity, face-to-face communication helps in moderating the negative impact of managerial diversity on knowledge transfer. The use of social control mechanisms was found to be effective in enhancing knowledge transfer in Sino-foreign alliance. Implications for theory and practice were discussed.%有效的知识转移是组织联盟取得成功的关键因素之一。然而在跨文化的战略合作中,实现有效的知识转移经常存在着一些障碍,容易导致双方合作的失败。首先,确定企业间管理和技术的差异性是阻碍企业间知识转移的两个重要因素,进一步提出选择适当的沟通媒介以及采用合适的控制机制可以降低差异性对知识转移的作用。基于中国制造业和国外企业建立供应关系的178家企业的调查研究,发现企业间管理差异性对知识转移存在着负向

  16. 供应商、经销商议价能力与公司业绩——来自2005-2007年中国制造业上市公司的经验证据%Bargaining Power of Suppliers and Buyers, and Corporate Performance——Evidences from Chinese Manufacturing Listed Companies from 2005 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐跃军

    2009-01-01

    传统的企业与企业的竞争已经演化为供应链与供应链(或产业链与产业链)之间的竞争,这使得改进供应链(或产业链)管理成为提升公司竞争力的必由之路.本文利用来自2005-2007年中国制造业上市公司的经验证据,探讨供应商和经销商(客户)议价能力对公司业绩可能存在的影响以及具体的影响程度和影响方式.实证研究证实:①供应商、经销商(客户)的集中度和议价能力越低,公司业绩越好;②供应商的集中度和议价能力与公司业绩之间表现为倒"U"形关系;③和已有的研究不同,经销商(客户)的集中度和议价能力在与公司业绩显著负相关的同时,表现为左高右低的正"U"形关系.%The traditional competition among companies has evolved into competition among supply chains (or industry chains), hence the improvement of supply chains (or industry chains) management becomes absolutely necessary for promotion of enterprise competitive power. Based on empirical evidence from Chinese manufacturing listed companies between 2005 and 2007, this paper explores the impact suppliers and franchisers (buyers) may have on corporate performance, as well as the impact degree and means. The empirical research proves that: ①lower the concentration degree of suppliers and franchisers (buyers) is, better corporate performance will be; ②suppliers' concentration degree and bargaining power have an inverted U -shape relationship with corporate performance; ③different from existing researches, franchisers'(buyers') concentration degree and bargaining power have significant negative relationship with corporate performance; meanwhile, a U-shape relationship with higher left wing and lower right wing exists between them.

  17. ON DIFFERENTIATION OF CONSUMPTION MODE AND ITS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN NETWOEK SOCIETY--- The Game between Sellers and Buyers%网络社会消费方式的分化及其社会心理分析--卖家和买家的博弈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范和生; 徐玲; 沈江茜

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new media causes people to change their habits. Meanwhile it also creates new business modes and economic operation ways and network consumption is one of its derivatives. Online shopping gradually replaces the traditional shopping because of its cost performance, convenience, personalization, various goods, etc. advantage is gradually replacing the traditional way of shopping, attracting more and more consumers. However, the network may inevitably cause a series of con-suming issues, such as the confidence crisis between sellers and buyers, the guarantee of goods quality, the guarantee of the ex-press industry, etc., all of which cause us to ponder network consumption deeply more. At the same time, in the consumption process, the contradiction between sellers and buyers is also increasingly apparent.%新媒体的出现,在改变人们生活习惯的同时,也创造了新的商业模式和经济运行方式,网络消费就是其衍生品之一。网络消费因其性价比、方便性、个性化、商品数量多、品种齐全等等优势也逐渐代替传统购物方式,吸引着越来越多的消费者。然而网络消费也不可避免的引起一系列问题,例如卖家与买家的信任危机、商品质量的保证、快递行业的保证等等,都促使我们对网络消费的普及需要进行更为深入的思考。同时,在消费过程中,卖家与买家矛盾也日益显现。

  18. A Interactive Market Model about the Buyer Monopoly and Seller Monopoly in the Land Reserve Bank%土地储备制度中买方与卖方垄断的联动市场模型研究——兼对耕地保护和征地补偿问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹飞

    2013-01-01

    Under the situtiation of the monopoly of buyers and sellers,this paper constructed "land acquisiton-land transfer" interactive market model of land reserve center.Through the theorical analysis,we came to the conclusions:Firstly,the current land reserve system of buyer monopoly of agricultural land and seller monopoly of the first level of land market surely leaded the local government to pursue "land finance" by abusing the power of land acquisition.If the government is not "regulators of the land market",the interactive land maket will be in a non-equilibrium state.It makes the land market become a market full of government failure.Secondly,bilateral monopoly market of buyers and sellers of the land reserve system inevitably resulted in the absence of macroeconomic regulation and micro control the offside and also dislocation of the land of asset management,Next we build a model about the land protection and land acquisition compensation,The results show that:there will be a low price and high supplied quantity and also high profits in the legitimate zero-level market.Thirdly,the market structure of bilateral monopoly of buyer and seller inevitably leaded to the loss of arable land and the low compensation to the farmers.The paper suggested that in order to protect arable land and increase farmers' compensation,the most important measure that we shoud take was to break the bilateral monopoly of buyers and sellers in the land reserve system.%本文构建了买、卖方垄断下土地储备中心“征地—出让”的联动市场模型,理论分析表明:农地征收买方垄断和一级土地市场卖方垄断的现行土地储备制度,必然带来地方政府滥用征地权征地追求“土地财政”的后果,如果地方政府并非是“单一的土地市场监管者和宏观调控者”,则这个联动市场模型将处于一种非均衡的状态.同时表明土地储备制度买卖方双边垄断市场化经营的结果必然导致宏观调控的缺位

  19. 转移成本对感知质量与满意之间关系的调节作用——对B2B电子中介买方用户的实证研究%The Moderating Role of Switching Cost on the Relationship between Perceived Quality and Satisfaction-An Empirical Study on Buyer of B2B E-Intermediary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兆霞; 李莉

    2012-01-01

    Based on B2B e-intermediary providing support service for both buyers and sellers, the paper explores the relationship between buyers perceived quality and satisfaction, the influence of switching cost on above relationship, and develops a measurement model based on the moderating role of switching cost. Then the relationship between perceived quality and satisfaction, the relationship between switching cost and satisfaction and the moderating role of switching cost are validated using a sampling survey of buyers and unconstrained approach. The results show that perceived quality and switching cost have a positive effect on satisfaction, and switching cost has a negative effect on the relationship between perceived quality and satisfaction, providing empirical basis for developing satisfaction from the view of switching cost.%如何提高用户满意,对于为买卖双方提供交易支持服务的B2B电子中介而言,是扩大平台运营规模和增加市场竞争力的基础。本文以B2B电子中介的买方用户为研究对象,建立了基于转移成本调节的感知质量与用户满意因果关系概念模型.借助于国内知名的B2B电子中介采集了覆盖五大洲114个国家的649份样本数据,然后运用无约束方法验证了用户感知质量与满意之间、转移成本与满意之间的正向影响关系。以及转移成本对感知质量和满意之间关系影响的负向调节作用。实证研究结果显示,较高的转移成本会减弱买方用户的感知质量对满意的影响,有利于B2B电子中介提高买方用户的满意水平,进而为B2B电子中介如何从转移成本角度提高买方用户满意提供了实证基础。

  20. 供应商能力对关系绩效的影响--以采购商依赖为中介的分析%Influence of Supplier Capability on Relationship Performance-An Analysis of Taking Buyer Dependence as Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常玉; 康慧文; 许小卉

    2016-01-01

    R&D capability and marketing capability not only are cores of supplier capability, but also are the important intangible assets. Underpinned by resource dependence theory, the paper builds an “ability- dependence- relationship performance” theoretical mode and carries out empirical analysis by 184 survey data. Research results show supplier R&D capability, marketing capability and their interaction terms are not direct factors that affect the relationship perform-ance, but are important antecedent variable, which mainly affects chain relations by driving the buyer dependent behavior to maintain the long-term cooperation. Therefore, supplier should pay attention to the training of R&D, and marketing capabilities, to maximize their own interests and train long-term competitive ability through their coordination effects.%研发能力与营销能力既是供应商的核心能力,也是企业重要的无形资产。本文依据资源依赖理论构建了“能力-依赖-关系绩效”的理论模型,并通过184份调查数据进行了实证分析,结果表明供应商研发能力和营销能力及其交互项并不是影响关系绩效的直接因素,而是重要的前置变量,其主要是通过驱动采购商依赖行为影响供应链关系,从而维持成功、长久的合作。因此,供应商应注重培养研发、营销能力,通过二者的协调效应来最大化自身利益和培育长期竞争能力。

  1. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This annual guide features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  2. Patterns of Buyer Behavior: Regularities, Models, and Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Uncles; Andrew Ehrenberg; Kathy Hammond

    1995-01-01

    Many empirical regularities in the buying behavior of consumers have been linked together into a comprehensive model, the Dirichlet. In this paper we list some of the well-established regularities, show how they are theoretically intertwined, and illustrate how this approach to modeling can assist the marketing analyst.

  3. The structure and evolution of buyer-supplier networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Souma, Wataru; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the structure and evolution of customer-supplier networks in Japan using a unique dataset that contains information on customer and supplier linkages for more than 500,000 incorporated non-financial firms for the five years from 2008 to 2012. We find, first, that the number of customer links is unequal across firms; the customer link distribution has a power-law tail with an exponent of unity (i.e., it follows Zipf's law). We interpret this as implying that competition among firms to acquire new customers yields winners with a large number of customers, as well as losers with fewer customers. We also show that the shortest path length for any pair of firms is, on average, 4.3 links. Second, we find that link switching is relatively rare. Our estimates indicate that the survival rate per year for customer links is 92 percent and for supplier links 93 percent. Third and finally, we find that firm growth rates tend to be more highly correlated the closer two firms are to each other in a customer-supplier network (i.e., the smaller is the shortest path length for the two firms). This suggests that a non-negligible portion of fluctuations in firm growth stems from the propagation of microeconomic shocks - shocks affecting only a particular firm - through customer-supplier chains.

  4. 2007 coal preparation buyer's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 86 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 24th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 30 April - 3 May 2007, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  5. 2009 coal preparation buyer's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 926 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 26th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 28-30 April - May 2009, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  6. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes and binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers of all skill levels are always contemplating their next telescope, and this book points the way to the most suitable instruments. Similarly, those who are buying their first telescopes – and these days not necessarily a low-cost one – will be able to compare and contrast different types and manufacturers. This revised new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand, and model on today’s market, a truly invaluable treasure-trove of information and helpful advice for all amateur astronomers. Originally written in 2006, much of the first edition is inevitably now out of date, as equipment advances and manufacturers come and go. This second edition not only updates all the existing sections but adds two new ones: Astro-imaging and Professional-Amateur collaboration. Thanks to the rapid and amazing developments that have been made in digital cameras it is...

  7. Clean Cities 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-11

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  8. 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  9. Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  10. Health care consumerism: engaging the real buyers--employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Many employers have begun moving toward health care consumerism strategies designed to encourage employees to take more responsibility for their health care and the cost of that care. Recent surveys suggest ways employers can ensure their consumerism strategies succeed in engaging employees and, ultimately, encourage employees to change their behavior. This article describes what those surveys reveal about employer and employee perspectives on consumerism and suggests steps employers can take to align their interests with those of their employees in order to manage the demand for and use of health care.

  11. Tourism Enterprises as Buyers of Knowledge-Intensive Business Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Borodako

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to assess the business relations between the tourism sector and suppliers of various types of business services. It focuses on knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS. The reasons why tourism businesses purchase outsourced services are also discussed. An Internet survey was conducted and the results were used to calculate and discuss a number of indices. Cross-tabulation statistics are used to assess the interrelation between types of tourist firms, their localization and size, and the types and number of services they use. The largest numbers of KIBS used by the Polish tourism sector are from the accounting, IT, and advertising sectors, whereas the smallest relate to research and experimental development in the social sciences and humanities. This article fills a gap in the knowledge about usage of KIBS services by the tourism sector at the national level.

  12. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  13. Buyers beware: lead poisoning due to Ayurvedic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J Matthew R; Estrada, Carlos A; Mathews, Ronnie E

    2012-10-01

    A 29-year-old man, who recently emigrated from India, presented with a 2-week history of abdominal pain, as well as nausea, constipation, and fatigue. He underwent removal of a parathyroid adenoma 6 weeks prior to admission and received a locally made Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for pain control; however, this information was not initially available. He was instructed to take approximately 15 g/day. Initial evaluation revealed a normocytic anemia, but other workup including imaging and endoscopy was unrevealing. Given his recent use of Ayurvedic medicines, we tested for lead poisoning and found a blood lead level of 72 mcg/dl. We sent his medicine for analysis and found it had a high lead concentration of 36,000 mcg/g, which is over 25,000 times the maximum daily dose. He improved with cessation of the medicine and treatment with succimer. Lead poisoning can present with a variety of nonspecific signs and symptoms, including abdominal pain and anemia. Ayurvedic medicines, as well as traditional medicines from other cultures, may be a source of lead or other heavy metals. It is essential for physicians to be aware of adverse effects of Ayurvedic medicines as they are easily available and increasing in popularity.

  14. BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT IN STRUCTURED CONTRACTS ENVIRONMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN A MULTINATIONAL FIRM GESTIÓN DE RELACIONAMIENTO COMPRADOR-PROVEEDOR EN AMBIENTES CON CONTRATOS ESTRUCTURADOS: EL CASO DE UNA GRAN MULTINACIONAL GESTÃO DO RELACIONAMENTO COMPRADOR-FORNECEDOR EM AMBIENTES COM CONTRATOS ESTRUTURADOS: O CASO DE UMA GRANDE MULTINACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pagiola de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article objective is to analyze the relationships between buyers and sellers in organizational environments where structured contracts are used, more specifically when it is used to ruled relational aspects in these relationships.  The focus of this analysis was a big multinational company and its suppliers. Five relationships were selected, and three categories were chosen by which was structured the interviews script, to be applied to eleven managers. The results had shown that there is not a relational contract to treat all the relationship management issues, but verified the existence of informal rules and norms agreed between the parts that provide attendance to this finality.El objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar las relaciones  entre contratante y contratados en ambientes con utilización de contratos estructurados, más específicamente el empleo de esos contratos para tratar de los aspectos relacionales de esas relaciones. Así que, el foco principal de la presente investigación son las relaciones entre una gran multinacional y sus proveedores de productos y servicios. Como estrategia de investigación, fue realizada,  primeramente, un sondeo en 94 contratos establecidos por la contratante. A partir de ese levantamiento, teniendo como referencia seis parámetros identificados en la revisión de la literatura, fue realizada la elección de los cinco casos (contratos a ser estudiados. Esos mismos parámetros fueron utilizados para la definición del guión de la entrevista. Una vez definidos los casos, fueron seleccionados once gestores (sujetos de la investigación de la contratante y de los contratados, para la realización de las entrevistas. Como conclusión, se observa que en contratos con suministro de poca tecnología existe mayor dependencia de la contratada, mas esa dependencia diminuye a medida que se incorpora más tecnología en el suministro de productos y servicios. En relación a la

  15. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of pork products: The attributes, consequences and values sought by buyers of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    2001-01-01

    It is a fact that creating value for customers - in the eyes of the customers - is a very important source of competitive advantage. So far no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, we propose a definition of 'retailer value' built on a solid theoretical...

  16. Service Process Innovation and the Role of Added Value in Buyer-Seller Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus

    2011-01-01

    data that have been collected through 12 interviews with managers and employees at a wholesaler of electronic consumer equipment and a leading FM service provider. Findings – The results indicate that significant benefits due to process innovation, here PDF-invoicing, has been the more intensive...... of relationships, and in establishing a strategic partnership. This is mainly due to the fact that it can be costly to include users when changing service processes without a deep understanding of technology and customer needs. Originality/value – The paper provide issues to help organizations manage the value......Purpose – This paper seeks to utilize Cannon and Perreault’s relationship connectors to explore how value co-creation occurs in the context of a B2B environment. It explains where and how added value emerges from the work processes in an outsourcing relationship. Design/methodology – The paper uses...

  17. Transfers of Family Businesses to Non-Family Buyers - The Selling Business Family Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sten, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on business families and how they handle transitions such as business transfers. It also tries to shift the balance of research away from successions and towards business transfers as a key topic for family business researchers. In addition, it contributes to the family business research field by further highlighting the importance of the various different contributions in the family business from business family members other than the entrepreneurial founder. Based on ...

  18. Review of survey data on the importance of energy efficiency to new home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    The surveys reviewed for this report support the notion that the Council's model conservation standards will be received reasonably well and can be successfully marketed. A number of subtopics are addressed including the home purchase process and the role of energy efficiency considerations in the process, the importance of energy efficiency considerations in the decision to purchase a new home, the relative importance of energy efficiency in comparison to other home selection attributes, homeowner preferences for particular energy efficiency features, and measures of the willingness to pay for energy efficiency improvements.

  19. Farmer-buyer relationships in China: The effects of contracts, trust and market environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Hu, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is first, to develop constructs to measure three important concepts in the supply chain literature: contracts, trust and market environment, in the Chinese context and to further investigate the relationships amongst these three concepts based on the formulated hy

  20. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses.

  1. Exploring the consumer habits of the Carrefour buyers in Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Hernández Rodríguez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the consumer behavior in the Carrefour Supercenter of Hangzhou, China, in the attempt of finding results that will display the shopping patterns of an evolving clientele. The city of Hangzhou is one of the cities with the highest per capita income, and because of its proximity to Shanghai it has been used as a test city before introducing products to mayor markets. Using observation as the main tool for such an analysis, the research considered a sample of consumers seeking to detect their shopping patterns, furthermor, a number of interviews generating useful information for strategic decisions was performed. The results show information about attitude towards promotional stands, the demographic characteristics of the consumer and the way of choosing products, among other variables. Additionally, it is verified that the Chinese culture impacts every aspect of the average People´s Republic of China (PRC consumer.

  2. 78 FR 68814 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... IBP, the DOC selects domestic trade shows which will receive DOC assistance in the form of global... to assist the DOC to reach and educate U.S. exhibitors on the Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy... marketing opportunities as identified by ITA. Previous international attendance at the show may be used...

