WorldWideScience

Sample records for buyers

  1. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronika Svatosová

    2013-01-01

    .... The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping...

  2. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the ...

  3. Buyer-driven Greening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano; Lister, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relations between global value chain governance and environmental upgrading in maritime shipping. Drawing from interviews with global shipping companies and major buyers of shipping services (cargo-owners), we reveal the key issues and challenges faced in improving...

  4. Buyer-driven Greening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano; Lister, Jane

    2016-01-01

    findings suggest that environmental upgrading is more likely to occur when global value chains are characterized by unipolar governance and where the lead firms are consumer-facing companies with reputational risks. Furthermore, environmental upgrading in shipping is not likely to materialize without clear......In this article, we examine the relations between global value chain governance and environmental upgrading in maritime shipping. Drawing from interviews with global shipping companies and major buyers of shipping services (cargo-owners), we reveal the key issues and challenges faced in improving...... the environmental performance of maritime transportation. Contributing to the Global Value Chain (GVC) literature, we compare and analyze the influence of three main external drivers on environmental upgrading in the tanker, bulk and container shipping segments: regulation, cooperation and buyer demands. Our...

  5. Protecting buyers from fine print

    OpenAIRE

    D'Agostino, Elena; Daniel J. Seidmann

    2016-01-01

    Buyers typically do not read the …ne print in contracts, providing an incentive for a monopolist to draft terms which are unfavorable to buyers. We model this problem, proving that trade must then be inefficient. We show that regulation which mandates efficient terms raises welfare. More interestingly, regulations which prohibit the least efficient terms may reduce welfare by inducing the monopolist not to other favorable terms. We extend these results to markets in which some buyers are naiv...

  6. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  7. Group Discounts Compatible with Buyer Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo-Ferrer, Josep; Blanco-Justicia, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We show how group discounts can be offered without forcing buyers to surrender their anonymity, as long as buyers can use their own computing devices (e.g. smartphone, tablet or computer) to perform a purchase. Specifically, we present a protocol for privacy-preserving group discounts. The protocol allows a group of buyers to prove how many they are without disclosing their identities. Coupled with an anonymous payment system, this makes group discounts compatible with buyer privacy (that is,...

  8. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  9. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  10. Initial Encounters : The Lived Experiences of Buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Wright; J.J. Dekker

    2012-01-01

    The initial encounter between a buyer and a seller has received much attention among practitioners. The first time a buyer interacts with a seller is thought to be highly influential. The premise is that buyers form an opinion during this first encounter, or even the first minutes of this encounter.

  11. Heterogeneous car buyers: a stylized fact

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. Aizcorbe; Benjamin Bridgman; Jeremy J. Nalewaik

    2009-01-01

    Using a new dataset, we document a systematic pattern in the demographic characteristics of car buyers over the model year: as vehicle prices fall over the model year, so do buyer incomes. This pattern is consistent with price-insensitive buyers purchasing early in the year, while others wait until prices decline, and suggests price skimming (i.e. intertemporal price discrimination). Such consumer heterogeneity over the model year raises questions for measuring quality improvements in new goods.

  12. Buyer Search Costs and Endogenous Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri Kuksov

    2004-01-01

    Buyer search costs for price are changing in many markets. Through a model of buyer and seller behavior, I consider the effects of changing search costs on prices both when product differentiation is fixed and when it is endogenously determined in equilibrium. If firms cannot change product design, lower buyer search costs for price lead to increased price competition. However, if product design is a decision variable, lower search costs for price may also lead to higher product differentiati...

  13. Power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorton, Matthew; Angell, Robert; Dries, Liesbeth; Urutyan, Vardan; Jackson, Elizabeth; White, John

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a Multiple Indicators and MultIple Causes (MIMIC) model for explaining the relationships between buyer-seller power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier satisfaction / performance. The model draws on an organizational supply chain perspective of power and is verified using data

  14. Collaboration in buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, M.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on collaboration in buyer-supplier relationships, with a specific interest for long-term, collaborative relationships that are part of a key supplier program. An extensive literature review of buyer-supplier collaboration is presented, before detailing the longitudinal, dyadic,

  15. Radon Resources for Home Buyers and Sellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Home Radon-Resistant New Construction Radon and Real Estate Resources Home Buyer's/Seller's Guide to Radon Consumer's ... Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement Laws and Executive Orders ...

  16. The internal competitor: Buyer motives and external supplier marketing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Sloth, Jacob Lerche; Thrane, Claus

    Abstract Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this paper is to identify buyer motives for supporting internal competitors and to suggest relevant marketing strategy elements for external suppliers confronting these internal competitors. Research method: With basis...... in a literature review we identify different buyer motives for choosing to combine external suppliers with internal production, i.e., an internal competitor. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are identified and briefly discussed. Research findings: The paper describes different buyer motives...... relevant buyer motives, the existence of different buyer motives suggests that these buyers should be targeted with different marketing strategies. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are suggested and briefly discussed. Thus, for each buyer motive it is briefly discussed (1) how...

  17. The case for moderate-risk buyers: An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joowon; Yi, Sunghwan

    2016-06-30

    Despite recent increase in research on compulsive buying and excessive buying, the category of buyers whose buying patterns are approaching the clinical level but still somewhat below it has rarely been recognized in the literature. In this paper, we propose the case for the category of moderate-risk buyers. Following Ridgway et al.'s (2008) findings, moderate-risk buyers were operationalized as scoring 21-24 on Compulsive Buying Index. We hypothesized that moderate-risk buyers would hold significantly higher materialistic values than non-compulsive buyers, while exhibiting significantly less depressive symptoms and covert narcissism than full-fledged compulsive buyers. An online survey of individuals who frequently engaged in buying lapses was used (N=809). We found that moderate-risk buyers were significantly different from both compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in the frequency of buying lapses, hiding purchases and frequency of experiencing negative feelings leading to buying lapses. Furthermore, consistent with our hypothesis, moderate-risk buyers held significantly lower covert narcissism and depression than full-fledged compulsive buyers, but their materialism was not significantly different from each other. Our findings support the case for moderate-risk buyers as a separate group from full-fledged compulsive buyers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Lightweight Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.

  19. Does behaviour of heavy and light wine buyers differ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lockshin, Larry; Habenschuss, Sarah

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the differences in behaviour between heavy and light wine buyers. This is conducted by comparing heavy and light buyers of wine in terms of their repertoires including the size, purchase frequency and market shares across brands, as well as loyalty...... exhibited towards particular wine attributes. Design/methodology/approach: Using panel data of wine purchases in the UK for each buyer group (light and heavy) market shares and loyalty to wine attributes were examined. The polarisation index φ (phi) was used as a measure of loyalty. Findings: The light...... buyers’ market share for small brands is slightly greater than for the heavy wine buyers. Moreover, attributes such as brand type and brand share seem to drive loyalty more than expected for light wine buyers in comparison to heavy wine buyers. Practical implications: Despite their small purchase volume...

  20. Buyer and seller power in grocery retailing: evidence from Italy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monica Giulietti

    2007-01-01

    .... In addition to horizontal concentration, differentiation, and cost factors, the analysis includes buyer power amongst the determinants of retailers' profitability, as a result of vertical bargaining...

  1. Vendor-buyer ordering policy when demand is trapezoidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digeshkumar B. Shah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A joint vendor-buyer strategy is analyzed which is beneficial to both the players in the supply chain. The demand is assumed to be trapezoidal. It is established numerically that the joint venture decreases the total cost of the supply chain when compared with the independent decision of the buyer. To entice the buyer to order more units, a permissible credit period is offered by the vendor to the buyer. A negotiation factor is incorporated to share the cost savings.

  2. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  3. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  4. Buyer-Seller Interaction Patterns During Ongoing Service Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Valk (Wendy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have

  5. Auctions Versus Private Negotiations in Buyer-Seller Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Watts

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Buyer-seller networks where price is determined by an ascending-bid auction are important in many economic examples such as certain real estate markets, radio spectrum sharing, and buyer-supplier networks. However, it may be that some sellers are better off not participating in the auction. We consider what happens if sellers can make a take it or leave it offer to one of their linked buyers before the auction takes place and thus such a seller can choose not to participate in the auction. We give conditions on the graph and buyers valuations under which the buyer and seller will both agree to such a take it or leave it offer. Specifically, the buyer-seller pair will choose private negotiation over the auction if the seller acts as a network bridge with power over the buyer and if there are enough buyers with low valuations so that the seller does not expect to receive a high price in the auction.

  6. A review of organizational buyer behaviour models and theories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years, models have been developed, and theories propounded, to explain the behavior of industrial buyers on the one hand and the nature of the dyadic relationship between organizational buyers and sellers on the other hand. This paper is an attempt at a review of the major models and theories in extant ...

  7. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten

    Empirical studies of retailer buying behaviour show which attributes are important when retail buyers choose between new products and suppliers. Skytte & Blunch (1998) identified which attributes make a difference to retail buyers in Western Europe when buying fish products, and they identified...

  8. Differences in buyers' and suppliers' perceptions of supply chain attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Marian; Molleman, Eric; van der Vaart, Taco

    This paper presents a model that explains why and when buyers and suppliers may differ in the ways they perceive certain relationship attributes. Understanding when buyers and suppliers will share perceptions, and when not, can help future researchers in deciding how to measure these attributes. The

  9. CDM developer/buyer challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidel, R. [Shell Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Shell Canada's corporate strategy for participating in international efforts in sustainable development through a portfolio approach are discussed. This approach encompasses a mix of sources (in-project energy reductions, offsets via CDM, JI, and emissions trading domestically and internationally), mix of types (resource conservation, renewables, energy efficiency, forestry, carbon sinks) and staggered timing. Some candidate CDM projects in non-Annex 1 countries, such as geothermal energy in Central America, solar home systems in Brazil, replacing coal with natural gas, and solar home systems in South Africa, vent to flare in Malaysia, biomass/photovoltaic applications in the Philippines, and coal replacement with natural gas in China are reviewed. Challenges to developers in terms of host country requirements for approval, the need to control technology and transaction costs, the need to close the gap between carbon dioxide offset and technology cost, ways to share rewards and costs, dealing with language, customs and governmental structures, and realistic requirements, are summarized. As a general rule, the CDM process must reflect the commercial realities of project development, transaction costs must be kept low and there is a need for standardized baselines, especially for small scale projects. Buyers also must be able to deal with certain challenges, such as basic project risk, linkages to business and expertise, risks of measurement and verification, project pricing, and quality of offset. Both developers and buyers, however, share some common objectives in having workable guidelines, simple rules, transparency, efficient, fast track processes, a firm commercial foundation and the desire to close the technology/alternatives gap.

  10. On information acquisition by buyers and information disclosure by sellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstiege, Stefan

    I consider a monopolistic-pricing model in which the buyer does not know his valuation at the outset. The seller may induce him to acquire information even though she could easily disclose sufficient information herself.

  11. Egypt's first mobile service linking smallholder farmers to buyers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    governmental organization founded by private sector partners that aims to strengthen supply chains and the ... By putting farmers directly in contact with market buyers, the digital network provides major leverage to help them grow in the value chain.

  12. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Honjo

    Full Text Available Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1. The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air, and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1 Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP. (2 The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  13. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  14. Buyer-Supplier Relationships and Power Position: Interchaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebatollah Morsy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to several studies, power and interdependence play a considerable role in understanding the buyer–supplier relationships, yet, empirical research is still limited. Also, the nature of the buyer-supplier relationship and managing them might vary based on the power position of buyers and suppliers. Few studies focused on the reason behind this interrelation and strong influence of power on the buyer-supplier relationships. Thus, the purpose of this study is to gain better understanding and try to identify how power position and buyer-supplier relationships are interrelated, and whether there are common determinants and/or characteristics behind this strong bond between the two concepts. Both transaction cost analysis theory and social exchange theory were integrated in building the argument. Regarding the methodology, qualitative exploratory research design was employed by using multiple-case study as the main research method, where three multinational Egyptian organizations were selected. Moreover, data was collected using individual in-depth interviews, and analyzed through coding and cross case analysis techniques. The results showed that there are common factors that influence both buyer-supplier relationship characteristics and power position attributes. And according, the findings helped in pointing out a new lens of discussing and investigating the bond between buyer-supplier relationships ad power in research.

  15. Determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness in transnational companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rašković

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective supplier-buyer relationship management should not be seen only in terms of cost and financial measures, as outlined by Transaction cost economics, but also in terms of other (“softer” relational benefits, like e.g. more comprehensive information sharing, higher levels of trust, better cooperation and increased relationship flexibility. This second view is grounded in both Relationship marketing and Resource-advantage theory. Surprisingly, only a few research papers on supplier-buyer relationships address both of these perspectives equally, as well as in terms of long-term competitiveness (vis-avis a traditional short-term performance. The purpose of this paper is to analyze business relationship determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, where we study the impact of (1 relationship-based information exchange, (2 network spillover effects, (3 transaction-specific investments, (4 trust, (5 cooperation (joint actions and (6 flexibility on perceived (7 supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness. In this regard the main research question of our study is: Which relational and transactional dimensions determine supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, as well as how strongly? To provide the answer this research question we employ an exploratory-type Partial Least Squares (PLS regression in conjunction with a novel perspective of network spillover effects, as a set of independent variables in our model. The data set consists of a sample of 130 international suppliers (approx. 30 % response rate connected to a transnational company (TNC headquartered in Slovenia, which operates in the steel construction solutions’ industry. Our results clearly identify a relational and a transactional set of determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, with the former having a significantly higher impact on competitiveness than the latter. With regards to specific dimensions associated with this relational component

  16. Pay to walk away: Prevention buyers prefer to avoid negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalvi, S.; Reijseger, G.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.; Appelt, K.C.; Velden, ten F.S.; Giacomantonio, M.; Dreu, de C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    In bargaining, buyers aim to spend as little money as they can on the items they seek to purchase. Compared to promotion-oriented people, prevention-oriented people seek to avoid losses rather than to secure gains. Employing different negotiation scenarios, three lab experiments tested the

  17. Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Clean Cities Light-Duty Vehicle Buyer's Guide is a consumer publication that provides a comprehensive list of commercially available alternative fuel and advanced vehicles in model year 2011. The guide allows for side-by-side comparisons of fuel economy, price, emissions, and vehicle specifications.

  18. Heterogeneity within compulsive buyers: a Q-sort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Kate; Kellett, Stephen; Davies, Jason

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated how compulsive buyers make sense of their excessive shopping behaviour to explore possible sources of heterogeneity between compulsive buyers. Twenty female participants met 'caseness' for compulsive buying (CB) on the CB Scale (CBS), prior to completing a Q-sort specifically related to their experiences of shopping. Participants provided details of occupation, income, and debt levels and completed two psychometric scales: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV). Principle component analysis (PCA) identified two groups within the compulsive buyers (labelled positive reinforcement and emotional distress) that explained 44% of the study variance. Ten women defined the positive reinforcement factor and tended to identify with pleasurable aspects of buying. Six women characterized the emotional distress factor and endorsed varied financial, emotional, and interpersonal difficulties associated with their CB. The emotional distress group carried significantly greater current debt levels and had significantly more severe CB. The study illustrates that compulsive buyers can relate to their 'symptoms' in dissimilar ways. The clinical implications of such heterogeneity are discussed, methodological shortcomings identified, and areas for future research indicated. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Subsidized buyer credits: Atypical results in strategic trade theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Stoelinga; J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractUsing subsidized buyer credit as a policy tool, it is shown that the general result of strategic trade policy, namely that, by committing itself to an export subsidy, any government can favorably change the outcome of the Cournot oligopoly, does not necessarily hold.

  20. 29 CFR 779.111 - Buyers and their assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage Employees Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.111 Buyers and... communication to order goods; or they regularly send or receive, across State lines, written reports, messages...

  1. An integrated vendor-buyer model with stock-dependent demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    We develop an integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are kept in the buyer's warehouse and are then presented to the end customers...

  2. Responsiveness through buyer-focused cells : Exploring a new supply strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, D.P.; van der Vaart, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The concept of buyer focus has recently been introduced as a new supply chain strategy, although the design and operation of buyer-focused cells have hardly been investigated. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how buyer-focused cells realise responsiveness.

  3. Nash and integrated solutions in a just-in-time seller-buyer supply chain with buyer's ordering cost reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    The seller frequently offers the buyer trade credit to settle the purchase amount. From the seller's prospective, granting trade credit increases not only the opportunity cost (i.e., the interest loss on the buyer's purchase amount during the credit period) but also the default risk (i.e., the rate that the buyer will be unable to pay off his/her debt obligations). On the other hand, granting trade credit increases sales volume and revenue. Consequently, trade credit is an important strategy to increase seller's profitability. In this paper, we assume that the seller uses trade credit and number of shipments in a production run as decision variables to maximise his/her profit, while the buyer determines his/her replenishment cycle time and capital investment as decision variables to reduce his/her ordering cost and achieve his/her maximum profit. We then derive non-cooperative Nash solution and cooperative integrated solution in a just-in-time inventory system, in which granting trade credit increases not only the demand but also the opportunity cost and default risk, and the relationship between the capital investment and the ordering cost reduction is logarithmic. Then, we use a software to solve and compare these two distinct solutions. Finally, we use sensitivity analysis to obtain some managerial insights.

  4. Measuring network competence in buyer-supplier relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Human

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Managing multiple buyer-seller relationships in business-to-business networks demands an understanding of a firm’s competence to manage in an interconnected environment.  This paper reports on an attempt to measure network competence by using the NetCompTest scale in business-to-business markets in South Africa. Based on a pilot study refinement, the paper proposes an adjusted measurement scale and details the results of a second round of measurement conducted amongst 495 business-to-business managers in South Africa. The results established partial support for the use of the NetCompTest scale in a South African context, and analysis of variance indicated that some differences in the measurement based on firm and individual characteristics can be observed in the data. The paper assists in theory-building and provides managerial insights for managing buyer-supplier relationships in networks.

  5. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  6. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    NARDALI, Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...

  7. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  8. Distribution of aflatoxin in pistachios. 6. Seller's and buyer's risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzki, T F; deKoe, W J

    1999-09-01

    The seller's risk-the probability of a set of samples exceeding an agreed upon aflatoxin level when the lot mean does not-and the buyer's risk-the probability of a lot exceeding this level when a set of samples do not-have been computed using a parametrized experimental aflatoxin distribution and Monte Carlo simulation. The calculations are exemplified using the proposed EC standards (three 10 kg samples, 4 ng/g of total aflatoxin, basis kernels only) as well as for samples up to 250 kg and for varied lot aflatoxin levels. It is found that within this sample size range the seller's risk is as high as 42% at 10 kg and increases with increasing sample size to 80% at 250 kg. Only by reducing lot levels to 0.2 ng/g of total aflatoxin, basis kernels, can the risk be brought down to 2.5%, independent of sample size. The buyer's risk is as high as 58% at 10 kg but falls to 11% at 250 kg samples. The implications for both seller and buyer strategies are discussed.

  9. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfas, Benjamin G; Büttner, Oliver B; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  10. SURVEY ON SOLIDARITY GROUPS OF BUYERS: CRITICAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pennisi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is intended to provide, through the analysis of the dynamics of purchase of solidarity groups of buyers, a contribution to the study of current trends that are affecting the alternative to the dominant agro-food industry. Through the use of a questionnaire the paper investigated the perception as consumers this particular class of buyers have of themselves and how their concepts of “conscious choice” and “responsibility” drive their shopping list and consequently influence the growth and development of the Short Supply Chain, as the work remarked the progressive and notable increment of commerce and families circling around this young but widespreading phenomenon. Particularly striking, in fact, emerge from the role that consumers are becoming part of this phenomenon and the most of them have matured during time the idea that biological and hand-made products are for themselves also Safe, while the Long Supply Chain should incarnate the role of an alienating and wholly food system. The analysis of the questionnaires revealed some problems concerning the methods of transport and storage.

  11. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

  12. An Integrated Vendor-Buyer Model with Stock-Dependent Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    in the buyer's warehouse. The demand is assumed to be positively dependent on the amount of items shown in the display area. The proposed model determines the buyer's optimal shipment quantity and number of shipments, as well as the vendor's optimal production batch. The objective is to maximize total supply...

  13. The role of brands in the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive versus noncompulsive buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – This article investigates the role that brands play in influencing the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive buyers and whether this role differs for noncompulsive buyers, resulting in four research propositions. - Design/methodology/approach – In-depth interviews, conducted with

  14. Heterogeneity of compulsive buyers based on impulsivity and compulsivity dimensions: a latent profile analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan

    2013-07-30

    Despite the recognition that compulsive buyers are not one homogenous group, there is a dearth of theory-guided empirical investigation. Furthermore, although compulsivity and impulsivity are used as major psychiatric criteria for diagnosing compulsive buyers, these dimensions have rarely been considered in assessing the heterogeneity issue. We fill this gap by applying the motivation shift model of addiction to compulsive buying and empirically assessing the heterogeneity issue in the bi-dimensional space represented by the buying impulsivity and compulsivity dimensions. These hypotheses were tested with latent profile analysis based on survey data (N=445). Consistent with the hypothesis, we identified the cluster of buyers with high buying compulsivity and impulsivity ("compulsive-impulsive buyers"), the cluster of buyers with low buying compulsivity and high impulsivity ("impulsive excessive buyers"), and the cluster of ordinary buyers. Furthermore, it was found that disparate clusters of buyers exhibit unique dispositional tendencies. Theoretical contributions and policy implications of the findings are discussed as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An integrated vendor-buyer model with stock-dependent demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    We develop an integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain. The vendor manufactures the product and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area. Demand is assumed to be positively dependent on ...

  16. The role of brands in the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive versus noncompulsive buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – This article investigates the role that brands play in influencing the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive buyers and whether this role differs for noncompulsive buyers, resulting in four research propositions. - Design/methodology/approach – In-depth interviews, conducted

  17. 9 CFR 381.191 - Distribution of inspected products to small lot buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... small lot buyers. 381.191 Section 381.191 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...; Exportation; or Sale of Poultry or Poultry Products § 381.191 Distribution of inspected products to small lot... small lot buyers (such as small restaurants), distributors or jobbers may remove inspected and passed...

  18. The influence of the sustainability agenda on buyer-supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    The positive effect of supplier-buyer relationships on supply chain performance has al-ready been supported by previous studies. Yet, little empirical research has explored how the sustainability agenda influences these relationships. Thus, this study investi-gates how supplier-buyer relationships...

  19. Assessing buyer-supplier relationship management: a multiple case-study in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Jeroen; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Vos, B.; Buter, J.I.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on obstacles to, and opportunities for, increasing the effectiveness of construction firms in managing buyer-supplier relationships. More specifically, the focus is on assessing the maturity level of buyer-supplier relationship management by construction

  20. Assessing buyer-supplier relationship management : A multiple case-study in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, J.; Voordijk, H.; Vos, G.C.J.M.; Buter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on obstacles to, and opportunities for, increasing the effectiveness of construction firms in managing buyer-supplier relationships. More specifically, the focus is on assessing the maturity level of buyer-supplier relationship management by construction

  1. Health care use amongst online buyers of medications and vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Karishma; Chewning, Betty; Mott, David

    2015-01-01

    With increased use of the internet, more people access medications and health supplements online. However little is known about factors associated with using online buying. Given the variable quality of online pharmacies, an important question is whether online consumers also have health care providers with whom they discuss internet information and decisions. To help address these gaps this study used the Andersen Model to explore (1) the characteristics of internet buyers of medicines and/vitamins, (2) the association between health care use and buying medicines and/vitamins online drawing on the Andersen health care utilization framework, and (3) factors predicting discussion of internet information with health providers. The National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2007 was analyzed to study online medication buying among a national sample of internet users (N = 5074). The Andersen Model of health care utilization guided the study's variable selection and analyses. Buying online and talking about online information are the two main outcome variables. Separate multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with online buying and factors predicting discussions with providers about online information. In 2007, 14.5% (n = 871) of internet users bought a medication or vitamin online. About 85% of online buyers had a regular provider, but only 39% talked to the provider about online information even though most (93.7%) visited the provider ≥1 times/year. Multivariate analyses found internet health product consumers were more likely to be over 50 years old, have insurance and discuss the internet with their provider than non-internet health product consumers. Moreover, discussion of internet information was more likely if consumers had a regular provider and perceived their communication to be at least fair or good in general. There is a clear association of online buying with age, frequency of visits and

  2. Online Buyer's Perspective of E-shops Credibility: Measurement Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ȚUGULEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the debated topic of credibility in online sales, the present study analyses buyer's perspective. The study develops from the literature to test and refine a multi-dimensional measurement of e-shops credibility. Consumer's criteria for assessing e-shops credibility are empirically examined with 817 Romanian student participants. Detailed approach and methodology, as well as the results obtained, research conclusions, limitations, and implications, are presented. The study advances an instrument which reveals new dimensions of establishing credibility although most aspects were found to be similar to results previously presented in other studies. The proposed instrument offers a new multidimensional measurement and knowledge resources for business committed to using Internet advantages, and it might be viewed as a strategic tool which enables e-shops owners to strengthen their market presence, e-sales and customer base through an adequate management of the knowledge regarding online credibility.

  3. The Buyer Problem and Audience Analysis (Marketing Writing for Technical Products).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    Points out that understanding the buyer's perspective is critical to developing effective marketing materials. Discusses how to determine the buying concerns that are relevant to customers and products and how to organize good marketing writing. (SR)

  4. A Profile of the Upper Middle Class Compulsive Buyer in Mexico City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Mondragón; María Merino

    2011-01-01

    ... with the characteristics of compulsive buyers. As the objective of the study is the definition of a segment of Mexican women with greater compulsion to buy, it was decided that a conglomerate analysis would be applied in order to classify...

  5. Perceptions of technology uncertainty and the consequences for performance in buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, M.; van der Vaart, T.; Molleman, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how buyers' and suppliers' distinct perceptions of technology uncertainty affect the relationship between communication frequency and supplier performance. Information processing theory suggests that a fit is desirable between perceived environmental uncertainty and the

  6. Ethical Culture of SMEs and Perceived Contract Enforcement in Ugandan Buyer-Supplier Contractual Arrangements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph M. Ntay; Sarah Eyaa; Matthew Kalubanga

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between ethical culture, organizational memory, bargaining power of buyers/suppliers, subjective norms, attitudes and contract enforcement in the developing world context of Uganda...

  7. Ethical Culture of SMEs and Perceived Contract Enforcement in Ugandan Buyer-Supplier Contractual Agreements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ntay, Joseph M; Kalubanga, Matthew; Eyaa, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between ethical culture, organizational memory, bargaining power of buyers/suppliers, subjective norms, attitudes and contract enforcement in the developing world context of Uganda...

  8. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing Supply Chain Collaboration Based on Agreement Buyer-Supplier Relationship with Network Design Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutopo, Wahyudi; Erliza, Ayu; Heryansyah, Arien

    2016-01-01

    .... The network design problem is used to implement supply chain collaboration. In the buying and selling process, sharing information between buyer and supplier are important to obtain a transaction decision...

  10. Buyer Liability and Voluntary Inspections in International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A Laboratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cason, Timothy N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of...

  11. Coevolution of trustful buyers and cooperative sellers in the trust game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Masuda

    Full Text Available Many online marketplaces enjoy great success. Buyers and sellers in successful markets carry out cooperative transactions even if they do not know each other in advance and a moral hazard exists. An indispensable component that enables cooperation in such social dilemma situations is the reputation system. Under the reputation system, a buyer can avoid transacting with a seller with a bad reputation. A transaction in online marketplaces is better modeled by the trust game than other social dilemma games, including the donation game and the prisoner's dilemma. In addition, most individuals participate mostly as buyers or sellers; each individual does not play the two roles with equal probability. Although the reputation mechanism is known to be able to remove the moral hazard in games with asymmetric roles, competition between different strategies and population dynamics of such a game are not sufficiently understood. On the other hand, existing models of reputation-based cooperation, also known as indirect reciprocity, are based on the symmetric donation game. We analyze the trust game with two fixed roles, where trustees (i.e., sellers but not investors (i.e., buyers possess reputation scores. We study the equilibria and the replicator dynamics of the game. We show that the reputation mechanism enables cooperation between unacquainted buyers and sellers under fairly generous conditions, even when such a cooperative equilibrium coexists with an asocial equilibrium in which buyers do not buy and sellers cheat. In addition, we show that not many buyers may care about the seller's reputation under cooperative equilibrium. Buyers' trusting behavior and sellers' reputation-driven cooperative behavior coevolve to alleviate the social dilemma.

  12. Coevolution of trustful buyers and cooperative sellers in the trust game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Many online marketplaces enjoy great success. Buyers and sellers in successful markets carry out cooperative transactions even if they do not know each other in advance and a moral hazard exists. An indispensable component that enables cooperation in such social dilemma situations is the reputation system. Under the reputation system, a buyer can avoid transacting with a seller with a bad reputation. A transaction in online marketplaces is better modeled by the trust game than other social dilemma games, including the donation game and the prisoner's dilemma. In addition, most individuals participate mostly as buyers or sellers; each individual does not play the two roles with equal probability. Although the reputation mechanism is known to be able to remove the moral hazard in games with asymmetric roles, competition between different strategies and population dynamics of such a game are not sufficiently understood. On the other hand, existing models of reputation-based cooperation, also known as indirect reciprocity, are based on the symmetric donation game. We analyze the trust game with two fixed roles, where trustees (i.e., sellers) but not investors (i.e., buyers) possess reputation scores. We study the equilibria and the replicator dynamics of the game. We show that the reputation mechanism enables cooperation between unacquainted buyers and sellers under fairly generous conditions, even when such a cooperative equilibrium coexists with an asocial equilibrium in which buyers do not buy and sellers cheat. In addition, we show that not many buyers may care about the seller's reputation under cooperative equilibrium. Buyers' trusting behavior and sellers' reputation-driven cooperative behavior coevolve to alleviate the social dilemma.

