WorldWideScience

Sample records for buyers

  1. Buyer-driven Greening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano; Lister, Jane

    2016-01-01

    the environmental performance of maritime transportation. Contributing to the Global Value Chain (GVC) literature, we compare and analyze the influence of three main external drivers on environmental upgrading in the tanker, bulk and container shipping segments: regulation, cooperation and buyer demands. Our......In this article, we examine the relations between global value chain governance and environmental upgrading in maritime shipping. Drawing from interviews with global shipping companies and major buyers of shipping services (cargo-owners), we reveal the key issues and challenges faced in improving...... findings suggest that environmental upgrading is more likely to occur when global value chains are characterized by unipolar governance and where the lead firms are consumer-facing companies with reputational risks. Furthermore, environmental upgrading in shipping is not likely to materialize without clear...

  2. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  3. An industrial buyer's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, H [Rugby Cement (UK)

    1992-01-01

    The Production and Purchasing Manager of Rugby Cement highlights some of the facts an industrial buyer needs to consider before purchasing coal from overseas (this is expected to become more necessary as the British coal industry contracts). First, the availability of coal of the quality needed to satisfy the users' plant must be identified. The countries exporting sizeable tonnage are small in number, mainly Australia, south Africa and the United states. They can supply coal of consistent quality but companies requiring a washed or graded coal may face the expense of carrying out this operation in the UK. Costs of shipping of coal to the large UK ports have to be compared with those for using small wharf operators to tranship coal via the even larger ports such as Rotterdam on the Continent. An end user not needing a carefully graded product could buy directly from a mine but this method carries some risks. The uncertainties in pricing of coal from Poland and the former Soviet Union also put the buyer at risk, although these coals can be directly discharged in the UK from their small vessels. The fact that international coal is traded in US dollars which can fluctuate widely against the pound can make small savings in price seem almost irrelevant. 4 figs.

  4. 1996 Buyer's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The Buyer's Guide consists of two sections: a list of vendors by category and an alphabetical list of vendors. The type of equipment and services include: air compressors, air conditioning, gas analysis, pipe anchors, anodes, gas appliances, augers, backhoes, pipe bending machines, billing systems, bits, blasting equipment, gas boilers, boring equipment, gas burners, calorimeters, well casings, cathodic protection equipment and surveys, coating machines, coatings, cogeneration equipment, gas heaters, communications equipment, compactors, compressor stations, computer software, flow computers, portable computers, connectors, consulting services, control equipment, cooling systems, corrosion control systems, couplings, cranes, cutting tools, data acquisition systems, dehydration equipment, gas detectors, drilling machines, engine controls and monitors, engineering services, diesel engines, gas engines, excavators, filters, financial services, fireplace equipment, pipe fittings, flanges, flowmeters, food services, fork lifts, gas furnaces, gas exploration, gas marketing services, gas processing, gas production, gas storage, gas transmission, electric generators, heat exchangers, heating systems, hydrostatic testing services, information systems, instruments, insulation, insurance, expansion joints, leak detectors, legal services, lightning protection, lubricants, meter reading services, meter sets, gas meters, NGV equipment, nondestructive test equipment, odorants, offshore drilling, pigs, pipes, pipe maintenance services, pressure relief valves, pressure vessels, pumps, recording equipment, regulators, risers, safety equipment, gas scrubbers, sealants, security systems, separators, SCADA equipment, survey instruments, tanks, telemetering equipment, tractors, training, trenching equipment, gas turbines, underwater tools, valve actuators, valves, vibration analyzers, gas water heaters, weld inspection, welding equipment, and wires and cables

  5. Outsourcing Operational Logistics: Buyer Beware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-16

    This logistics system takes far too many people to conduct support missions and does not provide the desired customer performance in terms of...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER OUTSOURCING OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS: BUYER BEWARE (U) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) 1 (Unclassified Paper) NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. OUTSOURCING OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS: BUYER BEWARE By LAMONT WOODY Lieutenant

  6. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  7. Fuel buyers guide: company data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Four major listings relating to nuclear fuel services are provided. 1. A fuel buyer's guide listing companies under alphabetical order of country and giving addresses and an indication of the services offered. 2. A fuel buyers guide classifying companies in alphabetical order of the services offered. 3. A fuel and front end facility listing subdivided into companies involved in: uranium ore processing; uranium refining and conversion; enrichment; fuel fabrication; heavy water production; zirconium metal production; and zirconium tube production. 4. A fuel and front end facilities listing giving operators' addresses under alphabetical order of country. (UK)

  8. Uninformed house buyers and foreclosures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnbull, Geoffrey K; van der Vlist, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Uninformed buyers overpay. This is particularly so for home buying in which the inability to accurately quantify the asset value increase households’ risk to overpay. The popular view is that poorly informed or financially unsophisticated households ended up with inappropriate mortgage products,

  9. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  10. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  11. Initial Encounters : The Lived Experiences of Buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Wright; J.J. Dekker

    2012-01-01

    The initial encounter between a buyer and a seller has received much attention among practitioners. The first time a buyer interacts with a seller is thought to be highly influential. The premise is that buyers form an opinion during this first encounter, or even the first minutes of this encounter.

  12. Heterogeneous car buyers: a stylized fact

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. Aizcorbe; Benjamin Bridgman; Jeremy J. Nalewaik

    2009-01-01

    Using a new dataset, we document a systematic pattern in the demographic characteristics of car buyers over the model year: as vehicle prices fall over the model year, so do buyer incomes. This pattern is consistent with price-insensitive buyers purchasing early in the year, while others wait until prices decline, and suggests price skimming (i.e. intertemporal price discrimination). Such consumer heterogeneity over the model year raises questions for measuring quality improvements in new goods.

  13. Coal supply shortage - buyers beware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moth, M; Phillips, K

    1988-08-01

    Since the commencement of 1988, the world coal market has witnessed a number of quite remarkable shifts and realignments that have ostensibly resulted from import demand surges, notably in Europe and the Pacific Rim but perhaps more significantly also from constraints on supply, most obviously in Australia but also seen elsewhere in the PRC, Colombia, Poland, and South Africa. Consequently, this has left the USA as the only remaining reliable surplus supplier of high volume quality steam and metallurgical coals to the world market. Importantly, it has to be recognised that these existing supply/demand factors will not disappear overnight. What has been a very strong buyers' market for coal throughout at least the last six years is now no longer the case. Coal purchasers around the globe have to be prepared for an extended and indeed a refreshing period of 'seller power' with scarcity of supply and higher coal prices forecast to extend well into next year and maybe even longer. The message for coal importers who have not yet woken up to the new order of things is very clear, 'today is possibly already too late to secure coal purchases for delivery in 1988 because many exporters report they are sold out. But more important with tight supply expected to prevail, buyers should be securing their purchases now for 1989 imports requirements and delivery'. 2 figs.

  14. JCE Online: Equipment Buyers Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-01-01

    The Equipment Buyers Guide was edited by Jo Rita Jordan. The new Equipment Buyers Guide, bound into the back of this issue, is also a new resource of JCE Internet. This resource provides an online source for the information contained in the printed guide. Placing this information online allows us to regularly update it and to provide live links to the suppliers' WWW sites. The organization of the online version parallels that of the print version. There is an alphabetical list of suppliers and a categorical listing. Links to these lists are provided on every page in the left-hand navigation bar. To quickly find information about a particular supplier, you click Supplier List, click the letter that begins the supplier's name, and scroll through the list to find the supplier. To find which suppliers provide a particular type of instrument or equipment, use the Categories link; click the category of the equipment you are looking for and then click the link to a supplier. You will then be taken to an alphabetical supplier listing page where you can scroll until you find the particular supplier of the item for which you are looking. Once you have found a supplier, the online Equipment Buyers Guide gives you the traditional contact information. But in addition, you also get one-click access to the WWW sites of the suppliers that have them. Depending on the site, you should be able to find information about the items that you seek and may even be able to order the items online! We think that you will find the online version of the Equipment Buyers Guide useful. To make it more useful, please send your suggestions, any errors or omissions you find, and any additional categories to the editor at jjordan@world.std.com The online Equipment Buyers Guide can be found at JCE Online at http://JChemEd.chem.wisc.edu/JCEWWW/Resources/EBG/ JCE Online in '99 JCE Online is your online source of "all things JCE". In order to provide you with an even more useful online resource, JCE

  15. The internal competitor: Buyer motives and external supplier marketing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Sloth, Jacob Lerche; Thrane, Claus

    Abstract Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this paper is to identify buyer motives for supporting internal competitors and to suggest relevant marketing strategy elements for external suppliers confronting these internal competitors. Research method: With basis...... in a literature review we identify different buyer motives for choosing to combine external suppliers with internal production, i.e., an internal competitor. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are identified and briefly discussed. Research findings: The paper describes different buyer motives...... relevant buyer motives, the existence of different buyer motives suggests that these buyers should be targeted with different marketing strategies. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are suggested and briefly discussed. Thus, for each buyer motive it is briefly discussed (1) how...

  16. Interior Design 1992 Buyers Guide issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-30

    The Interior Design Magazine Buyers Guide is compiled with you, the designer, in mind. So it's packed with the most comprehensive collection of sources available anyplace--arranged for fast, easy access. First, the Keyword Index presents all the Buyers Guide product categories alphabetically (see the first tab divider). Refer to the page number indicated in the Product Index (second tab divider) to view various manufacturers of products under each category heading. Addresses, phone and fax numbers, regional and international showroom/representatives are located in the A-Z Index (third tab divider) in alphabetical order. Consult the table of contents for trade associations, lighting consultants, marts, and other useful sections.

  17. More solar systems thanks to 'Buyer Groups'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainsecq, M. de

    2000-01-01

    The article describes how the founding of 'Buyer Groups' can help reduce the costs and raise the attractiveness of solar water heating. The success already enjoyed by groups that have been set up in Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland and Canada is used to illustrate the idea, which is being promoted globally be the International Energy Agency (IEA). The article describes the support offered by the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES) to the addressees of the campaign, including energy utilities, building co-operatives and real estate developers. An example is given of a 'Buyer Group' project in Basel, Switzerland, where a '222 solar roofs for Basel' campaign was successful implemented

  18. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...... performance. We explore the proposed impact of diverging relationship norms on relationship expectations using data from an ongoing field study of Danish buyers and Chinese suppliers. We link these diverging expectations to the business practices of Danish buyers and Chinese and their institutional contexts...

  19. A Lightweight Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.

  20. Dual watermarking scheme for secure buyer-seller watermarking protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Neelesh; Shandilya, Madhu

    2012-04-01

    A buyer-seller watermarking protocol utilize watermarking along with cryptography for copyright and copy protection for the seller and meanwhile it also preserve buyers rights for privacy. It enables a seller to successfully identify a malicious seller from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer and provide anonymity to buyer. Up to now many buyer-seller watermarking protocols have been proposed which utilize more and more cryptographic scheme to solve many common problems such as customer's rights, unbinding problem, buyer's anonymity problem and buyer's participation in the dispute resolution. But most of them are infeasible since the buyer may not have knowledge of cryptography. Another issue is the number of steps to complete the protocols are large, a buyer needs to interact with different parties many times in these protocols, which is very inconvenient for buyer. To overcome these drawbacks, in this paper we proposed dual watermarking scheme in encrypted domain. Since neither of watermark has been generated by buyer so a general layman buyer can use the protocol.

  1. American Laundry Digest Buyer's Guide. Manufacturers directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-15

    The following is the annual American Laundry Digest Buyer's Guide which is being circulated to all segments of the laundry industry. The Guide contains a list of manufacturers who responded to our questionnaire. This is followed by a list of product categories and the various manufacturers who make these products. You may contact these companies directly or by using the reader service card in this issue.

  2. Comparison of Two Buyer-Vendor Coordination Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diar Astanti, Ririn; Ai, The Jin; Gong, Dah-Chuan; Luong, Hunyh Trung

    2018-03-01

    This paper develops and compares two mathematical models for describing situation in coordination of buyer and vendor. In this case the vendor which is an Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMS) of automotive parts, are supplying different type of buyers, i.e. automotive industry, repair shop and automotive dealers. It is well known that automotive industries are operated in Just in Time (JIT) Production Environment, so that the demand behaviour from this buyer has different characteristics than the demand behaviour from other buyers. Two mathematical models are developed in order to depict two different manufacturing strategies as the vendor response dealing with different type of buyers. These strategies are dividing production lot size for each type of buyer and consolidating all buyer’s demand in to single production lot size.

  3. Buyer feedback as a filtering mechanism for reputable sellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureti, Paolo; Slanina, František; Yu, Yi-Kuo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2002-12-01

    We propose a continuum model for the description of buyer and seller dynamics in an Internet market. The relevant variables are the research effort of buyers and the sellers’ reputation building process. We show that, if a commercial website gives consumers the possibility to rate credibly sellers they bargained with, vendors are forced to be more honest. This leads to mutual beneficial symbiosis between buyers and sellers; the overall enhanced volume of transactions contributes ultimately to the website, which facilitates the matchmaking service.

  4. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  5. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  6. Vendor-buyer ordering policy when demand is trapezoidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digeshkumar B. Shah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A joint vendor-buyer strategy is analyzed which is beneficial to both the players in the supply chain. The demand is assumed to be trapezoidal. It is established numerically that the joint venture decreases the total cost of the supply chain when compared with the independent decision of the buyer. To entice the buyer to order more units, a permissible credit period is offered by the vendor to the buyer. A negotiation factor is incorporated to share the cost savings.

  7. Buyer-Seller Interaction Patterns During Ongoing Service Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Valk (Wendy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have

  8. A review of organizational buyer behaviour models and theories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years, models have been developed, and theories propounded, to explain the behavior of industrial buyers on the one hand and the nature of the dyadic relationship between organizational buyers and sellers on the other hand. This paper is an attempt at a review of the major models and theories in extant ...

  9. Does behaviour of heavy and light wine buyers differ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lockshin, Larry; Habenschuss, Sarah

    and contribution to a brand’s sales, light wine buyers comprise an important target group for small share wine brands. Winemakers of small brands should acknowledge this fact, trying to meet expectations of light buyers as well. In addition, direct marketing strategies could be adapted for each group individually......Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the differences in behaviour between heavy and light wine buyers. This is conducted by comparing heavy and light buyers of wine in terms of their repertoires including the size, purchase frequency and market shares across brands, as well as loyalty...... exhibited towards particular wine attributes. Design/methodology/approach: Using panel data of wine purchases in the UK for each buyer group (light and heavy) market shares and loyalty to wine attributes were examined. The polarisation index φ (phi) was used as a measure of loyalty. Findings: The light...

  10. Peru seeking buyer for productive offshore tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) is seeking a buyer for its Petromar offshore exploration and production unit. Peru's national oil company wants to sell Petromar acreage, production, and production installations on Block Z-2b for $200 million, payable at $10 million/year for 20 years, plus a share of future production. Petroperu is offering a full interest petroleum exploration and exploitation contract for 30 years for oil and as long as 40 years in the case of gas exploitation. The company seeking the smallest share of current and incremental future production to operate Block Z-2b will be awarded the acreage. Petromar's sale is the latest announced under Peru's privatization program ordered by President Alberto Jujimori

  11. Solar marketing - Why solar buyers take their time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roush, B.

    1990-01-01

    Solar marketing is a difficult and complex subject. Most of the author's customers are in the Extensive Problem Solving mode. They don't know them and they don't know their products. There is no need for them to force a potential buyer to do more work than necessary. If you've thought of a good solar use, show it to potential buyers by placing it in a setting they are familiar with. Compare solar products to products they know. Use memorable phrases to capture and convey what your product does best. Use words that have a clear meaning to all of your potential buyers. No one solution will work for every case, but there are marketing techniques that they can use to get their message across to potential buyers. The sooner they become adept at using them, the better their sales results will be

  12. Buyer-focused operations as a supply chain strategy : Identifying the influence of business characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, T; van Donk, DP

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - Buyer-focused operations aim at a high level of supply chain alignment by singling out resources for one buyer in order to serve this buyer optimally. The purpose of this paper is to identify what business characteristics make suppliers choose buyer-focused operations as a supply chain

  13. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  14. Local Buyer Market Power and Horizontally Differentiated Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shinn-Shyr; Rojas, Christian; Lavoie, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a farmer-processor relationship, where market power is bidirectional: processors have buyer as well as seller market power. Farmers supply a homogeneous raw input to the processors, which, in turn, process it into a horizontally differentiated product. The analysis shows that the spread between prices that both parties receive can be decomposed into two components: one due to buyer market power in the agricultural input market and one due to seller market power in the d...

  15. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  16. Buyer-Supplier Relationships and Power Position: Interchaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebatollah Morsy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to several studies, power and interdependence play a considerable role in understanding the buyer–supplier relationships, yet, empirical research is still limited. Also, the nature of the buyer-supplier relationship and managing them might vary based on the power position of buyers and suppliers. Few studies focused on the reason behind this interrelation and strong influence of power on the buyer-supplier relationships. Thus, the purpose of this study is to gain better understanding and try to identify how power position and buyer-supplier relationships are interrelated, and whether there are common determinants and/or characteristics behind this strong bond between the two concepts. Both transaction cost analysis theory and social exchange theory were integrated in building the argument. Regarding the methodology, qualitative exploratory research design was employed by using multiple-case study as the main research method, where three multinational Egyptian organizations were selected. Moreover, data was collected using individual in-depth interviews, and analyzed through coding and cross case analysis techniques. The results showed that there are common factors that influence both buyer-supplier relationship characteristics and power position attributes. And according, the findings helped in pointing out a new lens of discussing and investigating the bond between buyer-supplier relationships ad power in research.

  17. Managerial accounting in the system of payments with enterprise buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegel'nik N.I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, in the period of global changes in different spheres of social activity, the issue of managerial accounting in the system of payments with buyers is actual enough as the efficiency of management of enterprise economic activity to a great extent depends exactly on the information resources of managerial accounting. The managerial accounting in the system of payments with buyers is adjusted on the implementation of enterprise strategies, that is the construction of administrative accounting depends on the strategy of market scope. There is a necessity to make the decision about how many places for selling products should be opened on a certain geographical territory to satisfy the necessities of present and potential clients of a special purpose group in products, commodities and services. The system of tasks of administrative accounting in the system of payments with buyers is formulated, that allows to unite all the information about the products sold, will do the information integral and will enable users, in particular, the leader of an enterprise, to a great extent to take the opportunity to get the complete information on the state of calculations with buyers and to make administrative decisions correctly in order to avoid complicated and contradictory situations with buyers. The paper determines the directions for further researches in relation to the development of issues, which have direct regard to the buyers of purchase-sale contractual relations.

  18. Determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness in transnational companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rašković

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective supplier-buyer relationship management should not be seen only in terms of cost and financial measures, as outlined by Transaction cost economics, but also in terms of other (“softer” relational benefits, like e.g. more comprehensive information sharing, higher levels of trust, better cooperation and increased relationship flexibility. This second view is grounded in both Relationship marketing and Resource-advantage theory. Surprisingly, only a few research papers on supplier-buyer relationships address both of these perspectives equally, as well as in terms of long-term competitiveness (vis-avis a traditional short-term performance. The purpose of this paper is to analyze business relationship determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, where we study the impact of (1 relationship-based information exchange, (2 network spillover effects, (3 transaction-specific investments, (4 trust, (5 cooperation (joint actions and (6 flexibility on perceived (7 supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness. In this regard the main research question of our study is: Which relational and transactional dimensions determine supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, as well as how strongly? To provide the answer this research question we employ an exploratory-type Partial Least Squares (PLS regression in conjunction with a novel perspective of network spillover effects, as a set of independent variables in our model. The data set consists of a sample of 130 international suppliers (approx. 30 % response rate connected to a transnational company (TNC headquartered in Slovenia, which operates in the steel construction solutions’ industry. Our results clearly identify a relational and a transactional set of determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, with the former having a significantly higher impact on competitiveness than the latter. With regards to specific dimensions associated with this relational component

  19. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten

    Empirical studies of retailer buying behaviour show which attributes are important when retail buyers choose between new products and suppliers. Skytte & Blunch (1998) identified which attributes make a difference to retail buyers in Western Europe when buying fish products, and they identified...... the following five segments of retail buyer policy based on the results: 1) 'Relationship builders' are small chains that focus on long term relationships. 2) 'The traditional chains' are small or medium-sized and include many co-operative chains that demand high product quality. They also want suppliers...... that are able to deliver sufficient quantities. 3) Voluntary chains are dominating the 'large chains' segment. They have a high share of private label products and want long term relationships with suppliers and sufficient quantities. 4) 'Green shops' include many small wholesalers sponsored chains and co...

  20. Monitoring in service triads consisting of buyers, subcontractors and end customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Iwaarden, van J.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations increasingly outsource service delivery to specialist subcontractors. These buyers, their subcontractors and their end customers operate in a triadic service relationship. In these triads, the buyer lacks direct control over service delivery and completely depends on the subcontractor

  1. The antecedents of buyers' perceived justice in online markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shun-Po; Chou, Huey-Wen; Chiu, Chao-Min

    2013-07-01

    The success of a business largely depends upon customers' intentions to continue to purchase, but this can be a challenge for vendors in online markets. This study proposes a model which identifies an initial set of justice antecedents and evaluates their relation to perceived justice, trust, and repurchase intention in online markets. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modeling on a data set of 424 buyers in Yahoo! Kimo online auction market. The results demonstrate that three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) are positively and significantly related to trust, which in turn affects buyers' intention to repurchase. Moreover, among the three dimensions of justice judgments, distributive justice and interactional justice are relatively more important than procedural justice in predicting buyers' trust in sellers. In terms of the antecedents of justice, this study provides evidence that product quality and delivery performance are significantly related to distributive justice, while information quality and contact channel are important antecedents of procedural justice. This study also finds that responsiveness is important in enhancing buyers' judgments of interactional justice.

  2. Enrichment overview: fierce competition in a buyers' market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    There is considerable market uncertainty about what the non-US suppliers of enrichment will do to compete in the light of recent Department of Energy action on technology, price and contracts. But virtually whatever happens, it will be the enrichment customer who will benefit. The ''buyers market'' of today will continue. (author)

  3. Research Out On What Buyers of Used Pallets Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Ronen Roudik; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary findings from a new study on repaired pallets indicate that pallet users donât like half companion stringers, split deckboards and protruding fasteners. There has been an awareness for some time that buyers of repaired/recycled pallets prefer to receive pallets that are "like new". However, the reality of the business is that repaired/recycled...

  4. Heterogeneity within compulsive buyers: a Q-sort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Kate; Kellett, Stephen; Davies, Jason

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated how compulsive buyers make sense of their excessive shopping behaviour to explore possible sources of heterogeneity between compulsive buyers. Twenty female participants met 'caseness' for compulsive buying (CB) on the CB Scale (CBS), prior to completing a Q-sort specifically related to their experiences of shopping. Participants provided details of occupation, income, and debt levels and completed two psychometric scales: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV). Principle component analysis (PCA) identified two groups within the compulsive buyers (labelled positive reinforcement and emotional distress) that explained 44% of the study variance. Ten women defined the positive reinforcement factor and tended to identify with pleasurable aspects of buying. Six women characterized the emotional distress factor and endorsed varied financial, emotional, and interpersonal difficulties associated with their CB. The emotional distress group carried significantly greater current debt levels and had significantly more severe CB. The study illustrates that compulsive buyers can relate to their 'symptoms' in dissimilar ways. The clinical implications of such heterogeneity are discussed, methodological shortcomings identified, and areas for future research indicated. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Clean Cities Light-Duty Vehicle Buyer's Guide is a consumer publication that provides a comprehensive list of commercially available alternative fuel and advanced vehicles in model year 2011. The guide allows for side-by-side comparisons of fuel economy, price, emissions, and vehicle specifications.

  6. Effective buyer-supplier interaction patterns in ongoing service exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Axelsson, B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop theory on effective buyer-seller interaction for different types of business services. A classification of business services which identifies four service types based on how they are used by the buying company is used. Design/methodology/approach –

  7. On the equivalence of buyer and seller proposals within canonical matching and pricing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Daniel

    This paper considers equilibrium proposals by either buyers or sellers in the canonical ‘urnball’ matching market. The proposals can either be posted prices announced by buyers; posted prices announced by sellers; or announcements by sellers (or by buyers) to entertain price proposals, as in auct...

  8. Nash and integrated solutions in a just-in-time seller-buyer supply chain with buyer's ordering cost reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    The seller frequently offers the buyer trade credit to settle the purchase amount. From the seller's prospective, granting trade credit increases not only the opportunity cost (i.e., the interest loss on the buyer's purchase amount during the credit period) but also the default risk (i.e., the rate that the buyer will be unable to pay off his/her debt obligations). On the other hand, granting trade credit increases sales volume and revenue. Consequently, trade credit is an important strategy to increase seller's profitability. In this paper, we assume that the seller uses trade credit and number of shipments in a production run as decision variables to maximise his/her profit, while the buyer determines his/her replenishment cycle time and capital investment as decision variables to reduce his/her ordering cost and achieve his/her maximum profit. We then derive non-cooperative Nash solution and cooperative integrated solution in a just-in-time inventory system, in which granting trade credit increases not only the demand but also the opportunity cost and default risk, and the relationship between the capital investment and the ordering cost reduction is logarithmic. Then, we use a software to solve and compare these two distinct solutions. Finally, we use sensitivity analysis to obtain some managerial insights.

  9. Measuring network competence in buyer-supplier relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Human

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Managing multiple buyer-seller relationships in business-to-business networks demands an understanding of a firm’s competence to manage in an interconnected environment.  This paper reports on an attempt to measure network competence by using the NetCompTest scale in business-to-business markets in South Africa. Based on a pilot study refinement, the paper proposes an adjusted measurement scale and details the results of a second round of measurement conducted amongst 495 business-to-business managers in South Africa. The results established partial support for the use of the NetCompTest scale in a South African context, and analysis of variance indicated that some differences in the measurement based on firm and individual characteristics can be observed in the data. The paper assists in theory-building and provides managerial insights for managing buyer-supplier relationships in networks.

  10. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  11. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-01-01

    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...

  12. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  13. HIGH SERVE - service for nuclear technology. Buyers' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (German Atomic Forum) has organised a specialist conference with the title 'HIGH SERVE - service for nuclear technology' for October 1986. In parallel with the conference, an exhibition will make it possible for interested firms to present their service and product ranges. The experience gained in the preparation of this exhibition has been used to produce the 'HIGH SERVE - buyers guide'. The intention is to make the market more comprehensible. (orig./HP) [de

  14. A Secure Watermarking Scheme for Buyer-Seller Identification and Copyright Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fawad; Sattar, Farook; Siyal, Mohammed Yakoob; Yu, Dan

    2006-12-01

    We propose a secure watermarking scheme that integrates watermarking with cryptography for addressing some important issues in copyright protection. We address three copyright protection issues—buyer-seller identification, copyright infringement, and ownership verification. By buyer-seller identification, we mean that a successful watermark extraction at the buyer's end will reveal the identities of the buyer and seller of the watermarked image. For copyright infringement, our proposed scheme enables the seller to identify the specific buyer from whom an illegal copy of the watermarked image has originated, and further prove this fact to a third party. For multiple ownership claims, our scheme enables a legal seller to claim his/her ownership in the court of law. We will show that the combination of cryptography with watermarking not only increases the security of the overall scheme, but it also enables to associate identities of buyer/seller with their respective watermarked images.

  15. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfas, Benjamin G; Büttner, Oliver B; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  16. Well-planned due diligence can protect buyers of healthcare entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, L W; Campbell, A T

    2000-10-01

    Conducting a thorough due diligence is essential for any buyer that plans to acquire a healthcare entity, including a hospital or a group practice, because it provides an opportunity for the buyer to uncover billing or other fraud-and-abuse problems within the selling organization. These problems can be significant, because the buyer can be held liable for undiscovered billing problems that result in investigation, prosecution, and penalties. It is important for the buyer to ascertain who bears the liability of fraud-and-abuse violations and attempt to protect itself from assuming such liability.

  17. An Integrated Vendor-Buyer Model with Stock-Dependent Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    in the buyer's warehouse. The demand is assumed to be positively dependent on the amount of items shown in the display area. The proposed model determines the buyer's optimal shipment quantity and number of shipments, as well as the vendor's optimal production batch. The objective is to maximize total supply......-chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that as long as the maximum display area is not used, it is more valuable for the buyer and the vendor to cooperate in situations when the demand is more stock- dependent. It also shows the effect of double marginalization in this integrated vendor-buyer model....

  18. SURVEY ON SOLIDARITY GROUPS OF BUYERS: CRITICAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pennisi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is intended to provide, through the analysis of the dynamics of purchase of solidarity groups of buyers, a contribution to the study of current trends that are affecting the alternative to the dominant agro-food industry. Through the use of a questionnaire the paper investigated the perception as consumers this particular class of buyers have of themselves and how their concepts of “conscious choice” and “responsibility” drive their shopping list and consequently influence the growth and development of the Short Supply Chain, as the work remarked the progressive and notable increment of commerce and families circling around this young but widespreading phenomenon. Particularly striking, in fact, emerge from the role that consumers are becoming part of this phenomenon and the most of them have matured during time the idea that biological and hand-made products are for themselves also Safe, while the Long Supply Chain should incarnate the role of an alienating and wholly food system. The analysis of the questionnaires revealed some problems concerning the methods of transport and storage.

  19. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

  20. LDC gas buyers adjusting to vastly changed market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1997-01-01

    In a just-released study, RKS Research and Consulting reported that while power and gas marketing firms may become key players in the deregulated energy business, few of their customers and seeing a national leader emerge. The report said while 75% of large customers interviewed already use energy marketers, only 25% evidence a clear understanding of these firms' skills and product /offerings. The study found that the energy users considered reliable energy supply, service dependability and quality/reliability of fuel sources their top three criteria and apply that to utilities and energy marketing firms. The marketers may offer some unique services, such as a commanding market presence, fuel diversity, skill in using financial derivatives and record of successful risk management, but those offerings are generally at the bottom of the list that energy users use when considering power and gas marketers, the study said. What does this all mean to the gas utilities, both in terms of buying supplies as well as providing gas against their newly emerging competitors? The author asked gas buyers from five LDCs to discuss the challenges they face in doing their jobs today. Their comments are relevant because it is not only an example of a new way of doing business, but is also indicative of the choices and problems one will endure in buying energy in an increasingly deregulated environment. And remember this: the utilities are still the predominant buyers of gas

  1. 16 CFR 460.16 - What new home sellers must tell new home buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.16 What new home sellers must tell new home buyers. If you are a new home seller, you must put the following information in every sales contract: The type... exception to this rule. If the buyer signs a sales contract before you know what type of insulation will be...