  3. The Impact of Channel Function Performance on Buyer-Seller Relationships in Marketing Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); M. Kacker (Manish); C. Nieuwlaat (Chantal)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractDistributors, across sectors and countries, are faced by the threat of disintermediation. In many industries, horizontal consolidation and advances in information technology have made it easier for manufacturers to bypass distributors and do business directly with consumers. Distributor

  4. Buyer beware? Does the information provided with herbal products available over the counter enable safe use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Peter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbal products obtained over the counter are commonly used in Europe, North America and Australia. Although there is concern about a lack of information provided to consumers to allow the safe use of these products, there has been no published research to confirm these fears. In this study, we evaluated written information provided with commonly used herbal products in the UK in advance of a European Union Directive issued in April 2011 that tightened regulations for some herbal products, including requirements to provide safety information. Methods Five commonly used herbal products were purchased from pharmacies, health food shops and supermarkets: St John's wort, Asian ginseng, echinacea, garlic and ginkgo. Written information provided with the products (on the package or on a leaflet contained in the package was evaluated for inclusion of each of the key safety messages included in the monographs of the US National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Specifically, we looked for information on precautions (such as Asian ginseng not being suitable for people with diabetes, interactions with conventional medicines (such as St John's wort with the contraceptive pill and warfarin and side effects (such as ginkgo and allergic reactions. Results Our analysis showed that, overall, 51 (75% of 68 products contained none of the key safety messages. This included 4 of 12 St John's wort products, 12 of 12 ginkgo products, 6 of 7 Asian ginseng products, 20 of 21 garlic products and 9 of 13 echinacea products. The two products purchased that are registered under the new European Union regulations (for St John's wort contained at least 85% of the safety messages. Conclusions Most of the herbal medicine products studied did not provide key safety information which consumers need for their safe use. The new European Union legislation should ensure that St John's wort and echinacea products will include the previously missing information in due course. The legislation does not apply to existing stock. Depending on therapeutic claims made by manufacturers, garlic, ginkgo and Asian ginseng products may not be covered by the legislation and can continue to be bought without the safety information. Also, consumers will still be able to buy products over the internet from locations outside European Union jurisdiction. Potential purchasers need to know, in both the short term and the long term, how to purchase herbal products which provide the information they need for the safe use of these products.

  5. Do They See What You See? Marketing to a New Generation of Child Care Buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassom, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses generational differences among four generational groups in America today--Maturers, Boomers, Generation X-ers, and Millenials. She author takes a closer look at two of these groups--Boomers and Generation X-ers. The Boomers are a generational group that includes those born between 1946 and 1964. A whopping 78…

  6. Inter-firm coordination in the Mexican avocado (Persea americana) industry: the packer-buyer relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical coordination is an effective response to uncertainties in marketing environments. This article presents evidence relating the influence of transaction characteristics on interfirm coordination to respond what conditions determine the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and buye

  7. Configuration of inter-organizational information exchange and the differences between buyers and sellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, G.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.; Wang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to extend the understanding of the configuration of inter-organizational information exchange (IOIE) and the role of each aspect of IOIE in realizing potential communication benefits. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework on the configuration of IOIE

  8. Structure of global buyer-supplier networks and its implications for conflict minerals regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structure of global inter-firm linkages using a dataset that contains information on business partners for about 400,000 firms worldwide, including all the firms listed on the major stock exchanges. Among the firms, we examine three networks, which are based on customer-supplier, licensee-licensor, and strategic alliance relationships. First, we show that these networks all have scale-free topology and that the degree distribution for each follows a power law with an exponent of 1.5. The shortest path length is around six for all three networks. Second, we show through community structure analysis that the firms comprise a community with those firms that belong to the same industry but different home countries, indicating the globalization of firms' production activities. Finally, we discuss what such production globalization implies for the proliferation of conflict minerals (i.e., minerals extracted from conflict zones and sold to firms in other countries to perpetuate fighting) through g...

  9. 27 CFR 10.54 - Criteria for determining trade buyer independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Exclusion § 10.54 Criteria... a particular practice between an industry member and an officer, employee, or representative of...

  10. Evaluating online direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests: informed choices or buyers beware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geransar, Rose; Einsiedel, Edna

    2008-03-01

    Commercialization of genetic technologies is expanding the horizons for the marketing and sales of genetic tests direct-to-consumers (DTCs). This study assesses the information provision and access requirements that are in place for genetic tests that are being advertised DTC over the Internet. Sets of key words specific to DTC genetic testing were entered into popular Internet search engines to generate a list of 24 companies engaging in DTC advertising. Company requirements for physician mediation, genetic counseling arrangements, and information provision were coded to develop categories for quantitative analysis within each variable. Results showed that companies offering risk assessment and diagnostic testing were most likely to require that testing be mediated by a clinician, and to recommend physician-arranged counseling. Companies offering enhancement testing were less likely to require physician mediation of services and more likely to provide long-distance genetic counseling. DTC advertisements often provided information on disease etiology; this was most common in the case of multifactorial diseases. The majority of companies cited outside sources to support the validity of claims about clinical utility of the tests being advertised; companies offering risk assessment tests most frequently cited all information sources. DTC advertising for genetic tests that lack independent professional oversight raises troubling questions about appropriate use and interpretation of these tests by consumers and carries implications for the standards of patient care. These implications are discussed in the context of a public healthcare system.

  11. Improving the Response Time of Online Buyers in Nigeria: The Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Ajayi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Though electronic commerce (e-commerce is yet at its infancy in Africa and other developing countries, several factors such as lack of trust, technology infrastructure, funds and shortage of manpower can be attributed to this. However, the current model of web server response time as it pertains to developing countries will however hinder its general acceptability. The ability of E-commerce sites to satisfy and retain their customers will no doubt depend largely on the quality of their service delivery. Existing Quality of Service (QoS provisioning architectures for E-commerce placed emphasis on WWW server and bandwidth inadequacies. This study identified the necessity to include client’s device limitation into e-commerce QoS frameworks especially for web applications to be deployed in Africa, if user-perceived QoS (usually measured by response time is to be improved. As indicated in the study, client’s device limitation is an important factor that should be given priority. Most computer users in Africa due to the high cost of ownership of PCs used outdated or cloned PCs whose performance could not be guaranteed

  12. Determination of Japanese buyer valuation of metallurgical coal characteristics by hedonic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, R.J. [Griffith University, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Graduate School of Management

    2001-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted by econometric researchers to understanding Japanese steel mill (JSM) metallurgical coal valuation policies, and whether such policies disadvantage coal exporters. Much of this research has employed the hedonic regression modeling technique of Rosen and examines the significance of coal quality in establishing market price. This article discusses shortcomings in some such modeling studies, and presents results of additional hedonic modeling to buttress findings of previous work suggesting that cross-cultural bargaining factors rather than coal quality explain lower prices for Australian coals in Japanese market settlements. Policy changes that might be effective in ameliorating bilateral market distortions arising from oligopsony characteristics exhibited in JSM contract settlements are then explored. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A Buyer Behaviour Framework for the Development and Design of Software Agents in E-Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Susan; Archer, Norm

    2000-01-01

    Software agents are computer programs that run in the background and perform tasks autonomously as delegated by the user. This paper blends models from marketing research and findings from the field of decision support systems to build a framework for the design of software agents to support in e-commerce buying applications. (Contains 35…

  14. 40 CFR 1054.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel or oil filters, servicing engine-cooling systems, and adjusting idle speed, governor, engine bolt... emissions also unacceptably degrades the engine's performance. (ii) You present survey data showing that at... schedule cleaning or changing air filters or changing spark plugs at the least frequent interval...

  15. 40 CFR 1039.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil, changing air, fuel, or oil filters, servicing engine-cooling systems, and adjusting idle speed... maintenance increases emissions, it also unacceptably degrades the engine's performance. (ii) You present... paragraphs (a)(4), (b), and (c) of this section: (i) For EGR-related filters and coolers, PCV...

  16. 40 CFR 1045.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... necessary. This might include adding engine oil, changing air, fuel, or oil filters, servicing engine... lack of maintenance that increases emissions also unacceptably degrades the engine's performance. (ii... not cause clear problems that would significantly degrade the engine's performance. (h) Owners...

  17. 40 CFR 1051.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... necessary. This might include adding engine oil, changing air, fuel, or oil filters, servicing engine... also unacceptably degrades the vehicle's performance. (ii) You present survey data showing that at... not cause clear problems that would significantly degrade the vehicle's performance. (h) Owners...

  18. 40 CFR 1048.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as they are reasonable and technologically necessary. This might include adding engine oil, changing air, fuel, or oil filters, servicing engine-cooling systems, and adjusting idle speed, governor... unacceptably degrades the engine's performance. (ii) You present survey data showing that at least 80...

  19. Inter-firm network capability: how it affects buyer-supplier performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, G.W.; Henseler, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a view that a firm's critical resources and capabilities span firm boundaries, and are embedded in inter-firm resources and routines. Design/methodology/approach – Building on a capability view the paper argues that firms can engender sustainable com

  20. Motives for e-marketplace participation: differences and similarities between buyers and suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Kragh, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    -marketplaces to find new or alternative suppliers. Similarly, even though demands from existing customers have spurred their initial decision to participate in e-marketplaces, many suppliers also use the marketplaces to search for new customers. When expressing their motives for engaging in e-marketplace activities...

  1. Information asymmetries as antecedents of opportunism in buyer-supplier relationships: testing principal-agent theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinle, Claus; Schiele, Holger; Ernst, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A severe problem in supplier selection refers to moral hazard: suppliers not behaving in the expected way once contracted. Principal-agent theory could provide insights on how to reduce this problem. Because buyer–supplier relationships can be interpreted as principal-agent situations, the

  2. French fair trade coffee buyers' purchasing motives: An exploratory study using means-end chains analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ferran, Florence; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper, we examine the motives and the values underlying this purchase through a laddering methodology with 54 French fair trade coffee purchasers. A quantitative analysis of the ladders allows us to define several groups of motives that are socially and individually oriented. Moreover, our results...

  3. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    GILLE, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability...

  4. 78 FR 42503 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Select Service for Calendar Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ..., including industry analysts' assessment of export potential, US&FCS best prospects lists, and U.S. export... overseas markets and corresponds to marketing opportunities as identified by ITA. Previous international... of Overseas Marketing: There has been a demonstrated effort by the applicant to market prior...

  5. Buyer-seller negotiations: a comparison of domestic and international conditions in a pilot study with international business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen; Kurt, Gizem; Hacioglu, Gungor

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the differences and similarities between domestic and international negotiations, using Kelley's Negotiation Game to measure the profit achieved. There were 58 participants in the international negotiation sample, 29 Turkish and 29 European students. There were 62 Turkish students in the domestic negotiations. All participants studied business or related topics at a university in Izmir. Student t tests indicated statistically significant differences in scores on misrepresentation of information, interpersonal attraction, peer evaluation of misrepresentation information, and satisfaction between domestic and international negotiations.

  6. Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Value of Online Shopping Considering Price Sensitivity and Variety-Seeking of Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Alhoseini Almodarresi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ease of access to information, possibility to compare products quickly, and many other facilities that Internet provides for consumers, increase the power of consumers much higher. Internet sellers for the purpose of increasing their sales, often offer lower prices in compare to retailer's price. Nevertheless, the recent studies represent that even price-sensitive customers, avoid shopping from low price online stores. Rather value is considered as the key driver of costumers' decision-making in economic and marketing. Therefore, it is necessary to try to identify those factors affecting online shopping. This research is aimed to study the effective factors on customer's values using survey research method, descriptive-causal type. The research statistical population consists of people who have an experience of on-line shopping at lease for one time. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling method via LISREL software and partial least squares method via SMART PLS software. The results showed that, although system quality is an effective factor on utilitarian shopping values, information quality have no effect on both utilitarian and hedonic values. Generally, utilitarian and hedonic values could cause to online consumers' satisfaction, and satisfaction significantly could improve repurchase intention. Moreover, the results show the moderating effect of price sensitivity in relation of system quality and information with utilitarian value and also moderating effect of variety-seeking in relation of information quality with hedonic value.

  7. PURCHASE PREFERENCE OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN MOTORCYCLE BUYERS: THE DISCRIMINATING ROLE OF PERCEPTION OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF BRAND AND ETHNOCENTRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neoh Chee Yeong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of country of origin on the evaluation of products and purchase intention has been studied for decades. However, this paradigm has shifted where nowadays, products are typically designed in one country, manufactured in another and assembled elsewhere which led to the proliferation of "hybrid products". Consumers are confused and are no longer able to identify or recognize the difference between country of origin of brand and country of assembly or country of product design which, in turn, may lead towrong purchasing decisions. The objective of this study is to understand the variables influencing consumers' purchase preference related to motorcycles in the Malaysian market. Results have confirmed that country of origin of brand and consumer ethnocentrism influence consumer purchase preference. Implications of the results and directions for future researches are also discussed.

  8. Secure ICT service provisioning for cloud, mobile and beyond a workable architectural approach balancing between buyers and providers

    CERN Document Server

    von Faber, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces a reference architecture that enhances the security of services offered in the information and communication technology (ICT) market. It enables customers to compare offerings and to assess risks when using third-party ICT services including cloud computing and mobile services. Service providers are given a comprehensive blueprint for security implementation and maintenance covering service portfolio management, bid phases and realization projects as well as service delivery management. The architecture is completely modular and hierarchical. It contains a security taxonom

  9. 77 FR 61740 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program-Calendar Years 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... global promotion in foreign markets, providing export counseling to exhibitors, and providing export.... exhibitors on the Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy (STOP!), IPR protection measures available during the... markets and corresponds to marketing opportunities as identified by the posts in their Country...

  10. The Influence of New Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption: Increasing Student Comprehension with the "Bidding for Buyers" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The five characteristics that influence new product rate of adoption are routinely covered in the Principles of Marketing course. Any particular marketing concept such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability may not capture interest or engagement among students who take the course as a graduation…

  11. The Influence of Marketing Communication on the Consumer’s Buyer Behavior – A Relationship Marketing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichindelean Mihai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to identify the nature of the influence of a company’s marketing communication of the actual consumer behaviour. To achieve this purpose, the paper is structures in two parts; firstly, the recent literature regarding relationship marketing paradigm is reviewed and the value chain concept is presented. The second part contains a survey-based research which uses book-store customers as target unit. Sales promotion and advertising are used as input variables in identifying the variation in the client’s buying behaviour. Client behaviour was measured through three variables: monetary value spent by the clients within their last purchasing experience, buying frequency of the clients, and their buying intention.

  12. PURCHASE PREFERENCE OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN MOTORCYCLE BUYERS: THE DISCRIMINATING ROLE OF PERCEPTION OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF BRAND AND ETHNOCENTRISM

    OpenAIRE

    Neoh Chee Yeong; Osman Mohamad; T. Ramayah; Azizah Omar

    2007-01-01

    The influence of country of origin on the evaluation of products and purchase intention has been studied for decades. However, this paradigm has shifted where nowadays, products are typically designed in one country, manufactured in another and assembled elsewhere which led to the proliferation of "hybrid products". Consumers are confused and are no longer able to identify or recognize the difference between country of origin of brand and country of assembly or country of product design which...

  13. How are investment decisions in the steam coal market affected by demand uncertainty and buyer-side market power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade, China has evolved into the largest consumer by far and one of the largest importers of coal. The main driver for the increase in coal demand in China has been economic growth. Future Chinese growth rates, and therefore coal consumption and coal imports, are highly uncertain, which may affect profitability of new investments of international mining companies. Furthermore, China has actively employed an array of instruments to control coal trade flows in the last years. In this paper, we analyse the potential impact of increased Chinese coal import volatility and of potential exertion of Chinese market power on global mining investment decisions. For this purpose, we develop a multi-stage stochastic equilibrium model which is able to simulate investments under uncertainty and a monopolistic player in addition to a competitive fringe. We find that accounting for Chinese demand uncertainty yields significant costs for investors and also leads to a delay in investments. Additionally, the exertion of Chinese market power further reduces overall investment activity.

  14. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmen-tal degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to at...

  15. When are contracts and trust necessary for innovation in buyer-supplier relationships? : A necessary condition analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Wendy; Sumo, Regien; Dul, Jan; Schroeder, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Main stream research predominantly views contracts as being sufficient for (i.e., driving) performance. In contrast, necessity-thinking implies that contracts allow performance to exist: if the necessary condition is not in place (at the right level), the desired performance will not occur, irrespec

  16. Identification of Factors that Most Influence the Advertising Spaces Buyers in Choosing Print Media to Advertise in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wijoga, Wiradiatma

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently with the increasing competition in the print media industry in Indonesia, together with the growing interest of readers, the increase in purchasing power and the growing of the economy have made advertisers seize this opportunity to increase their profits by maximizing their marketing activities through various means including advertising. In the advertising decision, advertiser acquire service provided by media agencies to assist them in conducting the media planning ...

  17. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    : Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. CONCLUSIONS: Wine buyers...

  18. 30 CFR 206.104 - What publications are acceptable to MMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... buyers and sellers frequently use; (2) Publications frequently mentioned in purchase or sales contracts... daily surveys of buyers and sellers of crude oil, and, for ANS spot prices, buyers and sellers of...

  19. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 1; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    This Building America Best Practices guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot and humid climate.

  20. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-08-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  1. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region.

  2. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 5; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Marine Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C.; Taylor, Z. T.; Bartlett, R.; Gilbride, T.; Hefty, M.; Steward, H.; Love, P. M.; Palmer, J. A.

    2006-10-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the Marine climate region. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team--from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  3. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 5; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Marine Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-10-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in the Marine climate region.

  4. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Z. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steward, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Palmer, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builders team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  5. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-08-01

    The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates.

  6. The Analysis of the Consume Behaviour of Resident Under the Buyer Market%买方市场下居民消费行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦和

    2001-01-01

    我国市场格局由卖方市场转变为买方市场,由生产者主权经济转变为消费者主权经济,消费者行为由被动适应型转变为主动选择型,因而出现了家计核算新趋势,家政管理新特点,理性化和个性化的特点.

  7. Attracting Health Insurance Buyers through Selective Contracting: Results of a Discrete-Choice Experiment among Users of Hospital Services in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Bergrath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Netherlands commenced market based reforms in its health care system. The reforms included selective contracting of health care providers by health insurers. This paper focuses on how health insurers may increase their market share on the health insurance market through selective contracting of health care providers. Selective contracting is studied by eliciting the preferences of health care consumers for attributes of health care services that an insurer could negotiate on behalf of its clients with health care providers. Selective contracting may provide incentives for health care providers to deliver the quality that consumers need and demand. Selective contracting also enables health insurers to steer individual patients towards selected health care providers. We used a stated preference technique known as a discrete choice experiment to collect and analyze the data. Results indicate that consumers care about both costs and quality of care, with healthy consumers placing greater emphasis on costs and consumers with poorer health placing greater emphasis on quality of care. It is possible for an insurer to satisfy both of these criteria by selective contracting health care providers who consequently purchase health care that is both efficient and of good quality.

  8. Simple energy conservation. Mid-terrace houses. Modernisation recommendations for homeowners and house buyers; Einfach Energie sparen. Reihenmittelhaeuser. Modernisierungsempfehlungen fuer Hauseigentuemer und Hauskaeufer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ronny

    2012-07-01

    The book under consideration provides a type-specific and construction year-specific orientation to building substances, insulation thicknesses and building services. It is addressed to persons planning an energetic retrofitting of houses. The book contains information on special features and weaknesses of each building as well as appropriate proposals for energy efficiency. It also presents energy assessments and recommendations as a basis for assessing the results of the energy consulting.

  9. Distress and Other Situational Factors that Influence Consumer Willingness to Provide Personal Information in an Online Buyer-Seller Exchange: An Equity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barto, Thomas Peter

    2011-01-01

    Global electronic markets will profoundly impact commerce in the 21 st century. Brick-and-mortar retailers are using technology for electronic marketing purposes where the familiar layout of the physical store becomes a maze of pulldown menus, product indices, and search features creating a new unknown for consumers and concerns for information…

  10. RISKS AND RESPONSIBILITIES BETWEEN BUYER AND SELLER IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION. WAYS OF SHARING IN THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Gabriel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrating formal intergovernmental cooperation can be determined in order to adapt to economic change and social legislation and the need to replace national laws become obstacle to informal integration with a common permissive and favored the free movement of flows informal and proactive when political aims redirection informal flows to other structures (patterns than those created by market forces. In the literature, rich in delimitation of the concept of integration, different economists have distinguished reputation in the field, according to a series of economic criteria, political, social, geographical, structural, etc., following degrees of economic integration trends corresponding to more intense or smaller equalization coordinate economic, social and political - the degree of integration over time of economic integration theories have become independent. Is in fact the international development strategy choice determine segments we address (target segment in an overview of the markets. This choice goes beyond the country, and the notion of the target segment should not be confused with the country markets.