  13. Subjective trust, perceived risk and exchange performance in buyer-supplier relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuela Delbufalo

    2012-01-01

    This article offers some theoretical and empirical contributions to the literature on relational exchange by examining the nature of subjective trust and perceived risk in buyer-supplier relationships. The relational view represents the theoretical framework for the research. The study explores the theoretical proposition that subjective trust and perceived risk in buyer-supplier relationships impact on exchange performance through the mediating effects of four sources of relational rents: as...

  14. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Tranæs, Torben

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good...... with large probability, even as friction becomes negligible. We investigate the relationship between the use of Nash and sequential bargaining. Nash bargaining seems applicable only when the sequential approach yields a unique stationary strategy subgame perfect equilibrium....

  15. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Hendon, Ebbe

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good...... with large probability, even as friction becomes negligible. We investigate the relationship between the use of Nash and sequential bargaining. Nash bargaining seems applicable only when the sequential approach yields a unique stationary strategy subgame perfect equilibrium...

  16. Coordinating vendor-buyer decisions for imperfect quality items considering trade credit and fully backlogged shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditi; Gautam, Prerna; Jaggi, Chandra K.

    2016-03-01

    Supply chain management has become a critical issue for modern business environments. In today's world of cooperative decision-making, individual decisions in order to reduce inventory costs may not lead to an overall optimal solution. Coordination is necessary among participants of supply chain to achieve better performance. There are legitimate and important efforts from the vendor to enhance the relation with buyer; one such effort is offering trade credit which has been a driver of growth and development of business between them. The cost of financing is a core consideration in effective financial management, in general and in context of business. Also, due to imperfect production a vendor may produce defective items which results in shortages. Motivated with these aspects, an integrated vendor-buyer inventory model is developed for imperfect quality items with allowable shortages; in which the vendor offers credit period to the buyer for payment. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer by using integrated decision making approach. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical analysis shows that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction, in comparison to independent decision policies by the vendor and the buyer.

  17. Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying

  18. Buyer Liability and Voluntary Inspections in International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. A Laboratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, T.N. [Department of Economics, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1310 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of the allowances cannot redeem them to cover emissions. We find that allowing inspections significantly increases the reliability investment rate and overall efficiency. Prices of uninspected allowances usually trade at a substantial discount due to the buyer liability rule, which provides a strong market incentive for sellers to invest in reliability.

  19. On the relation between economic bubbles and effort gaps between sellers and buyers: An experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Yechiam

    Full Text Available Economic bubbles are an empirical puzzle because they do not readily fit the notion of an efficient market. We argue that bubbles are associated with a conflict and a gap in the allocation of effort during negotiation by sellers and buyers. We examined 21 experimental asset markets where in one condition players could buy and sell and in the other they could either buy or sell. The results indicated that when making concurrent buying and selling decisions the mean number of asks for sellers was 71% higher than the number of bids for buyers. Similar findings emerge in a re-analysis of data from Lei et al. (2001. Importantly, bubbles only emerged in markets where the number of asks was larger than that of bids. These findings indicate that bubbles are associated with increased negotiation effort when acting as a seller and diminished effort when acting as a buyer.

  20. Unpacking buyer-seller differences in valuation from experience: A cognitive modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Scheibehenne, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    People often indicate a higher price for an object when they own it (i.e., as sellers) than when they do not (i.e., as buyers)-a phenomenon known as the endowment effect. We develop a cognitive modeling approach to formalize, disentangle, and compare alternative psychological accounts (e.g., loss aversion, loss attention, strategic misrepresentation) of such buyer-seller differences in pricing decisions of monetary lotteries. To also be able to test possible buyer-seller differences in memory and learning, we study pricing decisions from experience, obtained with the sampling paradigm, where people learn about a lottery's payoff distribution from sequential sampling. We first formalize different accounts as models within three computational frameworks (reinforcement learning, instance-based learning theory, and cumulative prospect theory), and then fit the models to empirical selling and buying prices. In Study 1 (a reanalysis of published data with hypothetical decisions), models assuming buyer-seller differences in response bias (implementing a strategic-misrepresentation account) performed best; models assuming buyer-seller differences in choice sensitivity or memory (implementing a loss-attention account) generally fared worst. In a new experiment involving incentivized decisions (Study 2), models assuming buyer-seller differences in both outcome sensitivity (as proposed by a loss-aversion account) and response bias performed best. In both Study 1 and 2, the models implemented in cumulative prospect theory performed best. Model recovery studies validated our cognitive modeling approach, showing that the models can be distinguished rather well. In summary, our analysis supports a loss-aversion account of the endowment effect, but also reveals a substantial contribution of simple response bias.

  1. The buying motives of European retail buyers: An analysis of buying behaviour for pork in four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    in the relationship of attributes and consequences for product quality, consumer satisfaction and retail image among retail buyers of pork. Our study also showed that the same attributes lead to different consequences in the four countries. The study revealed that it is possible to analyse what the retail buyers want...

  2. Fostering incremental and radical innovation through performance-based contracting in buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumo, Regien; van der Valk, Wendy; Bode, Christoph; van Weele, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While anecdotal evidence suggests that performance-based contracts (PBCs) may foster innovation in buyer-supplier relationships, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited to date. This study draws on transaction cost economics and agency theory to develop a theoretical model

  3. 9 CFR 205.104 - Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information. 205.104 Section 205.104 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN... registrant is interested; and (3) If registrant is interested only in such product or products produced or...

  4. The Mortgage Money Guide. Creative Financing for Home Buyers. Updated Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    This guide to creative home financing outlines basic concepts needed in shopping for a home loan. Many plans are described so that buyers can make their own decisions. The guide contains three sections: (1) getting started--highlighting the essentials; (2) defining terms; and (3) payment tables. The first section summarizes 15 financing plans in a…

  5. Classifying carbon credit buyers according to their attitudes towards and involvement in CDM sustainability labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnphumeesup, Piya, E-mail: pp66@hw.ac.uk [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kerr, Sandy A. [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Carbon markets are increasingly conscious of the social and environmental 'quality' of credits delivered by CDM projects. Consequently carbon credits are no longer viewed as a homogenous good and buyers now differentiate between credits supplied by different types of CDM project. The objective of this paper is to classify CER buyers according to their attitudes towards and preferences for CDM sustainability labels. K-means clustering was used to segment a sample of buyers into two clusters. The results indicate that two clear clusters exist with distinct profile patterns. Moreover, the results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the two-cluster solution was valid. Finally, the results of the chi-square analysis and a cross-tabulation showed that these two clusters were significantly different in: organization type; level of paid up capital; perception of sustainable development benefits; perception of return on investment; perception of image of the sustainability labeling; participation in the voluntary market; the project priority; knowledge in the sustainability label; attitude towards the host country's duty; and their willingness to pay. - Highlights: > The K-means clustering was used to classify CER buyers in the primary market. > The carbon market is divided into two: the premium market; and the normal market. > Governments tend to be members of the premium market. > 82% of members in the premium market are willing to pay a price premium for CERs.

  6. Creating Shared Value In The Buyer-Supplier Relationships Through The Implementation Of Sustainability Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessa, Meulensteen,; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Sikke, Meerman,

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Living Plan has been taken as a case study. This allows for the analysis of the nature of the buyer-supplier interactions. The different partners in this relationship were asked to fill out questionnaires. Correlation and regression analyses were used to quantify the relationship between

  7. VALUE CREATION AND CAPTURE IN BUYER-SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIPS: A NEW PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Campos Tescari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research paper develops and tests a new model for value creation and capture in buyer-supplier relationships. In addition to including both value creation and capture in the same model, value creation is unraveled by the identification of its sources, both intrinsic and relational. Intrinsic value is the set of benefits derived from resources belonging to one party that can be captured by another party if there is a relationship between them, even if this relationship is non-collaborative. Relational value encompasses the mutual benefits that are generated as the collaboration between buyer and supplier increases. The model was tested using a survey of 127 dyads (buyer and supplier. The results indicated that both sides benefit from the total value created by the relationship, but the degree of value capture varies. The value perceived by the supplier is greater than that perceived by the buyer, which consequently encourages the former to boost its efforts even further to ensure that the relationship continues.

  8. Buyer social responsibility: a general concept and its implications for marketing management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of sustainability concerns in consumer decision-making poses new challenges to marketing. The existing literature contains a variety of concepts and definitions that pertain to social issues in consumption but lacks an overarching conceptualisation of buyer social responsibility (BSR)

  9. Developing a framework based on a psychological perspective for studying buyer-supplier relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Samir S.; Burns, Neil D.

    2001-10-01

    The advent of the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and the Internet with its subsequent use in the field of supply chains, mainly online shopping; web managed purchasing and online auctions have given rise to complex relationships between buyers and suppliers. The manner in which the buyer-supplier transactions occur have a psychological bearing similar to the transactions occurring between humans in the buyer-supplier organizations. The on-going research to study the psychological aspects of the transactions will use Transactional Analysis as a tool to identify these aspects of the relationship. The essential aspect of this view is that organizational culture plays a very strong role in the way organizations operate, and when two organizations transact with each other the individual culture is bound to play a role in the way the transaction is conducted. There are a number of factors that play a role in bringing the culture to the forefront of the transaction process. It is necessary to study these factors in order to understand why the psychological behavior is actually shown by these buyer- supplier organizations.

  10. Factors influencing buyers' willingness to offer price premiums for carbon credits sourced from urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.C. Poudyal; J.M. Bowker; J.P. Siry

    2015-01-01

    Marketing carbon offset credits generated by urban forest projects could help cities and local governments achieve their financial self-sufficiency and environmental sustainability goals. Understanding the value of carbon credits sourced from urban forests, and the factors that determine buyers’ willingness to pay a premium for such credits could benefit cities in...

  11. 75 FR 53640 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... large numbers of attendees whose native language will not be English. (j) Level of Cooperation: The...-53642] [FR Doc No: 2010-21838] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Docket No.: 100806330-0330-01] Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY...

  12. 78 FR 68814 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... accommodating large numbers of attendees whose native language will not be English. (i) Level of Cooperation... International Trade Administration Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2015 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice and call for...

  13. Commercial morel harvesters and buyers in western Montana: an exploratory study of the 2001 harvesting season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca J. McLain; Erika Mark McFarlane; Susan J. Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined aspects of the social organization of the commercial wild morel industry in western Montana during 2001. We talked with 18 key informants (7 buyers and 11 pickers) and observed social interactions at one buying station near the Kootenai National Forest and three buying stations near the Bitterroot National Forest. The key informant and...

  14. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-10-01

    Manufactured, or HUD-Code, homes comprise a growing share of the housing stock in the Northwest, as well as nationally. Their relatively low cost has made them especially attractive to lower income families, first-time home-buyers, and retired persons. The characteristics of manufactured home (MH) buyers, the unique energy consumption characteristics of the homes, and their increasing market share make this market an especially critical one for energy consumption and conservation planning in the Northwest. This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that can potentially assist the design of a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. This study has the objective of assisting BPA in the development of a regional approach in which numerous organizations and parties would participate to achieve conservation in new manufactured homes. A previous survey and information collected for this study from regional dealers and manufacturers provide an indication of the energy conservation options being sold to manufactured home buyers in the PNW. Manufacturers in the Northwest appear to sell homes that usually exceed the HUD thermal requirements. Manufacturers typically offer efficiency improvements in packages that include fixed improvements in insulation levels, glazing, and infiltration control. Wholesale costs of these packages range from about $100 to $1500. Typical packages include significant upgrades in floor insulation values with modest upgrades in ceilings and walls. This study identifies trends and impacts that a marketing plan should consider to adequately address the financial concerns of manufactured home buyers.

  15. 27 CFR 10.52 - Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... place trade buyer independence at risk within the description of exclusion in § 10.51: Industry member...-employer in return for the employee agreeing to order distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages from the industry member. The practice enumerated here is an example and does not constitute a complete list of...

  16. Motives for e-marketplace participation: differences and similarities between buyers and suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Kragh, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    The motivation of suppliers as well as buyers for e-marketplace participation is closely linked to the perceived outcome of participation, not only in terms of the benefits of joining an e-marketplace, but also in terms of the possible consequences of not joining. The key issue, therefore, is why...

  17. Temporal stability of pathological scratchcard gambling among adult scratchcard buyers two years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeFuentes-Merillas, Laura; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Schippers, Gerard M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the 2-year cumulative incidence of pathological scratchcard gambling (PSG) among a representative sample of high-risk scratchcard buyers, to assess the 2-year temporal stability of PSG and scratchcard-related problems and to estimate the adjusted 1-year prevalence for PSG taking

  18. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of pork products: The attributes, consequences and values sought by buyers of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    2001-01-01

    It is a fact that creating value for customers - in the eyes of the customers - is a very important source of competitive advantage. So far no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, we propose a definition of 'retailer value' built on a solid theoretical...... in values implies. Both issues are relevant to the development of the retail buying behaviour theory. The results also suggest ways for a manufacturer to improve his marketing and product development to accommodate the demands of the retail buyer in order to gain access to the consumer market....

  19. An analysis of buyer-supplier collaboration in the South African textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore perceptions regarding buyer and supplier collaboration around product development. The aim is to gain an understanding of which factors influence buyer-supplier collaboration outcomes in the South African textile industry. Methodology: This study comprised two data collection stages. The first stage comprised the design and administration of a questionnaire survey. The second stage utilised a qualitative interview methodology and entailed interviewing a subset of the questionnaire respondents in order to probe respondents’ own experiences in collaborative product developments and their perception of the factors that determine collaboration outcome. Findings: This study has shed light on the experiences of South African firms in the textile industry engaging in buyer-supplier collaboration around product development. While this study is exploratory, it has provided evidence that there are certain factors which are perceived to have a significant influence on collaboration. Implications: Under the past protective shield of tariffs, South African clothing and textile manufacturers could afford to allow an adversarial mode of operation to perpetuate inefficiencies. However, the increasing external pressures, including the very real threat of overseas competition, heighten the need for collaboration between buyers and suppliers. This relates, in particular, to collaboration aimed at new product development, which can be seen as a new imperative for the survival and growth of this industry. Currently, there are numerous barriers to effective collaboration. The overwhelming power of retailers in the value chain is one such barrier, as it creates an environment which is pressurised, strained and not conducive to buyer-supplier collaboration. Contribution and Value: Studies on collaborative new product development have primarily been done in developed countries, with a focus on technology intensive

  20. «Dallas Buyers Club (2013» clinical research with drugs for the AIDS epidemic 80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian de HAAN-BOSCH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dallas Buyers Club (2013, inspired by true events, tells the story of Ron Woodroof, a middle?aged elec? trician from Dallas (Texas, who is diagnosed with AIDS in 1985. With few treatment options, he estab? lishes the Dallas Buyers Club in order to provide unapproved drugs to the AIDS community. This results in constant business travels, disputes with the FDA and problems with the law and the IRS. The article analyzes the buyers’ clubs phenomenon in the US, the drugs cited in the film and the clinical trial with zidovudine shown in the movie. The film could be useful as a teaching tool providing an introduction to the AIDS epidemic, clinical research and drug development, bioethics of human research and the agen? cies that regulate drug approval and their availability. Finally, the article presents a possible guideline for the use of the film in a teaching environment.

  1. Vendor-buyer coordination and supply chain optimization with deterministic demand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model that deals with a vendor-buyer multi-product, multi-facility and multi-customer location selection problem, which subsume a set of manufacturer with limited production capacities situated within a geographical area. We assume that the vendor and the buyer are coordinated by mutually sharing information. We formulate Mixed Integer Linear Fractional Programming (MILFP model that maximize the ratio of return on investment of the distribution network, and a Mixed Integer Program (MIP, used for the comparison. The performance of the model is illustrated by a numerical example. In addition, product distribution and allocation of different customers along with the sensitivity of the key parameters are analyzed. It can be observed that the increment of the opening cost decreases the profit in both MILFP and MIP models. If the opening cost of a location decreases or increases, the demand and the capacity of that location changes accordingly.

  2. Buyer and seller data from pay what you want and name your own price laboratory markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Krämer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pay What You Want (PWYW and Name Your Own Price (NYOP are customer-driven pricing mechanisms that give customers (some pricing power and that have been used in service industries with high fixed costs to price discriminate without setting a reference price. This paper describes buyer and seller data in a series of induced-value laboratory experiments that compare PWYW and NYOP in monopoly and competitive situations. Sellers are in a one-shot interaction with buyers. Sellers using customer-driven pricing mechanisms may exogenously or endogenously receive additional promotional benefits, for instance through word-of-mouth effects. The major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the paper "Delegating Pricing Power to Customers: Pay What You Want or Name Your Own Price?" (Krämer et al., 2017 [3].

  3. Relationship Marketing Strategies: When Buyer and Supplier Follow Different Strategies to Achieve Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing is essential for success in business. The need to understand better the differences in the strategies buyers and suppliers follow is what has motivated this study. We drew on emerging perspectives on inter-firm governance and networks to develop a theoretical framework to understand the success of long-term relationships. We tested the framework using data from 67 merchant distributors (buyers and 174 suppliers of theirs in the Dutch potted plant and flower industry. While the most successful distributors tend to take the “hard”, tangible strategy using transaction specific investments and fostering joint action, the successful suppliers take the “soft”, social approach by emphasizing trust and the norm of flexibility in the relationship.

  4. Benchmarking Supplier Development: An Empirical Case Study of Validating a Framework to Improve Buyer-Supplier Relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khuram Shahzad; Ilkka Sillanpää; Elina Sillanpää; Shpend Imeri

    2016-01-01

    .... By using qualitative research method, an integrated framework of supplier development and buyer-supplier relationship development has been tested and validated in a Finnish case company to provide empirical evidence...

  5. A relook at the motor vehicle buyer after the purchase: dissonance arousal

    OpenAIRE

    S. Brijball

    2000-01-01

    This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported diss...

  6. Contracts as a barrier to entry when buyers are non-pivotal

    OpenAIRE

    Bedre-Defolie, Özlem; Biglaiser, Gary

    2015-01-01

    We analyze whether the use of breakup fees by an incumbent might induce an inefficient allocation of consumers and possibly foreclose efficient entry where buyers are non-pivotal (infinitesimal) and have to pay switching costs if they switch from the incumbent to an entrant. When the entrants are competitive, in the unique equilibrium the incumbent induces the efficient outcome, so there is no inefficient foreclosure. When there is a single entrant, the incumbent cannot deter the entry if it ...

  7. Blockchain-driven supply chain finance: Towards a conceptual framework from a buyer perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Omran, Yaghoob; Henke, Michael; Heines, Roger; Hofmann, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to develop a conceptual framework for blockchain-driven supply chain finance (SCF) solutions. The frame of reference intends to foster the coordination in buyer-supplier relations and eliminates existing inefficiencies in the execution of discrete SCF-instruments, such as reverse factoring and dynamic discounting. Moreover, we introduce value drivers for blockchain technology (BCT) to elaborate unique characteristics for its application in the field of SC...

  8. 9 CFR 205.212 - “Buyer in ordinary course of business” and “security interest.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âBuyer in ordinary course of businessâ and âsecurity interest.â 205.212 Section 205.212 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS... business” and “security interest.” The terms “buyer in ordinary course of business” and “security interest...

  9. Cannabis retail purchases in a low-risk market: Purchase size and sex of buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeller Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM - To analyse the composition of cannabis retail purchases in a representative sample of purchases made in Christiania, Copenhagen in 2004. MATERIAL - Transactions (n=1,123 were registered along four variables; type (loose resin or joints, quantum (n=957, grams or number of joints, sex (n=559, female or male and payment (n=707, notes or coins. RESULTS - We found that more than half of all transactions were for joints only. The median transaction quantum was small, at two joints or three grams of resin, valued at DKK 100. Of the resin transactions, 88% were three grams or below. Women made 11% of the purchases. There was no statistically significant difference in the preferences for quantum or type between males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Buyers prefer joints over loose resin despite the higher price, which is interesting. The small median transactions size is consistent with findings in the international literature. Illicit drug buyers appear to prefer small acquisitions across drugs and social context. The share of purchases made by women is 11%, which is similar to the estimated proportion of women among daily cannabis users. This finding suggests an interesting question for future research. At what point in a cannabis-using career do users purchase their drugs? These findings contribute to the existing research by documenting the proportion of female buyers, and preferences for type and quantum in a sample that is representative of a market and is not based on self-reported purchases

  10. Value Added Elements According to Buyer Companies in a B2B Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Battaglia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how buyer companies perceive the value added to products and services offered by their suppliers and identifies the predominant elements that affect purchasing decisions and establishment of relationships between companies in a B2B context. A multiple case study was developed in 12 buyer companies from three industrial segments in southern Brazil: metal-mechanics, furniture and foods. The findings show that for supplier companies in the metal-mechanics industry to add value, they must identify buyers’ needs, develop technology/innovation, be focused on competitive aspects, keep control of the supply chain, provide different purchasing channels, develop partnerships, and adapt to cultural aspects. Companies in the food industry consider the model for creating value to adapt to meet customer needs, the effective use of purchasing channels, functionality of products, and technical knowledge. The companies in the furniture industry value the methods that suppliers use to capture and implement required changes, effective control of the supply chain, and the representativeness of the suppliers’ brand in the market. This study captures the perception of buyer companies in relation to predominant value-adding elements and could guide decisions for the adoption of managerial actions by supplier companies focused on adding value.

  11. Optimizing Supply Chain Collaboration Based on Agreement Buyer-Supplier Relationship with Network Design Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Sutopo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the rising competitive environment with shorter product life cycles and high customization forces industries to increase their flexibility, speed up their response, and enhance concurrent engineering designs. To integrate these prospects, supply chain collaboration becomes a pertinent strategy for industries to strengthen their competitiveness. The network design problem is used to implement supply chain collaboration. In the buying and selling process, sharing information between buyer and supplier are important to obtain a transaction decision. The optimimum supply chain profit can be identified by mathematical model of network design problem. The Mathematical Model takes into consideration the uncertainity in negotiation of supply chain, transportation problems, and locationallocation of products from supplier to buyer in the planning based on the time value of money. The results show that the model can be used to optimize the supply chain profit. The supplier gets a profit because income were received in the initial contract, while the buyer profit comes from lower pay.

  12. Price Discrepancy Between Sellers and Buyers When Making Decisions for the Self and Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Baojun; Li, Zhongquan

    2016-06-01

    In daily life, people make decisions not only for themselves but also on behalf of others. There may be differences in terms of the endowment effect when making decisions in these two situations. In Study 1, this question was investigated with an existing dataset exploring the traditional endowment effect, in which 86 students (M age = 20.8 years, SD = 5.0) at Harvard University were asked to make a decision on selling or buying a coffee mug for themselves or for others as brokers. When making decisions for the self, the average price demanded by sellers was much higher than that offered by buyers; while making decisions for others, the price discrepancy disappeared. In Study 2, a similar study was conducted with a sample of 42 Chinese university students (M age = 22.3 years, SD = 2.5), and a similar pattern of results was obtained. Further analysis indicated that when making decisions for others, only buyers increased their valuations, therefore mitigating the seller-buyer price discrepancy. Finally, the findings were interpreted from the perspective of Construal Level Theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Analysing the impact of buyers' personality constructs on the market structure of brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios; Rungie, Cam

    2008-01-01

    In order to operationalize brand loyalty, various models have been applied that estimate brand measures and further describe patterns and the structure of the markets. A well known model in this area is the Dirichlet-NBD model. Despite major advancements to those models, how buyers' characteristi...... is to provide an approach of estimating the effect that various personality constructs have on brand measures and overall market structure through revealed preference data.......In order to operationalize brand loyalty, various models have been applied that estimate brand measures and further describe patterns and the structure of the markets. A well known model in this area is the Dirichlet-NBD model. Despite major advancements to those models, how buyers' characteristics...... and psychographics influence actual brand measures and the overall market structure in repeat purchase occasions is still under-researched. Moreover, measuring the type and magnitude of buyer-related effects on brand loyalty could provide additional valuable information to brand managers. Aim of this paper...

  14. Characterizing the Buyer Decision Process: the ZMOT model in Chile’s technology sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Escobar Farfán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an updated application model that identifies the intervening factors in the buyer decision process. In traditional research, the consumer is said to confront two moments of truth before making the decision to buy: first, when encountering the gondola, and then again while experiencing the product. Nevertheless, innovations in information technology have modified this traditional view to include the “Zero Moment of Truth”, known as ZMOT, a name popularized by Google. This analysis is based on the concept of the Zero Moment of Truth which relates to the process that consumers live prior to the purchase decision in which they gather information about the product or service. This study is justified by the absence of research on the ZMOT concept in Chile. To determine the factors involved in the purchase decision, a quantitative methodology was used, through the application of a survey that analyzed three perspectives: the influencing factors during the purchase decision, the activities carried out during the ZMOT, and, finally, the actions carried out after the completion of the purchase and information that will serve for future buyers is gathered. With the data obtained, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out, generating a preliminary multi-dimensional model to describe the factors in the buyer decision process during the information and experience gathering phase known as ZMOT.

  15. Stochastic integrated vendor–buyer model with unstable lead time and setup cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra K. Jaggi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vendor-buyer system where there are different objectives for both sides. The proposed method of this paper is different from the other previously published works since it considers different objectives for both sides. In this paper, the vendor’s emphasis is on the crashing of the setup cost, which not only helps him compete in the market but also provides better services to his customers; and the buyer’s aim is to reduce the lead time, which not only facilitates the buyer to fulfill the customers’ demand on time but also enables him to earn a good reputation in the market or vice versa. In the light of the above stated facts, an integrated vendor-buyer stochastic inventory model is also developed. The propsed model considers two cases for demand during lead time: Case (i Complete demand information, Case (ii Partial demand information. The proposed model jointly optimizes the buyer’s ordered quantity and lead time along with vendor’s setup cost and the number of shipments. The results are demonstrated with the help of numerical examples.

  16. A collaborative inventory model for vendor-buyer system with inspection errors, unequal sized shipment, and repairable item

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Irfan Hilmi; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2017-11-01

    This paper develops an integrated inventory model consisting of single-vendor and single-buyer system. The demand in buyer side is deterministic and the production process is imperfect and produces a certain number of defective items. The delivery within a single production batch from vendor to buyer is increasing by a fixed factor. After the delivery arrives at the buyer, an inspection process is conducted. The inspection process in not perfect. Errors may occur when the inspector is misclassifies a non-defective item as defective ne, or incorrectly classifies a defective item as non-defective. All the product which defective will be repair by repair-shop. After the defective arrives at repair shop, will perfect inspection. The defective item will repair and back to buyer. This model provides an optimal solution for the expected integrated total annual cost of the vendor and the buyer. The result from numerical examples shows that the integrated model will result in lower joint total cost in comparison with the equal-sized policy.

  17. The impacts of individualism/collectivism on consumer decision-making styles : the case of Finnish and Vietnamese mobile phone buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Van Minh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the differences of individualism-oriented mobile phone consumers and collectivism-oriented mobile phone consumers in making buying decisions. Finland and Vietnam are the subjective nations of this research, in which Vietnamese mobile phone buyers represent collectivist consumers and Finnish mobile phone buyers represent individualist consumers. The study is based on Hofstede’s theory of individualism/collectivism and its influences on mobile phone buyers in Vietna...

  18. Comparison of treatment seeking compulsive buyers in Germany and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Mertens, Christian; Mueller, Ulrike; Silbermann, Andrea; Burgard, Melissa; de Zwaan, Martina

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to compare a German (Bavaria) and an American (North Dakota) sample of women suffering from compulsive buying. Thirty-eight German and 39 American female compulsive buyers were screened with the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (Y-BOCS-SV) prior to entering a group treatment study. Psychiatric co-morbidity was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID). There were no statistically significant differences between the German sample and the American sample with regard to age (mean 43.7 and 45 years, respectively), and with regard to the scores on the CBS and the Y-BOCS-SV. A high lifetime co-morbidity rate with Axis I disorders, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, OCD, and binge eating disorder was detected in both samples. Almost all participants met criteria for at least one lifetime Axis I disorder. However, German compulsive buyers showed significantly higher current prevalence rates of any affective disorder, and higher current and lifetime prevalence rates of any anxiety disorder and somatoform disorder. In addition, German compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have more than one Axis I disorder. The groups did not differ with regard to age and with regard to the severity of compulsive buying and showed a high co-morbidity with Axis I disorders. However, the German compulsive buying sample presented with significantly more psychiatric co-morbidity compared to the American sample. Further research is needed to provide a better understanding of this disorder in general and cross-culturally.

  19. Investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the economic recession: A qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Samanta

    2016-01-01

    The research paper described the in-depth interviews used in investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the e-commerce world during the economic recession in Greece. The data collected from these interviews were analyzed. The qualitative research findings identified how B2B e-commerce has started to change the future of the participating organizations in Greece. Οn the one hand, a number of benefits have occurred from the development of e-business and on the other hand B2B firms need to ...

  20. Do First Time House Buyers Receive Financial Transfers from Their Parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Using Danish longitudinal data with information about wealth for a sample of first-time house buyers and their parents, we test whether there are direct financial transfers from parents to children in connection with the house purchase, or in connection with unemployment spells occurring just after...... the purchase, when children typically hold few liquid assets. First, we document that child and parent financial resources are correlated. Then, we introduce conditioning variables and exploit the panel aspect of the data to also condition on fixed unobserved factors, which arguably govern preferences and....../or productivity. We find no evidence of direct financial transfers....