  2. Assessing buyer-supplier relationship management : A multiple case-study in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, J.; Voordijk, H.; Vos, G.C.J.M.; Buter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on obstacles to, and opportunities for, increasing the effectiveness of construction firms in managing buyer-supplier relationships. More specifically, the focus is on assessing the maturity level of buyer-supplier relationship management by construction

  3. The role of brands in the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive versus noncompulsive buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – This article investigates the role that brands play in influencing the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive buyers and whether this role differs for noncompulsive buyers, resulting in four research propositions. - Design/methodology/approach – In-depth interviews, conducted with

  4. Assessing buyer-supplier relationship management: a multiple case-study in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Jeroen; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Vos, B.; Buter, J.I.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on obstacles to, and opportunities for, increasing the effectiveness of construction firms in managing buyer-supplier relationships. More specifically, the focus is on assessing the maturity level of buyer-supplier relationship management by construction

  5. Heterogeneity of compulsive buyers based on impulsivity and compulsivity dimensions: a latent profile analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan

    2013-07-30

    Despite the recognition that compulsive buyers are not one homogenous group, there is a dearth of theory-guided empirical investigation. Furthermore, although compulsivity and impulsivity are used as major psychiatric criteria for diagnosing compulsive buyers, these dimensions have rarely been considered in assessing the heterogeneity issue. We fill this gap by applying the motivation shift model of addiction to compulsive buying and empirically assessing the heterogeneity issue in the bi-dimensional space represented by the buying impulsivity and compulsivity dimensions. These hypotheses were tested with latent profile analysis based on survey data (N=445). Consistent with the hypothesis, we identified the cluster of buyers with high buying compulsivity and impulsivity ("compulsive-impulsive buyers"), the cluster of buyers with low buying compulsivity and high impulsivity ("impulsive excessive buyers"), and the cluster of ordinary buyers. Furthermore, it was found that disparate clusters of buyers exhibit unique dispositional tendencies. Theoretical contributions and policy implications of the findings are discussed as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 9 CFR 381.191 - Distribution of inspected products to small lot buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... small lot buyers. 381.191 Section 381.191 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...; Exportation; or Sale of Poultry or Poultry Products § 381.191 Distribution of inspected products to small lot... small lot buyers (such as small restaurants), distributors or jobbers may remove inspected and passed...

  7. The influence of the sustainability agenda on buyer-supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    The positive effect of supplier-buyer relationships on supply chain performance has al-ready been supported by previous studies. Yet, little empirical research has explored how the sustainability agenda influences these relationships. Thus, this study investi-gates how supplier-buyer relationships...

  8. Reinforcing Buyer Power : Trade Quotas and Supply Diversification in the EU Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikonnikova, S.; Zwart, G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a market with concentrated domestic buyers and concentrated foreign sellers and explore the extent to which domestic regulation helps to increase the buyers' countervailing power against the foreign sellers. We use the Shapley value to describe the distribution of the trade surplus and

  9. Socially acceptable incineration - a view from the buyer's side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbie, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    To be socially acceptable an energy from waste plant should be comprehensible to the local public with at least some of its positive benefits accruing to the neighbourhood. Whilst recognising the complexity of key players there is some merit in regarding the public as the buyer since the public influences decisions and ultimately funds the plant. Communicating directly with the public would also facilitate a rational approach to recycling and the need to consider energy from waste as a valid contributor to recycling efforts. The ultimate aim of waste management and energy supply must be the preservation of non renewable, natural resources. Higher plant efficiencies and lower unit capital costs are usually associated with larger scale plants. It is suggested however that there are limitations to economy of scale and in any event consideration of aspects other than financial might affect the choice of plant size. (author)

  10. Eyes Wide Shopped: Shopping Situations Trigger Arousal in Impulsive Buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfas, Benjamin G.; Büttner, Oliver B.; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

  11. LPG markets face upheaval as buyers press for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the system used for selling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) where the sellers set the market price with Saudi Arabia dominating the market. The introduction and acceptance of a new method for setting the export price in relation to the spot price, the production of more LPG for export than forecast, the impact on the Saudi Arabian methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) industry of California's banning MTBE additives to petrol,and the possibility of Asian buyers renegotiating the supply agreements are discussed. Details of Saudi Arabia's petrochemical plants planning to use LPG and world LPG production for 1998 are tabulated. The US market, and new systems for trading and pricing are considered. (UK)

  12. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin G Serfas

    Full Text Available The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  13. 9 CFR 203.5 - Statement with respect to market agencies paying the expenses of livestock buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commission basis, to pay certain of the business or personal expenses incurred by buyers attending livestock... commission basis, to pay, directly or indirectly, any personal or business expenses of livestock buyers... agencies paying the expenses of livestock buyers. 203.5 Section 203.5 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN...

  14. Consumer Products Advertised to Save Energy--Let the Buyer Beware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-24

    AD-AL06 653 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC HUMAN RESOUR--ETC F/G 5/3 CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADVERTISED TO SAVE ENERGY--LET THE BUYER BEWA-ETC...COMPTROLLER GENERAL’S CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADVERTISED REPORT TO THE CONGRESS TO SAVE ENERGY- - LET THE BUYER BEWARE D IG E ST In efforts to reduce energy costs...and comparable, GAO believes that the best ad- vice for consumers is "let the buyer beware." (See p. 42.) F’TC ’S COMMENTS FTC said that GAO

  15. An integrated vendor-buyer model with stock-dependent demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    in a display area. The end-customer demand is assumed to be positively dependent on the amount of items shown in the display area. With the proposed model we determine the buyer's optimal shipment quantity and number of shipments, as well as the vendor's optimal production batch. The objective is to maximize...... total supply chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that it is more profitable for the buyer and the vendor to cooperate in situations when the demand is more stock-dependent. The analysis also shows the effect of double marginalization in this integrated vendor-buyer model....

  16. An integrated vendor-buyer model with stock-dependent demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    We develop an integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain. The vendor manufactures the product and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area. Demand is assumed to be positively dependent...... on the amount of items displayed. The objective is to maximize total supply chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that buyer-vendor coordination is more profitable in situations when demand is more stock dependent. It also shows that the effect of double marginalization provides a link between the non...

  17. Perceptions of technology uncertainty and the consequences for performance in buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, M.; van der Vaart, T.; Molleman, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how buyers' and suppliers' distinct perceptions of technology uncertainty affect the relationship between communication frequency and supplier performance. Information processing theory suggests that a fit is desirable between perceived environmental uncertainty and the

  18. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Hendon, Ebbe

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good with...... with large probability, even as friction becomes negligible. We investigate the relationship between the use of Nash and sequential bargaining. Nash bargaining seems applicable only when the sequential approach yields a unique stationary strategy subgame perfect equilibrium...

  20. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Tranæs, Torben

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good with...... with large probability, even as friction becomes negligible. We investigate the relationship between the use of Nash and sequential bargaining. Nash bargaining seems applicable only when the sequential approach yields a unique stationary strategy subgame perfect equilibrium....

  1. Development of modified rational buyer auction for procurement of ancillary services utilizing participation matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamalzadeh, R.; Ardehali, M.M.; Rashidinejad, M.

    2008-01-01

    The rational buyer auction is based on a simultaneous auction that is the redesigned auction mechanism for ancillary services by the California independent system operator (CAISO). The incentive for the rational buyer auction is CAISO's intent to adopt a common sense rule of substituting higher-quality lower-cost services for lower-quality higher-cost services, when it results in reduced total procurement cost. For the purposes of designing a desirable auction where the minimum cost for the objective function as well as prevention of price reversal are achieved, either the payment cost in marginal pricing auction must be lowered or price reversal in rational buyer auction must be avoided. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop a newly proposed 'modified rational buyer' auction that does not allow price reversal and (b) to propose and validate a solution procedure that is based on participation matrix and discrete programming. The validation of the proposed solution procedure is accomplished through examination of two case studies available in the literature. Based on the first case study data, it is shown that the newly developed modified rational buyer auction avoids price reversal occurrence, while the total payment of ISO is increased by 5.8%, as compared with rational buyer auction. Also in comparison with marginal pricing auction, the ISO payment is lowered by 38.8%, when the newly developed modified rational buyer auction is utilized. For future work, it is recommended that the application of the modified rational buyer auction to joint dispatch of energy and ancillary services is investigated

  2. Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying

  3. Coordinating vendor-buyer decisions for imperfect quality items considering trade credit and fully backlogged shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditi; Gautam, Prerna; Jaggi, Chandra K.

    2016-03-01

    Supply chain management has become a critical issue for modern business environments. In today's world of cooperative decision-making, individual decisions in order to reduce inventory costs may not lead to an overall optimal solution. Coordination is necessary among participants of supply chain to achieve better performance. There are legitimate and important efforts from the vendor to enhance the relation with buyer; one such effort is offering trade credit which has been a driver of growth and development of business between them. The cost of financing is a core consideration in effective financial management, in general and in context of business. Also, due to imperfect production a vendor may produce defective items which results in shortages. Motivated with these aspects, an integrated vendor-buyer inventory model is developed for imperfect quality items with allowable shortages; in which the vendor offers credit period to the buyer for payment. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer by using integrated decision making approach. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical analysis shows that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction, in comparison to independent decision policies by the vendor and the buyer.

  4. Analysing Buyers' and Sellers' Strategic Interactions in Marketplaces: An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Cliff, Dave; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    We develop a new model to analyse the strategic behaviour of buyers and sellers in market mechanisms. In particular, we wish to understand how the different strategies they adopt affect their economic efficiency in the market and to understand the impact of these choices on the overall efficiency of the marketplace. To this end, we adopt a two-population evolutionary game theoretic approach, where we consider how the behaviours of both buyers and sellers evolve in marketplaces. In so doing, we address the shortcomings of the previous state-of-the-art analytical model that assumes that buyers and sellers have to adopt the same mixed strategy in the market. Finally, we apply our model in one of the most common market mechanisms, the Continuous Double Auction, and demonstrate how it allows us to provide new insights into the strategic interactions of such trading agents.

  5. Buyer-vendor coordination for fixed lifetime product with quantity discount under finite production rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghong; Luo, Jianwen; Duan, Yongrui

    2016-03-01

    Buyer-vendor coordination has been widely addressed; however, the fixed lifetime of the product is seldom considered. In this paper, we study the coordination of an integrated production-inventory system with quantity discount for a fixed lifetime product under finite production rate and deterministic demand. We first derive the buyer's ordering policy and the vendor's production batch size in decentralised and centralised systems. We then compare the two systems and show the non-coordination of the ordering policies and the production batch sizes. To improve the supply chain efficiency, we propose quantity discount contract and prove that the contract can coordinate the buyer-vendor supply chain. Finally, we present analytically tractable solutions and give a numerical example to illustrate the benefits of the proposed quantity discount strategy.

  6. Buyer Liability and Voluntary Inspections in International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. A Laboratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, T.N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of the allowances cannot redeem them to cover emissions. We find that allowing inspections significantly increases the reliability investment rate and overall efficiency. Prices of uninspected allowances usually trade at a substantial discount due to the buyer liability rule, which provides a strong market incentive for sellers to invest in reliability

  7. Unpacking buyer-seller differences in valuation from experience: A cognitive modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Scheibehenne, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    People often indicate a higher price for an object when they own it (i.e., as sellers) than when they do not (i.e., as buyers)-a phenomenon known as the endowment effect. We develop a cognitive modeling approach to formalize, disentangle, and compare alternative psychological accounts (e.g., loss aversion, loss attention, strategic misrepresentation) of such buyer-seller differences in pricing decisions of monetary lotteries. To also be able to test possible buyer-seller differences in memory and learning, we study pricing decisions from experience, obtained with the sampling paradigm, where people learn about a lottery's payoff distribution from sequential sampling. We first formalize different accounts as models within three computational frameworks (reinforcement learning, instance-based learning theory, and cumulative prospect theory), and then fit the models to empirical selling and buying prices. In Study 1 (a reanalysis of published data with hypothetical decisions), models assuming buyer-seller differences in response bias (implementing a strategic-misrepresentation account) performed best; models assuming buyer-seller differences in choice sensitivity or memory (implementing a loss-attention account) generally fared worst. In a new experiment involving incentivized decisions (Study 2), models assuming buyer-seller differences in both outcome sensitivity (as proposed by a loss-aversion account) and response bias performed best. In both Study 1 and 2, the models implemented in cumulative prospect theory performed best. Model recovery studies validated our cognitive modeling approach, showing that the models can be distinguished rather well. In summary, our analysis supports a loss-aversion account of the endowment effect, but also reveals a substantial contribution of simple response bias.

  8. The Trust-Committment-Flexibility Link in Transnational Buyer-Supplier Relationships: A Network Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rašković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the manner in which trust and commitment impact relationship flexibility in a transnational buyer-supplier network context. There is an abundance of research on trust and commitment related to buyer-supplier relationships in the marketing literature; however, their link to relationship flexibility in particular has not attracted much attention within the marketing field to date. Whereas the marketing literature tends to focus on traditional performance outcomes in buyer-supplier relationships (i.e. financial performance, satisfaction, loyalty, the supply chain management literature emphasizes the importance of flexibility as fundamental characteristics of well-performing supply networks. In this paper, a novel network analysis approach is employed for the marketing literature to analyze the link between trust, commitment and relationship flexibility. The analyzed network is a two-mode, egocentric and valued network, consisting of 11 purchasing managers and 53 suppliers connected to a transnational company in the steel construction industry with headquarters in Slovenia. To analyze the impact of trust and commitment on buyer-supplier relationship flexibility, a Multiple Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure (MRQAP approach was used. Results show that trust and commitment are not just important determinants of buyer-supplier relationship flexibility in a network context, but also how their impact on relationship flexibility changes depending on the importance of the buyer-supplier relationship. In high importance relationships trust is the overwhelming determinant of relationship flexibility, while in low importance relationships commitment is a more important determinant of relationship flexibility.

  9. "Bitch, You Got What You Deserved!": Violation and Violence in Sex Buyer Reviews of Legal Brothels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovski, Natalie; Tyler, Meagan

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we use feminist critical discourse analysis to examine online brothel reviews (148 reviews and 2,424 reply posts) of sex buyers in the context of debates surrounding harm minimization. Our findings show that sex buyers actively construct and normalize narratives of sexual violation and violence against women in licensed brothels through their language, referencing objectification, unsafe sex practices, and, in more extreme cases, rape to create a sense of community with other punters. Through this analysis, we challenge existing assumptions about harm minimization in systems of prostitution, which are legalized or fully decriminalized.

  10. Enhancing Buyer-Supplier Collaboration through Daily Conversations at Shopfloor Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardon, Thibaut; Arnaud, Nicolas; Villeseche, Florence

    aspect of this interorganizational communication: the conversations that take place between shop-floor employees of partnering firms. Studying such daily conversations in situ affords insights on the foundations of efficient buyer-supplier communication beyond managerial level strategy making. We rely...... on the strategy as practice perspective that emphasizes the strategic role of conversations at all hierarchical levels as a key means by which strategy develops on a daily basis. This paper provides evidence of how daily conversations between shop-floor employees can enhance buyer-supplier collaboration...

  11. The buying motives of European retail buyers: An analysis of buying behaviour for pork in four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    consequences and values sought by buyers, and to identify the relationship between and hierarchy of specific attributes, consequences and values in the four countries, and with the purpose of analysing differences. To analyse the values of retail buyers, 83 laddering interviews were conducted with the retail...... buyers responsible for buying pork in the four countries. The value maps created by the means-end structures showed that many of the attributes, consequences and values were the same across countries and products. While there was a similarity in the elements used, we found major differences...... in the relationship of attributes and consequences for product quality, consumer satisfaction and retail image among retail buyers of pork. Our study also showed that the same attributes lead to different consequences in the four countries. The study revealed that it is possible to analyse what the retail buyers want...

  12. An application-based classification to understand buyer-seller interaction in business services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Axelsson, B.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – Most existing classifications of business services have taken the perspective of the supplier as opposed to that of the buyer. To address this imbalance, the purpose of this paper is to propose a classification of business services based on how the buying company applies the

  13. The Law and Economics of Buyer Power in EU Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, F.A.H. van

    2015-01-01

    The trend of retail concentration across the European Union has raised concerns on the buyer power that retailers may have in the relation with their suppliers. Specifically, due to the alleged increasing pressure on producer and supplier margins in various distribution chains, but the increased

  14. Factors influencing buyers' willingness to offer price premiums for carbon credits sourced from urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.C. Poudyal; J.M. Bowker; J.P. Siry

    2015-01-01

    Marketing carbon offset credits generated by urban forest projects could help cities and local governments achieve their financial self-sufficiency and environmental sustainability goals. Understanding the value of carbon credits sourced from urban forests, and the factors that determine buyers’ willingness to pay a premium for such credits could benefit cities in...

  15. Classifying carbon credit buyers according to their attitudes towards and involvement in CDM sustainability labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnphumeesup, Piya; Kerr, Sandy A.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon markets are increasingly conscious of the social and environmental 'quality' of credits delivered by CDM projects. Consequently carbon credits are no longer viewed as a homogenous good and buyers now differentiate between credits supplied by different types of CDM project. The objective of this paper is to classify CER buyers according to their attitudes towards and preferences for CDM sustainability labels. K-means clustering was used to segment a sample of buyers into two clusters. The results indicate that two clear clusters exist with distinct profile patterns. Moreover, the results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the two-cluster solution was valid. Finally, the results of the chi-square analysis and a cross-tabulation showed that these two clusters were significantly different in: organization type; level of paid up capital; perception of sustainable development benefits; perception of return on investment; perception of image of the sustainability labeling; participation in the voluntary market; the project priority; knowledge in the sustainability label; attitude towards the host country's duty; and their willingness to pay. - Highlights: → The K-means clustering was used to classify CER buyers in the primary market. → The carbon market is divided into two: the premium market; and the normal market. → Governments tend to be members of the premium market. → 82% of members in the premium market are willing to pay a price premium for CERs.

  16. Performance in vegetable supply chains: the role of Guanxi networks and buyer-seller relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,; Feng, S.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Guanxi is the lifeblood of the Chinese society. It also becomes a hot topic for achieving business success in China. The primary goal of this exploratory study is to empirically investigate the effect of guanxi networks on buyer¿seller relationships and market performance for the Chinese vegetable

  17. Decision Criteria for German Hardwood Lumber Buyers: Market Needs and Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Ponzurick; Robert J. Bush; Dieter Schaupp; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of hardwood exports to the German market. A mail survey was conducted which resulted in a 47.8 percent rate of response. Of those German hardwood buyers responding to the survey, 71 percent purchased hardwood lumber directly from North America.

  18. Buyer social responsibility: a general concept and its implications for marketing management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of sustainability concerns in consumer decision-making poses new challenges to marketing. The existing literature contains a variety of concepts and definitions that pertain to social issues in consumption but lacks an overarching conceptualisation of buyer social responsibility (BSR)

  19. Classifying carbon credit buyers according to their attitudes towards and involvement in CDM sustainability labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnphumeesup, Piya, E-mail: pp66@hw.ac.uk [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kerr, Sandy A. [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Carbon markets are increasingly conscious of the social and environmental 'quality' of credits delivered by CDM projects. Consequently carbon credits are no longer viewed as a homogenous good and buyers now differentiate between credits supplied by different types of CDM project. The objective of this paper is to classify CER buyers according to their attitudes towards and preferences for CDM sustainability labels. K-means clustering was used to segment a sample of buyers into two clusters. The results indicate that two clear clusters exist with distinct profile patterns. Moreover, the results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the two-cluster solution was valid. Finally, the results of the chi-square analysis and a cross-tabulation showed that these two clusters were significantly different in: organization type; level of paid up capital; perception of sustainable development benefits; perception of return on investment; perception of image of the sustainability labeling; participation in the voluntary market; the project priority; knowledge in the sustainability label; attitude towards the host country's duty; and their willingness to pay. - Highlights: > The K-means clustering was used to classify CER buyers in the primary market. > The carbon market is divided into two: the premium market; and the normal market. > Governments tend to be members of the premium market. > 82% of members in the premium market are willing to pay a price premium for CERs.

  20. Buyer focus : Evaluation of a new concept for supply chain integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, T; van Donk, DP

    2004-01-01

    The goal of integrated supply chains is to remove barriers to ease the flow of materials and information. This article concentrates on an important barrier: shared resources in a supply chain. The removal of these shared resources is closely related to the recently introduced concept of buyer focus.

  1. Buyer focus : evaluation of a new concept for supply chain integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, Taco van der; Donk, Dirk Pieter van

    2003-01-01

    The goal of integrated supply chains is to remove barriers to ease the flow of materials and information. This article concentrates on an important barrier: shared resources in a supply chain. The removal of these shared resources is closely related to the recently introduced concept of buyer focus.

  2. 40 CFR 1048.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... using fuel that causes substantially more engine performance problems than commercial fuels of the same... give to buyers? 1048.125 Section 1048.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... intervals, except as specified in paragraphs (a)(3), (b) and (c) of this section: (i) For catalysts, fuel...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... give to buyers? 1045.125 Section 1045.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... maintenance within the useful life period for aftertreatment devices, pulse-air valves, fuel injectors, oxygen... to address problems related to special situations, such as atypical engine operation. You must...

  4. Creating Shared Value In The Buyer-Supplier Relationships Through The Implementation Of Sustainability Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessa, Meulensteen,; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Sikke, Meerman,

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Living Plan has been taken as a case study. This allows for the analysis of the nature of the buyer-supplier interactions. The different partners in this relationship were asked to fill out questionnaires. Correlation and regression analyses were used to quantify the relationship between

  5. Reliability assessment of a multistate freight network for perishable merchandise with multiple suppliers and buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Cheng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a multistate freight network for single and perishable merchandise to assess the freight performance, where a node denotes a supplier, a distribution centre, or a buyer, while a logistics company providing a freight traffic service is denoted by an edge. For each logistics company, carrying capacity should be multistate since partial capacity may be reserved by some customers. The merchandise may perish or be perished during conveyance because of disadvantageous weather or collision in carrying such that the number of intact cargoes may be insufficient for the buyers. Hence, according to the perspective of supply chain management, the reliability, a probability of the network to successfully deliver the cargoes from the suppliers to the buyers subject to a budget, is proposed to be a performance index, where the suppliers and buyers are not the previous customers. An algorithm in terms of minimal paths to assess the reliability is developed. A fruit logistics case is adopted to explore the managerial implications of the reliability using sensitivity analysis.

  6. 27 CFR 10.54 - Criteria for determining trade buyer independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Exclusion § 10.54 Criteria... a particular practice between an industry member and an officer, employee, or representative of a... industry member obligates the trade buyer to participate in the promotion to obtain the industry member's...

  7. 76 FR 54428 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... in detail the international marketing program to be conducted for the event, and explain how efforts... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Docket No. 110729450-1450-01] Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration...

  8. 75 FR 53640 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... addition, the applicant should describe in detail the international marketing program to be conducted for... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Docket No.: 100806330-0330-01] Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration...

  9. Buyer Commitment and Opportunism in the Online Market for IT Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric); O.R. Koppius (Otto)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCompanies increasingly outsource IT-related tasks using reverse auction mechanisms embedded into online marketplaces. However, a considerable proportion of auctions at these marketplaces do not result in a contract between buyer and supplier. Extant literature mostly refers to costly

  10. 77 FR 74828 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Years 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Docket No. 120913451-2681-02] Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Years 2014 and 2015 AGENCY: International Trade... the DOC and trade show organizers to benefit U.S. firms exhibiting at selected events and provides...

  11. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-10-01

    Manufactured, or HUD-Code, homes comprise a growing share of the housing stock in the Northwest, as well as nationally. Their relatively low cost has made them especially attractive to lower income families, first-time home-buyers, and retired persons. The characteristics of manufactured home (MH) buyers, the unique energy consumption characteristics of the homes, and their increasing market share make this market an especially critical one for energy consumption and conservation planning in the Northwest. This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that can potentially assist the design of a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. This study has the objective of assisting BPA in the development of a regional approach in which numerous organizations and parties would participate to achieve conservation in new manufactured homes. A previous survey and information collected for this study from regional dealers and manufacturers provide an indication of the energy conservation options being sold to manufactured home buyers in the PNW. Manufacturers in the Northwest appear to sell homes that usually exceed the HUD thermal requirements. Manufacturers typically offer efficiency improvements in packages that include fixed improvements in insulation levels, glazing, and infiltration control. Wholesale costs of these packages range from about $100 to $1500. Typical packages include significant upgrades in floor insulation values with modest upgrades in ceilings and walls. This study identifies trends and impacts that a marketing plan should consider to adequately address the financial concerns of manufactured home buyers.

  12. 27 CFR 10.52 - Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... place trade buyer independence at risk within the description of exclusion in § 10.51: Industry member...-employer in return for the employee agreeing to order distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages from the industry member. The practice enumerated here is an example and does not constitute a complete list of...

  13. An analysis of buyer-supplier collaboration in the South African textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore perceptions regarding buyer and supplier collaboration around product development. The aim is to gain an understanding of which factors influence buyer-supplier collaboration outcomes in the South African textile industry. Methodology: This study comprised two data collection stages. The first stage comprised the design and administration of a questionnaire survey. The second stage utilised a qualitative interview methodology and entailed interviewing a subset of the questionnaire respondents in order to probe respondents’ own experiences in collaborative product developments and their perception of the factors that determine collaboration outcome. Findings: This study has shed light on the experiences of South African firms in the textile industry engaging in buyer-supplier collaboration around product development. While this study is exploratory, it has provided evidence that there are certain factors which are perceived to have a significant influence on collaboration. Implications: Under the past protective shield of tariffs, South African clothing and textile manufacturers could afford to allow an adversarial mode of operation to perpetuate inefficiencies. However, the increasing external pressures, including the very real threat of overseas competition, heighten the need for collaboration between buyers and suppliers. This relates, in particular, to collaboration aimed at new product development, which can be seen as a new imperative for the survival and growth of this industry. Currently, there are numerous barriers to effective collaboration. The overwhelming power of retailers in the value chain is one such barrier, as it creates an environment which is pressurised, strained and not conducive to buyer-supplier collaboration. Contribution and Value: Studies on collaborative new product development have primarily been done in developed countries, with a focus on technology intensive

  14. Buyer and seller data from pay what you want and name your own price laboratory markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Florentin; Schmidt, Klaus M; Spann, Martin; Stich, Lucas

    2017-06-01

    Pay What You Want (PWYW) and Name Your Own Price (NYOP) are customer-driven pricing mechanisms that give customers (some) pricing power and that have been used in service industries with high fixed costs to price discriminate without setting a reference price. This paper describes buyer and seller data in a series of induced-value laboratory experiments that compare PWYW and NYOP in monopoly and competitive situations. Sellers are in a one-shot interaction with buyers. Sellers using customer-driven pricing mechanisms may exogenously or endogenously receive additional promotional benefits, for instance through word-of-mouth effects. The major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the paper "Delegating Pricing Power to Customers: Pay What You Want or Name Your Own Price?" (Krämer et al., 2017) [3].

  15. Buyer and seller data from pay what you want and name your own price laboratory markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Krämer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pay What You Want (PWYW and Name Your Own Price (NYOP are customer-driven pricing mechanisms that give customers (some pricing power and that have been used in service industries with high fixed costs to price discriminate without setting a reference price. This paper describes buyer and seller data in a series of induced-value laboratory experiments that compare PWYW and NYOP in monopoly and competitive situations. Sellers are in a one-shot interaction with buyers. Sellers using customer-driven pricing mechanisms may exogenously or endogenously receive additional promotional benefits, for instance through word-of-mouth effects. The major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the paper "Delegating Pricing Power to Customers: Pay What You Want or Name Your Own Price?" (Krämer et al., 2017 [3].

  16. Analysing the impact of buyers' personality constructs on the market structure of brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios; Rungie, Cam

    2008-01-01

    In order to operationalize brand loyalty, various models have been applied that estimate brand measures and further describe patterns and the structure of the markets. A well known model in this area is the Dirichlet-NBD model. Despite major advancements to those models, how buyers' characteristics...... and psychographics influence actual brand measures and the overall market structure in repeat purchase occasions is still under-researched. Moreover, measuring the type and magnitude of buyer-related effects on brand loyalty could provide additional valuable information to brand managers. Aim of this paper...... is to provide an approach of estimating the effect that various personality constructs have on brand measures and overall market structure through revealed preference data....

  17. «Dallas Buyers Club (2013» clinical research with drugs for the AIDS epidemic 80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian de HAAN-BOSCH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dallas Buyers Club (2013, inspired by true events, tells the story of Ron Woodroof, a middle?aged elec? trician from Dallas (Texas, who is diagnosed with AIDS in 1985. With few treatment options, he estab? lishes the Dallas Buyers Club in order to provide unapproved drugs to the AIDS community. This results in constant business travels, disputes with the FDA and problems with the law and the IRS. The article analyzes the buyers’ clubs phenomenon in the US, the drugs cited in the film and the clinical trial with zidovudine shown in the movie. The film could be useful as a teaching tool providing an introduction to the AIDS epidemic, clinical research and drug development, bioethics of human research and the agen? cies that regulate drug approval and their availability. Finally, the article presents a possible guideline for the use of the film in a teaching environment.

  18. The buyer-supplier interface under just-in-time relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R G

    1990-08-01

    In any contractural relationship, legally and ethically, all parties much benefit. Minor concessions to one party can be significant gains for the other. To establish the win/win environment, it is sometimes necessary to make reasonable concessions that preserve the overall objective of the JIT concept. It is good business sense to make those concessions that are inexpensive and guarantee greater control. The concessions discussed strengthen the buyer-seller relationship and aid in reaching the objectives of JIT.

  19. Effect of consumer rights on improvement of the buyer-sellers relationships in developing countries firms

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shafei; F. Shafei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article. The purpose of this research is evaluating of the relationship between the consumer rights and buyers-seller communications. The results of the analysis. The results of research indicated that the most important rights of consumers are: manufacturing regulations (pre-purchasing stage), confidence (in-purchasing stage) and packaging (post-purchasing stage). Also, the research findings showed that the mentioned rights affect the relational marketing. Also to respect t...

  20. Why Stamp Duties are an Increasing Financial Burden on Australian Home Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Gavin A.

    1994-01-01

    The purchaser of housing incurs stamp duty liabilities in all Australian States. These stamp duties are levied on the conveyance of residential property and mortgage sums secured. In general, stamp duties were a growing financial burden on home buyers during the period 1985-1991. This paper examines the role of house price inflation in causing increases in average rates of stamp duty, the responsiveness of average rates of stamp duty to future changes in the nominal tax base and the effective...

  1. A relook at the motor vehicle buyer after the purchase: dissonance arousal

    OpenAIRE

    S. Brijball

    2000-01-01

    This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported diss...

  2. Blockchain-driven supply chain finance: Towards a conceptual framework from a buyer perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Omran, Yaghoob; Henke, Michael; Heines, Roger; Hofmann, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to develop a conceptual framework for blockchain-driven supply chain finance (SCF) solutions. The frame of reference intends to foster the coordination in buyer-supplier relations and eliminates existing inefficiencies in the execution of discrete SCF-instruments, such as reverse factoring and dynamic discounting. Moreover, we introduce value drivers for blockchain technology (BCT) to elaborate unique characteristics for its application in the field of SC...

  3. What factors influence online brand trust: evidence from online tickets buyers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Alam, Syed; Mohd Yasin, Norjaya

    2010-01-01

    This study examines online brand trust and its influencing factors in the specific context of online air ticket buyers in Malaysia. Summarizing academic literature on online brand trust drivers, it was found that there is a need to conduct research on online brand trust. Accordingly our hypotheses is that word-of-mouth, online experience, security/privacy, perceived risk, brand reputation and quality information have significant influence on online brand trust. Our hypothesis is being tested ...