  11. Purchase Contract Management for Fashion Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qunzhi; TSAO Debi

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a tow-stage purchase contract for fashion products to manage the buyer's cost. In addition to require a commitment, the purchase contract allows the buyer to adjust the commitment at a later stage. We model the buyer's problem and obtain explicit formulae to describe the buyer's optimal behavior. We analyze the effect of parameters on the buyer's cost and prove that such contract can decrease the buyer's cost numerically.

  12. Pre-Auction Offers in Asymmetric First-Price and Second-Price Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, René; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    We consider “must-sell” auctions with asymmetric buyers. First, we study auctions with two asymmetric buyers, where the distribution of valuations of the strong buyer is “stretched” relative to that of the weak buyer. Then, it is known that ineffcient first-price auctions aremore profitable...

  13. 病态博彩及预防彩民病态博彩策略研究%Pathological gambling and strategy research on pathological gambling of lottery buyers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯

    2009-01-01

    采用文献资料法,对博彩、彩票以及病态博彩的内涵进行研究,对博彩行为和病态博彩行为进行理论分析.研究认为,为了预防彩民病态博彩行为的发生,应尽快推出,培养彩民健康的博彩观念,加强彩票行业的监管,规范彩票销售网点的售彩行为,优化玩法布局结构,吸引更多居民使用闲钱买彩票,严厉打击私彩,建立对病态博彩彩民的救助制度.

  14. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  15. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2. Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Z. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team—from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  16. From Franchisee to Buyer, Wondering Change in Appeal Industry%买手是加盟商的努力方向从加盟商到买手服装流通业态惊变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余勇

    2010-01-01

    @@ "服装加盟商向买手过渡将是今后的一种重要发展趋势.做服装生意的都有‘两怕':一怕库存; 二怕热销的衣服不能及时补货,以至于该赚的钱没有赚到."业内人士表示.

  17. Simple energy conservation. End-terrace houses / semi-detached houses. Modernisation recommendations for homeowners and house buyers; Einfach Energie sparen. Reiheneckhaeuser/Doppelhaushaelften. Modernisierungsempfehlungen fuer Hauseigentuemer und Hauskaeufer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ronny

    2012-07-01

    The book under consideration provides a type-specific and construction year-specific orientation to building substances, insulation thicknesses and building services. It is addressed to persons planning an energetic retrofitting of houses. The book contains information on special features and weaknesses of each building as well as appropriate proposals for energy efficiency. It also presents energy assessments and recommendations as a basis for assessing the results of the energy consulting.

  18. Simple energy conservation. Detached single-family houses and semidetached houses. Modernisation recommendations for homeowners and house buyers; Einfach Energie sparen. Freistehende Ein-/Zweifamilienhaeuser. Modernisierungsempfehlungen fuer Hauseigentuemer und Hauskaeufer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ronny

    2012-07-01

    The book under consideration provides a type-specific and construction year-specific orientation to building substances, insulation thicknesses and building services. It is addressed to persons planning an energetic retrofitting of houses. The book contains information on special features and weaknesses of each building as well as appropriate proposals for energy efficiency. It also presents energy assessments and recommendations as a basis for assessing the results of the energy consulting.

  19. Eliciting Demand Information through Cheap Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisell, Lars; Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.

    2008-01-01

    A uniform pricing rule may enable the communication of demand information from buyer to seller in situations where this would not have been possible if the seller could price discriminate. Importantly, such a rule can benefit both buyer and seller.......A uniform pricing rule may enable the communication of demand information from buyer to seller in situations where this would not have been possible if the seller could price discriminate. Importantly, such a rule can benefit both buyer and seller....

  20. Single-manufacturer, multi-retailer consignment policy for retailers’ generalized demand distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, J; B R Sarker; Duan, Q.; B. Wu

    2012-01-01

    Consignment policy (CP) is a novel approach to the inventory management in supply chains. It is based on strong interaction and reliable collaboration between vendor(s) and buyer(s), which is acquiring growing importance in today's industrial reality. Unlike most literature focusing on single-vendor single-buyer models and deterministic customer demand, a single-manufacturer (vendor) multi-retailer (buyer) generic model is developed under stochastic customer demand in this study. In order to ...

  1. Growing Exports by Signaling Product Quality: Trade Competition and the Cross-National Diffusion of ISO 9000 Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xun; Prakash, Aseem

    2011-01-01

    Trade policy is an important topic in global public policy. It is recognized that trade is hampered when buyers have incomplete information about the offered products, a problem accentuated in the international markets by the physical and cultural distances between buyers and sellers. Buyers look for proxies to assess product quality, and…

  2. Intermediation and Competing Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Schiff, Aaron

    this information to some or all buyers. We show that this always raises total welfare, even if it causes the informed buyers not to trade with low quality sellers. However, buyers and some sellers may be made worse off in equilibrium. We also examine the provision of information by a profit maximizing monopoly...

  3. Canton Fair: Warm in the Cold Weather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ Number of Buyers A modest rise was seen in the number of overseas buyers attending the fair. According to the statistics, in this session, the number of overseas buyers from 212 countries and regions was 188170, 22734 more than that of the spring session representing an increase of 13.7%, and 13608 more than that of last Autumn Fair in 2008, representing an increase of 7.8%. Buyers from EU and USA resumed their attendance to the Fair significantly and new buyers attending the Fair have increased.

  4. Repertoire and frequency of consumption in wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios

    Frequency of consumption has always been an important criterion for characterising and segmenting buyers. The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of the repertoire and loyalty structures between heavy and light wine buyers. Based on a study conducted with stated preference data......, basic brand performance measures are estimated through Juster purchase probabilities of brand choice. The polarisation index f (phi) is used as a measure to model loyalty. Results show that light buyers have a wider repertoire than heavy buyers, buying more small brands. In terms of loyalty, heavy...... buyers are more loyalty prone than light buyers, both as regards the brand name and the wine attributes examined in this study....

  5. The Effects of Interdependence and Cooperative Behaviors on Buyer’s Satisfaction in the Semiconductor Component Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Pai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry is characterized by extreme competition in price and product features. Firms need to acquire or exchange resources with their supplier or buyer partners to stay at the leading edge of technology. Cooperation between buyers and suppliers is important and power is the mechanism that can explain the cooperative behaviors. This study aims to investigate how the power structure between the buyer and supplier influences the extent of suppliers’ cooperative behaviors, and the effects of these on buyer satisfaction with the buyer-supplier relationship. Opinions from firms in semiconductor manufacturing supply chain were used to investigate the proposed model. It is found that mutual interdependence between a supplier and its buyer can enhance cooperative behaviors and power asymmetry hurt firms’ investment in cooperative behaviors. Suggestions are then provided to semiconductor supply chain members based on the findings of this work.

  6. Effects of Host Race Information on Airbnb Listing Prices in San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Kakar, Venoo; Franco, Julisa; Voelz, Joel; Wu, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The surge in Peer to Peer e-commerce has increasingly been characterized by changing the online marketplace to a more personalized environment for the buyer and seller. This personalization involves revealing information on buyer reviews, pictures and biographical information on the sellers to reduce the perceived ``purchase risk" or to facilitate trust with the buyers. However, this personalization has generated possibilities for discrimination in the online marketplace. In this paper, we ex...

  7. Typological Analysis of Buying Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Teodorescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The typology of buyers and buying actions contracts are specific categories of consumer behaviour, determining group buyers and buying actions in classes, to fragment the markets. Market fragmentation through buyer typoligy and/or segmentation is presently characterized by a multitude of theoretical approaches and are especially generated by the common practice in the respective business. These two concepts are used for the same purpose, the essential difference being their starting point: the segmentation fragments the markets as a whole, while the typology of the buyer and of buying actions generate classifications starting from individual cases.

  8. NEMVP: North American energy measurement and verification protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This measurement and verification protocol discusses procedures that,when implemented, allow buyers, sellers, and financiers of energy projects to quantify energy conservation measure performance and savings.

  9. A Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimal Operating Parameters of VMI Systems in a Two-Echelon Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue-Ann, Goh; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    This paper focuses on the operational issues of a Two-echelon Single-Vendor-Multiple-Buyers Supply chain (TSVMBSC) under vendor managed inventory (VMI) mode of operation. To determine the optimal sales quantity for each buyer in TSVMBC, a mathematical model is formulated. Based on the optimal sales quantity can be obtained and the optimal sales price that will determine the optimal channel profit and contract price between the vendor and buyer. All this parameters depends upon the understanding of the revenue sharing between the vendor and buyers. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed for this problem. Solutions obtained from PSO is compared with the best known results reported in literature.

  10. The value of enhancing customisation in the existence of consumer preferences heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Hartanto; Lesmono, Dharma

    2011-01-01

    An integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain is developed and analyzed. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area and/or are kept......-chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that as long as the maximum display area is not used, it is more valuable for the buyer and the vendor to cooperate in situations when the demand is more stock- dependent. It also shows the effect of double marginalization in this integrated vendor-buyer model....

  11. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2008 Brownfields Voluntary Cleanup Program Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Brownfields/Voluntary Cleanup Program (BVCP) provides property buyers, sellers, developers, bankers, development agencies, local government and other voluntary...

  12. Directory of Associations; Directory of Architects; Directory of Companies; 2002 Catalog & Product Showcase; 2002 Magazine Showcase; Directory of Products & Services; Directory of Materials Suppliers; Advertiser Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This buyer's guide for librarians lists associations, architects, companies (including contact information and Web sites), products, services, magazines, and materials that are geared toward libraries. (LRW)

  13. 矿产资源有偿使用应当用价格分割供求双方的利益%The Price can be Used for Dividing the Interests of Sellers and Buyers with Regard to Compensated Utilization of Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希凯

    2014-01-01

    As naturally occurring natural resources, mineral resources is valuable, with the value of mining property, form the overall value of mineral resource assets. The mineral resource assets are the most important production factor of mining production. But its two intrinsic values and value actualization with speciifc characteristics are two separate interest subjects;and the relationship between each other is a kind of supply and demand. So the equilibrium point of their division of proift can be found by price. However, in China, rights and interests of resource owners are represented by resource compensation fee concerning long-term tax and fee system;and the low charging standard results the distribution of the interests of both serious deviations from the equilibrium. A lot of resources rights and interests are occupied by the rights and interests of the capital. This situation not only causes massive loss of the state-owned resources assets, but also goes against the conservation and reasonable utilization of mineral resources. Therefore, this paper offers that we must make full use of resource prices to implement the paid use of mineral resources;study and put forward the benchmark price and differential regulation price of mineral resources. On this basis, the benchmark price must be deifned according to dependent of mineral resource value and its important role in the formation of minerals income. And differential regulation price is additional beneifts on the basis of absolute return of mineral resources, attached to the excess proift. Furthermore, collection standards can be deifned depending on the excess proift level.%矿产资源作为天然形成的自然资源是有价值的,它与矿业权价值结合,形成矿产资源资产的整体价值。矿产资源资产是矿业生产最重要的生产要素,但它内在的两种价值及其实现却各具特点,又是两个独立的利益主体,相互之间是一种供求关系。它们的利益分割只有通过价格才能找到均衡点。但是在我国,长期实行的税费制度,用资源补偿费代表资源所有者权益,且收取标准太低,致使二者的利益分配严重偏离均衡点。大量的资源权益被资本权益所侵占,不仅使国有资源资产大量流失,也不利于矿产资源的节约和合理利用。因此,必须充分利用资源价格,来实行矿产资源的有偿使用;必须研究提出矿产资源的基准价和级差调节价。基准价应当根据矿产资源价值的依附性和它在形成矿产品收入中的重要作用加以确定;级差调节价是在矿产资源绝对收益基础上的追加收益,依附于超额利润,并根据超额利润水平的不同确定收取标准。

  14. A Study on Obligations of the Seller and the Buyer in the Contract of International Sale of Goods under Incoterms(R)2010%Incoterms(R)2010规范下国际货物买卖合同当事人责任探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小薇

    2012-01-01

    Incoterms是国际商会有关贸易术语的重要国际惯例.本文主要探讨Incoterms(R)2010所规范的国际货物买卖合同当事人的主要责任,分析其修改的主要特点,以期更全面准确地把握Incoterms(R)2010及其贸易术语内涵.

  15. Vínculos de negócios entre grandes empresas compradoras e pequenos fornecedores locais: implicações para políticas públicas e desenvolvimento Business linkages between large buyers and small local suppliers: implications for public policy and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milber Fernandes Morais Bourguignon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo verifica as condições nas quais os programas e as políticas públicas promotoras de vínculos de negócios (VNs, entre grandes empresas compradoras e pequenos fornecedores locais agem, pressupondo que o Estado tem um importante papel nesse estímulo e que tais vínculos geram desenvolvimento regional e reduzem o desequilíbrio social. A pesquisa empírica, de natureza qualitativa, busca analisar ações e programas de promoção de VNs desenvolvidos no Brasil, bem como as instituições envolvidas, verificar os benefícios dessas ações e identificar oportunidades de intervenção do Estado. Os resultados indicam que políticas públicas podem ser criadas como complemento às políticas de desenvolvimento, voltadas à educação, ualificação de profissionais e incentivadoras de transferência de tecnologia e, de maneira mais ampla, como promotoras de um ambiente propício à atração de investimentos estrangeiros diretos e ao ambiente de negócios. Sugestões de pesquisas futuras são apresentadas como sistemas de governança que abrangem a relação entre as empresas e sua conexão com o setor público.This article analyzes the conditions under which public policies promoting business linkages (BL between large and small/medium enterprises act, assuming that the state has a fundamental role stimulating them, and those linkages generate regional development and reduce social inequalities. The empirical research, qualitative in nature, was designed to analyze actions and programs promoting BL developed in Brazil, as well as the institutions involved in it. It also verifies the benefits of those actions and identifies opportunities for public sector intervention. The results show that public policies can be created so as to complement those related to promoting development directed toward education, competence building and technology transfer, and, more generally, to those promoting favorable environment for business and foreign direct investment attraction. The paper also suggests future research, including governance systems involving the relationship between companies and their connection with the public sector.

  16. 权力、信任对冲突解决机制及其伙伴关系持续影响研究%The Impact of Power and Trust on Conflict Resolution and Partnership Link Durations in Buyer-supplier Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华

    2009-01-01

    在对以往供应链伙伴关系和冲突进行理论回顾和归纳的基础上,探索了供需企业间的权力运用、信任与合作、冲突以及回避性冲突解决之间的关系,并进一步分析了各种冲突解决机制对伙伴关系持续的影响.研究结果表明,协调性权力和信任有助于合作性冲突解决,从而推动伙伴关系的发展,而强制性权力的运用只会增强竞争性冲突解决和回避冲突解决,从而损坏供需双方之间的伙伴关系.%This paper explores the causal relationship of the use of power, trust and cooperation, conflict and avoidable conflict resolution based on literature, and further analyzes the effects of various conflict resolution mechanisms on partnership link duration. The results show that coordinated power and trust contribute to cooperative conflict resolution, and benefit for the development of partnership link. On the contrary, coercive power enhances competitive resolution and avoids conflict resolution, which has negative effect on partnership link duration.

  17. Regulatory stability of the national gas sector to attraction of investments: a juridical approach about the buyer creditory under the mode project finances; Estabilidade regulatoria do setor gaseifero nacional para atracao de investimentos: uma abordagem juridica acerca dos financiamentos sob a modalidade 'project finances'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Junior, Helio Varela de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos PRH-36-ANP/MCT. Curso de Direito

    2008-07-01

    A stability of the Natural Gas regulation's framework assumes nowadays, for sure, a relevant position, once means a way of attracting new investments to the Oil and Gas Industry's sector. Following a logic sequence - regulation stability brings legal certainty witch reduces, on the other hand, the risks and attracts investment - the idea of a regulation's commitment on the natural gas sector sets as a key element for investment's attraction. Likewise, the financial agents position is extremely important, especially for the 'Project Finances' funding, witch inherent peculiarity (market risk's reduction) keep full compatibility with the needs of today's Brazilian natural gas sector framework. (author)

  18. The role of private operators in the Mexican electricity industry: from the institution of the single buyer to the deregulation of competition; Le role des operateurs prives dans l'industrie electrique mexicaine: de l'instauration de l'acheteur unique a la de-integration concurrentielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato Angeles, G. [Grenoble-1 Univ., IEPE, CNRS, 38 (France)

    1999-12-01

    In this article, the author analyses the strengths and shortcomings of the organisational and institutional structure in place within the Mexican electricity industry, in terms of operational efficiency and capacity to attract investors. He then goes on to closely examine the potential for the participation of international electrical operators in this industry taking account of the reforms currently underway. (author)

  19. 78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ....gov application, NMFS became more aware of the accounting and reconciliation procedures within the... 13. Instead of requiring fish buyers to have a separate bank account for cost recovery and buyback, fish buyers should have the option to use the same federally insured bank account for both buyback...

  20. Identifying innovative suppliers in business networks : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels J.; Veldman, Jasper; Schiele, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, considerable attention has been given to the role of supplying firms in the context of innovation. However, not every supplier is capable of contributing to a buyer's innovation performance. In addition, the willingness and commitment of suppliers to collaborate with buyers is not

  1. PERJANJIAN BELI SEWA SEBAGAI PERJANJIAN BAKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurhasanah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Legal status of the parties to the agreement to buy rental car as standard contracts, showing the rights and obligations that are not balanced between sellers and buyers lease rent. The obligation to lease buyers, more dominant than the rights that should be owned. This happened contrary to the rights and obligations for employers. Keywords: Buy Lease, Raw Agreements

  2. Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of the goods traded. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse-selection problem: The market

  3. Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of traded goods. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse selection problem: The market ten

  4. The Pen and The Needle: Partner diversity and Technological collaboration in global subcontracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind

    1999-01-01

    The case describes the initiation, development and management of a strategic buyer-supplier relationship between Novo Nordisk (Denmark) and Nissho (Japan)......The case describes the initiation, development and management of a strategic buyer-supplier relationship between Novo Nordisk (Denmark) and Nissho (Japan)...

  5. Private Benefits in Corporate Control Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attaches more value to private benefits than the buyers and that toeholds are insignificant...