  1. A Scent of Lemon—Seller Meets Buyer with a Noisy Quality Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen W. Weibull

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider a market for lemons in which the seller is a monopolistic price setter and the buyer receives a private noisy signal of the product’s quality. We model this as a game and analyze perfect Bayesian equilibrium prices, trading probabilities and gains of trade. In particular, we vary the buyer’s signal precision, from being completely uninformative, as in standard models of lemons markets, to being perfectly informative. We show that high quality units are sold with positive probability even in the limit of uninformative signals, and we identify some discontinuities in the equilibrium predictions at the boundaries of completely uninformative and completely informative signals, respectively.

  2. Compulsory acquisition of shares buyer, other shareholders, abuse of right of compulsory acquisition of shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Company Act of Republic of Serbia includes mechanism for the compulsory acquisition of the shareholdings of minority shareholders. Technically this procedure is effected on the basis of the shareholders assembly resolution. Buyer is shareholder who has at least 90% of share capital and at least 90% of votes. Shares owned by entity under his dominant influence will be treated as shares of that shareholder provided that dominant influence exists at least one year. Company's own shares, and shares subject o a pledge do not represent shares of other shareholders. There are several actions which may be treated as abuse of right of compulsory acquisition of shares.

  3. Benchmarking Supplier Development: An Empirical Case Study of Validating a Framework to Improve Buyer-Supplier Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Khuram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, firms are required to utilize efficiently and effectively all the useful resources to gain competitive advantage. Supplier development has evolved as an important strategic instrument to improve buyer supplier relationships. For that reason, this study focuses on providing the strategic significance of supplier development approaches to improve business relationships. By using qualitative research method, an integrated framework of supplier development and buyer-supplier relationship development has been tested and validated in a Finnish case company to provide empirical evidence. It particularly investigates how supplier development approaches can develop buyer-supplier relationships. The study present a set of propositions that identify significant supplier development approaches critical for the development of buyer-supplier relationships and develop a theoretical framework that specifies how these different supplier development approaches support in order to strengthen the relationships. The results are produced from an in-depth case study by implementing the proposed research framework. The findings reveal that supplier development strategies i.e., supplier incentives and direct involvements strongly effect in developing buyer-supplier relationships. Further research may focus on considering in-depth investigation of trust and communication factors along with propositions developed in the study to find out general applicability in dynamic business environment. Proposed integrated framework along with propositions is a unique combination of useful solutions for tactical and strategic management’s decision making and also valid for academic researchers to develop supplier development theories.

  4. Empirical “first-filter” test for the existence of buyer power in the Finnish food supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Niemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buyer power and competition policy in food supply chains has emerged as an important economic issue and a highly sensitive item on the policy agenda around the world. In Finland, the increasing concentration of the distribution sector and processing industry has raised concern over the existence and gradual growth of buyer power in these sectors. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible existence of buyer power in the Finnish food supply chain. More specifically, we follow an approach used by Lloyd et al. (2009 to measure oligopsony power among the Finnish food industry and retailers against farmers. The results suggest that the spread between producer and retailer prices in Finland is not consistent with perfectly competitive behaviour, and might thus be caused, at least as a candidate amongst other factors, by the existence of oligopsony power in the Finnish food supply chain.

  5. Using home buyers' revealed preferences to define the urban rural fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, James P.; Charles, Joni S.

    2008-03-01

    The location of new homes defines the urban rural fringe and determines many facets of the urban rural interaction set in motion by construction of new homes in previously rural areas. Home, neighborhood and school district characteristics play a crucial role in determining the spatial location of new residential construction, which in turn defines the boundary and spatial extent of the urban rural fringe. We develop and apply a spatial hedonic variant of the Blinder (J Hum Resour 8:436 455, 1973) and Oaxaca (Int Econ Rev 9:693 709, 1973) price decomposition to newer versus older home sales in the Columbus, Ohio metropolitan area during the year 2000. The preferences of buyers of newer homes are compared to those who purchased the nearest neighboring older home located in the same census block group, during the same year. Use of the nearest older home purchased in the same location represents a methodology to control for various neighborhood, social economic-demographic and school district characteristics that influence home prices. Since newer homes reflect current preferences for home characteristics while older homes reflect past preferences for these characteristics, we use the price differentials between newer and older home sales in the Blinder Oaxaca decomposition to assess the relative significance of various house characteristics to home buyers.

  6. Supply chain single vendor – Single buyer inventory model with price-dependent demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ahmadi Rad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this article is developing an integrated production-inventory-marketing model for a two-stage supply chain. The demand rate is considered as the Iso-elastic decreasing function of the selling price.  The main research goal of the article is to obtain the optimal values of the selling price, order quantity and number of shipments for the proposed model under independent and also joint optimization. In addition, the effects of the model’s parameters on the optimal solution are investigated. Design/methodology/approach: Mathematical modeling is used to obtain the joint total profit function of the supply chain. Then, the iterative solution algorithm is presented to solve the model and determine the optimal solution. Findings and Originality/value: It is observed that under joint optimization, the demand rate and the supply chain’s profit are higher than their values under independent optimization, especially for the more price sensitive demand. Therefore, coordination between the buyer and the vendor is advantageous for the supply chain.  On the other hand, joint optimization will be less beneficial when there isn’t a significant difference between the buyer’s and the vendor’s holding costs. Originality/value: The contribution of the article is determining the ordering and pricing policy jointly in the supply chain, which contains one vendor and one buyer while the demand rate is the Iso-elastic function of the selling price.

  7. The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,

  8. Procesni pristop kot dejavnik povečanja zadovoljstva odjemalcev = Process Format as a Factor in Increasing Buyer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Verle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Today modern companies are directed by buyers. Successful organizations are aware that the key issue is to satisfy buyers’ needs and to maintain good relationship with them. Such companies perceive problems and opportunities fast and act accordingly. In future only such companies that will be able to substitute mass production and generalized market approach with a flexible production and in addition to this constantly look for market gaps for their products and services will be able to survive. Further on such companies will be able to individualize their offer and in this way adjust and come closer to the buyer. However, the old hierarchical structure does not provide for that, therefore, we are nowadays talking about horizontal relationships, even among the suppliers, organizations and their buyers. The only organizational format providing for relationships and cooperation with buyers and suppliers on the one hand and increasing contentedness and successfulness of the employees on the other is a process format. The changes of the environment demand a thorough change of the traditional way of thinking and consequently the operation and organization of a company which wants to be successful or survive in new conditions.

  9. Vendor-buyer inventory models with trade credit financing under both non-cooperative and integrated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Chang, Chun-Tao; Chern, Maw-Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Most researchers studied vendor-buyer supply chain inventory policies only from the perspective of an integrated model, which provides us the best cooperative solution. However, in reality, not many vendors and buyers are wholly integrated. Hence, it is necessary to study the optimal policies not only under an integrated environment but also under a non-cooperative environment. In this article, we develop a supply chain vendor-buyer inventory model with trade credit financing linked to order quantity. We then study the optimal policies for both the vendor and the buyer under a non-cooperative environment first, and then under a cooperative integrated situation. Further, we provide some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results, compare the differences between these two distinct solutions, and obtain some managerial insights. For example, in a cooperative environment, to reduce the total cost for both parties, the vendor should either provide a simple permissible delay without order quantity restriction or offer a long permissible delay linked order quantity. By contrast, in a non-cooperative environment, the vendor should provide a short permissible delay to reduce its total cost.

  10. 77 FR 61740 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program-Calendar Years 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... attendees whose native language will not be English. (j) Level of Cooperation: The applicant demonstrates a... International Trade Administration Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program-- Calendar Years 2014 and 2015 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice and...

  11. The behavioural response of the professional buyer on social cues from the vendor and how to measure it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland-van der Holst, Eveline Maria; Henseler, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Vendors’ social cues ─ physical or behavioural hints ─ have an impact on the professional buyer. However, little is known about that impact. The purpose of this paper is to place knowledge about the impact of social cues that other disciplines acquired in the context of B2B marketing in

  12. The cosmopolitan tribe of television buyers: professional ethos, personal taste and cosmopolitan capital in transnational cultural mediation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the professional ethos and practices of television buyers in France, Italy, Poland and the Netherlands. During interviews and ethnographic observations, the professional ethos of this ‘cosmopolitan tribe’ proved to be remarkably similar across national backgrounds. This article

  13. Understanding the Factors That Enable and Inhibit Value Creation in Buyer-Supplier Relationships Within the Outsourcing of IT Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Kinra, Aseem; Das, Ajay

    This study contributes to literature on value creation in buyer-supplier relationships as well as literature on IT service provision. It makes a first attempt at building a comprehensive model of the factors that enable and inhibit value creation within buyersupplier relationships. A distinction...

  14. Optimal economic order quantity for buyer-distributor-vendor supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo; Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wee, Hui Ming

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we first complement an inappropriate mathematical error on the total cost in the previously published paper by Chung and Wee [2007, 'Optimal the Economic Lot Size of a Three-stage Supply Chain With Backlogging Derived Without Derivatives', European Journal of Operational Research, 183, 933-943] related to buyer-distributor-vendor three-stage supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives. Then, an arithmetic-geometric inequality method is proposed not only to simplify the algebraic method of completing prefect squares, but also to complement their shortcomings. In addition, we provide a closed-form solution to integral number of deliveries for the distributor and the vendor without using complex derivatives. Furthermore, our method can solve many cases in which their method cannot, because they did not consider that a squared root of a negative number does not exist. Finally, we use some numerical examples to show that our proposed optimal solution is cheaper to operate than theirs.

  15. Managing for Success: The Role of Transactional and Relational Mechanisms in Buyer-Supplier Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shahzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Firms are collaborating more in supply chain network and identified the importance of business relationships. This idea was embraced by academic and empirical research in operations management since last decade. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive integrated conceptual and empirical framework which elaborates the role of transactional and relational factors to highlight buyer-supplier relationship performance. While, limited studies explored these factors separately neither provide the dynamic interactive role of transactional and relational factors in an integrated framework. Through multiple case studies, findings reveal that impact of relational factors of trust and communication has constructive influence in reducing the transaction cost and improving relationship performance. This study contributes to debate on managing complex business network relationships by providing a combined theoretical setting (transaction cost economics and social exchange theory and empirically proven integrated model. Managers can enhance the operational performance by selecting the most suitable constructs.

  16. Spiral of Hatred: Social Effects in Buyer-Seller Cross-Comments Left on Internet Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielek, Radoslaw; Wawer, Aleksander; Wierzbicki, Adam

    An auction platform is a dynamic environment where a rich variety of social effects can be observed. Most of those effects remain unnoticed or even hidden to ordinary users. The in-depth studies of such effects should allow us to identify and understand the key factors influencing users’ behaviour. The material collected from the biggest Polish auction house has been analyzed. NLP algorithms were applied to extract sentiment-related content from collected comments. Emotional distance between negative, neutral and positive comments has been calculated. The obtained results confirm the existence of the spiral-of-hatred effect but also indicate that much more complex patterns of mutual relations between sellers and buyers exist. The last section contains a several suggestions which can prove useful to improve trustworthiness of users’ reports and security of an auction platform in general.

  17. Perceived Compatibility and the Adoption of B2C E-Commerce by Non-buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, Ángel; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Chaparro-Peláez, Julián; Pascual-Miguel, Félix

    The purpose of this article is to study the factors which affect the intention to buy online for users who have never made any prior purchase using the electronic channel, with special focus to the role of perceived compatibility. To do so, an adoption model for e-commerce was proposed on the basis of the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and the Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT). In order to validate the model, data gathered amongst Spanish consumers who had no experience using e-commerce, were analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) method. The results have demonstrated the importance of perceived compatibility as a significant factor to foster non-buyers' adoption of electronic business-to-consumer e-commerce (eB2C).

  18. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  19. Joint Economic Lot Sizing Optimization in a Supplier-Buyer Inventory System When the Supplier Offers Decremental Temporary Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Puspita Sari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses mathematical models of joint economic lot size optimization in a supplier-buyer inventory system in a situation when the supplier offers decremental temporary discounts during a sale period. Here, the sale period consists of n phases and the phases of discounts offered descend as much as the number of phases. The highest discount will be given when orders are placed in the first phase while the lowest one will be given when they are placed in the last phase. In this situation, the supplier attempts to attract the buyer to place orders as early as possible during the sale period. The buyers will respon these offers by ordering a special quantity in one of the phase. In this paper, we propose such a forward buying model with discount-proportionally-distributed time phases. To examine the behaviour of the proposed model, we conducted numerical experiments. We assumed that there are three phases of discounts during the sale period. We then compared the total joint costs of special order placed in each phase for two scenarios. The first scenario is the case of independent situation – there is no coordination between the buyer and the supplie-, while the second scenario is the opposite one, the coordinated model. Our results showed the coordinated model outperform the independent model in terms of producing total joint costs. We finally conducted a sensitivity analyzis to examine the other behaviour of the proposed model. Keywords: supplier-buyer inventory system, forward buying model, decremental temporary discounts, joint economic lot sizing, optimization.

  20. The role of personal relationships between buyers and suppliers of third-party logistics services: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvinne Mocke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Personal relationships within the context of supply chain management is one of the least understood and researched areas in this field.Research purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the complexities relating to the interaction between buyers and suppliers of logistics services when personal relationships are involved.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive qualitative research strategy was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 suppliers and 8 buyers of logistic services within the South African third-party logistics industry.Main findings: The main findings indicate several benefits related to building personal relationships with a buyer or supplier of logistics services. These benefits include enhanced personal and business understanding, enhanced communication, enhanced trust, increased business volume, ease of doing business, enhanced problem-solving abilities, ease of conflict resolution and risk mitigation. Subsequently, aspects affecting the nature of the personal relationship were also identified. These include gender, relationship asymmetry, and the ability to adapt to different personalities.Practical implications: A long-term commitment towards a buyer or supplier was identified as essential in order to reap the associated benefits of forming personal relationships.Contribution: The main theoretical contribution of this study can be argued as empirically testing an existing personal relationship framework, confirming the transferability of the framework. Testing the framework in a different context yielded four additional benefits of personal relationships, four supplementary factors influencing the interaction between buyers and suppliers and an additional aspect influencing the nature of personal relationships, thus expanding the body of knowledge of this topic.

  1. A model of buyer-supplier relationships in a transnational company: the role of the business network context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rasković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paradigmatic shift in marketing from the beginning of the 1990’s has transformed marketing in its view of business exchange to increasingly start addressing the relational aspects of market exchanges. This is particularly true in transnational supply exchanges, where specialization and outsourcing have increased the importance of effective and efficient management of buyer-supplier relationships, and their corresponding networks in which they are embedded in. In this regard particularly, TNCs are seen “as a [key] method of organizing international exchange”. The purpose of this paper is to analyze selected elements of buyer-supplier relationships within a specific TNC business-to-business (B2B setting, vis-à-vis their impact on business performance and TNC competitiveness. This is done through the perspective of the TNC’s suppliers. The paper analyzes the impact of the functional aspect of the business network context on selected elements of buyer-supplier relationships, and their impact on business performance and the overall competitiveness. This is analyzed within a confirmatory testing of a reflective structural equation model. A unique feature of the model is its focus on the business network context - namely information obtained from the network and network spillover effects – as key network-embedded determinants of the “traditional” elements of buyer-supplier relationships (i.e. transaction-specific investments, trust, flexibility, and collaboration, where these elements have been so far mostly studied at the dyadic level in buyer-supplier relationships. The dataset includes a sample of 157 suppliers of the focal TNC world-wide (47.9 response rate on a web-based survey.

  2. LEGAL REGULATION OF THE BUYER`S OBLIGATION FOR PRICE PAYMENT ACCORDING TO THE VIENNA CONVENTION ON CONTRACTS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS WITH EMPHASIS TO ITS ORDERLINESS IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Natalija Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Contract of sale is a basic legal instrument of international trade and therefore has a major role not only in domestic but also in international commodity trade. The corpus rights and obligations represent the content of the sales contract. By concluding the sales contract, whether in internal or international law, each party undertakes certain obligations, but also it is acquired with certain rights. The obligations of the buyer represent one part of the contract`...

  3. On how German retail buyers perceive the identity, image and competitive context of the retailers they work for

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    findings of a study of how German food retailers decide what pork products to buy in which retailer buying behaviour was viewed as an ongoing organisational sensemaking process embedded in, at least, social, organisational, competitive and societal contexts. The aim of the study was to gain......How do retailers decide what products to buy? Previous answers to this question have tended to focus on the decisions being made, typically investigating what criteria retail buyers use to choose between products and suppliers (Hansen & Skytte 1998). However, as the decisions made by retail buyers...... have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. This paper presents some preliminary...

  4. Optimal transfer, ordering and payment policies for joint supplier-buyer inventory model with price-sensitive trapezoidal demand and net credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Digeshkumar B.; Patel, Dushyantkumar G.

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at formulating an integrated supplier-buyer inventory model when market demand is variable price-sensitive trapezoidal and the supplier offers a choice between discount in unit price and permissible delay period for settling the accounts due against the purchases made. This type of trade credit is termed as 'net credit'. In this policy, if the buyer pays within offered time M1, then the buyer is entitled for a cash discount; otherwise the full account must be settled by the time M2; where M2 > M1 ⩾ 0. The goal is to determine the optimal selling price, procurement quantity, number of transfers from the supplier to the buyer and payment time to maximise the joint profit per unit time. An algorithm is worked out to obtain the optimal solution. A numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. The managerial insights based on sensitivity analysis are deduced.

  5. The influence of relational experience and contractual governance on the negotiation strategy in buyer-supplier disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Lumineau, Fabrice; Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper theoretically refines and empirically extends the debate on the type of interplay between relational experience and contractual governance in an under-researched area: supply chain disputes. We define relational experience as either cooperative or competitive; distinguish between control and coordination functions of contractual governance; and assess their interplay on the negotiation strategy used in disputes. Using a unique data set of buyer-supplier disputes, we find, in partic...

  6. Inconsistent Norms in Buyer-Supplier Relations – A Study of Sustainability Introduction in the Textile and Apparel Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla Normann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the set of norms governing the relational exchange between suppliers andbuying companies in the textile and apparel industry. Moreover, it explores the changes to thesenorms brought about by the introduction of sustainability requirements over the past 5-10 years.Norms play...... of norms and asustainability-related set of norms. Suppliers find it difficult to engage with buyers that operate tosomewhat contradictory norm sets in the same exchanges.Key words: Norms, Relational exchange, Sustainability exchange, Qualitative Study...

  7. The seller's liability for material defects of the goods and the buyer's legal remedies in that case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the seller, in the sales contracts, delivers the goods with material deficiencies than the buyer will be entitled to use certain legal remedies against him. No legal system today questions this right of the buyer, but neither are the same legal remedies available to him everywhere, nor are the conditions under which they can be used the same. Substantial differences on this issue are noted between continental laws and common laws, but even the legal systems belonging to the same group do not have identical rules about them. That, to a significant extent, may be explained by the fact that the development path of the seller's responsibility for material defects in comparative law was not the same and for that reason an overview of that issue is given at the beginning of this paper. This is followed by the author's analysis of the buyer's notification on the defects of the goods as a condition for the seller's liability for material defects, and then the differences between systems of legal remedies of the buyer in continental and common laws are given, as well as solutions in several characteristic national laws within each group of laws. Rules of the Vienna Convention on contracts for the international sale of goods are exposed as a separate issue, keeping in mind their importance which is, above all, reflected in their impact on changes in national legislation in this area of law. In the conclusion it is noted that these changes flow toward the harmonization of the laws of the sale of goods, which facilitates trade and promotes economic prosperity.

  8. Buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable consumption policy pursued in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Korpysa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable consumption has been actively promoted among modern societies. It has gained a special importance in the context of pursuing sustainable consumption policy and supporting actions taken as part of corporate social responsibility. The fulfilment of strategic goals defined under this concept minimizes negative effects of industrialization and globalization. Furthermore, it contributes to efficient allocation of natural resources and natural environment protection. It is beyond any doubt that a 21st century consumer should take account of a number of issues while buying and subsequently using goods and services. These issues include wastage reduction, lower emission of pollution and limited production of waste, as well as selection of products whose development conforms to the code of ethics and socio-environmental norms. This awareness is observed in most countries all over the world, nevertheless certain differences can be noticed between the developed and developing states. Although the concept of sustainable consumption is being actively promoted among consumers in the developing countries (e.g. in Poland, they are still less aware of the necessity to conform to socio-ecological norms in the process of consumption. The main aim of the article is to analyse buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable development policy pursued in Poland. The first part will be devoted to theoretical issues relating to the subject of the analysis. In the second part of the paper the author will present the results of a survey examining the aforementioned behaviour.

  9. Northwest home buyers' fuel and energy-efficiency preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Harkreader, S.A.; Bruneau, C.L.; Volke, S.M.

    1990-11-01

    This study for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) investigated home buyers' heating fuel and energy-efficiency preferences, and the influence of incentives on their choices. The study was conducted in four regions of Washington State: Spokane and Pierce Counties, where the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) for new electrically heated homes have been adopted as local code, and King and Clark Counties, where the MCS has been implemented only through a voluntary marketing program. The results of this study provide useful information about energy-efficiency, space heating fuel type, and alternative incentive programs. They provide initial evidence that fuel-specific energy-efficiency standards may significantly affect the shares of different heating fuels in the new home market. They also suggest that cash rebates and utility rate incentives may have a modest effect on the shares for different heating fuels. Because these results are based on a technique relying on hypothetical choices and because they reflect only four metropolitan areas, further study must be conducted to determine whether the results apply to other locations and whether other analytic approaches produce similar findings. 3 refs.

  10. A relook at the motor vehicle buyer after the purchase: dissonance arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957 theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported dissonance, effort, congruence with self-concept, price, persuasiveness, and level of confidence during purchases. The results contribute to a better understanding of human behaviour and cognitions thereby, enabling the development of effective marketing strategies to enhance post-purchase satisfaction. Opsomming Hierdie studie is gebaseer op Leon Festinger (1957 se teorie van kognitiewe dissonansie, wat die relatiewe krag van verskeie opwekkingsfaktore, die impak van prys, asook die sielkundige toestande evalueer wat vir dissonansie-opwekking vereis word soos byvoorbeeld inspanning uitgeoefen. Die empiriese analise is uitgevoer op n steekproef van 200 eienaars van nuwe motorvoertuie. Agt dimensies het n betekenisvolle impak op die vlak van kognitiewe dissonansie uitgeoefen naamlik, hoe bewus verbruikers van hulle verwagtinge is, verwagtinge wat onbevestig is, dissonansie wat gerapporteer word, inspanning, ooreenstemming met die eienaar se selfbeeld, prys, hoe oorredend die verkoper is en die koper se vlak van selfvertroue gedurende die aankope. Die resultate dra by tot n beter begrip van menslike gedrag en van kognisies en bevorder daardeur die ontwikkeling van doeltreffende bemarkingstrategie- om na-verkooptevredenheid te verhoog.

  11. Buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in marketing channels: port wine distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo de Carvalho J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available José Crespo de Carvalho, Luís Sequeira Lisbon University Institute, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to research buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in distribution channels. Based on a multidimensional case study, eight research hypotheses were formulated. Some quantitative research was conducted, based on a questionnaire sent to 101 port wine producers and distribution companies (61 answered properly – 31 producers and 29 distributors – which gave the authors a 60% rate of response, considered to be very good for these types of studies; those 101 port wine producers and distributors initially chosen were the most important in Europe, considering the volume of production and sales, and constituting, for that reason, a convenience sample. A binary probit model was developed to analyze the data. The results of the study demonstrate that when conflict is ongoing and intense it prevents the development of cooperative relationships. A trustworthy company is more likely to solve conflicts. When trust and adaptation capabilities increase, so does potential cooperation. The results also show that the presence of a foreign sales representative in the team does not exert a negative influence on cooperation. Finally, cooperation can be considered as an important means of developing skills and resources, which can then be applied to existing transaction relationships. Keywords: conflict, cooperation, marketing, distribution, multiple channels, port wine

  12. THE LEGAL PROTECTION FOR A GOOD FAITH BUYER UNDER A COURT DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are various principles given in Indonesian Civil Code (KUHPerdata and HIR/RBg in providing legal protection on good faith purchaser, but all of these principles eventually dropped their pedestal on a judge’s verdict to decide whether or not the intention of the buyer is based on a good faith purchaser. There are also many factors that can influence the decision of a judge that can lead to different conceptions of the protection provided. In addition, the rapid development of the present law requires judges to review the general principles of law and also applying existing law theories in the making of their verdict.   Permasalahan perlindungan hukum pembeli beritikad baik merupakan masalah yang cukup mendasar dalam hukum kita. Terdapat berbagai prinsip yang diberikan dalam KUHPerdata maupun HIR/RBg dalam mengupayakan perlindungan hukum pembeli beritikad baik, akan tetapi upaya-upaya tersebut pada akhirnya menjatuhkan tumpuannya pada putusan hakim untuk menilai beritikad baik atau tidaknya seseorang. Di sisi lain, terdapat banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi putusan seorang hakim sehingga apabila dikaitkan dengan itikad baik, dapat menimbulkan konsepsi yang berbeda-beda terhadap perlindungan yang diberikan. Selain itu, pesatnya perkembangan hukum sekarang ini mewajibkan hakim-hakim untuk mempelajari kembali asas-asas hukum serta menerapkan teori-teori hukum yang ada dalam membuat putusannya.

  13. THE LEGAL PROTECTION FOR A GOOD FAITH BUYER UNDER A COURT DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are various principles given in Indonesian Civil Code (KUHPerdata and HIR/RBg in providing legal protection on good faith purchaser, but all of these principles eventually dropped their pedestal on a judge’s verdict to decide whether or not the intention of the buyer is based on a good faith purchaser. There are also many factors that can influence the decision of a judge that can lead to different conceptions of the protection provided. In addition, the rapid development of the present law requires judges to review the general principles of law and also applying existing law theories in the making of their verdict. Permasalahan perlindungan hukum pembeli beritikad baik merupakan masalah yang cukup mendasar dalam hukum kita. Terdapat berbagai prinsip yang diberikan dalam KUHPerdata maupun HIR/RBg dalam mengupayakan perlindungan hukum pembeli beritikad baik, akan tetapi upaya-upaya tersebut pada akhirnya menjatuhkan tumpuannya pada putusan hakim untuk menilai beritikad baik atau tidaknya seseorang. Di sisi lain, terdapat banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi putusan seorang hakim sehingga apabila dikaitkan dengan itikad baik, dapat menimbulkan konsepsi yang berbeda-beda terhadap perlindungan yang diberikan. Selain itu, pesatnya perkembangan hukum sekarang ini mewajibkan hakim-hakim untuk mempelajari kembali asas-asas hukum serta menerapkan teori-teori hukum yang ada dalam membuat putusannya.

  14. Who's biased? A meta-analysis of buyer-seller differences in the pricing of lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad; Ashby, Nathaniel J S; Pachur, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    A large body of empirical research has examined the impact of trading perspective on pricing of consumer products, with the typical finding being that selling prices exceed buying prices (i.e., the endowment effect). Using a meta-analytic approach, we examine to what extent the endowment effect also emerges in the pricing of monetary lotteries. As monetary lotteries have a clearly defined normative value, we also assess whether one trading perspective is more biased than the other. We consider several indicators of bias: absolute deviation from expected values, rank correlation with expected values, overall variance, and per-unit variance. The meta-analysis, which includes 35 articles, indicates that selling prices considerably exceed buying prices (Cohen's d = 0.58). Importantly, we also find that selling prices deviate less from the lotteries' expected values than buying prices, both in absolute and in relative terms. Selling prices also exhibit lower variance per unit. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling with cumulative prospect theory indicates that buyers have lower probability sensitivity and a more pronounced response bias. The finding that selling prices are more in line with normative standards than buying prices challenges the prominent account whereby sellers' valuations are upward biased due to loss aversion, and supports alternative theoretical accounts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the economic recession: A qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Samanta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper described the in-depth interviews used in investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the e-commerce world during the economic recession in Greece. The data collected from these interviews were analyzed. The qualitative research findings identified how B2B e-commerce has started to change the future of the participating organizations in Greece. Οn the one hand, a number of benefits have occurred from the development of e-business and on the other hand B2B firms need to adopt an innovation culture and redefine  their relationships with their partners from the e-marketing point of view in order to survive in the rapidly changing environment. The results of this research are used to assist the author in the future  to examine a larger sample of B2B firms in order to validate the intention of companies to move from the traditional environment and to establish e-relationships in an e-business context.

  16. 12 CFR 340.3 - What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the purchase with a loan from the FDIC? 340.3 Section 340.3... on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the purchase with a loan from the...