  4. Optimizing Supply Chain Collaboration Based on Agreement Buyer-Supplier Relationship with Network Design Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Sutopo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the rising competitive environment with shorter product life cycles and high customization forces industries to increase their flexibility, speed up their response, and enhance concurrent engineering designs. To integrate these prospects, supply chain collaboration becomes a pertinent strategy for industries to strengthen their competitiveness. The network design problem is used to implement supply chain collaboration. In the buying and selling process, sharing information between buyer and supplier are important to obtain a transaction decision. The optimimum supply chain profit can be identified by mathematical model of network design problem. The Mathematical Model takes into consideration the uncertainity in negotiation of supply chain, transportation problems, and locationallocation of products from supplier to buyer in the planning based on the time value of money. The results show that the model can be used to optimize the supply chain profit. The supplier gets a profit because income were received in the initial contract, while the buyer profit comes from lower pay.

  5. Stochastic integrated vendor–buyer model with unstable lead time and setup cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra K. Jaggi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vendor-buyer system where there are different objectives for both sides. The proposed method of this paper is different from the other previously published works since it considers different objectives for both sides. In this paper, the vendor’s emphasis is on the crashing of the setup cost, which not only helps him compete in the market but also provides better services to his customers; and the buyer’s aim is to reduce the lead time, which not only facilitates the buyer to fulfill the customers’ demand on time but also enables him to earn a good reputation in the market or vice versa. In the light of the above stated facts, an integrated vendor-buyer stochastic inventory model is also developed. The propsed model considers two cases for demand during lead time: Case (i Complete demand information, Case (ii Partial demand information. The proposed model jointly optimizes the buyer’s ordered quantity and lead time along with vendor’s setup cost and the number of shipments. The results are demonstrated with the help of numerical examples.

  6. Value Added Elements According to Buyer Companies in a B2B Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Battaglia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how buyer companies perceive the value added to products and services offered by their suppliers and identifies the predominant elements that affect purchasing decisions and establishment of relationships between companies in a B2B context. A multiple case study was developed in 12 buyer companies from three industrial segments in southern Brazil: metal-mechanics, furniture and foods. The findings show that for supplier companies in the metal-mechanics industry to add value, they must identify buyers’ needs, develop technology/innovation, be focused on competitive aspects, keep control of the supply chain, provide different purchasing channels, develop partnerships, and adapt to cultural aspects. Companies in the food industry consider the model for creating value to adapt to meet customer needs, the effective use of purchasing channels, functionality of products, and technical knowledge. The companies in the furniture industry value the methods that suppliers use to capture and implement required changes, effective control of the supply chain, and the representativeness of the suppliers’ brand in the market. This study captures the perception of buyer companies in relation to predominant value-adding elements and could guide decisions for the adoption of managerial actions by supplier companies focused on adding value.

  7. An Integrated Supplier-Buyer Inventory Model with Conditionally Free Shipment under Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsien Su

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that production, distribution, marketing, inventory control, and financing all/each have a positive impact on the performance of a supply chain. Despite the growing interest in the development of integrated inventory models, the interactions between these elements of a supply chain may not be efficiently included, resulting in a restricted supply chain model presentation. To incorporate this phenomenon, a mathematical model that tackles the interdependent relationships between these aforementioned elements is developed in this paper. This study considers the determination of the optimal pricing, ordering, and delivery policies of a profit-maximizing supply chain system, faced with (1 unit wholesale price of the supplier is set based on unit production cost, (2 unit production cost is taken as a function of demand rate and production rate, (3 the supplier's production rate is adjusted according to market demand, (4 market demand depends upon buyer's selling price, (5 a free freight is offered if the buyer's order exceeds a certain minimum requirement, and (6 a constant credit period is offered by the supplier to stimulate the demand of the buyer. Algorithm for computing the optimal policies is derived. The sensitivity of the optimal results with respect to those parameters which directly influence the production and transportation costs is also examined.

  8. Characterizing the Buyer Decision Process: the ZMOT model in Chile’s technology sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Escobar Farfán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an updated application model that identifies the intervening factors in the buyer decision process. In traditional research, the consumer is said to confront two moments of truth before making the decision to buy: first, when encountering the gondola, and then again while experiencing the product. Nevertheless, innovations in information technology have modified this traditional view to include the “Zero Moment of Truth”, known as ZMOT, a name popularized by Google. This analysis is based on the concept of the Zero Moment of Truth which relates to the process that consumers live prior to the purchase decision in which they gather information about the product or service. This study is justified by the absence of research on the ZMOT concept in Chile. To determine the factors involved in the purchase decision, a quantitative methodology was used, through the application of a survey that analyzed three perspectives: the influencing factors during the purchase decision, the activities carried out during the ZMOT, and, finally, the actions carried out after the completion of the purchase and information that will serve for future buyers is gathered. With the data obtained, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out, generating a preliminary multi-dimensional model to describe the factors in the buyer decision process during the information and experience gathering phase known as ZMOT.

  9. The impacts of individualism/collectivism on consumer decision-making styles : the case of Finnish and Vietnamese mobile phone buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Minh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the differences of individualism-oriented mobile phone consumers and collectivism-oriented mobile phone consumers in making buying decisions. Finland and Vietnam are the subjective nations of this research, in which Vietnamese mobile phone buyers represent collectivist consumers and Finnish mobile phone buyers represent individualist consumers. The study is based on Hofstede’s theory of individualism/collectivism and its influences on mobile phone buyers in Vietna...

  10. Comparison of treatment seeking compulsive buyers in Germany and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Mertens, Christian; Mueller, Ulrike; Silbermann, Andrea; Burgard, Melissa; de Zwaan, Martina

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to compare a German (Bavaria) and an American (North Dakota) sample of women suffering from compulsive buying. Thirty-eight German and 39 American female compulsive buyers were screened with the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (Y-BOCS-SV) prior to entering a group treatment study. Psychiatric co-morbidity was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID). There were no statistically significant differences between the German sample and the American sample with regard to age (mean 43.7 and 45 years, respectively), and with regard to the scores on the CBS and the Y-BOCS-SV. A high lifetime co-morbidity rate with Axis I disorders, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, OCD, and binge eating disorder was detected in both samples. Almost all participants met criteria for at least one lifetime Axis I disorder. However, German compulsive buyers showed significantly higher current prevalence rates of any affective disorder, and higher current and lifetime prevalence rates of any anxiety disorder and somatoform disorder. In addition, German compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have more than one Axis I disorder. The groups did not differ with regard to age and with regard to the severity of compulsive buying and showed a high co-morbidity with Axis I disorders. However, the German compulsive buying sample presented with significantly more psychiatric co-morbidity compared to the American sample. Further research is needed to provide a better understanding of this disorder in general and cross-culturally.

  11. Eager sellers and stony buyers: understanding the psychology of new-product adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourville, John T

    2006-06-01

    Companies that introduce new innovations are the most likely to flourish, so they spend billions of dollars making better products. But studies show that new innovations fail at a staggering rate. While many blame these misses on lackluster products, the reality isn't so simple. The goods that consumers dismiss often do offer improvements over existing ones. So why don't people purchase them? And why do companies keep peddling products that buyers are likely to reject? The answer, says the author, can be found in the brain. New products force consumers to change their behavior, and that has a psychological cost. Many products fail because people irrationally over-value the benefits of the goods they own over those they don't possess. Executives, meanwhile, overvalue their own innovations. This leads to a serious clash. Studies show, in fact, that there is a mismatch of nine to one, or 9x, between what innovators think consumers want and what consumers truly desire. Fortunately, companies can overcome this disconnect. To start, they can determine where their products fall in a matrix with four categories: easy sells, sure failures, long hauls, and smash hits. Each has a different ratio of product improvement to change required from the consumer. Once businesses know where their products fit into this grid, they can manage the resistance to change. For some innovations, major behavior change is a given. In those cases, companies can either wait for consumers to warm to the product, make the improvement so great that buyers get past their apprehension, or try to eliminate the incumbent product. Firms can also try to minimize buyer resistance by making products that are compatible with incumbent goods, seeking out those who are not yet users of the existing product, or finding true believers.

  12. Examining the Customer Roles of Buyers and Users for Servitized Offerings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakkol, Mehmet; Raja, Jawwad; Johnson, Mark

    to identify and examine the emergent customer needs for different servitized offerings. Hence, building on a large-scale survey of 325 respondents, this research examines the needs of different customer centers (i.e. buyers and users) with respect to basic, intermediate and advanced servitized offerings.......Prior research on servitization generally adopts a provider perspective to examine the selling and provision of servitized offerings. However a lack of understanding, both in academia and practice, is evident about the buying decision from a customer perspective. In particular, it is necessary...

  13. A Scent of Lemon—Seller Meets Buyer with a Noisy Quality Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen W. Weibull

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider a market for lemons in which the seller is a monopolistic price setter and the buyer receives a private noisy signal of the product’s quality. We model this as a game and analyze perfect Bayesian equilibrium prices, trading probabilities and gains of trade. In particular, we vary the buyer’s signal precision, from being completely uninformative, as in standard models of lemons markets, to being perfectly informative. We show that high quality units are sold with positive probability even in the limit of uninformative signals, and we identify some discontinuities in the equilibrium predictions at the boundaries of completely uninformative and completely informative signals, respectively.

  14. Seibt: Environmental engineering. 4th edition, 1995. Buyer's guide for environmental engineering. Products, suppliers, services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The book lists more than 8,900 enterprises in German-speaking countries and informs the reader about their products and services. A product index with more than 7,000 entries facilitates access to the desired information. For each product, suppliers and producers are liested in the main part of the buyer's guide with their complete address, telephone number, and fax number. In addition, there is an alphabetic list of suppliers and a section on trademarks. The nomenclature according to which the book is structured is continually revised and updated by experts

  15. Do First Time House Buyers Receive Financial Transfers from Their Parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Using Danish longitudinal data with information about wealth for a sample of first-time house buyers and their parents, we test whether there are direct financial transfers from parents to children in connection with the house purchase, or in connection with unemployment spells occurring just after...... the purchase, when children typically hold few liquid assets. First, we document that child and parent financial resources are correlated. Then, we introduce conditioning variables and exploit the panel aspect of the data to also condition on fixed unobserved factors, which arguably govern preferences and....../or productivity. We find no evidence of direct financial transfers....

  16. Compulsory acquisition of shares buyer, other shareholders, abuse of right of compulsory acquisition of shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Company Act of Republic of Serbia includes mechanism for the compulsory acquisition of the shareholdings of minority shareholders. Technically this procedure is effected on the basis of the shareholders assembly resolution. Buyer is shareholder who has at least 90% of share capital and at least 90% of votes. Shares owned by entity under his dominant influence will be treated as shares of that shareholder provided that dominant influence exists at least one year. Company's own shares, and shares subject o a pledge do not represent shares of other shareholders. There are several actions which may be treated as abuse of right of compulsory acquisition of shares.

  17. Production planning and backup sourcing strategy of a buyer-dominant supply chain with random yield and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kebing; Xiao, Tiaojun

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the backup sourcing strategy of the buyer and the production planning of the supplier in presence of both random yield and random demand. Since the production is susceptible to the randomness of yield beyond the control of the supplier, the buyer may access to a backup sourcing option for the finished items. We analyse the value of backup sourcing for both the decentralised and centralised channels. Backup sourcing strategy of the buyer may lower the supply chain's performance. We show that the order quantity of the buyer does not change the stocking factor of the supplier's input. Meanwhile, compared with the centralised operation, the decentralised operation is more dependent on the backup sourcing to reduce supply shortage of the contracting supplier. From the channel's perspective, an incentive scheme is developed to facilitate the coordination of both the buyer and the contracting supplier, we show that the proposed option contract can allow the supply chain members to share the respective risks involved in the production and selling processes. Finally, we also provide qualitative insights based on numerical examples of the centralised and decentralised solutions.

  18. Benchmarking Supplier Development: An Empirical Case Study of Validating a Framework to Improve Buyer-Supplier Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Khuram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, firms are required to utilize efficiently and effectively all the useful resources to gain competitive advantage. Supplier development has evolved as an important strategic instrument to improve buyer supplier relationships. For that reason, this study focuses on providing the strategic significance of supplier development approaches to improve business relationships. By using qualitative research method, an integrated framework of supplier development and buyer-supplier relationship development has been tested and validated in a Finnish case company to provide empirical evidence. It particularly investigates how supplier development approaches can develop buyer-supplier relationships. The study present a set of propositions that identify significant supplier development approaches critical for the development of buyer-supplier relationships and develop a theoretical framework that specifies how these different supplier development approaches support in order to strengthen the relationships. The results are produced from an in-depth case study by implementing the proposed research framework. The findings reveal that supplier development strategies i.e., supplier incentives and direct involvements strongly effect in developing buyer-supplier relationships. Further research may focus on considering in-depth investigation of trust and communication factors along with propositions developed in the study to find out general applicability in dynamic business environment. Proposed integrated framework along with propositions is a unique combination of useful solutions for tactical and strategic management’s decision making and also valid for academic researchers to develop supplier development theories.

  19. Comparing Sex Buyers With Men Who Do Not Buy Sex: New Data on Prostitution and Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Melissa; Golding, Jacqueline M; Matthews, Emily Schuckman; Malamuth, Neil M; Jarrett, Laura

    2015-08-31

    We investigated attitudes and behaviors associated with prostitution and sexual aggression among 101 men who buy sex and 101 age-, education-, and ethnicity-matched men who did not buy sex. Both groups tended to accept rape myths, be aware of harms of prostitution and trafficking, express ambivalence about the nature of prostitution, and believe that jail time and public exposure are the most effective deterrents to buying sex. Sex buyers were more likely than men who did not buy sex to report sexual aggression and likelihood to rape. Men who bought sex scored higher on measures of impersonal sex and hostile masculinity and had less empathy for prostituted women, viewing them as intrinsically different from other women. When compared with non-sex-buyers, these findings indicate that men who buy sex share certain key characteristics with men at risk of committing sexual aggression as documented by research based on the leading scientific model of the characteristics of non-criminal sexually aggressive men, the Confluence Model of sexual aggression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. It takes two to continue to tango : A two-sided view on post-M&A supplier-buyer tie continuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, Y.K.; Martin, Xavier; Toombs, L.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effect of buyer-side M&As on the continuation of supplier-buyer ties, distinguishing between the supplier’s and the buyer’s incentives to keep their relationship going. We focus on post-M&A changes in competitive overlap between the merged company and the other clients in the focal

  1. Optimal economic order quantity for buyer-distributor-vendor supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo; Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wee, Hui Ming

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we first complement an inappropriate mathematical error on the total cost in the previously published paper by Chung and Wee [2007, 'Optimal the Economic Lot Size of a Three-stage Supply Chain With Backlogging Derived Without Derivatives', European Journal of Operational Research, 183, 933-943] related to buyer-distributor-vendor three-stage supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives. Then, an arithmetic-geometric inequality method is proposed not only to simplify the algebraic method of completing prefect squares, but also to complement their shortcomings. In addition, we provide a closed-form solution to integral number of deliveries for the distributor and the vendor without using complex derivatives. Furthermore, our method can solve many cases in which their method cannot, because they did not consider that a squared root of a negative number does not exist. Finally, we use some numerical examples to show that our proposed optimal solution is cheaper to operate than theirs.

  2. Perceived Compatibility and the Adoption of B2C E-Commerce by Non-buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, Ángel; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Chaparro-Peláez, Julián; Pascual-Miguel, Félix

    The purpose of this article is to study the factors which affect the intention to buy online for users who have never made any prior purchase using the electronic channel, with special focus to the role of perceived compatibility. To do so, an adoption model for e-commerce was proposed on the basis of the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and the Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT). In order to validate the model, data gathered amongst Spanish consumers who had no experience using e-commerce, were analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) method. The results have demonstrated the importance of perceived compatibility as a significant factor to foster non-buyers' adoption of electronic business-to-consumer e-commerce (eB2C).

  3. Motives for e-marketplace participation: differences and similarities between buyers and suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Kragh, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    -marketplaces to find new or alternative suppliers. Similarly, even though demands from existing customers have spurred their initial decision to participate in e-marketplaces, many suppliers also use the marketplaces to search for new customers. When expressing their motives for engaging in e-marketplace activities......The motivation of suppliers as well as buyers for e-marketplace participation is closely linked to the perceived outcome of participation, not only in terms of the benefits of joining an e-marketplace, but also in terms of the possible consequences of not joining. The key issue, therefore, is why...... organizations decide to buy and/or sell goods or services in e-marketplaces. We develop a theoretical framework for the categorization of motivational factors, resulting in four different types of motives. We then apply the framework to a dataset consisting of 41 case studies covering 20 industries in 12...

  4. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  5. Understanding the Factors That Enable and Inhibit Value Creation in Buyer-Supplier Relationships Within the Outsourcing of IT Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Kinra, Aseem; Das, Ajay

    This study contributes to literature on value creation in buyer-supplier relationships as well as literature on IT service provision. It makes a first attempt at building a comprehensive model of the factors that enable and inhibit value creation within buyersupplier relationships. A distinction...

  6. The behavioural response of the professional buyer on social cues from the vendor and how to measure it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland-van der Holst, Eveline Maria; Henseler, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Vendors’ social cues ─ physical or behavioural hints ─ have an impact on the professional buyer. However, little is known about that impact. The purpose of this paper is to place knowledge about the impact of social cues that other disciplines acquired in the context of B2B marketing in

  7. Constructing the structure of utility graphs used in multi-item negotiation through collaborative filtering of aggregate buyer preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robu, V.; Poutré, La J.A.; Ito, T.; Hattori, H.; Zhang, M.; Matsuo, T.

    2008-01-01

    Negotiation represents a key form of interaction between providers and consumers in electronic markets. One of the main benefits of negotiation in e-commerce is that it enables greater customization to individual customer preferences, and it supports buyer decisions in settings which require

  8. 77 FR 61740 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program-Calendar Years 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... should describe in detail the international marketing program to be conducted for the event, and explain... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Docket No. 120913451-2451-01] Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program-- Calendar Years 2014 and 2015 AGENCY: International Trade...

  9. The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,

  10. Variety in business-to-business services and buyer-supplier interaction : the case of cleaning services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, W.; Wijnstra, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to empirically validate a recently developed typology to demonstrate that services that are similar in terms of technical content, but different with regard to how they are used by the buying company, require different buyer-supplier interaction processes.

  11. Procesni pristop kot dejavnik povečanja zadovoljstva odjemalcev = Process Format as a Factor in Increasing Buyer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Verle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Today modern companies are directed by buyers. Successful organizations are aware that the key issue is to satisfy buyers’ needs and to maintain good relationship with them. Such companies perceive problems and opportunities fast and act accordingly. In future only such companies that will be able to substitute mass production and generalized market approach with a flexible production and in addition to this constantly look for market gaps for their products and services will be able to survive. Further on such companies will be able to individualize their offer and in this way adjust and come closer to the buyer. However, the old hierarchical structure does not provide for that, therefore, we are nowadays talking about horizontal relationships, even among the suppliers, organizations and their buyers. The only organizational format providing for relationships and cooperation with buyers and suppliers on the one hand and increasing contentedness and successfulness of the employees on the other is a process format. The changes of the environment demand a thorough change of the traditional way of thinking and consequently the operation and organization of a company which wants to be successful or survive in new conditions.

  12. Joint Economic Lot Sizing Optimization in a Supplier-Buyer Inventory System When the Supplier Offers Decremental Temporary Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Puspita Sari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses mathematical models of joint economic lot size optimization in a supplier-buyer inventory system in a situation when the supplier offers decremental temporary discounts during a sale period. Here, the sale period consists of n phases and the phases of discounts offered descend as much as the number of phases. The highest discount will be given when orders are placed in the first phase while the lowest one will be given when they are placed in the last phase. In this situation, the supplier attempts to attract the buyer to place orders as early as possible during the sale period. The buyers will respon these offers by ordering a special quantity in one of the phase. In this paper, we propose such a forward buying model with discount-proportionally-distributed time phases. To examine the behaviour of the proposed model, we conducted numerical experiments. We assumed that there are three phases of discounts during the sale period. We then compared the total joint costs of special order placed in each phase for two scenarios. The first scenario is the case of independent situation – there is no coordination between the buyer and the supplie-, while the second scenario is the opposite one, the coordinated model. Our results showed the coordinated model outperform the independent model in terms of producing total joint costs. We finally conducted a sensitivity analyzis to examine the other behaviour of the proposed model. Keywords: supplier-buyer inventory system, forward buying model, decremental temporary discounts, joint economic lot sizing, optimization.

  13. A model of buyer-supplier relationships in a transnational company: the role of the business network context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rasković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paradigmatic shift in marketing from the beginning of the 1990’s has transformed marketing in its view of business exchange to increasingly start addressing the relational aspects of market exchanges. This is particularly true in transnational supply exchanges, where specialization and outsourcing have increased the importance of effective and efficient management of buyer-supplier relationships, and their corresponding networks in which they are embedded in. In this regard particularly, TNCs are seen “as a [key] method of organizing international exchange”. The purpose of this paper is to analyze selected elements of buyer-supplier relationships within a specific TNC business-to-business (B2B setting, vis-à-vis their impact on business performance and TNC competitiveness. This is done through the perspective of the TNC’s suppliers. The paper analyzes the impact of the functional aspect of the business network context on selected elements of buyer-supplier relationships, and their impact on business performance and the overall competitiveness. This is analyzed within a confirmatory testing of a reflective structural equation model. A unique feature of the model is its focus on the business network context - namely information obtained from the network and network spillover effects – as key network-embedded determinants of the “traditional” elements of buyer-supplier relationships (i.e. transaction-specific investments, trust, flexibility, and collaboration, where these elements have been so far mostly studied at the dyadic level in buyer-supplier relationships. The dataset includes a sample of 157 suppliers of the focal TNC world-wide (47.9 response rate on a web-based survey.

  14. Buying a house with solar cells. Survey among subscribers and buyers of newly built houses in Amsterdam, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Mierlo, B.; Sprengers, M.

    1995-12-01

    In a new housing estate in Amsterdam in 1995 the regional energy utility (EBA) has integrated a photovoltaic (PV) system (250 kWp) into 63 houses out of 245 houses. The parts of these owner-occupied houses with PV panels are not owned by the occupants. In order to determine which are the motives to buy solar houses and in order to analyze changes in their attitudes questionnaires were sent to potential occupants twice. First to the people who registered for the new housing project (subscribers), and second to the people who bought one of the 245 houses either with or without PV (buyers). The overall conclusion is that PV does not play an important role in the decision making process when buying a new house. It is recommended to study differences in PV preferences and opinions a few years after the buyers have moved to their new houses. 10 figs., 17 tabs., 9 refs., 3 appendices

  15. On how German retail buyers perceive the identity, image and competitive context of the retailers they work for

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    findings of a study of how German food retailers decide what pork products to buy in which retailer buying behaviour was viewed as an ongoing organisational sensemaking process embedded in, at least, social, organisational, competitive and societal contexts. The aim of the study was to gain...... have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. This paper presents some preliminary...... an understanding of how and why retail buyers make certain decisions rather than simply focusing on what they decide. This paper focuses on the beliefs retail buyers have regarding organisational identities and competitive contexts and in particular discusses whether the beliefs regarding organisational identities...

  16. Buyer-Supplier Relationships in the Perspective of Working Environment and Organizational Performance: Review and Research Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imranul, Hoque; Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review and synthesise how extant literature understand different natures of buyer supplier relationships (BSR) and how BSR affect, and are affected by, the working environment (WE), and how both BSR and WE affect organisational performance (OP). Following...... a systematic review protocol and literature corroboration, we map the literature covering BSR, WE, and OP and conduct a thematic analysis on three themes (i.e. buyer supplier relationships, working environment, organisational performance) and their relationships. Our review synthesises BSR typologies and group......, working environment and organisational performance. Our findings illustrate that working environment is becoming important in cross-border sourcing and supply management, but this has been neglected in BSR literature from almost every disciplinary perspective. No study has directly linked the three themes...

  17. The external expectations of potential real estate buyers in Slovenia and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Grum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents partial results of a survey being conducted in Slovenia and Japan. It seeks to determine the factors that have a decisive influence over potential real estate buyers when deciding to purchase. The article focuses on the role of potential buyers’ external expectations in relation to their various cultural identities. We follow the hypothesis that these differences in external expectations are statistically significant. The primary instrument for measuring participants’ expectations was a survey in which 1,270 people participated. We statistically analysed the results by conducting a one-way analysis of variance related to the participants’ various cultural identities. By analysing the results of the statistical analyses, we confirmed the hypothesis. It is evident from the results that Slovenian participants had lower expectations in terms of Slovenia’s legal, taxation and other regulatory measures in housing compared to Japanese participants. Considering that legislation represents the Slovenian government’s primary influence over the real estate market, the expectations of the participants in our survey show that Slovenian buyers’ confidence should be increased in this area.

  18. THE LEGAL PROTECTION FOR A GOOD FAITH BUYER UNDER A COURT DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are various principles given in Indonesian Civil Code (KUHPerdata and HIR/RBg in providing legal protection on good faith purchaser, but all of these principles eventually dropped their pedestal on a judge’s verdict to decide whether or not the intention of the buyer is based on a good faith purchaser. There are also many factors that can influence the decision of a judge that can lead to different conceptions of the protection provided. In addition, the rapid development of the present law requires judges to review the general principles of law and also applying existing law theories in the making of their verdict. Permasalahan perlindungan hukum pembeli beritikad baik merupakan masalah yang cukup mendasar dalam hukum kita. Terdapat berbagai prinsip yang diberikan dalam KUHPerdata maupun HIR/RBg dalam mengupayakan perlindungan hukum pembeli beritikad baik, akan tetapi upaya-upaya tersebut pada akhirnya menjatuhkan tumpuannya pada putusan hakim untuk menilai beritikad baik atau tidaknya seseorang. Di sisi lain, terdapat banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi putusan seorang hakim sehingga apabila dikaitkan dengan itikad baik, dapat menimbulkan konsepsi yang berbeda-beda terhadap perlindungan yang diberikan. Selain itu, pesatnya perkembangan hukum sekarang ini mewajibkan hakim-hakim untuk mempelajari kembali asas-asas hukum serta menerapkan teori-teori hukum yang ada dalam membuat putusannya.

  19. THE LEGAL PROTECTION FOR A GOOD FAITH BUYER UNDER A COURT DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are various principles given in Indonesian Civil Code (KUHPerdata and HIR/RBg in providing legal protection on good faith purchaser, but all of these principles eventually dropped their pedestal on a judge’s verdict to decide whether or not the intention of the buyer is based on a good faith purchaser. There are also many factors that can influence the decision of a judge that can lead to different conceptions of the protection provided. In addition, the rapid development of the present law requires judges to review the general principles of law and also applying existing law theories in the making of their verdict.   Permasalahan perlindungan hukum pembeli beritikad baik merupakan masalah yang cukup mendasar dalam hukum kita. Terdapat berbagai prinsip yang diberikan dalam KUHPerdata maupun HIR/RBg dalam mengupayakan perlindungan hukum pembeli beritikad baik, akan tetapi upaya-upaya tersebut pada akhirnya menjatuhkan tumpuannya pada putusan hakim untuk menilai beritikad baik atau tidaknya seseorang. Di sisi lain, terdapat banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi putusan seorang hakim sehingga apabila dikaitkan dengan itikad baik, dapat menimbulkan konsepsi yang berbeda-beda terhadap perlindungan yang diberikan. Selain itu, pesatnya perkembangan hukum sekarang ini mewajibkan hakim-hakim untuk mempelajari kembali asas-asas hukum serta menerapkan teori-teori hukum yang ada dalam membuat putusannya.

  20. Investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the economic recession: A qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Samanta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper described the in-depth interviews used in investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the e-commerce world during the economic recession in Greece. The data collected from these interviews were analyzed. The qualitative research findings identified how B2B e-commerce has started to change the future of the participating organizations in Greece. Οn the one hand, a number of benefits have occurred from the development of e-business and on the other hand B2B firms need to adopt an innovation culture and redefine  their relationships with their partners from the e-marketing point of view in order to survive in the rapidly changing environment. The results of this research are used to assist the author in the future  to examine a larger sample of B2B firms in order to validate the intention of companies to move from the traditional environment and to establish e-relationships in an e-business context.

  1. Buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable consumption policy pursued in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Korpysa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable consumption has been actively promoted among modern societies. It has gained a special importance in the context of pursuing sustainable consumption policy and supporting actions taken as part of corporate social responsibility. The fulfilment of strategic goals defined under this concept minimizes negative effects of industrialization and globalization. Furthermore, it contributes to efficient allocation of natural resources and natural environment protection. It is beyond any doubt that a 21st century consumer should take account of a number of issues while buying and subsequently using goods and services. These issues include wastage reduction, lower emission of pollution and limited production of waste, as well as selection of products whose development conforms to the code of ethics and socio-environmental norms. This awareness is observed in most countries all over the world, nevertheless certain differences can be noticed between the developed and developing states. Although the concept of sustainable consumption is being actively promoted among consumers in the developing countries (e.g. in Poland, they are still less aware of the necessity to conform to socio-ecological norms in the process of consumption. The main aim of the article is to analyse buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable development policy pursued in Poland. The first part will be devoted to theoretical issues relating to the subject of the analysis. In the second part of the paper the author will present the results of a survey examining the aforementioned behaviour.

  2. Buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in marketing channels: port wine distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo de Carvalho J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available José Crespo de Carvalho, Luís Sequeira Lisbon University Institute, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to research buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in distribution channels. Based on a multidimensional case study, eight research hypotheses were formulated. Some quantitative research was conducted, based on a questionnaire sent to 101 port wine producers and distribution companies (61 answered properly – 31 producers and 29 distributors – which gave the authors a 60% rate of response, considered to be very good for these types of studies; those 101 port wine producers and distributors initially chosen were the most important in Europe, considering the volume of production and sales, and constituting, for that reason, a convenience sample. A binary probit model was developed to analyze the data. The results of the study demonstrate that when conflict is ongoing and intense it prevents the development of cooperative relationships. A trustworthy company is more likely to solve conflicts. When trust and adaptation capabilities increase, so does potential cooperation. The results also show that the presence of a foreign sales representative in the team does not exert a negative influence on cooperation. Finally, cooperation can be considered as an important means of developing skills and resources, which can then be applied to existing transaction relationships. Keywords: conflict, cooperation, marketing, distribution, multiple channels, port wine

  3. A relook at the motor vehicle buyer after the purchase: dissonance arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957 theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported dissonance, effort, congruence with self-concept, price, persuasiveness, and level of confidence during purchases. The results contribute to a better understanding of human behaviour and cognitions thereby, enabling the development of effective marketing strategies to enhance post-purchase satisfaction. Opsomming Hierdie studie is gebaseer op Leon Festinger (1957 se teorie van kognitiewe dissonansie, wat die relatiewe krag van verskeie opwekkingsfaktore, die impak van prys, asook die sielkundige toestande evalueer wat vir dissonansie-opwekking vereis word soos byvoorbeeld inspanning uitgeoefen. Die empiriese analise is uitgevoer op n steekproef van 200 eienaars van nuwe motorvoertuie. Agt dimensies het n betekenisvolle impak op die vlak van kognitiewe dissonansie uitgeoefen naamlik, hoe bewus verbruikers van hulle verwagtinge is, verwagtinge wat onbevestig is, dissonansie wat gerapporteer word, inspanning, ooreenstemming met die eienaar se selfbeeld, prys, hoe oorredend die verkoper is en die koper se vlak van selfvertroue gedurende die aankope. Die resultate dra by tot n beter begrip van menslike gedrag en van kognisies en bevorder daardeur die ontwikkeling van doeltreffende bemarkingstrategie- om na-verkooptevredenheid te verhoog.