  6. Customer attractiveness, supplier satisfaction and preferred customer status: a review and a cycle model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, H.; Veldman, J.; Hüttinger, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of preferred customer status, i.e. a buyer is awarded preferential treatment of its important suppliers compared to their other customers. As there is a lack of knowledge of what motivates suppliers to serve selected buyers better than others, our research

  7. Market Conditions, Productivity, and Promotion among University Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrucci, Robert; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study of buyer's, seller's, and stable markets' effects on 371 faculty showed those promoted in a buyer's market have slower promotions and are more productive than those promoted in other market conditions. The impact of tight market conditions on productivity was also found greatest for ranks under full professor. (MSE)

  8. Coordination in a 3-player network formation game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Dogan

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the coordination behaviour in a finitely repeated network formation game between one seller and two buyers. If a competitive network is formed the seller gets the entire surplus. Buyers can prevent the competitive network from being formed by anti-coordinating their lin

  9. 76 FR 68210 - United States v. George's Foods, LLC, et al.; Public Comment and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... explain, ``Unlike the competitive buyer, the monopsony buyer can reduce the purchase price by scaling back... not have available capacity to take on a significant number of growers who may want to switch away... switch to the Defendants and vice- versa in response to unfavorable contractual provisions. At the...

  10. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  11. Procuring complex performance: the transition process in public infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, Jens; Frederiksen, Lars; Davies, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper analyses how public buyers transition from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance (PCP). The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during the

  12. Price Formation by Bargaining and Posted Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kultti, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    We study markets with two types of agents. Sellers have an indivisible good for sale, and their reservation value is zero. Buyers are randomly matched with sellers, and they value the good at unity. Sellers may be matched with any positive number of buyers, and they may choose to determine the price

  13. Internal Data Market Services: An Ontology-Based Architecture and Its Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Belt, van den Edwin; Verbruggen, Eddy; Vet, van der Paul

    2003-01-01

    On information markets, many suppliers and buyers of information goods exchange values. Some of these goods are data, whose value is created in buyer interactions with data sources. These interactions are enabled by data market services (DMS). DMS give access to one or several data sources. The majo

  14. Intransparent Markets and Intra-Industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...

  15. Economic Incentives, Institutions, and Racial Discrimination: The Case of Real Estate Brokers. Discussion Paper D78-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, John

    This paper examines the economic incentives and institutions that support racial discrimination by real estate brokers. The economic incentives are derived from a search model of broker behavior in which a broker searches for buyers and listings (i.e., sellers who will sell through him) and then attempts to match buyers with his listings. This…

  16. Taming the Real Estate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sales offices for housing projects are no longer enjoying the overcrowded showrooms of prospective buyers.Agents of second-hand houses have resorted to canvassing chents by making repeated phone calls,only to see transaction volumes drop further,while Chinese home buyers walt with money in hand to see how the current housing situation plays out.

  17. 76 FR 39870 - PJM Interconnection, LLC; PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, LLC; Notice of Date...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PJM Interconnection, LLC; PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection... presents an opportunity to exercise buyer market power; (2) whether the Fixed Resource Requirement (FRR... FRR option that allow parties to self-supply while deterring buyer market power. Parties will have...

  18. Mail-in-rebates vs.combined rebate mechanism : Which of them is more effective for supply chain coordination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalla, V.R.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a business setting, where a Supplier sells a fashion product to a Buyer, who in turn sells the product to the end consumers. Both the Supplier and the Buyer set their own selling price. The end consumer demand is assumed to be a linearly decreasing function of the final selling

  19. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper analyses how public buyers transition from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance (PCP). The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during t...

  20. Understanding Contract Audits: An Experimental Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.M. Bertrand; A.J.H.C. Schram; E.H.J. Vaassen

    2013-01-01

    A contract audit is a buyer-initiated audit of prices and other conditions, which aims to decrease the information asymmetry between a buyer and a seller. Contract audits are frequently used in monopolistic or oligopolistic markets, as in government procurement. We draw upon three distinct literatur

  1. Life Insurance: A Suggested Adult Business Education Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This course is aimed at the buyer or potential buyer of life insurance for the purpose of helping him to a better understanding of life insurance and of aiding him in making decisions about his own life insurance coverage. It is structured to be taught one evening a week for six to eight weeks. Each session would last about two hours. The course…

  2. Buying and selling crack: transactions at the retail level and the role of user-sellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Oteo Pérez; A. Benschop; D.J. Korf

    2013-01-01

    To assess key characteristics of the retail crack market and the role of users as buyers and sellers, data from a survey inside and outside institutional setting among 1,039 crack users in the three largest Dutch cities were analyzed to explore their role in the crack market as buyers and sellers. O

  3. 17 CFR 240.3b-16 - Definitions of terms used in Section 3(a)(1) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... constitute, maintain, or provide “a market place or facilities for bringing together purchasers and sellers... of multiple buyers and sellers; and (2) Uses established, non-discretionary methods (whether by... buyers and sellers entering such orders agree to the terms of a trade. (b) An organization,...

  4. 10 CFR 50.75 - Reporting and recordkeeping for decommissioning planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy, respectively, and are to be taken from regional data of U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor... terms of the contract(s) shall include provisions that the electricity buyer(s) will pay for the... nuclear power plant. However, the funds may be invested in securities tied to market indices or other...

  5. 76 FR 75427 - Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...; (6) Obtain from the buyer a current balance sheet, income statement, cash flow budget, and any... direct and guaranteed loans as required by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm..., buyers with an Agency approved repayment plan under this section will supply the Agency a current...

  6. An Asymmetric Fingerprinting Scheme based on Tardos Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Charpentier, Ana; Furon, Teddy; Cox, Ingemar

    2010-01-01

    Tardos codes are currently the state-of-the-art in the design of practical collusion-resistant fingerprinting codes. Tardos codes rely on a secret vector drawn from a publicly known probability distribution in order to generate each Buyer's fingerprint. For security purposes, this secret vector must not be revealed to the Buyers. To prevent an untrustworthy Provider forging a copy of a Work with an innocent Buyer's fingerprint, previous asymmetric fingerprinting algorithms enforce the idea of the Buyers generating their own fingerprint. Applying this concept to Tardos codes is challenging since the fingerprint must be based on this vector secret. This paper provides the first solution for an asymmetric fingerprinting protocol dedicated to Tardos codes. The motivations come from a new attack, in which an untrustworthy Provider by modifying his secret vector frames an innocent Buyer.

  7. PATTERNS OF SUPPLIER LEARNING: CASE STUDIES IN THE MALAYSIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadzrina Abdul Kadir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier development programs support the development of a supplier's capabilities, usually with the assistance of a buyer. In an industrial environment that lacks home- grown technology, it is of interest to explore precisely how suppliers learn and increase their capabilities. There are also questions regarding how the buyer impacts this learning process, specifically with respect to dependent suppliers for which major buyers account for more than 20% of sales. It is claimed that support from buyers for supplier training has been deficient. Thus, there is a need to identify the types of training that suppliers themselves prefer. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the patterns of learning for dependent suppliers in the Malaysian automotive industry by exploring how suppliers learn best and defining the role of buyers in providing assistance. This study presents a model based on empirical findings and discusses the implications of the findings.

  8. A TTP-Independent Watermarking Protocol Based on Commutative Cryptosystem for Copyright Protection in E-Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ting; YUAN Jun; HONG Fan

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of deterring unauthorized duplication and distribution of multimedia contents in e-commerce, some Buyer-seller watermarking protocols which combine of traditional watermarking and fingerprinting techniques have been proposed, However, previous protocols have potential risk from trust third party (TTP) because all entities (including multi-buyers and multi-sellers) mentioned in protocol construct a star topology like connection, in which the watermark certification authority (WCA) serves as the central point in the interaction and therefore its availability probably turns out to be the vital bottleneck of reliability and efficiency to the whole system. Secondly, WCA holds entire information about watermark used by Buyers so that an innocent Buyer can be found as guilty if WCA collude with the Seller. In this paper, we propose a watermarking protocol to address the problems using cryptographic technologies in phase of watermark generation. The result is a TTP-independent and collusion-secure buyer-seller watermarking protocol.

  9. 2009 EnerQuality energy efficiency/green building study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    An energy efficiency/green building study was conducted in 2009 related to the perceptions of consumers in making energy efficiency decisions. This presentation provided information and analysis related to the importance of energy efficiency when deciding on a new home purchase; reasons why energy efficiency is important to buyers; energy efficiency features proposed by the builder; the perceived benefit of energy efficient features; and how well builders communicate the benefits of an energy efficient home. In addition, the presentation described energy efficient features purchased by new home buyers and related cost; the likelihood of buyers to search and pay for an energy efficient home; measuring the awareness of different energy efficient certification labels; the importance buyers place on energy efficient certification labels; the importance buyers place on other green building aspects, in addition to energy efficiency; and new home buyers' perceptions toward energy efficiency. The presentation concluded that almost 9 out of 10 homeowners perceive energy efficiency to be important. In addition, cost savings is perceived to be the most important energy efficiency benefit to buyers followed by a healthier indoor environment. figs.

  10. Economic and legal aspects of utility consortiums for heliostat purchase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Sheppard, W.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    A preliminary exploration is given of the legal and economic considerations surrounding the formation and operation of some form of utility-sponsored collective buying arrangement for heliostats. Particular attention is focused on considerations of federal antitrust law surrounding collective buying and other joint operations by electric utilities. Attention is also given to considerations suggested by the economic theory of monopsony (markets with a single buyer) and oligopsony (markets with a small number of buyers). The advantages and disadvantages of such arrangements are examined from the viewpoints of the buyer and the seller. (LEW)

  11. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  12. The Mortensen rule and efficient coordination unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoit; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    2006-01-01

    We apply the efficiency axioms of [Mortensen, D. (1982). Efficiency of mating, racing and related games. American Economic Review, 72 968–979.] to a set of matching games involving coordination frictions between buyers. These games include markets with finite numbers of buyers and sellers...... and markets with infinite numbers of heterogeneous buyers and homogenous sellers. We show that the Mortensen rule, but not the Hosios rule, gives constrained efficient allocations. We also show that the Mortensen rule is implemented by a simple auction...

  13. Intransparent Markets and Intra-Industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...... clearing price exists, and sellers randomize over an equilibrium price distribution. Letting sellers advertise their offers abroad leads to international trade, which would not take place under complete information. Buyers then receive more offers, leading to lower prices and welfare gains. Sellers...

  14. Pricing the Innovation for Market Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănut Tiberius Epure

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence pricing strategy change over the life of a product concept. The market defined by a product concept passes through four phases: development, growth, maturity, and decline. Briefly, the changes in the strategic environment over those phases are as follows: Market development. Buyers are price insensitive because they knowledge of the product’s benefits. Both production and not a threat since the potential gains from market development exceed those from competitive rivalry. Pricing strategy signals the product’s value to potential buyers, but buyer education remains the key to sales growth.

  15. E-Supply Chain Incentive and Coordination Based on Revenue Sharing Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常志平; 蒋馥

    2004-01-01

    This paper took the buyer-biased electronic market as an example, where multiple suppliers selling short-life-cycle products are bidding for an order from a powerful buyer with stochastic customer demand. It used a single period newsvendor model to analyze the decision of supplied and buyers to do or not do business online. The results suggest that lack of Incentive is the key factor of B2B electronic markets failure. At the same time, it designed a revenue sharing contract to coordinate the E-supply chain in order to prevent failure of E-market.

  16. Spiser vindrikkere sundere end øldrikkere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In a cross sectional study based on information on the number, type of item and total charge of 3(1/2) million transactions over a period of 6 months in various supermarkets in Denmark we examined whether people who buy wine also buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. We found that win...... buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cocking oil and low fat cheese, milk and meat than beer buyers who bought more ready cooked meals, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb and soft drinks than wine buyers....

  17. Comparing sourcing strategies in two-echelon supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    elements: inventory holding costs at the buyer and the vendors, backorder costs and ordering costs at the buyer, and setup costs at the vendors. The objective is to minimize the total system costs incurred by the buyer and the vendors. As there is no dominating combined strategy, a major finding...... is that determining the best strategy requires a detailed analysis. Furthermore, when total system costs are taken into account, dual sourcing does not appear as beneficial as sometimes claimed in the literature on lot splitting....

  18. Intermediation and Competing Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Schiff, Aaron

    We examine the effects of provision of information about seller qualities by a third-party in a directed search model with heterogeneous sellers, asymmetric information, and where prices are determined ex post. The third party separates sellers into quality-differentiated groups and provides...... this information to some or all buyers. We show that this always raises total welfare, even if it causes the informed buyers not to trade with low quality sellers. However, buyers and some sellers may be made worse off in equilibrium. We also examine the provision of information by a profit maximizing monopoly...

  19. Truthful Feedback for Sanctioning Reputation Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Witkowski, Jens

    2012-01-01

    For product rating environments, similar to that of Amazon Reviews, it has been shown that the truthful elicitation of feedback is possible through mechanisms which pay buyer reports contingent on the reports of other buyers. We study whether similar mechanisms can be designed for reputation mechanisms at online auction sites where the buyers' experiences are partially determined by a strategic seller. We show that this is impossible for the basic setting. However, introducing a small prior belief that the seller is a cooperative commitment player leads to a payment scheme with a truthful perfect Bayesian equilibrium.

  20. Concurrent sourcing as a mechanism for safeguarding specific investments from opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    This paper identifies when concurrent sourcing is an effective safeguard. Concurrent sourcing shortens the period that a buyer needs in order to internalize production and thus, it shortens the period in which an external supplier is able to hold-up a buyer. Concurrent sourcing also allows...... for short run expansion of production and reduces costs of lost customers. However, when complementarities and diseconomies of scale make concurrent sourcing an efficient choice for a buyer, the same complementarities and diseconomies of scale also weaken the threat that the internal production unit may...... replace the external supplier....

  1. 78 FR 43797 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: The 2013 Critical Use Exemption From the Phaseout of Methyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... when a buyer provides short (two working days or fewer) notification for a purchase or there is a short... for critical uses with the intention of completely phasing out methyl bromide as soon as...

  2. 24 CFR 200.610 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Regulations § 200.610 Policy. It... programs shall pursue affirmative fair housing marketing policies in soliciting buyers and tenants,...

  3. Agent-Based Crowd Simulation of Daily Goods Traditional Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purba D. Kusuma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In traditional market, buyers are not only moving from one place to another, but also interacting with traders to purchase their products. When a buyer interacts with a trader, he blocks some space in the corridor. Besides, while buyers are walking, they may be attracted by non-preferred traders, though they may have preferred traders. These situations have not been covered in most existing crowd simulation models. Hence, these existing models cannot be directly implemented in traditional market environments since they mainly focus on crowd members’ movement. This research emphasizes on a crowd model that includes simplified movement and unplanned purchasing models. This model has been developed based on intelligent agent concept, where each agent represents a buyer. Two traditional markets are used for simulation in this research, namely Gedongkuning and Ngasem, in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The simulation shows that some places are visited more frequently than others. Overall, the simulation result matches the situation found in the real world.

  4. 19 CFR 141.61 - Completion of entry and entry summary documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... country of registry (flag) of the vessel expressed in terms of Annex B, HTSUS, must be placed in the block... basis of the price paid by the buyer in a sale occurring earlier than the last sale prior to...

  5. Report on Solar Water Heating Quantitative Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-05-06

    This report details the results of a quantitative research study undertaken to better understand the marketplace for solar water-heating systems from the perspective of home builders, architects, and home buyers.

  6. Art Taipei, 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Franklin

    2007-01-01

    ■The boom of Chinese contemporary art in recent years has been greatly assisted by the purchasing power of Taiwanese collectors. They constitute the largest art buyers in the Asian market and without them the scene would look

  7. Precious Coral Sales Report Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated sales log which collects information on sales of raw coral, including weight and revenue. Also includes seller and buyer information....

  8. Communicating Sustainable Shoes to Mainstream Consumers: The Impact of Advertisement Design on Buying Intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.C.; Gattol, V.; Van der Helm, R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, marketing of sustainable products addresses green buyers, thus missing out on the mainstream consumers and volume necessary to cover the potentially higher cost of more sustainable materials. However, how to effectively communicate more sustainable products to mainstream consumers and

  9. Advances in Time-Domain Electromagnetic Simulation Capabilities Through the Use of Overset Grids and Massively Parallel Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    COMPUTING Douglas C. Blake Captain, USAF Approved: THOMAA . BUYER, Research Advisor Major, USAF Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering...N um erical Investigation ........................................................ 5-8 5.3.1 M ethodology

  10. Managing the Online Middle Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ As shoppers abandon four-wheel carts and long checkout lines for the convenience of a mouse click,Chinese policymakers are sparing no efforts to regulate mushrooming thirdparty payment service providers frequently used by online buyers.

  11. Executive Self-Assessment and Development in the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    management - market segmentation - pricing strategy - sales management - advertising and promotion - distribution channels - marketing mix Management...measurement * Marketing - marketing strategy and tactics - segmentation strategies - marketing mix decisions - product/service marketing - buyer behavior

  12. 7 CFR 20.6 - Submission of reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... staff to obtain passwords and access to the Internet reporting site. Exporters also have the option of... these regulations. See § 20.4(i) for definition of a foreign buyer and foreign seller.) (1) Firm A...

  13. 78 FR 17663 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Payable Under Single-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the United... exporter's foreign accounts receivable. Foreign accounts receivable insured by Ex-Im Bank...

  14. ETHICS & CULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary F.Alexander

    2004-01-01

    @@ "The international market for used equipment is evolving very rapidly. Unfortunately, most buyers and sellers of used equipment have not made the effort to understand and keep pace with the global ramifications of the business they are in."

  15. 良好的伙伴詹姆斯托马斯%A Good Partnership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹姆斯·托马斯

    2011-01-01

    @@ Standards are essential to productivity,economic stability, and trade.Standards are the means to reliable product performance and consumer confidence; they serve as a language for buyers and sellers.

  16. Relationship characteristics and performance in fresh produce supply chains: the case of the Mexican avocado industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronado, J.J.A.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Inter-organisational relations research has shown that relationship characteristics can influence performance in seller-buyer transactions. Using a transaction cost economics approach, this research shows that relational elements such as expectation of continuity reduce the transaction risk

  17. The producers competition trimmed the laundries; Tillverkarnas taevling trimmade tvaettstugorna - om effekterna av Kansliets insatser inom omraadet energieffektiv tvaett och tork i fastighetstvaettstugor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Interviews have been made among 163 buyers and 28 suppliers of equipment for laundry-rooms in apartment houses. The aim was to study the opinion regarding new energy-efficient clothes washers and clothes dryers. 5 figs

  18. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... he been correctly informed; the causality rule provides either zero cover if the omitted fact has caused the insurance event, or full cover if the event would have occurred regardless of the fact. This article explores which rule is more efficient. Using the framework proposed by Picard and Dixit...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  19. The Fisher Market Game: Equilibrium and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Chen, Yiling; Deng, Xiaotie

    2014-01-01

    functions, which are three representative classes of utility functions in the important Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) family. Furthermore, to quantify the social efficiency, we prove Price of Anarchy bounds for the game when the utility functions of buyers fall into these three classes......The Fisher market model is one of the most fundamental resource allocation models in economics. In a Fisher market, the prices and allocations of goods are determined according to the preferences and budgets of buyers to clear the market. In a Fisher market game, however, buyers are strategic...... and report their preferences over goods; the market-clearing prices and allocations are then determined based on their reported preferences rather than their real preferences. We show that the Fisher market game always has a pure Nash equilibrium, for buyers with linear, Leontief, and Cobb-Douglas utility...

  20. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Published Books Fact Sheets Reports and Issue Briefs Advertising Public Health Buyers Guide Publications Contacts Professional Development ... Steps Challenge doubles its goal Apr 11 2017 Facebook Is your organization an APHA member? As an ...