  17. Development-based Trust: Proposing and Validating a New Trust Measurement Model for Buyer-Seller Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro da Costa Hernandez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and validates a trust measurement model for buyer-seller relationships. Baptized as development-based trust, the model encompasses three dimensions of trust: calculus-based, knowledge-based and identification-based. In addition to recognizing that trust is a multidimensional construct, the model also assumes that trust can evolve to take on a different character depending on the stage of the relationship. In order to test the proposed model and compare it to the characteristic-based trust measurement model, the measure most frequently used in the buyer-seller relationship literature, data were collected from 238 clients of an IT product wholesaler. The results show that the scales are valid and reliable and the proposed development-based trust measurement model is superior to the characteristic-based trust measurement model in terms of its ability to explain certain variables of interest in buyer-seller relationships (long-term relationship orientation, information sharing, behavioral loyalty and future intentions. Implications for practice, limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  18. Exploring the dark side of interpersonal relationships between buyers and suppliers of logistics services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Meyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals share information and form relationships to improve collaboration and joint organisational performance. However, managing these interpersonal relationships within a supply chain management perspective is one of the lesser understood and researched areas within this discipline.Objectives: The research was aimed to investigate the negative effects of interpersonal relationships between those individuals who represent organisations that buy and supply logistics services.Method: The research was carried out by the use of a descriptive qualitative research design. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 suppliers and 8 buyers of logistic services within the South African third party logistics industry.Findings: Firstly, the results indicate that the primary reason for interpersonal relationships is firstly for improved professional interest and secondly for genuine friendships. Without continuing commitment or intention to maintain the interpersonal relationship between these individuals, it is not possible to sustain the associated benefits of forming interpersonal relationships. Secondly, the findings indicate that enhanced trust, within interpersonal relationships, is similar to business-to-business partnerships which evolve through stages of exploration, formalisation and maturity. Organisations should rather focus to improve competence-based trust than individual interpersonal trust. Thirdly, relationship asymmetry, gender differences and the aptitude to adjust to disparate personalities may steer the interpersonal relationship towards the dark side. Lastly, the benefits of interpersonal relationships have been proven; however, these interpersonal relationships may be difficult to manage over time and can also be the foundation of suboptimal decisions if the relationship takes precedence over business interest.Conclusion: Managers should not underestimate the potential hegemony between individuals who

  19. Shared Management Information in Buyer/Supplier Relationships: Its Usefulness and its Influence on Continuity Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ramón Jerónimo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the effect that the exchange of management information has on client and/or supplier relationships. Moreover, this study extends the concept of the usefulness of management control information to inter-organizational relationships, analysing how the scope of such information affects continuity expectations, and how these in turn influence opportunistic behaviour and the mutual adaptation of production systems. The data was gathered from 104 purchasing and 90 sales managers of equipment manufacturers on the nature of their respective relationships with their suppliers/ clients. The results confirm that the use of broad-scope management control information sharing in buyer-supplier relationships increases continuity expectations and reduces opportunistic behaviour.El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el efecto que ejerce el intercambio de información de gestión sobre las relaciones con clientes y/o proveedores. Para ello, se extiende el concepto de la utilidad de información de control de gestión a las relaciones ínter-organizativas, analizando cómo su contenido afecta a las expectativas de continuidad y éstas a su vez influyen en el comportamiento oportunista y en la adaptación mutua de sistemas de producción. Los datos analizados se han obtenido de las relaciones entre 104 directores de compras y 90 directores de ventas de empresas industriales con sus proveedores y clientes. Los resultados confirman que utilizar información compartida de control de gestión con un contenido más amplio en las relaciones compredor/proveedor favorece la creación de expectativas de continuidad y reduce comportamientos oportunistas.

  20. The Risk of Goods in International Sales. An Approach from the Breach of Contract and Remedies of the Buyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Vidal Olivares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the regime risks in the CISG with the aim of showing that the regime that it is incorporated, is based on functional criteria to the interests of the parties to solve the problems that originated in the loss and prior to the transfer of risk to the buyer will have recourse to remedies system and thus achieve the connection with the breach of contract. In its development we used the dogmatic method, from the systematic analysis of the rules of the CISG, doctrine and case law.

  1. A discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm with local search for a production-based two-echelon single-vendor multiple-buyer supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifbarghy, Mehdi; Kalani, Masoud Mirzaei; Hemmati, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    This paper formulates a two-echelon single-producer multi-buyer supply chain model, while a single product is produced and transported to the buyers by the producer. The producer and the buyers apply vendor-managed inventory mode of operation. It is assumed that the producer applies economic production quantity policy, which implies a constant production rate at the producer. The operational parameters of each buyer are sales quantity, sales price and production rate. Channel profit of the supply chain and contract price between the producer and each buyer is determined based on the values of the operational parameters. Since the model belongs to nonlinear integer programs, we use a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm (DPSO) to solve the addressed problem; however, the performance of the DPSO is compared utilizing two well-known heuristics, namely genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. A number of examples are provided to verify the model and assess the performance of the proposed heuristics. Experimental results indicate that DPSO outperforms the rival heuristics, with respect to some comparison metrics.

  2. Strategy for Improving Efficiency of Supply Chain Quality Management in Buyer-Supplier Dyads: The Suppliers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the efficiency of supply chain quality management (SCQM by grouping buyers and suppliers and conducting an empirical analysis of aspects affecting SCQM efficiency from the supplier’s perspective. Two stages of data analysis were conducted: (1 classify buyer and supplier efficiency by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA and sort the data results into a 2×2 matrix and (2 conduct a statistical analysis to verify influential aspects. The results depict the average value of Group I to be higher than that of Group II, while the average value of Group IV was found to be much lower than that of Group III. In addition, specific aspects have a significant impact on certain groups: Groups I and II are affected by infrastructure, delivery of quality, talent development, and risk management in that order; Groups II and III are likewise influenced by risk management, talent development, and delivery of quality, whereas Groups III and IV are influenced by talent development, delivery of quality, and risk management in that order.

  3. THE MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICT IN BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIPS: A CASE STUDY OF AN AUSTRALIAN EXPORTER IN ASIAN AND US MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Freeman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will extend the conflict management stream by examining the complexity of conflict in buyer-seller relationships, comparing Western and Asian markets and their "contextual boundaries". Specifically, a model is developed linking different dimensions of cross-cultural business relationships to different dissolution and communication strategies for managing conflict. Multiple in-depth interviews in a single case study provide support for the theoretical development of a model of five key factors important in the selection of appropriate conflict management styles by the focal firm when managing buyer relationships in psychically distant markets.

  4. Managing business networks and buyer-supplier relationships. How information obtained from the business network affects trust, transaction specific investments, collaboration and performance in the Dutch Potted Plant and Flower Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Managing networks and buyer-supplier relationships " attempt to provide scientific sound discussion for problems faced in business linkages. Business networks, supply chains and buyer-supplier relationships all refer to business linkages, from a web of connected relationships to a dyadic

  5. Development of coordination system model on single-supplier multi-buyer for multi-item supply chain with probabilistic demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia, G.; Santoso, A.; Prayogo, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the level of competition between supply chains is getting tighter and a good coordination system between supply chains members is very crucial in solving the issue. This paper focused on a model development of coordination system between single supplier and buyers in a supply chain as a solution. Proposed optimization model was designed to determine the optimal number of deliveries from a supplier to buyers in order to minimize the total cost over a planning horizon. Components of the total supply chain cost consist of transportation costs, handling costs of supplier and buyers and also stock out costs. In the proposed optimization model, the supplier can supply various types of items to retailers whose item demand patterns are probabilistic. Sensitivity analysis of the proposed model was conducted to test the effect of changes in transport costs, handling costs and production capacities of the supplier. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed a significant influence on the changes in the transportation cost, handling costs and production capacity to the decisions of the optimal numbers of product delivery for each item to the buyers.

  6. Dependency on suppliers as a peril in the acquisition of innovations? The role of buyer attractiveness in mitigating potential negative dependency effects in buyer–supplier relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Vos, Frederik Guido Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    New product development occurs nowadays mostly in joint buyer–supplier projects, which require closer ties between the partners in order to mobilize their resources. One issue arising from this collaborative model is that the buyer tends to become more dependent on the supplier. Multiple cases of

  7. Understanding buyers' loyalty to a C2C platform : The roles of social capital, satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of E-commerce institutional mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Q.; Chen, X.Y.; Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Hua, Z.S.

    Drawing upon social capital theory, this study aims to investigate how different dimensions of social capital affect online buyers' satisfaction and ultimately boost their loyalty to a Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) platform. Specifically, we propose that three dimensions of social capital (i.e.,

  8. Integrated vendor-buyer inventory models with inflation and time value of money in controllable lead time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global critical economic scenario, inflation plays a vital role in deciding optimal pricing of goods in any business entity. This article presents two single-vendor single-buyer integrated supply chain inventory models with inflation and time value of money. Shortage is allowed during the lead-time and it is partially backlogged. Lead time is controllable and can be reduced using crashing cost. In the first model, we consider the demand of lead time follows a normal distribution, and in the second model, it is considered distribution-free. For both cases, our objective is to minimize the integrated system cost by simultaneously optimizing the order quantity, safety factor, lead time and number of lots. The discounted cash flow and classical optimization technique are used to derive the optimal solution for both cases. Numerical examples including the sensitivity analysis of system parameters is provided to validate the results of the supply chain models.

  9. THE ATTITUDE AND MOTIVATION OF BUYERS OF TRADITIONAL/ LOCAL/ BIO PRODUCTS IN THE CONTEXT OF AGROTOURISM, IN SIBIU COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela STANCIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the statistical data concerning the sheep breeding in district Sibiu and on the information obtained by making investigations markets and fairs where they sell traditional/bio products, the extent was appreciated to which this products are known and desired. The survey was conducted between May and November 2012 in four locations: “Transilvania Peasant Market (Piata Taraneasca Transilvania”, “Traditional agro-food products Fear (Targul de Produse Agroalimentare Traditionale” from Huet Market, “Traditional Products and Handicrafts Fear (Targul de Produse Traditionale si Mestesugaresti” inside the Carrefour hypermarket and in “Agricultural Market” Rasinari, Sibiu county. There were also comments mentioned on the topics on the occasion of Peony Festival (Festivalul Bujorului from Gura Raului (July 2012, “Cheese and Plum Brandy Festival (Festivalul Branzei si al Tuicii” from Rasinari Commune (August 2012, “Countryside Fear (Targul de Tara” from the Museum of Popular Civilization Astra Sibiu (August and September 2012. The research instrument used was the questionnaire. The items of the questionnaire aimed to identify issues such as motivation of buying traditional/local/bio products, frequency of supply with traditional/bio products, the link established with manufacturers, knowing locations where you can buy traditional/bio products. Research methods were documenting appropriate, design and develop of a questionnaire, 25 buyers of traditional/bio products were asked. The questionnaires were applied by a single interviewer.

  10. Profitability of heating entrepreneurship from the viewpoint of heating energy buyer, heating energy seller and energy wood seller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvula-Seppaelae, T.; Ulander, E. (Seinaejoki Univ. of Applied Sciences, Ahtari (Finland), School of Agriculture and Forestry), e-mail: tiina.sauvula-seppala@seamk.fi, e-mail: essi.ulander@seamk.fi

    2010-07-01

    The focus of this research was to study the profitability of heating entrepreneurships from the viewpoint of heating energy buyer, seller as well as energy wood seller. The average costs of heat production were Eur 44,8 / MWh and incomes Eur 43,4 /MWh. Energy wood purchase, comminution and long distance transportation formed slightly over a half of the heat production costs. Average net income in the group of the largest heating plants (>1000 kW) was Eur 29000 per year and in the group of the smallest (<200 kW) average net income was slightly over Eur 4000 per year. The net income from selling heat represents only a part of the income a heating entrepreneur receives from heat production. Other, significant parts are formed by income from selling energy wood to the plant as well as compensation for supervision and maintenance of the plant. The average net income of a forest owner from selling energy wood to heating entrepreneurs was Eur 18 / m3. Without state subsidies the net income would have been Eur 4 / m3. The price of the heating energy sold by heating entrepreneurs was very competitive. In 2006 it was Eur 30 / MWh cheaper than oil heat, Eur 34 / MWh cheaper than electric heat and Eur 3 / MWh cheaper than district heating. (orig.)

  11. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmen-tal degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the com-panies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into par-ticular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto- matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  12. New psychoactive substances (NPS) on cryptomarket fora: An exploratory study of characteristics of forum activity between NPS buyers and vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2017-02-01

    The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS. 852 identified threads relating to the discussion of these NPS were generated. Following exclusion of duplicates, 138 threads remained. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method of data analysis was applied. Four themes and 32 categories emerged. 120 vendors selling NPS were visible on Alphabay, and 21 on Valhalla. Themes were 'NPS Cryptomarkets and Crypto-community interest in NPS'; 'Motives for NPS use'; 'Indigenous Crypto Community Harm Reduction'; and 'Cryptomarket Characteristics underpinning NPS trafficking', with two higher levels of abstraction centring on 'NPS vendor reputation' and 'NPS transactioning for personal use'. NPS cryptomarket characteristics centred on generation of trust, honesty and excellent service. Users appeared well informed, with harm reduction and vendor information exchange central to NPS market dynamics. GABA activating substances appeared most popular in terms of buyer interest on cryptomarkets. Interest in sourcing 'old favorite' stimulant and dissociative NPS was evident, alongside the sequential and concurrent poly use of NPS, and use of NPS with illicit drugs such as MDMA. Continued monitoring of new trends in NPS within Surface Web and cryptomarkets are warranted. A particular

  13. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmental degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the companies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into particular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto-matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  14. Good Faith – Implications regarding the property right and the possibility of paralyzing the claiming action by the good faith buyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina DINU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By law, good faith is presumed, the rebuttable presumption in this regard must be overturned by contrary proof by the party claiming adverse party bad faith. In the absence of contrary evidence, the rebuttable presumption of the existence of good faith produces legal effects often controversial in the current judicial practice. One of these effects is the crippling of legal actions of a claim by the buyer in good faith, to the detriment of the true owner who loses ownership in this manner.

  15. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: a survey of new solar-home and onventional-home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    Comsumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped new home when the non-solar or conventional model was also available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home, and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample. (MHR)

  16. Healthcare costs, buyer alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Gary C; Leiske, Heidi B; Lieske, P Alexander

    2011-05-01

    To assess the direct medical cost perspective versus the societal cost perspective associated with a vitreoretinal intervention. Most insurers, physicians, hospital administrators, legislators and the general public refer to direct medical costs when assessing the costs associated with healthcare interventions. The direct medical cost perspective, which is the same as the third-party insurer cost perspective, includes the costs an insurer might be expected to pay, including those for physicians, hospitals, drugs, durable goods, skilled nursing facilities and others. The societal cost perspective includes direct medical costs; direct nonmedical costs (caregiver, transportation, residence); and indirect medical costs (employment and salary). When assessing the costs associated with a healthcare intervention, the societal cost perspective generally yields a greater financial return-on-investment (ROI) to society and to the gross domestic product than does the utilization of direct medical costs alone. Consequently, the use of societal costs in cost-utility analysis typically results in more cost-effective interventions than when direct medical costs alone are employed. A societal cost perspective is more likely than the third-party insurer cost perspective to demonstrate a greater financial ROI to society.

  17. How to Engage Children into the World of Traditional Car Brands? Exploration of Specific Touchpoints between Future Buyers in the Car Industry and Established Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Mikolajová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to define the consumer journey of children through their childhood stages and provide specific touchpoints relevant for a given age, which could be integrated into the marketing communication of car brands to start building this young audience as future buyers. A qualitative study of children in different age brackets was used to identify their current and potential touchpoints with the car industry. The results of the study present specific stands on the prepurchase stage of the children’s consumer journey where the brand might interact with children and build the long-term positive attitudes of this group of potential customers. Specific implications for the industry in terms of understanding the language of the mobile game applications, computer games, YouTubers and integrating those specific activities into the brand’s marketing communication are highlighted for the car industry marketers.

  18. Exploring the relationship between online buyers and sellers of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs): Quality issues, trust and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Katinka; Koenraadt, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Online drug markets are expanding the boundaries of drug supply including the sale and purchase of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). However, the role of the internet in IPED markets, and in particular the ways in which these substances are supplied via the surface web, has rarely been considered. This article examines the online IPED market in order to inform drug policy and to provide a nuanced understanding of retailers involved, particularly exploring the relationship between buyers and sellers. This paper is based on two extensive research projects conducted in the Netherlands and Belgium. The first project focuses on muscle drugs and is based on 64 IPED dealing cases, semi-structured interviews with authorities (N=32), and dealers (N=15), along with an analysis of 10 steroid-selling websites. The second research project primarily focuses on weight loss drugs and sexual enhancers in the Netherlands, and relies on interviews with authorities (N=38), suppliers (N=30), and consumers (N=10), analysis of 69 criminal case files, and an online analysis. In the literature, the illicit online sale of IPEDs is generally associated with illegal online pharmacies that try to mislead buyers. While confirmed in our research, we also illustrate that there are online suppliers who invest in customer relationships and services, and that users are aware of the illegal nature of their business. These e-vendors incorporate a 'social supply business model' by providing the best possible service to their customers and attempting to minimise risks in order to attract, satisfy and maintain customers. As it is likely that users will continue to make use of the internet to order IPEDs, regardless of closing down selling websites, it is first of all important to counteract these online sources by educating all types of consumers and providing harm reduction services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Blockchain-driven supply chain finance: Towards a conceptual framework from a buyer perspective: Presentation held at 26th Annual IPSERA Conference 2017, 09-12 April 2017, Budapest

    OpenAIRE

    Omran, Yaghoob; Henke, Michael; Heines, Roger; Hofmann, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to develop a conceptual framework for blockchain-driven supply chain finance (SCF) solutions. The frame of reference intends to foster the coordination in buyer-supplier relations and eliminates existing inefficiencies in the execution of discrete SCF-instruments, such as reverse factoring and dynamic discounting. Moreover, we introduce value drivers for blockchain technology (BCT) to elaborate unique characteristics for its application in the field of SC...

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility in Buyer-Supplier Relationships: Is it Beneficial for Top-Tier Suppliers to Market their Capability to Ensure a Responsible Supply Chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Leppelt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR-related supply management practices affects the reputation of top-tier suppliers in business-to-business (B2B markets. In a cross-functional multiple-case study involving marketing, purchasing, and sustainability executives of five supplier organizations in Central Europe, we explored four distinct approaches for marketing superior CSR management abilities in B2B markets that potentially foster long-term comparative advantages: (1 Fact-based communication of measurable CSR capabilities, (2 targeting of indirect customers and influencers, (3 marketing through education, and (4 marketing of CSR as a service. Moreover, our inductive results provide evidence that the effective marketing of CSR capabilities enhances a supplier’s reputation only if it sends consistent signals to the market. Therefore, a close integration of marketing and purchasing is crucial for achieving signaling consistency. Building on an established framework of purchasing-marketing integration in the particular context of CSR we developed a crossfunctional theory on the link between marketing, supply chain alignment and reputation, which is expressed in four sets of testable research propositions.

  1. Outsourcing Operational Logistics: Buyer Beware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woody, Lamont

    2003-01-01

    One of the key tasks from U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld to his Service Chiefs is to reduce DOD's overall logistic cost and footprint while transforming the warfighter-to-logistics (tooth-to-tail) force structure...

  2. A collaborative vendor-buyer production-inventory systems with imperfect quality items, inspection errors, and stochastic demand under budget capacity constraint: a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdhi, N. A.; Nurhayati, R. A.; Wiyono, S. B.; Handajani, S. S.; Martini, T. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an integrated inventory model considering the imperfect quality items, inspection error, controllable lead time, and budget capacity constraint. The imperfect items were uniformly distributed and detected on the screening process. However there are two types of possibilities. The first is type I of inspection error (when a non-defective item classified as defective) and the second is type II of inspection error (when a defective item classified as non-defective). The demand during the lead time is unknown, and it follows the normal distribution. The lead time can be controlled by adding the crashing cost. Furthermore, the existence of the budget capacity constraint is caused by the limited purchasing cost. The purposes of this research are: to modify the integrated vendor and buyer inventory model, to establish the optimal solution using Kuhn-Tucker’s conditions, and to apply the models. Based on the result of application and the sensitivity analysis, it can be obtained minimum integrated inventory total cost rather than separated inventory.

  3. Investigation of supplier/buyer coordination performance in chinese companies Investigação sobre o desempenho da coordenação cliente/fornecedor em empresas chinesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhixiang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of supplier/buyer coordination in supply chain systems in China based on data from a survey of that country's business sector. The survey indicates that the rapidly expanding economy has raised the awareness of an increasing number of Chinese firms to the importance of cooperating and coordinating with partners in supply chain management. However, although coordinated delivery, quality and responsiveness show an upward trend, such is not the case in information sharing and in cooperative efforts to reduce inventory and costs. Hence, many companies have yet to form close cooperative relationships with partners. This study may be useful for both Chinese and foreign companies, serving to underpin the development of new strategies for operating supply chains in the changing global economy.Este artigo discute o desempenho da coordenação entre cliente/fornecedor em cadeias de suprimento da China com base em dados de uma pesqquisa de avaliação (survey. Os resultados indicam que a rápida expansão da economia fez com que um número crescente de empresas chinesas passasse a dar mais atenção para a importância da cooperação e coordenação entre os parceiros na gestão da cadeia de suprimentos. Embora entrega, qualidade e responsividade apresentem uma tendência de melhora o mesmo não é observado para compartilhamento da informação e esforços conjuntos para redução de custos e inventários. Portanto, muitas empresas ainda precisam estabelecer relacionamentos cooperatives com os seus parceiros. Este estudo pode ser útil tanto para empresas chinesas quanto para empresas estrangeiras, servindo de base para o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias para a gestão de cadeias de suprimentos numa economia global em mudança.

  4. Buyers are liars, sellers are yellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den

    2012-01-01

    In many games, players communicate with virtual characters. Using the traditional approach of handling dialogues, players often experience the communication as rigid and unnatural. TNO and RANJ explored the BDI approach to create unique virtual characters, each fitted with their individual goals and

  5. Buyer panic in crude oil seen easing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidawind, J.

    1979-11-12

    The crude oil spot market declined after events in Iran precipitated stockpiling, while Iranian production cutbacks were smaller than anticipated. A growing spot market is affecting world oil prices with spot prices of $40 to $50 a barrel recorded during early November 1979. Larger stockpiles, however, will compensate for the projected supply cuts and a glut of residual fuels has helped to push prices back down. Some analysts feel that increased Saudi Arabian production is the key supply factor, while others question whether the Iranian cutback was directly ordered by the Ayatollah Khomeini.

  6. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...

  7. Buyer Beware: Managing the Software Selection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carse, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Purchased application software has created a new set of problems for project managers charged with selection and implementation responsibilities. Eight activity phases in the software selection process are identified. Development and utilization of this approach at the University of Houston are described. (Author/MLW)

  8. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  9. Lessons from the Western Australian experience: A buyer`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, J. [Alcoa of Australia Ltd., Perth, WA (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The aim of deregulating the Western Australian gas industry was to introduce competition and drive down the price. In doing so, it was expected that cheaper gas would enable further mineral processing, thus assisting economic growth. Gas prices have fallen, though some customers have gained more than others. Gas prices for Pilbara customers have halved, with the main beneficiaries being the iron ore industries and the power generation facilities. However, only some medium size customers in the southwest of the state have benefited to date. After deregulation, major opportunities opened up for private pipelines, and one is now being constructed to the goldfields. Gas producers will be able to grow a market down the length of the pipeline and sell gas at prices set by free competition. (author). 1 fig.

  10. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes and binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers of all skill levels are always contemplating their next telescope, and this book points the way to the most suitable instruments. Similarly, those who are buying their first telescopes – and these days not necessarily a low-cost one – will be able to compare and contrast different types and manufacturers. This revised new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand, and model on today’s market, a truly invaluable treasure-trove of information and helpful advice for all amateur astronomers. Originally written in 2006, much of the first edition is inevitably now out of date, as equipment advances and manufacturers come and go. This second edition not only updates all the existing sections but adds two new ones: Astro-imaging and Professional-Amateur collaboration. Thanks to the rapid and amazing developments that have been made in digital cameras it is...

  11. The structure and evolution of buyer-supplier networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Souma, Wataru; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the structure and evolution of customer-supplier networks in Japan using a unique dataset that contains information on customer and supplier linkages for more than 500,000 incorporated non-financial firms for the five years from 2008 to 2012. We find, first, that the number of customer links is unequal across firms; the customer link distribution has a power-law tail with an exponent of unity (i.e., it follows Zipf's law). We interpret this as implying that competition among firms to acquire new customers yields winners with a large number of customers, as well as losers with fewer customers. We also show that the shortest path length for any pair of firms is, on average, 4.3 links. Second, we find that link switching is relatively rare. Our estimates indicate that the survival rate per year for customer links is 92 percent and for supplier links 93 percent. Third and finally, we find that firm growth rates tend to be more highly correlated the closer two firms are to each other in a customer-supplier network (i.e., the smaller is the shortest path length for the two firms). This suggests that a non-negligible portion of fluctuations in firm growth stems from the propagation of microeconomic shocks - shocks affecting only a particular firm - through customer-supplier chains.

  12. Tourism Enterprises as Buyers of Knowledge-Intensive Business Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Borodako

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to assess the business relations between the tourism sector and suppliers of various types of business services. It focuses on knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS. The reasons why tourism businesses purchase outsourced services are also discussed. An Internet survey was conducted and the results were used to calculate and discuss a number of indices. Cross-tabulation statistics are used to assess the interrelation between types of tourist firms, their localization and size, and the types and number of services they use. The largest numbers of KIBS used by the Polish tourism sector are from the accounting, IT, and advertising sectors, whereas the smallest relate to research and experimental development in the social sciences and humanities. This article fills a gap in the knowledge about usage of KIBS services by the tourism sector at the national level.

  13. Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  14. 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  15. Clean Cities 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-11

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  16. Collaborative Procurement: A Relational View of Buyer–Buyer Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, H.; Schotanus, Fredo; Bakker, E.; Harland, C.

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative procurement is increasingly on the policy agenda in many countries, yet problems with collaboration occur. This article adopts a relational theory perspective to explore the enablers of and barriers to collaboration in purchasing, helping identify success factors. The authors adopted a

  17. Whole-House Approach Benefits Builders, Buyers, and the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, B.

    2001-01-19

    This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. Building America works with the residential building industry to develop and implement innovative building processes and technologies-innovations that save builders and homeowners millions of dollars in construction and energy costs. This industry-led, cost-shared partnership program aims to reduce energy use by 50% and reduce construction time and waste, improve indoor air quality and comfort, encourage a systems engineering approach for design and construction of new homes, and accelerate the development and adoption of high performance in production housing.

  18. Whole-House Approach Benefits Builders, Buyers, and the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-05-01

    This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. Building America works with the residential building industry to develop and implement innovative building processes and technologies-innovations that save builders and homeowners millions of dollars in construction and energy costs. This industry-led, cost-shared partnership program aims to reduce energy use by 50% and reduce construction time and waste, improve indoor air quality and comfort, encourage a systems engineering approach for design and construction of new homes, and accelerate the development and adoption of high performance in production housing.

  19. Responsiveness of culture-based segmentation of organizational buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much published work over the four decades has acknowledged market segmentation in business-to-business settings yet primarily focusing on observable segmentation bases such as firmographics or geographics. However, such bases were proved to have a weak predictive validity with respect to industrial buying behavior. Therefore, this paper attempts to add a debate to this topic by introducing new (unobservable segmentation base incorporating several facets of business culture, denoted as psychographics. The justification for this approach is that the business culture captures the collective mindset of an organization and thus enables marketers to target the organization as a whole. Given the hypothesis that culture has a merit for micro-segmentation a sample of 278 manufacturing firms was first subjected to principal component analysis and Varimax to reveal underlying cultural traits. In next step, cluster analysis was performed on retained factors to construct business profiles. Finally, non-parametric one-way analysis of variance confirmed discriminative power between profiles based on psychographics in terms of industrial buying behavior. Owing to this, business culture may assist marketers when targeting more effectively than some traditional approaches.

  20. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes & binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2007-01-01

    This exciting, upbeat new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand and model of such instruments on today's market.

  1. Health care consumerism: engaging the real buyers--employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Many employers have begun moving toward health care consumerism strategies designed to encourage employees to take more responsibility for their health care and the cost of that care. Recent surveys suggest ways employers can ensure their consumerism strategies succeed in engaging employees and, ultimately, encourage employees to change their behavior. This article describes what those surveys reveal about employer and employee perspectives on consumerism and suggests steps employers can take to align their interests with those of their employees in order to manage the demand for and use of health care.

  2. Buyers beware: lead poisoning due to Ayurvedic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J Matthew R; Estrada, Carlos A; Mathews, Ronnie E

    2012-10-01

    A 29-year-old man, who recently emigrated from India, presented with a 2-week history of abdominal pain, as well as nausea, constipation, and fatigue. He underwent removal of a parathyroid adenoma 6 weeks prior to admission and received a locally made Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for pain control; however, this information was not initially available. He was instructed to take approximately 15 g/day. Initial evaluation revealed a normocytic anemia, but other workup including imaging and endoscopy was unrevealing. Given his recent use of Ayurvedic medicines, we tested for lead poisoning and found a blood lead level of 72 mcg/dl. We sent his medicine for analysis and found it had a high lead concentration of 36,000 mcg/g, which is over 25,000 times the maximum daily dose. He improved with cessation of the medicine and treatment with succimer. Lead poisoning can present with a variety of nonspecific signs and symptoms, including abdominal pain and anemia. Ayurvedic medicines, as well as traditional medicines from other cultures, may be a source of lead or other heavy metals. It is essential for physicians to be aware of adverse effects of Ayurvedic medicines as they are easily available and increasing in popularity.

  3. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This annual guide features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  4. BUYER BEHAVIOR AND PURCHASE INVOLVEMENT OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS NUTRACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    G. Suganya; Dr. G. Chandrasekaran

    2017-01-01

    Nutraceuticals provides health benefits and helps in prevention and healing of diseases. The global nutraceuticals product market is primarily categorized on the basis of functional food, functional beverages and dietary supplements. The global market of nutraceutical is a growing on account of growth in dietary supplement segment. Some of the factors driving nutraceutical market are the increase in disposable income and conscious about one’s health. The spending on purchase of healthy and or...