  4. Pricing, hedging and risk management : practical tips for natural gas buyers and sellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, D.

    1998-01-01

    Risk analysis and techniques to manage risk as it pertains to the natural gas industry were discussed. Portfolio allocations for long-term, short-term fixed price and variable price contracts were described. Options were defined as a market instrument offering the benefits of a fixed price purchase or sale without the obligation of incurring financial or opportunity losses if the market goes against the option buyer. Options should be used as a defence strategy to protect portfolios from price risk in times of uncertainty and to take advantage of current floating market conditions without making a full price commitment. Options can also be used as an offensive strategy to make a directional play on the market or on volatility. Options selling was regarded as a much higher risk than options buying. The variables that affect options premiums were: (1) volatility, (2) time to expiration, (3) underlying price versus strike price, and (4) flexibility. Williams Energy's new world class energy trading floor in Tulsa, Oklahoma was also described. Williams is the largest-volume transporter of natural gas in the U.S. with more than 27,000 miles of pipelines. Williams pipelines transport 16 per cent of all the natural gas used in the U.S. and the company is one of the nation's largest natural gas gatherers and processors. tabs., figs

  5. Benchmarking Supplier Development: An Empirical Case Study of Validating a Framework to Improve Buyer-Supplier Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad Khuram; Sillanpää Ilkka; Sillanpää Elina; Imeri Shpend

    2016-01-01

    In today’s dynamic business environment, firms are required to utilize efficiently and effectively all the useful resources to gain competitive advantage. Supplier development has evolved as an important strategic instrument to improve buyer supplier relationships. For that reason, this study focuses on providing the strategic significance of supplier development approaches to improve business relationships. By using qualitative research method, an integrated framework of supplier development...

  6. Contracting under asymmetric holding cost information in a serial supply chain with a nearly profit maximizing buyer

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Voigt

    2012-01-01

    Screening contracts (or non-linear "menu of contracts") are frequently used for aligning the incentives in supply chains with private information. In this context, it is assumed that all supply chain parties are strictly (expected) profit maximizing and, therefore, sensible to even arbitrarily small pay-off differences between contract alternatives. However, previous behavioral work on contracting under asymmetric information in supply chains shows that agents (buyers) are not always strictly...

  7. The seller's liability for material defects of the goods and the buyer's legal remedies in that case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the seller, in the sales contracts, delivers the goods with material deficiencies than the buyer will be entitled to use certain legal remedies against him. No legal system today questions this right of the buyer, but neither are the same legal remedies available to him everywhere, nor are the conditions under which they can be used the same. Substantial differences on this issue are noted between continental laws and common laws, but even the legal systems belonging to the same group do not have identical rules about them. That, to a significant extent, may be explained by the fact that the development path of the seller's responsibility for material defects in comparative law was not the same and for that reason an overview of that issue is given at the beginning of this paper. This is followed by the author's analysis of the buyer's notification on the defects of the goods as a condition for the seller's liability for material defects, and then the differences between systems of legal remedies of the buyer in continental and common laws are given, as well as solutions in several characteristic national laws within each group of laws. Rules of the Vienna Convention on contracts for the international sale of goods are exposed as a separate issue, keeping in mind their importance which is, above all, reflected in their impact on changes in national legislation in this area of law. In the conclusion it is noted that these changes flow toward the harmonization of the laws of the sale of goods, which facilitates trade and promotes economic prosperity.

  8. The role of personal relationships between buyers and suppliers of third-party logistics services: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvinne Mocke

    2016-09-01

    Contribution: The main theoretical contribution of this study can be argued as empirically testing an existing personal relationship framework, confirming the transferability of the framework. Testing the framework in a different context yielded four additional benefits of personal relationships, four supplementary factors influencing the interaction between buyers and suppliers and an additional aspect influencing the nature of personal relationships, thus expanding the body of knowledge of this topic.

  9. Optimal transfer, ordering and payment policies for joint supplier-buyer inventory model with price-sensitive trapezoidal demand and net credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Digeshkumar B.; Patel, Dushyantkumar G.

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at formulating an integrated supplier-buyer inventory model when market demand is variable price-sensitive trapezoidal and the supplier offers a choice between discount in unit price and permissible delay period for settling the accounts due against the purchases made. This type of trade credit is termed as 'net credit'. In this policy, if the buyer pays within offered time M1, then the buyer is entitled for a cash discount; otherwise the full account must be settled by the time M2; where M2 > M1 ⩾ 0. The goal is to determine the optimal selling price, procurement quantity, number of transfers from the supplier to the buyer and payment time to maximise the joint profit per unit time. An algorithm is worked out to obtain the optimal solution. A numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. The managerial insights based on sensitivity analysis are deduced.

  10. Development-based Trust: Proposing and Validating a New Trust Measurement Model for Buyer-Seller Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro da Costa Hernandez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and validates a trust measurement model for buyer-seller relationships. Baptized as development-based trust, the model encompasses three dimensions of trust: calculus-based, knowledge-based and identification-based. In addition to recognizing that trust is a multidimensional construct, the model also assumes that trust can evolve to take on a different character depending on the stage of the relationship. In order to test the proposed model and compare it to the characteristic-based trust measurement model, the measure most frequently used in the buyer-seller relationship literature, data were collected from 238 clients of an IT product wholesaler. The results show that the scales are valid and reliable and the proposed development-based trust measurement model is superior to the characteristic-based trust measurement model in terms of its ability to explain certain variables of interest in buyer-seller relationships (long-term relationship orientation, information sharing, behavioral loyalty and future intentions. Implications for practice, limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  11. Hybrid, plug-in hybrid, or electric—What do car buyers want?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    We use a survey to compare consumers’ stated interest in conventional gasoline (CV), hybrid (HEV), plug-in hybrid (PHEV) and pure electric vehicles (EV) of varying designs and prices. Data are from 508 households representing new vehicle buyers in San Diego County, California in 2011. The mixed-mode survey collected information about access to residential recharge infrastructure, three days of driving patterns, and desired vehicle designs and motivations via design games. Across the higher and lower price scenarios, a majority of consumers designed and selected some form of PHEV for their next new vehicle, smaller numbers designed an HEV or a conventional vehicle, and only a few percent designed an EV. Of those who did not design an EV, the most frequent concerns with EVs were limited range, charger availability, and higher vehicle purchase prices. Positive interest in HEVs, PHEVs and EVs was associated with vehicle images of intelligence, responsibility, and support of the environment and nation (United States). The distribution of vehicle designs suggests that cheaper, smaller battery PHEVs may achieve more short-term market success than larger battery PHEVs or EV. New car buyers’ present interests align with less expensive first steps in a transition to electric-drive vehicles. - Highlights: • We assess consumer interest in various electric-drive vehicle designs. • Web-based design games completed by 508 households from San Diego, California. • Plug-in hybrids are most popular, followed by hybrids and conventional vehicles. • Only a few percent opted for a pure electric vehicle. • Electric-drive associated with intelligence, responsibility, and environment

  12. Shared Management Information in Buyer/Supplier Relationships: Its Usefulness and its Influence on Continuity Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ramón Jerónimo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the effect that the exchange of management information has on client and/or supplier relationships. Moreover, this study extends the concept of the usefulness of management control information to inter-organizational relationships, analysing how the scope of such information affects continuity expectations, and how these in turn influence opportunistic behaviour and the mutual adaptation of production systems. The data was gathered from 104 purchasing and 90 sales managers of equipment manufacturers on the nature of their respective relationships with their suppliers/ clients. The results confirm that the use of broad-scope management control information sharing in buyer-supplier relationships increases continuity expectations and reduces opportunistic behaviour.El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el efecto que ejerce el intercambio de información de gestión sobre las relaciones con clientes y/o proveedores. Para ello, se extiende el concepto de la utilidad de información de control de gestión a las relaciones ínter-organizativas, analizando cómo su contenido afecta a las expectativas de continuidad y éstas a su vez influyen en el comportamiento oportunista y en la adaptación mutua de sistemas de producción. Los datos analizados se han obtenido de las relaciones entre 104 directores de compras y 90 directores de ventas de empresas industriales con sus proveedores y clientes. Los resultados confirman que utilizar información compartida de control de gestión con un contenido más amplio en las relaciones compredor/proveedor favorece la creación de expectativas de continuidad y reduce comportamientos oportunistas.

  13. A single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated inventory model with ordering cost reduction dependent on lead time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayashree, M.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-09-01

    Lead time is one of the major limits that affect planning at every stage of the supply chain system. In this paper, we study a continuous review inventory model. This paper investigates the ordering cost reductions are dependent on lead time. This study addressed two-echelon supply chain problem consisting of a single vendor and a single buyer. The main contribution of this study is that the integrated total cost of the single vendor and the single buyer integrated system is analyzed by adopting two different (linear and logarithmic) types ordering cost reductions act dependent on lead time. In both cases, we develop effective solution procedures for finding the optimal solution and then illustrative numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The solution procedure is to determine the optimal solutions of order quantity, ordering cost, lead time and the number of deliveries from the single vendor and the single buyer in one production run, so that the integrated total cost incurred has the minimum value. Ordering cost reduction is the main aspect of the proposed model. A numerical example is given to validate the model. Numerical example solved by using Matlab software. The mathematical model is solved analytically by minimizing the integrated total cost. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is included and the numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The results obtained in this paper are illustrated with the help of numerical examples. The sensitivity of the proposed model has been checked with respect to the various major parameters of the system. Results reveal that the proposed integrated inventory model is more applicable for the supply chain manufacturing system. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed. Finally, the graphical representation is presented to illustrate the proposed model and also include the computer flowchart in each model.

  14. Differences between E-negotiation and face-to-face negotiation by professional buyers: Analysis of role plays

    OpenAIRE

    Soroush, Negin

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we tried to find out the differences between face-to-face negotiation and E-negotiation. We have done so by examining hypotheses based on the existing literature on negotiations and communication, using a database on negotiations performed by professional buyers in training sessions. Part of the obtained results was based on a face-to-face setting, part of them on an e-mail negotiation setting. We have assessed the obtained results to find out the differences between face-t...

  15. Inconsistent Norms in Buyer-Supplier Relations – A Study of Sustainability Introduction in the Textile and Apparel Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla Normann

    2016-01-01

    affected the applied exchange norms. We find thatsuppliers have experienced that the behavior of buying companies has become more transactional,since the textile and apparel industry started requiring sustainability. The norm set of buyingcompanies has changed and may be separated into two: A previous set...... a significant role in determining the behavior characteristics in contractual andrelational exchanges. In this study, we interviewed 30 suppliers/manufacturers in the textile andapparel industry in India, Bangladesh and China, to shed light on how the introduction ofsustainability requirements from buyers has...

  16. The Risk of Goods in International Sales. An Approach from the Breach of Contract and Remedies of the Buyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Vidal Olivares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the regime risks in the CISG with the aim of showing that the regime that it is incorporated, is based on functional criteria to the interests of the parties to solve the problems that originated in the loss and prior to the transfer of risk to the buyer will have recourse to remedies system and thus achieve the connection with the breach of contract. In its development we used the dogmatic method, from the systematic analysis of the rules of the CISG, doctrine and case law.

  17. A discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm with local search for a production-based two-echelon single-vendor multiple-buyer supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifbarghy, Mehdi; Kalani, Masoud Mirzaei; Hemmati, Mojtaba

    2016-03-01

    This paper formulates a two-echelon single-producer multi-buyer supply chain model, while a single product is produced and transported to the buyers by the producer. The producer and the buyers apply vendor-managed inventory mode of operation. It is assumed that the producer applies economic production quantity policy, which implies a constant production rate at the producer. The operational parameters of each buyer are sales quantity, sales price and production rate. Channel profit of the supply chain and contract price between the producer and each buyer is determined based on the values of the operational parameters. Since the model belongs to nonlinear integer programs, we use a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm (DPSO) to solve the addressed problem; however, the performance of the DPSO is compared utilizing two well-known heuristics, namely genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. A number of examples are provided to verify the model and assess the performance of the proposed heuristics. Experimental results indicate that DPSO outperforms the rival heuristics, with respect to some comparison metrics.

  18. Strategy for Improving Efficiency of Supply Chain Quality Management in Buyer-Supplier Dyads: The Suppliers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the efficiency of supply chain quality management (SCQM by grouping buyers and suppliers and conducting an empirical analysis of aspects affecting SCQM efficiency from the supplier’s perspective. Two stages of data analysis were conducted: (1 classify buyer and supplier efficiency by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA and sort the data results into a 2×2 matrix and (2 conduct a statistical analysis to verify influential aspects. The results depict the average value of Group I to be higher than that of Group II, while the average value of Group IV was found to be much lower than that of Group III. In addition, specific aspects have a significant impact on certain groups: Groups I and II are affected by infrastructure, delivery of quality, talent development, and risk management in that order; Groups II and III are likewise influenced by risk management, talent development, and delivery of quality, whereas Groups III and IV are influenced by talent development, delivery of quality, and risk management in that order.

  19. THE MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICT IN BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIPS: A CASE STUDY OF AN AUSTRALIAN EXPORTER IN ASIAN AND US MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Freeman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will extend the conflict management stream by examining the complexity of conflict in buyer-seller relationships, comparing Western and Asian markets and their "contextual boundaries". Specifically, a model is developed linking different dimensions of cross-cultural business relationships to different dissolution and communication strategies for managing conflict. Multiple in-depth interviews in a single case study provide support for the theoretical development of a model of five key factors important in the selection of appropriate conflict management styles by the focal firm when managing buyer relationships in psychically distant markets.

  20. General design of a technical assistance program to help DOE/prime contractor buyers in doing business with small disadvantaged businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.T.; Radford, L.R.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.

    1986-04-01

    This report offers a design and recommendations for implementing a program of education to assist Department of Energy buyers and procurement officers in increasing the quality and quantity of small disadvantaged business (DB) participation in their contracted work. The recommendations are based on a previous companion report, ''Issues in Contracting with Small Minority Businesses,'' from which technical assistance and related needs were derived. The assistance program is based on buyer and disadvantaged-business needs, as determined from synthesizing the results of interviews with over two dozen minority business leaders and procurement officers.

  1. 网络零售中的新客户与老客户购买行为差异基于淘宝网的实证对比研究%The Initial Buyers and Repeat Buyers in Online Retailing: an Empirical Study based on TaoBao. com

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦二娃; 卢向华

    2012-01-01

    网络零售中新客户与老客户的行为差异性,与传统零售相比更为显著也更有规律。基于“锚定与调整”的理论架构,本文结合网络零售的特征,对网络零售中的新客户与老客户购买行为的服务需求进行了分析,并基于淘宝网的数据进行了实证对比研究。研究结果表明,商家的信息获取服务、商品比较服务、信用保障服务、售后支持服务都对新客户和老客户的购买行为造成了显著区别。其中,新客户对商家的信息获取服务、信用保障服务、售后支持服务的需求较老客户的大;而老客户则对商家的商品比较服务有着更大的需求。本研究对更好地认识网络零售中新客户与老客户购买行为差异的差异,进而指导网络商家更有效地运营有着重要意义。%With the rapid growth of online businesstocustomer ( B2C ) ecommerce, many researchers are in terested in the service quality of online retailers. Some researchers suggested that service quality is one of the signif icant determinants of online retailers' success. There are two reasons : 1 ) online retailers' service quality direcflyin fluences buyers' purchase and repurchase intention in key determinant to attract potential buyers. In this online retailing. 2)Online retailers' service quality is also the regard , understanding the buyers' expectation of service quality is critical for online retailers for to attract potential buyers and retain repeat buyers. In the traditional retailing market, understanding the differences between initial buyers and repeat buyers is very important for the retailers to take differentiated marketing and management activities. Although most of the knowledge about this difference between initial buyers and repeat buyers can be transferred to online marketing to guide the operation of online retailer, we have to agree that online markets are significantly different with

  2. Managing business networks and buyer-supplier relationships. How information obtained from the business network affects trust, transaction specific investments, collaboration and performance in the Dutch Potted Plant and Flower Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Managing networks and buyer-supplier relationships " attempt to provide scientific sound discussion for problems faced in business linkages. Business networks, supply chains and buyer-supplier relationships all refer to business linkages, from a web of connected relationships to a dyadic

  3. Integrated vendor-buyer inventory models with inflation and time value of money in controllable lead time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global critical economic scenario, inflation plays a vital role in deciding optimal pricing of goods in any business entity. This article presents two single-vendor single-buyer integrated supply chain inventory models with inflation and time value of money. Shortage is allowed during the lead-time and it is partially backlogged. Lead time is controllable and can be reduced using crashing cost. In the first model, we consider the demand of lead time follows a normal distribution, and in the second model, it is considered distribution-free. For both cases, our objective is to minimize the integrated system cost by simultaneously optimizing the order quantity, safety factor, lead time and number of lots. The discounted cash flow and classical optimization technique are used to derive the optimal solution for both cases. Numerical examples including the sensitivity analysis of system parameters is provided to validate the results of the supply chain models.

  4. Development of coordination system model on single-supplier multi-buyer for multi-item supply chain with probabilistic demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia, G.; Santoso, A.; Prayogo, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the level of competition between supply chains is getting tighter and a good coordination system between supply chains members is very crucial in solving the issue. This paper focused on a model development of coordination system between single supplier and buyers in a supply chain as a solution. Proposed optimization model was designed to determine the optimal number of deliveries from a supplier to buyers in order to minimize the total cost over a planning horizon. Components of the total supply chain cost consist of transportation costs, handling costs of supplier and buyers and also stock out costs. In the proposed optimization model, the supplier can supply various types of items to retailers whose item demand patterns are probabilistic. Sensitivity analysis of the proposed model was conducted to test the effect of changes in transport costs, handling costs and production capacities of the supplier. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed a significant influence on the changes in the transportation cost, handling costs and production capacity to the decisions of the optimal numbers of product delivery for each item to the buyers.

  5. Understanding buyers' loyalty to a C2C platform : The roles of social capital, satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of E-commerce institutional mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Q.; Chen, X.Y.; Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Hua, Z.S.

    Drawing upon social capital theory, this study aims to investigate how different dimensions of social capital affect online buyers' satisfaction and ultimately boost their loyalty to a Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) platform. Specifically, we propose that three dimensions of social capital (i.e.,

  6. Dependency on suppliers as a peril in the acquisition of innovations? The role of buyer attractiveness in mitigating potential negative dependency effects in buyer–supplier relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Vos, Frederik Guido Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    New product development occurs nowadays mostly in joint buyer–supplier projects, which require closer ties between the partners in order to mobilize their resources. One issue arising from this collaborative model is that the buyer tends to become more dependent on the supplier. Multiple cases of

  7. Profitability of heating entrepreneurship from the viewpoint of heating energy buyer, heating energy seller and energy wood seller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvula-Seppaelae, T.; Ulander, E. (Seinaejoki Univ. of Applied Sciences, Ahtari (Finland), School of Agriculture and Forestry), e-mail: tiina.sauvula-seppala@seamk.fi, e-mail: essi.ulander@seamk.fi

    2010-07-01

    The focus of this research was to study the profitability of heating entrepreneurships from the viewpoint of heating energy buyer, seller as well as energy wood seller. The average costs of heat production were Eur 44,8 / MWh and incomes Eur 43,4 /MWh. Energy wood purchase, comminution and long distance transportation formed slightly over a half of the heat production costs. Average net income in the group of the largest heating plants (>1000 kW) was Eur 29000 per year and in the group of the smallest (<200 kW) average net income was slightly over Eur 4000 per year. The net income from selling heat represents only a part of the income a heating entrepreneur receives from heat production. Other, significant parts are formed by income from selling energy wood to the plant as well as compensation for supervision and maintenance of the plant. The average net income of a forest owner from selling energy wood to heating entrepreneurs was Eur 18 / m3. Without state subsidies the net income would have been Eur 4 / m3. The price of the heating energy sold by heating entrepreneurs was very competitive. In 2006 it was Eur 30 / MWh cheaper than oil heat, Eur 34 / MWh cheaper than electric heat and Eur 3 / MWh cheaper than district heating. (orig.)

  8. Several comparison result of two types of equilibrium (Pareto Schemes and Stackelberg Scheme) of game theory approach in probabilistic vendor – buyer supply chain system with imperfect quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, R.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) of the vendor-buyer supply-chain model under a probabilistic condition with imperfect quality items has been analysed. The analysis is delivered using two concepts in game theory approach, which is Stackelberg equilibrium and Pareto Optimal, under non-cooperative and cooperative games, respectively. Another result is getting acomparison of theoptimal result between integrated scheme and game theory approach based on analytical and numerical result using appropriate simulation data.

  9. 12 CFR 340.3 - What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the purchase with a loan from the FDIC? 340.3 Section 340.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY RESTRICTIONS ON SALE OF ASSETS BY THE FEDERAL...

  10. Impact of supplier-specific investments in inter-organisational information systems on strategic electronic coordination: the moderation effect of buyer dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teryokhin Sergei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors which influence sharing of the strategic information (in other words, electronic coordination in a buyer–supplier dyad. The antecedents of this coordination are examined rather well in the transaction cost economics (TCE theory and resource-dependency theory (RDT, while the supply chain management perspective is contemplated. The mentioned frameworks are used in the analysis. However, the research focus is narrowed down to the exploration of the antecedents of information exchange conducted via inter-organisational information systems (IOS. The empirical analysis is based on 198 observations of Norwegian companies operating in different types of industries. A regression model is used to test the hypotheses about the antecedents of strategic electronic coordination. The research results indicate that the direct effect of the supplier-specific investments in the IOS on the exchange of strategic information in the buyer–supplier dyad is not statistically significant. The supplier-specific investment in the IOS becomes positively associated with the strategic information exchange in the buyer–supplier dyad only when the buyer is dependent on the supplier. The buyer dependency creates a high motivation for the company to exchange the strategic information with the supplier who is more powerful in the dyad. This research concludes that the companies making substantial investments in the IOS for electronic coordination purposes may not reach their goals if relation-specific factors, such as buyer dependency, are not comprehensively considered.

  11. A Multiple Items EPQ/EOQ Model for a Vendor and Multiple Buyers System with Considering Continuous and Discrete Demand Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonrinaldi; Rahman, T.; Henmaidi; Wirdianto, E.; Zhang, D. Z.

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposed a mathematical model for multiple items Economic Production and Order Quantity (EPQ/EOQ) with considering continuous and discrete demand simultaneously in a system consisting of a vendor and multiple buyers. This model is used to investigate the optimal production lot size of the vendor and the number of shipments policy of orders to multiple buyers. The model considers the multiple buyers’ holding cost as well as transportation cost, which minimize the total production and inventory costs of the system. The continuous demand from any other customers can be fulfilled anytime by the vendor while the discrete demand from multiple buyers can be fulfilled by the vendor using the multiple delivery policy with a number of shipments of items in the production cycle time. A mathematical model is developed to illustrate the system based on EPQ and EOQ model. Solution procedures are proposed to solve the model using a Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) and algorithm methods. Then, the numerical example is provided to illustrate the system and results are discussed.

  12. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmen-tal degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the com-panies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into par-ticular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto- matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  13. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmental degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the companies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into particular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto-matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  14. Provider software buyer's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    To help long term care providers find new ways to improve quality of care and efficiency, Provider magazine presents the fourth annual listing of software firms marketing computer programs for all areas of nursing facility operations. On the following five pages, more than 80 software firms display their wares, with programs such as minimum data set and care planning, dietary, accounting and financials, case mix, and medication administration records. The guide also charts compatible hardware, integration ability, telephone numbers, company contacts, and easy-to-use reader service numbers.

  15. International Buyers' guide 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A guide is presented of manufactures, consultants, architect engineers and specialist service companies in the nuclear industry. The guide which is in three sections, supplies the following information: addresses of principal national and international agencies and nuclear organisations; addresses etc of companies in all major countries serving the nuclear industry; a list classified in terms of products and services and grouped according to country showing in which fields the companies operate. (author)

  16. The Wise Bus Buyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervarics, Charles

    1993-01-01

    School transportation experts consider the following essential rules in purchasing school buses: know your geography; know federal and state regulations; write specifications carefully; plan for replacement and growth; check out prospective bidders; keep up with recent trends; and remain flexible. New Jersey enacted a law last year requiring seat…

  17. An integrated production-inventory model for the singlevendor two-buyer problem with partial backorder, stochastic demand, and service level constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfawi Kurdhi, Nughthoh; Adi Diwiryo, Toray; Sutanto

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an integrated single-vendor two-buyer production-inventory model with stochastic demand and service level constraints. Shortage is permitted in the model, and partial backordered partial lost sale. The lead time demand is assumed follows a normal distribution and the lead time can be reduced by adding crashing cost. The lead time and ordering cost reductions are interdependent with logaritmic function relationship. A service level constraint policy corresponding to each buyer is considered in the model in order to limit the level of inventory shortages. The purpose of this research is to minimize joint total cost inventory model by finding the optimal order quantity, safety stock, lead time, and the number of lots delivered in one production run. The optimal production-inventory policy gained by the Lagrange method is shaped to account for the service level restrictions. Finally, a numerical example and effects of the key parameters are performed to illustrate the results of the proposed model.

  18. How to Engage Children into the World of Traditional Car Brands? Exploration of Specific Touchpoints between Future Buyers in the Car Industry and Established Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Mikolajová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to define the consumer journey of children through their childhood stages and provide specific touchpoints relevant for a given age, which could be integrated into the marketing communication of car brands to start building this young audience as future buyers. A qualitative study of children in different age brackets was used to identify their current and potential touchpoints with the car industry. The results of the study present specific stands on the prepurchase stage of the children’s consumer journey where the brand might interact with children and build the long-term positive attitudes of this group of potential customers. Specific implications for the industry in terms of understanding the language of the mobile game applications, computer games, YouTubers and integrating those specific activities into the brand’s marketing communication are highlighted for the car industry marketers.

  19. Exploring the relationship between online buyers and sellers of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs): Quality issues, trust and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Katinka; Koenraadt, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Online drug markets are expanding the boundaries of drug supply including the sale and purchase of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). However, the role of the internet in IPED markets, and in particular the ways in which these substances are supplied via the surface web, has rarely been considered. This article examines the online IPED market in order to inform drug policy and to provide a nuanced understanding of retailers involved, particularly exploring the relationship between buyers and sellers. This paper is based on two extensive research projects conducted in the Netherlands and Belgium. The first project focuses on muscle drugs and is based on 64 IPED dealing cases, semi-structured interviews with authorities (N=32), and dealers (N=15), along with an analysis of 10 steroid-selling websites. The second research project primarily focuses on weight loss drugs and sexual enhancers in the Netherlands, and relies on interviews with authorities (N=38), suppliers (N=30), and consumers (N=10), analysis of 69 criminal case files, and an online analysis. In the literature, the illicit online sale of IPEDs is generally associated with illegal online pharmacies that try to mislead buyers. While confirmed in our research, we also illustrate that there are online suppliers who invest in customer relationships and services, and that users are aware of the illegal nature of their business. These e-vendors incorporate a 'social supply business model' by providing the best possible service to their customers and attempting to minimise risks in order to attract, satisfy and maintain customers. As it is likely that users will continue to make use of the internet to order IPEDs, regardless of closing down selling websites, it is first of all important to counteract these online sources by educating all types of consumers and providing harm reduction services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cars that Provide Pleasure: a study about the connection between attributes and personal values of buyers from São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éderson Luiz Piato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evidence the cognitive structure of the values of automobile consumers from São Paulo, considering two models (one compact and another sportive of a car maker. Specifically, this paper aimed to identify elements through a hierarchical value map (HVM, the attributes, the consequences and the values that characterize the perceptions of the consumers and respective connections among these. Therefore, thirty in depth interviews were performed with buyers of the two models. The qualitative Laddering technique (REYNOLDS; GUTMAN, 1988, based on the Means-End Chain Theory (GUTMAN, 1982, guided the collection, analysis and interpretations of data. The results point out that personal values are determinant aspects for the decision of buying such models and, consequently, should be considered for the elaboration of strategies of automobile design and communication. The analysis of the HVM highlighted that the main chains, for the two models, are started by the attributes: “internal trim” and “Design”. These items generate the perception of the value “Hedonism” - the most expressive state for the interviewees. This highlights the importance of this value in deciding to buy those two analyzed models.

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility in Buyer-Supplier Relationships: Is it Beneficial for Top-Tier Suppliers to Market their Capability to Ensure a Responsible Supply Chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Leppelt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR-related supply management practices affects the reputation of top-tier suppliers in business-to-business (B2B markets. In a cross-functional multiple-case study involving marketing, purchasing, and sustainability executives of five supplier organizations in Central Europe, we explored four distinct approaches for marketing superior CSR management abilities in B2B markets that potentially foster long-term comparative advantages: (1 Fact-based communication of measurable CSR capabilities, (2 targeting of indirect customers and influencers, (3 marketing through education, and (4 marketing of CSR as a service. Moreover, our inductive results provide evidence that the effective marketing of CSR capabilities enhances a supplier’s reputation only if it sends consistent signals to the market. Therefore, a close integration of marketing and purchasing is crucial for achieving signaling consistency. Building on an established framework of purchasing-marketing integration in the particular context of CSR we developed a crossfunctional theory on the link between marketing, supply chain alignment and reputation, which is expressed in four sets of testable research propositions.

  2. Blockchain-driven supply chain finance: Towards a conceptual framework from a buyer perspective: Presentation held at 26th Annual IPSERA Conference 2017, 09-12 April 2017, Budapest

    OpenAIRE

    Omran, Yaghoob; Henke, Michael; Heines, Roger; Hofmann, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to develop a conceptual framework for blockchain-driven supply chain finance (SCF) solutions. The frame of reference intends to foster the coordination in buyer-supplier relations and eliminates existing inefficiencies in the execution of discrete SCF-instruments, such as reverse factoring and dynamic discounting. Moreover, we introduce value drivers for blockchain technology (BCT) to elaborate unique characteristics for its application in the field of SC...

  3. Car buyers and fuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrentine, Thomas S.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    This research is designed to help researchers and policy makers ground their work in the reality of how US consumers are thinking and behaving with respect to automotive fuel economy. Our data are from semi-structured interviews with 57 households across nine lifestyle 'sectors.' We found no household that analyzed their fuel costs in a systematic way in their automobile or gasoline purchases. Almost none of these households track gasoline costs over time or consider them explicitly in household budgets. These households may know the cost of their last tank of gasoline and the unit price of gasoline on that day, but this accurate information is rapidly forgotten and replaced by typical information. One effect of this lack of knowledge and information is that when consumers buy a vehicle, they do not have the basic building blocks of knowledge assumed by the model of economically rational decision-making, and they make large errors estimating gasoline costs and savings over time. Moreover, we find that consumer value for fuel economy is not only about private cost savings. Fuel economy can be a symbolic value as well, for example among drivers who view resource conservation or thrift as important values to communicate. Consumers also assign non-monetary meaning to fuel prices, for example seeing rising prices as evidence of conspiracy. This research suggests that consumer responses to fuel economy technology and changes in fuel prices are more complex than economic assumptions suggest. The US Department of Energy and the Energy Foundation supported this research. The authors are solely responsible for the content and conclusions presented

  4. Outsourcing Operational Logistics: Buyer Beware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woody, Lamont

    2003-01-01

    One of the key tasks from U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld to his Service Chiefs is to reduce DOD's overall logistic cost and footprint while transforming the warfighter-to-logistics (tooth-to-tail) force structure...