  1. 78 FR 78818 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...; export licensing; provisions of overseas sales and distribution facilities and overseas sales staff; legal; accounting and tax assistance; development and application of management information systems..., invoicing (billing) foreign buyers; collecting (letters of credit and other financial instruments)...

  2. 77 FR 25681 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... financing; documentation and services related to compliance with customs' requirements; sales and marketing... promotion; rice and rice products research and design based upon foreign buyer and consumer preferences... sales and distribution facilities and overseas sales staff; legal; accounting and tax...

  3. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  4. Contracting for Efficiency. A Best Practices Guide for Energy -Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2016-04-25

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  5. Study of customer motivation in large projects to purchase power supplies from an E-shop : case of Elcon Solutions Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Pottila, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to study how much potential exist for the case company by offering their products via e-shop; opportunities for the organizational buying electronic components. To achieve this; e-commerce concept, business marketing, organizational buyer behavior and internet history was studied. Literature on how internet started to evolve to one of the biggest marketing medium nowadays and what are the basic buyer stages company marketing has to take notice with online shopp...

  6. An empirical analysis of consumer awareness and trust in organic food legislation in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Brčić-Stipčević; Kristina Petljak

    2012-01-01

    Background: The results of the research conducted in March 2009 on a representative sample of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia using a highly structured survey questionnaire in households have shown that the majority of the respondents (76.6%) are familiar with organic food. In the survey, special emphasis is put on the purchase of organic food, especially among regular buyers. Methods: Regular buyers were asked about their familiarity with the information on the organic food decl...

  7. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender...... shareholders have a very small effect on these results, but that they do attach more value to private benefits....

  8. Connecting American Manufacturers (CAM) Virtual Manufacturing Marketplace (VMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    at a time. The GDIT Team tried several free web scraping utilities/programs that were just not up to the task for various reasons. The GDIT Team...which resulted in a more robust vendor profile. • A framework on the web site where vendors could update their profile. • A framework on the web site...team developed a web site where Government and commercial buyers could post their manufacturing requirements. o The buyers could post their

  9. Role selection and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, David J.; Sutter, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Team success relies on assigning team members to the right tasks. We use controlled experiments to study how roles are assigned within teams and how this affects team performance. Subjects play the takeover game in pairs consisting of a buyer and a seller. Understanding optimal play is very demanding for buyers and trivial for sellers. Teams perform better when roles are assigned endogenously or teammates are allowed to chat about their decisions, but the interaction effect between endogenous...

  10. Market run-ups, market freezes, and leverage

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Bond; Yaron Leitner

    2010-01-01

    The authors study trade between a buyer and a seller when both may have existing inventories of assets similar to those being traded. They analyze how these inventories affect trade, information dissemination, and price formation. The authors show that when the buyer's and seller's initial leverage is moderate, inventories increase price and trade volume, but when leverage is high, trade may become impossible (a "market freeze"). Their analysis predicts a pattern of trade in which prices and ...

  11. Poor governance design: Its impact on transaction costs and value creation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hargreaves, John; Price, Ilfryn

    2014-01-01

    We argue the hierarchical nature of contractual governance within outsourced services is not effective, consequently increasing transaction costs for the Buyer and Supplier, and reducing value in use. We studied outsourced public sector Repairs and Maintenance (R&M) contracts considering the contracts within the relational exchange and their role in governing and directing the delivery of services. A key feature is delivery via a Value network, Buyers and Suppliers outsourcing elements o...

  12. Factoring in family freight forwarder company: case study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Each freight forwarder company must independently determine whether factoring is the right choice for them and if will pay off. If the factoring as a financial method would not be economically viable, it certainly would not exist. There are several different financing methods, which are more or less useful. However, not all of them are appropriate for every company, just like all buyers do not represent equal risks for the suppliers. The same buyer can pay one supplier within t...

  13. CONSUMPTION OF ANTIBACTERIAL WITHIN THE SOUTHERN NIGERIAN POPULATION: SOURCES, PATTERN AND APPROPRIATENESS IN RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess the sources and pattern of procurement, knowledge and attitude of consumers of antibacterial agents and the appropriateness of use in respect of respiratory tract infections. Buyers at the point of purchase were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. 65 respondents were randomly selected among buyers who had duly signed prescriptions but without prior laboratory tests. Sputum samples were collected for microbiology, culture and sensitivity to match up fo...

  14. Key Account Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    This note tries to explain concept of key account management (KAM), factors leading to importance of this emerging concept, criteria to determine key accounts from customer base, benefits to both buyers and sellers agreeing to practice it, stages of KAM relationship, conditions under which power lies with buyer or seller, outlines risks faced by both the parties, key success factors, challenges faced in implementing this concept and relevance to infrastructure sector.

  15. The CR-Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Pricop Oliver Constantin

    2011-01-01

    The Customer Relationship- Marketing supposes the adaptation of the marketing mix from the customers’ and the market’s perspective. Thus, the 4 P (product, price, place, promotion) must become 4 D (desired by consumers, distinctive from the competition, deliverable by the company, durable over time) respectively 4C (the buyer with his requirements and desires, the cost paid by the buyer, the convenience of the acquisition, the communication with the customers. The CR-Marketing strategy compri...

  16. The practice of reflection in the russian goodwill when buying enterprises as a property complex

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Ovchinnikova; T. O. Bazdаreva; V. N. Harina

    2016-01-01

    When buying enterprises as a property complex, firm-the buyer can pay for it as excess cost of the acquired entity on its balance sheet, and an amount less than the value of the assets on the balance sheet of the acquiree. Based on the requirements of the Russian legislation, in the account of the buyer acquires an intangible asset that distinguishes the Russian from the international practice. International financial reporting standards do not recognize goodwill an intangible asset of the bu...

  17. Optimal Procurement Mechanisms for Divisible Goods with Capacitated Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-31

    the B2B online auction transactions totaled 109 billion in 1999, and that number was expected to grow to 2.7 trillion by 2004. Although auction...manufacturer, etc.) and n suppliers. The buyer purchases a single commodity from the suppliers and resells it in the consumer market . The buyer receives...an expected revenue, R(q) from selling q units of the product in the consumer market – the expectation is over the random demand realization and any

  18. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  19. Making a New Living

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ On a Friday evening in early April Yang Xu,a 24-year-old real estate ugent in Beijing,made several calls during a simple dinner.After learning the owner of an apartment intended to sell the property,he immediately called potential buyers with whom he had been in touch for the past several months.When he finally brought the prospective buyers and the seller together,it was 8:00 p.m.

  20. Determinants of Firm R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson; Poldahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    how international and domestic inter- and intra-industry technology spillovers affect firm R&D but also the relatively unexplored issue of how relationship-specific interactions between buyer and seller affect such spillovers. We find international technology spillovers to be larger and more...... significant than domestic inter- and intra-industry spillovers. Moreover, relationship-specific interactions between seller and buyer enhance technology spillovers in general and international spillovers in particular....

  1. The use of regression trees to the analysis of real estate market of housing

    OpenAIRE

    Jasińska, Elżbieta; Preweda, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Housing property can be described using a number of traits, some of which turn out to be difficult to express in numerical form. You can also use parameters which are not subject to explicit quantification. Belong to it selected location or membership of an exclusive building project, or opposed to a specific buyer reluctance of the complex. The attributes relevant to buyers may be disregarded just because of problems with their recognition in shaping market prices. A multitude of real estate...

  2. Peer-to-Peer content distribution using automatically recombined fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Murugeswari,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the recent advances in broad-band network and multimedia technologies, the distribution of multimedia contents are increasing. This will help a malicious party to duplicate and redistribute the contents; hence the protection of the ownership is required in multimedia content distribution. The encryption of content cannot solve the issue, because it must be ultimately decrypted at genuine users who have legal authority to distribute content. Therefore, additional protection mechanisms are needed to discourage unauthorized redistribution. One of the mechanisms is to generate the fingerprinting of multimedia which enables a seller to trace illegal users by embedding identification information into the content. The research on fingerprinting techniques is classified into two studies: collusion resistant fingerprinting systems and cryptographic protocol. Since each user download content with his/her own fingerprint and content is a little different. If users collect some of them, they try to find the difference and modify/delete the embedded information. Unicast transmission is applied in multimedia content distribution which will be give more security to buyers. Merchant will create number of seed buyers who need to distribute the content to child buyers. All the seed buyers should be online to distribute the content. The seed buyer and child buyer fingerprint are need to store in database which will be required to find the illegal redistribution.

  3. Assessing Differentiating Aspects of Karaj Citizens' Orientation to Buy from Fruits and Vegetables Market and Its Parallel Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aghasafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to assess distinct aspects of citizens' intention to buy fruits and vegetables from municipal markets and its parallel markets within Karaj city. The required data was collected by completing 150 questionnaires from Karaj citizens in 2013. Using the multi-Group discriminant analysis, analysis ofthe study results within the three groups including buyers from municipal markets, local shops and fruit pickups show that possibility for non-cash payment, presenting printed purchase receipts, a higher quality of product, degree of fruit importance in the household basket, seller’s behaviour, more openning hours, use the benefit of the more familiar seller, and length of time allocated to buy fruit play the greatest role in making a distinction between two groups of buyers including buyers from local shops and buyers from municipal markets against buyers from fruit pickups. In addition, the results of this study indicate that monthly household expenditures, number of monthly fruit purchase, possibility for customers to select his desired items , a reasonable price comapared to the product’s quality, appropriate packing, education, how often a household buy fruits in a month a wide variety of products, trust to the offered prices, distance to the market play the greatest role in making a distinction between two groups of buyers from local shops and buyers from municipal markets, respectively. Ultimately, it is suggested to train sellers how to behave properly withcustomers. In addition, it should be paid more attention to appropriate packing and to make it possible for the citizens to select their desired items themselves.

  4. What is a free customer worth? Armchair calculations of nonpaying customers' value can lead to flawed strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunil; Mela, Carl F

    2008-11-01

    Free customers who are subsidized by paying customers are essential to a vast array of businesses, such as media companies, employment services, and even IT providers. But because they generate revenue only indirectly, figuring out the true value of those customers--and how much attention to devote them--has always been a challenge. Traditional customer-valuation models don't help; they focus exclusively on paying customers and largely ignore network effects, or how customers help draw other customers to a business. Now a new model, devised by professors Gupta, of Harvard Business School, and Mela, of Fuqua School of Business, takes into account not only direct network effects (where buyers attract more buyers or sellers more sellers) but also indirect network effects (where buyers attract more sellers or vice versa) . The model calculates the precise long-term impact of each additional free customer on a company's profits, factoring in the degree to which he or she brings in other customers--whether free or paying--and the ripple effect of those customers. The model helped an online auction house make several critical decisions. The business made its money on fees charged to sellers but recognized that its free customers--its buyers--were valuable, too. As competition heated up, the company worried that it wasn't wooing enough buyers. Using the model, the business discovered that the network effects of buyers were indeed large and that those customers were worth over $1,000 each--much more than had been assumed. Armed with that information, the firm increased its research on buyers, invested more in targeting them with ads, and improved their experience. The model also helped the company identify the effects of various pricing strategies on sellers, showing that they became less price-sensitive over time. As a result, the company raised the fees it charged them as well.

  5. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  6. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  7. The Influence of Consumers Behavior on the Variables Determining Residential Property Values in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Bello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the influence of consumer behaviour on the variables determining residential property values in Lagos metropolis and how Nigerian valuers are incorporating these in their valuation exercise. The survey which was carried out within a period of three months (January, February and March 2006 involved buyers and valuers which participated in the sales of some properties within Lagos Metropolis. These buyers and valuers were asked to rank on a 4-point likert scale; the relative importance of each of the property attributes which affect the price of the property as perceived by them. The significance of each attribute was then assessed using Relative Importance Index (RII. The significant difference between the ranking of the buyers and valuers was assessed at each variable level and when all the variables were combined using the Kendall test of concordance and tested at .05 level of significant using chi- square approximation. Regressing the attributes of each property against the actual property paid, the significance of each attribute was determined; which was then compared with the ratings of both the valuers and the buyers. The study revealed that the methods of valuation used by the Nigerian estate surveyors and valuers do not take into consideration the buyers preferences in the assessments of residential property value.

  8. Supply chain coordination with two production modes and random demand depending on advertising expenditure and selling price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Dong; Zhou, Yong-Wu; Wang, Jun-Ping

    2010-10-01

    This article discusses production and order as well as advertising coordination issues in a single-manufacturer single-buyer supply chain, where the manufacturer sells a newsvendor-type product through the buyer who faces a random demand depending on advertising expenditure and selling price. The buyer has two ordering opportunities: the one happens before the beginning of the season, and the other takes place at the end of the season. The ordered items are produced by the manufacturer in two production modes for different requirements. The first production mode is relatively cheap but requires a long lead-time, whereas the second is expensive but offers quick response. Under such a setting, the centralised and decentralised decision models are developed, respectively, and the closed form solution to each model is provided as well. Moreover, we point out that the traditional revenue-sharing contract fails to coordinate the supply chain. We thus propose an improved revenue-sharing contract that requests the manufacturer not only shares the buyer's revenue but also bears a portion of the buyer's operating costs. Such a contract can achieve perfect coordination of the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate its profit between two parties.

  9. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct.

  10. PRINSIP KERJASAMA DALAM WACANA JUAL BELI DI PASAR TRADISIONAL PERUMNAS TLOGOSARI SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puji Astuti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The market is a meeting place for sellers and buyers. Bargaining in traditional markets is an activity that is often made between the seller and the buyer. The interaction between sellers and buyers need a language as a communication tool. How the realization of the principle of cooperation in the discourse of buying and selling in the traditional market of Perumnas Tlogosari Semarang discussed in this paper is. This study was chosen markets located in Suryo Kusumo because this market is the largest market among the three markets are in Perumnas Tlogosari Semarang. Collecting data was conducted by scrutinizing method that was developed with basic tapping technique and Advanced techniques in the form of notes and recording technique. The results showed that in the interaction of sellers and buyers comply with and violate the principle of cooperation. Compliance with the principle of cooperation intended to convey the message clearly, correctly and avoid misunderstandings. While the violation of the cooperation principle was intended to ensure the quality of goods, so merchandise sold, searching for information, the seller and the buyer is familiar, and praised the merchandise.

  11. Factors associated with the purchase of designation of origin lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Maza, María T; Mantecón, Angel R

    2010-05-01

    As in other products, quality labels that designate the origin of lamb meat are increasingly used by consumers as a cue for inferring the quality of the meat. The aim of the present paper is to identify those factors that most affect the purchase of lamb with an origin quality label. For this purpose a total of 371 questionnaires were carried out in the region of Aragón located in the north east of Spain. This region produces 48.5% of the total amount of lamb meat with a Spanish protected geographical indication, whilst it also has the country's greatest per capita consumption (6.8 kg/person/year). To identify the most determining factors a logistic regression analysis was performed between three groups of buyers, characterised by their degree of loyalty towards purchasing origin quality-labelled lamb. The results show that those buyers who are less loyal to the label pay less attention to the origin of the meat when forming quality expectations at the time of purchase, whilst these are the buyers that place greatest importance on animal feeding as an aspect affecting the final quality of lamb meat. The buyers that are very loyal to the quality label associate this label with a product that offers greater guarantees and is healthier. Lamb meat buyers with medium loyalty to quality labels, consider quality-labelled lamb meat has better intrinsic attributes.

  12. A Stackelberg Game Approach in an Integrated Inventory Model with Carbon-Emission and Setup Cost Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated inventory model that allows Stackelberg game policy for optimizing joint total cost of a vendor and buyer system. After receiving the lot, the buyer commences an inspection process to determine the defective items. All defective items the buyer sends to vendor during the receiving of the next lot. Due to increasing number of shipments fixed and variable transportation, as well as carbon emissions, are considered, which makes the model sustainable integrated model forever. To reduce the setup cost for the vendor, a discrete setup reduction is considered for maximization more profit. The players of the integrated model are with unequal power (as leader and follower and the Stackelberg game strategy is utilized to solve this model for obtaining global optimum solution over the finite planning horizon. An illustrative numerical example is given to understand this model clearly.

  13. Diversity In Supply Chains: What Really Matters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn Whitfield

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Diverse, well-developed supply chains promote business success by reducing costs, enhancing innovation, successfully integrating acquired businesses and reaching new markets. Managing such inter-organizational relationships improves when the organizational culture is humanistic, achievement oriented, affiliative and self-actualizing and when similar perceptions of these values are held across all buyer and supplier groups. Based on a survey of a diverse group of supplier chief executive officers (n=70 and buyers in a focal organization (n=79, this study finds that African-American executives are less likely to perceive constructive dimensions of organizational culture, while Hispanic executives are more likely to perceive negative dimensions, while buyers perceive the culture as constructive for a culture of diversity.

  14. Multi Agent Communication System for Online Auction with Decision Support System by JADE and TRACE

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A; Madhusudanan, J; 10.4156/jcit.vol4.issue2.martin

    2011-01-01

    The success of online auctions has given buyers access to greater product diversity with potentially lower prices. It has provided sellers with access to large numbers of potential buyers and reduced transaction costs by enabling auctions to take place without regard to time or place. However it is difficult to spend more time period with system and closely monitor the auction until auction participant wins the bid or closing of the auction. Determining which items to bid on or what may be the recommended bid and when to bid it are difficult questions to answer for online auction participants. The multi agent auction advisor system JADE and TRACE, which is connected with decision support system, gives the recommended bid to buyers for online auctions. The auction advisor system relies on intelligent agents both for the retrieval of relevant auction data and for the processing of that data to enable meaningful recommendations, statistical reports and market prediction report to be made to auction participants.

  15. AHP-Based Optimal Selection of Garment Sizes for Online Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Garment online shopping has been accepted by more and more consumers in recent years. In online shopping, a buyer only chooses the garment size judged by his own experience without trying-on, so the selected garment may not be the fittest one for the buyer due to the variety of body's figures. Thus, we propose a method of optimal selection of garment sizes for online shopping based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The hierarchical structure model for optimal selection of garment sizes is structured and the fittest garment for a buyer is found by calculating the matching degrees between individual's measurements and the corresponding key-part values of ready-to-wear clothing sizes. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, we provide an example of selecting the fittest sizes of men's bottom. The result shows that the proposed method is useful in online clothing sales application.

  16. Does it take two to tango? Longitudinal effects of unilateral and bilateral integrative negotiation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerres, Alfred; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Freund, Philipp Alexander; Backhaus, Klaus; Hertel, Guido

    2013-05-01

    This study assesses longitudinal effects of different training designs on joint negotiation performance. In so doing, the study experimentally compares (a) bilateral training of both the seller and the buyer within a dyad with both (b) a no-training control condition and 2 conditions with unilateral training of either (c) the buyer or (d) the seller. Moreover, underlying psychological mechanisms of the training effect are assessed. Results of the study with 360 participants reveal a significant overall training effect on negotiation outcomes that remains stable over time. Consistent with our hypotheses, unilateral negotiation training is only effective if the trained party is the seller, and it fails if the trained party is the buyer. Additional mediation analyses reveal exchange of priority-related information as a causal mechanism underlying these effects.