  5. Responsiveness of culture-based segmentation of organizational buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Much published work over the four decades has acknowledged market segmentation in business-to-business settings yet primarily focusing on observable segmentation bases such as firmographics or geographics. However, such bases were proved to have a weak predictive validity with respect to industrial buying behavior. Therefore, this paper attempts to add a debate to this topic by introducing new (unobservable) segmentation base incorporating several facets of business culture, denoted as psycho...

  6. The structure and evolution of buyer-supplier networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Mizuno

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the structure and evolution of customer-supplier networks in Japan using a unique dataset that contains information on customer and supplier linkages for more than 500,000 incorporated non-financial firms for the five years from 2008 to 2012. We find, first, that the number of customer links is unequal across firms; the customer link distribution has a power-law tail with an exponent of unity (i.e., it follows Zipf's law. We interpret this as implying that competition among firms to acquire new customers yields winners with a large number of customers, as well as losers with fewer customers. We also show that the shortest path length for any pair of firms is, on average, 4.3 links. Second, we find that link switching is relatively rare. Our estimates indicate that the survival rate per year for customer links is 92 percent and for supplier links 93 percent. Third and finally, we find that firm growth rates tend to be more highly correlated the closer two firms are to each other in a customer-supplier network (i.e., the smaller is the shortest path length for the two firms. This suggests that a non-negligible portion of fluctuations in firm growth stems from the propagation of microeconomic shocks - shocks affecting only a particular firm - through customer-supplier chains.

  7. Buyer-supplier relationship management in the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PhD research is to gain insight into ways in which contractors could improve the management of, and the collaboration with, suppliers in order to increase their competitiveness. To achieve this aim, four research phases are conducted. Firstly, the current status of

  8. Green Building Pro-Environment Behaviors: Are Green Users Also Green Buyers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pro-environment behaviors play a key role in advancing the development of green buildings. This study investigated the link between two green building pro-environment behaviors that require dissimilar resources: energy savings that do not require money in order to be more environmentally friendly and willingness to pay that involves economic resources including spending money in order to be more environmentally friendly. This study points out that the two pro-environment behaviors can be positively linked to each other. People who behave in an environmentally friendly manner at work would also be likely to pay an extra cost for a green building when buying a new home. The consistency of the two pro-environment behaviors can be explained by their common environmental beliefs: limits to growth and eco-crisis. The green building movement should prioritize pro-environmental behaviors and associated environmental beliefs to support green building policies, guidelines, and tools.

  9. French fair trade coffee buyers' purchasing motives: An exploratory study using means-end chains analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ferran, Florence; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    Considering the growth of fair trade product consumption in European countries and the expansion of its distribution to different kinds of distribution networks in reply to increasing consumer sensitivity to the ethical characteristics of a product, it becomes important to understand it better...

  10. Floor foundations: preferences of new home buyers in six Southwestern United States markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole; H. Edward Dickerhoof

    1971-01-01

    Mail questionnaires and follow-up interviews were used to determine preferences among three types of floor foundations: concrete slab, wood crawl-space, and a new design that combines a low-profile wood floor with underfloor plenum. More respondents from northern markets preferred the crawl-space floor than from the southern markets. Factors most often cited as...

  11. Remedies for buyers in case of contracts for the supply of digital content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.B.M.; Mak, C.

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of provisions on digital content, including 'gratuitous' digital content, in the Common European Sales Law constitutes an improvement in respect to existing EU legislation on sales contracts. However, some amendments are necessary, given the fact that digital content differs from

  12. In Buyer's Market, Colleges Turn to Posh Dorms and Fast Food to Lure Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K.

    1989-01-01

    More and more colleges are building fancy residence halls and improving their grounds to stand out in an increasingly competitive market for freshmen. Colleges are also finding that they must upgrade their dining halls because students are going off campus for pizza and other fast food. (MLW)

  13. Service Process Innovation and the Role of Added Value in Buyer-Seller Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to utilize Cannon and Perreault’s relationship connectors to explore how value co-creation occurs in the context of a B2B environment. It explains where and how added value emerges from the work processes in an outsourcing relationship. Design/methodology – The paper uses...... data that have been collected through 12 interviews with managers and employees at a wholesaler of electronic consumer equipment and a leading FM service provider. Findings – The results indicate that significant benefits due to process innovation, here PDF-invoicing, has been the more intensive...... of relationships, and in establishing a strategic partnership. This is mainly due to the fact that it can be costly to include users when changing service processes without a deep understanding of technology and customer needs. Originality/value – The paper provide issues to help organizations manage the value...

  14. A Buyer Behaviour Framework for the Development and Design of Software Agents in E-Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Susan; Archer, Norm

    2000-01-01

    Software agents are computer programs that run in the background and perform tasks autonomously as delegated by the user. This paper blends models from marketing research and findings from the field of decision support systems to build a framework for the design of software agents to support in e-commerce buying applications. (Contains 35…

  15. Configuration of inter-organizational information exchange and the differences between buyers and sellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, G.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.; Wang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to extend the understanding of the configuration of inter-organizational information exchange (IOIE) and the role of each aspect of IOIE in realizing potential communication benefits. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework on the configuration of IOIE

  16. Whole-House Approach Benefits Builders, Buyers, and the Environment Building America Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-05-01

    This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. Building America works with the residential building industry to develop and implement innovative building processes and technologies.

  17. SCOR based key success factors in cooking oil supply chain buyers perspective in Padang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahara, Fatimah; Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain of cooking oil is a network of companies from palm oil as raw material to retailers which work to create the value and deliver products into the end consumers. This paper is aimed to study key success factors based on consumer's perspective as the last stage in the supply chain. Consumers who are examined in this study are restaurants management or owners. Restaurant is the biggest consumption of cooking oil. The factors is studied based on Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) version 10.0. Factors used are formulated based on the third-level metrics of SCOR Model. Factors are analyzed using factors analysis. This study found factors which become key success factors in managing supply chain of cooking oil encompass reliability, responsiveness and agility. Key success factors can be applied by governments as policy making and cooking oil companies as formulation of the distribution strategies.

  18. 40 CFR 1039.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...,000 hours: Fuel injectors, turbochargers, catalytic converters, electronic control units, EGR systems..., catalytic converters, electronic control units, EGR systems (including related components, but excluding... part 1065. (a) Critical emission-related maintenance. Critical emission-related maintenance includes...

  19. Farmer-buyer relationships in China: The effects of contracts, trust and market environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Hu, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is first, to develop constructs to measure three important concepts in the supply chain literature: contracts, trust and market environment, in the Chinese context and to further investigate the relationships amongst these three concepts based on the formulated

  20. Buyer beware: personnel selling nail guns know little about dangerous tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Fullen, Mark; Takacs, Brandon C; Pompeii, Lisa A

    2011-08-01

    Nail gun use is ubiquitous in wood frame construction. Accessibility and decreasing costs have extended associated occupational hazards to consumers. Compelling evidence documents decreased injury risk among trained users and those with tools with sequential triggers. To prevent inadvertent discharge of nails, this safer trigger requires the nose be depressed before the trigger is pulled to fire. The sequential trigger is not required by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) or the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) nor are there any guidelines for training. We collected data from personnel at 217 points of sale/rental of framing nail guns in four areas of the country. Sales personnel had little understanding of risks associated with use of framing nail guns. Individuals who had used the tool and those working in construction outlets were more likely to be knowledgeable; even so, less than half understood differences in trigger/actuation systems. Consumers, including contractors purchasing for workers, cannot count on receiving accurate information from sales personnel regarding risks associated with use of these tools. The attitudes and limited knowledge of some sales personnel regarding these potentially deadly tools likely contributes to a culture accepting of injury. The findings demonstrate how influences on the culture of construction are not limited to workers, employers, or the places construction gets done. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses.

  2. Exploring the consumer habits of the Carrefour buyers in Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Hernández Rodríguez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the consumer behavior in the Carrefour Supercenter of Hangzhou, China, in the attempt of finding results that will display the shopping patterns of an evolving clientele. The city of Hangzhou is one of the cities with the highest per capita income, and because of its proximity to Shanghai it has been used as a test city before introducing products to mayor markets. Using observation as the main tool for such an analysis, the research considered a sample of consumers seeking to detect their shopping patterns, furthermor, a number of interviews generating useful information for strategic decisions was performed. The results show information about attitude towards promotional stands, the demographic characteristics of the consumer and the way of choosing products, among other variables. Additionally, it is verified that the Chinese culture impacts every aspect of the average People´s Republic of China (PRC consumer.

  3. Neither bipolar nor obsessive-compulsive disorder: compulsive buyers are impulsive acquirers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomensky, Tatiana Zambrano; Almeida, Karla Mathias; Castro Nogueira, Marcelo Campos; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Lafer, Beny; Borcato, Sonia; Tavares, Hermano

    2012-07-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is currently classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD) not otherwise classified. Compulsive buying prevalence is estimated at around 5% of the general population. There is controversy about whether CB should be classified as an ICD, a subsyndromal bipolar disorder (BD), or an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) akin to a hoarding syndrome. To further investigate the appropriate classification of CB, we compared patients with CB, BD, and OCD for impulsivity, affective instability, hoarding, and other OCD symptoms. Eighty outpatients (24 CB, 21 BD, and 35 OCD) who were neither manic nor hypomanic were asked to fill out self-report questionnaires. Compulsive buying patients scored significantly higher on all impulsivity measures and on acquisition but not on the hoarding subdimensions of clutter and "difficulty discarding." Patients with BD scored higher on the mania dimension from the Structured Clinical Interview for Mood Spectrum scale. Patients with OCD scored higher on obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, particularly, higher on the contamination/washing and checking dimensions from the Padua Inventory; however, they did not score higher on any hoarding dimension. A discriminant model built with these variables correctly classified patients with CB (79%), BD (71%), and OCD (77%). Patients with CB came out as impulsive acquirers, resembling ICD- rather than BD- or OCD-related disorders. Manic symptoms were distinctive of patients with BD. Hoarding symptoms other than acquisition were not particularly associated with any diagnostic group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Buyers and Borrowers: The Application of Consumer Theory to the Study of Library Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles D.

    Using Ehrenberg's application of mathematical models to the analysis and prediction of repeated buying patterns of consumers, this study focuses on the concept of library use as a form of consumer behavior. The following hypotheses were tested: designated library user groups will tend to exhibit stable behavioral patterns with respect to the…

  5. 75 FR 39206 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ..., scope of show, stature of show, exhibitor interest, overseas marketing, logistics, delegation incentives... performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the information shall have practical utility; (b... collection of information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be...

  6. 76 FR 54428 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... educate U.S. exhibitors on the Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy (STOP!), IPR protection measures... letterhead, and one electronic copy submitted on a CD-RW (preferably in Microsoft Word format), on or before...

  7. The Impact of Brands on Consumer Buying Behavior: An Empirical Study On Smartphone Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Akkucuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to understand the factors behind smartphone purchase decisions of consumers. Nowadays companies make use of various strategies in order to attract new customers, retain existing customers and differentiate their products from those of their competitors. Perhaps, the most important and effective strategy to influence consumer behavior in the product selection is emphasizing the “brand name” of the products. Our aim in this paper is to investigate how smartphone brands can influence consumers’ buying decisions. Brand equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand name and symbol, which add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service. It enhances the customer’s ability to interpret and process information, improves confidence in the purchase decision and affects the quality of the user experience. Using this construct widely discussed in the literature, we use and build our hypothesis based on Aaker model about the brand equity, including perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association and brand loyalty. The study involved a questionnaire administered to 171 smartphone consumers between December 2015 and March 2016. The consumers were chosen by convenience sampling among the students from a prestigious university in the Istanbul district of Turkey.

  8. Inter-firm coordination in the Mexican avocado (Persea americana) industry: the packer-buyer relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical coordination is an effective response to uncertainties in marketing environments. This article presents evidence relating the influence of transaction characteristics on interfirm coordination to respond what conditions determine the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and

  9. Review of survey data on the importance of energy efficiency to new home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    The surveys reviewed for this report support the notion that the Council's model conservation standards will be received reasonably well and can be successfully marketed. A number of subtopics are addressed including the home purchase process and the role of energy efficiency considerations in the process, the importance of energy efficiency considerations in the decision to purchase a new home, the relative importance of energy efficiency in comparison to other home selection attributes, homeowner preferences for particular energy efficiency features, and measures of the willingness to pay for energy efficiency improvements.

  10. Limitations of pulmonary embolism ICD-10 codes in emergency department administrative data: let the buyer beware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burles, Kristin; Innes, Grant; Senior, Kevin; Lang, Eddy; McRae, Andrew

    2017-06-08

    Administrative data is a useful tool for research and quality improvement; however, validity of research findings based on these data depends on their reliability. Diagnoses assigned by physicians are subsequently converted by nosologists to ICD-10 codes (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision). Several groups have reported ICD-9 coding errors in inpatient data that have implications for research, quality improvement, and policymaking, but few have assessed ICD-10 code validity in ambulatory care databases. Our objective was to evaluate pulmonary embolism (PE) ICD-10 code accuracy in our large, integrated hospital system, and the validity of using these codes for operational and health services research using ED ambulatory care databases. Ambulatory care data for patients (age ≥ 18 years) with a PE ICD-10 code (I26.0 and I26.9) were obtained from the records of four urban EDs between July 2013 to January 2015. PE diagnoses were confirmed by reviewing medical records and imaging reports. In cases where chart diagnosis and ICD-10 code were discrepant, chart review was considered correct. Physicians' written discharge diagnoses were also searched using 'pulmonary embolism' and 'PE', and patients who were diagnosed with PE but not coded as PE were identified. Coding discrepancies were quantified and described. One thousand, four hundred and fifty-three ED patients had a PE ICD-10 code. Of these, 257 (17.7%) were false positive, with an incorrectly assigned PE code. Among the 257 false positives, 193 cases had ambiguous ED diagnoses such as 'rule out PE' or 'query PE', while 64 cases should have had non-PE codes. An additional 117 patients (8.90%) with a PE discharge diagnosis were incorrectly assigned a non-PE ICD-10 code (false negative group). The sensitivity of PE ICD-10 codes in this dataset was 91.1% (95%CI, 89.4-92.6) with a specificity of 99.9% (95%CI, 99.9-99.9). The positive and negative predictive values were 82.3% (95%CI, 80.3-84.2) and 99.9% (95%CI, 99.9-99.9), respectively. Ambulatory care data, like inpatient data, are subject to coding errors. This confirms the importance of ICD-10 code validation prior to use. The largest proportion of coding errors arises from ambiguous physician documentation; therefore, physicians and data custodians must ensure that quality improvement processes are in place to promote ICD-10 coding accuracy.

  11. A two-echelon production-inventory model for deteriorating items with multiple buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiami, Yousef; Williams, Terry

    2015-01-01

    In a production-inventory system, the manufacturer produces the items at a rate, e.g. R, dispatches the order quantities to the customers in specific intervals and stores the excess inventory for subsequent deliveries. Therefore each inventory cycle of the manufacturer can be divided into two

  12. Stock or cash? The trade-offs for buyers and sellers in mergers and acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, A; Sirower, M L

    1999-01-01

    In 1988, less than 2% of large deals were paid for entirely in stock; by 1998, that number had risen to 50%. The shift has profound ramifications for shareholders of both the acquiring and acquired companies. In this article, the authors provide a framework and two simple tools to guide boards of both companies through the issues they need to consider when making decisions about how to pay for--and whether to accept--a deal. First an acquirer has to decide whether to finance the deal using stock or pay cash. Second, if the acquirer decides to issue stock, it then must decide whether to offer a fixed value of shares or a fixed number of them. Offering cash places all the potential risks and rewards with the acquirer--and sends a strong signal to the markets that it has confidence in the value not only of the deal but in its own stock. By issuing shares, however, an acquirer in essence offers to share the newly merged company with the stockholders of the acquired company--a signal the market often interprets as a lack of confidence in the value of the acquirer's stock. Offering a fixed number of shares reinforces that impression because it requires the selling stockholders to share the risk that the value of the acquirer's stock will decline before the deal goes through. Offering a fixed value of shares sends a more confident signal to the markets, as the acquirer assumes all of that risk. The choice between cash and stock should never be made without full and careful consideration of the potential consequences. The all-too-frequent disappointing returns from stock transactions underscore how important the method of payment truly is.

  13. Structure of global buyer-supplier networks and its implications for conflict minerals regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structure of global inter-firm linkages using a dataset that contains information on business partners for about 400,000 firms worldwide, including all the firms listed on the major stock exchanges. Among the firms, we examine three networks, which are based on customer-supplier, licensee-licensor, and strategic alliance relationships. First, we show that these networks all have scale-free topology and that the degree distribution for each follows a power law with an exponent of 1.5. The shortest path length is around six for all three networks. Second, we show through community structure analysis that the firms comprise a community with those firms that belong to the same industry but different home countries, indicating the globalization of firms' production activities. Finally, we discuss what such production globalization implies for the proliferation of conflict minerals (i.e., minerals extracted from conflict zones and sold to firms in other countries to perpetuate fighting) through g...

  14. Managing for Success: The Role of Transactional and Relational Mechanisms in Buyer-Supplier Relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khuram Shahzad; Josu Takala; Tahir Ali; Ilkka Sillanpää

    2015-01-01

    ...-supplier relationship performance. While, limited studies explored these factors separately neither provide the dynamic interactive role of transactional and relational factors in an integrated framework...

  15. 9 CFR 203.5 - Statement with respect to market agencies paying the expenses of livestock buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.5 Statement with respect... long distance telephone calls. Investigation by the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  16. PURCHASE PREFERENCE OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN MOTORCYCLE BUYERS: THE DISCRIMINATING ROLE OF PERCEPTION OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF BRAND AND ETHNOCENTRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neoh Chee Yeong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of country of origin on the evaluation of products and purchase intention has been studied for decades. However, this paradigm has shifted where nowadays, products are typically designed in one country, manufactured in another and assembled elsewhere which led to the proliferation of "hybrid products". Consumers are confused and are no longer able to identify or recognize the difference between country of origin of brand and country of assembly or country of product design which, in turn, may lead towrong purchasing decisions. The objective of this study is to understand the variables influencing consumers' purchase preference related to motorcycles in the Malaysian market. Results have confirmed that country of origin of brand and consumer ethnocentrism influence consumer purchase preference. Implications of the results and directions for future researches are also discussed.

  17. Diversity of coordination mechanisms to support transactions : farmer - buyer relationships and farmer performance in the Brazilian pork chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller Martins, Franco

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades consumers preferences have continuously triggered changes in quality regulations and the implementation of various private quality standards. New quality demands also imply new coordination arrangements to support transactions between food companies and their suppliers.  To

  18. Secure ICT service provisioning for cloud, mobile and beyond a workable architectural approach balancing between buyers and providers

    CERN Document Server

    von Faber, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces a reference architecture that enhances the security of services offered in the information and communication technology (ICT) market. It enables customers to compare offerings and to assess risks when using third-party ICT services including cloud computing and mobile services. Service providers are given a comprehensive blueprint for security implementation and maintenance covering service portfolio management, bid phases and realization projects as well as service delivery management. The architecture is completely modular and hierarchical. It contains a security taxonom

  19. Recognition of the Factoring Contracts within the scope of Turkey Accounting Standards with regard to the Buyer and Seller

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birsel Sabuncu

    2017-01-01

    ... Accounting Standards, by presenting a sample application in particular regard of an export transaction in relation to the accounting records which have to be done by the company that gives factoring service...

  20. The Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Self-Esteem on the Compulsive and Non-Compulsive Buyers in NCR

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Dr. Hemant; Mallik, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    In the post-modern consumerist economies, the Maslows hierarchy of needs is circumvented at a faster pace. As a result of the impact of globalization and the forces of post-modern consumerism, the hierarchy of needs of individual is moving unnaturally, not exactly in the same order as Maslow predicted in the continuum. In the past few decades compulsive buying has moved from anonymity to a frequently mentioned topic in many of our leading institutions ranging from the various forms of media t...

  1. The Influence of Marketing Communication on the Consumer’s Buyer Behavior – A Relationship Marketing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichindelean Mihai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to identify the nature of the influence of a company’s marketing communication of the actual consumer behaviour. To achieve this purpose, the paper is structures in two parts; firstly, the recent literature regarding relationship marketing paradigm is reviewed and the value chain concept is presented. The second part contains a survey-based research which uses book-store customers as target unit. Sales promotion and advertising are used as input variables in identifying the variation in the client’s buying behaviour. Client behaviour was measured through three variables: monetary value spent by the clients within their last purchasing experience, buying frequency of the clients, and their buying intention.

  2. 78 FR 42503 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Select Service for Calendar Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... translation, logistical support, and introductions to U.S. suppliers. This secondary level of service for... overseas markets, as well as in the United States. (b) Export Potential: The trade show promotes products..., including industry analysts' assessment of export potential, US&FCS best prospects lists, and U.S. export...

  3. Intelligent Personalized Trading Agents that facilitate Real-time Decisionmaking for Auctioneers and Buyers in the Dutch Flower Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this case the Dutch Flower Auctions (DFA) are discussed. The DFA are part of the supply network in which flowers are produced, stocked, and then sold through either mediation or auctioning. This case focuses on the buyers’ and auctioneers’ positions when flowers are traded through

  4. Recognition of the Factoring Contracts within the scope of Turkey Accounting Standards with regard to the Buyer and Seller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsel Sabuncu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study giving general information about factoring, which is an alternative financing technique, regarding the recognition of the factoring transactions within the scope of the Turkish Accounting Standards, by presenting a sample application in particular regard of an export transaction in relation to the accounting records which have to be done by the company that gives factoring service and receives the factoring service, a contribution to the accounting literature is put forward. In the study, it is shown that, even though the Uniform Accounting Plan which the factoring companies and the companies which use a factoring service in their accounting records differ from each other, recognition of it within the scope of the Turkish Accounting Standards is a basis. The fundamental principle of the accounting records of the company which assigns the receivables that generate from the exporting by entering into an agreement of factoring is the recognition of the income according to the fair value, by reflecting the amount which the income waits to gain the when assigning, and by separating the income which is actualised and not actualised. Keywords: Factoring, factoring transactions, Turkish Accounting Standards

  5. The Influence of New Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption: Increasing Student Comprehension with the "Bidding for Buyers" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The five characteristics that influence new product rate of adoption are routinely covered in the Principles of Marketing course. Any particular marketing concept such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability may not capture interest or engagement among students who take the course as a graduation…

  6. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    : Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. CONCLUSIONS: Wine buyers...

  7. Background Checks for all Gun Buyers and Gun Violence Restraining Orders: State Efforts to Keep Guns from High-Risk Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Alcorn, Ted; Horwitz, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    There were more than 36,000 firearm-related deaths in the U.S. in 2015. Under federal law, a background check is required only for gun purchases from licensed dealers. Research suggests that some persons prohibited from owning a gun turn to private sellers, including those identified online, to attempt to obtain a firearm. State-level approaches to make it more difficult for high-risk persons to purchase or possess firearms include universal background check (UBC) and gun violence restraining order (GVRO) laws. UBC laws, on the books in 18 states as of the end of 2016, can reduce both homicide and suicide rates. After Colorado adopted a UBC law in 2013, the number of background checks conducted by private sellers for sales occurring at places other than gun shows steadily increased. GVRO laws give law enforcement and families the authority to petition a court to temporarily remove firearms from an individual who presents a danger to himself or others during times of crisis, regardless of whether that person has been diagnosed with a mental illness. California enacted a GVRO law in 2014. Data are emerging to suggest the effectiveness of GVRO-type laws at averting suicides and providing an entryway to services.

  8. Simple energy conservation. Mid-terrace houses. Modernisation recommendations for homeowners and house buyers; Einfach Energie sparen. Reihenmittelhaeuser. Modernisierungsempfehlungen fuer Hauseigentuemer und Hauskaeufer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ronny

    2012-07-01

    The book under consideration provides a type-specific and construction year-specific orientation to building substances, insulation thicknesses and building services. It is addressed to persons planning an energetic retrofitting of houses. The book contains information on special features and weaknesses of each building as well as appropriate proposals for energy efficiency. It also presents energy assessments and recommendations as a basis for assessing the results of the energy consulting.

  9. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Z. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steward, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Palmer, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builders team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  10. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region.

  11. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 1; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    This Building America Best Practices guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot and humid climate.

  12. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 1; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C.; Love, P. M.

    2004-11-01

    This Building America Best Practices guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot and humid climate. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  13. Distress and Other Situational Factors that Influence Consumer Willingness to Provide Personal Information in an Online Buyer-Seller Exchange: An Equity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barto, Thomas Peter

    2011-01-01

    Global electronic markets will profoundly impact commerce in the 21 st century. Brick-and-mortar retailers are using technology for electronic marketing purposes where the familiar layout of the physical store becomes a maze of pulldown menus, product indices, and search features creating a new unknown for consumers and concerns for information…

  14. Exploring the relationship between online buyers and sellers of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs): Quality issues, trust and self-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, K.; Koenraadt, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Online drug markets are expanding the boundaries of drug supply including the sale and purchase of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). However, the role of the internet in IPED markets, and in particular the ways in which these substances are supplied via the surface web, has

  15. 41 CFR 102-38.285 - How do we transfer title from the Government to the buyer for personal property sold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Completion of Sale Transfer of Title... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do we transfer title...

  16. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-08-01

    The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates.

  17. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-08-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  18. Attracting Health Insurance Buyers through Selective Contracting: Results of a Discrete-Choice Experiment among Users of Hospital Services in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Bergrath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Netherlands commenced market based reforms in its health care system. The reforms included selective contracting of health care providers by health insurers. This paper focuses on how health insurers may increase their market share on the health insurance market through selective contracting of health care providers. Selective contracting is studied by eliciting the preferences of health care consumers for attributes of health care services that an insurer could negotiate on behalf of its clients with health care providers. Selective contracting may provide incentives for health care providers to deliver the quality that consumers need and demand. Selective contracting also enables health insurers to steer individual patients towards selected health care providers. We used a stated preference technique known as a discrete choice experiment to collect and analyze the data. Results indicate that consumers care about both costs and quality of care, with healthy consumers placing greater emphasis on costs and consumers with poorer health placing greater emphasis on quality of care. It is possible for an insurer to satisfy both of these criteria by selective contracting health care providers who consequently purchase health care that is both efficient and of good quality.

  19. Buyer Beware: Negotiating Legal and Fair Contracts between Schools and Food and Beverage Companies. A Legal Memorandum: Quarterly Law Topics for School Leaders, Fall 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Exclusive vending contracts with food and beverage companies can produce much-needed revenue for school districts. However, these pouring and vending contracts as well as other forms of exclusive vendor contracts are often the subject of contentious public debate and legal challenges. Even the language used to refer to such agreements varies:…

  20. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 5; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Marine Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-10-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in the Marine climate region.

  1. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 5; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Marine Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C.; Taylor, Z. T.; Bartlett, R.; Gilbride, T.; Hefty, M.; Steward, H.; Love, P. M.; Palmer, J. A.

    2006-10-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the Marine climate region. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team--from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  2. Reasoning behind choices: rationality and social norms in the housing market behaviour of first-time buyers in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Gibas, Petr; Boumová, Irena; Hájek, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2017), s. 517-539 ISSN 0267-3037 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : housing market * social norms * housing system Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.513, year: 2016

  3. Friends with benefits : Behavioral and fMRI Studies on the effect of friendship reminders on self-control for compulsive and non-compulsive buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Eline; Fennis, Bob; Bijmolt, Tammo; Ter Horst, Gert J; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C

    2018-01-01

    Does the real or imagined presence of friends invariantly drive consumers to engage in disinhibited behavior, and give in to the "urge to splurge" in the face of consumption temptations? Or might there be situations in which being with friends or even merely thinking of friends or the friendships we

  4. Reputation and Mechanism Choice in Procurement Auctions – An Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Brosig, Jeannette; Heinrich, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally study the role of reputation in procurement using two common mechanisms: price-based and buyer-determined auctions. While buyers are bound to buy from the lowest bidder in price-based auctions, they can choose between bidders in buyer-determined auctions. Only in the latter buyers can consider the reputation of bidders. We find that bidders supply higher quality in buyer-determined auctions leading to higher market efficiencies in these auctions. Accordingly, buyers prefer t...

  5. Virtual Military Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    PayPal ” provides the buyer $1,000 protection on qualified listings and takes care of the payment between buyer and seller. When a buyer registers...access to last minute bargains, and PayPal buyer protection (E-Bay, 2005). Elance is not as well known, but is closer to what the VMM is modeled for

  6. 77 FR 43282 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... for Special Buyer Credit Limit (SBCL) Under Multi-Buyer Credit Insurance Policies. SUMMARY: The Export... Buyer Credit Limit (SBCL) Under Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policies'' form will be used by... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE...

  7. Pre-Auction Offers in Asymmetric First-Price and Second-Price Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, René; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    We consider “must-sell” auctions with asymmetric buyers. First, we study auctions with two asymmetric buyers, where the distribution of valuations of the strong buyer is “stretched” relative to that of the weak buyer. Then, it is known that ineffcient first-price auctions aremore profitable...

  8. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2. Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Z. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team—from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  9. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  10. Scafom International BV v. Lorraine Tubes S.A.S.: a case review of changing circumstances under the United Nations Convention on International Sale of Goods (CISG) of 1980

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amalina Ahmad Tajudin

    2014-01-01

    ...% market price increase just before the goods were delivered to the buyer. While the seller requested for renegotiation, for a higher contract price, the buyer refused to come to terms with the former...