  5. Competition keeps SWU buyers happy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, L.

    1989-01-01

    While promising developments in laser separation for uranium enrichment have been realized and a group of utilities with centrifuge technology is exerting pressure on the US DoE to move into a more competitive position, projections of over-supply into the next century and questions about the economic viability for any enrichment venture allow room for a great deal of speculation about the future. (author)

  6. Slide Buyers Guide. 1974 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaurier, Nancy

    Designed for studio art instructors, museum education programs, public libraries, high school teachers, and those who buy slides for teaching art history at the college level, this guide lists sources of slides in the United States and over 20 foreign countries. All U.S. sources are listed first, commercial sources are alphabetical by name and…

  7. Outsourcing Operational Logistics: Buyer Beware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woody, Lamont

    2003-01-01

    .... As business strategies emerge to support the ever-changing military environment, planners and strategists must reapportion savings from support and infrastructure budgets to warfighting and modernization...

  8. Criteria for purchasing non-polluting products. A handbook to make allowance for environmental protection in public administration and on the part of public buyers. Umweltfreundliche Beschaffung. Handbuch zur Beruecksichtigung des Umweltschutzes in der oeffentlichen Verwaltung und im Einkauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is a comprehensive, independent handbook giving full information on the criteria for identifying products as non-polluting. Buying agents will in many cases not be in a position to establish the non-polluting quality of products for themselves or to choose among the many types the one product that is least likely to pollute the environment. The book brings light into this complexity and facilitates the choice of many products from the point of view of environmental protection. Furthermore any manufacturer of a product or system will be interested to learn about the demands public buyers will in future make on their products. The following groups of products are analyzed as to their non-polluting quality, and are described: products for use in offices, and general equipment - motor vehicles - building construction - underground working - energy management - water management - washing, dry-cleaning, and hygiene - horticulture and landscaping - problems of waste disposal. With 47 figs., 20 tabs..

  9. Investigation of supplier/buyer coordination performance in chinese companies Investigação sobre o desempenho da coordenação cliente/fornecedor em empresas chinesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhixiang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of supplier/buyer coordination in supply chain systems in China based on data from a survey of that country's business sector. The survey indicates that the rapidly expanding economy has raised the awareness of an increasing number of Chinese firms to the importance of cooperating and coordinating with partners in supply chain management. However, although coordinated delivery, quality and responsiveness show an upward trend, such is not the case in information sharing and in cooperative efforts to reduce inventory and costs. Hence, many companies have yet to form close cooperative relationships with partners. This study may be useful for both Chinese and foreign companies, serving to underpin the development of new strategies for operating supply chains in the changing global economy.Este artigo discute o desempenho da coordenação entre cliente/fornecedor em cadeias de suprimento da China com base em dados de uma pesqquisa de avaliação (survey. Os resultados indicam que a rápida expansão da economia fez com que um número crescente de empresas chinesas passasse a dar mais atenção para a importância da cooperação e coordenação entre os parceiros na gestão da cadeia de suprimentos. Embora entrega, qualidade e responsividade apresentem uma tendência de melhora o mesmo não é observado para compartilhamento da informação e esforços conjuntos para redução de custos e inventários. Portanto, muitas empresas ainda precisam estabelecer relacionamentos cooperatives com os seus parceiros. Este estudo pode ser útil tanto para empresas chinesas quanto para empresas estrangeiras, servindo de base para o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias para a gestão de cadeias de suprimentos numa economia global em mudança.

  10. The prospective buyer of consumer durables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, Leendert de; Oppedijk van Veen, Walle Melis

    1982-01-01

    In this book, an empirical investigation is reported wich aims at the specification of models of individual households’ purchase behaviour for particular consumer durable goods, such as private passenger cars and television sets. In particular, the focus is on models wich can be used for predicting

  11. 5th Annual Provider Software Buyer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    To help long term care providers find new ways to improve quality of care and efficiency, PROVIDER presents the fifth annual listing of software firms marketing computer programs for all areas of long term care operations. On the following five pages, more than 70 software firms display their wares, with programs such as minimum data set and care planning, dietary, accounting and financials, case mix, and medication administration records. The guide also charts compatible hardware, integration ability, telephone numbers, company contacts, and easy-to-use reader service numbers.

  12. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  13. School Planning and Management Buyer's Guide 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents product information and a suppliers' directory for school purchasing managers for the year 2000, including a detailed product showcase and case histories and a section on descriptions of free brochures, pamphlets, and guides from key suppliers. An advertiser index concludes the issue. (GR)

  14. Not many buyers interested in etatised Transpetrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    Russian oil company Jukos learned only form the media that Slovakia was, surpassingly, interested in purchase of 49-percent stake and management control over pipeline join stock company Transpetrol. The reason - growing concerns concerning the future fate of Jukos. Jukos was prompted by the Russian cabinet to pay its tax arrears in value of several billions of US dollars and Jukos' reaction was to call an extraordinary general meeting that is to decide about a possible bankruptcy. This Monday Slovak Minister of Economy announced that Slovakia had already sent the Russian cabinet a letter informing it about Slovakia's intention to purchase the stake. The Minister expects the Russian Federation to support this proposal. At the same time the Minister admitted that Slovakia would probably pay for the company more then the 72 mil. USD Jukos paid for it back in 2002. He even claims that the price Slovakia will have to pay will be higher by at least the inflation i.e. about 20%. P. Rusko did not mention any concerns regarding raising the necessary funds even though the Minister of Finance, Ivan Miklos said for TV station Markiza he had not seen the plan for purchase of the stake at all yet. Not even the cabinet had officially discussed the topic. (author)

  15. Steam coal markets forum - the buyers` outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graybeal, W.R.; Costa, D.; Iyer, S.; Perego, G. [Apex Resources Group (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The session contains four presentations: a talk on the uncertain future of coal, by Bill Graybeal of Apex Resources Group; a talk on coal procurement at the Sines power plant in Portugal, by Duarte Costa of CPPE-EDP group, Portugal; a presentation by Suresh Iyer of NEPCO on coal at the New England Power Company; and a paper by Giovanni Perego of ENEL Spa, Italy on coal imports and coal use by ENEL.

  16. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...... SMEs. We discuss four relational expectations derived from the B2B literature on relational norms for addressing these divergences: Quality, frequency and scope of communication, role specifications and coordination of work nature of planning horizons, and trustworthiness and link these to relationship...

  17. Filipino power debate keeps buyers at bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pundol, F.

    1999-11-01

    Legislative measures that would set the stage for the restructuring of the Philippines' power sector continue to be held up by Congress. The Manila Electric Co. is unhappy with the proposed ban on the cross-ownership of generating, transmission and distribution companies. Many foreign companies have expressed interest in joining the great reformation. All have fixed their sights on the National Power Corp. (NPC), the biggest government firm to be privatised under President Estrada's rule with total assets at Dec 1998 of more than 16 billion dollars. The country is likely to witness a radical change in its energy mix - coal, which is predominantly imported, will find keen competition with geothermal and natural gas. For now at least though steam coal is going strong. The Government has pledged to honour its constracts with the IPPs after the industry has been restructured. 2 tabs., 1 photo.

  18. Vendor-Buyer Coordination in Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.J. Verheijen (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCollaboration between firms in order to coordinate supply chain operations can lead to both strategic and operational benefits. Many advanced forms of collaboration arrangements between firms exist with the aim to coordinate supply chain decisions and to reap these benefits. This

  19. Buyer-supplier relationships and planning solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.; Steger-Jensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on supply chain relationships and segmented planning and ICT concepts. Major supplier segments are distinguished based on literature: capacity suppliers, standard suppliers, system suppliers and key suppliers. Next, current supply chain planning solutions are distinguished: vendor

  20. Criteria for purchasing non-polluting products. A handbook to make allowance for environmental protection in public administration and on the part of the public buyers. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Umweltfreundliche Beschaffung. Handbuch zur Beruecksichtigung des Umweltschutzes in der oeffentlichen Verwaltung und im Einkauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This is a comprehensive, independent handbook giving full information on the criteria for identifying products as non-polluting. Buying agents will in many cases not be in a position to establish the non-polluting quality of products for themselves or to choose among the many types the one product that is least likely to pollute the environment. The book brings light into this complexity and facilitates the choice of many products from the point of view of environmental protection. Furthermore any manufacturer of a product or system will be interested to learn about the demands public buyers will in future make on their products. The following groups of products are analyzed as to their non-polluting quality, and are described: products for use in offices, and general equipment, motor vehicles, building construction, underground working, energy management, water management, washing, dry-cleaning, and hygiene, horticulture and landscaping, problems of waste disposal. (orig.).

  1. Comparison of Grocery Purchase Patterns of Diet Soda Buyers to Those of Regular Soda Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    James, Binkley; Golub, Alla A.

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate effect of regular and diet carbonated soft drinks on energy intakes depends on possible relations with other dietary components. With this motivation, this study compared grocery purchase patterns of regular and diet soft drink consumers using a large sample of US single person households. We tested for differences in food spending shares allocated to 43 food categories chosen mainly for their desirable/undesirable nutritional properties. We also investigated whether differences ...

  2. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes and binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers of all skill levels are always contemplating their next telescope, and this book points the way to the most suitable instruments. Similarly, those who are buying their first telescopes – and these days not necessarily a low-cost one – will be able to compare and contrast different types and manufacturers. This revised new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand, and model on today’s market, a truly invaluable treasure-trove of information and helpful advice for all amateur astronomers. Originally written in 2006, much of the first edition is inevitably now out of date, as equipment advances and manufacturers come and go. This second edition not only updates all the existing sections but adds two new ones: Astro-imaging and Professional-Amateur collaboration. Thanks to the rapid and amazing developments that have been made in digital cameras it is...

  3. Buyer-supplier relationship management in the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PhD research is to gain insight into ways in which contractors could improve the management of, and the collaboration with, suppliers in order to increase their competitiveness. To achieve this aim, four research phases are conducted. Firstly, the current status of

  4. Shipbuilding Contract between Norwegian Buyers and Korean builders : Subcontracting

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Byoung Il

    2006-01-01

    Market researcher Clarkson Research Studies reports that Korea's total amount of ship orders in the first 11 months of 2005 amounted to 13.9 million compensated gross tonnage (CGT), or about 39 percent of the global market (35.5 million CGT). This outstrips the combined orders won by Japan (5.9 million CGT) and the whole of Europe (7.4 million CGT). Korea is the world s largest shipbuilding nation and Korean shipbuilders are expected to lead the global market for the next decade. Korean firm...

  5. Collaborative Procurement: A Relational View of Buyer–Buyer Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, H.; Schotanus, Fredo; Bakker, E.; Harland, C.

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative procurement is increasingly on the policy agenda in many countries, yet problems with collaboration occur. This article adopts a relational theory perspective to explore the enablers of and barriers to collaboration in purchasing, helping identify success factors. The authors adopted a

  6. ADAPTING BUYER-SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIP PRACTICES IN THE LOCAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Che Amad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the types and extent of supplier development activities undertaken by an identified manufacturing firm, along with the importance of supplier development goals. Data was collected through a cross-sectional survey of 26 respondents, consisting of officers, engineers, managers and senior managers from various sections within the buying firm's organisation. The analysis is based primarily on descriptive statistics. The results reveal that the supplier-specific factors are more prominent predictors of the outcomes of the supplier development efforts as compared to the other factors. The manufacturer's focus on the supplier development programme appears to be a short-term, results-oriented approach involving limited or no significant efforts on the side of thebuying firm. There is evidence indicating that the manufacturer has not fully utilised the expertise of its suppliers in designing its products, since there is lack of supplier involvement in the early stages of the design and development activities. The overallresults point to numerous deficiencies in the supplier development programme. Practical implications are provided in light of the findings.

  7. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-01-01

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry

  8. Buyer-Supplier Innovation : Managing Supplier Knowledge in Collaborative Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell, David T.

    2015-01-01

    As David Rosell’s dissertation represents all parts; the articles are finalized, onlya quite limited amount of work remained on the extended summary, and it can beconsidered as a thorough academic work, we (his main advisor AssociateProfessor Nicolette Lakemond and second advisor Assistant Professor CeciliaEnberg) have decided to publish the dissertation in order to make it available tothe research community. The dissertation has not been defended and is notapproved posthumous but only publis...

  9. Forced freedom. Part 3. Buyers' cooperatives. Vulnerable alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kop, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the market for energy purchase combinations can lead to big savings. Savings up to 30% are not unusual in foreign countries. Yet, most of them do not last, simply because they did not put enough effort in a pre-investigation or the making of firm mutual agreements. Important aspects of those agreements are the exact division of profits, a satisfactory commitment from all participants and the quality and competence of the people who manage such projects. A good consultant can play a positive role in this, by pointing out the pitfalls and keeping everybody with both feet on the ground. A capable consultant is worth the money

  10. Egypt's first mobile service linking smallholder farmers to buyers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... by a lack of marketing knowledge, technical skills, and the dissemination of information. ... The agri-food digital network on mobile apps, web, and SMS provides ... These interactive communication and knowledge-sharing tools are already ...

  11. Responsiveness of culture-based segmentation of organizational buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much published work over the four decades has acknowledged market segmentation in business-to-business settings yet primarily focusing on observable segmentation bases such as firmographics or geographics. However, such bases were proved to have a weak predictive validity with respect to industrial buying behavior. Therefore, this paper attempts to add a debate to this topic by introducing new (unobservable segmentation base incorporating several facets of business culture, denoted as psychographics. The justification for this approach is that the business culture captures the collective mindset of an organization and thus enables marketers to target the organization as a whole. Given the hypothesis that culture has a merit for micro-segmentation a sample of 278 manufacturing firms was first subjected to principal component analysis and Varimax to reveal underlying cultural traits. In next step, cluster analysis was performed on retained factors to construct business profiles. Finally, non-parametric one-way analysis of variance confirmed discriminative power between profiles based on psychographics in terms of industrial buying behavior. Owing to this, business culture may assist marketers when targeting more effectively than some traditional approaches.

  12. Buyer-seller interaction patterns during ongoing service exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Valk, van der, W.

    2007-01-01

    POINTS OF DEPARTURE Services constitute the main part of economic activity in developed countries around the world, where the service sector accounts for some 70% of aggregate production and employment in OECD50 economies. More specifically, finance, insurance and business services account for about 20 to 30 percent of value added in the total economy51. Consequently, the purchase of business services has become a substantial element in firms’ total acquisition of external resources. This par...

  13. Clean Cities 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-11

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  14. 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  15. Tourism Enterprises as Buyers of Knowledge-Intensive Business Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Borodako

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to assess the business relations between the tourism sector and suppliers of various types of business services. It focuses on knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS. The reasons why tourism businesses purchase outsourced services are also discussed. An Internet survey was conducted and the results were used to calculate and discuss a number of indices. Cross-tabulation statistics are used to assess the interrelation between types of tourist firms, their localization and size, and the types and number of services they use. The largest numbers of KIBS used by the Polish tourism sector are from the accounting, IT, and advertising sectors, whereas the smallest relate to research and experimental development in the social sciences and humanities. This article fills a gap in the knowledge about usage of KIBS services by the tourism sector at the national level.

  16. Efficient buyer groups for prediction-of-use electricity tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Robu, V; Vinyals, M; Rogers, A; Jennings, NR

    2014-01-01

    Copyright ? 2014, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence.Current electricity tariffs do not reflect the real cost that customers incur to suppliers, as units are charged at the same rate, regardless of how predictable each customers consumption is. A recent proposal to address this problem are prediction-of-use tariffs. In such tariffs, a customer is asked in advance to predict her future consumption, and is charged based both on her actual consumption and the deviation fr...

  17. New Strategies of the Retail Market to Attract Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Cãlin Mariana Floricica

    2012-01-01

    New realities of the digital age (continuous growth of internet penetration, card payments and mobile applications) forcing large retailers to rethink their tactics to increase business. The consequences of this development are manifold and manifest more and more that consumers want the ability to get information online on a retailer, you can compare prices - so an increasing demand for transparency - and you can order anytime, anywhere in a simple manner. Online retail allows introducing a w...

  18. Buyers beware: lead poisoning due to Ayurvedic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J Matthew R; Estrada, Carlos A; Mathews, Ronnie E

    2012-10-01

    A 29-year-old man, who recently emigrated from India, presented with a 2-week history of abdominal pain, as well as nausea, constipation, and fatigue. He underwent removal of a parathyroid adenoma 6 weeks prior to admission and received a locally made Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for pain control; however, this information was not initially available. He was instructed to take approximately 15 g/day. Initial evaluation revealed a normocytic anemia, but other workup including imaging and endoscopy was unrevealing. Given his recent use of Ayurvedic medicines, we tested for lead poisoning and found a blood lead level of 72 mcg/dl. We sent his medicine for analysis and found it had a high lead concentration of 36,000 mcg/g, which is over 25,000 times the maximum daily dose. He improved with cessation of the medicine and treatment with succimer. Lead poisoning can present with a variety of nonspecific signs and symptoms, including abdominal pain and anemia. Ayurvedic medicines, as well as traditional medicines from other cultures, may be a source of lead or other heavy metals. It is essential for physicians to be aware of adverse effects of Ayurvedic medicines as they are easily available and increasing in popularity.

  19. Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  20. Emissions trading and green power : profitability for buyers and sellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.

    1998-01-01

    Proposed features of the competitive electricity market in Ontario were reviewed. The speaker predicted that demand for renewable energy in Ontario's competitive electricity market will be affected by green power, emissions trading, labelling, and renewables portfolio standard. Under current regulations retailers can charge customers a premium for purchasing electricity generated by 'green' sources. The existing limits on emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxides will remain in place, but an emissions cap and trading program for all Ontario-based generation is an option to consider. Ontario's Market Design Committee (MDC) has recommended the implementation of emissions trading for electricity-related air pollutants for all generators located in Ontario. The complex mechanics of emission trading are explained. The MDC recommendation of the use of standard labels to disclose the mix of energy sources used by sellers of electricity and their associated pollution emissions are also summarized

  1. Health care consumerism: engaging the real buyers--employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Many employers have begun moving toward health care consumerism strategies designed to encourage employees to take more responsibility for their health care and the cost of that care. Recent surveys suggest ways employers can ensure their consumerism strategies succeed in engaging employees and, ultimately, encourage employees to change their behavior. This article describes what those surveys reveal about employer and employee perspectives on consumerism and suggests steps employers can take to align their interests with those of their employees in order to manage the demand for and use of health care.

  2. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes & binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2007-01-01

    This exciting, upbeat new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand and model of such instruments on today's market.

  3. INFORMATION SHARING ACROSS MULTIPLE BUYERS IN A SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    JIANGHUA WU; ANANTH IYER; PAUL V. PRECKEL; XIN ZHAI

    2012-01-01

    We model the impact of information visibility in a two-level supply chain consisting of independent retailers who share upstream supply. The manufacturer supplies similar products to the two retailers and each retailer serves its independent end market. Retailers face one period of demand and satisfy the demand by ordering in the first period or back-ordering some of the demand and satisfying it in the second period. The wholesale price in the second period is decreasing in the total order si...

  4. Buyer-seller interaction patterns during ongoing service exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.

    2007-01-01

    POINTS OF DEPARTURE Services constitute the main part of economic activity in developed countries around the world, where the service sector accounts for some 70% of aggregate production and employment in OECD50 economies. More specifically, finance, insurance and business services account for about

  5. A STUDY ON BUYERS PREFERENCE OF AMWAY PRODUCTS IN TIRUNELVELI

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A.Hamil; Ed.Priyadharshini

    2017-01-01

    Customers are the prime focus of any organization. The most important asset that any firm, can have is customers. An organization greatly depends on how many customers it has (customer base) how they buy and how often they buy. Satisfied customers usually buy more and buy frequently. Loyal customers also act best promotional source to new customers. They tend to bring in more and more new customers through word of mouth communication. It improves the market position of the firm and also the p...

  6. Issues and strategies for large power buyers in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.

    2001-01-01

    America's leading commodity risk management company, Enron has 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2000. It operates EnronOnline, the largest e-commerce site in the world. With some corporate profile information on Enron and Enron Canada and its involvement in the Alberta electricity market, the author proceeded to discuss risk management issues and program development. It was stated that Enron believes that future outcomes can be changed, and risk management is a dynamic and iterative process used as a tool to decrease uncertainty. The risk appetite is defined and electricity risks clarified, then a review of physical operation characteristics is conducted. The risk management program and policy are defined, as well as the controls and reporting. The tools and tactics are defined and one is now ready for the implementation phase. The next section was devoted to credit and contracting issues before moving to the Alberta electricity market fundamentals and pricing and some insight provided on questions such as import/export in Alberta, regulatory issues, prices in Alberta. The last section of the presentation touched on EnronOnline which is a free, Internet-based global transaction system where one can view real time prices. tabs., figs

  7. Whole-House Approach Benefits Builders, Buyers, and the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-05-01

    This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. Building America works with the residential building industry to develop and implement innovative building processes and technologies-innovations that save builders and homeowners millions of dollars in construction and energy costs. This industry-led, cost-shared partnership program aims to reduce energy use by 50% and reduce construction time and waste, improve indoor air quality and comfort, encourage a systems engineering approach for design and construction of new homes, and accelerate the development and adoption of high performance in production housing.

  8. Whole-House Approach Benefits Builders, Buyers, and the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, B.

    2001-01-19

    This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. Building America works with the residential building industry to develop and implement innovative building processes and technologies-innovations that save builders and homeowners millions of dollars in construction and energy costs. This industry-led, cost-shared partnership program aims to reduce energy use by 50% and reduce construction time and waste, improve indoor air quality and comfort, encourage a systems engineering approach for design and construction of new homes, and accelerate the development and adoption of high performance in production housing.

  9. Nuclear directory 1987, part 2 - Nuclear buyers' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This paper consists of a directory of suppliers' names and addresses, the name and address of the Canadian representative of non-domestic companies, and the name and phone number of the person to contact. In cases where non-domestic companies have no Canadian representative listed, contact should be made directly with the company. These companies have indicated a commitment to marketing in Canada

  10. Types of unethical tactics in negotiation between buyer and supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: This article researches the kinds of unethical tactics, which can use customers or suppliers to achieve better negotiating outcome. Purpose: Determine which tactics they used, from where they rise from and what the other authors about resulting of using unethical tactics. Method: Analysis of articles from Ebsco and ProQuest databases. Results: Getting of ethical knowledge, types of unethical negotiation tactics and awareness of the limits of ethics in the negotiations process between suppliers and customers. Organization: Managers can gain the recognition of unethical tactics, their using in the negotiation process and the construction of negotiating temperament or even competence. The research contributes to a better achievement of the performance of the organization. The results of this article can contribute to the negotiators decision-making on the use of unethical tactics. Society: Ethical negotiation helps to improve the reputation and respect of the organization, which represents the negotiator. Originality: In a review of existing articles and searches we have not found similar studies to investigate the unethical negotiating tactics. Limitations/Future Research: The article is limited to fifteen articles and three books.

  11. Automobile Buyer Decisions about Fuel Economy and Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kurani, Ken; Turrentine, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Much prior research into consumer automotive and fuel purchase behaviors and fuel economy has been shaped by the normative assumptions of economics. Among these assumptions are that consumers should pay attention to costs of fuel and that they are aware of their options to save on fuel over long periods of time, i.e., the life of a vehicle or at least their period of ownership. For example, researchers have analyzed in some depth consumer choices for more fuel economical vehicles in the 1980s...

  12. Approaching the millennium - strategies for the gas buyers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.; Kelton, F.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of what is in store for gas purchasing in Ontario's new deregulated market was presented. Basically, responsibilities will shift from the utility to market players. The impact of this shift on marketers, on end-users and on the utility were assessed. In the new millennium, Consumers Gas, which is Canada's largest and oldest natural gas distributor, will be operating under a new name, Enbridge. The company will focus on developing marketing programs to position natural gas as the number one fuel choice for residential, commercial, apartments, vehicles, cogeneration and industrial markets. The evolution of the 200 customer market model( i.e. large volume customers, gas marketers, commercial customers and residential customers as a group), what each of these groups want from Enbridge, and what Enbridge can deliver as the wholesale provider of natural gas delivery services rounded out the discussion. figs

  13. Essays on the governance of buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we challenge the way governance structures associated with hybrid vertical interfirm relationships are conceptualized in received transaction cost economics (TCE). We argue that a more dynamic approach is needed, in which preferences and knowledge are not treated as fixed and given,

  14. Oligopolistic price competition with informed and uninformed buyers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostatnický, Michal

    -, č. 413 (2010), s. 1-34 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : oligopoly * price competition * price dispersion Subject RIV: AH - Economic s http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp413.pdf

  15. Issues and strategies for large power buyers in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D. [ENRON Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    America's leading commodity risk management company, Enron has 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2000. It operates EnronOnline, the largest e-commerce site in the world. With some corporate profile information on Enron and Enron Canada and its involvement in the Alberta electricity market, the author proceeded to discuss risk management issues and program development. It was stated that Enron believes that future outcomes can be changed, and risk management is a dynamic and iterative process used as a tool to decrease uncertainty. The risk appetite is defined and electricity risks clarified, then a review of physical operation characteristics is conducted. The risk management program and policy are defined, as well as the controls and reporting. The tools and tactics are defined and one is now ready for the implementation phase. The next section was devoted to credit and contracting issues before moving to the Alberta electricity market fundamentals and pricing and some insight provided on questions such as import/export in Alberta, regulatory issues, prices in Alberta. The last section of the presentation touched on EnronOnline which is a free, Internet-based global transaction system where one can view real time prices. tabs., figs.

  16. Buyer feedback as a filtering mechanism for reputable sellers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laureti, P.; Slanina, František; Yu, Y.K.; Zhang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 316, - (2002), s. 413-429 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/1091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : asymetric information * internet commerce * Game theory * self-organization * symbiosis Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.369, year: 2002

  17. NAC gets OK for waste canister, looks for buyers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, P.

    1994-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has given design approval to the first dual-purpose waste cansiter suitable for storing and transporting irradiated nuclear fuel. The cask could be commercially available by January 1995. NRC issued a transportation certificate for the canister, which was developed by Atlanta-based NAC Services Inc., a subsidiary of NAC Holding Inc. That certificate, which says the cask is a suitable vessel for transporting radioactive wastes by rail and truck, is the first credential of a two-part licensing process the design must acquire. Testing of the cask has been extensive, including drop tests and pin-puncture tests. Roughly 19 feet long and eight feet in diameter, the cask is designed to hold 26 pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies. NAC officials say the cask design will soon be adapted to accomodate larger boiling water reactor fuel assemblies. Utilities will need some convincing that the dual-purpose $1.5 million cask is worth the money, particularly since companies currently have no use for the cask's transportation capabilities

  18. Employee assistance programs: a primer for buyer and seller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, K

    1988-06-01

    A growing number of firms in private industry now sponsor or contract with groups of mental health professionals to provide employee assistance programs (EAPs). Factors that have influenced the increasing demand for EAPs include corporations' humanitarian concern for employees with mental health problems, a desire to contain rising health costs and reduce corporate losses, and the need for effective supervisory systems for managing troubled employees. To assist corporate consumers in judging the quality of EAP services and to guide mental health practitioners who wish to enter the EAP field, criteria are provided for evaluating the following aspects of EAP programs: policy development, employee orientation, supervisor training, availability during nonbusiness hours, assessment and diagnostic services, crisis counseling, referral, quality assurance, program evaluation, and cost.

  19. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This annual guide features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  20. BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT IN STRUCTURED CONTRACTS ENVIRONMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN A MULTINATIONAL FIRM GESTIÓN DE RELACIONAMIENTO COMPRADOR-PROVEEDOR EN AMBIENTES CON CONTRATOS ESTRUCTURADOS: EL CASO DE UNA GRAN MULTINACIONAL GESTÃO DO RELACIONAMENTO COMPRADOR-FORNECEDOR EM AMBIENTES COM CONTRATOS ESTRUTURADOS: O CASO DE UMA GRANDE MULTINACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pagiola de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article objective is to analyze the relationships between buyers and sellers in organizational environments where structured contracts are used, more specifically when it is used to ruled relational aspects in these relationships.  The focus of this analysis was a big multinational company and its suppliers. Five relationships were selected, and three categories were chosen by which was structured the interviews script, to be applied to eleven managers. The results had shown that there is not a relational contract to treat all the relationship management issues, but verified the existence of informal rules and norms agreed between the parts that provide attendance to this finality.El objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar las relaciones  entre contratante y contratados en ambientes con utilización de contratos estructurados, más específicamente el empleo de esos contratos para tratar de los aspectos relacionales de esas relaciones. Así que, el foco principal de la presente investigación son las relaciones entre una gran multinacional y sus proveedores de productos y servicios. Como estrategia de investigación, fue realizada,  primeramente, un sondeo en 94 contratos establecidos por la contratante. A partir de ese levantamiento, teniendo como referencia seis parámetros identificados en la revisión de la literatura, fue realizada la elección de los cinco casos (contratos a ser estudiados. Esos mismos parámetros fueron utilizados para la definición del guión de la entrevista. Una vez definidos los casos, fueron seleccionados once gestores (sujetos de la investigación de la contratante y de los contratados, para la realización de las entrevistas. Como conclusión, se observa que en contratos con suministro de poca tecnología existe mayor dependencia de la contratada, mas esa dependencia diminuye a medida que se incorpora más tecnología en el suministro de productos y servicios. En relación a la

  1. Benefits of Cooperation between Buyers and Providers: a study in the field of information and communications technologyBenefícios da Cooperação entre Compradores e Fornecedores: um estudo no setor de tecnologia de informação e comunicaçãoBeneficios de la Cooperación entre los Compradores y Proveedores: un estudio en el sector de tecnología de la información y comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRITO, Eliane Pereira Zamith

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study examined the relationships between manufacturers and their distributors and retailers in the Information Technology sector. The characteristics of these relationships were identified, particularly cooperation between buyers and suppliers, and its impact on the relationship performance. Four cooperative behaviors represented the idea of cooperation. Efficiency and effectiveness were used as a performance evaluation of the relationship. Interviews with company managers were the main source of data. This research identified a significant level of cooperation within relationships, and exchange of information, joint problem-solving and flexibility were the most visible behaviors. The positive effect of cooperation in partner satisfaction concerning the relationship was observed, leading managers to the decision to buy and to a positive experience as to the relationship. The study also showed that effectiveness feeds back the process.RESUMOEste estudo analisou os relacionamentos entre fabricantes e seus distribuidores e revendas no setor de Tecnologia da Informação. Buscou-se identificar as características desses relacionamentos, particularmente a existência de cooperação entre compradores e fornecedores e o impacto da cooperação no desempenho do relacionamento. A cooperação foi avaliada a partir de comportamentos cooperativos. Eficiência e eficácia foram usadas como avaliação de desempenho do relacionamento. Entrevistas com gestores das empresas do setor foram a fonte principal de dados do estudo. A pesquisa identificou um nível significativo de cooperação nos relacionamentos, sendo mais salientes os comportamentos do tipo troca de informação, resolução conjunta de problemas e flexibilidade. Foi constatado o efeito positivo da cooperação na satisfação dos parceiros com o relacionamento, o que leva à decisão de compra do gestor e a uma experiência positiva com o relacionamento. Evidenciou-se também que a

  2. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of pork products: The attributes, consequences and values sought by buyers of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    2001-01-01

    It is a fact that creating value for customers - in the eyes of the customers - is a very important source of competitive advantage. So far no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, we propose a definition of 'retailer value' built on a solid theoretical...