  17. Internal Data Market Services: An Ontology-Based Architecture and Its Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fons Wijnhoven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On information markets, many suppliers and buyers of information goods exchange values. Some of these goods are data, whose value is created in buyer interactions with data sources. These interactions are enabled by data market services (DMS. DMS give access to one or several data sources. The major problems with the creation of information value in these contexts are (1 the quality of information re-trievals and related queries, and (2 the complexity of matching information needs and supplies when different semantics are used by source systems and information buyers. This study reports about a proto-type DMS (called CIRBA, which employs an ontology-based information retrieval system to solve se-mantic problems for a DMS. The DMS quality is tested in an experiment to assess its quality from a user perspective against a traditional data warehouse (with SQL solution. The CIRBA solution gave substan-tially higher user satisfaction than the data warehouse alternative.

  18. Modeling the Effects of Mergers in the Retail Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomgren-Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    would most likely significantly affect retail prices. The harmful effects are markedly intensified through the possible abuse of buyer power to raise barriers to the market and curb the competitiveness of minor rivals. However, the dominant position is vulnerable if increased profits induce the entrance...... marginal costs, the optimal (Nash equilibrium) wholesale price is unaffected by the structure in the retail sector. (2) The effect of buyer power- induced quantity discounts depends crucially on the specific design of the rebate scheme: A relative discount on the list price that the independent shops...... are charged increases the average retail price, whereas a fixed reduction relative to the pre-merger price reduces the average retail price. (3) Buyer power-induced retail pricemaintenance (RPM) increases the average retail price. RPM increases the competitiveness and profits of the merged shops only...

  19. Modeling the Effects of Mergers in the Retail Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomgren-Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    would most likely significantly affect retail prices. The harmful effects are markedly intensified through the possible abuse of buyer power to raise barriers to the market and curb the competitiveness of minor rivals. However, the dominant position is vulnerable if increased profits induce the entrance...... marginal costs, the optimal (Nash equilibrium) wholesale price is unaffected by the structure in the retail sector. (2) The effect of buyer power- induced quantity discounts depends crucially on the specific design of the rebate scheme: A relative discount on the list price that the independent shops...... are charged increases the average retail price, whereas a fixed reduction relative to the pre-merger price reduces the average retail price. (3) Buyer power-induced retail price maintenance (RPM) increases the average retail price. RPM increases the competitiveness and profits of the merged shops only...

  20. A Cross-Cultural Multi-agent Model of Opportunism in Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan; Jonker, Catholijn M.; Verwaart, Tim

    According to transaction cost economics, contracts are always incomplete and offer opportunities to defect. Some level of trust is a sine qua non for trade. If the seller is better informed about product quality than the buyer, the buyer has to rely on information the seller provides or has to check the information by testing the product or tracing the supply chain processes, thus incurring extra transaction cost. An opportunistic seller who assumes the buyer to trust, may deliver a lower quality product than agreed upon. In human decisions to deceive and to show trust or distrust, issues like mutual expectations, shame, self-esteem, personality, and reputation are involved. These factors depend in part on traders' cultural background. This paper proposes an agent model of deceit and trust and describes a multi-agent simulation where trading agents are differentiated according to Hofstede's dimensions of national culture. Simulations of USA and Dutch trading situations are compared.

  1. Fairness in Physical Products Delivery Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohammed Alaraj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In an e-commerce transaction, a buyer purchases a physical product, such as a laptop, from an onlineseller. In an attempt to protect himself, any seller would prefer to collect payment from the buyer beforehe sends the product. Likewise, the buyer would prefer to have the product shipped to him before hemakes a payment to the seller. Both parties have a need to take precautions to minimize their risk in casethe other party proves to be untrustworthy. This paper proposes a new e-commerce fair exchangeprotocol based on verifiable and recoverable encryption of keys. The proposed protocol is based onoffline TTP. Only seven messages are exchanged between the parties involved in the protocol. Disputesare resolved electronically in case one party evades

  2. Why does Danish TV Drama Travel? A Three-Tier Seven-Country Audience Study on the Rise of Denmark’s Transnational TV Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    on media reception and media geography. Buyers are a critical first audience for any imported content; they are the gatekeepers to the importing market. Distributors and international buyers will therefore be interviewed about the reasons for buying the Danish series. What are the special attractions......Part of the panel 'Challenging America in the realm of quality TV drama: The international success of Danish TV drama series' This paper, which is part of the ‘Challenging America in the realm of quality TV drama’ panel, introduces the audience study methodology designed for the collaborative...... of Danish TV drama series are (1) buyers, (2) TV critics and (3) ordinary viewers. By investigating these different types of international audiences, the project aims to understand the transnational qualities of the Danish TV series. In the process it will elaborate and challenge preeminent theories...

  3. Intransparent Markets and Intra-Industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...... clearing price exists, and sellers randomize over an equilibrium price distribution. Letting sellers advertise their offers abroad leads to international trade, which would not take place under complete information. Buyers then receive more offers, leading to lower prices and welfare gains. Sellers...... in the model are identical, but appear heterogeneous due to their price randomization. In larger and more open economies, prices and markups will be lower, and exports are primarily realized by sellers who charge low prices. These predictions are similar to those of trade models where firm heterogeneity...

  4. Sources of information of the business consumer: the purchase of medicines by hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Burlamaqui

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The source of search for information accomplished by the business consumer can affect decisevely on the choice of a supplier. The understanding of how the search of information is undertaken during purchase can present a strategic situation for the marketing professionals in identifying the needs of business consumers. This study analysed how this search is done by organizational buyers by observing the behaviour of this consumer through a survey conducted with buyers for hospitals in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The research identifyed the strong utilization of the following sources of information: commercial, media, personal and experimental. It was observed that the main source is commercial. The conclusion hás indicated also that the buyer can understand how his organization (hospital behaves before these variables.

  5. Psychotherapy patient transfer: secondhand rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederer, L

    1975-10-01

    The author uses the analogy of the marketplace to examine the dynamics of the transfer of psychotherapy patients in university clinic settings. The outgoing therapist is the seller, the prospective therapist the buyer, and the patient the commodity--the secondhand Rose. Marketing techniques that are used in this buyers' market allow no active patient participation and are therefore antithetical to the tenets of psychotherapy. The author suggests early clarification of therapeutic goals, assignment of therapists on the basis of patient choice, and explanation of time frames and limits as means for ameliorating the problems he describes.

  6. The Relationship between Ethical Brand and Company Reputation: The Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ziaul Hoq

    Full Text Available This paper reports the initial finding on examination of the effect of product and service quality on ‘ethical brand’, which in turn may influence a company’s reputation among industrial buyers that use electronic office equipment. The current study is informed by 50 experienced industrial buyers when buying electronic office equipment in Malaysia. The initial result does show that ethical brand has a full mediation impact on corporate reputation. In general, this study adds to the existing literature on branding and reputation by introducing the concept of the ‘ethical brand’ in order to understand the formation of a company reputation.

  7. Relevance of cognitive dissonance, activation and involvement to branding: An overview / Relevancia de la disonancia cognitiva, la activación y el implicación en el branding: un resumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Elfering

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines consumer behavior from the perspective of cognitive psychology. It focuses on a set of cognitive psychological determinants of buyer behavior and analyzes how cognitive dissonance, activation and involvement influence consumer behavior. The literature indicates that a deeper insight into the cognitive processes underlying purchase behavior is essential for brand managers to create and communicate interventions that may have a stronger impact on the buyer such that their brand occupies a special position in the consumer’s mind. Up to now, the conflict between presenting a brand in a both favorable light and completely accurately has been rarely addressed in the literature.

  8. SINO-ASEAN EXPO,Integrating Guangxi+ASEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ "Compared with the Canton Fair,where overseas buyers' orders are generally regarded as China's foreign trade 'barometer' or 'weathervane',the Sino-ASEAN Expo boosts multi-lateral trade with comprehensive cooperation and mutual interaction.That is,through the Sino-ASEAN Expo and Business Investment Summit,Guangxi province has found a new method-not only selling products but also bringing in products from surrounding countries.In fact,it is an upgraded version of China's Foreign Trade for the new era."Mr.Cui,an expert buyer who has attended the all 6 sessions of the China-ASEAN Expo told China's Foreign Trade.

  9. Randers County Court, Denmark BS 2-2229/2002 decided 8 July 2004 Comments on Issues Relating to the Passing of Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz; Lookofsky, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    CISG Articles 66-70 regulate the passing of risk. Article 69 provides the gap-filling rules for "non-carriage" cases, and this includes cases where the goods are delivered by transportation and personnel under the seller's control. If the buyer is bound to take over the goods at the seller's plac...... of business, the risk passes to the buyer when he takes over the goods or, if he does not do so in due time, from the time when the goods are placed at his disposal and he commits a breach of contract by failing to take delivery, cf. Article 69(1)....

  10. Determinants of Sustainable Relationships in the Albanian Apple Production Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blendi Gërdoçi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the behaviour of Albanian apple growers and their relations with buyers based on a structured survey. We develop a model of relational governance that highlights the importance of sustainable (lasting relationships and draws upon different theoretical frameworks such as transaction cost economics and social network theory and focuses on determinants of relational exchange. The findings support the social network argument that the presence of verbal agreements between business partners strongly and positively affects exchange relationships. Asset specificity and competition among buyers also affects such relationships. The results and their implications at the management and policy-making level are discussed in detail

  11. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse......Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...

  12. Summary Report for the Army Research Organization (ARO) Workshop on Social Trust Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    bought or old. (ite111, product . Person -The per n the u er make the tr’" n ~ ction \\Vith. (buyer. ell r: eBa_ver\\ eater 3. Co t - Co t f iten4...rhythm guitar before switching to bass_ Early gigs were for private functions , and th e band rehearsed in a t earoom in the basement of Regent S...quality/c nditi n of the pr duct eing bought or old. (ite111, product . Person -The per n the u er make the tr’" n ~ ction \\Vith. (buyer. ell r

  13. Reviewing the Literature of Inventory Models under Trade Credit Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Molamohamadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the classical inventory models, it was assumed that the buyer pays for the purchased items as they are received from the seller. In practice, however, the seller allows the buyer to settle the account with a delay period. Such a contract has attracted the attention of many researchers and practitioners in recent years. Thus, this paper addresses the researches with delay in payment and presents pertinent information about developments and extensions of such models to provide an up-to-date review of the studies conducted since 1973 and assist in developing the future researches.

  14. Quality assurance, information tracking, and consumer labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Julie A

    2006-01-01

    Reducing marine-based public health risk requires strict control of several attributes of seafood products, often including location and conditions of catch or aquaculture, processing, and handling throughout the supply chain. Buyers likely will also be interested in other attributes of these products such as eco-friendliness or taste. Development of markets for improved safety, as well as for other quality attributes, requires an effective certification and tracking of these attributes as well as their communication to buyers. Several challenges must be met if labeling, particularly consumer labeling, is to support the development of markets for improved seafood safety.

  15. ShanghaiMart: Review in October

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    @@ International Buyers Delegation Visit the city of Zhongshan On Oct.25th-27th,the international buyers group of ShanghaiMart,invited by the organizing committee of the eighth China's Casual Wear Fair,visited the city of Zhongshan in Guangdong province and took part in the expo.The delegation consisted of 29 members,mainly from eight European and American enterprises,seven Japanese and Korean enterprises,and three corporations from Hong Kong,Taiwan and the mainland of China.

  16. Genetic algorithm to optimize two-echelon inventory control system for perishable goods in terms of active packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Yousefi Yegane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an inventory control policy for a two-echelon inventory control system with one supplier-one buyer. We consider the case of deteriorating items which lead to shortage in supply chain. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the deterioration rate by adding some specification to the packaging of these items that is known as active packaging. Although this packaging can reduce the deteriorating rate of products, but may be increases the cost of both supplier and buyer. Because of the complexity of the mathematical model, a genetic algorithm has been developed to determine the best policy of this inventory control system.

  17. Does Online Cross-border Shopping Affect State Use Tax Liabilities?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; Melnik, Mikhail I.

    2012-01-01

    How does online cross-border shopping affect state use tax liabilities? We collect our own data on actual online cross-border shopping transactions from eBay.com, focusing upon a "representative" commodity classification and a "typical" day. These data allow us to examine the extent of actual online cross-border shopping by buyers, and the subsequent potential impact on state use tax liabilities of buyers. Our results indicate that online cross-border shopping is highly prevalent on eBay, wit...

  18. Buy-it-Now Prices in eBay Auctions The Field in the Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Grebe, Tim; Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta; Kröger, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    In eBay s Buy-it-Now auctions sellers can post prices at which buyers can purchase a good prior to an auction. We study how sellers set Buy-it-Now prices when buyers have independent private values for a single object for sale. We test the predictions of a model by combining the real auction environment (eBay auction platform and eBay traders) with the techniques of lab experiments. We observe that the eBay auction format supports deviations from truthful bidding leading to auction prices bel...

  19. Estimation of Hedonic Single-Family House Price Function Considering Neighborhood Effect Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Shimizu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the formulation of hedonic models, in addition to locational factors and building structures which affect the house prices, the generation of the omitted variable bias is thought to occur in cases when local environmental variables and the individual characteristics of house buyers are not taken into consideration. However, since it is difficult to obtain local environmental information in a small neighborhood unit and to observe individual characteristics of house buyers, these variables have not been sufficiently considered in previous studies. We demonstrated that non-negligible levels of omitted variable bias are generated if these variables are not considered.

  20. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  1. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  2. An experiment on partnership protocols for bilateral trade with incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Sopher, Barry; Sopher, Revan

    2012-01-01

    We study experimentally “partnership protocols” of the sort proposed by Kalai and Kalai (2010), for bilateral trade games with incomplete information. We utilize the familiar game analyzed by Chatterjee and Samuelson (1983) and Myerson and Sattherwaite (1983), with a buyer and seller with value and cost independently distributed uniformly on (0,100). The usual rules of the game are for the buyer and seller to submit price bids and asks, and for trade to occur if and only if the buyer’s bid pr...

  3. China rare earth market review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth market remained stagnant recently. The buyers did not show willingness to replenish raw materials affected by weak demand. Most persons in rare earth circle were not confident with the short-term rare earth market. Demand for didymium mischmetal was soft recently. The market of dysprosium related products was quiet and NdFeB magnet producers were inactive in the purchase. Phosphor market was stagnant as well. Buyers were cautious on replenishing the material. There were few inquiries for europium oxide (99.9%) in spot market and transactions were difficult.

  4. 拍卖方法引入多Agent系统%The Auction and its Application in Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金涬; 石纯一

    2003-01-01

    Auction, an operational and effective resource allocation method, generally results in economical efficiencyallocation between buyers and sellers. As a negotiation method, auction can be used in Multi-Agent Systems. Withthe consideration of computation ability and communication ability of agents, superadditive and subadditive propertyof goods, requirements of agents' revenue and real-time ability, proper auction methods can be selected to achieveone-many or many-many task assignments or resource allocation. In this paper, we systematically summarize bidingrules, buyers and sellers' strategies and the performances of current auction methods. A formal auction model, whichfits most of the current auction methods, is also presented.

  5. Can I trust you? : The importance of trust when doing business on P2P online platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, David; Kobaslic, Bojan

    2016-01-01

    This report has focused on how important a buyers eWOM is compared to his/her visual information when sellers decide if they can trust this buyer. A focus company was Airbnb, an online P2P platform where private individuals can rent out their living quarters to other private persons. The method involved sending out online web surveys to approximately 200 students in Högskolan Kristianstad. Results from these surveys suggests that a buyer’s eWOM and visual information had little or no impact u...

  6. A New Watermarking Protocol against Conspiracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; KOU Weidong; FAN Kai; CAO Xuefei

    2006-01-01

    A trusted third party introduced in watermarking protocols would decrease the security and affect the implementation of the protocols. In this paper, a new watermarking protocol with an un-trusted third party (UTTP) was proposed. Based on the idea of all-or-nothing disclosure of secret (ANDOS), all of the buyer, the seller and the third party didn't know the exact watermark, which was embedded in a digital content for tracing piracy. The proposed protocol provided mechanisms to trace piracy and protect customer's right. In addition, the problem that a seller colluded with UTTP to frame the buyer, namely, the conspiracy problem, could be avoided.

  7. The Influence of Negotiators' Roles on Bargaining Outcomes in Simulated Buy-Sell Transactions%买卖交易中谈判者角色影响谈判结果的机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢天; 韦庆旺; 郑全全

    2011-01-01

    In real life, negotiations occur in specific social contexts where negotiators always play certain roles. The current study explored how negotiators' roles influence their bargaining outcomes in buy-sell transactions. Based on Neal, Huber, & Northcraft (1987), we proposed that the buyer-seller role induces framing effect (s), and that negotiators' perceived bargaining pie (or the total value of the resources they are considering) mediates negotiators' roles and outcomes. In buy-sell bargaining settings, the buyer's role typically induces a loss frame, whereas the seller's role evokes a gain frame. Thus, buyers are more risk-seeking than sellers. These dynamics prompt buyers to perceive their pie as larger than sellers', and thus the former outperform the latter.Two hundred and four undergraduate students participated in two single-issue buy-sell simulated negotiation exercises. In both experiments, the power of the two parties was set to be equal by manipulating their number of best alternative to negotiated agreement (BATNA). In experiment 1, we explored how negotiators' roles influenced their bargaining outcomes. Eighty-two undergraduate students, I.e., 41 dyads, were randomly designated as buyers or sellers. The item for exchange was an eye-protection lamp. The result of experiment 1 showed that the buyers outperformed the sellers, and that the perceived size of the pie mediated the effect of negotiation role on bargaining performance. Moreover, the communication strategies used by the buyers and the sellers did not contribute to their performance, which means that the behavioral differences among the buyers and the sellers did not account for their contrasting performance.In experiment 2, we explored why negotiators' roles influenced negotiators' perceived size of the bargaining pie. One hundred and twenty-two participants I.e., 61 dyads, were randomly assigned to the experimental group (20 dyads), control group 1 (20 dyads), and control group 2 (21 dyads

  8. 75 FR 57738 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... meeting with international business visitors and the oversea interest of the exhibitor. The form is... provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). Agency: International Trade Administration (ITA). Title: International Buyer Program (IBP) Application and Exhibitor Data Form. OMB Control...

  9. Massive Job Cuts Looming in Textile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Massive job losses are in the offing in the textile sector, says the theApparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC).The high prices of cotton have pushed up the cost of the fabric andthe end product. We are now in a situation where we are forced to rejectrepeat orders as we can’t justify the high prices to our foreign buyers.

  10. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing. Sale of the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as a wholesaler, retailer, packer, processor, shipper or buyer. Examples of direct marketing include... percentage you elect. Prune. A cultural practice performed to increase blueberry production as follows:...

  11. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    supplier’s recovery, Nokia , another customer of Philips, swiftly exhausted all available backup capacities. As Erricson finally realized that... Nokia . We further assume that the backup supply is instantly available when the buyer terminates the contract with the supplier. As prescribed in the

  12. RISK AND RETURN TO IP GRAIN PRODUCTION: THE CASE OF HIGH OIL CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Todd D.; Gray, Allan W.; Dobbins, Craig L.

    2000-01-01

    Returns for soybeans, commodity corn and high oil corn under an export and domestic market buyer's-call contract were simulated. High oil corn is competitive with commodity corn when yield drag is two percent and bundling reduces seed cost. Commodity loan rate is important in reducing high oil corn price risk.