  11. 78 FR 57852 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ...: Submission for OMB review and comments request. Form Title: EIB 92-50 Short-Term Multi-Buyer Export Credit...-Term Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy will be used to determine the eligibility of the... Bank of the United States Short-Term Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy Applications (ST Multi...

  12. 75 FR 27556 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ...-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy Application. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the United States... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The Short Term Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles and Form Number: EIB 92-50 Short Term Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance...

  13. 75 FR 50762 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Short-Term Multi-buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the United...- buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy . OMB Number: 3048-0023. Type of Review: Regular. Need and Use: The Application for Short-Term Multi-buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy will be used to determine the...

  14. 78 FR 76830 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...: Submission for OMB review and comments request. ] Form Title: EIB 92-50 Short-Term Multi-Buyer Export Credit... Short-Term Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy will be used to determine the eligibility of the.... Need and Use: The Application for Short-Term Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy will be used to...

  15. 77 FR 74745 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... back of the Buyers Guide; and adding a statement in Spanish to the English Buyers Guide directing consumers who cannot read the Buyers Guide in English to ask for a copy of it in Spanish. DATES: Written... Contents I. Overview of the Used Car Rule II. Rulemaking Procedures III. Summary of Comments ] IV. Analysis...

  16. Strategic Resource Extraction And Substitute Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, T.O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We analyze a dynamic game between a buyer and a seller of an exhaustible resource. The seller chooses resource supply; the buyer can pay a fixed cost to invent a perfect substitute for the resource at any time. In closed-loop equilibrium, the buyer adopts the substitute when the resource is

  17. A note on partial vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); H.J.M. Peters (Hans)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA simple model is constructed to show how partial vertical integration may emerge as an equilibrium market structure in a world characterized by rationing, differences in the reservation prices of buyers, and in the risk attitudes of buyers and sellers. The buyers with the high

  18. Growing Exports by Signaling Product Quality: Trade Competition and the Cross-National Diffusion of ISO 9000 Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xun; Prakash, Aseem

    2011-01-01

    Trade policy is an important topic in global public policy. It is recognized that trade is hampered when buyers have incomplete information about the offered products, a problem accentuated in the international markets by the physical and cultural distances between buyers and sellers. Buyers look for proxies to assess product quality, and…

  19. 50 CFR 600.1101 - Inshore fee system for repayment of the loan to harvesters of Pollock from the directed fishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... type of end-user, or some other fish buyer not engaged in the business of buying fish from fish sellers... value over the fish seller's protest or refuse to buy the fee fish. The fish buyer shall also, within... buyer deducted the fee over the fish seller's protest or refused to buy the fee fish, and (E) The fish...

  20. 76 FR 80329 - Notice of Request for Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... for public inspection at the above address during business hours from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. FOR FURTHER... Foreign Buyers List provides information on over 20,000 buyers in more than 25 countries who specialize in... information is available at: http://www.fas.usda.gov/agx/buying_us/foreign_buyers_exporters.asp . FAS is also...

  1. The Effects of Interdependence and Cooperative Behaviors on Buyer’s Satisfaction in the Semiconductor Component Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Pai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry is characterized by extreme competition in price and product features. Firms need to acquire or exchange resources with their supplier or buyer partners to stay at the leading edge of technology. Cooperation between buyers and suppliers is important and power is the mechanism that can explain the cooperative behaviors. This study aims to investigate how the power structure between the buyer and supplier influences the extent of suppliers’ cooperative behaviors, and the effects of these on buyer satisfaction with the buyer-supplier relationship. Opinions from firms in semiconductor manufacturing supply chain were used to investigate the proposed model. It is found that mutual interdependence between a supplier and its buyer can enhance cooperative behaviors and power asymmetry hurt firms’ investment in cooperative behaviors. Suggestions are then provided to semiconductor supply chain members based on the findings of this work.

  2. An agent-based model for analyzing product penetration for consumer goods

    OpenAIRE

    SHIBA, Naoki; Kitanaka, Hideaki; Tanaka, Hirokazu

    2005-01-01

    In the marketing literatures there are several theories for describing the behavior of consumers in their decision. Assael distinguished four types of consumers’ buying behavior based on the degree of buyer involvement and the degree of differences among brands, 1)Complex buying behavior, 2)Dissonance-Reducing Buyer Behavior, 3)Habitual Buying Behavior, and 4)Variety-Seeking Buying Behavior. According to Assael, the latter two types of behavior can be seen when the degree of buyer involvement...

  3. Business spending markets and buying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Čedomir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most buyers on the business spending markets use one or more of the following buying methods: description, inspection, sampling and negotiating. Products are usually standardized according to their characteristics (size, shape, weight or color. The buyer is able to buy only depending in the description or quantity or other characteristic. In some cases buyer may specify business brand or its equivalent when describing desired product.

  4. A Neural Model of Bilateral Negotiation Consisting of One and Two Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The level of activity of the no offer node is hot displayed. 45 isp/ exam/ get/ save/ set/ clear cycle do input log iewstart quit reset run test (buyer...are underlined. 47 isp/ exam/ get/ save/ set/ clear cycle do input Tog ewstart quit reset run test (buyer model) disagree disagree recommended id price...nodes are underlined. 48 isp/ exam/ get7 save/ set/ clear cycle do input log ewstart quit reset run test (buyer model) disagree disagree recommended id

  5. Kupní rozhodovací proces na trhu tiskáren

    OpenAIRE

    Čuřínová, Simona

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this diploma thesis is to analyze the buyer's decision process in the printer market for household. The most important of the theoretical part is the description of the whole process. The thesis is also focused on the different views on the buyer's decision process, description of factors, which influence the decision flow and on different types of the process. In the analytic part is the main attention sticked at the research of buyer's decision process in the printer (multifunct...

  6. A Model of the Domestic Commercial Satellite Industry: A Different Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    seller concentration 2. Product differentiation 3. Barriers to entry Buyer/seller concentration sirply refers to the number and size distribution of buyers...varying degrees of seller concentration that can be found in the marketplace. Product differentiation is viewed as the extent to which outputs (though...similar) by various sellers in the market are viewed as nonidentical by the buyers [3]. The most common method of product differentiation today is the use

  7. Opposites attract: organisational culture and supply chain performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cadden, Trevor; Marshall, Donna; Cao, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to expand the knowledge of buyer-supplier relationships by investigating the extent to which organisational cultural fit between a buyer and supply chain participants influences performance. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in a FMCG supply chain. A cultural dimensions questionnaire was used in a focal organisation (the buyer) and it identified best and poorest performing supply chain. The results were analysed using a series of ANOVA’s wi...

  8. Kupní rozhodovací proces na trhu mobilních telefonů

    OpenAIRE

    Bicek, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis inquires into analysis of buyer decision process in the mobile phones market. The thesis is divided in two parts. The theoretical part inquires into the buyer decision process as itself. The practical part then examines the present world market of mobile phones and thanks to performed questionnaire investigation also manner and intensity of usage of mobile phones among czech consumers. Last but not least it covers single phases of the buyer decision process in the Czech Rep...

  9. Highest and best use of agricultural land in multifunctional land market evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available collection: questionnaire • Create questionnaire with approximately 50 items plus demographics • Scale of 1 to 10 • Classify as farmer/ lifestyle buyer • Administer to buyers of farms Quantitative analysis Quantitative results • Deeds office data... AREA: • Presence of irrigation infrastructure improve likelihood of farm purchased by farmer • Presence of natural scenery, size of main residence improve likelihood of farm purchased by lifestyle buyer CHECK LIST (SELECTED)CHECKLIST TO VALUERS...

  10. Superstition, Conspicuous Spending, and Housing Markets: Evidence from Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sumit; He, Jia; Liu, Haoming; Png, Ivan P. L.; Sing, Tien Foo; Wei-Kang WONG

    2016-01-01

    For most people, buying a home is their single largest financial commitment. Previous research shows that Chinese buyers pay less for homes with unlucky addresses and more for homes with lucky addresses. Using Singapore data on housing transactions combined with a plethora of individual buyer characteristics including ethnicity, age, nationality, education, and employment, we study the source of these preferences. We find evidence that buyers are heterogeneous. Consistent with superstition, o...

  11. The Navy’s Superior Supplier Incentive Program: Analysis of Supplier Proposed Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    for both buyers and suppliers . The Department of Defense (DOD) recognized the need to improve relationships with its defense contractors in order...and recognized the negative aspects of the traditional purchasing and procurement approach to the buyer- supplier relationship and the need for a new...the purchased price of supplies and services” (Rendon, 2005, p. 297). These changes of market phenomenon and in buyer- supplier relationships were

  12. NEMVP: North American energy measurement and verification protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This measurement and verification protocol discusses procedures that,when implemented, allow buyers, sellers, and financiers of energy projects to quantify energy conservation measure performance and savings.

  13. A Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimal Operating Parameters of VMI Systems in a Two-Echelon Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue-Ann, Goh; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    This paper focuses on the operational issues of a Two-echelon Single-Vendor-Multiple-Buyers Supply chain (TSVMBSC) under vendor managed inventory (VMI) mode of operation. To determine the optimal sales quantity for each buyer in TSVMBC, a mathematical model is formulated. Based on the optimal sales quantity can be obtained and the optimal sales price that will determine the optimal channel profit and contract price between the vendor and buyer. All this parameters depends upon the understanding of the revenue sharing between the vendor and buyers. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed for this problem. Solutions obtained from PSO is compared with the best known results reported in literature.

  14. Typological Analysis of Buying Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Teodorescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The typology of buyers and buying actions contracts are specific categories of consumer behaviour, determining group buyers and buying actions in classes, to fragment the markets. Market fragmentation through buyer typoligy and/or segmentation is presently characterized by a multitude of theoretical approaches and are especially generated by the common practice in the respective business. These two concepts are used for the same purpose, the essential difference being their starting point: the segmentation fragments the markets as a whole, while the typology of the buyer and of buying actions generate classifications starting from individual cases.

  15. Estimation of a Hedonic House Price Model with Bargaining: Evidence from the Italian Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Iacobini; Gaetano Lisi

    2012-01-01

    This empirical paper tests the role of bargaining in the formation process of housing prices in Italy. Housing markets are “thin”, local and decentralized, and thus buyers and sellers may have some market power. Hence, the selling price is influenced both by the characteristics of the product as well as by the bargaining power of the buyers and sellers. Furthermore, the bargaining power of the seller (buyer) can also be viewed as the cost of incomplete information imposed on the buyer (seller...

  16. The Effect of Positive and Negative Signals on Perceived Deceptiveness of Websites in Online Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamilla Mavlanova; Raquel Benbunan-Fich; Marios Koufaris; Guido Lang

    2015-01-01

    .... The results support the assertions of the model and indicate that the online buyers' perceptions of website deceptiveness and purchase intentions are mainly influenced by website content, website...

  17. Media mix elements affecting brand equity: A study of the Indian passenger car market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Chattopadhyay

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study develops and empirically tests a model for finding the effect of advertising frequency across different media vehicles towards building brand equity for the passenger car market for first time and repeat buyers. The effect that selected media mix elements had on the dimensions of brand equity was examined. First time buyers are expected to have lower category knowledge than repeat buyers, and are hence expected to behave differently from repeat buyers. Since the knowledge structures of these two groups are expected to be different, it is reasonable to predict that they would process product/brand related information differently and this is corroborated by the results.

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  20. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology ... AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  1. 77 FR 25681 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...; export brokerage; foreign marketing and analysis; foreign market development; overseas advertising and... rice marketers; invoicing (billing) foreign buyers; collecting (letters of credit and other financial...

  2. Vínculos de negócios entre grandes empresas compradoras e pequenos fornecedores locais: implicações para políticas públicas e desenvolvimento Business linkages between large buyers and small local suppliers: implications for public policy and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milber Fernandes Morais Bourguignon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo verifica as condições nas quais os programas e as políticas públicas promotoras de vínculos de negócios (VNs, entre grandes empresas compradoras e pequenos fornecedores locais agem, pressupondo que o Estado tem um importante papel nesse estímulo e que tais vínculos geram desenvolvimento regional e reduzem o desequilíbrio social. A pesquisa empírica, de natureza qualitativa, busca analisar ações e programas de promoção de VNs desenvolvidos no Brasil, bem como as instituições envolvidas, verificar os benefícios dessas ações e identificar oportunidades de intervenção do Estado. Os resultados indicam que políticas públicas podem ser criadas como complemento às políticas de desenvolvimento, voltadas à educação, ualificação de profissionais e incentivadoras de transferência de tecnologia e, de maneira mais ampla, como promotoras de um ambiente propício à atração de investimentos estrangeiros diretos e ao ambiente de negócios. Sugestões de pesquisas futuras são apresentadas como sistemas de governança que abrangem a relação entre as empresas e sua conexão com o setor público.This article analyzes the conditions under which public policies promoting business linkages (BL between large and small/medium enterprises act, assuming that the state has a fundamental role stimulating them, and those linkages generate regional development and reduce social inequalities. The empirical research, qualitative in nature, was designed to analyze actions and programs promoting BL developed in Brazil, as well as the institutions involved in it. It also verifies the benefits of those actions and identifies opportunities for public sector intervention. The results show that public policies can be created so as to complement those related to promoting development directed toward education, competence building and technology transfer, and, more generally, to those promoting favorable environment for business and foreign direct investment attraction. The paper also suggests future research, including governance systems involving the relationship between companies and their connection with the public sector.

  3. Regulatory stability of the national gas sector to attraction of investments: a juridical approach about the buyer creditory under the mode project finances; Estabilidade regulatoria do setor gaseifero nacional para atracao de investimentos: uma abordagem juridica acerca dos financiamentos sob a modalidade 'project finances'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Junior, Helio Varela de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos PRH-36-ANP/MCT. Curso de Direito

    2008-07-01

    A stability of the Natural Gas regulation's framework assumes nowadays, for sure, a relevant position, once means a way of attracting new investments to the Oil and Gas Industry's sector. Following a logic sequence - regulation stability brings legal certainty witch reduces, on the other hand, the risks and attracts investment - the idea of a regulation's commitment on the natural gas sector sets as a key element for investment's attraction. Likewise, the financial agents position is extremely important, especially for the 'Project Finances' funding, witch inherent peculiarity (market risk's reduction) keep full compatibility with the needs of today's Brazilian natural gas sector framework. (author)

  4. Agent-based urban land markets: agent's pricing behaviour, land prices and urban land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Parker, Dawn; van der Veen, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new bilateral agent-based land market model, which moves beyond previous work by explicitly modeling behavioral drivers of land-market transactions on both the buyer and seller sides; formation of bid prices (of buyers) and ask prices (of sellers); and the relative division of the gains

  5. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  6. 7 CFR 20.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... performance bond or letter of credit from the foreign buyer is included in this definition and such a... whose place of doing business with respect to the transaction is outside the United States. Foreign buyer or foreign seller includes a person who maintains a place of doing business outside the United...

  7. 77 FR 52717 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ....gov/pub/pending/eib92-41.pdf . Application for Financial Institution Short Term Single Buyer Insurance... United States. ACTION: Submission for OMB Review and Comments Request. Form Title: EIB 92-41 Application for Financial Institution Short- Term, Single-Buyer Insurance. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the...

  8. A better understanding of the housing market through Conjoint Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joke Terlaak Poot

    2011-01-01

    During the past years a lot of research has been done on measuring and analyzing the stated and re-vealed preferences of house buyers, in order to develop so called new product market combinations for the housing market. It has become clear from these studies that the choice of a house buyer for a

  9. The value of enhancing customisation in the existence of consumer preferences heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Hartanto; Lesmono, Dharma

    2011-01-01

    in the buyer's warehouse. The demand is assumed to be positively dependent on the amount of items shown in the display area. The proposed model determines the buyer's optimal shipment quantity and number of shipments, as well as the vendor's optimal production batch. The objective is to maximize total supply...

  10. Compulsive buying: descriptive characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, G A; Faber, R J; de Zwaan, M; Raymond, N C; Specker, S M; Ekern, M D; Mackenzie, T B; Crosby, R D; Crow, S J; Eckert, E D

    1994-01-01

    Compulsive buying is infrequently described in the psychiatric literature despite suggestions that it may be prevalent. The authors investigated the demographics and phenomenology of this syndrome and assessed psychiatric comorbidity via interviews of both compulsive buyers and normal buyers. Twenty-four compulsive buyers were compared with 24 age- and sex-matched normal buyers using (1) a semistructured interview for compulsive buying and impulse control disorders, (2) a modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, and (3) scales measuring compulsiveness, depression, and anxiety. The typical compulsive buyer was a 36-year-old female who had developed compulsive buying at age 17 1/2 and whose buying had resulted in adverse psychosocial consequences. Purchases were usually of clothes, shoes, jewelry, or makeup, which frequently went unused. Compared with normal buyers, compulsive buyers had a higher lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and eating disorders and were more depressed, anxious, and compulsive. Among compulsive buyers, 16 (66.7%) described buying that resembled obsessive compulsive disorder, whereas 23 (95.8%) described buying that resembled an impulse control disorder. Compulsive buying is a definable clinical syndrome that can result in significant psychosocial impairment and which displays features of both obsessive compulsive disorder and the impulse control disorders.

  11. 78 FR 14544 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Limit under the Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the... under the Multi- Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy is used by 2,500 policyholders, the majority of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Agency...

  12. 78 FR 34381 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Limit under the Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the... under the Multi- Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policy is used by 2,500 policyholders, the majority of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Agency...

  13. 77 FR 64114 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Limit (SBCL) Under Multi-Buyer Credit Insurance Policies. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the United... (SBCL) Under Multi-Buyer Export Credit Insurance Policies'' form will be used by entities involved in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Agency...

  14. Market transparency, adverse selection, and moral hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Tobias; Lambertz, C.; Stahl, K.O.

    2016-01-01

    We study how an improvement in market transparency affects seller exit and continuing sellers’ behavior in a market setting that involves informational asymmetries. The improvement was achieved by reducing strategic bias in buyer ratings. It led to a significant increase in buyer satisfaction with

  15. Robust Pooling for Contracting Models with Asymmetric Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.O. Kerkkamp (Rutger); W. van den Heuvel (Wilco); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe consider principal-agent contracting models between a seller and a buyer with single-dimensional private information. The buyer's type follows a continuous distribution on a bounded interval. We present a new modelling approach where the seller offers a menu of finitely many contracts

  16. Life Insurance: A Suggested Adult Business Education Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This course is aimed at the buyer or potential buyer of life insurance for the purpose of helping him to a better understanding of life insurance and of aiding him in making decisions about his own life insurance coverage. It is structured to be taught one evening a week for six to eight weeks. Each session would last about two hours. The course…

  17. Balancing the balance: Self-control mechanisms and compulsive buying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Büttner, O.B.; Belei, N.V.T.; Adigüzel, F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has mainly focused on identifying why compulsive buyers engage in excessive buying, while their attempts to control problematic buying behavior have largely been ignored. The present research examines the self-control attempts of compulsive buyers. Study 1 uses qualitative in-depth

  18. Price Formation by Bargaining and Posted Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kultti, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    We study markets with two types of agents. Sellers have an indivisible good for sale, and their reservation value is zero. Buyers are randomly matched with sellers, and they value the good at unity. Sellers may be matched with any positive number of buyers, and they may choose to determine the price

  19. Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of the goods traded. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse-selection problem: The market

  20. Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of traded goods. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse selection problem: The market

  1. Internal data market services: An ontology-based architecture and its evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; van der Belt, E.; Verbruggen, E; van der Vet, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    On information markets, many suppliers and buyers of information goods exchange values. Some of these goods are data, whose value is created in buyer interactions with data sources. These interactions are enabled by data market services (DMS). DMS give access to one or several data sources. The

  2. 75 FR 17407 - Service Corporation International and Keystone North America Inc.; Analysis of Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... increase the likelihood of competitive harm through coordinated interaction. Transparency in the pricing of... KNA assets in each relevant geographic market to a Commission-approved buyer (or buyers) within 90... acquire any funeral or cemetery services asset in any of the 19 geographic markets at issue, the proposed...

  3. Understanding Contract Audits: An Experimental Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, R.M.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Vaassen, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A contract audit is a buyer-initiated audit of prices and other conditions, which aims to decrease the information asymmetry between a buyer and a seller. Contract audits are frequently used in monopolistic or oligopolistic markets, as in government procurement. We draw upon three distinct

  4. Understanding contract audits : An experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, R.M.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Vaassen, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A contract audit is a buyer-initiated audit of prices and other conditions, which aims to decrease the information asymmetry between a buyer and a seller. Contract audits are frequently used in monopolistic or oligopolistic markets as in government procurement. We draw upon three distinct

  5. Buying and selling crack: transactions at the retail level and the role of user-sellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteo Pérez, A.; Benschop, A.; Korf, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    To assess key characteristics of the retail crack market and the role of users as buyers and sellers, data from a survey inside and outside institutional setting among 1,039 crack users in the three largest Dutch cities were analyzed to explore their role in the crack market as buyers and sellers.

  6. A Note on the implementation of the Pareto efficient allocation in the Lagos-Wright model

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Peng

    2012-01-01

    This note modifies Lagos – Wright (2005) by adding subsidies to sellers. We show that this modification can result in a Pareto efficient allocation at the Friedman rule when buyers do not have all the bargaining power. We find that the optimal rate of subsidy is increasing in buyers' relative risk aversion coefficient.

  7. Sales Role Play: An Online Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Robert; Collins, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The online role play simulation as described in this article addresses critical skills as identified by practitioners and includes background materials, buyer and seller profiles, a sale/no-sale decision matrix, as well as a grading rubric, thereby facilitating a variety of selling scenarios. Both the buyer and the seller have integral roles in…

  8. Urban Forests and Carbon Markets: Buyers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Jacek Siry; J.M. Bowker

    2011-01-01

    Currently, carbon credit prices frequently do not reflect the type and location of offset projects. Because of the social image and ancillary benefits, buyers may place higher value on credits sourced from certain types of projects such as urban forestry. This study surveyed carbon credit buyers participating in the Chicago Climate Exchange to assess their preferences...

  9. An eye to the tax man: Do forest owners understand tax provisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Straka; John L. Greene

    2004-01-01

    In the March 2004 issue of Forest Products Equipment, Thom J. McEvoy noted that, "stumpage buyers who are able to brief prospective clients on the tax implications of a pending sale are often far more likely to win a client's business than even buyers who offer higher stumpage rates." This is because woodland owners know that it is...

  10. 40 CFR 246.201-4 - Recommended procedures: Market study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at a minimum: (a) Identifying potential purchasers of the recovered material through standard market... buyer will pay for the recovered material and the willingness of the buyer -to sign a contract for the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Market study...

  11. Internal data market services: an ontology-based architecture and its evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; van den Belt, Edwin; Verbruggen, Eddy; van der Vet, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    On information markets, many suppliers and buyers of information goods exchange values. Some of these goods are data, whose value is created in buyer interactions with data sources. These interactions are enabled by data market services (DMS). DMS give access to one or several data sources. The

  12. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...

  13. Private Benefits in Corporate Control Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in block transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer has high security benefits, or because the b...

  14. Procuring complex performance: the transition process in public infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Roehrich, Jens; Frederiksen, Lars; Davies, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper analyses how public buyers transition from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance (PCP). The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during the

  15. Exploring the Barriers to Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...

  16. 78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...-delivery payment, at the time of payment. Each fish buyer (IFQ first receiver) is required to maintain a... days before the date of deposit. Neither the deposit account nor the principal amount of deposits in... purposes. The fish buyer is responsible ] for remitting payment to NMFS on a monthly basis at the same time...

  17. Eyeing the future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denise Tumblin; Helen Hoekstra

    2010-01-01

    ... want to be. The valuation process can bring to light the areas that need additional attention. Three years before the sale of the practice, the vet can involve the buyer in strategic planning meetings so the buyer will have a hand in long-range planning...

  18. Customer attractiveness, supplier satisfaction and preferred customer status : a review and a cycle model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Veldman, Jasper; Hüttinger, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of preferred customer status, i.e. a buyer is awarded preferential treatment of its important suppliers compared to their other customers. As there is a lack of knowledge of what motivates suppliers to serve selected buyers better than others, our research

  19. Antecedents of Relational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    This paper merges economic geography and relational capital perspective in order to analyze the proximity-based antecedents of relational assets in brokerage. It investigates empirically the role and interplay of geographical and cognitive proximity between a broker and her buyers in a quantitative...... for buyers characteristics. Lastly, I make use the under-researched empirical field of brokers....

  20. Factors Influencing the Types of Products and Services Purchased over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phau, Ian; Poon, Sui Meng

    2000-01-01

    Presents the findings of an empirical investigation of Internet shopping in Singapore. Compares Internet buying behavior between potential Internet buyers and non-Internet buyers, and concludes that the classification of different types of products and services will significantly influence consumer choice between a retail store and the Internet.…

  1. 30 CFR 206.104 - What publications are acceptable to MMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... daily surveys of buyers and sellers of crude oil, and, for ANS spot prices, buyers and sellers of ANS... REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 206.104 What publications are acceptable to MMS? (a... price and ANS spot price based on certain criteria, including, but not limited to: (1) Publications...

  2. 24 CFR 108.40 - Compliance reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... majority buyers and renters regardless of sex, including: (i) Use of advertising media, brochures, and... the Advertising Guidelines for Fair Housing (37 FR 6700) and any revisions thereto. (3) Data relating... ranges; (iv) The race and sex of buyers and/or renters; (v) Race and sex of staff engaged in sale or...

  3. Pricing Policies for Quantity Discounts

    OpenAIRE

    Maqbool Dada; K. N. Srikanth

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the seller's decision to offer quantity discounts to the buyer. We build on an existing model as follows. We first characterize the range of order sizes and prices which reduce costs for the buyer and seller, and develop related pricing schemes. The model is then extended to allow inventory carrying costs to be a function of price.

  4. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... (2003), the article assumes that Buyers may misrepresent, either intentionally or unintentionally, and that the Court cannot distinguish one from the other. A trade-off then arises between risk allocation and deterrence. From the perspective of risk allocation, the pro rata rule is preferable since...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  5. PATTERNS OF SUPPLIER LEARNING: CASE STUDIES IN THE MALAYSIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadzrina Abdul Kadir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier development programs support the development of a supplier's capabilities, usually with the assistance of a buyer. In an industrial environment that lacks home- grown technology, it is of interest to explore precisely how suppliers learn and increase their capabilities. There are also questions regarding how the buyer impacts this learning process, specifically with respect to dependent suppliers for which major buyers account for more than 20% of sales. It is claimed that support from buyers for supplier training has been deficient. Thus, there is a need to identify the types of training that suppliers themselves prefer. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the patterns of learning for dependent suppliers in the Malaysian automotive industry by exploring how suppliers learn best and defining the role of buyers in providing assistance. This study presents a model based on empirical findings and discusses the implications of the findings.

  6. Comparing sourcing strategies in two-echelon supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    In this paper we investigate four sourcing models with respect to both cooperative or noncooperative planning strategies, and sole or dual sourcing. A two-stage supply chain is considered, which includes a single buyer and either a single or dual vendor(s). At the buyer the product is consumed at...... is that determining the best strategy requires a detailed analysis. Furthermore, when total system costs are taken into account, dual sourcing does not appear as beneficial as sometimes claimed in the literature on lot splitting....... at a constant rate, and an (r, Q) policy is used to generate replenishment orders. The vendors have a finite production rate and ship to the buyer in equal-sized batches. The delivery lead time is stochastic. Shortages are allowed at the buyer's side and are fully backordered. The cost function comprises five...... elements: inventory holding costs at the buyer and the vendors, backorder costs and ordering costs at the buyer, and setup costs at the vendors. The objective is to minimize the total system costs incurred by the buyer and the vendors. As there is no dominating combined strategy, a major finding...

  7. Intermediation and Competing Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Schiff, Aaron

    this information to some or all buyers. We show that this always raises total welfare, even if it causes the informed buyers not to trade with low quality sellers. However, buyers and some sellers may be made worse off in equilibrium. We also examine the provision of information by a profit maximizing monopoly......We examine the effects of provision of information about seller qualities by a third-party in a directed search model with heterogeneous sellers, asymmetric information, and where prices are determined ex post. The third party separates sellers into quality-differentiated groups and provides...

  8. Intransparent Markets and Intra-Industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...... clearing price exists, and sellers randomize over an equilibrium price distribution. Letting sellers advertise their offers abroad leads to international trade, which would not take place under complete information. Buyers then receive more offers, leading to lower prices and welfare gains. Sellers...

  9. The market for used cars : new evidence of the lemons phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Winand; Sheldon, George

    2009-01-01

    The lemons model assumes that owners of used cars have an information advantage over potential buyers with respect to the quality of their vehicles. Owners of bad cars try to sell them to ill-informed buyers while owners of good cars hold on to theirs. Consequently, the quality of traded automobiles tends to be sub-average. In contrast to previous empirical work, the following paper investigates both the behavior of buyers and sellers, testing for adverse selection by sellers and for quality ...

  10. Spiser vindrikkere sundere end øldrikkere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In a cross sectional study based on information on the number, type of item and total charge of 3(1/2) million transactions over a period of 6 months in various supermarkets in Denmark we examined whether people who buy wine also buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. We found that wine...... buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cocking oil and low fat cheese, milk and meat than beer buyers who bought more ready cooked meals, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb and soft drinks than wine buyers....