  3. Exploring the dark side of interpersonal relationships between buyers and suppliers of logistics services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Meyer

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Managers should not underestimate the potential hegemony between individuals who have interpersonal relationships. Relationships require upkeep, personal involvement, attention and trust. Interpersonal relationship intentions without formal safety measures, such as organisational governance and policies, can expose and even diminish the strongest organisational alliances to suboptimal performance and reduced profitability.

  4. The ties that bind : Buyer-supplier relations in the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamann, D.J.F.; Snijders, C.; Tazelaar, F.; Welling, D.Th.

    This study considers the consequences of Inter Organisational relations at two levels: the micro level of the individual, and the macro level of the organisation. Merging Transaction Cost Economics with theories on the Social Embeddedness of relations, the paper tackles several hypotheses about

  5. Consumer-directed health care and the courts: let the buyer (and seller) beware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Tunick, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    In consumer-directed health care, patients will be expected to exert greater control over their spending decisions than before. As consumer-directed care gains market acceptance, courts will inevitably be involved in resolving challenges to the new arrangements. We anticipate that courts will be generally favorable toward consumer-directed care, but the new legal doctrine will not uniformly favor medical professionals and insurers. The information demands inherent in consumer-directed care will present particular legal challenges to physicians and insurers. Even as courts provide flexibility to reflect the new market realities, they will closely monitor how consumer-directed care is implemented.

  6. Evaluating online direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests: informed choices or buyers beware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geransar, Rose; Einsiedel, Edna

    2008-03-01

    Commercialization of genetic technologies is expanding the horizons for the marketing and sales of genetic tests direct-to-consumers (DTCs). This study assesses the information provision and access requirements that are in place for genetic tests that are being advertised DTC over the Internet. Sets of key words specific to DTC genetic testing were entered into popular Internet search engines to generate a list of 24 companies engaging in DTC advertising. Company requirements for physician mediation, genetic counseling arrangements, and information provision were coded to develop categories for quantitative analysis within each variable. Results showed that companies offering risk assessment and diagnostic testing were most likely to require that testing be mediated by a clinician, and to recommend physician-arranged counseling. Companies offering enhancement testing were less likely to require physician mediation of services and more likely to provide long-distance genetic counseling. DTC advertisements often provided information on disease etiology; this was most common in the case of multifactorial diseases. The majority of companies cited outside sources to support the validity of claims about clinical utility of the tests being advertised; companies offering risk assessment tests most frequently cited all information sources. DTC advertising for genetic tests that lack independent professional oversight raises troubling questions about appropriate use and interpretation of these tests by consumers and carries implications for the standards of patient care. These implications are discussed in the context of a public healthcare system.

  7. 40 CFR 1039.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION...-related components that were not in widespread use with nonroad compression-ignition engines before 2011... franchised dealers or any other service establishments with which you have a commercial relationship. You may...

  8. Determination of Japanese buyer valuation of metallurgical coal characteristics by hedonic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, R.J. [Griffith University, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Graduate School of Management

    2001-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted by econometric researchers to understanding Japanese steel mill (JSM) metallurgical coal valuation policies, and whether such policies disadvantage coal exporters. Much of this research has employed the hedonic regression modeling technique of Rosen and examines the significance of coal quality in establishing market price. This article discusses shortcomings in some such modeling studies, and presents results of additional hedonic modeling to buttress findings of previous work suggesting that cross-cultural bargaining factors rather than coal quality explain lower prices for Australian coals in Japanese market settlements. Policy changes that might be effective in ameliorating bilateral market distortions arising from oligopsony characteristics exhibited in JSM contract settlements are then explored. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. 40 CFR 1054.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... schedule cleaning or changing air filters or changing spark plugs at the least frequent interval described... aftertreatment devices, pulse-air valves, fuel injectors, oxygen sensors, electronic control units, superchargers... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance steps to address engine operation that is not atypical, or that the maintenance is unlikely to... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission... maintenance step, recommend the maximum feasible interval for this maintenance, include your rationale with...

  11. Buyers and Borrowers: The Application of Consumer Theory to the Study of Library Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles D.

    Using Ehrenberg's application of mathematical models to the analysis and prediction of repeated buying patterns of consumers, this study focuses on the concept of library use as a form of consumer behavior. The following hypotheses were tested: designated library user groups will tend to exhibit stable behavioral patterns with respect to the…

  12. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses.

  13. The Impact of Brands on Consumer Buying Behavior: An Empirical Study On Smartphone Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Akkucuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to understand the factors behind smartphone purchase decisions of consumers. Nowadays companies make use of various strategies in order to attract new customers, retain existing customers and differentiate their products from those of their competitors. Perhaps, the most important and effective strategy to influence consumer behavior in the product selection is emphasizing the “brand name” of the products. Our aim in this paper is to investigate how smartphone brands can influence consumers’ buying decisions. Brand equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand name and symbol, which add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service. It enhances the customer’s ability to interpret and process information, improves confidence in the purchase decision and affects the quality of the user experience. Using this construct widely discussed in the literature, we use and build our hypothesis based on Aaker model about the brand equity, including perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association and brand loyalty. The study involved a questionnaire administered to 171 smartphone consumers between December 2015 and March 2016. The consumers were chosen by convenience sampling among the students from a prestigious university in the Istanbul district of Turkey.

  14. SCOR based key success factors in cooking oil supply chain buyers perspective in Padang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahara, Fatimah; Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain of cooking oil is a network of companies from palm oil as raw material to retailers which work to create the value and deliver products into the end consumers. This paper is aimed to study key success factors based on consumer's perspective as the last stage in the supply chain. Consumers who are examined in this study are restaurants management or owners. Restaurant is the biggest consumption of cooking oil. The factors is studied based on Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) version 10.0. Factors used are formulated based on the third-level metrics of SCOR Model. Factors are analyzed using factors analysis. This study found factors which become key success factors in managing supply chain of cooking oil encompass reliability, responsiveness and agility. Key success factors can be applied by governments as policy making and cooking oil companies as formulation of the distribution strategies.

  15. Green Building Pro-Environment Behaviors: Are Green Users Also Green Buyers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pro-environment behaviors play a key role in advancing the development of green buildings. This study investigated the link between two green building pro-environment behaviors that require dissimilar resources: energy savings that do not require money in order to be more environmentally friendly and willingness to pay that involves economic resources including spending money in order to be more environmentally friendly. This study points out that the two pro-environment behaviors can be positively linked to each other. People who behave in an environmentally friendly manner at work would also be likely to pay an extra cost for a green building when buying a new home. The consistency of the two pro-environment behaviors can be explained by their common environmental beliefs: limits to growth and eco-crisis. The green building movement should prioritize pro-environmental behaviors and associated environmental beliefs to support green building policies, guidelines, and tools.

  16. Service Process Innovation and the Role of Added Value in Buyer-Seller Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus

    2011-01-01

    data that have been collected through 12 interviews with managers and employees at a wholesaler of electronic consumer equipment and a leading FM service provider. Findings – The results indicate that significant benefits due to process innovation, here PDF-invoicing, has been the more intensive...... of relationships, and in establishing a strategic partnership. This is mainly due to the fact that it can be costly to include users when changing service processes without a deep understanding of technology and customer needs. Originality/value – The paper provide issues to help organizations manage the value...... creation process. The study shows that a sales company is not restricted to making value propositions when outsourcing non core business tasks to a service provider, but can actively influence and direct customers in their fulfillment of value creation....

  17. Neither bipolar nor obsessive-compulsive disorder: compulsive buyers are impulsive acquirers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomensky, Tatiana Zambrano; Almeida, Karla Mathias; Castro Nogueira, Marcelo Campos; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Lafer, Beny; Borcato, Sonia; Tavares, Hermano

    2012-07-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is currently classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD) not otherwise classified. Compulsive buying prevalence is estimated at around 5% of the general population. There is controversy about whether CB should be classified as an ICD, a subsyndromal bipolar disorder (BD), or an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) akin to a hoarding syndrome. To further investigate the appropriate classification of CB, we compared patients with CB, BD, and OCD for impulsivity, affective instability, hoarding, and other OCD symptoms. Eighty outpatients (24 CB, 21 BD, and 35 OCD) who were neither manic nor hypomanic were asked to fill out self-report questionnaires. Compulsive buying patients scored significantly higher on all impulsivity measures and on acquisition but not on the hoarding subdimensions of clutter and "difficulty discarding." Patients with BD scored higher on the mania dimension from the Structured Clinical Interview for Mood Spectrum scale. Patients with OCD scored higher on obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, particularly, higher on the contamination/washing and checking dimensions from the Padua Inventory; however, they did not score higher on any hoarding dimension. A discriminant model built with these variables correctly classified patients with CB (79%), BD (71%), and OCD (77%). Patients with CB came out as impulsive acquirers, resembling ICD- rather than BD- or OCD-related disorders. Manic symptoms were distinctive of patients with BD. Hoarding symptoms other than acquisition were not particularly associated with any diagnostic group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing cryptomarkets for drugs. A characterisation of sellers and buyers over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanetakis, Meropi

    2018-02-12

    Cryptomarkets operating on the darknet are a recent phenomenon that has gained importance only over the last couple of years (Barratt, 2012). However, they now constitute an evolving part of illicit drug markets. Although selling and buying a variety of psychoactive substances on the Internet has a long history, new technological developments enable systematic drug trading on the net.These technological innovations on the Internet allow users to proceed with (illicit) drug transactions with almost completely anonymous identities and locations. In this paper, we provide a systematic measurement analysis of structures and trends on the most popular anonymous drug marketplace, and discuss the role of cryptomarkets in drug distribution. Data collection and analysis include a long-term measurement of the cryptomarket 'AlphaBay', the most popular platform during the survey period. By developing and applying a web-scraping tool, market data was extracted from the marketplace on a daily basis during a period of twelve months between September 2015 and August 2016. The data was analysed by using business-intelligence software, which allows the linking of various data sets. We found 2188 unique vendors offering 11,925 drug items. The findings of our long-term monitoring and data analysis are compared over time and across marketplaces, offering a detailed understanding of the development of revenues generated, characterisation of countries of origin and destination, and distribution of vendors and customers over time. We provide a nuanced and highly detailed longitudinal analysis of drug trading on the darknet marketplace 'AlphaBay', which was the largest cryptomarket in operation. 1) Total sales volumes for the 'drugs' section was estimated at approximately USD 94 million for the period from September 2015 to August 2016. 2) In addition, about 64% of all sales are made with cocaine-, cannabis-, heroin-, and ecstasy-related products. 3) Average selling prices increase over time for categories including cannabis and hashish, ecstasy, opioids, psychedelics and stimulants. 4) The five most frequent countries of origin as indicated by vendors are the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, the Netherlands and Germany. Moreover, it was demonstrated that drug distribution on cryptomarkets is conducted at a regional rather than global level. 6) Furthermore, 4.88% of vendors made over USD 200,000 and were responsible for 52.9% of total revenues generated over the period analysed. In contrast, 57.51% of vendors managed to sell drug items worth less than USD 10,000 within a period of twelve months. The findings suggest that 'AlphaBay' was a cryptomarket mainly from and for Western industrialised countries. In contrast, countries of the global South are neither among the main countries of origin nor destination countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol sales to underage buyers in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Roodbeen, Ruud T.J.; Krokké, J.; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring vendors' compliance and possible change in compliance with the legal age limits on alcohol sales in 2011 and 2013. Methods In 2011 and 2013, representative mystery shopping studies were conducted. In total, 2,737 underage mystery shopping alcohol purchase attempts were conducted

  20. Entrepreneurial proliferation: Russia`s nuclear industry suits the buyers market. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, T.D.; Williams, A.R.

    1995-06-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991, bringing an end to four decades of the Cold War. A system of tight centralized controls has given way to chaotic freedom and un-managed, entrepreneurial capitalism. Of immediate concern to most world leaders has been the control and safety of over 30,000 Soviet nuclear weapons. After 1991, the Soviet, centralized system of management lost one key structural element: a reliable `human factor` for nuclear material control. The Soviet systems for physical security and material control are still in place in the nuclear inheritor states - Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhnstan, and Belarus - but they do not restrain or regulate their nuclear industry. In the chaos created by the Soviet collapse, the nonproliferation regime may not adequately temper the supply of the nuclear materials of the new inheritor states. This could permit organizations or states seeking nuclear weapons easier access to fissile materials. New initiatives such as the United States Cooperative Threat Reduction program, which draws upon U.S. technology and expertise to help the NIS solve these complex problems, are short-tern tactics. At present there are no strategies which address the long-tern root problems caused by the Soviet collapse.This thesis demonstrates the extent of the nuclear control problems in Russia. Specifically, we examine physical security, material control and accounting regulation and enforcement, and criminal actions. It reveals that the current lack of internal controls make access to nuclear materials easier for aspiring nuclear weapons States.

  1. French fair trade coffee buyers' purchasing motives: An exploratory study using means-end chains analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ferran, Florence; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    Considering the growth of fair trade product consumption in European countries and the expansion of its distribution to different kinds of distribution networks in reply to increasing consumer sensitivity to the ethical characteristics of a product, it becomes important to understand it better....... In this paper, we examine the motives and the values underlying this purchase through a laddering methodology with 54 French fair trade coffee purchasers. A quantitative analysis of the ladders allows us to define several groups of motives that are socially and individually oriented. Moreover, our results...

  2. Buyer's guide of sewage and refuse treatment plants. B + A. Vol. 2. 6. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluemer, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The brochure gives an overview of appropriate forms and engineering offices concerned with construction and equipment of sewage and refuse treatment plants. Part one - an alphabetical listing of comparies giving information on their entry in the commercial registry; address; telephone; telefax and telex numbers and range of products. It includes references to their production programme or engineering offices on form representatives at home and abroad. Part Two is a ''product and service listing''. A list of product and service headings, under which the forms that provide that service or product are listed. Part Three is as ''Answer index'' which lists alphabetically the readings found in part two but listed in the German, English and French languages for easier use. Part Four is an overview of the present standards, regulations, codes of practice in the EC and a list of professional organisations. (orig./BBR) [de

  3. Stock or cash? The trade-offs for buyers and sellers in mergers and acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, A; Sirower, M L

    1999-01-01

    In 1988, less than 2% of large deals were paid for entirely in stock; by 1998, that number had risen to 50%. The shift has profound ramifications for shareholders of both the acquiring and acquired companies. In this article, the authors provide a framework and two simple tools to guide boards of both companies through the issues they need to consider when making decisions about how to pay for--and whether to accept--a deal. First an acquirer has to decide whether to finance the deal using stock or pay cash. Second, if the acquirer decides to issue stock, it then must decide whether to offer a fixed value of shares or a fixed number of them. Offering cash places all the potential risks and rewards with the acquirer--and sends a strong signal to the markets that it has confidence in the value not only of the deal but in its own stock. By issuing shares, however, an acquirer in essence offers to share the newly merged company with the stockholders of the acquired company--a signal the market often interprets as a lack of confidence in the value of the acquirer's stock. Offering a fixed number of shares reinforces that impression because it requires the selling stockholders to share the risk that the value of the acquirer's stock will decline before the deal goes through. Offering a fixed value of shares sends a more confident signal to the markets, as the acquirer assumes all of that risk. The choice between cash and stock should never be made without full and careful consideration of the potential consequences. The all-too-frequent disappointing returns from stock transactions underscore how important the method of payment truly is.

  4. A tale of two partnerships : Socialization in the development of buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, M.A.R.; Vos, G.C.J.M.; Akkermans, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the emerging literature on the role of socialization in developing buyer–supplier relationships. We conduct a dyadic, multiple-informant based, longitudinal study of the development of two buyer–supplier relationships. We carry out a detailed examination of the effect of

  5. Configuration of inter-organizational information exchange and the differences between buyers and sellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, G.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.; Wang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to extend the understanding of the configuration of inter-organizational information exchange (IOIE) and the role of each aspect of IOIE in realizing potential communication benefits. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework on the configuration of IOIE

  6. Tiering Effects in Third-party Logistics: A First-tier Buyer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vainionpää, Mikael M.

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation takes a buy side perspective to third-party logistics (3PL) providers’ service tiering by applying a linear serial dyadic view to transactions. It takes its point of departure not only from the unalterable focus on the dyad levels as units of analysis and how to manage them, but also the characteristics both creating and determining purposeful conditions for a longer duration. A conceptual framework is proposed and evaluated on its ability to capture logistics se...

  7. Differences and similarities on the approaches of buyers from X and Y generations regarding sustainable procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Lacour, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Responsible procurement has become a real challenge for companies following the current trends of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and more and more ethic-oriented customers. Differing from the concept of green procurement this concept of responsible procurement supports the willingness of companies to have ethic and sustainable supplies. The usual criteria in procurement such as price performances innovation terms and time of payment have increasingly been coupled with more ethic-orient...

  8. The Impact of Channel Function Performance on Buyer-Seller Relationships in Marketing Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); M. Kacker (Manish); C. Nieuwlaat (Chantal)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractDistributors, across sectors and countries, are faced by the threat of disintermediation. In many industries, horizontal consolidation and advances in information technology have made it easier for manufacturers to bypass distributors and do business directly with consumers.

  9. Does Sustainable Building Technology Matter to Home Buyers?: Determinants of Passive House Purchase Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Anna Karina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore what determines the decision of purchasing a passive house. Passive house projects are increasing in Norway, due to their energy saving potential, and an existing project in Trondheim was used as a case for this study. Exploring the determinants was done by interviewing people who had pur-chased a passive house, and asking what they focused on when deciding which house to buy. It was investigated to which extent the environmental aspect of passive ho...

  10. Whole-House Approach Benefits Builders, Buyers, and the Environment Building America Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-05-01

    This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. Building America works with the residential building industry to develop and implement innovative building processes and technologies.

  11. 75 FR 39206 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... compared to the attendance when not supported by program. The criteria used to select these shows are...-0151. Form Number(s): ITA-4014P and ITA-4102P. Type of Review: Regular submission. Affected Public... technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice will be summarized and/or included in the request...

  12. 78 FR 68814 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... overseas markets and corresponds to marketing opportunities as identified by ITA. Previous international... overseas. In addition, the applicant should describe in detail the international marketing program to be... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Docket No.: 131030913-3913-01] Call for...

  13. Farmer-buyer relationships in China: The effects of contracts, trust and market environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Hu, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is first, to develop constructs to measure three important concepts in the supply chain literature: contracts, trust and market environment, in the Chinese context and to further investigate the relationships amongst these three concepts based on the formulated

  14. Buyer-supplier interaction in business-to-business services : a typology test using case research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Wynstra, J.Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    We empirically test a theory specifying distinct ideal interaction patterns for four business-to-business service types, which differ with regard to how they are used by the buying company. The ideal interaction patterns are conceptualised as configurations of five different interaction dimensions:

  15. Aspects regarding the consumer buyer behaviour for budget hotels in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Cristina Colbu; Adrian Liviu Scutariu

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to asses the behaviour of budget hotel consumers as well as to determine what characteristics and facilities are most important in making this high involvement purchase. The purpose of the conducted study is to evaluate the decision making process and its implications; all five stages in the decision making model (problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase choice, and evaluation of outcome) are equally important in finding out what consumer w...

  16. Do They See What You See? Marketing to a New Generation of Child Care Buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassom, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses generational differences among four generational groups in America today--Maturers, Boomers, Generation X-ers, and Millenials. She author takes a closer look at two of these groups--Boomers and Generation X-ers. The Boomers are a generational group that includes those born between 1946 and 1964. A whopping 78…

  17. Discord amongst the wind turbine buyers with regard to Dutch wind turbine manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse, F.

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands two medium-large manufacturers of wind turbines exist: NedWind (Hollandia Kloos) and Windmaster Nederland (Begemann Groep). Also Lagerwey, which constructs wind turbines for the private market (farmers, cooperatives), is important for the Dutch market and successfull in Germany. There is a tendency amongst the Dutch energy utilities, which cooperate in the foundation WindPlan, to buy wind turbines from foreign manufacturers. Some energy utilities want to take advantage of the most attractive offers, while others want to cooperate in building up a Dutch wind turbine industry. 5 ills

  18. Inter-firm coordination in the Mexican avocado (Persea americana) industry: the packer-buyer relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical coordination is an effective response to uncertainties in marketing environments. This article presents evidence relating the influence of transaction characteristics on interfirm coordination to respond what conditions determine the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and

  19. Relationship learning as a dimension of relationship quality : tentative evidence from transnational buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raškovic, M.; Makovec Brencic, M.; Ferligoj, A.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    While relationship learning has been addressed in marketing theory, it has not yet been explored as a possible dimension of the second-order construct of relationship quality (RQ). This construct has so far been mostly conceptualized to consist of trust and commitment, sometimes also satisfaction;

  20. Exploring the consumer habits of the Carrefour buyers in Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Hernández Rodríguez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the consumer behavior in the Carrefour Supercenter of Hangzhou, China, in the attempt of finding results that will display the shopping patterns of an evolving clientele. The city of Hangzhou is one of the cities with the highest per capita income, and because of its proximity to Shanghai it has been used as a test city before introducing products to mayor markets. Using observation as the main tool for such an analysis, the research considered a sample of consumers seeking to detect their shopping patterns, furthermor, a number of interviews generating useful information for strategic decisions was performed. The results show information about attitude towards promotional stands, the demographic characteristics of the consumer and the way of choosing products, among other variables. Additionally, it is verified that the Chinese culture impacts every aspect of the average People´s Republic of China (PRC consumer.

  1. Market profile of autonomous solar boiler buyers in the period 1995-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The results of a first evaluation of solar water heater users, who decided to purchase or rent a solar boiler independent and autonomous, are presented. The results are compared with customer profiles of small photovoltaic power supplies and (potential) 'green energy' customers. Based on those results public utilities and other interested parties can set up specific activities and send out mailings

  2. Information asymmetries as antecedents of opportunism in buyer-supplier relationships: testing principal-agent theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinle, Claus; Schiele, Holger; Ernst, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A severe problem in supplier selection refers to moral hazard: suppliers not behaving in the expected way once contracted. Principal-agent theory could provide insights on how to reduce this problem. Because buyer–supplier relationships can be interpreted as principal-agent situations, the

  3. Review of survey data on the importance of energy efficiency to new home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    The surveys reviewed for this report support the notion that the Council's model conservation standards will be received reasonably well and can be successfully marketed. A number of subtopics are addressed including the home purchase process and the role of energy efficiency considerations in the process, the importance of energy efficiency considerations in the decision to purchase a new home, the relative importance of energy efficiency in comparison to other home selection attributes, homeowner preferences for particular energy efficiency features, and measures of the willingness to pay for energy efficiency improvements.

  4. Opportunism in Buyer-Supplier Relations: New Insights From Quantitative Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-20

    the variance in the opportunism relationships. This 4 is highly functional. Academicians and practitioners would each benefit from understanding, with...1999) also support the theory. In a franchisor- franchisee relationship, opportunism is reduced by the use of written contracts and explicit procedures...commonly operationalized as solidarity (common responsibilities and interests), mutuality (mutual benefit and trust), flexibility (good faith

  5. A two-echelon production-inventory model for deteriorating items with multiple buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiami, Yousef; Williams, Terry

    2015-01-01

    In a production-inventory system, the manufacturer produces the items at a rate, e.g. R, dispatches the order quantities to the customers in specific intervals and stores the excess inventory for subsequent deliveries. Therefore each inventory cycle of the manufacturer can be divided into two

  6. How to manage a long-term buyer-supplier relationship successfully? The impact of network information on long-term buyer-supplier relationships in the Dutch potted plant and flower industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.; Zylbersztajn, D.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, scholars have suggested that to understand fully the nature of a dyadic relationship, greater attention must be directed to the network context. In this study we drew on emerging perspectives on inter-firm governance and networks to develop a theoretical framework to understand the

  7. 78 FR 42503 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Select Service for Calendar Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... markets, export counseling to exhibitors, and export counseling and matchmaking services at the trade show... practical, hands-on assistance such as export counseling and market analysis to U.S. companies interested in... conducted for the event, and explain how efforts should increase individual and group international...

  8. Economic order quantity and purchasing price for items with imperfect quality when inspection shifts from buyer to supplier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei, J.; Salimi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) models, implicity assume that all items that are received are perfect. Although recent EOQ models for items with imperfect quality, which relax this assumption, are closer to real-world problems, they implicity assume that suppliers do not conduct a full

  9. Consumer attitudes towards vegetable attributes: potential buyers of pesticide-free vegetables in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Lorenz; Aigelsperger, Lisa; Hauser, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Considering the inappropriate use of synthetic pesticides on vegetables in West Africa, the rationale behind this research was to assess the extent to which consumers can function as demanders of risk reduced vegetables and hence act as innovators towards vegetable safety. Using the cases of Kumasi and Accra in Ghana, the study examined possible consumer responses to product certification that communicates freedom from pesticides (e.g., organic certification). Generally, search attributes such as the fresh and healthy appearance of a vegetable were found to be central to consumer choice. While consumers stress the importance of health value, they are mostly unaware of agro-chemical risks related to vegetable consumption.

  10. The Influence of Marketing Communication on the Consumer’s Buyer Behavior – A Relationship Marketing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichindelean Mihai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to identify the nature of the influence of a company’s marketing communication of the actual consumer behaviour. To achieve this purpose, the paper is structures in two parts; firstly, the recent literature regarding relationship marketing paradigm is reviewed and the value chain concept is presented. The second part contains a survey-based research which uses book-store customers as target unit. Sales promotion and advertising are used as input variables in identifying the variation in the client’s buying behaviour. Client behaviour was measured through three variables: monetary value spent by the clients within their last purchasing experience, buying frequency of the clients, and their buying intention.

  11. How are investment decisions in the steam coal market affected by demand uncertainty and buyer-side market power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade, China has evolved into the largest consumer by far and one of the largest importers of coal. The main driver for the increase in coal demand in China has been economic growth. Future Chinese growth rates, and therefore coal consumption and coal imports, are highly uncertain, which may affect profitability of new investments of international mining companies. Furthermore, China has actively employed an array of instruments to control coal trade flows in the last years. In this paper, we analyse the potential impact of increased Chinese coal import volatility and of potential exertion of Chinese market power on global mining investment decisions. For this purpose, we develop a multi-stage stochastic equilibrium model which is able to simulate investments under uncertainty and a monopolistic player in addition to a competitive fringe. We find that accounting for Chinese demand uncertainty yields significant costs for investors and also leads to a delay in investments. Additionally, the exertion of Chinese market power further reduces overall investment activity.

  12. Buyers guide of industrial furnaces and heating equipment. Bau und Ausruestung von Industrieoefen und industriellen Waermeanlagen: Bezugsquellenverzeichnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanek, J [comp.

    1988-01-01

    The book is a glossary as well as a dictionary (German, English, French, Spanish). It comprises the following chapters: 1. Trade directory. 2. Industrial furnaces and industrial heating equipment. 3. Index to thermal processes. 4. Index to industrial furnaces and industrial heating equipment. 5. General accessories. 6. Special accessories. 7. Accessories for firing equipment. 8. Addresses. 9. Codes of practice. (HW).

  13. Buyer-Supplier Collaboration in New Product Development - Reduction of Ramp-up time for high-tech products

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Halvor Eid

    2015-01-01

    Product development has always been a key activity to gain competitive advantage. Especially in technology based industry, such as the maritime subsea industry. Due to increasing globalization and high competition from low cost countries, companies need to streamline the supply chain and development in order to get new product out on the market fast and efficient. Involving suppliers in the development have shown great effect on reduced development time and cost while increasing quality of...

  14. Intelligent Personalized Trading Agents that facilitate Real-time Decisionmaking for Auctioneers and Buyers in the Dutch Flower Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this case the Dutch Flower Auctions (DFA) are discussed. The DFA are part of the supply network in which flowers are produced, stocked, and then sold through either mediation or auctioning. This case focuses on the buyers’ and auctioneers’ positions when flowers are traded through

  15. Buyer's participation and well developed domestic infrastructure. Keys to successful introduction of nuclear power in a small country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numminen, K.; Laine, P.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power is advantageous for a small country such as Finland which does not possess indigenous fossil fuel. For instance, the cost of imports required by nuclear fuel is essentially smaller than the cost of production of electric energy based on coal or fuel oil. In Finland the advantageousness of nuclear power was already proved in the 1950s but before starting the first power plant project it took 15 years to develop step by step the required infrastructure: building the research institutes and training their staff, creating connections to the international organizations and elsewhere abroad, training Finnish design staff, developing the domestic industry to the high quality required by nuclear power, and establishing the necessary authorities and public administration. Thanks to thorough preparation the implementation of the plant projects progressed at a good pace in the 1970s. The lesson learned from operation of the plants is that in a small country - located far from its main supplier - the staff at the plant and the supporting staff in the power company have to be able to analyse the problems occurring, usually in the conventional equipment, and carry out quick repairs without aid from the main supplier. This requires a high level of educational attainment from the staff and the best way to achieve this is for the staff to participate in the design and construction as much as possible already in the implementation phase. In order to maintain high availability, the capability of the domestic industry must also be good - especially in the fields of mechanical industry and electronics. In Finland over 30% of electric energy was produced in 1981 by four nuclear units. Two of these were built as manifold east-west adjustment work with the Soviet supplier and the other two are of Swedish origin

  16. Diversity of coordination mechanisms to support transactions : farmer - buyer relationships and farmer performance in the Brazilian pork chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller Martins, Franco

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades consumers preferences have continuously triggered changes in quality regulations and the implementation of various private quality standards. New quality demands also imply new coordination arrangements to support transactions between food companies and their suppliers. To

  17. A model of buyer-supplier relationships in a transnational company : the role of the business network context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raskovic, M.; Makovec Brencic, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Morec, B.