  13. What health plans do people prefer? : The trade-off between premium and provider choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Determann, Domino; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Hayen, Arthur P; Varkevisser, Marco; Schut, Frederik T; Wit, G Ardine de

    2016-01-01

    Within a healthcare system with managed competition, health insurers are expected to act as prudent buyers of care on behalf of their customers. To fulfil this role adequately, understanding consumer preferences for health plan characteristics is of vital importance. Little is known, however, about

  14. Identity and culture under one roof - the development of assessment instruments for strategic communication in housing associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raay, L. van; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Within all business sectors and within the government, the corporate image of organizations is becoming more and more important. Organizations are increasingly interested in finding out how they are seen by clients, and buyers of their products and services as well as stakeholders, i.e. target group

  15. 7 CFR 1402.2 - Sales of inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales of inventory. 1402.2 Section 1402.2 Agriculture... of inventory. CCC will entertain offers from prospective buyers for the purchase of any commodities... commodity sales to the Director, Warehouse and Inventory Division, Stop 0553, 1400 Independence Avenue,...

  16. WEEKLY WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    OPINION Why Subsidize the Rich? Northwest China’s Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province, recently decided to subsidize lo-cal home buyers in order to boost the weak housing market. The subsidies are reported to have come from the city’s public finance coffers.

  17. 76 FR 4405 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Order Granting Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ..., municipal bond, and unit investment trust (collectively ``CMU'') fixed income securities. Matching requires... these CMU money tolerance amounts in 1995, member firms have significantly improved the timing and... is matching a greater percentage of CMU trades upon initial trade input from the buyer and...

  18. The importance of organisational identity for formulating and enacting strategies and policies in retailer buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    This paper explores how retail buyers construct their own professional identities and the organisational identity of the retailers they work for and the importance of these constructions for the formulation and enactment of strategies and policies in the field of fresh pork. Through a case study...

  19. Domain Models of "The Market" - In Preparation for E-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2003-01-01

    An analysis is presented, in the form both of an informal narrative and a formal model of "The Market" of buyers and sellers, agents, brokers and traders - who inquire about products and services, issue quotations, orders, delivers, receives, accepts, invoices, pays, rejects, returns and gets ref...

  20. The Prediction of Consumer Buying Intentions: A Comparative Study of the Predictive Efficacy of Two Attitudinal Models. Faculty Working Paper No. 234.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Rabi S.; And Others

    The role of attitudes in the conduct of buyer behavior is examined in the context of two competitive models of attitude structure and attitude-behavior relationship. Specifically, the objectives of the study were to compare the Fishbein and Sheth models on the criteria of predictive as well as cross validities. Data on both the models were…

  1. 2004年资源日——人性化商业平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进亮

    2004-01-01

    The third annual Sourcing + Innovation Days event for the office products industry was held from June 2nd to 6th 2004 near Aix-en-Provence, in the south of France. The event, which adds a different dimension to the traditional trade show format, bring stogether buyers and suppliers for a series of scheduled 30-minute private meetings.

  2. Do I hear... anyone here? Tax-exempt healthcare facilities have taken a hit on auction-rate securities as the mortgage meltdown has investors skittish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melanie

    2008-02-25

    The crisis in auction-rate securities is coming down hard on tax-exempt providers. Buyers are disappearing, sending interest rates soaring. Some hospitals and other healthcare borrowers are being forced to pay maximum interest. "Basically, the investor pool has all but vanished," says Melissa Williams, left, of Christus Health.

  3. Uranium: abundance or shortage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, J. [Energy Resources International, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    With large uranium stockpiles, particularly in the form of HEU, continuing to be the dominant factor in the world uranium market, buyers should be able to enter into attractive long-term commitments for the future. Nevertheless, producers are now able to see forward with some degree of certainty and are expected to meet their planned levels of production and demand. (author).

  4. E-business in the energy industry: from pens and pencils to protection devices; E-Business in der Energieversorgungsindustrie: Von Bleistiften und Kugelschreibern bis zu Schutzgeraeten. Einkauf beschleunigen - Kosten senken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, N. [Business Development, eBusiness and Direct Sales, Siemens Bereich Power Transmission and Distribution, Nuernberg (Germany); Greeley, R. [Concert Software and Business Services GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-02-21

    Placing orders electronically (e-procurement) is becoming today an essential part of companies e-business strategy. For energy industry suppliers, the question now is how do they support their customers (buyers) e-procurement projects, i.e. provide them with product content? Especially when the product information required is for complex engineering items, such as switchgear and protection devices. (orig.)

  5. Variation in housing design: identifying customer preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Erwin; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Ion, Roxana A.

    2006-01-01

    House builders in different countries are exploring ways to deliver higher levels of customisation in housing design. To create such variety at acceptable cost, it is important to know how potential buyers of new houses prioritise the different elements such as bathroom, kitchen and roof type of a h

  6. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  7. Playing information games: Démarcheurs in the second-hand car markets of Cotonou, Bénin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuving, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses démarcheurs, intermediaries in the second-hand car markets in Cotonou, Bénin. An ethnographic case study shows how démarcheurs make a profit by creating barriers between car buyers and sellers. In this way the paper presents an alternative interpretation of intermediaries: not a

  8. Do street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet? The case of Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.; Hartog, den A.P.; Mwadime, R.K.; Staveren, van W.A.; Foeken, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined whether street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet. It was hypothesized that vendors sold only low-cost food groups to enable the buyer to afford the food while the vendor also made a profit. A structured questionnaire was administered to 580 vend

  9. 用“心”服务,一路同行--100辆东风天锦交付新邦物流%Dongfeng Deliver 100 Dongfeng KR to Guangdong XB Logistics Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦伟杰

    2016-01-01

    Aug. 18, 2016, Dongfeng held a ceremony at Guangzhou to deliver the ifrst 100 Dongfeng KR to Guangdong province in the year of 2016. The buyer is Guangdong XB Logistic Co., Ltd who has been a loyal customer to Dongfeng. This company’s 70% of transport vehicles are purchased from Dongfeng.

  10. 15 CFR 287.2 - Definitions. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... respect to the food industry sector. Accreditation means a procedure used to provide formal notice that a...; supplier's declaration of conformity; certification; and quality and environmental management system... under the control or influence of either the buyer or the seller (third party). Inspection is defines...

  11. 7 CFR 1955.112 - Method of sale (housing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Adequate and timely advertising in accordance with § 1955.146 of this subpart is of utmost importance when... Director will request such authorization when all reasonable marketing efforts fail to produce buyers and... documentation of all marketing efforts, will be forwarded to the Assistant Administrator, Housing, ATTN:...

  12. The Effect of Nonverbal Signals on Student Role-Play Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…

  13. Norwegian Salmon Goes to Market: The Case of the Austevoll Seafood Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyne, John; Hovgaard, Gestur; Hansen, Gard

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of the farmed salmon commodity chain upon farmed salmon production in the western Norwegian municipality of Austevoll. On the basis of field research conducted in 2002 and 2003, we conclude that salmon farming in Austevoll has responded to the challenges of "buyer-driven" food chains by virtue of…

  14. Analysis of Contract Source Selection Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    understandable definition of a contract is a written document that confirms and communicates the agreement between buyer and seller, but first and...consuming than anticipated. Choosing to collect data from NAVAIR and NAVSEA had both advantages and disadvantages . The advantage is that as SYSCOMs...the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2015 Authors: Jatan Bastola

  15. Reliable Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The key objectives of wind turbine manufactures and buyers are to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership and Total Cost of Energy. Among others, low downtime of a wind turbine is important to increase the amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Historical data indicate that pitch systems...

  16. The Economics of Educational Software Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e

    1990-01-01

    Discusses economic issues that affect the portability of educational software. Topics discussed include economic reasons for portability, including cost effectiveness; the nature and behavior of educational computer software markets; the role of producers, buyers, and consumers; potential effects of government policies; computer piracy; and…

  17. 75 FR 27556 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Submission for OMB Review and Comments Request. Form Title: Short Term Multi... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The Short Term Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy Application will be used by entities involved in the export of US goods and services. We have made...

  18. Market Structure and Hospital-Insurer Bargaining in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbersma, R.S.; Mikkers, M.C.; Motchenkova, E.; Seinen, I.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, competition was introduced in part of the hospital market in the Netherlands. Using a unique dataset of transaction and list prices between hospitals and insurers in the years 2005 and 2006, we estimate the influence of buyer and seller concentration on the negotiated prices in the first tw

  19. HIA 2016 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Imery & Co, High-performance Bungalow, Roswell, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2016-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2016 Housing Innovation Award winning custom for buyer home in the mixed-humid climate that met the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home criteria and achieved a HERS 41 without PV or HERS 6 with PV.

  20. The role of the concept of LEAN management in modern business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melović Boban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LEAN management is the concept of production management, product development and services that aims to create a true step change specifically targeted to the buyer or the goods or service. LEAN management is a dynamic process that uses knowledge and is focused on the customer. This is a process by which companies are continuously working to eliminate losses and value creation.

  1. Understanding what your sales manager is up against.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailer, Barry; Dickie, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Every year, the research firm CSO Insights publishes the results of its Sales Performance Optimization survey, an online questionnaire given to more than 1,000 sales executives worldwide that seeks to examine the effectiveness of key sales practices and metrics. In this article, two partners from CSO provide the 2005 and 2006 survey highlights, which describe the challenges today's sales organizations face and how they're responding. An overall theme is the degree to which the buy cycle has gotten out of sync with the sell cycle. Buyers have always had a buy cycle, starting at the point they perceive a need. Sellers have always had a sales cycle, starting at the point they spot a prospect. Traditionally, the two have dovetailed--either because the seller created the buyer's perception of need or because the buyer pursued a need by contacting a salesperson (often for product information). Now the buy cycle is often well under way before the seller is even aware there is a cycle--in part because of the information asymmetry created by the Internet. The implications for managing a sales organization are profound in that sales training must now address how reps handle an environment in which buyers have more knowledge than they do. The authors offer evidence that sales executives are taking--and should take--aggressive action to train and retain sales talent, manage the sales process, and use sales support technologies to meet the challenges of this new environment.

  2. A Love Affair With Luxury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chinese luxury goods buyers buck global recession and spend with abandon While people in the developed world are cutting back on luxury items to make ends meet,the big luxuryb rands are targeting the swelling wallets of China’s nouveau riche to boost sales of their jewelry,clothing,purses and other lifestyle accessories

  3. Status Inequalities in Business Exchange Relations in Luxury Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pocock (Miriam)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis we examine purchase exchanges between high status buyers and suppliers of lower status in luxury markets. While extant literature has treated status inequalities as an objective distinction in status rank, Study 1 on boat builders presents a novel approach towards conc

  4. How convenient!? Adolescents’ vistas on food competences in a convenience context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Horst, van der Hilje; Pothoff, Roosje

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Adolescents are at a stage in their life course in which they increasingly become choosers, buyers and preparers of food. Hence, they develop and employ required competences. Current food-related competences of adolescents are shaped in an environment with an abundance of convenience foods

  5. Online Sellers’ Website Quality Influencing Online Buyers’ Purchase Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea Lee, Tan; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase adoption of Internet among young users in Malaysia provides high prospect for online seller. Young users aged between 18 and 25 years old are important to online sellers because they are actively involved in online purchasing and this group of online buyers is expected to dominate future online market. Therefore, examining online sellers’ website quality and online buyers’ purchase intention is crucial. Based on the Theory of planned behavior (TPB), a conceptual model of online sellers’ website quality and purchase intention of online buyers was developed. E-tailQ instrument was adapted in this study which composed of website design, reliability/fulfillment, security, privacy & trust, and customer service. Using online questionnaire and convenience sampling procedure, primary data were obtained from 240 online buyers aged between 18 to 25 years old. It was discovered that website design, website reliability/fulfillment, website security, privacy & trust, and website customer service positively and significantly influence intention of online buyers to continuously purchase via online channels. This study concludes that online sellers’ website quality is important in predicting online buyers’ purchase intention. Recommendation and implication of this study were discussed focusing on how online sellers should improve their website quality to stay competitive in online business.

  6. UNDER THE NEW CIVIL CODE: THE SALE CONTRACT IS TRANSLATED PROPERTY OR CREATOR ONLY OF OBLIGATIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu ST NCIULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 1650, paragraph. 1, of the Civil Code, "The sale is the contract that the seller transmits or, where appropriate, seek to transmit the property of an asset to the buyer, for a price which the buyer is obliged to pay" The dispositions of the 2011 civil code suggests that compared to the time of transfer of ownership, the contract may have different legal nature: creative translative property or obligations. Thus, transfer of ownership may be immediately and in this case, as occurs or may be postponed (conclusion of the contract and in this case, is an obligation of the seller. For example, art. 1674 of Civil Code states that "the property is" shifting "by right to the buyer" and "General Provisions" of art. 1672. paragraph 1 and art. 1673. paragraph 1 of Civil Code provides that "The seller is obliged to transmit the buyer the ownership of the sold property ". Please note that until the appearance of the Civil Code 2011, the sale was widely known as "translational property" and a possible shift in the category of contracts creating obligations would produce important consequences for the concept (and related institutions. On the background issues above, we consider that the presentation of opinions and arguments in their support could be beneficial.

  7. Manufactura/Mercadeo y Distribucion. Libro del Profesor (Manufacturing/Marketing & Distribution. Teacher's Guide). B6. CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Hudson Migrant Education Center, New Paltz, NY.

    The guide, written in Spanish, comprises the fifth grade unit of a career education curriculum developed for migrant students. The unit focuses on 11 occupations in manufacturing, marketing, and distribution: union representative, welder, machinist, assembly worker, textile designer, chemist, buyer, sales representative, accountant, commercial…

  8. Sustainable development - Liberalization of land markets and new processes of land grabbing : report of the academic panel organized by IDS on 7 July 2009, Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westen, G. van; Zoomers, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that opportunities to buy land through the market and the use of internet have resulted in new processes of land grabbing, and an upward trend in the ownership of land by foreign and other non-local buyers. In addition to ‘traditional’ large land holders, new actors are n

  9. Airline price discrimination: a practice of yield management or customer profiling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Diercks, Rasha H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Airline ticket prices frequently change, which is usually caused by yield management as price discrimination practice. Recently, buyers of online airline tickets tend to complain about price discrimination based on customer profiling, e.g. by means of cookie data. As cookie data and other directly o

  10. Inventory Surged More Than 60% in the Nonferrous Metals Industry in the First Half of 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the first half of this year,in the nonferrous metals industry listed companies’ inventory grew 63.46%. To some extent,changes in the inventory data of finished products mirror changes in the mutual dependence of suppliers and buyers,and changes in companies’ inven-tory often reflect future changes in industry prosperity.

  11. Taxation and Market Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konrad, K.A.; Morath, F.; Müller, W.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the incidence and welfare e¤ects of unit sales taxes in experimental monopoly and Bertrand markets. We nd, in line with economic theory, that rms with no market power are able to shift a high share of a tax burden on to consumers, independent of whether buyers are automated or human playe

  12. An Analysis of the Brain Drain Phenomenon in the Field of Development of Chemical and Biological Weapons in Russia During the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Russian Federal Security Service charged A. Kuntsevich , a former general of the Russian RCB Forces, with having shipped 800 kilograms of CW precursors...to Syrian buyers and attempting to smuggle an additional 5.5 tons. Although Kuntsevich was fired, the charges against him were later dropped

  13. An analysis of Western European food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...

  14. An analysis of Western Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans

    A study concerning food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 West European countries. The study encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving towards pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the background for the study, the outline...

  15. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... institutional buyers, that is part of a family of investment companies which own in the aggregate at least $100... are part of such family of investment companies. Family of investment companies means any two or more... statements of another enterprise. (5) For purposes of this section, riskless principal transaction means...

  16. 2007 Intertextile Pavilion will open on 12-14 July 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007 Intertextile Pavilion at the 7th China (Shenzhen)International Brand Clothing & Accessories Fair at Shenzhen Convention & Exhibition Center,Shenzhen,China on 12-14 July 2007. Technology upgrades boost output for apparel makers in Shenzhen-creating great opportunities for textile manufacturers looking for buyers

  17. 77 FR 31581 - U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission to India; Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore, India; October...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... pre-screened potential buyers, agents, distributors and joint venture partners; meetings with state... participants will also have the option to have additional stops at Mumbai, Ahmedabad and New Delhi, where CS... the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) and the proposed 250-km Bangalore-Chennai expressway,...

  18. Setting new standards for customer advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, L

    1993-01-01

    Dell Computer Corporation pioneered the direct marketing of personal computers in 1984 and became the first company in the PC industry to offer manufacturer-direct technical support. According to surveys of corporate buyers, the company provides the best after-sale service and support of any computer maker. Here's how Dell has institutionalized the delivery of customer satisfaction.

  19. Cultural Face of E-commerce : Armenian and Dutch Online Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    One of the restrictions of online shopping is that buyers cannot actually see, taste and try the product. This increases the importance of availability of product information in a web shop. This study investigated cultural differences and the effect of product information on online shopping. The ass

  20. REVIEW: Advances in Electronic Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Reviewed By Dr. Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges facing organizations today as they incorporate electronic marketing methods into their strategy. Advances in Electronic Marketing examines these challenges within three major themes: the global environment, the strategic/technological realm, and the buyer behavior of online consumers.

  1. REVIEW: Advances in Electronic Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Reviewed By Dr. Ayhan

    2005-01-01

    There are many challenges facing organizations today as they incorporate electronic marketing methods into their strategy. Advances in Electronic Marketing examines these challenges within three major themes: the global environment, the strategic/technological realm, and the buyer behavior of online consumers.

  2. Licensing and negotiating: exploring unfamiliar ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, N.; Stone, G.; Anderson, R.; Feinstein, J.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade the scene in which librarians have had to operate has completely changed. Librarians have migrated from book-buyers to licence-negotiators, from circulation experts to providers of digital services. This chapter tries to map some of the fields that they have entered and to ident

  3. On secondary buyouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degeorge, F.; Martin, J.; Phalippou, L.

    2015-01-01

    Private equity firms increasingly sell companies to each other in secondary buyouts (SBOs). We examine commonly expressed concerns regarding SBOs using novel and unique datasets. SBOs made by buyers under pressure to spend capital (a minority of transactions) underperform and destroy value for inves

  4. Strategies to improve smallholders' market access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, van A.; Schalkwyk, van H.D.

    2011-01-01

    Smallholders, especially in less developed countries, have encountered several challenges in gaining access to markets. Market access includes the ability to obtain necessary farm inputs and farm services, and the ability to deliver farm products to buyers. Market access was less of a problem in the

  5. Biological off-gas treatment: let's make things better

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van

    1998-01-01

    Biological off-gas treatment is the most effective cleaning method for many off-gases which contain low concentration of pollutants (<5 g/m3). The world market share in off-gas treatment is a few percent. Potential buyers are reserved because of existing biofilter quality differences and lack of exp

  6. 24 CFR 291.90 - Sales methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... buyers, the procedures for which are described in § 291.205; (c) Direct sales methods. There are three types of direct sales methods: (1) Direct sales of properties without insured mortgages to governmental...) Direct sales to displaced persons, sales of razed lots, or auctions, the procedures for which...