  11. Communicating Sustainable Shoes to Mainstream Consumers : The Impact of Advertisement Design on Buying Intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.C.; Gattol, V.; Van der Helm, R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, marketing of sustainable products addresses green buyers, thus missing out on the mainstream consumers and volume necessary to cover the potentially higher cost of more sustainable materials. However, how to effectively communicate more sustainable products to mainstream consumers and

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it under the mattress for maximum protection. Pay attention to outbreaks. Check the CDC Travel Health Notices ... Donate Shop AAD Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD ...

  13. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For most people, dandruff does not require medical attention. However, sometimes the flaking and itching that appears ... Donate Shop AAD Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD ...

  14. The producers competition trimmed the laundries; Tillverkarnas taevling trimmade tvaettstugorna - om effekterna av Kansliets insatser inom omraadet energieffektiv tvaett och tork i fastighetstvaettstugor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Interviews have been made among 163 buyers and 28 suppliers of equipment for laundry-rooms in apartment houses. The aim was to study the opinion regarding new energy-efficient clothes washers and clothes dryers. 5 figs

  15. Guide to Controlling Asthma at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Environment website. This program helps consumers, businesses, and institutional buyers identify cleaning and other products ... Member Center | RSS | Terms Of Use | Privacy Our Family Of Sites nonprofit software Join the fight for ...

  16. The evolution of credence goods: A transaction approach to product specification and quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    1994-01-01

    Executive summary: 1. Most traded goods have important qualities which cannot be revealed by inspection or ordinary use. These qualities, which are difficult or impossible to detect but which nevertheless play a role for the buyer, are called credence characteristics. Credence goods are goods...... for which the buyer's decision-making is dominated by concerns about credence characteristics. 2. Credence goods show an asymmetry between seller and buyer with respect to knowledge acquisition. Therefore, there is a need for the buyer to combine the quality claims of the seller with information about...... the credibility of these claims. The credibility depends on the seller's credentials, ie, an undisputed record of honesty, competence and determinedness wit respect to the quality of supply. 3. There are three major types of credence characteristics. The first type of credence characteristics covers the 'hidden...

  17. Medical marijuana: largest provider closed, some alternatives available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-06-05

    The Cannabis Healing Center, the largest of the medical marijuana buyers' clubs in San Francisco, was shut down on May 25 due to a court order obtained by State Attorney General Dan Lungren. The closure creates an emergency situation for thousands of persons who obtained the drug through the center. City officials are exploring ways to develop guidelines for the medical usage of marijuana that would be consistent with California Proposition 215. Proposition 215 does not nullify Federal laws against marijuana, however, Federal authorities usually allow State or local jurisdictions to handle marijuana enforcement. The three other buyers' clubs in the city are unable to meet the needs of everyone due to insufficient staffing. The closure also shut down the campaign office of Dennis Peron, who was the founder of the previous Cannabis Buyers' Club, and who was running for governor. Contact information and documentation requirements are included for the buyers' clubs.

  18. Medical marijuana: Federal, State attacks against California cannabis clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, F; James, J S

    1998-01-23

    The Clinton administration filed suit to close six marijuana buyers' clubs in California more than a year after Proposition 215, permitting medical use of the drug, was passed. This action was taken against six clubs: Cannabis Cultivators Club, Flower Therapy, Marin Alliance for Medical Marijuana, Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative, Santa Cruz Buyers' Club, and Ukiah Buyers' Club. Although Proposition 215 gives persons with a documented need for the drug a legal right to use it in California, the Federal prohibitions for its use still violates Federal law. In practice, social users can usually obtain marijuana while many patients who need it have no source from which to buy it. The history of the Federal attack on medical marijuana usage in California and the State's response are included.

  19. Criminalisation of clients: reproducing vulnerabilities for violence and poor health among street-based sex workers in Canada-a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krüsi, A; Pacey, K; Bird, L; Taylor, C; Chettiar, J; Allan, S; Bennett, D; Montaner, J S; Kerr, T; Shannon, K

    2014-01-01

    To explore how criminalisation and policing of sex buyers (clients) rather than sex workers shapes sex workers' working conditions and sexual transactions including risk of violence and HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs...

  20. 77 FR 3998 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... program products are produced under sanitary conditions and buyers are purchasing a quality product. The... under sanitary conditions, are wholesome, unadulterated, and properly labeled; to control the... and to develop and revise cooperative agreements with the States, which conduct surveillance...

  1. 77 FR 4981 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Republication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... sanitary conditions and buyers are purchasing a quality product. The information collected through... inspection program to assure egg products are processed under sanitary conditions, are wholesome... the States, which conduct surveillance inspections of shell egg handlers and processors. If the...

  2. Market-Based Standards for Matching Platforms in the SME business Transfers Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwin Weesie; Lex van Teeffelen

    2015-01-01

    Combining overview studies and adding own qualitative research on top of that, a questionnaire is developed to operationalize quality of digital matching platforms for sellers, buyers and advisors in SME business transfers and acquisitions

  3. 38 CFR 36.4515 - Estate of veteran in real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirement for free assignability is adhered to and (iii) that the assignability and other provisions... buyers, title companies, and attorneys, generally, in the community in which the property is situated...

  4. Report on Solar Water Heating Quantitative Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-05-06

    This report details the results of a quantitative research study undertaken to better understand the marketplace for solar water-heating systems from the perspective of home builders, architects, and home buyers.

  5. EXPLORING MULTI-CHANNEL SHOPPING BEHAVIOR TOWARDS IT & C PRODUCTS, BASED ON BUSINESS STUDENTS OPINIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristinel Vasiliu; Mihai Felea; Irina Albastroiu; Mihaela Dobrea

    2016-01-01

    .... IT & C products fall into this category, and buyers using multiple channels benefit from the advantages of information from online stores and reduced risks associated with the acquisition from traditional stores...

  6. The Need for a Strategic Approach to Contingency Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    structural barriers to entry influencing markets are: economies of scale, product differentiation , capital requirements, cost disadvantages, access to...by pitting producers against each other. Several factors influence buyer power, including purchase volume, product differentiation , switching costs

  7. Does peer use influence adoption of efficient cookstoves? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Theresa; Blalock, Garrick; Levine, David I; Simons, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of peer usage on consumer demand for efficient cookstoves with a randomized controlled trial in rural Uganda. The authors tested whether the neighbors of buyers who ordered and received a stove are more likely to purchase an efficient cookstove than the neighbors of buyers who ordered but have not yet received a stove. The authors found that neighbors of buyers who have experience with the stove are not detectably more likely to purchase a stove than neighbors of buyers who have not yet received their stove. The authors found evidence of peer effects in opinions about efficient cookstoves. Knowing that a prominent member of the community has the efficient stove predicts 17-22 percentage points higher odds of strongly favoring the stove. However, this more favorable opinion seemingly has no effect on purchase decisions.

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available About AAD Contact us Support AAD Media AAD store Advertise Employment Website feedback "); document.write(""); document.write(" ... Shop AAD Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case ...

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available About AAD Contact us Support AAD Media AAD store Advertise Employment Website feedback "); document.write(""); document.write(" ... Shop AAD Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case ...

  10. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available About AAD Contact us Support AAD Media AAD store Advertise Employment Website feedback "); document.write(""); document.write(" ... Shop AAD Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case ...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case Reports Aspire All Publications Connect With Us Contact Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo ...

  12. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender......This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...... offer transactions, the answer is that private benefits are insignificant to both sides of the transaction. As an alternative measure of the transaction premium, I calculate the abnormal return premium. This represents the stock market's valuation of the transaction. I find that the stock market puts...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Teledermatology Compliance Choosing ... Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case Reports Aspire ...

  14. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Teledermatology Compliance Choosing ... Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case Reports Aspire ...

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Teledermatology Compliance Choosing ... Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case Reports Aspire ...

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case Reports Aspire All Publications Connect With Us Contact Us Media contacts Advertising ...

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case Reports Aspire All Publications Connect With Us Contact Us Media contacts Advertising ...

  18. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case Reports Aspire All Publications Connect With Us Contact Us Media contacts Advertising ...

  19. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamel, Magdi N

    2008-01-01

    A central vision of B2B e-commerce is that of an electronic marketplace that would bring suppliers together with major buyers of goods and services for the purpose of conducting "frictionless commerce...

  20. 78 FR 60821 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection Under the Clear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... systems to notify potential buyers, commission merchants, and selling agents of security interests (liens... Farm Bill, which amended the Act to allow States to maintain master debtor lists with Social Security...

  1. Estimation of a Hedonic House Price Model with Bargaining: Evidence from the Italian Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Iacobini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper tests the role of bargaining in the formation process of housing prices in Italy. Housing markets are “thin”, local and decentralized, and thus buyers and sellers may have some market power. Hence, the selling price is influenced both by the characteristics of the product as well as by the bargaining power of the buyers and sellers. Furthermore, the bargaining power of the seller (buyer can also be viewed as the cost of incomplete information imposed on the buyer (seller. The empirical results derived from multiple regression analysis support our theoretical assumptions. In fact, the variables created as proxies of bargaining power of the parties, and incorporated into the hedonic price function, are statistically significant and help to improve the performance of the hedonic model, thus reducing the differences between predicted and observed selling prices.

  2. Virtual Supply Chain Re-Intermediation Through Multi-Agent Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark

    2002-01-01

    ... inflexibility associated with EDI applications. Viewing respective procurement and order fulfillment processes of buyer and seller as an integrated whole along the supply chain, we identify opportunities for virtual supply chain re-intermediation...

  3. 76 FR 81363 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Temporary Exemption From Compliance With FHA's Regulation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...-free number). Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling... transactions must be arms-length, with no identity of interest between the buyer and seller or other parties...

  4. 77 FR 71099 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Temporary Waiver of FHA's Regulation on Property Flipping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ...-8000; telephone number 202-708-2121 (this is not a toll-free number). Persons with hearing or speech... transactions must be arms-length, with no identity of interest between the buyer and seller or other parties...

  5. 41 CFR 109-45.5104-2 - Methods of disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the personal property. In the event the levy is placed upon the seller by law, the buyer will be... categories of personal property, including small arms and machine guns; artillery and projectiles; ammunition...

  6. Exceptions to the duty to notify the seller of a non-conformity of the delivered goods in international sales law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breach of the duty to notify the seller of the lack of conformity of the delivered goods is followed by harsh consequences for the buyer. Namely, he loses the right to rely on the non-conformity of the goods if he does not give the notice to the seller in adequate and timely manner. In international sales law the buyer is entitled to rely on the lack of conformity of the goods even when he fails to notify the seller in two specific cases. First, if the lack of conformity relates to the facts of which the seller knew or could not have been unaware and which he did not disclose to the buyer. And secondly, the buyer retains remedies for the nonconforming delivery if he has a reasonable excuse for his failure to give the required notice.

  7. 78 FR 64916 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ..., Environmental Investments, Certain Technology Investments, Certain ``Regional Development'' Investments, and.... Other Programs Not Used Post-Shipment Export Loans Export Credit Bank of Turkey Buyer Credits Subsidized... Foreign Currency Regional Subsidies VAT Support Program (Incentive Premium on Domestically Obtained Goods...

  8. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Investments, Certain Technology Investments, Certain ``Regional Development'' Investments, and Investments... Used Post-Shipment Export Loans Export Credit Bank of Turkey Buyer Credits Subsidized Turkish Lira... Currency Regional Subsidies VAT Support Program (Incentive Premium on Domestically Obtained Goods) IEP: VAT...

  9. 77 FR 26760 - Kinder Morgan, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    .... Kinder Morgan must also license any key software and intellectual property to the buyer. The Consent... manage day-to-day operations. The Hold Separate Order outlines the rights, duties, and responsibilities...

  10. Racist Language in Society and in Dictionaries: A Pragmatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publications characterized by a more dispassionate and scientific approach. ... America), Bananaland, Piesangland (Natal), Cape Smoke (the earliest, rough Cape ...... are buyers of and dealers in second-hand goods, money-changers,.

  11. Precious Coral Sales Report Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated sales log which collects information on sales of raw coral, including weight and revenue. Also includes seller and buyer information....

  12. Payment for Environmental Services and Power in the Chamachán Watershed, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C.; Boelens, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Payment for Environmental Services (PES) is a globally expanding concept used to address environmental degradation. PES advocates argue that conservation of ecosystems can and should be enhanced by voluntary transactions among environmental service providers and buyers. PES policy and interventions

  13. Payment for environmental services and power in the Chamachán watershed, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C.; Boelens, R.

    2014-01-01

    Payment for Environmental Services (PES) is a globally expanding concept used to address environmental degradation. PES advocates argue that conservation of ecosystems can and should be enhanced by voluntary transactions among environmental service providers and buyers. PES policy and intervention

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting Scholarship AAD CME Award Advocate of the Year Award Cochrane Scholarship Diversity Mentorship Program Van Scott Award and Frost ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting Scholarship AAD CME Award Advocate of the Year Award Cochrane Scholarship Diversity Mentorship Program Van Scott Award and Frost ...

  16. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting Scholarship AAD CME Award Advocate of the Year Award Cochrane Scholarship Diversity Mentorship Program Van Scott Award and Frost ...

  17. Money Attitude, Self-esteem, and Compulsive Buying in a Population of Medical Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Richoux-Benhaim, Charlotte; Betizeau, Annabelle; Lequen, Valérie; Lohnhardt, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This study tried to determine the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB) and to identify among compulsive buyers a specific relation to money, a different buying style, and a lowered level of self-esteem...

  18. The Impact of Institutional Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management and Firm Performance: Top Management Roles and Social Capital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soh Hyun Chu; Hongsuk Yang; Mansokku Lee; Sangwook Park

    2017-01-01

    .... These three institutional pressures are examined by implementing green supply chain management, considering the role of top management and studying social capital between buyers and suppliers in the supply chain...

  19. 27 CFR 11.37 - Change in product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Rules for the Return of Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Malt... buyer's inventory of a product which has been changed in formula, proof, label or container (subject to...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Aspire Directions in Residency Young Physician Focus Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD ... District Office Invite Elected Officials to your Practice Life After Residency Webinars Event calendar Previous meetings archive ...

  1. Relationship characteristics and performance in fresh produce supply chains: the case of the Mexican avocado industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronado, J.J.A.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Inter-organisational relations research has shown that relationship characteristics can influence performance in seller-buyer transactions. Using a transaction cost economics approach, this research shows that relational elements such as expectation of continuity reduce the transaction

  2. 77 FR 26277 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Final Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... process. This would adversely impact Ex-Im Bank's ability to finance small business exporters and its... the export sales made by U.S. businesses. Ex-Im Bank and its Multi-Buyer policyholders use the Trade...

  3. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and ... links About AAD Support AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service ...

  5. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See a board-certified dermatologist for the best product recommendation for your hair type. Be careful when ... links About AAD Support AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog AAD Dermatology Buyer's Guide Store customer service ...

  6. Volume 11 No. 1 February 2011 4460 EXIT, VOICE AND LOYALTY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... smallholder French bean farmers in response to international food safety standards .... and were, therefore, afraid of losing their investments if the buyers were to ..... the supermarket value chain required compliance with IFSS.

  7. The Beauty of Brand Loyalty : – a case study of how marketers view Millennials' brand loyalty in the beauty industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kulle, Julia; Hellsten, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The generation of Millennials is becoming a very important segment in today's beauty market, because of their large size, purchasing power and engagement on social media. The Millennial consumers are heavy buyers of beauty products, but heavy buyers are not always loyal to the beauty brands. The concept of what is considered beautiful constantly changes, and there is an aspect of trendiness to the use of cosmetic products. Brands launch new products on a regular basis to follow fashion and be...

  8. Contracting for Efficiency: A Best Practices Guide for Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Saralyn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  9. The Conventionally Stable Sets in Noncooperative Games with Limited Observations: The Application to Monopoly and Oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoru Kaneko

    1982-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of the conventionally stable set to monopolistic and oligopolistic markets. A market model with a finite number of producers and a continuum of buyers is presented and then is formulated as a strategic game in which the producers' strategies are prices and the buyers' strategies are demands for commodities. It is shown that a conventionally stable set in this game corresponds to a conventionally stable one in a game where the producers are only players but the bu...

  10. JPRS Report China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-31

    compulsion to get the peasants to leave the land will not work. In view of the situation in the above several regards, conditions are not yet ready...and between expenditures for normal business activities and those for entertaining guest and providing gifts. Buyers are unwilling to go out, plant...clothing alone, town- ship enterprise products accounted for 49.6 percent of purchases by foreign buyers . In the past 10 years, town- ship

  11. Algorithmic optimization of sales acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Janko, Nikolaj

    2017-01-01

    Online sales are growing rapidly over the years, which poses an additional challenge for online sellers such as Amazon, as there is ever more competition. The seller therefore wants to create a strong bond between him and the buyer. This requires caution in choosing buyers for promotional activities which are inevitable for successful sales. In the thesis we defined the problem with prediction model and developed several approaches based on graph theory and set theory to solve the problem...

  12. Acquisition Strategies for Purchasing Bulk Petroleum in DoD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    buyers and sellers operating within it. Market structure includes many elements such as the number of buyers and sellers, product differentiation , barriers...section D of this chapter and Chapter IV. 3. Product Policy Some product differentiation must be perceived by potential customers to affect the market...is to maximize its market strengths as a large customer and minimize the product differentiation it faces. With product differentiation such as JP-4

  13. Buying behaviour of Western European food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze important aspects of buying behavior of food retailers, i.e., trade buyers' evaluation of product and vendor attributes, based on a number of background variables, when choosing a new supplier of an already well-known product category. The study encompass...... attributes, and that it is possible to generalise retailers' buying behavior for different food products across countries, retail organizations, and buyers....

  14. Contracting for Efficiency. A Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Saralyn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  15. Pemanfaatan Augmented Reality dalam Memvisualisasikan Produk Perumahan melalui Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Bonny A. Suryawinata

    2010-01-01

    To attract house buyers, many ways is done by the developers to promote their products, such as by using multiple marketing medias namely television, radio, internet, newspapers or distribute flyers during the exhibition. It is not uncommon that the said use of multiple media elements still make prospective buyers feel confused, because they can not imagine the shape of the house, since all they see is a flat two dimensional (2D) object. To obtain detailed product information house of course ...

  16. PEMANFAATAN AUGMENTED REALITY DALAM MEMVISUALISASIKAN PRODUK PERUMAHAN MELALUI INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Bonny A. Suryawinata

    2010-01-01

    To attract house buyers, many ways is done by the developers to promote their products, such as by using multiple marketing medias namely television, radio, internet, newspapers or distribute flyers during the exhibition. It is not uncommon that the said use of multiple media elements still make prospective buyers feel confused, because they can not imagine the shape of the house, since all they see is a flat two dimensional (2D) object. To obtain detailed product information house of course ...

  17. Heterogeneous Investors, Negotiation Strength & Asset Prices in Private Markets: Evidence from Commercial Real Estate

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Ling

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of heterogeneous investors with asymmetric bargaining positions on transaction prices in private commercial real estate markets. Using a dataset that contains nearly 100,000 commercial real estate transactions during 1997-2009, we examine the extent to which common conditions of sale and buyer characteristics affect bargaining power and negotiated prices. We find that tax-motivated buyers seeking to complete a delayed Section 1031 exchange pay an average price premium of...

  18. Price Dispersion in the Housing Market: The Role of Bargaining and Search Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano LISI

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a matching model à la Pissarides (2000) in order to explain a basic fact of housing markets: price dispersion. The variance in house prices is basically due to both the ex-ante heterogeneity of the parties (i.e., bargaining power, tastes, asymmetric information) and the search costs of buyers and sellers. In fact, sellers and buyers spend time and money before concluding the deal. Furthermore, the house price is substantially determined by bargaining between the parties. T...

  19. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  20. Relevance of cognitive dissonance, activation and involvement to branding: An overview / Relevancia de la disonancia cognitiva, la activación y el implicación en el branding: un resumen

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Elfering; Arti Sahgal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines consumer behavior from the perspective of cognitive psychology. It focuses on a set of cognitive psychological determinants of buyer behavior and analyzes how cognitive dissonance, activation and involvement influence consumer behavior. The literature indicates that a deeper insight into the cognitive processes underlying purchase behavior is essential for brand managers to create and communicate interventions that may have a stronger impact on the buyer such that their br...

  1. Seller Search and Market Outcomes in Online Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Kuruzovich; Siva Viswanathan; Ritu Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    It has become widely accepted that information technology (IT) has had a profound influence on market transactions, with lower search costs for buyers often considered the key to lower prices and higher consumer welfare. However, sellers also use online channels to search for buyers whose product preferences and valuations match the sellers' offerings, and limited research has examined the impact of IT on sellers' search strategies or associated market outcomes. In this study, we investigate ...

  2. Porter S Five Forces Model Scott Morton S Five Forces Model Bakos Treacy Model Analyzes Strategic Information Systems Management

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Gamayanto

    2004-01-01

    Wollongong City Council (WCC) is one of the most progressive and innovative local government organizations in Australia. Wollongong City Council use Information Technology to gain the competitive advantage and to face a global economy in the future. Porter's Five Force model is one of the models that can be using at Wollongong City Council because porter's five Forces model has strength in relationship between buyer and suppliers (Bargaining power of suppliers and bargaining power of buyers)....

  3. An empirical analysis of consumer awareness and trust in organic food legislation in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Brčić-Stipčević, Vesna; Petljak, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Background: The results of the research conducted in March 2009 on a representative sample of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia using a highly structured survey questionnaire in households have shown that the majority of the respondents (76.6%) are familiar with organic food. In the survey, special emphasis is put on the purchase of organic food, especially among regular buyers. Methods: Regular buyers were asked about their familiarity with the information on the organic food decl...

  4. Optimal Procurement Mechanisms for Divisible Goods with Capacitated Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-31

    the B2B online auction transactions totaled 109 billion in 1999, and that number was expected to grow to 2.7 trillion by 2004. Although auction...manufacturer, etc.) and n suppliers. The buyer purchases a single commodity from the suppliers and resells it in the consumer market . The buyer receives...an expected revenue, R(q) from selling q units of the product in the consumer market – the expectation is over the random demand realization and any

  5. Two-sided Facility Location

    OpenAIRE

    Alijani, Reza; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gollapudi, Sreenivas; Kollias, Kostas; Munagala, Kamesh

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rise of many successful e-commerce marketplace platforms like the Amazon marketplace, AirBnB, Uber/Lyft, and Upwork, where a central platform mediates economic transactions between buyers and sellers. Motivated by these platforms, we formulate a set of facility location problems that we term Two-sided Facility location. In our model, agents arrive at nodes in an underlying metric space, where the metric distance between any buyer and seller captures the quality...

  6. Personal sale process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience from prior successful sale of many companies from different business activities, tells us that it is necessary to create approach system, flexible to different buyers and environment. The base of this system is a belief that salesmen can stimulate big buyers to make buying decisions, if the selling process is done well. Emphasis is made on practical selling techniques which are used in the whole selling process.

  7. Pengaruh Hedonic Shopping Motivation Terhadap Impulse Buying Pada Toko Online: Studi Pada Toko Online Zalora

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Lia Octaria; Dewi, Citra Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping, including shopping for fashion goods, has become a trend in Indonesia. One of buyer's motivations to do online-fashion-shopping is hedonic shopping motivation. This research aims to examine the influence of hedonic shopping motivation on impulse buying process. Using 100 buyers of Zalora (an online shop) as the respondents, this study confirms that hedonic shopping motivation has a significant influence on the impulse buying process.

  8. Optimal pricing and lot sizing vendor managed inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ziaee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI is one of the effective techniques for managing theinventory in supply chain. VMI models have been proven to reduce the cost of inventorycompared with traditional economic order quantity method under some conditions such asconstant demand and production expenditure. However, the modeling of the VMI problem hasnever been studied under some realistic assumptions such as price dependent demand. In thispaper, three problem formulations are proposed. In the first problem formulation, we study aVMI problem with one buyer and one supplier when demand is considered to be a function ofprice and price elasticity to demand, and production cost is also a function of demand. Theproposed model is formulated and solved in a form of geometric programming. For the secondand the third models, we consider VMI problem with two buyers and two suppliers assumingthat each buyer centre is relatively close to the other buyer centre. Each supplier has only oneproduct which is different from the product of the other supplier. Two suppliers cooperate incustomer relationship management and two buyers cooperate in supplier relationshipmanagement as well, so the suppliers send the orders of two buyers by one vehicle,simultaneously. For the third model, an additional assumption which is practically applicableand reasonable is considered. For all the proposed models, the optimal solution is comparedwith the traditional one. We demonstrate the implementation of our proposed models usingsome numerical examples.

  9. How inventory consignment programs can improve supply chain performance: a process oriented perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K. Malhotra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inventory Consignment (IC has largely been viewed as a method of shifting the ownership and cost burden of inventory from buyer to supplier to benefit the buyer. This primarily accounting based viewpoint has largely ignored process changes that can occur for both the buyer and supplier. This study addresses this gap in the extant literature by examining IC from a process perspective by specifically addressing: (1 the implementation issues in an IC program for both buyers and suppliers and (2 the financial and operational benefits from IC for both buyers and suppliers. Using the case study methodology, we examined three firms that had varying degrees of involvement and roles in IC programs. Based on our detailed work with these three firms and their supply chain linkages, we offer a series of propositions to demonstrate that IC is not just an accounting issue, but also a management practice that requires a series of process changes in order to be successful. These process changes in turn provide operational benefits for both buyers and suppliers via the mechanism of increased demand visibility to suppliers. Through this approach, this study makes a contribution beyond what has been examined in the prior literature which has mostly dealt with IC as an accounting based inventory management issue.

  10. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  11. Assessing Differentiating Aspects of Karaj Citizens' Orientation to Buy from Fruits and Vegetables Market and Its Parallel Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aghasafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to assess distinct aspects of citizens' intention to buy fruits and vegetables from municipal markets and its parallel markets within Karaj city. The required data was collected by completing 150 questionnaires from Karaj citizens in 2013. Using the multi-Group discriminant analysis, analysis ofthe study results within the three groups including buyers from municipal markets, local shops and fruit pickups show that possibility for non-cash payment, presenting printed purchase receipts, a higher quality of product, degree of fruit importance in the household basket, seller’s behaviour, more openning hours, use the benefit of the more familiar seller, and length of time allocated to buy fruit play the greatest role in making a distinction between two groups of buyers including buyers from local shops and buyers from municipal markets against buyers from fruit pickups. In addition, the results of this study indicate that monthly household expenditures, number of monthly fruit purchase, possibility for customers to select his desired items , a reasonable price comapared to the product’s quality, appropriate packing, education, how often a household buy fruits in a month a wide variety of products, trust to the offered prices, distance to the market play the greatest role in making a distinction between two groups of buyers from local shops and buyers from municipal markets, respectively. Ultimately, it is suggested to train sellers how to behave properly withcustomers. In addition, it should be paid more attention to appropriate packing and to make it possible for the citizens to select their desired items themselves.

  12. What is a free customer worth? Armchair calculations of nonpaying customers' value can lead to flawed strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunil; Mela, Carl F

    2008-11-01

    Free customers who are subsidized by paying customers are essential to a vast array of businesses, such as media companies, employment services, and even IT providers. But because they generate revenue only indirectly, figuring out the true value of those customers--and how much attention to devote them--has always been a challenge. Traditional customer-valuation models don't help; they focus exclusively on paying customers and largely ignore network effects, or how customers help draw other customers to a business. Now a new model, devised by professors Gupta, of Harvard Business School, and Mela, of Fuqua School of Business, takes into account not only direct network effects (where buyers attract more buyers or sellers more sellers) but also indirect network effects (where buyers attract more sellers or vice versa) . The model calculates the precise long-term impact of each additional free customer on a company's profits, factoring in the degree to which he or she brings in other customers--whether free or paying--and the ripple effect of those customers. The model helped an online auction house make several critical decisions. The business made its money on fees charged to sellers but recognized that its free customers--its buyers--were valuable, too. As competition heated up, the company worried that it wasn't wooing enough buyers. Using the model, the business discovered that the network effects of buyers were indeed large and that those customers were worth over $1,000 each--much more than had been assumed. Armed with that information, the firm increased its research on buyers, invested more in targeting them with ads, and improved their experience. The model also helped the company identify the effects of various pricing strategies on sellers, showing that they became less price-sensitive over time. As a result, the company raised the fees it charged them as well.

  13. Pre-requisites of successful strategic electronic coordination: the moderation effect of the ownership mechanism of inter-organisational information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teryokhin Sergei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to explain how the ownership mechanism of an interorganisational information system (IOS may impact strategic information exchange (electronic coordination induced by specific investments in the IOS. Recent research and practice show that heavy investments in IOSs demonstrate mixed results with respect to their impact on the electronic coordination. Consequently, the search of additional factors is needed to help and explain under what circumstances the IOS investments for strategic purposes become beneficial for the companies in a buyersupplier dyad. Transaction cost economics (TCE and the hostage model are used as a framework for the research. 198 observations of Norwegian companies in different branches of industry constitute the base of the empirical study. A buyer-supplier dyad is the unit of the analysis. A regression model of the relation between the IOS ownership mechanism and the strategic information sharing is used to test two hypotheses about the buyer-supplier collaboration via an IOS. The results demonstrate that the risk of unilateral specific investments in an IOS made by the buyer or the seller is attenuated by the ownership mechanism of the IOS. The willingness of a buyer to share their strategic information with the supplier via the IOS increases if the supplier invests in the IOS which is owned and controlled by the buyer. Conversely, the supplier becomes motivated to share certain sensitive strategic information with the buying company if the latter invests in the IOS which is owned and controlled by the supplier.