    2012-01-01

    The paradigmatic shiftin marketing from the beginning of the 1990's has transformed the study of economic exchange, towards addressing more the relational aspects of these exchanges, where relationship specificity has replaced transaction specificity. This is particularly true in transnational

  18. The Influence of New Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption: Increasing Student Comprehension with the "Bidding for Buyers" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The five characteristics that influence new product rate of adoption are routinely covered in the Principles of Marketing course. Any particular marketing concept such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability may not capture interest or engagement among students who take the course as a graduation…

  19. Purchasing knowing-doing gaps and the influence of incentives from a buyer-internal customer relationship perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boodie, Max

    2018-01-01

    Purchasing knowing–doing gaps, zijn verschillen tussen wat professionele inkopers weten over inkoop (wat ze idealiter zouden moeten doen) en wat ze feitelijk doen. Purchasing knowing–doing gaps zijn een potentieel risico voor de algemeen aanvaarde overtuiging dat inkoop een positieve bijdrage levert

  20. Recognition of the Factoring Contracts within the scope of Turkey Accounting Standards with regard to the Buyer and Seller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsel Sabuncu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study giving general information about factoring, which is an alternative financing technique, regarding the recognition of the factoring transactions within the scope of the Turkish Accounting Standards, by presenting a sample application in particular regard of an export transaction in relation to the accounting records which have to be done by the company that gives factoring service and receives the factoring service, a contribution to the accounting literature is put forward. In the study, it is shown that, even though the Uniform Accounting Plan which the factoring companies and the companies which use a factoring service in their accounting records differ from each other, recognition of it within the scope of the Turkish Accounting Standards is a basis. The fundamental principle of the accounting records of the company which assigns the receivables that generate from the exporting by entering into an agreement of factoring is the recognition of the income according to the fair value, by reflecting the amount which the income waits to gain the when assigning, and by separating the income which is actualised and not actualised. Keywords: Factoring, factoring transactions, Turkish Accounting Standards

  1. Buyer-seller negotiations: a comparison of domestic and international conditions in a pilot study with international business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen; Kurt, Gizem; Hacioglu, Gungor

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the differences and similarities between domestic and international negotiations, using Kelley's Negotiation Game to measure the profit achieved. There were 58 participants in the international negotiation sample, 29 Turkish and 29 European students. There were 62 Turkish students in the domestic negotiations. All participants studied business or related topics at a university in Izmir. Student t tests indicated statistically significant differences in scores on misrepresentation of information, interpersonal attraction, peer evaluation of misrepresentation information, and satisfaction between domestic and international negotiations.

  2. The Influence of Marketing Communication on the Consumer’s Buyer Behavior – A Relationship Marketing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tichindelean Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to identify the nature of the influence of a company’s marketing communication of the actual consumer behaviour. To achieve this purpose, the paper is structures in two parts; firstly, the recent literature regarding relationship marketing paradigm is reviewed and the value chain concept is presented. The second part contains a survey-based research which uses book-store customers as target unit. Sales promotion and advertising are used as input variables in identi...

  3. Identification of Factors that Most Influence the Advertising Spaces Buyers in Choosing Print Media to Advertise in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wijoga, Wiradiatma

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently with the increasing competition in the print media industry in Indonesia, together with the growing interest of readers, the increase in purchasing power and the growing of the economy have made advertisers seize this opportunity to increase their profits by maximizing their marketing activities through various means including advertising. In the advertising decision, advertiser acquire service provided by media agencies to assist them in conducting the media planning ...

  4. PURCHASE PREFERENCE OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN MOTORCYCLE BUYERS: THE DISCRIMINATING ROLE OF PERCEPTION OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF BRAND AND ETHNOCENTRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neoh Chee Yeong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of country of origin on the evaluation of products and purchase intention has been studied for decades. However, this paradigm has shifted where nowadays, products are typically designed in one country, manufactured in another and assembled elsewhere which led to the proliferation of "hybrid products". Consumers are confused and are no longer able to identify or recognize the difference between country of origin of brand and country of assembly or country of product design which, in turn, may lead towrong purchasing decisions. The objective of this study is to understand the variables influencing consumers' purchase preference related to motorcycles in the Malaysian market. Results have confirmed that country of origin of brand and consumer ethnocentrism influence consumer purchase preference. Implications of the results and directions for future researches are also discussed.

  5. How are investment decisions in the steam coal market affected by demand uncertainty and buyer-side market power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, China has evolved into the largest consumer by far and one of the largest importers of coal. The main driver for the increase in coal demand in China has been economic growth. Future Chinese growth rates, and therefore coal consumption and coal imports, are highly uncertain, which may affect profitability of new investments of international mining companies. Furthermore, China has actively employed an array of instruments to control coal trade flows in the last years. In this paper, we analyse the potential impact of increased Chinese coal import volatility and of potential exertion of Chinese market power on global mining investment decisions. For this purpose, we develop a multi-stage stochastic equilibrium model which is able to simulate investments under uncertainty and a monopolistic player in addition to a competitive fringe. We find that accounting for Chinese demand uncertainty yields significant costs for investors and also leads to a delay in investments. Additionally, the exertion of Chinese market power further reduces overall investment activity.

  6. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-08-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  7. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-08-01

    The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates.

  8. Proceedings of the 14. Annual national conference of the Canadian Wind Energy Association: emissions trading and green power : profitability for buyers and sellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are gaining significance in the newly deregulated electricity markets. While much emphasis was placed on wind energy, this conference also presented the advantages of other renewables including solar, small hydro, and the capturing of methane gas from landfills. Consumers have become aware that, compared to fossil fuels, renewables provide many advantages including reduced atmospheric emissions and improved air quality. Renewable energy sources are regarded as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and a response to the threat of climate change. The Conference addressed customer attitudes towards green energy, government initiatives in promoting renewable energy sources, and the mechanics and marketing of green power. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Background Checks for all Gun Buyers and Gun Violence Restraining Orders: State Efforts to Keep Guns from High-Risk Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Alcorn, Ted; Horwitz, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    There were more than 36,000 firearm-related deaths in the U.S. in 2015. Under federal law, a background check is required only for gun purchases from licensed dealers. Research suggests that some persons prohibited from owning a gun turn to private sellers, including those identified online, to attempt to obtain a firearm. State-level approaches to make it more difficult for high-risk persons to purchase or possess firearms include universal background check (UBC) and gun violence restraining order (GVRO) laws. UBC laws, on the books in 18 states as of the end of 2016, can reduce both homicide and suicide rates. After Colorado adopted a UBC law in 2013, the number of background checks conducted by private sellers for sales occurring at places other than gun shows steadily increased. GVRO laws give law enforcement and families the authority to petition a court to temporarily remove firearms from an individual who presents a danger to himself or others during times of crisis, regardless of whether that person has been diagnosed with a mental illness. California enacted a GVRO law in 2014. Data are emerging to suggest the effectiveness of GVRO-type laws at averting suicides and providing an entryway to services.

  10. Distress and Other Situational Factors that Influence Consumer Willingness to Provide Personal Information in an Online Buyer-Seller Exchange: An Equity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barto, Thomas Peter

    2011-01-01

    Global electronic markets will profoundly impact commerce in the 21 st century. Brick-and-mortar retailers are using technology for electronic marketing purposes where the familiar layout of the physical store becomes a maze of pulldown menus, product indices, and search features creating a new unknown for consumers and concerns for information…

  11. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 1; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C.; Love, P. M.

    2004-11-01

    This Building America Best Practices guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot and humid climate. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  12. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 1; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    This Building America Best Practices guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot and humid climate.

  13. The new tyre book. New trends - technical aspects - driving characteristics - buyer's guide; Das neue Reifenbuch. Umruestung - Reifentechnik - Fahrpraxis - Kaufberatung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backfisch, K.P.; Heinz, D.S.

    2000-07-01

    Contents: Test methods of the tyre industry and acceptance tests; Differences between winter tyres, summer tyres and four-season tyres; Quality characteristics; Conversion to broad tyres; Tyre wall lettering; light metal wheels and tyre maintenance. There is a chapter on car driving viewed as applied physics, and the book contains hints on tyre handling as well as information on current and future trends on the tyre market. [German] Berichtet wird ueber Testverfahren der Reifenindustrie und die Verfahren zur Erstausruestungsfreigabe bei den Automobilherstellern. Das Buch informiert ueber die Unterschiede zwischen Sommer-, Winter- und Ganzjahresreifen, ueber Qualitaetsmerkmale, Umruestung auf Breitreifen oder die Seitenwandbeschriftung eines Reifens, zudem ueber Leichtmetallraeder und Reifenpflege. Autofahren ist angewandte Physik, diesem Aspekt widmet sich ein ganzes Kapitel. Der Leser erhaelt wichtige Tips zum Umgang mit Reifen sowie Informationen ueber aktuelle und kuenftige Entwicklungen auf dem Reifenmarkt. (orig.)

  14. Attracting Health Insurance Buyers through Selective Contracting: Results of a Discrete-Choice Experiment among Users of Hospital Services in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Bergrath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Netherlands commenced market based reforms in its health care system. The reforms included selective contracting of health care providers by health insurers. This paper focuses on how health insurers may increase their market share on the health insurance market through selective contracting of health care providers. Selective contracting is studied by eliciting the preferences of health care consumers for attributes of health care services that an insurer could negotiate on behalf of its clients with health care providers. Selective contracting may provide incentives for health care providers to deliver the quality that consumers need and demand. Selective contracting also enables health insurers to steer individual patients towards selected health care providers. We used a stated preference technique known as a discrete choice experiment to collect and analyze the data. Results indicate that consumers care about both costs and quality of care, with healthy consumers placing greater emphasis on costs and consumers with poorer health placing greater emphasis on quality of care. It is possible for an insurer to satisfy both of these criteria by selective contracting health care providers who consequently purchase health care that is both efficient and of good quality.

  15. RISKS AND RESPONSIBILITIES BETWEEN BUYER AND SELLER IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION. WAYS OF SHARING IN THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Gabriel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrating formal intergovernmental cooperation can be determined in order to adapt to economic change and social legislation and the need to replace national laws become obstacle to informal integration with a common permissive and favored the free movement of flows informal and proactive when political aims redirection informal flows to other structures (patterns than those created by market forces. In the literature, rich in delimitation of the concept of integration, different economists have distinguished reputation in the field, according to a series of economic criteria, political, social, geographical, structural, etc., following degrees of economic integration trends corresponding to more intense or smaller equalization coordinate economic, social and political - the degree of integration over time of economic integration theories have become independent. Is in fact the international development strategy choice determine segments we address (target segment in an overview of the markets. This choice goes beyond the country, and the notion of the target segment should not be confused with the country markets.

  16. UTILITARIAN AND HEDONIC VALUES THAT INFLUENCE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE REPURCHASE INTENTION: ONLINE SURVEY TOWARDS BERRYBENKA FASHION E-COMMERCE'S BUYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johar D.S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the influence of utilitarian and hedonic values toward customer satisfaction and repurchase intentions. The sampling method used for research is purposive sampling with 141 respondents who bought Berrybenka products. Based on the Structural Equation Modeling, it is found that utilitarian and hedonic values are significant towards repurchase intention through customer satisfaction.

  17. Exploring the relationship between online buyers and sellers of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs): Quality issues, trust and self-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, K.; Koenraadt, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Online drug markets are expanding the boundaries of drug supply including the sale and purchase of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). However, the role of the internet in IPED markets, and in particular the ways in which these substances are supplied via the surface web, has

  18. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region.

  19. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Z. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steward, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Palmer, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builders team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  20. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 5; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Marine Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-10-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in the Marine climate region.

  1. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 5; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Marine Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C.; Taylor, Z. T.; Bartlett, R.; Gilbride, T.; Hefty, M.; Steward, H.; Love, P. M.; Palmer, J. A.

    2006-10-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the Marine climate region. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team--from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  2. Buyer's guide for environmental technology. Products, suppliers, service companies. 10. ed.; Seibt Umwelttechnik 2001. Produkte, Lieferanten, Dienstleister 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-07-01

    This data compilation lists companies in the environmental engineering sector with their addresses, telephone numbers and www-addresses. The book is separated in 3 parts: alphabethical list of products, alphabethical list of companies and the main part is a list of products and companies offering these products. (SR)

  3. Reasoning behind choices: rationality and social norms in the housing market behaviour of first-time buyers in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Gibas, Petr; Boumová, Irena; Hájek, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2017), s. 517-539 ISSN 0267-3037 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : housing market * social norms * housing system Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 1.513, year: 2016

  4. Buyer Beware: Negotiating Legal and Fair Contracts between Schools and Food and Beverage Companies. A Legal Memorandum: Quarterly Law Topics for School Leaders, Fall 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Exclusive vending contracts with food and beverage companies can produce much-needed revenue for school districts. However, these pouring and vending contracts as well as other forms of exclusive vendor contracts are often the subject of contentious public debate and legal challenges. Even the language used to refer to such agreements varies:…

  5. Implementation of the EU directive governing the Internal Market for electric power. Power to issue directives and EC law-related problems in connection with the ``single-buyer`` concept; Umsetzung der Elektrizitaetsbinnenmarkt-Richtlinie. Richtlinienkompetenz und EG-rechtliche Probleme des ``single-buyer``-Konzepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saecker, F.J.; Busche, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer deutsches und europaeisches Wirtschaft-, Wettbewerbs- und Energierecht

    1998-01-01

    With the EU Directive 96/92/EC, effective since 19 February 1997, for establishment of the Internal Market for electricity, the European Union made an important second step forward towards building the Internal Market for electricity. Already in 1990, the directive on electric power transmission systems and rights had become effective, as well as the directive governing transparency in energy pricing. The article here discusses legal problems involved in finding consensus about a common system of access to transmission lines so as to ensure evolution of the intended competition-oriented market for electricity. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Mit der Elektrizitaetsbinnenmarkt-Richtlinie 92/92, die nach laengeren Geburtswehen am 19. Februar 1997 in Kraft trat, ist in der Europaeischen Union der zweite Schritt auf dem Weg zur Vollendung des Strombinnenmarktes vollzogen worden. Bereits im Jahre 1990 waren in einem ersten Schritt die sog. Transitrichtlinie und die Transparenzrichtlinie erlassen worden. Der Beitrag gibt eine Analyse der Probleme und moeglichen Loesungen aus rechtlicher Sicht in dem Bemuehen, eine gemeinsame Regelung des Zugangs zu den Uebertragungsnetzen zu etablieren, die der Entwicklung des wettbewerbsorientierten Elektrizitaets-Binnenmarktes gerecht wird. (orig./CB)

  6. Pocket book for the fuel trade 78/79. Compendium of the fuel trade. Buyer's guide for members of the fuel trade. Taschenbuch fuer den Brennstoffhandel 78/79. Kompendium des Brennstoffhandels. Einkaufsfuehrer fuer den Brennstoffhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temming, D [ed.

    1978-01-01

    After a list of the mineral oil companies, pit-coal and brown coal companies and wholesalers of fuel oil and coal in the Federal Republic of Germany topics of business economics, competitive trade law, price law and cartel law are dealt with and explanations about health insurance and social insurance, industrial law and motor-vehicle keeping are given. Apart from comparisons of heating costs for usage and the latest traffic tariffs for railway and road networks the pocket-book contains the latest laws and regulations relevant for the fuel dealer. Furthermore, current topics of advertising and sales promotion of fuel-oil and coal are discussed. The energy balance and the overall economies of the Federal Republic of Germany are presented by figures in the chapter dealing with data on fuel-oil technology and fuel-oil industry.

  7. Pocket book for the fuel trade 78/79. Compendium of the fuel trade. Buyer's guide for members of the fuel trade. Taschenbuch fuer den Brennstoffhandel 78/79. Kompendium des Brennstoffhandels. Einkaufsfuehrer fuer den Brennstoffhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temming, D. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    After a list of the mineral oil companies, pit-coal and brown coal companies and wholesalers of fuel oil and coal in the Federal Republic of Germany topics of business economics, competitive trade law, price law and cartel law are dealt with and explanations about health insurance and social insurance, industrial law and motor-vehicle keeping are given. Apart from comparisons of heating costs for usage and the latest traffic tariffs for railway and road networks the pocket-book contains the latest laws and regulations relevant for the fuel dealer. Furthermore, current topics of advertising and sales promotion of fuel-oil and coal are discussed. The energy balance and the overall economies of the Federal Republic of Germany are presented by figures in the chapter dealing with data on fuel-oil technology and fuel-oil industry.

  8. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  9. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2. Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Z. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team—from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  10. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Residency Young Physician Focus Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting ... License Academy content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD ...

  11. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Residency Young Physician Focus Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting ... License Academy content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Residency Young Physician Focus Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting ... License Academy content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD ...

  13. Solving and interpreting binary classification problems in marketing with SVMs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); G.I. Nalbantov (Georgi)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMarketing problems often involve inary classification of customers into ``buyers'' versus ``non-buyers'' or ``prefers brand A'' versus ``prefers brand B''. These cases require binary classification models such as logistic regression, linear, and quadratic discriminant analysis. A

  14. Federal Workforce: Attrition Rates at Ex-Im Bank and Similar Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hess, James

    1997-01-01

    .... Financing and protection provided by Ex-Im Bank includes (1) loans to foreign buyers of U.S. exports, (2) loan guarantees to commercial lenders providing repayment protection for loans to foreign buyers...

  15. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  16. 49 CFR 1245.5 - Classification of job titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Engineer, Architect, Chief Chemist, Nurse, Tax Accountant, Internal Auditor to General Accountant, Corporate Accountant, Supervisor Programing, Senior Computer System Specialist, Senior System Analyst..., Safety Inspector, Real Estate Agent, Real Estate Supervisor, Tax Agent, Buyer, Assistant Buyer, Sales...

  17. Persuasive Silence

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    In the market where inattentive buyers can fail to notice some feasible choices, the key role of marketing is to make buyers aware of products. However, the effective marketing strategy is often subtle since marketing tactics can make buyers cautious. This paper provides a framework to analyze an effective marketing strategy to persuade an inattentive buyer in an adverse selection environment. We investigate how an attention-grabbing marketing can 'backfire' and when it can be effective.

  18. Examining Electronic Markets in Which Intelligent Agents Are Used for Comparison Shopping and Dynamic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Hertweck, Bryan M.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic commerce markets are becoming increasingly popular forums for commerce. As those markets mature, buyers and sellers will both vigorously seek techniques to improve their performance. The Internet lends itself to the use of agents to work on behalf of buyers and sellers. Through simulation, this research examines different implementations of buyers' agents (shopbots) and sellers' agents (pricebots) so that buyers, sellers, and agent builders can capitalize on the evolution of e-c...

  19. 16 CFR 435.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... order, or authorization from the buyer to charge an existing charge account, the time at which the... absence of any remaining charge incurred as a result of the sale from the buyer's account; (ii) And a... creditor which will remove the charge from the buyer's account or a statement from the seller acknowledging...

  20. Growing Exports by Signaling Product Quality: Trade Competition and the Cross-National Diffusion of ISO 9000 Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xun; Prakash, Aseem

    2011-01-01

    Trade policy is an important topic in global public policy. It is recognized that trade is hampered when buyers have incomplete information about the offered products, a problem accentuated in the international markets by the physical and cultural distances between buyers and sellers. Buyers look for proxies to assess product quality, and…

  1. Contract mechanisms for coordinating a supply chain with price and sales-effort dependent demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalla, V.R.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers a two-stage supply chain with a Buyer and a Supplier, where the endconsumer demand is influenced by two factors, namely the price of the product and the saleseffort made by the Buyer. It is assumed that the Buyer makes the sales-effort decision and incurs the associated cost.

  2. A note on partial vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); H.J.M. Peters (Hans)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA simple model is constructed to show how partial vertical integration may emerge as an equilibrium market structure in a world characterized by rationing, differences in the reservation prices of buyers, and in the risk attitudes of buyers and sellers. The buyers with the high

  3. Intermediation and Competing Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Schiff, Aaron

    this information to some or all buyers. We show that this always raises total welfare, even if it causes the informed buyers not to trade with low quality sellers. However, buyers and some sellers may be made worse off in equilibrium. We also examine the provision of information by a profit maximizing monopoly...

  4. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik; Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-03-04

    To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. Cross sectional study. Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. Wine buyers made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer.

  5. Pre-Auction Offers in Asymmetric First-Price and Second-Price Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, René; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    We consider “must-sell” auctions with asymmetric buyers. First, we study auctions with two asymmetric buyers, where the distribution of valuations of the strong buyer is “stretched” relative to that of the weak buyer. Then, it is known that ineffcient first-price auctions aremore profitable...... never increase the profitability of second-price auctions, since they introduce the wrong kind of favoritism from the perspective of seller profits....... for the seller than effcient second-price auctions. This is because the former favor the weak buyer. However, we show that the seller can do one better by augmenting the first-price auction by a pre-auction offer made exclusively to the strong buyer. Should thestrong buyer reject the offer, the object is simply...

  6. The Effects of Interdependence and Cooperative Behaviors on Buyer’s Satisfaction in the Semiconductor Component Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Pai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry is characterized by extreme competition in price and product features. Firms need to acquire or exchange resources with their supplier or buyer partners to stay at the leading edge of technology. Cooperation between buyers and suppliers is important and power is the mechanism that can explain the cooperative behaviors. This study aims to investigate how the power structure between the buyer and supplier influences the extent of suppliers’ cooperative behaviors, and the effects of these on buyer satisfaction with the buyer-supplier relationship. Opinions from firms in semiconductor manufacturing supply chain were used to investigate the proposed model. It is found that mutual interdependence between a supplier and its buyer can enhance cooperative behaviors and power asymmetry hurt firms’ investment in cooperative behaviors. Suggestions are then provided to semiconductor supply chain members based on the findings of this work.

  7. Family Farming Goods Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Soares Loiola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Farmers need interaction mechanisms closer to customers interested in purchasing their products. The lack of communication between producer and potential buyers impacts on producers financial performance (that could have losses in sales volume, and buyers, which ultimately acquire lower-quality products. Thus, this paper aims to provide a technological solution proposal, the Buscagro: a software application that can be used on mobile devices and towards to enable a better interaction between family farmers and buyers, allowing a greater display of products from the farmer and disclosure of interests of potential buyers. The features of this technology are based on farmers goods data and information products demanded by potential buyers. In this way, the software application performs combinations based on supply and demand data, generating results for producers to have access in how to find buyers and for consumers to find products a greater agility.

  8. Behavioral Indicators of Drug Carrying in Open Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    people coming together to exchange money for an illegal substance. Therefore, both the dealer and the buyer are often concerned that the other will... customers as they approach to determine if they are a possible “point of sale” (different from scanning). May involve a “nod” from either the buyer or...behaviors, physiological response to stress, dissipatory actions, dissociation, preparatory actions, streetcraft, dealer and buyer interaction, mouth

  9. Business spending markets and buying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Čedomir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most buyers on the business spending markets use one or more of the following buying methods: description, inspection, sampling and negotiating. Products are usually standardized according to their characteristics (size, shape, weight or color. The buyer is able to buy only depending in the description or quantity or other characteristic. In some cases buyer may specify business brand or its equivalent when describing desired product.

  10. Opposites attract: organisational culture and supply chain performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cadden, Trevor; Marshall, Donna; Cao, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to expand the knowledge of buyer-supplier relationships by investigating the extent to which organisational cultural fit between a buyer and supply chain participants influences performance. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in a FMCG supply chain. A cultural dimensions questionnaire was used in a focal organisation (the buyer) and it identified best and poorest performing supply chain. The results were analysed using a series of ANOVA’s wi...

  11. Founding Digital Currency on Imprecise Commodity

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zimu; Xu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Current digital currency schemes provide instantaneous exchange on precise commodity, in which "precise" means a buyer can possibly verify the function of the commodity without error. However, imprecise commodities, e.g. statistical data, with error existing are abundant in digital world. Existing digital currency schemes do not offer a mechanism to help the buyer for payment decision on precision of commodity, which may lead the buyer to a dilemma between having to buy and being unconfident....

  12. Does It Matter Whom an Agent Serves? Evidence from Recent Changes in Real Estate Agency Law.

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Christopher; Schrag, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Recent changes in real estate law hastened the shift from a seller's agency regime, in which real estate agents serve the interests of sellers, to a buyer's agency regime, in which agents serve the interests of buyers. Using data from the Atlanta real estate market, we show that the shift to buyer's agency led to a significant decline in real estate prices in the market for relatively expensive houses, while real estate prices did not significantly change in the market for relatively inexpens...

  13. Strategic implication of a segmentation and positioning model for the South African gold narrow reef mining market.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. Many variables exist that influence buyer behaviour in the narrow reef gold mining market. Since some variables are real but subjective in nature, such as the opinion and charisma of mine managers or influential individuals, it is difficult to quantify and analyse them. The question is ? Which variables, 8 quantifiable or not, are more dominant in shaping buyer behaviour and how should they be prioritised? What is needed is a logical segmentation model which reflects true buyer beh...

  14. Effects of Host Race Information on Airbnb Listing Prices in San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Kakar, Venoo; Franco, Julisa; Voelz, Joel; Wu, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The surge in Peer to Peer e-commerce has increasingly been characterized by changing the online marketplace to a more personalized environment for the buyer and seller. This personalization involves revealing information on buyer reviews, pictures and biographical information on the sellers to reduce the perceived ``purchase risk" or to facilitate trust with the buyers. However, this personalization has generated possibilities for discrimination in the online marketplace. In this paper, we ex...

  15. The Visible Host: Does Race guide Airbnb rental rates in San Francisco?

    OpenAIRE

    Kakar, Venoo; Franco, Julisa; Voelz, Joel; Wu, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The surge in Peer to Peer e-commerce has increasingly been characterized by changing the online marketplace to a more personalized environment for the buyer and seller. This personalization involves revealing information on buyer reviews, pictures and biographical information on the sellers to reduce the perceived ``purchase risk" or to facilitate trust with the buyers. However, this personalization has generated possibilities for discrimination in the online marketplace. In this paper, we ex...

  16. Customer attractiveness, supplier satisfaction and preferred customer status: a review and a cycle model

    OpenAIRE

    Schiele, Holger; Veldman, Jasper; Hüttinger, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of preferred customer status, i.e. a buyer is awarded preferential treatment of its important suppliers compared to their other customers. As there is a lack of knowledge of what motivates suppliers to serve selected buyers better than others, our research focuses on the suppliers’ evaluation of customers and how it can be influenced by buyers. Based on social exchange theory, we provide a conceptual model which proposes customer attractiveness, supplie...

  17. Regulatory stability of the national gas sector to attraction of investments: a juridical approach about the buyer creditory under the mode project finances; Estabilidade regulatoria do setor gaseifero nacional para atracao de investimentos: uma abordagem juridica acerca dos financiamentos sob a modalidade 'project finances'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Junior, Helio Varela de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos PRH-36-ANP/MCT. Curso de Direito

    2008-07-01

    A stability of the Natural Gas regulation's framework assumes nowadays, for sure, a relevant position, once means a way of attracting new investments to the Oil and Gas Industry's sector. Following a logic sequence - regulation stability brings legal certainty witch reduces, on the other hand, the risks and attracts investment - the idea of a regulation's commitment on the natural gas sector sets as a key element for investment's attraction. Likewise, the financial agents position is extremely important, especially for the 'Project Finances' funding, witch inherent peculiarity (market risk's reduction) keep full compatibility with the needs of today's Brazilian natural gas sector framework. (author)

  18. 权力、信任对冲突解决机制及其伙伴关系持续影响研究%The Impact of Power and Trust on Conflict Resolution and Partnership Link Durations in Buyer-supplier Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华

    2009-01-01

    在对以往供应链伙伴关系和冲突进行理论回顾和归纳的基础上,探索了供需企业间的权力运用、信任与合作、冲突以及回避性冲突解决之间的关系,并进一步分析了各种冲突解决机制对伙伴关系持续的影响.研究结果表明,协调性权力和信任有助于合作性冲突解决,从而推动伙伴关系的发展,而强制性权力的运用只会增强竞争性冲突解决和回避冲突解决,从而损坏供需双方之间的伙伴关系.%This paper explores the causal relationship of the use of power, trust and cooperation, conflict and avoidable conflict resolution based on literature, and further analyzes the effects of various conflict resolution mechanisms on partnership link duration. The results show that coordinated power and trust contribute to cooperative conflict resolution, and benefit for the development of partnership link. On the contrary, coercive power enhances competitive resolution and avoids conflict resolution, which has negative effect on partnership link duration.

  19. Vínculos de negócios entre grandes empresas compradoras e pequenos fornecedores locais: implicações para políticas públicas e desenvolvimento Business linkages between large buyers and small local suppliers: implications for public policy and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milber Fernandes Morais Bourguignon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo verifica as condições nas quais os programas e as políticas públicas promotoras de vínculos de negócios (VNs, entre grandes empresas compradoras e pequenos fornecedores locais agem, pressupondo que o Estado tem um importante papel nesse estímulo e que tais vínculos geram desenvolvimento regional e reduzem o desequilíbrio social. A pesquisa empírica, de natureza qualitativa, busca analisar ações e programas de promoção de VNs desenvolvidos no Brasil, bem como as instituições envolvidas, verificar os benefícios dessas ações e identificar oportunidades de intervenção do Estado. Os resultados indicam que políticas públicas podem ser criadas como complemento às políticas de desenvolvimento, voltadas à educação, ualificação de profissionais e incentivadoras de transferência de tecnologia e, de maneira mais ampla, como promotoras de um ambiente propício à atração de investimentos estrangeiros diretos e ao ambiente de negócios. Sugestões de pesquisas futuras são apresentadas como sistemas de governança que abrangem a relação entre as empresas e sua conexão com o setor público.This article analyzes the conditions under which public policies promoting business linkages (BL between large and small/medium enterprises act, assuming that the state has a fundamental role stimulating them, and those linkages generate regional development and reduce social inequalities. The empirical research, qualitative in nature, was designed to analyze actions and programs promoting BL developed in Brazil, as well as the institutions involved in it. It also verifies the benefits of those actions and identifies opportunities for public sector intervention. The results show that public policies can be created so as to complement those related to promoting development directed toward education, competence building and technology transfer, and, more generally, to those promoting favorable environment for business and foreign direct investment attraction. The paper also suggests future research, including governance systems involving the relationship between companies and their connection with the public sector.

  20. 30 CFR 206.104 - What publications are acceptable to MMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... buyers and sellers frequently use; (2) Publications frequently mentioned in purchase or sales contracts; (3) Publications that use adequate survey techniques, including development of estimates based on...

  1. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog License Academy content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's ... contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog License Academy content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's ... contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal ...

  3. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog License Academy content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's ... contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal ...

  4. Typological Analysis of Buying Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Teodorescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The typology of buyers and buying actions contracts are specific categories of consumer behaviour, determining group buyers and buying actions in classes, to fragment the markets. Market fragmentation through buyer typoligy and/or segmentation is presently characterized by a multitude of theoretical approaches and are especially generated by the common practice in the respective business. These two concepts are used for the same purpose, the essential difference being their starting point: the segmentation fragments the markets as a whole, while the typology of the buyer and of buying actions generate classifications starting from individual cases.

  5. A Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimal Operating Parameters of VMI Systems in a Two-Echelon Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue-Ann, Goh; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    This paper focuses on the operational issues of a Two-echelon Single-Vendor-Multiple-Buyers Supply chain (TSVMBSC) under vendor managed inventory (VMI) mode of operation. To determine the optimal sales quantity for each buyer in TSVMBC, a mathematical model is formulated. Based on the optimal sales quantity can be obtained and the optimal sales price that will determine the optimal channel profit and contract price between the vendor and buyer. All this parameters depends upon the understanding of the revenue sharing between the vendor and buyers. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed for this problem. Solutions obtained from PSO is compared with the best known results reported in literature.

  6. 78 FR 73816 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments regarding this information... the cotton industry--buyers, brokers, crushers, shippers, textile firms, and researches with exact...

  7. Exclusive Dealing and Entry

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  10. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  11. Management of Complexity in Cleantech with Modularisation as a Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steven Krogsdal; Andersen, Troels Christian; Matamoros, Aldredo

    2014-01-01

    . The viewpoint of the buyer-supplier relation is fully seen from the buyer side. Findings Despite the emergent and contingent character of the buyer-supplier relationship, it was found that key characteristics is specifically related to (1) asymmetric dominance, (2) degree of vertical integration, (3) electronic....../value The WTG industry is critical in transformation of energy systems and as a general industrial-economic growth area. Organisation of supply chains and architecture of buyer supplier regimes has been less documented. The insider view of this paper contributes to a better understanding of the recent...

  12. Media mix elements affecting brand equity: A study of the Indian passenger car market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Chattopadhyay

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study develops and empirically tests a model for finding the effect of advertising frequency across different media vehicles towards building brand equity for the passenger car market for first time and repeat buyers. The effect that selected media mix elements had on the dimensions of brand equity was examined. First time buyers are expected to have lower category knowledge than repeat buyers, and are hence expected to behave differently from repeat buyers. Since the knowledge structures of these two groups are expected to be different, it is reasonable to predict that they would process product/brand related information differently and this is corroborated by the results.

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  15. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  16. Relationship between performance measurements and sale price of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The main advantage is that the buyer is purchasing a ram that has been selected for traits of economic importance and is adapted to the specific environment in which it is expected to perform. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the performance of animals in a veld-ram club influences the price buyers ...

  17. Encouraging innovation in business relationships - A research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, E.A.; Frambach, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    How do buyer-supplier relationships affect innovation? This study suggests that the relational exchange norms of flexibility, information sharing, and solidarity (the bright side) encourage buyer innovation. However, negative (dark side) aspects of relationships with suppliers-loss of supplier

  18. Factors Influencing the Types of Products and Services Purchased over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phau, Ian; Poon, Sui Meng

    2000-01-01

    Presents the findings of an empirical investigation of Internet shopping in Singapore. Compares Internet buying behavior between potential Internet buyers and non-Internet buyers, and concludes that the classification of different types of products and services will significantly influence consumer choice between a retail store and the Internet.…

  19. 77 FR 73912 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... typographical errors. These errors appeared in the Spanish Buyers Guide available on the FTC's Web site, but... the Federal Register in 1995. After receiving the CARS comment, the FTC Web site version of the Buyers... translated as ``Grietas en el chasis''; ``Cooling System'' shall be translated as ``Sistema de enfriamiento...

  20. The value of enhancing customisation in the existence of consumer preferences heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Hartanto; Lesmono, Dharma

    2011-01-01

    An integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain is developed and analyzed. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area and/or are kept i...

  1. Customer attractiveness, supplier satisfaction and preferred customer status : a review and a cycle model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Veldman, Jasper; Hüttinger, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of preferred customer status, i.e. a buyer is awarded preferential treatment of its important suppliers compared to their other customers. As there is a lack of knowledge of what motivates suppliers to serve selected buyers better than others, our research

  2. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  3. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  4. Constructing Preference from Experience: The Endowment Effect Reflected in External Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Scheibehenne, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    People often attach a higher value to an object when they own it (i.e., as seller) compared with when they do not own it (i.e., as buyer)--a phenomenon known as the "endowment effect". According to recent cognitive process accounts of the endowment effect, the effect is due to differences between sellers and buyers in information search.…

  5. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Food and Drug Administration or other public health organizations of the United States as being... area to the extent feasible. We may obtain prices from any buyer of our choice. If we obtain prices... additional costs required to deliver the dry beans to those buyers. Discounts used to establish the net price...

  6. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Basic Provisions that limit the amount of a replant payment to the actual cost of replanting... present that are identified by the Food and Drug Administration or other public health organizations of... feasible. We may obtain prices from any buyer of our choice. If we obtain prices from one or more buyers...

  7. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...

  8. Private Benefits in Corporate Control Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in block transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer has high security benefits, or because the b...

  9. Introduction to Fashion Buying. Teacher Edition. Fashion Buying Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cindy

    This teacher's guide presents material for a unit on introduction to fashion buying. Content focuses on information sources, retail store types, the responsibilities of a buyer, and the qualifications of a buyer. The guide contains 4 objectives, 4 group learning activities keyed to the objectives, 17 transparency masters with dialogue for each,…

  10. Organisational identity and food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    How do retailers decide what products to buy? Previous answers to this question have tended to focus on the decisions being made, typically investigating what criteria retail buyers use to choose between products and suppliers (Hansen & Skytte 1998). However, as the decisions made by retail buyer...

  11. 75 FR 70003 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... support offered by foreign governments and by absorbing credit risks that the private sector will not... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2010-0052] Agency Information Collection Activities... different buyers. In the event that a buyer defaults on a transaction insured by Ex- Im Bank the insured...

  12. 76 FR 5374 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... support offered by foreign governments and by absorbing credit risks that the private sector will not... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE U.S. [Public Notice 2011-0008] Agency Information Collection Activities... different buyers. In the event that a buyer defaults on a transaction insured by Ex- Im Bank the insured...

  13. Price Formation by Bargaining and Posted Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kultti, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    We study markets with two types of agents. Sellers have an indivisible good for sale, and their reservation value is zero. Buyers are randomly matched with sellers, and they value the good at unity. Sellers may be matched with any positive number of buyers, and they may choose to determine the price

  14. Internal data market services: an ontology-based architecture and its evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; van den Belt, Edwin; Verbruggen, Eddy; van der Vet, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    On information markets, many suppliers and buyers of information goods exchange values. Some of these goods are data, whose value is created in buyer interactions with data sources. These interactions are enabled by data market services (DMS). DMS give access to one or several data sources. The

  15. Internal data market services: An ontology-based architecture and its evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; van der Belt, E.; Verbruggen, E; van der Vet, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    On information markets, many suppliers and buyers of information goods exchange values. Some of these goods are data, whose value is created in buyer interactions with data sources. These interactions are enabled by data market services (DMS). DMS give access to one or several data sources. The

  16. On the equivalence of selected supply chain contract mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalla, V.R.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper models a situation where a Supplier sells a fashion product to a Buyer who in turn sells the product to the consumers. Both the Supplier and the Buyer set their own selling price. For the above setting this paper designs different contract mechanisms such as Revenue sharing, Profit

  17. 75 FR 57738 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... which U.S. firms are interested in meeting with international business visitors and the oversea interest...: International Trade Administration (ITA). Title: International Buyer Program (IBP) Application and Exhibitor... available for use by Foreign Commercial Officers in recruiting delegations of international buyers to attend...

  18. 76 FR 60715 - Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    .... If the buyer does not consent, the seller must promptly refund all money paid for the unshipped...-01088 (E.D. Mo. 1992); and United States v. Del Monte Corp., No. 85-5213 (N.D. Calif. 1985). The... cash, check, money order, or authorization from the buyer to charge an existing charge account, the...

  19. 1994 Asia/Pacific mining yearbook and suppliers' source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Contains a series of articles covering various aspects of the mining and minerals industries of Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines, Russia, China, Myanmar, India and Papua New Guinea. Also contains the 1994 mining products and services buyer's guide, and the 1994 mining suppliers' source directory which provides information on the companies listed in the buyer's guide.

  20. An eye to the tax man: Do forest owners understand tax provisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Straka; John L. Greene

    2004-01-01

    In the March 2004 issue of Forest Products Equipment, Thom J. McEvoy noted that, "stumpage buyers who are able to brief prospective clients on the tax implications of a pending sale are often far more likely to win a client's business than even buyers who offer higher stumpage rates." This is because woodland owners know that it is...

  1. A Cross-Cultural Multi-agent Model of Opportunism in Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2010-01-01

    According to transaction cost economics, contracts are always incomplete and offer opportunities to defect. Some level of trust is a sine qua non for trade. If the seller is better informed about product quality than the buyer, the buyer has to rely on information the seller provides or has to check

  2. 7 CFR 20.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... buyer. (c) Commodity. Wheat and wheat flour, feed grains, oilseeds, cotton, rice, cattle hides and skins... agrees to export the commodity, (2) the foreign buyer agrees to receive the commodity, (3) a fixed price or an agreed upon mechanism by which such a price can be determined is established, and (4) payment...

  3. 49 CFR 1245.6 - Cross reference to standard occupational classification manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Engineer 1639. Architect 161. Chief Chemist 1845. Nurse 29 and 366. Tax Accountant 1412. Internal Auditor to Gen. Accountant 1412. Corporate Accountant 1412. Supervisor Programming 137. Senior Computer.... Tax Agent 1412. Buyer 1449. Assist. Buyer 1449. Sales Agent 4235. Assist. Sales Agent 4235...

  4. 75 FR 70002 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... support offered by foreign governments and by absorbing credit risks that the private sector will not... on floating or fixed-rate loans by eligible lenders to credit worthy buyers of U.S. goods and services. The guarantee covers the repayment risks on the foreign buyer's debt obligations. Ex-Im Bank...

  5. Understanding Contract Audits: An Experimental Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, R.M.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Vaassen, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A contract audit is a buyer-initiated audit of prices and other conditions, which aims to decrease the information asymmetry between a buyer and a seller. Contract audits are frequently used in monopolistic or oligopolistic markets, as in government procurement. We draw upon three distinct

  6. Understanding contract audits : An experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, R.M.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Vaassen, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A contract audit is a buyer-initiated audit of prices and other conditions, which aims to decrease the information asymmetry between a buyer and a seller. Contract audits are frequently used in monopolistic or oligopolistic markets as in government procurement. We draw upon three distinct

  7. Antecedents of Relational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    This paper merges economic geography and relational capital perspective in order to analyze the proximity-based antecedents of relational assets in brokerage. It investigates empirically the role and interplay of geographical and cognitive proximity between a broker and her buyers in a quantitative...... for buyers characteristics. Lastly, I make use the under-researched empirical field of brokers....

  8. 14 CFR 375.34 - Indoctrination training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indoctrination training. 375.34 Section 375... § 375.34 Indoctrination training. Foreign civil aircraft may be operated in the United States for the purpose of giving indoctrination training in the operation of the aircraft concerned to a buyer or a buyer...

  9. 27 CFR 11.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages from a trade buyer to an industry member with other products taken as a replacement. Industry member. Any person engaged in business as a distiller, brewer.... The transfer of distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages from a trade buyer to the industry member...

  10. Two-Echelon Inventory Optimization for Imperfect Production System under Quality Competition Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops two integrated optimization models of two-echelon inventory for imperfect production system under quality competition environment, in which the vendor’s production process is assumed to be imperfect, and JIT delivery policy is implemented to ship product from the vendor to the buyer. In the first model, product defect rate is fixed, and, in the second model, quality improvement investment is function of defect rate. The optimal policies of ordering quantity of buyer and shipment from vendor to buyer are obtained to minimize the expected annual total cost of vendor and buyer. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the models. Sensitivity analysis is taken to analyze the impact of demand, production rate, and defect rate on the solution. Implications are highlighted in that both the vendor and the buyer can benefit from the vendor’s investing in quality improvement.

  11. Comparing sourcing strategies in two-echelon supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    at a constant rate, and an (r, Q) policy is used to generate replenishment orders. The vendors have a finite production rate and ship to the buyer in equal-sized batches. The delivery lead time is stochastic. Shortages are allowed at the buyer's side and are fully backordered. The cost function comprises five...... elements: inventory holding costs at the buyer and the vendors, backorder costs and ordering costs at the buyer, and setup costs at the vendors. The objective is to minimize the total system costs incurred by the buyer and the vendors. As there is no dominating combined strategy, a major finding...... is that determining the best strategy requires a detailed analysis. Furthermore, when total system costs are taken into account, dual sourcing does not appear as beneficial as sometimes claimed in the literature on lot splitting....

  12. A Structural Model of the Retail Market for Illicit Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenianos, Manolis; Gavazza, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    We estimate a model of illicit drugs markets using data on purchases of crack cocaine. Buyers are searching for high-quality drugs, but they determine drugs' quality (i.e., their purity) only after consuming them. Hence, sellers can rip off first-time buyers or can offer higher-quality drugs to induce buyers to purchase from them again. In equilibrium, a distribution of qualities persists. The estimated model implies that if drugs were legalized, in which case purity could be regulated and hence observable, the average purity of drugs would increase by approximately 20 percent and the dispersion would decrease by approximately 80 percent. Moreover, increasing penalties may raise the purity and affordability of the drugs traded by increasing sellers’ relative profitability of targeting loyal buyers versus first-time buyers.

  13. Quality management and quality assurance contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichler, M.

    1991-01-01

    Quality assurance contracts belong to the most important instruments of quality management systems. As a result of such contracts, quality control is to be done not only by the buyer, but is made a task to be fulfilled by the manufacturer. The author of the article shows that quality assurance contracts do change the contractual relationship between supplier and buyer, but have no effect on economic and practical conditions. This is so because quality assurance contracts apply only to warranty claims, which play a subordinate role in the legal relationship between producer and buyer, or producer and consumer, as compared to the claims for damages arising out of the contracts. (orig.) [de

  14. Spiser vindrikkere sundere end øldrikkere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In a cross sectional study based on information on the number, type of item and total charge of 3(1/2) million transactions over a period of 6 months in various supermarkets in Denmark we examined whether people who buy wine also buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. We found that win...... buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cocking oil and low fat cheese, milk and meat than beer buyers who bought more ready cooked meals, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb and soft drinks than wine buyers....

  15. Imperfect Reworking Process Consideration in Integrated Inventory Model under Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Lo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an improved inventory model to help the enterprises to advance their profit increasing and cost reduction in a single vendor single-buyer environment with general demand curve, adjustable production rate, and imperfect reworking process under permissible delay in payments. For advancing practical use in a real world, we are concerned with the following strategy determining, which includes the buyer's optimal selling price, order quantity, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer. An algorithm and numerical analysis are used to illustrate the solution procedure.

  16. Realtors granted exemption for nondisclosure of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-15

    Idaho enacted legislation protecting real estate agents in situations where they are asked to violate an HIV patient's privacy. Would-be buyers often ask for a psychological impact statement, including whether the home has been a crime site or whether the owners have HIV, about a property in which they are interested. Senate Bill 1313 has guidelines for realtors, who in the past were torn between disclosure and privacy. If buyers request the information in writing, the agent must ask for the owner's consent to release the information. The buyers must be told if the owner declines. The law shields realtors from legal liability once the requirements are met.

  17. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  18. Economic and legal aspects of utility consortiums for heliostat purchase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Sheppard, W.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    A preliminary exploration is given of the legal and economic considerations surrounding the formation and operation of some form of utility-sponsored collective buying arrangement for heliostats. Particular attention is focused on considerations of federal antitrust law surrounding collective buying and other joint operations by electric utilities. Attention is also given to considerations suggested by the economic theory of monopsony (markets with a single buyer) and oligopsony (markets with a small number of buyers). The advantages and disadvantages of such arrangements are examined from the viewpoints of the buyer and the seller. (LEW)

  19. The Mortensen Rule and Efficient Coordination Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; King, Ian; Julien, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    We apply the efficiency axioms of [Mortensen, D. (1982). Efficiency of mating, racing and related games. American Economic Review, 72 968–979.] to a set of matching games involving coordination frictions between buyers. These games include markets with finite numbers of buyers and sellers...... and markets with infinite numbers of heterogeneous buyers and homogenous sellers. We show that the Mortensen rule, but not the Hosios rule, gives constrained efficient allocations. We also show that the Mortensen rule is implemented by a simple auction...

  20. Pricing the Innovation for Market Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănut Tiberius Epure

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence pricing strategy change over the life of a product concept. The market defined by a product concept passes through four phases: development, growth, maturity, and decline. Briefly, the changes in the strategic environment over those phases are as follows: Market development. Buyers are price insensitive because they knowledge of the product’s benefits. Both production and not a threat since the potential gains from market development exceed those from competitive rivalry. Pricing strategy signals the product’s value to potential buyers, but buyer education remains the key to sales growth.

  1. A Novel Approach to Neighborhood Fair Energy Trading in a Distribution Network of Multiple Microgrid Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadhav, Ashok Mohan; Patne, Nita Ravindra; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    of their total surplus. To avoid the selfish behaviour of any buyer MG, an algorithm is used by the energy market operator which verifies the strategies submitted by buyer MGs before releasing set points to the generators. Apart from fairness and stability, the extensive numerical study confirms the ascendancy...... as a mediator between the trading parties. Depending on the priority factor, each buyer MG decides its strategy for energy demand from the surplus using a non-cooperative game theory based algorithm. The interests of seller MGs are protected by allowing them to decide the amount of energy they want to share out...

  2. The importance of organisational identity for formulating and enacting strategies and policies in retailer buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    of nine German food retailers, the paper analyses the role of identity in relation to the buying activities. In particular, this paper focuses on how retail buyers discursively construct their professional identities as buyers and the identities of the retail chains they work for and how this influences......This paper explores how retail buyers construct their own professional identities and the organisational identity of the retailers they work for and the importance of these constructions for the formulation and enactment of strategies and policies in the field of fresh pork. Through a case study...

  3. E-Supply Chain Incentive and Coordination Based on Revenue Sharing Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常志平; 蒋馥

    2004-01-01

    This paper took the buyer-biased electronic market as an example, where multiple suppliers selling short-life-cycle products are bidding for an order from a powerful buyer with stochastic customer demand. It used a single period newsvendor model to analyze the decision of supplied and buyers to do or not do business online. The results suggest that lack of Incentive is the key factor of B2B electronic markets failure. At the same time, it designed a revenue sharing contract to coordinate the E-supply chain in order to prevent failure of E-market.

  4. Concurrent sourcing as a mechanism for safeguarding specific investments from opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    This paper identifies when concurrent sourcing is an effective safeguard. Concurrent sourcing shortens the period that a buyer needs in order to internalize production and thus, it shortens the period in which an external supplier is able to hold-up a buyer. Concurrent sourcing also allows...... for short run expansion of production and reduces costs of lost customers. However, when complementarities and diseconomies of scale make concurrent sourcing an efficient choice for a buyer, the same complementarities and diseconomies of scale also weaken the threat that the internal production unit may...

  5. The Fisher Market Game: Equilibrium and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Chen, Yiling; Deng, Xiaotie

    2014-01-01

    The Fisher market model is one of the most fundamental resource allocation models in economics. In a Fisher market, the prices and allocations of goods are determined according to the preferences and budgets of buyers to clear the market. In a Fisher market game, however, buyers are strategic...... and report their preferences over goods; the market-clearing prices and allocations are then determined based on their reported preferences rather than their real preferences. We show that the Fisher market game always has a pure Nash equilibrium, for buyers with linear, Leontief, and Cobb-Douglas utility...

  6. American College of Emergency Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these... Read More More Than 850 Hours of Online Education Log In Now > Physicians Podcasts and Apps Reimbursement Quality Issues MOC Resource Center International Residents & Students Contracts & ... Medicine Foundation Online Buyers' Guide Emergency Care For You emCareers.org ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog License Academy content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  8. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog License Academy content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog License Academy content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  10. 76 FR 1367 - Petition for Approval of Alternate Odometer Disclosure Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Cost Savings Act (Cost Savings Act) \\1\\ and the Truth in Mileage Act of 1986 \\2\\, as amended (TIMA... program will not permit a post- transfer change of the brand. Wisconsin allows the buyer to give the...

  11. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  12. 9 CFR 201.61 - Market agencies selling or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF... association with dealers or other buyers which has a tendency to lessen the loyalty of the market agency to...

  13. The Pacific coal market for 1999: it`s negotiation time again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The annual Australia-Japan Coal Conference signals the beginning of the negotiations between Asia`s coal buyers and suppliers. Drastic cuts are expected to existing contract pricing. The article discusses the present spot market. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  14. Australian Mining's product register 1992-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This annual product register contains an assessment of resources in Australia; statistical information on mine production of principal minerals; mineral industry statistics; directory of exploration and mining companies; buyers' guide; directory of consultants; list of services and a company index.

  15. Australian Mining's product register 1990-91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Australian Minings' Product Register 1990-91 contains an industry review, resource assessment, mineral industry statistics, directory of exploration and mining companies, buyers guide and directory of consultants.

  16. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  17. The due-diligence process of purchasing or buying into a dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Vincent L

    2003-01-01

    A due-diligence or evaluation process is necessary when assessing a practice purchase opportunity. The standards for assessing the investment remain the same whether the buyer is purchasing a practice outright or buying a co-ownership interest.

  18. The effects of balanced and asymmetric dependence on supplier satisfaction : Identifying positive effects of dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, Marjolein C.J.; Vos, Frederik G.S.; Schiele, Holger; Pulles, Niels J.

    2017-01-01

    Studies argue that balance in dependence is critical to supplier satisfaction in buyer-supplier relationships. We examine whether asymmetric relationships can also lead to supplier satisfaction, arguing that traditional analysis methods are unsuitable for thoroughly analyzing this issue. With

  19. The producers competition trimmed the laundries; Tillverkarnas taevling trimmade tvaettstugorna - om effekterna av Kansliets insatser inom omraadet energieffektiv tvaett och tork i fastighetstvaettstugor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Interviews have been made among 163 buyers and 28 suppliers of equipment for laundry-rooms in apartment houses. The aim was to study the opinion regarding new energy-efficient clothes washers and clothes dryers. 5 figs

  20. Whether Foreign Military Sales or Direct Commercial Sales: A Case Study of the UK E-3 AWACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    arrangements available include coproduction, licensed production, subcontractor production, overseas investment, technology transfer, and countertrade ...commercial arrangement between the U.S. manufacturer and a foreign entity. Countertrade - Purchase of goods and services from the buyer country as a

  1. 41 CFR 102-38.325 - What are the requirements pertaining to antitrust laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fair market value of $3 million or more or if the sale involves a patent, process, technique, or... to whether the sale would give the buyer an unfair advantage in the marketplace and violate any...

  2. Uranium market activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized from the 1974 ERDA annual survey of buyers and sellers and from a survey of uranium price data which provided information on additional domestic buying activity during the first half of 1975 through 1982

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dermatology World DW Weekly Derm Coding Consult AAD Meeting News Aspire Directions in Residency Young Physician Focus ... Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting Scholarship AAD CME Award Advocate of the Year ...

  4. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dermatology World DW Weekly Derm Coding Consult AAD Meeting News Aspire Directions in Residency Young Physician Focus ... Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting Scholarship AAD CME Award Advocate of the Year ...

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dermatology World DW Weekly Derm Coding Consult AAD Meeting News Aspire Directions in Residency Young Physician Focus ... Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting Scholarship AAD CME Award Advocate of the Year ...

  6. 78 FR 71558 - Insurance Cost Information Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Mazyck, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and... Transportation prescribe regulations requiring passenger motor vehicle dealers to distribute to prospective... vehicle dealers to distribute this information to prospective buyers. The House of Representatives...

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Private payer Medicare physician payment MACRA implementation Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy and action ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? ... Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications ...

  8. How is service procurement different from goods procurement? Exploring ex ante costs and ex post problems in IT procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, Finn; Rooks, Gerrit; Snijders, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Several studies suggest that, in practice, service procurement is more challenging than goods procurement. The underlying but largely implicit argument is that the procurement process for services involves higher buyer uncertainty and therefore requires extra efforts to mitigate this uncertainty.

  9. The Pacific Basin LNG trade: a return to fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, H.

    1991-01-01

    The LNG business in the Pacific Region is unique because there is no other source of energy in which seller and buyer sign contracts for 20-year periods. This long-term relationship is based on mutual buyer/seller cooperation, and mutual buyer/seller recognition of the financial and commercial challenges faced by all links in the LNG Supply Chain. However, there are now concerns that those involved in the LNG business were ignoring the fundamentals of the trade. The buyer expected the seller to absorb higher transportation costs, easing take or pay terms, more flexibility, evergreen options on uncommitted capacity, etc. On the other side, sellers expected larger baseload quantities, equitable sharing of LNG chain risks with consumers. (author)

  10. Evaluation and election of suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guibao

    2001-01-01

    Based on the construction experience in nuclear power plants, the author presents some methods of evaluation and selection for suppliers. It is applicable to various stages of nuclear power plants, furthermore, it can be used for other buyers

  11. Defining the Blue economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith-Godfrey, S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are increasingly gaining in importance in terms of enabling international trade via linking sellers and buyers. The behaviour patterns of such linking enablers on the oceans are receiving more attention from a regulatory and economic...

  12. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamel, Magdi N

    2008-01-01

    A central vision of B2B e-commerce is that of an electronic marketplace that would bring suppliers together with major buyers of goods and services for the purpose of conducting "frictionless commerce...

  13. Highlight: Think Big: Helping women entrepreneurs make a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... The forum is a unique platform for women business owners to mix with corporate buyers, ... Participants at the Think Big: Women in Business Forum in Delhi ... Family law reform to change women's realities across 11 countries.

  14. ETHICS & CULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary F.Alexander

    2004-01-01

    @@ "The international market for used equipment is evolving very rapidly. Unfortunately, most buyers and sellers of used equipment have not made the effort to understand and keep pace with the global ramifications of the business they are in."

  15. Virtual Supply Chain Re-Intermediation Through Multi-Agent Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark

    2002-01-01

    ... inflexibility associated with EDI applications. Viewing respective procurement and order fulfillment processes of buyer and seller as an integrated whole along the supply chain, we identify opportunities for virtual supply chain re-intermediation...

  16. Executive Self-Assessment and Development in the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    management - market segmentation - pricing strategy - sales management - advertising and promotion - distribution channels - marketing mix Management...measurement * Marketing - marketing strategy and tactics - segmentation strategies - marketing mix decisions - product/service marketing - buyer behavior

  17. 24 CFR 108.40 - Compliance reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... majority buyers and renters regardless of sex, including: (i) Use of advertising media, brochures, and pamphlets; (ii) Conformance with both the Department's Fair Housing Poster Regulation (24 CFR part 110) and...

  18. 7 CFR 205.307 - Labeling of nonretail containers used for only shipping or storage of raw or processed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT... of destination or the container labeling specifications of a foreign contract buyer: Provided, That...

  19. enriching soils and seeds to improve nutrition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    access to farming resources and technology, as well as poor ... food processing methods such as soaking, fermentation .... quality technology and modern facilities at the University of ... areas have been transformed from net buyers of chickpea ...

  20. Communicating Sustainable Shoes to Mainstream Consumers : The Impact of Advertisement Design on Buying Intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.C.; Gattol, V.; Van der Helm, R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, marketing of sustainable products addresses green buyers, thus missing out on the mainstream consumers and volume necessary to cover the potentially higher cost of more sustainable materials. However, how to effectively communicate more sustainable products to mainstream consumers and

  1. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Focus Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting Scholarship AAD CME ... Frost Lectureship Everett C. Fox Award and Lectureship Grants from outside organizations Health Volunteers Overseas Grant Honorary ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Focus Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting Scholarship AAD CME ... Frost Lectureship Everett C. Fox Award and Lectureship Grants from outside organizations Health Volunteers Overseas Grant Honorary ...

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Focus Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting Scholarship AAD CME ... Frost Lectureship Everett C. Fox Award and Lectureship Grants from outside organizations Health Volunteers Overseas Grant Honorary ...

  4. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  5. Export financing in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard-Mounet, J.

    1985-01-01

    This review of market conditions, credit types and the OECD ''Consensus'' focuses on the regulation of credit and the prefinancing requirements. The two types of credit granted to the client - buyer credit or supplier credit - are compared

  6. Your gain my pain? The effects of accounting information in uncertain negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essa, Samy A.G.; Dekker, Henri C.; Groot, Tom L.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies on buyer-supplier negotiations show that refined accounting information can enhance negotiation processes and outcomes. We extend these studies by considering the influence of payoff uncertainty, which is commonly present in negotiations. Payoff uncertainty can increase friction

  7. 27 CFR 11.21 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Unlawful Sales Arrangements § 11.21 General. It is unlawful for an industry member to sell, offer for sale, or contract to sell to any trade buyer, or for any such trade...

  8. 27 CFR 11.3 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Scope of Regulations § 11.3 Application. (a) General. The regulations in this part apply to transactions between industry members and trade buyers. (b) Transactions...

  9. 76 FR 45863 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Firearms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Collection The form is used to determine the eligibility (under the Gun Control Act) of a person to receive a firearm from a Federal firearm licensee and to establish the identity of the buyer. It is also used in law...

  10. 76 FR 29791 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Firearms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ...-profit. Need for Collection The form is used to determine the eligibility (under the Gun Control Act) of... buyer. It is also used in law enforcement investigations/inspections to trace firearms. (5) Estimates of...

  11. 77 FR 37920 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Firearms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ...-profit. Need for Collection The form is used to determine the eligibility, under the Gun Control Act (GCA... the buyer/ transferee. It is also used in law enforcement investigations/ inspections to trace...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available About AAD Contact us Support AAD Media AAD store Advertise Employment Website feedback "); document.write(""); document.write(" ... content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case ...

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available About AAD Contact us Support AAD Media AAD store Advertise Employment Website feedback "); document.write(""); document.write(" ... content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case ...

  14. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available About AAD Contact us Support AAD Media AAD store Advertise Employment Website feedback "); document.write(""); document.write(" ... content, products, and services AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case ...

  15. 76 FR 5373 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... offered by foreign governments and by absorbing credit risks that the private sector will not accept, Ex... floating or fixed-rate loans by eligible lenders to credit worthy buyers of US goods and services. The...

  16. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRANK

    a more reliable and decentralized information system, meant to improve reporting .... This is done after the exchange of the .... Communication: it is simplified for the ... Picture. Passport Photograph of Buyer (must have). WITNESS 1. Character.

  17. Does peer use influence adoption of efficient cookstoves? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Theresa; Blalock, Garrick; Levine, David I; Simons, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of peer usage on consumer demand for efficient cookstoves with a randomized controlled trial in rural Uganda. The authors tested whether the neighbors of buyers who ordered and received a stove are more likely to purchase an efficient cookstove than the neighbors of buyers who ordered but have not yet received a stove. The authors found that neighbors of buyers who have experience with the stove are not detectably more likely to purchase a stove than neighbors of buyers who have not yet received their stove. The authors found evidence of peer effects in opinions about efficient cookstoves. Knowing that a prominent member of the community has the efficient stove predicts 17-22 percentage points higher odds of strongly favoring the stove. However, this more favorable opinion seemingly has no effect on purchase decisions.

  18. Exceptions to the duty to notify the seller of a non-conformity of the delivered goods in international sales law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breach of the duty to notify the seller of the lack of conformity of the delivered goods is followed by harsh consequences for the buyer. Namely, he loses the right to rely on the non-conformity of the goods if he does not give the notice to the seller in adequate and timely manner. In international sales law the buyer is entitled to rely on the lack of conformity of the goods even when he fails to notify the seller in two specific cases. First, if the lack of conformity relates to the facts of which the seller knew or could not have been unaware and which he did not disclose to the buyer. And secondly, the buyer retains remedies for the nonconforming delivery if he has a reasonable excuse for his failure to give the required notice.

  19. 78 FR 17663 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... attn: OMB-3048-XXXX (EIB 92-32). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles and Form Number: EIB 92-32 Single Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy. OMB Number: 3048-XXXX. Type of Review: New. Need and Use: The...

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... then is closely linked with the increasing house prices (Aidala et al., ... are the only factors that influence buyers' decision on house ... (internal and external) need to be taken into consideration before making the final decision.