  7. The value of Guanxi for small vegetable farmers in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.; Shuyi Feng,

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Following a guanxi value ¿ buyer-seller relationship quality - marketing behaviour scheme, this paper aims to explore how traditional guanxi supports small vegetable farmers in modern markets in China. Design/methodology/approach - Fieldwork was performed in Jiangsu Province, PR China. A s

  8. Defense Standardization Program Journal. July/December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    release oflSO/IEC 24748 Fart 2. ISO/IEC 15288 is the basis for the life-cycle processes in the 2000 series of the Allied Quality Assurance...these components are essential to keep older weapon systems or equipment op- erating. Farts obsolescence often forces buyers to seek out unfamiliar

  9. Application of K-Means Algorithm for Efficient Customer Segmentation: A Strategy for Targeted Customer Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedu Pascal Ezenkwu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of many business competitors has engendered severe rivalries among competing businesses in gaining new customers and retaining old ones. Due to the preceding, the need for exceptional customer services becomes pertinent, notwithstanding the size of the business. Furthermore, the ability of any business to understand each of its customers’ needs will earn it greater leverage in providing targeted customer services and developing customised marketing programs for the customers. This understanding can be possible through systematic customer segmentation. Each segment comprises customers who share similar market characteristics. The ideas of Big data and machine learning have fuelled a terrific adoption of an automated approach to customer segmentation in preference to traditional market analyses that are often inefficient especially when the number of customers is too large. In this paper, the k-Means clustering algorithm is applied for this purpose. A MATLAB program of the k-Means algorithm was developed (available in the appendix and the program is trained using a z-score normalised two-feature dataset of 100 training patterns acquired from a retail business. The features are the average amount of goods purchased by customer per month and the average number of customer visits per month. From the dataset, four customer clusters or segments were identified with 95% accuracy, and they were labeled: High-Buyers-Regular-Visitors (HBRV, High-Buyers-Irregular-Visitors (HBIV, Low-Buyers-Regular-Visitors (LBRV and Low-Buyers-Irregular-Visitors (LBIV.

  10. Improving Software Engineering on NASA Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbley, Tim; Kelly, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Software Engineering Initiative: Reduces risk of software failure -Increases mission safety. More predictable software cost estimates and delivery schedules. Smarter buyer of contracted out software. More defects found and removed earlier. Reduces duplication of efforts between projects. Increases ability to meet the challenges of evolving software technology.

  11. Acceptance of selective contracting : The role of trust in the health insurer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bes, R.E.; Wendel, S.; Curfs, E.C.; Groenewegen, P.P.; de Jong, J.D

    2013-01-01

    Background In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers and

  12. Coping with Costly Bid Evaluation in Online Reverse Auctions for IT Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric); O.R. Koppius (Otto)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnline markets have dramatically decreased costs of search and communication for buyers. By contrast, costs of evaluating purchasing alternatives have become critical due to an overwhelming range of available options. When high, evaluation costs can offset potential gains from transactio

  13. Acceptance of selective contracting: the role of trust in the health insurer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bes, R.E.; Wendel, S.; Curfs, E.C.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Jong, J.D. de

    2013-01-01

    Background: In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers an

  14. Online Mall: How One District Got Started in E-Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Brian

    2001-01-01

    To address the problem of outdated vendor catalogs, Edmonton (Alberta) Public Schools created a view-only online shopping mall that evolved into an electronic shopping program. Buyers can use credit cards for some transactions and cost coding for others. They can also sell unwanted items online. (MLH)

  15. A Door-to-Door Combined Transport Planner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Jespersen, Per Homann; Pedersen, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    Establishing a web-based portal functioning as a one-stop-shop for transport buyers is a radical idea of a consumer oriented intermodal freight system. This utopian vision will be materialized in a system description and a prototype of a Door-to-Door Combined Trans-port Planner (COTRAP), developed...

  16. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences...

  17. A Growing Appetite for Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese as well as international buyers are showing great interest in collecting There was no sign of economic depression at Sotheby’s auction,"Fine Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art",held in New York in March.The 1692 masterpiece,Two Mynas on

  18. 75 FR 63216 - Van Eck Associates Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... transaction, including the consideration to be paid or received, are reasonable and fair and do not involve..., (b) prevent unjust discrimination or preferential treatment among buyers resulting from sales at... relief under sections 17(b) and 6(c) of the Act. Applicants note that any consideration paid for...

  19. 77 FR 74237 - T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... consideration to be paid or received, are reasonable and fair and do not involve overreaching on the part of any..., (b) prevent unjust discrimination or preferential treatment among buyers resulting from sales at... standards for relief under sections 17(b) and 6(c) of the Act. Applicants note that any consideration...

  20. 78 FR 3044 - Exchange Traded Spreads Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... terms of the transaction, including the consideration to be paid or received, are reasonable and fair... unjust discrimination or preferential treatment among buyers resulting from sales at different prices... under sections 17(b) and 6(c) of the Act. Applicants note that any consideration paid for the...

  1. 75 FR 22874 - Claymore Exchange-Traded Fund Trust 3, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... establishes that the terms of the transaction, including the consideration to be paid or received, are..., (b) prevent unjust discrimination or preferential treatment among buyers resulting from sales at... consideration paid for the purchase or redemption of Shares directly from a Fund will be based on the NAV of...

  2. 78 FR 24241 - John Hancock Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... establishes that the terms of the transaction, including the consideration to be paid or received, are... underwriters and contract dealers, (b) to prevent unjust discrimination or preferential treatment among buyers... relief under sections 17(b) and 6(c) of the Act. Applicants note that any consideration paid for...

  3. 77 FR 75200 - AllianceBernstein Active ETFs, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Act if evidence establishes that the terms of the transaction, including the consideration to be paid... underwriters and contract dealers, (b) to prevent unjust discrimination or preferential treatment among buyers... consideration paid for the purchase or redemption of Shares directly from a Fund will be based on the NAV of...

  4. 78 FR 46381 - Calamos Advisors LLC and Calamos ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Act if evidence establishes that the terms of the transaction, including the consideration to be paid... underwriters and contract dealers, (b) prevent unjust discrimination or preferential treatment among buyers... standards for relief under sections 17(b) and 6(c) of the Act. Applicants note that any consideration...

  5. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    at Subic Bay, San Fernan- do, Cebu, Bacolod, Dumaguete, Iloilo, Puer- to Princesa , and Manila Bay. The groups disclosed that among the visiting...dong; 3 tons of ^limeMo^ks, 813 dong; ana 5,000 bricks, 550 dong. The names of buyers were not mentioned, and there were no bills of loading—only sale

  6. Environmental management in the Dutch food and beverage industry : a longitudinal study into the joint impact of business network and firm characteristics on the adoption of environmental management capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aims for a deeper understanding of the internal and external factors, such as firm strategy and pressure from the business network (government, buyers, suppliers, local inhabitants, etc.), that have an impact on the adoption of environmental management capabilities in firms in the

  7. "We sold a million copies"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monteiro, Paolo Klinger; Moraga Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    -sales before observing them, committing to reveal is the dominant strategy whenever advertising cost is low, buyers are many and their private information is accurate. When seller can postpone advertising decision and gains experience, past-sales revelation occurs partially. In equilibrium, delivery of sales...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1001-2 - Discharge of liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the following examples. In each example assume the taxpayer uses the cash receipts and disbursements... pays the seller $1,000 in cash and signs a note payable to the seller for $9,000. A is personally... principal on the note to $7,600. At the beginning of 1978 A sells the asset. The buyer pays A $1,600 in...

  9. Photocopying Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Technology Reports, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Reports results of tests conducted by Buyers Laboratory, Inc., on 15 photocopiers manufactured by A. B. Dick, Canon, Minolta, Mita, Pitney Bowes, Royal, Savin, Sharp, 3M, and Xerox. Included for each product are general information and specifications, test observations (e.g., ease of use, copying speed, warm-up time) and general appraisal. (EJS)

  10. Reimbursement of VAT on written-off Receivables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florentsen, Bjarne; Møller, Michael; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2003-01-01

    at the cost of financial intermediaries.@* Price discrimination, by subsidizing buyers with low creditworthiness.@* A less efficient collection of bad debts, as trade with bad debts is made extremely expensive.The finance literature presents several `good' arguments in favor of trade credits, e.g. transaction...

  11. 2008 Beijing Auto Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Automakers wage war over Chinese market Athletes from around the world will contend for gold this August during the Beijing Olympic Games, but before the sports gala begins, automakers are already locked in an intense competition of their own to see which will catch the most Chinese buyers.

  12. Offensive and Defensive Competitive Marketing Strategy: The Development of Construct & Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantri Heriyati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is opening parts of its services to greater foreign participation due to globalization. Local banks have since consolidated a decade ago and foreign banks expanding their businesses in local markets have intensified the competition. As a result, credit card adoption is getting more challenging to marketers. Hence effective marketing strategies are important. The theoretical model of the paper is based on the buyer behaviour model by Kotler and Armstrong (1999. The model identifies the major factors which influence consumer buyer behaviour and how buyer decision process affects the buyer behaviour. The paper aims to examine the effectiveness of marketing strategies in enhancing credit card adoption. A survey was conducted on 251 respondents using a survey instrument. The data collected was analyzed using a series of statistical techniques. The results of the analysis are discussed and the findings revealed that social status is an important factor associated with customers’ behaviour. This factor is also associated with sales promotions. Findings also revealed that credits cards that create social admiration are preferred.

  13. 9 CFR 201.42 - Custodial accounts for trust funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custodial accounts for trust funds... STOCKYARDS ACT Proceeds of Sale § 201.42 Custodial accounts for trust funds. (a) Payments for livestock are trust funds. Each payment that a livestock buyer makes to a market agency selling on commission is...

  14. E-shopping in the Netherlands: does geography matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy; Weltevreden, J.W.J.; Rietbergen, T. van; Dijst, M.J.; Oort, F.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Why consumers shop via the Internet, is a frequently asked question. As yet, the impact of spatial variables on e-shopping has received little attention. In this paper we report our investigation of the spatial distribution of Internet users and online buyers in the Netherlands for the time period 1

  15. Outsourcing-Insourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenster, Per; Hussey, David E.; Plackett, Patricia;

    and discusses how strategic alliances should be established between the buyer and supplier. Topics explored throughout include the scope, scale and importance of what is outsourced; the pricing and risk sharing involved; and changes to organizations which lead them to seek more outsourcing....

  16. Take a break! Or not? The impact of mindsets during breaks on negotiation processes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Harinck; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2008-01-01

    In the current research, we investigate the effects of breaks—temporary recesses in which participants stop interacting and withdraw from the situation—on negotiation processes and outcomes. We conducted two laboratory experiments in which participants engaged in buyer-seller negotiations. Experimen

  17. Benjamin Franklin's Evolving Views on Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Saunders, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    More telling than his negative comments about Germans' shortcomings, was Benjamin Franklin's early attitude to slavery. In the 1730s, Franklin's newspaper, the Philadelphia Gazette, carried advertisements for black slaves, and he himself apparently participated in the slave trade, acting at the very least as the contact man for buyers and sellers.…

  18. Optimal supplier choice with discounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, B.; Keane, J.; Kuzmenko, V.; Tso, M. K-S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates a model for pricing the demand for a set of goods when suppliers operate discount schedules based on total business value. We formulate the buyers's decision problem as a mixed binary integer program, which is a generalization of the capacitated facility location problem (CFL

  19. Variation of the return rate of a thermoelectric power plant; Variacao da taxa de retorno de termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwyter, Anton A.; Saviano, Jose Fernando F. [Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Marcio V. [ELETROPAULO, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Almanca, Reinaldo A. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    This paper analyzes the variation of the internal rate of return of a thermoelectrical plant using natural gas, that acts as supplier, selling capacity to the electrical system, and as buyer of secondary energy, when this price is inferior as its variable costs of production. (author) 18 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  1. Student Target Marketing Strategies for Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewison, Dale M.; Hawes, Jon M.

    2007-01-01

    As colleges and universities adopt marketing orientations to an ever-increasing extent, the relative merits of mass marketing and target marketing must also be explored. Researchers identify buyer types as potential students focused on quality, value or economy. On the other axis, learner types are described as those who focus on career,…

  2. 9 CFR 201.29 - Market agencies, packers and dealers required to file and maintain bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... packer purchasing livestock, directly or through an affiliate or employee or a wholly-owned subsidiary... bond. In the event a packer maintains a wholly-owned subsidiary or affiliate to conduct its livestock buying, the wholly-owned subsidiary or affiliate shall be registered as a packer buyer for its...

  3. Organic cacao chain for development: The case of the Talamanca small-farmers association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, M.A.; Díaz Gonzalez, E.

    2006-01-01

    In de Talamanca region in Costa Rica cocoa production was abandoned in the late 1970s when yields dropped to zero due to Monilia. In the early 1990s, the Talamanca Small-Farmers association (APPTA) gained success in promoting its revival. By creating contacts with buyers of organic cacao in the Unit

  4. Cotton School Tells Us More--The Fourth COTTON USA Cotton School Convened in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the year of 2006, Cotton Council International has already convened the Cotton School for three times in China. This year, in 2012, CCI held the Cotton School in the city of Qingdao for the fourth time, generously shared with international buyers, especially the Chinese domestic purchases, the knowledge of qualified U.S. cotton.

  5. Is your hospital a candidate for a merger or acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, R B; Hirsch, N G

    1983-05-01

    Decisions to buy or sell a hospital or to merge with another facility raise concerns for any institution, be it the buyer, the seller, or the proposed partner in the merger. To help trustees assess their options, this article presents profiles of the common characteristics shared by institutions that have been acquired and by those that have acquired other institutions.

  6. M&A Negotiations and Lawyer Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, C.; Malmendier, U.; Sautner, Z.

    2013-01-01

    We use proprietary data to look into the "black box" of M&A negotiations and to shed light on the effects of lawyer expertise on M&A contract design, the bargaining process, and acquisition pricing. Measuring the effects of buyer relative to seller lawyer expertise, we document that more expertise i

  7. Diffusion models for double-ended queues with renewal arrival processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study a double-ended queue where buyers and sellers arrive to conduct trades. When there is a pair of buyer and seller in the system, they immediately transact a trade and leave. Thus there cannot be a non-zero number of buyers and sellers simultaneously in the system. We assume that sellers and buyers arrive at the system according to independent renewal processes, and they would leave the system after independent exponential patience times. We establish fluid and diffusion approximations for the queue length process under a suitable asymptotic regime. The fluid limit is the solution of an ordinary differential equation, and the diffusion limit is a time-inhomogeneous asymmetric Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process (O-U process. A heavy traffic analysis is also developed, and the diffusion limit in the stronger heavy traffic regime is a time-homogeneous asymmetric O-U process. The limiting distributions of both diffusion limits are obtained. We also show the interchange of the heavy traffic and steady state limits.

  8. 50 CFR 600.1101 - Inshore fee system for repayment of the loan to harvesters of Pollock from the directed fishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... type of end-user, or some other fish buyer not engaged in the business of buying fish from fish sellers... subpart requires to collect a fee shall maintain a segregated account at a federally insured financial... from the date of each transaction involved, at least the following information: (i) For all...

  9. Production of Demonstratives in Dutch, English and Portuguese dialogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Luz, S.

    2011-01-01

    A data elicitation study on the type of demonstratives and determiners selected to denote objects in English, Dutch and Portuguese dialogues is presented. Participants were given a scenario and a scripted dialogue in which a furniture seller identifies target objects to a buyer. They were then asked

  10. New directions for hospital strategic management: the market for efficient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingerian, J A

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of current trends in the health care industry points to buyers seeking high quality, yet efficient, care as an emerging market segment. To target this market segment, hospitals must be prepared to market the efficient physicians. In the coming years, hospitals that can identify and market their best practicing providers will achieve a competitive advantage.

  11. The Light at the End of the Boardroom: LCD Projectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Lee

    1995-01-01

    Presents a buyer's guide to liquid crystal display (LCD) projectors, compares LCD projectors to LCD panels, and reports on some advantages of using LCD projectors for color presentations. Advantages include bulb longevity, support of multimedia, and remote control capability. A sidebar includes LCD projector company contact information, product…

  12. Personal use, social supply or redistribution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Munksgaard, Rasmus; Houborg, Esben

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, Silk Road became the first black market, or "cryptomarket", for illicit drugs. This study examines two of the largest cryptomarkets which have operated, Silk Road 2.0 and Agora Marketplace. We hypothesize that cryptomarkets cater to buyers who intend to resell or redistribute the product...

  13. Hole in the Wall: Informed Short Selling ahead of Private Placements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Berkman (Henk); M. McKenzie (Michael); P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Companies planning a private placement typically gauge the interest of potential buyers before the offering is publicly announced. Regulators are concerned with this practice, called wall-crossing, as it might invite insider trading, especially when the potential invest

  14. Taming the Real Estate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Curbing housing prices will rely on the effectiveness of the latest government measures sales offices for housing projects are no longer enjoying the overcrowded showrooms of prospective buyers. Agents of second-hand houses have resorted to canvassing clients by making repeated phone calls,

  15. First TPC-Energy Benchmark: Lessons Learned in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Erik; Cao, Paul; Nikolaiev, Mike

    TPC-Energy specification augments the existing TPC Benchmarks with Energy Metrics. The TPC-Energy specification is designed to help hardware buyers identify energy efficient equipment that meets both their computational and budgetary requirements. In this paper we discuss our experience is publishing industry's first-ever TPC-Energy metric publication.

  16. Overdemand and Underdemand in Economies with Indivisible Goods and Unit Demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, D.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    We study an economy where a collection of indivisible goods are sold to a set of buyers who want to buy at most one good.We characterize the set of Walrasian equilibrium price vectors in such an economy using sets of overdemanded and underdemanded goods.Further, we give characterizations for the min

  17. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It is..., compensation, or other thing of value to any officer, employee, or representative of the trade buyer. The...

  18. 7 CFR 1494.801 - Enforcement and termination of agreements with CCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States via the Great Lakes coastal range and its identity had been preserved until shipped from... identity preserved. (5) If the eligible commodity is to be delivered to the eligible buyer in multiple... commodity and enter it into the eligible country; or (2) The eligible commodity was lost or destroyed...

  19. 76 FR 60765 - Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... placed over the Internet; (b) Amending the ``prompt refund'' definition to permit sellers to deliver... buyers access the Internet (e.g., dial-up telephone modem, cable, or wireless); (2) allow sellers to... amended the ``telephone'' definition in 1993.\\9\\ At that time, to the extent consumers had access to...

  20. The Questionable Economic Case for Value-Based Drug Pricing in Market Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the economic theory and interpretation of the concept of "value-based pricing" for new breakthrough drugs with no close substitutes in a context (such as the United States) in which a drug firm with market power sells its product to various buyers. The interpretation is different from that in a country that evaluates medicines for a single public health insurance plan or a set of heavily regulated plans. It is shown that there will not ordinarily be a single value-based price but rather a schedule of prices with different volumes of buyers at each price. Hence, it is incorrect to term a particular price the value-based price, or to argue that the profit-maximizing monopoly price is too high relative to some hypothesized value-based price. When effectiveness of treatment or value of health is heterogeneous, the profit-maximizing price can be higher than that associated with assumed values of quality-adjusted life-years. If the firm sets a price higher than the value-based price for a set of potential buyers, the optimal strategy of the buyers is to decline to purchase that drug. The profit-maximizing price will come closer to a unique value-based price if demand is less heterogeneous.