  14. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PRINSIP KERJASAMA DALAM WACANA JUAL BELI DI PASAR TRADISIONAL PERUMNAS TLOGOSARI SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puji Astuti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The market is a meeting place for sellers and buyers. Bargaining in traditional markets is an activity that is often made between the seller and the buyer. The interaction between sellers and buyers need a language as a communication tool. How the realization of the principle of cooperation in the discourse of buying and selling in the traditional market of Perumnas Tlogosari Semarang discussed in this paper is. This study was chosen markets located in Suryo Kusumo because this market is the largest market among the three markets are in Perumnas Tlogosari Semarang. Collecting data was conducted by scrutinizing method that was developed with basic tapping technique and Advanced techniques in the form of notes and recording technique. The results showed that in the interaction of sellers and buyers comply with and violate the principle of cooperation. Compliance with the principle of cooperation intended to convey the message clearly, correctly and avoid misunderstandings. While the violation of the cooperation principle was intended to ensure the quality of goods, so merchandise sold, searching for information, the seller and the buyer is familiar, and praised the merchandise.

  16. Heterogeneous Investors, Negotiation Strength & Asset Prices in Private Markets: Evidence from Commercial Real Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Ling

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact of heterogeneous investors with asymmetric bargaining positions on transaction prices in private commercial real estate markets. Using a dataset that contains nearly 100,000 commercial real estate transactions during 1997-2009, we examine the extent to which common conditions of sale and buyer characteristics affect bargaining power and negotiated prices. We find that tax-motivated buyers seeking to complete a delayed Section 1031 exchange pay an average price premium of 12.5% when purchasing smaller properties. However, these price premiums for exchange motivated buyers are not observed among more expensive properties. We find strong evidence that out-of-state buyers pay significantly more (8 - 11% premium for commercial properties than in-state buyers. Consistent with our expectations, we find that sellers of distressed properties negotiate significantly lower transaction prices (13 - 15% discount than sellers of non-distressed properties, all else equal. Finally, we find evidence that REITs pay price premiums between 14 - 16% for office and industrial and retail properties. Our results strongly support the notion that relative bargaining power influences negotiated transaction prices.

  17. Assessments and market design for the water market at Xiying Irrigation, Shiyang River Basin, Gansu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, H.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the pilot water markets in China, the market in Xiying Irrigation was built in 2008. Based on the historical trading data, it can be concluded that the studied market is growing but facing quite a few challenges. To solve these challenges, the first step we have done is assessment on the market. Some comparable indices were introduced from network science by us. These indices straightforwardly show the status and major problems in the market. One main problem we have found from surveys and our assessment is that there are barriers between distant seller and buyer. This discovery incentives us to develop a new mechanism for matching sellers and buyers to reduce the loss on social welfare. By modelling the trading barriers between a buyer and a seller as an indicator -- tradable or nontradable, the authors propose a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm to optimize the social welfare. According to the theories on competitive equilibrium, the authors are able to extend the programming to compute a reasonable price profile for each pair of tradable seller and buyer. It can be proved that given the price profile, the optimal strategy for each seller or buyer is to follow the optimal assignment. This mechanism significantly reduces the social welfare loss. However, this study shows that removing the trading barriers can brings more social welfare increments.

  18. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  19. Does it take two to tango? Longitudinal effects of unilateral and bilateral integrative negotiation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerres, Alfred; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Freund, Philipp Alexander; Backhaus, Klaus; Hertel, Guido

    2013-05-01

    This study assesses longitudinal effects of different training designs on joint negotiation performance. In so doing, the study experimentally compares (a) bilateral training of both the seller and the buyer within a dyad with both (b) a no-training control condition and 2 conditions with unilateral training of either (c) the buyer or (d) the seller. Moreover, underlying psychological mechanisms of the training effect are assessed. Results of the study with 360 participants reveal a significant overall training effect on negotiation outcomes that remains stable over time. Consistent with our hypotheses, unilateral negotiation training is only effective if the trained party is the seller, and it fails if the trained party is the buyer. Additional mediation analyses reveal exchange of priority-related information as a causal mechanism underlying these effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Intransparent Markets and Intra-Industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...... clearing price exists, and sellers randomize over an equilibrium price distribution. Letting sellers advertise their offers abroad leads to international trade, which would not take place under complete information. Buyers then receive more offers, leading to lower prices and welfare gains. Sellers...... in the model are identical, but appear heterogeneous due to their price randomization. In larger and more open economies, prices and markups will be lower, and exports are primarily realized by sellers who charge low prices. These predictions are similar to those of trade models where firm heterogeneity...

  1. Branding approach and valuation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamula Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the skill of marketing and branding nowadays is concerned with building equity for products whose characteristics, pricing, distribution and availability are really quite close to each other. Brands allow the consumer to shop with confidence. The real power of successful brands is that they meet the expectations of those that buy them or, to put it another way, they represent a promise kept. As such they are a contract between a seller and a buyer: if the seller keeps to its side of the bargain, the buyer will be satisfied; if not, the buyer will in future look elsewhere. Understanding consumer perceptions and associations is an important first step to understanding brand preferences and choices. In this paper, we discuss different models to measure value of brand according to couple of well known approaches according to request by companies. We rely upon several empirical examples.

  2. The relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Redlin, Jennifer; Wonderlich, Steve; Crosby, Ross; Faber, Ron; Miltenberger, Ray; Smyth, Joshua; Stickney, Marci; Gosnell, Blake; Burgard, Melissa; Lancaster, Kathy

    2002-07-01

    Compulsive buying has received increased research attention in the last decade. The disorder has high rates of comorbidity for other disorders, including eating disorders. This study explored the possible relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders. Twenty women who scored in the pathological range on a measure of compulsive buying and 20 controls were recruited via the media. Various measures of psychopathology and eating disorder symptoms were administered to both groups. Compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have a higher lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence. No differences existed between normal controls and compulsive buyers in prevalence of current or lifetime eating disorders, nor were there differences in scores of eating-related psychopathology. This work failed to demonstrate an increased risk for eating disorder in compulsive buyers, although a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse and higher scores on pathological personality dimension scales were seen.

  3. The Construction of Defense Department Contracts in Thin Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    power as there are fewer vendors which can offer the product the buyer desires (Bacharach & Lawler 1984; Root, 1988). The seller’s bargaining power ...Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 272 - with buyers and sellers, while contract value increases as markets thin with...fewer buyers and sellers. Finally, as the percentage of an individual contract increases relative to the vendor’s total revenues, the length and

  4. The buying motives related to important supplier and product attributes: An analysis of retail buying behaviour in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Kristensen, Gitte Hvoldal; Skytte, Hans

    1999-01-01

    and Germany using the laddering technique and means-end theory (Reynolds & Gut-man 1988). The purpose of the interview was to identify the content and relationship between attributes, consequences and values in order to get a deeper understanding of the retail buyer's cognitive structure. Our purpose...... was to analyse whether there is a difference in consequences and values sought from the same set of attributes. The results showed that supplier attributes were more important than product attributes, but both categories interact in a complex web of attributes to create central con-se-quences and values...... for the buyer. The study also showed that the same attributes lead to different consequences in the two coun-tries, and this means that value researchers must analyse more than concrete attribute to understand retail buying behaviour. The study has revealed that it is possible to analyse what the retail buyers...

  5. A Stackelberg Game Approach in an Integrated Inventory Model with Carbon-Emission and Setup Cost Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated inventory model that allows Stackelberg game policy for optimizing joint total cost of a vendor and buyer system. After receiving the lot, the buyer commences an inspection process to determine the defective items. All defective items the buyer sends to vendor during the receiving of the next lot. Due to increasing number of shipments fixed and variable transportation, as well as carbon emissions, are considered, which makes the model sustainable integrated model forever. To reduce the setup cost for the vendor, a discrete setup reduction is considered for maximization more profit. The players of the integrated model are with unequal power (as leader and follower and the Stackelberg game strategy is utilized to solve this model for obtaining global optimum solution over the finite planning horizon. An illustrative numerical example is given to understand this model clearly.

  6. The importance of organisational identity for formulating and enacting strategies and policies in retailer buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    of nine German food retailers, the paper analyses the role of identity in relation to the buying activities. In particular, this paper focuses on how retail buyers discursively construct their professional identities as buyers and the identities of the retail chains they work for and how this influences......This paper explores how retail buyers construct their own professional identities and the organisational identity of the retailers they work for and the importance of these constructions for the formulation and enactment of strategies and policies in the field of fresh pork. Through a case study...... how they buy fresh pork through formulating and enacting various strategies and buying policies of the retailers....

  7. Organisational identity and food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    How do retailers decide what products to buy? Previous answers to this question have tended to focus on the decisions being made, typically investigating what criteria retail buyers use to choose between products and suppliers (Hansen & Skytte 1998). However, as the decisions made by retail buyers...... have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. In contrast, this project views retailer...... buying behaviour as an ongoing organisational sensemaking process embedded in, at least, social, organisational, competitive and societal contexts. The aim is to gain an understanding of how and why retail buyers make certain decisions rather than simply focusing on what they decide....

  8. Pemanfaatan Augmented Reality Dalam Memvisualisasikan Produk Perumahan Melalui Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny A Suryawinata

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To attract house buyers, many ways is done by the developers to promote their products, such as by using multiple marketing medias namely television, radio, internet, newspapers or distribute flyers during the exhibition. It is not uncommon that the said use of multiple media elements still make prospective buyers feel confused, because they can not imagine the shape of the house, since all they see is a flat two dimensional (2D object. To obtain detailed product information house of course they have to visit the exhibition or housing sales office that would spend the time and cost. This is why the authors proposed an application that can display 3D images over the Internet by using Augmented Reality technology, so that prospective home buyers can access these applications anytime and anywhere. 

  9. A Cross-Cultural Multi-agent Model of Opportunism in Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan; Jonker, Catholijn M.; Verwaart, Tim

    According to transaction cost economics, contracts are always incomplete and offer opportunities to defect. Some level of trust is a sine qua non for trade. If the seller is better informed about product quality than the buyer, the buyer has to rely on information the seller provides or has to check the information by testing the product or tracing the supply chain processes, thus incurring extra transaction cost. An opportunistic seller who assumes the buyer to trust, may deliver a lower quality product than agreed upon. In human decisions to deceive and to show trust or distrust, issues like mutual expectations, shame, self-esteem, personality, and reputation are involved. These factors depend in part on traders' cultural background. This paper proposes an agent model of deceit and trust and describes a multi-agent simulation where trading agents are differentiated according to Hofstede's dimensions of national culture. Simulations of USA and Dutch trading situations are compared.

  10. Duty to notify the seller of defects in title in contracts for the international sale of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The seller must deliver the goods which are free from any right or claim of a third party. If the seller fails to do so he will be liable for the breach of the contract. However, the buyer loses the right to rely on the provisions regulating seller's liability for defects in title if he does not give notice to the seller specifying the nature of the right or claim of the third party. In order to have legal effect, the notice must fulfill conditions regarding content, form and addressee. The buyer must notify the seller in a timely manner i.e. within a reasonable time after he has become aware or, alternatively, ought to have become aware of the right or claim. Breach of the duty to notify the seller of the defects in title is followed by severe consequences for the buyer because he loses the right to rely on the defects. However, in international sales law the buyer can exercise rights arising out of defects in title even when he fails to notify the seller in two specific cases. First, the buyer retains his rights arising out of a breach of Art. 41 and 42 if the seller knew of the right or claim of the third party and the nature of it. And second, pursuant to Art. 44 of the CISG, the buyer may reduce the price in accordance with Art. 50 or claim damages, except for loss of profit, if he has reasonable excuse for his failure to give the required notice.

  11. Experimental analysis of the relationship between depressed mood and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrios, Michael; McQueen, Paul; Moulding, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Compulsive buying is a serious but understudied problem, where individuals are unable to resist or control their buying behaviour, leading to substantial social and financial problems. To date there has been a lack of experimental research into the disorder. The relationship between mood and compulsive buying was examined in compulsive buyers (N = 18) and non-clinical controls (N = 17), using experimental information-processing paradigms. In study 1, it was expected that, if buying behaviours function as a coping strategy for depressed mood, then an induction of depressed mood would lead to an enhanced memory for appealing consumer-objects in compulsive buyers, but not controls. In study 2, we examined the association between emotional and functional constructs and consumer items. It was expected that compulsive buyers would show stronger semantic relationships and thus better episodic memory for object-emotion pairs, relative to object-function pairs, for appealing items. Unexpectedly, in study 1 the memory-facilitating effect of depressed mood was evident among control participants and absent among compulsive buyers. In study 2, compulsive buyers showed a lesser association of undesirable objects with positive emotional concepts than did non-clinical controls, and compulsive buyers were found to more strongly associate all consumer items with emotional concepts than with concepts of function. Key limitations were low power and possible floor effects due to error frequency data. These findings provide insights into the processes underlying CB phenomena, in particular supporting the role of mood in compulsive buying. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Men versus Women in the Sale of Financial Products

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Michael Vasiliu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the impact of gender role in the development of buyer-seller relationships. There was no recipe to convince who is best in sales - man or woman or who is the ideal buyer-female or male. Employers’ trend in banking in recent years is to choose women in front-office jobs. Depending on the membership of a particular kind I will analyze the factors perceived by customers as being important in the development of ongoing relationships with frontline staff and gender diff...

  13. Genetic algorithm to optimize two-echelon inventory control system for perishable goods in terms of active packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Yousefi Yegane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an inventory control policy for a two-echelon inventory control system with one supplier-one buyer. We consider the case of deteriorating items which lead to shortage in supply chain. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the deterioration rate by adding some specification to the packaging of these items that is known as active packaging. Although this packaging can reduce the deteriorating rate of products, but may be increases the cost of both supplier and buyer. Because of the complexity of the mathematical model, a genetic algorithm has been developed to determine the best policy of this inventory control system.

  14. Exemption of the seller under art. 80 of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Seller's breach of delivery obligation will render him liable and a range of remedies will be available to the buyer pursuant Art. 45 of the CISG. However, the buyer may not rely on a seller's failure to perform delivery to the extent that such a failure was caused by his own act or omission. Art. 80 of the CISG represents the concretisation of the principle of good faith from Art. 7(1) of the CISG. Art. 80 of the CISG has a distinctive sphere of application in comparison to the Art. 79 of th...

  15. Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers and thus lowering the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country.

  16. Estimation of Hedonic Single-Family House Price Function Considering Neighborhood Effect Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Shimizu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the formulation of hedonic models, in addition to locational factors and building structures which affect the house prices, the generation of the omitted variable bias is thought to occur in cases when local environmental variables and the individual characteristics of house buyers are not taken into consideration. However, since it is difficult to obtain local environmental information in a small neighborhood unit and to observe individual characteristics of house buyers, these variables have not been sufficiently considered in previous studies. We demonstrated that non-negligible levels of omitted variable bias are generated if these variables are not considered.

  17. E-Commerce, Two-Sided Markets and Info-Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudeul, Alexandre; Jullien, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    Participants in a market, buyers and sellers, may need the service of an intermediary who will put them into contact and give them information about their potential trading partner. The intermediary chooses what price it will charge to each side to have access to its service. It also chooses what information it will reveal, for example to the buyer about the value of the seller’s product. In a market with network externalities, it would be optimal that everybody had access to the other side, ...

  18. Using Porter’s Five Forces Model for Analysing the Competitive Environment of Thailand’s Sweet Corn Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanakorn Rachapila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The competition in Thailand sweet corn industry relatively high: Bargaining power of suppliers: supplier concentration, availability of substitute input, importance of suppliers’ input to buyer and importance of industry to supplier; Intensity of Rivalry of rivalry among existing competitors: number of competitors, augmented capacity in large increments, value of fixed costs and exit barriers; Threat of entrants or potential competitors: economical scale; Determinant of buyer power: product differentiation, switching costs to use other products, switching costs to use other products and buyers’ use of multiple sources, threat of substitute products or services relatively low.

  19. What is New York’s Amazon Tax on Internet Commerce?

    OpenAIRE

    James G.S. Yang

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines internet commerce taxation. It concerns who is responsible for collecting sales tax - the seller or the buyer, which depends on nexus between the seller and the state. If there is a nexus, it is the seller’s responsibility; otherwise, it is the buyer’s duty. Nexus further depends on physical presence. However, in today’s e-business, the concept of physical presence has changed. Effective June 1, 2008, New York State enacted the so called “Amazon Tax Law†that an o...

  20. Perilaku Konsumen dalam Penggunaan Plastik Kresek Hitam Daur Ulang sebagai Wadah Makanan Siap Santap di Pusat Pasar Tavip Binjai Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Damanik, Ervina

    2015-01-01

    Crackle of plastic food packaging is a very popular and a favorite choice of food vendors. Usually the roadside food vendors use a crackle of plastic containers ready to eat food purchased by the buyer. But there are negative side of this provision of plastic crackle of food ready to eat because the food purchased by the buyer purchased the heat can react with the chemical components of plastics maker that crackle. The food consumed by the consumer directly and may cause health effects. Th...

  1. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  2. The Fisher Market Game: Equilibrium and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Chen, Yiling; Deng, Xiaotie

    2014-01-01

    and report their preferences over goods; the market-clearing prices and allocations are then determined based on their reported preferences rather than their real preferences. We show that the Fisher market game always has a pure Nash equilibrium, for buyers with linear, Leontief, and Cobb-Douglas utility...... functions, which are three representative classes of utility functions in the important Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) family. Furthermore, to quantify the social efficiency, we prove Price of Anarchy bounds for the game when the utility functions of buyers fall into these three classes...

  3. "Buy-It-Now" or "Sell-It-Now" Auctions: Effects of Changing Bargaining Power in Sequential Trading Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Grebe, Tim; Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta; Kröger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    We study experimentally the effect of bargaining power in two sequential mechanisms that offer the possibility to trade at a fixed price before an auction. In the “Buy-It-Now” format, the seller has the bargaining power and offers a price prior to the auction; whereas in the “Sell-It-Now” format, it is the buyer. Both formats are extensively used in online and offline markets. Despite very different strategic implications for buyers and sellers, results from our experiment suggest...

  4. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...... and understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed....

  5. Relevance of cognitive dissonance, activation and involvement to branding: An overview / Relevancia de la disonancia cognitiva, la activación y el implicación en el branding: un resumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Elfering

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines consumer behavior from the perspective of cognitive psychology. It focuses on a set of cognitive psychological determinants of buyer behavior and analyzes how cognitive dissonance, activation and involvement influence consumer behavior. The literature indicates that a deeper insight into the cognitive processes underlying purchase behavior is essential for brand managers to create and communicate interventions that may have a stronger impact on the buyer such that their brand occupies a special position in the consumer’s mind. Up to now, the conflict between presenting a brand in a both favorable light and completely accurately has been rarely addressed in the literature.

  6. Metrics for assessing retailers based on consumer perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimin Anastasii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests a new look at trading platforms, which is called “metrics.” Metrics are a way to look at the point of sale in a large part from the buyer’s side. The buyer enters the store and make buying decision based on those factors that the seller often does not consider, or considers in part, because “does not see” them, since he is not a buyer. The article proposes the classification of retailers, metrics and a methodology for their determination, presents the results of an audit of retailers in St. Petersburg on the proposed methodology.

  7. On the efficiency of decentralized exchange with resale possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Tranæs, Torben

    1999-01-01

    . If resale is possible and transaction costs are negligible, we would nevertheless expect an efficient allocation to result from decentralized exchange. This paper suggests that this depends on the nature of the commodity; while the allocation of a durable good will be efficient, the allocation......This paper studies decentralized exchange by bilateral matching and bargaining when resale is possible. Decentralized exchange involves the risk that goods and services may be allocated inefficiently; if low-valuation buyers consume while high-valuation buyers do not, then social welfare is reduced...

  8. Target Choice and Unique Synergies in Global Mobile Telephony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Köhler, Rebecca; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The success of acquisitions rests on detecting and realizing unique synergies between buyer and target through their dyadic relationships. We study the role of unique dyad-specific synergies in the selection of takeover targets in the global mobile telecommunications industry. Firms use their for......The success of acquisitions rests on detecting and realizing unique synergies between buyer and target through their dyadic relationships. We study the role of unique dyad-specific synergies in the selection of takeover targets in the global mobile telecommunications industry. Firms use...... industry. This helps us in identifying unique synergies as drivers of acquisition performance....

  9. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall...

  10. E-business in the energy industry: from pens and pencils to protection devices; E-Business in der Energieversorgungsindustrie: Von Bleistiften und Kugelschreibern bis zu Schutzgeraeten. Einkauf beschleunigen - Kosten senken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, N. [Business Development, eBusiness and Direct Sales, Siemens Bereich Power Transmission and Distribution, Nuernberg (Germany); Greeley, R. [Concert Software and Business Services GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-02-21

    Placing orders electronically (e-procurement) is becoming today an essential part of companies e-business strategy. For energy industry suppliers, the question now is how do they support their customers (buyers) e-procurement projects, i.e. provide them with product content? Especially when the product information required is for complex engineering items, such as switchgear and protection devices. (orig.)

  11. E-Procurement Goes to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilford, Marjorie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses e-procurement in higher education, an integrated system of services and Web technologies providing electronic bridges between buyers and sellers. Addresses its benefits, potential obstacles, early implementation lessons, and getting started. Includes a sidebar of definitions relevant to e-procurement. (EV)

  12. From social ties to embedded competencies: The case of business groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey); S.C. Zyglidopoulos (Stelios)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOur current views of economic competition are still rooted in the imagery of the isolated firm that transacts with its buyers, suppliers, and competitors via largely anonymous factor and product markets. Yet this view is fundamentally at odds with the growing importance of business

  13. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... required. The participation fee will be $3,453 for large firms and $2,758 for a small or medium-sized... representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers. This trade mission will... buyers and allow them to explore new business opportunities. Participating in an official U.S. industry...

  14. Multiple Award, Multiple Order Contracts - The Future of Navy Surface Maintenance Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-27

    F-35 Lightning II, Joint Program Office in Arlington, VA from April 2009 to May 2011; and a Global War on Terrorism Support Assignment (GSA) to the...level of required “government resources and effort to effectively administer contracts and remain a smart buyer and peer of industry” (p. 4). Cost

  15. 75 FR 70760 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ...'' are added to ``Trading terms.'' Market indicators The heading ``The Bond Buyer'' and subtopics...: ``Secondary market activity;'' ``Dollar bond market activity;'' ``Financial futures'' and subtopics... Blaine, Associate Director, Division of Market Regulation, SEC, dated July 24, 2000. The question bank is...

  16. A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Principles from microeconomic theory and operations research can provide insight into acquisition decisions to produce military capabili- ties in an...Department Edmund Conrow (1995) developed an excellent microeconomic framework to investigate the incentives of buyers and sellers in the defense

  17. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 1, Issue 68

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    21 No. 1: 486–504 Principles from microeconomic theory and operations research can provide insight into acquisition decisions to produce military...Contractors and the Defense Department Edmund Conrow (1995) developed an excellent microeconomic framework to investigate the incentives of buyers and

  18. A better way - uneven-aged management of southern yellow pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don M. Handley; Joshua C. Dickinson

    2013-01-01

    Uneven-aged management of southern yellow pine offers family forest owners in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of the Southeast an attractive economic alternative to the two most common forestry scenarios. First, the great majority of owners practice no management. Too often they call in a timber buyer or procurement forester who high grades the forest. Second are the...

  19. A Basic Approach to Designing Embedded Systems Using a Simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For example a vending machine may have three main functions (namely - insert money, choose item to be purchased and send out item to buyer/user) that are controlled by an embedded chip through its peripherals which are linked to the appliance's user interface. This paper intends to be a complete introductory guide to ...

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ETIWISTIC

    2013-04-29

    Apr 29, 2013 ... training pattern, and even an evolution in the production centre. While. Western education resulted in a shift ... birth to the introduction of training drives by government and non governmental parastatals. .... buyer of an Adire piece is merely interested in the cloth for its aesthetic appeal and most times is not ...

  1. Morality and exchange in the Mumbai contemporary art world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sooudi, O.K.; Velthuis, O.; Baia Curioni, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Indian contemporary art market developed dramatically over the 1990s and 2000s. More buyers and increased prices for, as well as new attention on, Indian contemporary art, both domestically and abroad, also entailed the maturation of local art scenes, especially in Mumbai and Delhi, as new

  2. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses – evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, LL

    2009-09-30

    Full Text Available for redistribution purposes. This paper reports on the extent of purchases of agricultural land for diverse reasons within an intensive and extensive agricultural farming area in the Western Cape, gathered through a survey of land buyers between January 2005...

  3. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach...

  4. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular in a wide range of industries. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer's utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, which generates different purchase...

  5. Technical Due Diligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Varano, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    carried out for buyers or sellers involved in real estate transactions. It can also be part of mergers including real estate and other assets or part of facilities management outsourcing. This paper is based on a case study and an interview survey of companies involved in TDD consulting in Denmark...

  6. Quality uncertainty and informative advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga-González, José Luis

    We present a price signalling model with informative advertising. A costly advertisement informs of the good's quality directly and therefore the seller determines the fraction of informed buyers endogenously. We show that informative advertising only occurs in pooling equilibria. For an advertising

  7. The retail market for fresh cassava root tubers in the European Union (EU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind-Hansen, Lotte; Brimer, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels....

  8. Reliable Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The key objectives of wind turbine manufactures and buyers are to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership and Total Cost of Energy. Among others, low downtime of a wind turbine is important to increase the amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Historical data indicate that pitch systems accou...

  9. The Transfer of Property Rights by Theft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2005-01-01

    This article studies the involuntary transfer of property rights by theft - a topic almostunexplored in the law and economics literature. The question is whether a buyer of a stolen goodshould obtain title to the good if he/she has purchased it in good faith. As described in the articledifferent ...... the ownership when good faith is decisive for the transfer of property rights.JEL Classification: K11, K14 and K42Keywords: property right law, theft, good faith and game theory......This article studies the involuntary transfer of property rights by theft - a topic almostunexplored in the law and economics literature. The question is whether a buyer of a stolen goodshould obtain title to the good if he/she has purchased it in good faith. As described in the articledifferent...... that a rule of law where good faith is irrelevant in determining the issue of property rightsPareto dominates a rule where good faith may protect an innocent buyer. Thus, an owner of an assetwill spend more resources on protecting his property and potential buyers will incur higher costs inorder to verify...

  10. An analysis of Western European food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...

  11. Role Effects in Negotiation : The One-Down Phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donohue, William A.; Taylor, Paul J.

    Role is a concept that underlies most studies of human behavior in negotiation as subjects take on the roles of buyers and sellers or labor and management contract bargainers, for example Naturalistic studies also focus on such roles as teacher and administrator contract bargainers, hostage takers

  12. E-Commerce Comes Slowly But Surely to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenaugh, Mickey

    2000-01-01

    Discusses why e-commerce is being used so sparingly by big business and school purchasers alike, the benefits on going on-line for school buyers, and the integration of e-commerce with the district's accounting and management information systems. Available online services are detailed. (GR)

  13. Domain Models of "The Market" - In Preparation for E-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2003-01-01

    An analysis is presented, in the form both of an informal narrative and a formal model of "The Market" of buyers and sellers, agents, brokers and traders - who inquire about products and services, issue quotations, orders, delivers, receives, accepts, invoices, pays, rejects, returns and gets ref...

  14. Understanding local differences in small - scale fish- eries: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they are utilised in a sustainable manner (Pauly 2008). Fishing is widely recognised as having a major ...... prices offered by wholesale buyers and restaurants in Antsira- nana provides an attractive location for fishers to ... Improving the sustainability of fisheries within Antsiranana. Bay by reducing the overexploitation of fish ...

  15. The role of swift relationship and institutional structures in uncertainty reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Q.; Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty has been regarded as the most prominent barrier in ecommerce. However, how communication between buyers and seller contributes to a reduction in uncertainty is under-investigated. Integrating uncertainty reduction theory and relational contract theory, we develop a model that explain how

  16. An analysis of Western Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans

    A study concerning food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 West European countries. The study encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving towards pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the background for the study, the outline...

  17. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... creation and to some extent road transport buyers in terms of more informed market knowledge....

  18. A joint economic lot-sizing problem with fuzzy demand, defective items and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, W. A.; Laksono, P. W.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a joint economic lot-sizing problem consisting of a vendor and a buyer was proposed. A buyer ordered products from a vendor to fulfill end customer’s demand. A produced a batch of products, and delivered it to the buyer. The production process in the vendor was imperfect and produced a number of defective products. Production rate was assumed to be adjustable to control the output of vendor’s production. A continuous review policy was adopted by the buyer to manage his inventory level. In addition, an average annual demand was considered to be fuzzy rather than constant. The proposed model contributed to the current inventory literature by allowing the inclusion of fuzzy annual demand, imperfect production emission cost, and adjustable production rate. The proposed model also considered carbon emission cost which was resulted from the transportation activity. A mathematical model was developed for obtaining the optimal ordering quantity, safety factor and the number of deliveries so the joint total cost was minimized. Furthermore, an iterative procedure was suggested to determine the optimal solutions.

  19. Sellers' hedging incentives at EPA's emission trading auction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.R.; Haan, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cason (1993)argued thattheauction theEPAused in order to start the market for sulfur allowances, is not efficient. The set-up of the auction gives both buyers and sellers an incentive to understate their valuation of an allowance. In this paper, we show that the sellers’ incentives are even more

  20. Acceptance of selective contracting : The role of trust in the health insurer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bes, R.E.; Wendel, S.; Curfs, E.C.; Groenewegen, P.P.; de Jong, J.D

    2013-01-01

    Background In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers and