WorldWideScience

Sample records for buyers

  1. 1998/99 Buyer`s Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Buyers Guide lists products from companies worldwide under the major product headings: exploration; mine planning/geology; geological assessment; surface mining/quarrying; dredge mining; underground mining; engineering equipment and services for surface and underground operations; product storage and distribution; maintenance workshop equipment; and mineral processing and coal preparation equipment. An alphabetical listing of company names and addresses, fax and telephone numbers are included. The guide is extracted from a PC-mounted database using Microsoft Access. This database is available as hard copy or as an ASCII file on a floppy disc from Mike Woof, editor of World Mining Equipment.

  2. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the ...

  3. Buyer's guide 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power's 1995 Buyers' Guide consists of a Company Directory, a Product Directory, and Service Directory. In the product and service directories, categories also have subcategories. The Company Directory lists manufacturer names (domestic and foreign), corporate addresses, and telephone and FAX numbers. The Service Directory lists companies that offer equipment repair and maintenance

  4. Buyer-driven Greening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano; Lister, Jane

    2016-01-01

    findings suggest that environmental upgrading is more likely to occur when global value chains are characterized by unipolar governance and where the lead firms are consumer-facing companies with reputational risks. Furthermore, environmental upgrading in shipping is not likely to materialize without clear......In this article, we examine the relations between global value chain governance and environmental upgrading in maritime shipping. Drawing from interviews with global shipping companies and major buyers of shipping services (cargo-owners), we reveal the key issues and challenges faced in improving...... the environmental performance of maritime transportation. Contributing to the Global Value Chain (GVC) literature, we compare and analyze the influence of three main external drivers on environmental upgrading in the tanker, bulk and container shipping segments: regulation, cooperation and buyer demands. Our...

  5. Empirical analysis of buyer power

    OpenAIRE

    Beckert, Walter

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive econometric framework for the empirical analysis of buyer power. It encompasses the two main features of pricing schemes in business-to-business relationships: nonlinear price schedules and bargaining over rents. Disentangling them is critical to the empirical identification of buyer power. Testable predictions from the theoretical analysis are delineated, and a pragmatic empirical methodology is presented. It is readily implementable on the basis of transa...

  6. Sequential Auctions with Randomly Arriving Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Maher

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic market in which buyers compete in a sequence of auctions. New buyers and objects may arrive at random times. Buyers' private values, however, are not persistent. Instead, buyers draw new values in every period; equivalently, objects are heterogeneous but are drawn from the same distribution. We consider the use of the second-price auction for selling these objects. In equilibrium, buyers do not bid their true value. Instead, they shade their bids down by their continu...

  7. 1996 Buyer's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buyer's Guide consists of two sections: a list of vendors by category and an alphabetical list of vendors. The type of equipment and services include: air compressors, air conditioning, gas analysis, pipe anchors, anodes, gas appliances, augers, backhoes, pipe bending machines, billing systems, bits, blasting equipment, gas boilers, boring equipment, gas burners, calorimeters, well casings, cathodic protection equipment and surveys, coating machines, coatings, cogeneration equipment, gas heaters, communications equipment, compactors, compressor stations, computer software, flow computers, portable computers, connectors, consulting services, control equipment, cooling systems, corrosion control systems, couplings, cranes, cutting tools, data acquisition systems, dehydration equipment, gas detectors, drilling machines, engine controls and monitors, engineering services, diesel engines, gas engines, excavators, filters, financial services, fireplace equipment, pipe fittings, flanges, flowmeters, food services, fork lifts, gas furnaces, gas exploration, gas marketing services, gas processing, gas production, gas storage, gas transmission, electric generators, heat exchangers, heating systems, hydrostatic testing services, information systems, instruments, insulation, insurance, expansion joints, leak detectors, legal services, lightning protection, lubricants, meter reading services, meter sets, gas meters, NGV equipment, nondestructive test equipment, odorants, offshore drilling, pigs, pipes, pipe maintenance services, pressure relief valves, pressure vessels, pumps, recording equipment, regulators, risers, safety equipment, gas scrubbers, sealants, security systems, separators, SCADA equipment, survey instruments, tanks, telemetering equipment, tractors, training, trenching equipment, gas turbines, underwater tools, valve actuators, valves, vibration analyzers, gas water heaters, weld inspection, welding equipment, and wires and cables

  8. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  9. Buyers' alliances for bargaining power

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Suchan; Heidhues, Paul

    2003-01-01

    We provide a novel explanation as to why forming an alliance of buyers (or sellers) across separate markets can be advantageous when input prices are determined by bargaining. Our explanation helps to understand the prevalence of buyer cooperatives among small and medium sized firms. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Verhandlungsmacht durch Käuferkooperationen) Dieses Papier entwickelt eine neue Erklärung dafür, warum Zusammenschlüsse zwischen Käufern (oder Verkäufern), die in unterschiedlichen Märkten akti...

  10. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  11. Deceptive advertising with rational buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Ursino, Giovanni; Piccolo, Salvatore; Tedeschi, Piero

    2012-01-01

    We study a Bertrand game where two sellers supplying products of different and unverifiable qualities can outwit potential clients through (costly) deceptive advertising. We characterize a class of pooling equilibria where sellers post the same price regardless of their quality and low quality ones deceive buyers. Although in these equilibria low quality goods are purchased with positive probability, the buyer’s (expected) utility can surprisingly be higher than in a fully separating equilibr...

  12. Buyer Power in International Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Raff, Horst; Schmitt, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the implications for international markets of the existence of retailers/wholesalers with market power. Two main results are shown. First, in the presence of buyer power trade liberalization may lead to retail market concentration. Due to this concentration retail prices may be higher and welfare may be lower in free trade than in autarky, thus reversing the standard effects of trade liberalization. Second, the pro-competitive effects of trade liberalization are weaker...

  13. Power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorton, Matthew; Angell, Robert; Dries, Liesbeth; Urutyan, Vardan; Jackson, Elizabeth; White, John

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a Multiple Indicators and MultIple Causes (MIMIC) model for explaining the relationships between buyer-seller power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier satisfaction / performance. The model draws on an organizational supply chain perspective of power and is verified using data

  14. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...... the strategic, tactical and operational level. Solving the management task effectively is important in order to solve the operating task and the system development task. The operating task is further divided into a task regarding the physical deliveries, the delivery task, and a task regarding the development...... to use in a specific supply situation. A methodology for developing a company-specific supply management concept has been developed. Using a portfolio model, that has been developed, it is possible to identify eight general supply management tasks, describing different aspects of the delivery and product...

  15. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. MEHTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

  16. Buyer protection for e-commerce transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Laskowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Buyer protection has been a major challenge for e-commerce entrepreneurs and engineers building application for executing transactions on-line. The threat connected with e-commerce is mostly connected with problems in authenticating users performing the buy/sell action. Key webportals such as eBay.com and Paypal.com offer 100% money back buyer protection programs for transactions that were unsuccessful or purchased goods were substantially different from the provided description. The aim of this article is to analyze procedures of acquiring compensation in buyer protection programs procedures. The case study enclosed in the article seem to advocate that buyer protection programs does not insure e-commerce transactions. Any kind of money back guarantee is affected by the current marketing policy of the company. The user agreement does not directly impose an obligation of receiving compensation by the user.

  17. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, D.; Anand GARG; Naveen K. MEHTA

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. Th...

  18. Buyer protection for e-commerce transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Laskowski

    2010-01-01

    Buyer protection has been a major challenge for e-commerce entrepreneurs and engineers building application for executing transactions on-line. The threat connected with e-commerce is mostly connected with problems in authenticating users performing the buy/sell action. Key webportals such as eBay.com and Paypal.com offer 100% money back buyer protection programs for transactions that were unsuccessful or purchased goods were substantially different from the provided description. The aim of t...

  19. An Empirical Investigation Into Buyer Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Faes, W; Matthyssens, P

    1997-01-01

    Since purchasing has become a function more widely involved in corporate strategy and virtual organization structures are evolving within the function, many authors contend that new profiles of industrial buyers are required. Buyers of the next century will have to be more outgoing and outspoken, and combine reverse marketing skills with managerial skills. In this paper we focus on the required skills professional purchasers need, given the dynamic purchasing/marketing context and the 'reborn...

  20. The internal competitor: Buyer motives and external supplier marketing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Sloth, Jacob Lerche; Thrane, Claus

    Abstract Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this paper is to identify buyer motives for supporting internal competitors and to suggest relevant marketing strategy elements for external suppliers confronting these internal competitors. Research method: With basis...... in a literature review we identify different buyer motives for choosing to combine external suppliers with internal production, i.e., an internal competitor. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are identified and briefly discussed. Research findings: The paper describes different buyer motives...... relevant buyer motives, the existence of different buyer motives suggests that these buyers should be targeted with different marketing strategies. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are suggested and briefly discussed. Thus, for each buyer motive it is briefly discussed (1) how...

  1. The case for moderate-risk buyers: An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joowon; Yi, Sunghwan

    2016-06-30

    Despite recent increase in research on compulsive buying and excessive buying, the category of buyers whose buying patterns are approaching the clinical level but still somewhat below it has rarely been recognized in the literature. In this paper, we propose the case for the category of moderate-risk buyers. Following Ridgway et al.'s (2008) findings, moderate-risk buyers were operationalized as scoring 21-24 on Compulsive Buying Index. We hypothesized that moderate-risk buyers would hold significantly higher materialistic values than non-compulsive buyers, while exhibiting significantly less depressive symptoms and covert narcissism than full-fledged compulsive buyers. An online survey of individuals who frequently engaged in buying lapses was used (N=809). We found that moderate-risk buyers were significantly different from both compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in the frequency of buying lapses, hiding purchases and frequency of experiencing negative feelings leading to buying lapses. Furthermore, consistent with our hypothesis, moderate-risk buyers held significantly lower covert narcissism and depression than full-fledged compulsive buyers, but their materialism was not significantly different from each other. Our findings support the case for moderate-risk buyers as a separate group from full-fledged compulsive buyers. PMID:27138822

  2. Consensus Decision Making on Scale-Free Buyer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunantha Sodsee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Due to a behavior of buyers effects to a growth of marketing, then a group of agreement of buyers and buyers’ behavior on eventually placing orders are investigating. Approach: In this study, a discrete-time consensus protocol for a scale-free buyer networks is proposed. Herein, an initial purchase intention of each buyer is defined to be active or non-active and an impulse signal is used to activate a purchase intention as an advertisement. Results: To investigate a global decision making in the buyer networks, the number of active buyers after activating was considered. Finally, the numerical simulations were conducted to visualize the effectiveness of the proposed protocol. The results showed that buyers change their intentions based on activation of advertisement that also effect to the group decision making of network. Conclusion: The active buyers still be active if the current number of active buyers (φ(x is more than or equal to the defined value of their thi. On the other hand, the non-active buyers still be non-active if the current number of non-active buyers n-φ(x is more than or equal to the defined value of their thi. Otherwise, their states are altered.

  3. A Lightweight Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.

  4. Control configurations in buyer-supplier relationships: environment- buyer organisation- goals and modes of control

    OpenAIRE

    Nogatchewsky, Gwenaëlle

    2005-01-01

    Considering the growing externalisation of strategic activities, the problem of the control of buyer-supplier relationships is crucial. Therefore, researchers usually propose modes of control that are adapted to various environments. However, the organisations are often considered as “black boxes” whose goals are unspecified. This paper examines buyer-supplier control configurations that take into account the organisation of buying firms and their goals toward their suppliers. This research i...

  5. Consensus Decision Making on Scale-Free Buyer Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sunantha Sodsee; Maytiyanin Komkhao; Phayung Meesad

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Due to a behavior of buyers effects to a growth of marketing, then a group of agreement of buyers and buyers behavior on eventually placing orders are investigating. Approach: In this study, a discrete-time consensus protocol for a scale-free buyer networks is proposed. Herein, an initial purchase intention of each buyer is defined to be active or non-active and an impulse signal is used to activate a purchase intention as an advertisement. Results: To investigate a global ...

  6. Does behaviour of heavy and light wine buyers differ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lockshin, Larry; Habenschuss, Sarah;

    and contribution to a brand’s sales, light wine buyers comprise an important target group for small share wine brands. Winemakers of small brands should acknowledge this fact, trying to meet expectations of light buyers as well. In addition, direct marketing strategies could be adapted for each group individually......Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the differences in behaviour between heavy and light wine buyers. This is conducted by comparing heavy and light buyers of wine in terms of their repertoires including the size, purchase frequency and market shares across brands, as well as loyalty...... buyers’ market share for small brands is slightly greater than for the heavy wine buyers. Moreover, attributes such as brand type and brand share seem to drive loyalty more than expected for light wine buyers in comparison to heavy wine buyers. Practical implications: Despite their small purchase volume...

  7. Buyer power from joint listing decision

    OpenAIRE

    Caprice, Stéphane; Rey, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We show that collective bargaining can enhance retailers’ buying power vis-àvis their suppliers. We consider a model of vertically related markets, in which an upstream leader faces a competitive fringe of less efficient suppliers and negotiates secretly with several firms that compete in a downstream market. We allow downstream firms to join forces in negotiating with suppliers, by creating a buyer group which selects suppliers on behalf of its members: each group member can then veto ...

  8. A Secure and Efficient Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Hu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Digital watermarking technology has become increasing popular in the protection digital copyright. However, in the practical application, the watermarking algorithms should be combined with a secure copyright protection protocol to solve the copyright protection problems completely. In this paper, a novel buyer-seller watermarking protocol is proposed for piracy tracing, in which a memoryless Watermark Certification Authority (WCA can offer a number of watermarks for a buyer simultaneously, avoiding itself being involved in each digital transaction operated between the buyer and the seller. Besides, in order to guarantee the anonymity of the buyer, the WCA can provide the buyer with an encrypted digital certificate and have it submitted directly to the seller by the buyer. In addition, the proposed protocol also can resolve other problems, such as the customer right problem, the binding attack problem, the anonymity problem, the conspiracy problem, the dispute problem. The analyses indicate that the proposed protocol is secure and practical.

  9. Buyer-seller interaction patterns during ongoing service exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Valk, van der, L.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have to make an effort to ensure that the ongoing service exchange is successful. The Interaction Model originally developed by the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group for studying buyer-supplier i...

  10. Vendor-buyer ordering policy when demand is trapezoidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digeshkumar B. Shah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A joint vendor-buyer strategy is analyzed which is beneficial to both the players in the supply chain. The demand is assumed to be trapezoidal. It is established numerically that the joint venture decreases the total cost of the supply chain when compared with the independent decision of the buyer. To entice the buyer to order more units, a permissible credit period is offered by the vendor to the buyer. A negotiation factor is incorporated to share the cost savings.

  11. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  12. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  13. 9 CFR 201.69 - Furnishing information to competitor buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnishing information to competitor... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.69 Furnishing information to competitor buyers. No packer, dealer, or... operations: (a) Furnish competitor packers, dealers, market agencies, or their buyers or...

  14. Auctions Versus Private Negotiations in Buyer-Seller Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Watts

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Buyer-seller networks where price is determined by an ascending-bid auction are important in many economic examples such as certain real estate markets, radio spectrum sharing, and buyer-supplier networks. However, it may be that some sellers are better off not participating in the auction. We consider what happens if sellers can make a take it or leave it offer to one of their linked buyers before the auction takes place and thus such a seller can choose not to participate in the auction. We give conditions on the graph and buyers valuations under which the buyer and seller will both agree to such a take it or leave it offer. Specifically, the buyer-seller pair will choose private negotiation over the auction if the seller acts as a network bridge with power over the buyer and if there are enough buyers with low valuations so that the seller does not expect to receive a high price in the auction.

  15. Buyer-Seller Interaction Patterns During Ongoing Service Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Valk (Wendy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have t

  16. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...... performance. An important reason for this is the diverging beliefs and expectations held by both parties in the buyer-seller dyad. The purpose of this contribution is to develop a framework for understanding the divergences in expectations and relationship norms in cross-cultural business relationships among...... SMEs. We discuss four relational expectations derived from the B2B literature on relational norms for addressing these divergences: Quality, frequency and scope of communication, role specifications and coordination of work nature of planning horizons, and trustworthiness and link these to relationship...

  17. Buyer feedback as a filtering mechanism for reputable sellers

    CERN Document Server

    Laureti, P; Yu, Y K; Zhang, Y C; Laureti, Paolo; Slanina, Frantisek; Yu, Yi-Kuo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2002-01-01

    We propose a continuum model for the description of buyer and seller dynamics in an Internet market. The relevant variables are the research effort of buyers and the sellers' reputation building process. We show that, if a commercial web-site gives consumers the possibility to rate credibly sellers they bargained with, vendors are forced to be more honest. This leads to mutual beneficial symbiosis between buyers and sellers; the overall enhanced volume of transactions contributes ultimately to the web-site, which facilitates the matchmaking service.

  18. Buyer-focused operations as a supply chain strategy : Identifying the influence of business characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, T; van Donk, DP

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - Buyer-focused operations aim at a high level of supply chain alignment by singling out resources for one buyer in order to serve this buyer optimally. The purpose of this paper is to identify what business characteristics make suppliers choose buyer-focused operations as a supply chain str

  19. Solar marketing - Why solar buyers take their time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar marketing is a difficult and complex subject. Most of the author's customers are in the Extensive Problem Solving mode. They don't know them and they don't know their products. There is no need for them to force a potential buyer to do more work than necessary. If you've thought of a good solar use, show it to potential buyers by placing it in a setting they are familiar with. Compare solar products to products they know. Use memorable phrases to capture and convey what your product does best. Use words that have a clear meaning to all of your potential buyers. No one solution will work for every case, but there are marketing techniques that they can use to get their message across to potential buyers. The sooner they become adept at using them, the better their sales results will be

  20. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  1. Global Value Chains: A framework of Buyer-Supplier Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ming zhen Sun

    2009-01-01

    Business clusters and global value chains (GVCs) command growing interest in some research disciplines. In the existing literature overwhelmingly focus on two niches: governance and upgrading. The detailed mechanisms of buyer-supplier relationship management tend to remain under-researched.  This paper presents a framework base on the literature on the literature of International Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) group through a dyadic study of buyer-supplier relationship on GVC context.

  2. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  3. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Honjo

    Full Text Available Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1. The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air, and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1 Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP. (2 The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  4. The Evidence of Buyer Bargaining Power in The Stockholm Residential Real Estate Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mats Wilhelmsson

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to investigate whether uninformed buyers pay higher prices for single-family houses than do other buyers and test whether the bargaining power increases with information. We examine data on real estate prices and attributes, as well as household characteristics and buying process from Stockholm. Our results show that uninformed buyers seem to pay a higher price than informed buyers do. Bargaining power is not weaker for a first-time buyer but is weaker if the household has pa...

  5. Buyer Countervailing Power versus Monopoly Power: Evidence from Experimental Posted-Offer Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Engle-Warnick; Bradley Ruffle

    2002-01-01

    Although much research has been devoted to the impact of seller structure on market outcomes, considerably less is known about the influence of buyer structure. We examine the impact of buyer concentration on the pricing of a monopolist. Markets with both two and four buyers achieve prices well below the monopoly price, attaining even competitive levels - sometimes even lower. Moreover, markets with only two buyers show significantly lower prices than those with four buyers. We design an addi...

  6. Research on secure buyer-seller watermarking protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Quan; Chen Zheng; Zhou Zude

    2008-01-01

    A new buyer-seller watermarking protocol is proposed by applying a double encryption method and a novel mechanism of embedding a buyer's watermark. The protocol can effectively prevent against collusion attacks and the man in the middle attack if the third party is not trusted. Also, based on the proposed scheme for the first-hand transaction, a new buyer-reseller watermarking protocol and a formal multi-party watermarking protocol are also proposed. The proposed buyer-resell watermarking protocol only needs the original seller to provide transfer certificate and encryption-decryption service to support the second-hand transaction, and the multi-party watermarking protocol with distributed certificate authorities can overcome the difficulty in the combination of multicast mechanism with multiple unique watermarks and allow a seller to multicast the watermarked digital contents and key transaction information to n buyers. Furthermore, the idea of zero knowledge proof is also applied into the proposed scheme to allow the seller to take an effective control on the task performed by the third party.

  7. Buyer power in EU competition law : a boon or impediment to consumer welfare ?

    OpenAIRE

    Binet, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    Buyer power is a controversial issue in EU competition law. It is an undeniable fact that the exercise of buyer power may bring benefits to consumers through lower prices. However, some buyer practices are likely to restrict or distort competition and thereby harm consumers, especially in the grocery retail sector where large supermarket chains have significant buyer power. Despite these potential harmful effects, it turns out that the current EU competition rules as well as the different ini...

  8. Segmentation of Green Product Buyers Based on Their Personal Values and Consumption Values

    OpenAIRE

    Seda Yıldırım

    2015-01-01

    In heterogeneous markets, one of the many consumer groups is that of green product buyers. With rising ethical values, the green market is assuming its place in a general growth trend. Given this, it is important to determine the profile of green product buyers. This study aims to find out whether there are sub-markets for green product buyers, based on their personal values and consumption values, and to determine a detailed profile for these buyers. Both personal values and consumption valu...

  9. Responsiveness through buyer-focused cells : Exploring a new supply strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, D.P.; van der Vaart, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The concept of buyer focus has recently been introduced as a new supply chain strategy, although the design and operation of buyer-focused cells have hardly been investigated. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how buyer-focused cells realise responsiveness. Design/methodology/app

  10. The antecedents of buyers' perceived justice in online markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shun-Po; Chou, Huey-Wen; Chiu, Chao-Min

    2013-07-01

    The success of a business largely depends upon customers' intentions to continue to purchase, but this can be a challenge for vendors in online markets. This study proposes a model which identifies an initial set of justice antecedents and evaluates their relation to perceived justice, trust, and repurchase intention in online markets. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modeling on a data set of 424 buyers in Yahoo! Kimo online auction market. The results demonstrate that three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) are positively and significantly related to trust, which in turn affects buyers' intention to repurchase. Moreover, among the three dimensions of justice judgments, distributive justice and interactional justice are relatively more important than procedural justice in predicting buyers' trust in sellers. In terms of the antecedents of justice, this study provides evidence that product quality and delivery performance are significantly related to distributive justice, while information quality and contact channel are important antecedents of procedural justice. This study also finds that responsiveness is important in enhancing buyers' judgments of interactional justice. PMID:23465031

  11. Survey Shows Home Buyers Responding to Lower City Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Existing-home sales rose from the first quarter in 13 states, largely from buyers responding to discounted home prices. Nearly one-quarter of metropolitan areas showed rising home prices in the second quarter from a year ago,with greatly mixed conditions continuing around the country.

  12. Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Clean Cities Light-Duty Vehicle Buyer's Guide is a consumer publication that provides a comprehensive list of commercially available alternative fuel and advanced vehicles in model year 2011. The guide allows for side-by-side comparisons of fuel economy, price, emissions, and vehicle specifications.

  13. Nash and integrated solutions in a just-in-time seller-buyer supply chain with buyer's ordering cost reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    The seller frequently offers the buyer trade credit to settle the purchase amount. From the seller's prospective, granting trade credit increases not only the opportunity cost (i.e., the interest loss on the buyer's purchase amount during the credit period) but also the default risk (i.e., the rate that the buyer will be unable to pay off his/her debt obligations). On the other hand, granting trade credit increases sales volume and revenue. Consequently, trade credit is an important strategy to increase seller's profitability. In this paper, we assume that the seller uses trade credit and number of shipments in a production run as decision variables to maximise his/her profit, while the buyer determines his/her replenishment cycle time and capital investment as decision variables to reduce his/her ordering cost and achieve his/her maximum profit. We then derive non-cooperative Nash solution and cooperative integrated solution in a just-in-time inventory system, in which granting trade credit increases not only the demand but also the opportunity cost and default risk, and the relationship between the capital investment and the ordering cost reduction is logarithmic. Then, we use a software to solve and compare these two distinct solutions. Finally, we use sensitivity analysis to obtain some managerial insights.

  14. A single buyer-single supplier bargaining problem with asymmetric information : theoretical approach and software implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Sucky, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This paper is focused on the coordination of order and production policy between buyers and suppliers in supply chains. When a buyer and a supplier of an item work independently, the buyer will place orders based on his economic order quantity (EOQ). However, the buyer s EOQ may not lead to an optimal policy for the supplier. It can be shown that a cooperative batching policy can reduce total cost significantly. Should the buyer have the more powerful position to enforce his EOQ on the suppli...

  15. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  16. Exclusive Dealing and Entry, When Buyers Compete: Comment

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Wright

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, Chiara Fumagalli and Massimo Motta (2006) challenge the idea that an incumbent can foreclose efficient entry in the face of scale economies by using exclusive contracts. They claim that inefficient exclusion does not arise when buyers are homogenous firms that compete downstream. However, when upstream firms can compete in two-part tariffs, their equilibrium analysis contains some errors. Fixing these errors, inefficient exclusion arises when scale economies are sufficientl...

  17. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Keita Honjo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has decl...

  18. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  19. Knowledge Integration and Innovation in Buyer-Supplier Collaborations

    OpenAIRE

    DAVID T. ROSELL

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates buyer-supplier collaborations in new product development (NPD) can have a positive impact on innovation. From a knowledge based view, it is argued that suppliers add a complementary knowledge base that is combined with the buyer’s knowledge. But what does the supplier contribution actually consist of? And more importantly: How is this supplier knowledge integrated into the NPD process? This is not clear in the literature. Different supplier inputs may imply different knowle...

  20. Private Labels: Supermarket Chain Buyer Power in Action

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Michael Cohen; Li Tian

    2006-01-01

    The issue of supermarket chain power in wholesale markets has been around at least since the 1930’s when A&P surfaced as a nationwide chain with centralized buying (Adelman, 1959). Curiously those that complained the loudest were not firms that sold to supermarkets. Small retailers, who were unable to wrest concessions from brand manufacturers or wholesalers of fresh fruits and vegetables, alleged that large chain buyer power was driving them out of business. Consequently the Robinson Patman ...

  1. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of pork products: The attributes, consequences and values sought by buyers of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    2001-01-01

    background. The laddering method and means-end chains theory are used to study retailer value as perceived by buyers of pork products in Denmark and Germany. The study revealed that it is possible to analyse what the retail buyers really want to achieve by certain attributes, and what the difference...

  2. An Integrated Vendor-Buyer Model with Stock-Dependent Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    An integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain is developed and analyzed. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area and/or are kept...... in the buyer's warehouse. The demand is assumed to be positively dependent on the amount of items shown in the display area. The proposed model determines the buyer's optimal shipment quantity and number of shipments, as well as the vendor's optimal production batch. The objective is to maximize total supply......-chain profit. The numerical analysis shows that as long as the maximum display area is not used, it is more valuable for the buyer and the vendor to cooperate in situations when the demand is more stock- dependent. It also shows the effect of double marginalization in this integrated vendor-buyer model....

  3. An Integrated Vendor-Buyer Cooperative Inventory Model for Items with Imperfect Quality and Shortage Backordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Tzer Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a model to determine an integrated vendor-buyer inventory policy for items with imperfect quality and planned backorders. The production process is imperfect and produces a certain number of defective items with a known probability density function. The vendor delivers the items to the buyer in small lots of equally sized shipments. Upon receipt of the items, the buyer will conduct a 100% inspection. Since each lot contains a variable number of defective items, shortages may occur at the buyer. We assume that shortages are permitted and are completely backordered. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical examples show that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction in comparison to an independent decision by the buyer.

  4. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten

    the following five segments of retail buyer policy based on the results: 1) 'Relationship builders' are small chains that focus on long term relationships. 2) 'The traditional chains' are small or medium-sized and include many co-operative chains that demand high product quality. They also want suppliers...... that are able to deliver sufficient quantities. 3) Voluntary chains are dominating the 'large chains' segment. They have a high share of private label products and want long term relationships with suppliers and sufficient quantities. 4) 'Green shops' include many small wholesalers sponsored chains and co...

  5. LDC gas buyers adjusting to vastly changed market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a just-released study, RKS Research and Consulting reported that while power and gas marketing firms may become key players in the deregulated energy business, few of their customers and seeing a national leader emerge. The report said while 75% of large customers interviewed already use energy marketers, only 25% evidence a clear understanding of these firms' skills and product /offerings. The study found that the energy users considered reliable energy supply, service dependability and quality/reliability of fuel sources their top three criteria and apply that to utilities and energy marketing firms. The marketers may offer some unique services, such as a commanding market presence, fuel diversity, skill in using financial derivatives and record of successful risk management, but those offerings are generally at the bottom of the list that energy users use when considering power and gas marketers, the study said. What does this all mean to the gas utilities, both in terms of buying supplies as well as providing gas against their newly emerging competitors? The author asked gas buyers from five LDCs to discuss the challenges they face in doing their jobs today. Their comments are relevant because it is not only an example of a new way of doing business, but is also indicative of the choices and problems one will endure in buying energy in an increasingly deregulated environment. And remember this: the utilities are still the predominant buyers of gas

  6. SURVEY ON SOLIDARITY GROUPS OF BUYERS: CRITICAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pennisi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is intended to provide, through the analysis of the dynamics of purchase of solidarity groups of buyers, a contribution to the study of current trends that are affecting the alternative to the dominant agro-food industry. Through the use of a questionnaire the paper investigated the perception as consumers this particular class of buyers have of themselves and how their concepts of “conscious choice” and “responsibility” drive their shopping list and consequently influence the growth and development of the Short Supply Chain, as the work remarked the progressive and notable increment of commerce and families circling around this young but widespreading phenomenon. Particularly striking, in fact, emerge from the role that consumers are becoming part of this phenomenon and the most of them have matured during time the idea that biological and hand-made products are for themselves also Safe, while the Long Supply Chain should incarnate the role of an alienating and wholly food system. The analysis of the questionnaires revealed some problems concerning the methods of transport and storage.

  7. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

  8. An integrated vendor-buyer model with stock-dependent demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    We develop an integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain. The vendor manufactures the product and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area. Demand is assumed to be positively dependent...

  9. Reinforcing Buyer Power : Trade Quotas and Supply Diversification in the EU Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikonnikova, S.; Zwart, G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a market with concentrated domestic buyers and concentrated foreign sellers and explore the extent to which domestic regulation helps to increase the buyers' countervailing power against the foreign sellers. We use the Shapley value to describe the distribution of the trade surplus and m

  10. The influence of the sustainability agenda on buyer-supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    The positive effect of supplier-buyer relationships on supply chain performance has al-ready been supported by previous studies. Yet, little empirical research has explored how the sustainability agenda influences these relationships. Thus, this study investi-gates how supplier-buyer relationships...... their cross-functional team-working, increase data sharing and to penetrate deeper into operational processes....

  11. The role of brands in the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive versus noncompulsive buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – This article investigates the role that brands play in influencing the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive buyers and whether this role differs for noncompulsive buyers, resulting in four research propositions. - Design/methodology/approach – In-depth interviews, conducted with

  12. 27 CFR 10.52 - Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Exclusion § 10.52... payments of money to the employee(s) of a trade buyer without the knowledge or consent of the trade buyer-employer in return for the employee agreeing to order distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages from...

  13. 16 CFR 460.16 - What new home sellers must tell new home buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What new home sellers must tell new home buyers. 460.16 Section 460.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.16 What new home sellers must tell new home buyers....

  14. Economic Transactions among Friends: Asymmetric Generosity but Not Agreement in Buyers' and Sellers' Offers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments tested the idea that economic transactions among friends are influenced by a norm of generosity. Whereas a fairness norm ought to promote agreement in offers between buyers and sellers, a generosity norm should promote altruistic disagreements caused by sellers offering lower prices than buyers--a reversal of the well-known…

  15. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Hendon, Ebbe

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good...

  16. Attitudes and decisions of the motor insurance buyers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor insurance constitutes the most popular type of insurance products purchased in Poland and consequently the largest part of non-life insurance sector. In this paper the selected results of the questionnaire survey concerning attitudes and choices of the motor insurance buyers on the Polish market are presented. First, the current situation on the Polish motor insurance market is discussed. Next, the scope of the motor insurance held by respondents, their forms and used distribution channels are analysed. The stress is put on the level of the customers` loyalty to the current insurer, as well as the factors influencing the choice of a specific insurance company and its offer. Finally, the results of the analysis concerning the statistical interdependencies between selected characteristics of the respondents are considered.The conducted research can be useful in practice for the insurance companies, interested in improving their motor insurance offer, as well as the insurance intermediaries serving individual customers

  17. LPG markets face upheaval as buyers press for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on the system used for selling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) where the sellers set the market price with Saudi Arabia dominating the market. The introduction and acceptance of a new method for setting the export price in relation to the spot price, the production of more LPG for export than forecast, the impact on the Saudi Arabian methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) industry of California's banning MTBE additives to petrol,and the possibility of Asian buyers renegotiating the supply agreements are discussed. Details of Saudi Arabia's petrochemical plants planning to use LPG and world LPG production for 1998 are tabulated. The US market, and new systems for trading and pricing are considered. (UK)

  18. COTTON USA'S Buyers Tour to Be Held in China in June

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ COTTON USA's Supply Chain Marketing Buyers Tour will be held in China from 7th to 11th June.Cotton Council International's ("CCI") representative offices in the U.S.,Europe and North East Asia have recruited nearly 40 renowned global buyers and retailers including,Gardeur,Gerry Weber,Marks & Spencer,Max Mara,K&L Ruppert,Debenhams,Polo Ralph Lauren coming to China to attend Buyers Tour,and 37 COTTON USA licensed suppliers from China and North and South East Asian regions will also participate in the trade fair to demonstrate their quality products,which will not only ensure the buyers to receive quality fabrics and garments,but also assist the suppliers to create a forum to meet their buvers and to thrive their business.

  19. Perceptions of technology uncertainty and the consequences for performance in buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, M.; van der Vaart, T.; Molleman, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how buyers' and suppliers' distinct perceptions of technology uncertainty affect the relationship between communication frequency and supplier performance. Information processing theory suggests that a fit is desirable between perceived environmental uncertainty and the

  20. COTTON USA Buyers Tour Brings Global Brands and Retailers to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ MEMPHIS - The COTTON USA Buyers Tour to China delivered representatives from 18 global companies - with a combined annual turnover of $18.5 billion - to China from 26-30 March to meet suppliers of pure cotton woven textiles.

  1. 75 FR 39206 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... determine which U.S. firms are interested in meeting with international business visitors and the overseas... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and Exhibitor Data AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice....

  2. The Horizontal Scope of the Firm: Organizational Tradeoffs vs. Buyer-Supplier Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Chatain; Peter Zemsky

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal scope--the set of products and services offered--is an important dimension of firm strategy and a potentially significant source of competitive advantage. On one hand, the ability to build close buyer-supplier relationships over multiple transactions can give an advantage to broad firms that offer buyers "one-stop shopping." On the other hand, the existence of organizational tradeoffs can give an advantage to firms that specialize in a narrower range of products or services. We dev...

  3. THE IMPACT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE PURCHASE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG BUYERS OF DURABLE GOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Dominika Woźny

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of consumer purchase behavior have been for years the object of the study of researchers who dealt with the analysis of the consumption process and the behavior of buyers. Among numerous classification proposals for the determinants, the most common are the economic, social and psychological stimuli. The article is an attempt to identify the impact of psychological determinants on consumer purchase behavior, with a particular consideration of young buyers of durable goods. P...

  4. Influential marketing: a new direct marketing strategy addressing the existence of voluntary buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Lily Yi-Ting

    2006-01-01

    The traditional direct marketing paradigm implicitly assumes that there is no possibility of a customer purchasing the product unless he receives the direct promotion. In real business environments, however, there are "voluntary buyers" who will make the purchase even without marketing contact. While no direct promotion is needed for voluntary buyers, the traditional response-driven paradigm tends to target such customers. In this thesis, the traditional paradigm is examined in detail. We arg...

  5. Perceptions of Technology Uncertainty and the Consequences for Performance in Buyer-Supplier Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterhuis, Marian; Vaart, Taco van der; Molleman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we investigate how buyers? and suppliers? distinct perceptions of technology uncertainty affect the relationship between communication frequency and supplier performance. Information processing theory suggests that a fit is desirable between perceived environmental uncertainty and the communication processes between organisations. However, if partners in a buyer-supplier relationship do not concur on there being a high level of technology uncertainty, it is ...

  6. Alternative Approach Strategies For Buyer-Seller Relations With The Peoples Republic Of China

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the issues involved in buyer-seller relations for industrial product sales in the People's Republic of China. The need is genuine in many product categories including plant technology, high technology, and infrastructure. The problem is that buying policies and procedures for foreign firms are still emerging, and therefore, unclear and confusing. Three approach strategies for buyer-seller relations with China are presented: the authorized "buying group," the "agency" repre...

  7. Buyer-seller relationships across cultures: Conceptual, empirical and methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Voldnes, Gøril

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to examine the factors important in achieving success in cross-cultural business relationships, in this case between Russian buyers and Norwegian sellers of seafood. Emphasis was placed on exploring how cultural differences influence factors important in relationship satisfaction, how to attain the various factors, and how cultural differences are managed by buyers and sellers to achieve successful relationships. This study was based on the assumptions that th...

  8. How Buyers Evaluate Product Bundles: A Model of Anchoring and Adjustment.

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Manjit S

    1994-01-01

    Bundling, the joint offering of two or more items, is a common selling strategy, yet little research has been conducted on buyers' evaluation of bundle offers. We developed and tested a model of bundle evaluation in which the buyers anchored their evaluation on the item perceived as most important and then made adjustments on the basis of their evaluations of the remaining bundle items. The results of two computerized laboratory experiments suggested that people tend to examine bundle items i...

  9. An Experimental Study of Buyer-Seller Negotiation with One-Sided Incomplete Information and Time Discounting

    OpenAIRE

    Amnon Rapoport; Ido Erev; Rami Zwick

    1995-01-01

    We study a multiperiod bargaining mechanism in which a seller negotiates with a buyer over the price of an indivisible good. It is common knowledge that the good has zero value to the seller. Its value to the buyer is privately known, distributed independently of the seller's value according to a distribution that is common knowledge. Bargaining proceeds as follows. The seller sets a price and offers the buyer an opportunity to purchase the good. The buyer either waits for at least one more p...

  10. Coordinating vendor-buyer decisions for imperfect quality items considering trade credit and fully backlogged shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditi; Gautam, Prerna; Jaggi, Chandra K.

    2016-03-01

    Supply chain management has become a critical issue for modern business environments. In today's world of cooperative decision-making, individual decisions in order to reduce inventory costs may not lead to an overall optimal solution. Coordination is necessary among participants of supply chain to achieve better performance. There are legitimate and important efforts from the vendor to enhance the relation with buyer; one such effort is offering trade credit which has been a driver of growth and development of business between them. The cost of financing is a core consideration in effective financial management, in general and in context of business. Also, due to imperfect production a vendor may produce defective items which results in shortages. Motivated with these aspects, an integrated vendor-buyer inventory model is developed for imperfect quality items with allowable shortages; in which the vendor offers credit period to the buyer for payment. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer by using integrated decision making approach. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical analysis shows that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction, in comparison to independent decision policies by the vendor and the buyer.

  11. Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying

  12. Coevolution of trustful buyers and cooperative sellers in the trust game

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Many online marketplaces enjoy great success. Buyers and sellers in successful markets carry out cooperative transactions even if they do not know each other in advance and a moral hazard exists. An indispensable component that enables cooperation in such social dilemma situations is the reputation system. Under the reputation system, a buyer can avoid transacting with a seller with a bad reputation. A transaction in online marketplaces is better modeled by the trust game than other social dilemma games, including the symmetric Prisoner's Dilemma. In addition, most individuals participate mostly as buyers or sellers; each individual does not play the two roles with equal probability. Although the reputation mechanism is known to be able to remove the moral hazard in games with asymmetric roles, competition between different strategies and population dynamics of such a game are not sufficiently understood. On the other hand, existing models of reputation-based cooperation, also known as indirect reciprocity, a...

  13. The Practical Teaching Research about“International Buyer Training Program”in Fashion Merchandising Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Fashion Merchandising Course in domestic universities is rising up gradually in recent years. However, there are also some problems existing in either teaching or learning. For example, the lessons always focus on theories, some cases studies are not suitable and professional information lags. This paper compares the Chinese and British education ,especially the practical teaching methods of University of the Arts London. In the same time, this paper also combines with the practice and thinking about international buyer through the working experience in LVMH Group to give some key advices to the teaching reform of fashion merchandising course. This paper uses IBTP, in other words,“International Buyer Training Program”, in the workshop of fashion buying course to realize the course’s creative plan. By this creative program, more and more professional International fashion buyers will be trained in the universities.

  14. Buyer Liability and Voluntary Inspections in International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. A Laboratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of the allowances cannot redeem them to cover emissions. We find that allowing inspections significantly increases the reliability investment rate and overall efficiency. Prices of uninspected allowances usually trade at a substantial discount due to the buyer liability rule, which provides a strong market incentive for sellers to invest in reliability

  15. Enhancing Buyer-Supplier Collaboration through Daily Conversations at Shopfloor Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardon, Thibaut; Arnaud, Nicolas; Villeseche, Florence

    aspect of this interorganizational communication: the conversations that take place between shop-floor employees of partnering firms. Studying such daily conversations in situ affords insights on the foundations of efficient buyer-supplier communication beyond managerial level strategy making. We rely...... on the strategy as practice perspective that emphasizes the strategic role of conversations at all hierarchical levels as a key means by which strategy develops on a daily basis. This paper provides evidence of how daily conversations between shop-floor employees can enhance buyer-supplier collaboration....... It is based on a case study of the largest and leading European furniture transport firm and its clients. We find that daily conversations enhance buyer-supplier collaboration by allowing operators i) to develop and reinforce mutual commitment ii) to build a common knowledge base, and iii) to create common...

  16. Buyer-vendor coordination for fixed lifetime product with quantity discount under finite production rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghong; Luo, Jianwen; Duan, Yongrui

    2016-03-01

    Buyer-vendor coordination has been widely addressed; however, the fixed lifetime of the product is seldom considered. In this paper, we study the coordination of an integrated production-inventory system with quantity discount for a fixed lifetime product under finite production rate and deterministic demand. We first derive the buyer's ordering policy and the vendor's production batch size in decentralised and centralised systems. We then compare the two systems and show the non-coordination of the ordering policies and the production batch sizes. To improve the supply chain efficiency, we propose quantity discount contract and prove that the contract can coordinate the buyer-vendor supply chain. Finally, we present analytically tractable solutions and give a numerical example to illustrate the benefits of the proposed quantity discount strategy.

  17. The buying motives of European retail buyers: An analysis of buying behaviour for pork in four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    consequences and values sought by buyers, and to identify the relationship between and hierarchy of specific attributes, consequences and values in the four countries, and with the purpose of analysing differences. To analyse the values of retail buyers, 83 laddering interviews were conducted with the retail...

  18. An integrated single-vendor single-buyer production-inventory model for items with imperfect quality and inspection errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Hsu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an integrated vendor-buyer production-inventory model for items with imperfect quality and inspection errors. The production process is imperfect and produces a certain number of defective items with a known probability density function. We consider the policy in which the delivery quantity to the buyer is identical at each shipment. Once the buyer receives the lot, a 100% screening process of the lot is conducted, and the screening process and demand proceed simultaneously. The screening process is not perfect. The inspector may incorrectly classify a non-defective item as defective, or incorrectly classify a defective item as non-defective. The expected integrated total annual cost of the vendor and the buyer is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical examples show that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction in comparison to an independent decision by the buyer.

  19. Performance in vegetable supply chains: the role of Guanxi networks and buyer-seller relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,; Feng, S.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Guanxi is the lifeblood of the Chinese society. It also becomes a hot topic for achieving business success in China. The primary goal of this exploratory study is to empirically investigate the effect of guanxi networks on buyer¿seller relationships and market performance for the Chinese vegetable s

  20. Creating Shared Value In The Buyer-Supplier Relationships Through The Implementation Of Sustainability Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessa, Meulensteen,; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Sikke, Meerman,

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Living Plan has been taken as a case study. This allows for the analysis of the nature of the buyer-supplier interactions. The different partners in this relationship were asked to fill out questionnaires. Correlation and regression analyses were used to quantify the relationship between

  1. The Law and Economics of Buyer Power in EU Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, F.A.H. van

    2015-01-01

    The trend of retail concentration across the European Union has raised concerns on the buyer power that retailers may have in the relation with their suppliers. Specifically, due to the alleged increasing pressure on producer and supplier margins in various distribution chains, but the increased foc

  2. Buyer Commitment and Opportunism in the Online Market for IT Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric); O.R. Koppius (Otto)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCompanies increasingly outsource IT-related tasks using reverse auction mechanisms embedded into online marketplaces. However, a considerable proportion of auctions at these marketplaces do not result in a contract between buyer and supplier. Extant literature mostly refers to costly bi

  3. An integrated vendor-buyer model with stock-dependent demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    in a display area. The end-customer demand is assumed to be positively dependent on the amount of items shown in the display area. With the proposed model we determine the buyer's optimal shipment quantity and number of shipments, as well as the vendor's optimal production batch. The objective is to maximize...

  4. 77 FR 74828 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Years 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... will receive DOC assistance in the form of global promotion in foreign markets, providing export... 31, 2014) published at 77 FR 61,740 (Oct. 11, 2012) to extend the deadline for receipt of... Competitiveness Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-418, codified at 15 U.S.C. 4724) to bring international buyers...

  5. Buyer-Supplier Relationships In Fresh Produce Retailing: Towards A Balanced Portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, S D; White, H MF

    1989-01-01

    This article extends the IMP interaction approach into horticultural marketing in the United Kingdom. Firstly, the stages in the development of retail buyer-supplier relationships are categorised, secondly, the principle characteristics of the interaction elements are highlighted, and thirdly, the concept of demand and supply portfolios are introduced to explain the strategy adopted by both parties.

  6. Classifying carbon credit buyers according to their attitudes towards and involvement in CDM sustainability labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon markets are increasingly conscious of the social and environmental 'quality' of credits delivered by CDM projects. Consequently carbon credits are no longer viewed as a homogenous good and buyers now differentiate between credits supplied by different types of CDM project. The objective of this paper is to classify CER buyers according to their attitudes towards and preferences for CDM sustainability labels. K-means clustering was used to segment a sample of buyers into two clusters. The results indicate that two clear clusters exist with distinct profile patterns. Moreover, the results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the two-cluster solution was valid. Finally, the results of the chi-square analysis and a cross-tabulation showed that these two clusters were significantly different in: organization type; level of paid up capital; perception of sustainable development benefits; perception of return on investment; perception of image of the sustainability labeling; participation in the voluntary market; the project priority; knowledge in the sustainability label; attitude towards the host country's duty; and their willingness to pay. - Highlights: → The K-means clustering was used to classify CER buyers in the primary market. → The carbon market is divided into two: the premium market; and the normal market. → Governments tend to be members of the premium market. → 82% of members in the premium market are willing to pay a price premium for CERs.

  7. Buyer social responsibility: a general concept and its implications for marketing management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of sustainability concerns in consumer decision-making poses new challenges to marketing. The existing literature contains a variety of concepts and definitions that pertain to social issues in consumption but lacks an overarching conceptualisation of buyer social responsibility (BSR)

  8. No Jobs Like Homes: Careers in Helping Home Buyers and Sellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people buy and sell homes each year. And because these transactions are often complex, many home buyers and sellers turn to workers who can help with the search or the sale--or both. From preparing to put a home on the market to filing the sales documents, many workers are involved in helping a home change hands. Other key industries…

  9. Developing a framework based on a psychological perspective for studying buyer-supplier relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Samir S.; Burns, Neil D.

    2001-10-01

    The advent of the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and the Internet with its subsequent use in the field of supply chains, mainly online shopping; web managed purchasing and online auctions have given rise to complex relationships between buyers and suppliers. The manner in which the buyer-supplier transactions occur have a psychological bearing similar to the transactions occurring between humans in the buyer-supplier organizations. The on-going research to study the psychological aspects of the transactions will use Transactional Analysis as a tool to identify these aspects of the relationship. The essential aspect of this view is that organizational culture plays a very strong role in the way organizations operate, and when two organizations transact with each other the individual culture is bound to play a role in the way the transaction is conducted. There are a number of factors that play a role in bringing the culture to the forefront of the transaction process. It is necessary to study these factors in order to understand why the psychological behavior is actually shown by these buyer- supplier organizations.

  10. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-10-01

    Manufactured, or HUD-Code, homes comprise a growing share of the housing stock in the Northwest, as well as nationally. Their relatively low cost has made them especially attractive to lower income families, first-time home-buyers, and retired persons. The characteristics of manufactured home (MH) buyers, the unique energy consumption characteristics of the homes, and their increasing market share make this market an especially critical one for energy consumption and conservation planning in the Northwest. This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that can potentially assist the design of a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. This study has the objective of assisting BPA in the development of a regional approach in which numerous organizations and parties would participate to achieve conservation in new manufactured homes. A previous survey and information collected for this study from regional dealers and manufacturers provide an indication of the energy conservation options being sold to manufactured home buyers in the PNW. Manufacturers in the Northwest appear to sell homes that usually exceed the HUD thermal requirements. Manufacturers typically offer efficiency improvements in packages that include fixed improvements in insulation levels, glazing, and infiltration control. Wholesale costs of these packages range from about $100 to $1500. Typical packages include significant upgrades in floor insulation values with modest upgrades in ceilings and walls. This study identifies trends and impacts that a marketing plan should consider to adequately address the financial concerns of manufactured home buyers.

  11. Fostering incremental and radical innovation through performance-based contracting in buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumo, Regien; van der Valk, Wendy; Bode, Christoph; van Weele, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While anecdotal evidence suggests that performance-based contracts (PBCs) may foster innovation in buyer-supplier relationships, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited to date. This study draws on transaction cost economics and agency theory to develop a theoretical model

  12. COTTON USA’S Buyers Tour to Be Held in China in June

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    COTTON USA’s Supply Chain Marketing Buyers Tour will be held in China from 7th to 11th June.Cotton Council International’s("CCI")representative offices in the U.S.,Europe and North East Asia have recruited nearly 40

  13. An analysis of buyer-supplier collaboration in the South African textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore perceptions regarding buyer and supplier collaboration around product development. The aim is to gain an understanding of which factors influence buyer-supplier collaboration outcomes in the South African textile industry. Methodology: This study comprised two data collection stages. The first stage comprised the design and administration of a questionnaire survey. The second stage utilised a qualitative interview methodology and entailed interviewing a subset of the questionnaire respondents in order to probe respondents’ own experiences in collaborative product developments and their perception of the factors that determine collaboration outcome. Findings: This study has shed light on the experiences of South African firms in the textile industry engaging in buyer-supplier collaboration around product development. While this study is exploratory, it has provided evidence that there are certain factors which are perceived to have a significant influence on collaboration. Implications: Under the past protective shield of tariffs, South African clothing and textile manufacturers could afford to allow an adversarial mode of operation to perpetuate inefficiencies. However, the increasing external pressures, including the very real threat of overseas competition, heighten the need for collaboration between buyers and suppliers. This relates, in particular, to collaboration aimed at new product development, which can be seen as a new imperative for the survival and growth of this industry. Currently, there are numerous barriers to effective collaboration. The overwhelming power of retailers in the value chain is one such barrier, as it creates an environment which is pressurised, strained and not conducive to buyer-supplier collaboration. Contribution and Value: Studies on collaborative new product development have primarily been done in developed countries, with a focus on technology intensive

  14. Buyer Search and the Role of Broker in an Emerging Housing Market: A Case Study of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Siqi; LIU Hongyu; Rebecca Lee

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines homebuyer's search process and the role of real estate broker in China's urban housing market, where inactive housing resale transactions and an immature brokerage industry are distinct characteristics. Guangzhou is used as a case study to model the intensity and duration of the search process. This study finds that buyers make trade-off between two search costs, activity cost and duration cost. The study also demonstrates that despite the industry's immature nature, buyers using brokers do increase search intensity and shorten search duration by reducing the activity cost. Empirical results show that there is no specific buyer group who can effectively lower their search cost by their own efforts, due to the poor information transparency in the current housing market. The broker-choice model shows that besides search cost, buyers' confidence in broker's service quality can also greatly influence their choice, so improvement in service quality and reputation has important implications for China's brokerage industry.

  15. Service Process Innovation and the Role of Added Value in Buyer-Seller Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus

    2011-01-01

    data that have been collected through 12 interviews with managers and employees at a wholesaler of electronic consumer equipment and a leading FM service provider. Findings – The results indicate that significant benefits due to process innovation, here PDF-invoicing, has been the more intensive...... information flow and exchange, and the increased cooperation and commitment between the seller-buyer pair and their customers. The analysis of the data related to the buyer side reveals that added value is mainly driven by collaborative work and results in improving information flow and exchange, development...... of relationships, and in establishing a strategic partnership. This is mainly due to the fact that it can be costly to include users when changing service processes without a deep understanding of technology and customer needs. Originality/value – The paper provide issues to help organizations manage the value...

  16. Analysing the impact of buyers' personality constructs on the market structure of brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios; Rungie, Cam

    2008-01-01

    In order to operationalize brand loyalty, various models have been applied that estimate brand measures and further describe patterns and the structure of the markets. A well known model in this area is the Dirichlet-NBD model. Despite major advancements to those models, how buyers' characteristics...... and psychographics influence actual brand measures and the overall market structure in repeat purchase occasions is still under-researched. Moreover, measuring the type and magnitude of buyer-related effects on brand loyalty could provide additional valuable information to brand managers. Aim of this paper...... is to provide an approach of estimating the effect that various personality constructs have on brand measures and overall market structure through revealed preference data....

  17. Vendor-Buyers relationship model for deteriorating items with shortages, fuzzy trapezoidal costs and inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Chaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated inventory model is developed from the perspective of a single vendor and multi-buyers for deteriorating items under fuzzy environment and inflation. In the development of the model, it is assumed that all costs parameters, demand and the production rates are imprecise in nature; they are represented by the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, as these parameters are not constant and can be disturbed due to daily market changes. We use function principle as arithmetic operations to find the total inventory cost in fuzzy sense and Graded Mean - Integration Representation Method to defuzzify the fuzzy total inventory cost. Inflation is used to find the present worth of total cost. Since the optimal policy of buyers may not be the most economical for a vendor, thus to deal with this situation, integrated cost policy is used to reach the optimal policy. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the model.

  18. Relationship Marketing Strategies: When Buyer and Supplier Follow Different Strategies to Achieve Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing is essential for success in business. The need to understand better the differences in the strategies buyers and suppliers follow is what has motivated this study. We drew on emerging perspectives on inter-firm governance and networks to develop a theoretical framework to understand the success of long-term relationships. We tested the framework using data from 67 merchant distributors (buyers and 174 suppliers of theirs in the Dutch potted plant and flower industry. While the most successful distributors tend to take the “hard”, tangible strategy using transaction specific investments and fostering joint action, the successful suppliers take the “soft”, social approach by emphasizing trust and the norm of flexibility in the relationship.

  19. Buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in marketing channels: port wine distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo de Carvalho J; Sequeira L

    2013-01-01

    José Crespo de Carvalho, Luís Sequeira Lisbon University Institute, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to research buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in distribution channels. Based on a multidimensional case study, eight research hypotheses were formulated. Some quantitative research was conducted, based on a questionnaire sent to 101 port wine producers and distribution companies (61 answered properly – 31 producers and 29 distri...

  20. The Law and Economics of Buyer Power in EU Competition Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, F.A.H. van

    2015-01-01

    The trend of retail concentration across the European Union has raised concerns on the buyer power that retailers may have in the relation with their suppliers. Specifically, due to the alleged increasing pressure on producer and supplier margins in various distribution chains, but the increased focus on consumer welfare in EU competition policy, various stakeholders call for demands for a change in the current substantive legal framework of EU competition law. In this discussion, reference i...

  1. A Determination of Interpersonal Interaction Expectations in International Buyer-Seller Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, David Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Relationship/collaborative selling, as opposed to traditional, transaction oriented selling, stresses the need to form relationships with prospects and customers across all stages of the buyer-seller relationship (Jolson, 1997). The problem is that applying the relationship selling process to all types of customers may lead to inappropriate interpersonal interaction if the customer's orientation is only short-term in nature (Jackson, 1985a, 1985b). Anderson and Narus (1991) make the point t...

  2. One-stop shopping behavior, buyer power, and upstream merger incentives

    OpenAIRE

    von Schlippenbach, Vanessa; Wey, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze how consumer preferences for one-stop shopping affect the bargaining relationship between a retailer and its suppliers. One-stop shopping preferences create demand complementarities among otherwise independent products which lead to two opposing effects on upstream merger incentives: first a standard double mark-up problem and second a bargaining effect. The former creates merger incentives while the later induce suppliers to bargain separately. When buyer power becomes large enoug...

  3. Exporting the Buyers Health Care Action Group Purchasing Model: Lessons from Other Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Christianson, Jon B; Feldman, Roger

    2005-01-01

    When first implemented in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, the Buyers Health Care Action Group's (BHCAG) purchasing approach received considerable attention as an employer-managed, consumer-driven health care model embodying many of the principles of managed competition. First BHCAG and, later, a for-profit management company attempted to export this model to other communities. Their efforts were met with resistance from local hospitals and, in many cases, apathy by employers who were exp...

  4. CATALOG SPECIALTY FOOD BUYERS' COMPUTER USAGE AND PURCHASING ACTIVITY: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    White, Gregory K.

    1999-01-01

    Specialty food aficionados, who use the Internet to gather information or place orders, resemble those who rely on mail order catalogs, except for being younger. Both groups are well- educated, wealthy, and frequent specialty food buyers. Among those studied, nearly all of the Internet users have considered shopping by catalog, half had used the Internet in the previous six months, and about 10 percent had actually purchased specialty food or beverages online. While preferring traditional ret...

  5. Optimal Procurement Auction for a Buyer with Downward Sloping Demand: More Simple Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Burguet, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    A buyer with downward slopping demand faces a number of unit supply sellers. The paper characterizes optimal auctions in this setting. For the symmetric case, a uniform auction (with price equal to lowest rejected offer) is optimal when complemented with reserve prices for different quantities acquired. For asymmetric sellers, the optimal distortions are familiar. The problem is similar to the third degree discriminating monopsonist problem, just as in the unit (flat) demand case (Bulow-Rober...

  6. Relationship Marketing And Corporate Buyer Behaviour In The Hotel Industry. An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, S C

    1995-01-01

    An empirical study of hotel managers, and corporate buyers would indicate that there is a shifting trend both in customer and supplier needs, with the customer being perceived by management as the power within the relationship. However, the customer often perceives themselves to be at the mercy of the supplier and initial data gathered from industry consultants and channel intermediaries would tend to substantiate this.

  7. Determination of priorities of buyers regarding value contributing characteristics of farm land in the Stellenbosch District, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kleynhans, Theo E.; Opperman, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the comparable sales method to value farm properties requires that professional valuers must think like a typical buyer of farm properties in a particular area. The Stellenbosch district, located on the periphery of the Cape Metropole, is a famous wine-producing area. The typical buyer is sophisticated and wealthy: someone for whom lifestyle could probably be just as important as the income generating capacity of the wine estate. A variety of site and situational factors have to be...

  8. How Much Better is Bigger, Faster & Cheaper? Buyer Benefits from Innovation in Mainframe Computers in the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kenneth H.; Shane M. Greenstein

    1995-01-01

    This paper develops and estimates cost-of-living indexes (e.g., Fisher and Griliches [1995]) for measuring buyer benefits from technical change in the commercial mainframe computer industry in the 1980s. For this purpose we use a micro-econometric model of demand for product characteristics embodied in a computer system. The model highlights buyers' benefits from technical change when innovation decreases the price of characteristics or increases the range of available characteristics. This e...

  9. Stochastic integrated vendor–buyer model with unstable lead time and setup cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra K. Jaggi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vendor-buyer system where there are different objectives for both sides. The proposed method of this paper is different from the other previously published works since it considers different objectives for both sides. In this paper, the vendor’s emphasis is on the crashing of the setup cost, which not only helps him compete in the market but also provides better services to his customers; and the buyer’s aim is to reduce the lead time, which not only facilitates the buyer to fulfill the customers’ demand on time but also enables him to earn a good reputation in the market or vice versa. In the light of the above stated facts, an integrated vendor-buyer stochastic inventory model is also developed. The propsed model considers two cases for demand during lead time: Case (i Complete demand information, Case (ii Partial demand information. The proposed model jointly optimizes the buyer’s ordered quantity and lead time along with vendor’s setup cost and the number of shipments. The results are demonstrated with the help of numerical examples.

  10. Price Discrepancy Between Sellers and Buyers When Making Decisions for the Self and Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Baojun; Li, Zhongquan

    2016-06-01

    In daily life, people make decisions not only for themselves but also on behalf of others. There may be differences in terms of the endowment effect when making decisions in these two situations. In Study 1, this question was investigated with an existing dataset exploring the traditional endowment effect, in which 86 students (M age = 20.8 years, SD = 5.0) at Harvard University were asked to make a decision on selling or buying a coffee mug for themselves or for others as brokers. When making decisions for the self, the average price demanded by sellers was much higher than that offered by buyers; while making decisions for others, the price discrepancy disappeared. In Study 2, a similar study was conducted with a sample of 42 Chinese university students (M age = 22.3 years, SD = 2.5), and a similar pattern of results was obtained. Further analysis indicated that when making decisions for others, only buyers increased their valuations, therefore mitigating the seller-buyer price discrepancy. Finally, the findings were interpreted from the perspective of Construal Level Theory.

  11. Value Added Elements According to Buyer Companies in a B2B Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Battaglia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how buyer companies perceive the value added to products and services offered by their suppliers and identifies the predominant elements that affect purchasing decisions and establishment of relationships between companies in a B2B context. A multiple case study was developed in 12 buyer companies from three industrial segments in southern Brazil: metal-mechanics, furniture and foods. The findings show that for supplier companies in the metal-mechanics industry to add value, they must identify buyers’ needs, develop technology/innovation, be focused on competitive aspects, keep control of the supply chain, provide different purchasing channels, develop partnerships, and adapt to cultural aspects. Companies in the food industry consider the model for creating value to adapt to meet customer needs, the effective use of purchasing channels, functionality of products, and technical knowledge. The companies in the furniture industry value the methods that suppliers use to capture and implement required changes, effective control of the supply chain, and the representativeness of the suppliers’ brand in the market. This study captures the perception of buyer companies in relation to predominant value-adding elements and could guide decisions for the adoption of managerial actions by supplier companies focused on adding value.

  12. Production planning and backup sourcing strategy of a buyer-dominant supply chain with random yield and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kebing; Xiao, Tiaojun

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the backup sourcing strategy of the buyer and the production planning of the supplier in presence of both random yield and random demand. Since the production is susceptible to the randomness of yield beyond the control of the supplier, the buyer may access to a backup sourcing option for the finished items. We analyse the value of backup sourcing for both the decentralised and centralised channels. Backup sourcing strategy of the buyer may lower the supply chain's performance. We show that the order quantity of the buyer does not change the stocking factor of the supplier's input. Meanwhile, compared with the centralised operation, the decentralised operation is more dependent on the backup sourcing to reduce supply shortage of the contracting supplier. From the channel's perspective, an incentive scheme is developed to facilitate the coordination of both the buyer and the contracting supplier, we show that the proposed option contract can allow the supply chain members to share the respective risks involved in the production and selling processes. Finally, we also provide qualitative insights based on numerical examples of the centralised and decentralised solutions.

  13. Benchmarking Supplier Development: An Empirical Case Study of Validating a Framework to Improve Buyer-Supplier Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Khuram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, firms are required to utilize efficiently and effectively all the useful resources to gain competitive advantage. Supplier development has evolved as an important strategic instrument to improve buyer supplier relationships. For that reason, this study focuses on providing the strategic significance of supplier development approaches to improve business relationships. By using qualitative research method, an integrated framework of supplier development and buyer-supplier relationship development has been tested and validated in a Finnish case company to provide empirical evidence. It particularly investigates how supplier development approaches can develop buyer-supplier relationships. The study present a set of propositions that identify significant supplier development approaches critical for the development of buyer-supplier relationships and develop a theoretical framework that specifies how these different supplier development approaches support in order to strengthen the relationships. The results are produced from an in-depth case study by implementing the proposed research framework. The findings reveal that supplier development strategies i.e., supplier incentives and direct involvements strongly effect in developing buyer-supplier relationships. Further research may focus on considering in-depth investigation of trust and communication factors along with propositions developed in the study to find out general applicability in dynamic business environment. Proposed integrated framework along with propositions is a unique combination of useful solutions for tactical and strategic management’s decision making and also valid for academic researchers to develop supplier development theories.

  14. Investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the economic recession: A qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Samanta

    2016-01-01

    The research paper described the in-depth interviews used in investigating the buyer-seller relationships in the e-commerce world during the economic recession in Greece. The data collected from these interviews were analyzed. The qualitative research findings identified how B2B e-commerce has started to change the future of the participating organizations in Greece. Οn the one hand, a number of benefits have occurred from the development of e-business and on the other hand B2B firms need to ...

  15. Do First Time House Buyers Receive Financial Transfers from Their Parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Using Danish longitudinal data with information about wealth for a sample of first-time house buyers and their parents, we test whether there are direct financial transfers from parents to children in connection with the house purchase, or in connection with unemployment spells occurring just after...... the purchase, when children typically hold few liquid assets. First, we document that child and parent financial resources are correlated. Then, we introduce conditioning variables and exploit the panel aspect of the data to also condition on fixed unobserved factors, which arguably govern preferences and....../or productivity. We find no evidence of direct financial transfers....

  16. Buyer Beware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEREMY; CHAN

    2007-01-01

    Forget the teahouses, noodle stalls and crammed bicycle lanes, the quintessential Chinese experience is found at the local clothing market, where bargains abound. It is capitalism Chinese style, although it is for neither the weak of will nor the naive.

  17. Vendor-buyer inventory models with trade credit financing under both non-cooperative and integrated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Chang, Chun-Tao; Chern, Maw-Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Most researchers studied vendor-buyer supply chain inventory policies only from the perspective of an integrated model, which provides us the best cooperative solution. However, in reality, not many vendors and buyers are wholly integrated. Hence, it is necessary to study the optimal policies not only under an integrated environment but also under a non-cooperative environment. In this article, we develop a supply chain vendor-buyer inventory model with trade credit financing linked to order quantity. We then study the optimal policies for both the vendor and the buyer under a non-cooperative environment first, and then under a cooperative integrated situation. Further, we provide some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results, compare the differences between these two distinct solutions, and obtain some managerial insights. For example, in a cooperative environment, to reduce the total cost for both parties, the vendor should either provide a simple permissible delay without order quantity restriction or offer a long permissible delay linked order quantity. By contrast, in a non-cooperative environment, the vendor should provide a short permissible delay to reduce its total cost.

  18. Procesni pristop kot dejavnik povečanja zadovoljstva odjemalcev = Process Format as a Factor in Increasing Buyer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Verle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Today modern companies are directed by buyers. Successful organizations are aware that the key issue is to satisfy buyers’ needs and to maintain good relationship with them. Such companies perceive problems and opportunities fast and act accordingly. In future only such companies that will be able to substitute mass production and generalized market approach with a flexible production and in addition to this constantly look for market gaps for their products and services will be able to survive. Further on such companies will be able to individualize their offer and in this way adjust and come closer to the buyer. However, the old hierarchical structure does not provide for that, therefore, we are nowadays talking about horizontal relationships, even among the suppliers, organizations and their buyers. The only organizational format providing for relationships and cooperation with buyers and suppliers on the one hand and increasing contentedness and successfulness of the employees on the other is a process format. The changes of the environment demand a thorough change of the traditional way of thinking and consequently the operation and organization of a company which wants to be successful or survive in new conditions.

  19. The cosmopolitan tribe of television buyers: professional ethos, personal taste and cosmopolitan capital in transnational cultural mediation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.M. Kuipers

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the professional ethos and practices of television buyers in France, Italy, Poland and the Netherlands. During interviews and ethnographic observations, the professional ethos of this ‘cosmopolitan tribe’ proved to be remarkably similar across national backgrounds. This article

  20. Identification of junk buyers' contribution to recycling of household waste in Hanoi, Vietnam, through a physical composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Saburo; Dong, Nguyen The

    2012-07-01

    Even in developing countries, the amount of containers and packaging waste are increasing in line with population concentration and lifestyle changes in urban areas. This can cause serious problems for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Through a physical composition analysis of household waste in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, this study aimed to identify the contribution made by junk buyers to recycling. Interviews on the handling of recyclable waste by households were conducted. About 232 kg of recyclable waste was sampled from a total of 115 households, and about 230 kg of municipal solid waste was sampled from a total of 101 households and sorted into 69 categories for measurement by volume and weight. The interview survey revealed that a high proportion of households tended to routinely store recyclable waste for sale or donation to junk buyers. Junk buyers accounted for 8.8% of recycling by weight or 26.0% by volume according to the results of the physical composition analysis. In addition, the results suggested that containers and packaging waste accounted for the largest proportion of household waste by volume. Junk buyers recycled 25.5% by weight of containers and packaging waste. In the formulation of new plans for municipal solid waste management to improve the current situation and handle future challenges, the role of the informal sector should be monitored carefully and reliable data on recyclable waste should be collected continuously.

  1. The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,China

  2. 77 FR 61740 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program-Calendar Years 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ..., recruitment of international buyers to that show, provision of on-site export assistance to U.S. exhibitors at... markets and corresponds to marketing opportunities as identified by the posts in their Country Commercial... seeking to expand their sales into additional export markets. (h) Level of Overseas Marketing: There...

  3. Identification of junk buyers' contribution to recycling of household waste in Hanoi, Vietnam, through a physical composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Saburo; Dong, Nguyen The

    2012-07-01

    Even in developing countries, the amount of containers and packaging waste are increasing in line with population concentration and lifestyle changes in urban areas. This can cause serious problems for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Through a physical composition analysis of household waste in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, this study aimed to identify the contribution made by junk buyers to recycling. Interviews on the handling of recyclable waste by households were conducted. About 232 kg of recyclable waste was sampled from a total of 115 households, and about 230 kg of municipal solid waste was sampled from a total of 101 households and sorted into 69 categories for measurement by volume and weight. The interview survey revealed that a high proportion of households tended to routinely store recyclable waste for sale or donation to junk buyers. Junk buyers accounted for 8.8% of recycling by weight or 26.0% by volume according to the results of the physical composition analysis. In addition, the results suggested that containers and packaging waste accounted for the largest proportion of household waste by volume. Junk buyers recycled 25.5% by weight of containers and packaging waste. In the formulation of new plans for municipal solid waste management to improve the current situation and handle future challenges, the role of the informal sector should be monitored carefully and reliable data on recyclable waste should be collected continuously. PMID:22584265

  4. Managing for Success: The Role of Transactional and Relational Mechanisms in Buyer-Supplier Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shahzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Firms are collaborating more in supply chain network and identified the importance of business relationships. This idea was embraced by academic and empirical research in operations management since last decade. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive integrated conceptual and empirical framework which elaborates the role of transactional and relational factors to highlight buyer-supplier relationship performance. While, limited studies explored these factors separately neither provide the dynamic interactive role of transactional and relational factors in an integrated framework. Through multiple case studies, findings reveal that impact of relational factors of trust and communication has constructive influence in reducing the transaction cost and improving relationship performance. This study contributes to debate on managing complex business network relationships by providing a combined theoretical setting (transaction cost economics and social exchange theory and empirically proven integrated model. Managers can enhance the operational performance by selecting the most suitable constructs.

  5. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  6. Perceived Compatibility and the Adoption of B2C E-Commerce by Non-buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, Ángel; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Chaparro-Peláez, Julián; Pascual-Miguel, Félix

    The purpose of this article is to study the factors which affect the intention to buy online for users who have never made any prior purchase using the electronic channel, with special focus to the role of perceived compatibility. To do so, an adoption model for e-commerce was proposed on the basis of the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and the Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT). In order to validate the model, data gathered amongst Spanish consumers who had no experience using e-commerce, were analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) method. The results have demonstrated the importance of perceived compatibility as a significant factor to foster non-buyers' adoption of electronic business-to-consumer e-commerce (eB2C).

  7. Why are buyers loyal? Exploring the role of psychographics on loyalty performance and market structure of brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios; Rungie, C.

    Research on brand loyalty from the repeat purchase approach has extensively aimed at describing the structure of the market and defining loyalty patterns. Various models, such as the NDB-Dirichlet, have been used successfully to describe patterns and structure of the markets. A drawback of such m......Research on brand loyalty from the repeat purchase approach has extensively aimed at describing the structure of the market and defining loyalty patterns. Various models, such as the NDB-Dirichlet, have been used successfully to describe patterns and structure of the markets. A drawback...... of such models is their inability to incorporate the way buyers' characteristics and psychographics influence the overall market structure and loyalty performance in repeat purchase occasions. Moreover, measuring the type and magnitude of buyer-related effects on brand loyalty could provide additional valuable...

  8. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON RURAL BUYERS' PERCEPTION TOWARDS SELECTED BRANDS OF CONTRACEPTIVES (WITH REFERENCE TO RURAL AREAS OF UJJAIN DISTRICT)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar MEHTA; Dharmendra MEHTA; MEHTA Naveen

    2012-01-01

    The biggest problem in the fast growth Indian economy is country's growing population. With a population of over a billion, India needs an inclusive family planning program and awareness campaign towards the use of contraceptives. The use of appropriate contraceptive product reduces the probability of a pregnancy occurring due to sexual intercourse. Marketing of contraceptives to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners, ...

  9. Interpersonal influence within car buyers' social networks: applying five perspectives to plug-in hybrid vehicle drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Jonn Axsen; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Although interpersonal influence is thought to play in important role in proenvironmental consumption behavior, mechanisms of influence are not well understood. Through literature review, we identify five theoretical perspectives on interpersonal influence: contagion, conformity, dissemination, translation, and reflexivity. We apply these perspectives to car buyer perceptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a technology with attributes that can be perceived as functiona...

  10. 12 CFR 340.3 - What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the purchase with a loan from the FDIC? 340.3 Section 340.3... on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the purchase with a loan from...

  11. Development-based Trust: Proposing and Validating a New Trust Measurement Model for Buyer-Seller Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro da Costa Hernandez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and validates a trust measurement model for buyer-seller relationships. Baptized as development-based trust, the model encompasses three dimensions of trust: calculus-based, knowledge-based and identification-based. In addition to recognizing that trust is a multidimensional construct, the model also assumes that trust can evolve to take on a different character depending on the stage of the relationship. In order to test the proposed model and compare it to the characteristic-based trust measurement model, the measure most frequently used in the buyer-seller relationship literature, data were collected from 238 clients of an IT product wholesaler. The results show that the scales are valid and reliable and the proposed development-based trust measurement model is superior to the characteristic-based trust measurement model in terms of its ability to explain certain variables of interest in buyer-seller relationships (long-term relationship orientation, information sharing, behavioral loyalty and future intentions. Implications for practice, limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  12. Buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in marketing channels: port wine distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo de Carvalho J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available José Crespo de Carvalho, Luís Sequeira Lisbon University Institute, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to research buyer-seller conflict and cooperation in distribution channels. Based on a multidimensional case study, eight research hypotheses were formulated. Some quantitative research was conducted, based on a questionnaire sent to 101 port wine producers and distribution companies (61 answered properly – 31 producers and 29 distributors – which gave the authors a 60% rate of response, considered to be very good for these types of studies; those 101 port wine producers and distributors initially chosen were the most important in Europe, considering the volume of production and sales, and constituting, for that reason, a convenience sample. A binary probit model was developed to analyze the data. The results of the study demonstrate that when conflict is ongoing and intense it prevents the development of cooperative relationships. A trustworthy company is more likely to solve conflicts. When trust and adaptation capabilities increase, so does potential cooperation. The results also show that the presence of a foreign sales representative in the team does not exert a negative influence on cooperation. Finally, cooperation can be considered as an important means of developing skills and resources, which can then be applied to existing transaction relationships. Keywords: conflict, cooperation, marketing, distribution, multiple channels, port wine

  13. A relook at the motor vehicle buyer after the purchase: dissonance arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brijball

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957 theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported dissonance, effort, congruence with self-concept, price, persuasiveness, and level of confidence during purchases. The results contribute to a better understanding of human behaviour and cognitions thereby, enabling the development of effective marketing strategies to enhance post-purchase satisfaction. Opsomming Hierdie studie is gebaseer op Leon Festinger (1957 se teorie van kognitiewe dissonansie, wat die relatiewe krag van verskeie opwekkingsfaktore, die impak van prys, asook die sielkundige toestande evalueer wat vir dissonansie-opwekking vereis word soos byvoorbeeld inspanning uitgeoefen. Die empiriese analise is uitgevoer op n steekproef van 200 eienaars van nuwe motorvoertuie. Agt dimensies het n betekenisvolle impak op die vlak van kognitiewe dissonansie uitgeoefen naamlik, hoe bewus verbruikers van hulle verwagtinge is, verwagtinge wat onbevestig is, dissonansie wat gerapporteer word, inspanning, ooreenstemming met die eienaar se selfbeeld, prys, hoe oorredend die verkoper is en die koper se vlak van selfvertroue gedurende die aankope. Die resultate dra by tot n beter begrip van menslike gedrag en van kognisies en bevorder daardeur die ontwikkeling van doeltreffende bemarkingstrategie- om na-verkooptevredenheid te verhoog.

  14. Buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable consumption policy pursued in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Korpysa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable consumption has been actively promoted among modern societies. It has gained a special importance in the context of pursuing sustainable consumption policy and supporting actions taken as part of corporate social responsibility. The fulfilment of strategic goals defined under this concept minimizes negative effects of industrialization and globalization. Furthermore, it contributes to efficient allocation of natural resources and natural environment protection. It is beyond any doubt that a 21st century consumer should take account of a number of issues while buying and subsequently using goods and services. These issues include wastage reduction, lower emission of pollution and limited production of waste, as well as selection of products whose development conforms to the code of ethics and socio-environmental norms. This awareness is observed in most countries all over the world, nevertheless certain differences can be noticed between the developed and developing states. Although the concept of sustainable consumption is being actively promoted among consumers in the developing countries (e.g. in Poland, they are still less aware of the necessity to conform to socio-ecological norms in the process of consumption. The main aim of the article is to analyse buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable development policy pursued in Poland. The first part will be devoted to theoretical issues relating to the subject of the analysis. In the second part of the paper the author will present the results of a survey examining the aforementioned behaviour.

  15. Hybrid, plug-in hybrid, or electric—What do car buyers want?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a survey to compare consumers’ stated interest in conventional gasoline (CV), hybrid (HEV), plug-in hybrid (PHEV) and pure electric vehicles (EV) of varying designs and prices. Data are from 508 households representing new vehicle buyers in San Diego County, California in 2011. The mixed-mode survey collected information about access to residential recharge infrastructure, three days of driving patterns, and desired vehicle designs and motivations via design games. Across the higher and lower price scenarios, a majority of consumers designed and selected some form of PHEV for their next new vehicle, smaller numbers designed an HEV or a conventional vehicle, and only a few percent designed an EV. Of those who did not design an EV, the most frequent concerns with EVs were limited range, charger availability, and higher vehicle purchase prices. Positive interest in HEVs, PHEVs and EVs was associated with vehicle images of intelligence, responsibility, and support of the environment and nation (United States). The distribution of vehicle designs suggests that cheaper, smaller battery PHEVs may achieve more short-term market success than larger battery PHEVs or EV. New car buyers’ present interests align with less expensive first steps in a transition to electric-drive vehicles. - Highlights: • We assess consumer interest in various electric-drive vehicle designs. • Web-based design games completed by 508 households from San Diego, California. • Plug-in hybrids are most popular, followed by hybrids and conventional vehicles. • Only a few percent opted for a pure electric vehicle. • Electric-drive associated with intelligence, responsibility, and environment

  16. A discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm with local search for a production-based two-echelon single-vendor multiple-buyer supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifbarghy, Mehdi; Kalani, Masoud Mirzaei; Hemmati, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    This paper formulates a two-echelon single-producer multi-buyer supply chain model, while a single product is produced and transported to the buyers by the producer. The producer and the buyers apply vendor-managed inventory mode of operation. It is assumed that the producer applies economic production quantity policy, which implies a constant production rate at the producer. The operational parameters of each buyer are sales quantity, sales price and production rate. Channel profit of the supply chain and contract price between the producer and each buyer is determined based on the values of the operational parameters. Since the model belongs to nonlinear integer programs, we use a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm (DPSO) to solve the addressed problem; however, the performance of the DPSO is compared utilizing two well-known heuristics, namely genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. A number of examples are provided to verify the model and assess the performance of the proposed heuristics. Experimental results indicate that DPSO outperforms the rival heuristics, with respect to some comparison metrics.

  17. Integrated vendor-buyer inventory models with inflation and time value of money in controllable lead time

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Jindal; Anjana Solanki

    2016-01-01

    In the global critical economic scenario, inflation plays a vital role in deciding optimal pricing of goods in any business entity. This article presents two single-vendor single-buyer integrated supply chain inventory models with inflation and time value of money. Shortage is allowed during the lead-time and it is partially backlogged. Lead time is controllable and can be reduced using crashing cost. In the first model, we consider the demand of lead time follows a normal distribution, and i...

  18. Strategy for Improving Efficiency of Supply Chain Quality Management in Buyer-Supplier Dyads: The Suppliers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the efficiency of supply chain quality management (SCQM by grouping buyers and suppliers and conducting an empirical analysis of aspects affecting SCQM efficiency from the supplier’s perspective. Two stages of data analysis were conducted: (1 classify buyer and supplier efficiency by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA and sort the data results into a 2×2 matrix and (2 conduct a statistical analysis to verify influential aspects. The results depict the average value of Group I to be higher than that of Group II, while the average value of Group IV was found to be much lower than that of Group III. In addition, specific aspects have a significant impact on certain groups: Groups I and II are affected by infrastructure, delivery of quality, talent development, and risk management in that order; Groups II and III are likewise influenced by risk management, talent development, and delivery of quality, whereas Groups III and IV are influenced by talent development, delivery of quality, and risk management in that order.

  19. THE MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICT IN BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIPS: A CASE STUDY OF AN AUSTRALIAN EXPORTER IN ASIAN AND US MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Freeman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will extend the conflict management stream by examining the complexity of conflict in buyer-seller relationships, comparing Western and Asian markets and their "contextual boundaries". Specifically, a model is developed linking different dimensions of cross-cultural business relationships to different dissolution and communication strategies for managing conflict. Multiple in-depth interviews in a single case study provide support for the theoretical development of a model of five key factors important in the selection of appropriate conflict management styles by the focal firm when managing buyer relationships in psychically distant markets.

  20. 供应链多边谈判中的买方承诺战术%Buyer's commitment tactic in supply chain multilateral negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 苏秦

    2012-01-01

    The choice of the optimal strategy in the buyer's commitment tactic is discussed by embedding the buyer's strategies in the analytical framework of supply chain multilateral negotiation. In the buyer's commitment stage, the buyer's three strategies are backward looking strategy, naive strategy, and forward looking strategy. The multilateral negotiation is considered as a dynamic game with perfect information. The subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium is derived and the numerical simulation is pursued. The results illustrate that the forward looking strategy is the buyer's inferior strategy, and the choice between the backward looking strategy and the naive strategy rests with the supplier number and the single supplier's bargaining power. If the supplier's bargaining power is strong enough or the supplier number is big enough, the buyer's main concern is local bilateral negotiation; when the buyer's bargaining power is weak enough or the supplier number is small enough, the buyer's main concern is global multilateral negotiation.%通过将买方策略纳入供应链多边谈判,探讨了买方承诺战术的最优策略选择.承诺阶段买方的三种策略为后视策略、朴素策略和前视策略.将多边谈判看作一个完美信息动态博弈,进而给出了其子博弈完美Nash均衡解.结果表明,前视策略为买方承诺战术的劣势策略,而后视策略和朴素策略的选取依据单个供应商讨价还价力和供应商个数而定.当供应商讨价还价力足够强或供应商个数足够多时,买方关注的重点应为局部的双边谈判;当供应商讨价还价力足够弱或供应商个数足够少时,买方关注的重点应为多边谈判全局.

  1. General design of a technical assistance program to help DOE/prime contractor buyers in doing business with small disadvantaged businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.T.; Radford, L.R.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.

    1986-04-01

    This report offers a design and recommendations for implementing a program of education to assist Department of Energy buyers and procurement officers in increasing the quality and quantity of small disadvantaged business (DB) participation in their contracted work. The recommendations are based on a previous companion report, ''Issues in Contracting with Small Minority Businesses,'' from which technical assistance and related needs were derived. The assistance program is based on buyer and disadvantaged-business needs, as determined from synthesizing the results of interviews with over two dozen minority business leaders and procurement officers.

  2. Managing business networks and buyer-supplier relationships. How information obtained from the business network affects trust, transaction specific investments, collaboration and performance in the Dutch Potted Plant and Flower Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claro, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Managing networks and buyer-supplier relationships " attempt to provide scientific sound discussion for problems faced in business linkages. Business networks, supply chains and buyer-supplier relationships all refer to business linkages, from a web of connected relationships to a dyadic relationshi

  3. 网络零售中的新客户与老客户购买行为差异基于淘宝网的实证对比研究%The Initial Buyers and Repeat Buyers in Online Retailing: an Empirical Study based on TaoBao. com

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦二娃; 卢向华

    2012-01-01

    网络零售中新客户与老客户的行为差异性,与传统零售相比更为显著也更有规律。基于“锚定与调整”的理论架构,本文结合网络零售的特征,对网络零售中的新客户与老客户购买行为的服务需求进行了分析,并基于淘宝网的数据进行了实证对比研究。研究结果表明,商家的信息获取服务、商品比较服务、信用保障服务、售后支持服务都对新客户和老客户的购买行为造成了显著区别。其中,新客户对商家的信息获取服务、信用保障服务、售后支持服务的需求较老客户的大;而老客户则对商家的商品比较服务有着更大的需求。本研究对更好地认识网络零售中新客户与老客户购买行为差异的差异,进而指导网络商家更有效地运营有着重要意义。%With the rapid growth of online businesstocustomer ( B2C ) ecommerce, many researchers are in terested in the service quality of online retailers. Some researchers suggested that service quality is one of the signif icant determinants of online retailers' success. There are two reasons : 1 ) online retailers' service quality direcflyin fluences buyers' purchase and repurchase intention in key determinant to attract potential buyers. In this online retailing. 2)Online retailers' service quality is also the regard , understanding the buyers' expectation of service quality is critical for online retailers for to attract potential buyers and retain repeat buyers. In the traditional retailing market, understanding the differences between initial buyers and repeat buyers is very important for the retailers to take differentiated marketing and management activities. Although most of the knowledge about this difference between initial buyers and repeat buyers can be transferred to online marketing to guide the operation of online retailer, we have to agree that online markets are significantly different with

  4. Understanding buyers' loyalty to a C2C platform : The roles of social capital, satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of E-commerce institutional mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Q.; Chen, X.Y.; Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Hua, Z.S.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon social capital theory, this study aims to investigate how different dimensions of social capital affect online buyers' satisfaction and ultimately boost their loyalty to a Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) platform. Specifically, we propose that three dimensions of social capital (i.e., cognit

  5. ON IMPROVING AN INTEGRATED INVENTORY MODEL FOR A SINGLE VENDOR AND MULTIPLE BUYERS WITH A RELAXED MATERIAL ORDERING CYCLE POLICY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yugang YU; Feng CHU; Haoxun CHEN

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model for improving the lot size obtained with the model of Woo, Hsu, and Wu (2001) proposed in their paper "An integrated inventory model for a single vendor and multiple buyers with ordering cost reduction" (Int. J. Production Economics 73 203-215). The new model can provide a lower or equal joint total cost as compared to Woo, Hsu, and Wu's model due to the relaxation of their integral multiple material ordering cycle policy to a fractional-integral multiple material ordering cycle policy. The proposed model is analyzed and an algorithm for calculating the optimal lot size of the model is developed. A numerical study based on the example used by Woo, Hsu, and Wu is presented.

  6. Integrated vendor-buyer inventory models with inflation and time value of money in controllable lead time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global critical economic scenario, inflation plays a vital role in deciding optimal pricing of goods in any business entity. This article presents two single-vendor single-buyer integrated supply chain inventory models with inflation and time value of money. Shortage is allowed during the lead-time and it is partially backlogged. Lead time is controllable and can be reduced using crashing cost. In the first model, we consider the demand of lead time follows a normal distribution, and in the second model, it is considered distribution-free. For both cases, our objective is to minimize the integrated system cost by simultaneously optimizing the order quantity, safety factor, lead time and number of lots. The discounted cash flow and classical optimization technique are used to derive the optimal solution for both cases. Numerical examples including the sensitivity analysis of system parameters is provided to validate the results of the supply chain models.

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility in Buyer-Supplier Relationships: Is it Beneficial for Top-Tier Suppliers to Market their Capability to Ensure a Responsible Supply Chain?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Leppelt; Kai Foerstl; Evi Hartmann

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR)-related supply management practices affects the reputation of top-tier suppliers in business-to-business (B2B) markets. In a cross-functional multiple-case study involving marketing, purchasing, and sustainability executives of five supplier organizations in Central Europe, we explored four...

  8. 老年彩民对体育彩票业发展的影响研究%Influence Research of Elderly Lottery Buyers on Sports Lottery Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍珍

    2016-01-01

    As an important means of financing,lottery has become the economic foundation of sports and public welfare undertaking.With the quickening up of the pace of China entering ageing society,the role that elderly lottery buyers play in current sports lottery development should not be neglected because of elders’favorable conditions.With methods of literature and investigation,the paper manages to explore the influence of elderly lottery buyers on development of sports lottery industry through studying elderly lottery buyers and sports lottery.%彩票作为一种重要的融资手段日渐成为体育事业和公益事业的的经济基础。随着我国进入老龄化社会步伐的加快,老年彩民因其自身的诸多有利条件对当前体育彩票行业的发展有着不容小觑的作用。本文采用文献法、调查法等,试图通过对老年彩民及体育彩票的研究,探索老年彩民对体育彩票业发展的影响。

  9. A Dynamic Model for Sharing Reputation of Sellers Among Buyers for Enhancing Trust in Agent Mediated E-Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Gaur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reputation systems aim to reduce the risk of loss due to untrustworthy participants. This loss is aggravated by dishonest advisors trying to pollute the e-market environment for their self-interest. A major task of a reputation system is to promote and encourage advisors who repeatedly respond with fair advice and to apply an opinion filtering or honesty checking mechanism to detect and resist dishonest advisors. This paper provides a dynamic approach to compute the aggregated shared reputation component by filtering out unfair advice and then generating the aggregated shared reputation value. The proposed approach is dynamic in nature as it is sensitive to the behaviour of advisors, value of the current transaction and encourages the cooperation among buyers as advisors. It provides incentive to honest advisors in lieu of repeated sharing of honest opinion by increasing the weight of their opinion and by making the increase in the reputation of honest advisors monotonically proportional to the value of a transaction.

  10. Analysis of the Conflicts between Buyers and Sellers in On-line Shopping%网购中买家与卖家的冲突分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张相博; 段轩

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet applications, more and more people begin to accept and choose online shopping. But because of the particularity of online transactions, with the development of network shopping market, credit problem is increasingly outstanding. Sellers always have the false transactions, credit hype and bad behavior such as trust and so on. And the buyers use the credit cards to overdraft maliciously, or use the phony credit cards on the Internet. In this paper, we do the conflict analysis of buyers and sellers in the online shopping and research what buyers and sellers will do the transactions in the real online shopping environment. In the end we will provide the basis for how to build a fair network environment.%近年来,随着互联网应用的快速发展,越来越多的人开始接受和选择网络购物。但是由于网络交易的特殊性,在网络购物市场发展的同时,其信用问题也日益突出。卖家总是有虚假交易、信用炒作和信托等不良行为。而买家在网上使用信用卡恶意透支,或者实用伪造的信用卡。本文通过对网购中的买卖双方做冲突分析,研究在现实的网购环境中,买卖双方在交易中的行动,讨论买卖双方的走向,从而为如何建立公平的网络环境提供依据。

  11. Diffusion of solar energy technologies in the new-construction market: A survey of new solar-home and conventional-home buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, D.; Dunipace, D.; Woo, C. K.

    1981-02-01

    Consumer motivations for choosing a solar energy equipped home when the nonsolar or conventional model was available were investigated. The approach was to test the relative importance of demographic, dwelling unit, and heating system characteristics in household decisions to purchase a home equipped with solar energy devices. Two statistical models were developed: one to examine the relationship between the types of home buyers (as an identifiable market segment) and the decision to purchase a solar home; and the other to compare the energy use of solar vs. conventional homes selected in the sample.

  12. Protecting the Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Almost all of the 25,100 tons of defective milk powder seized in the 2008 toxic baby food probe had been incinerated and buried,and none had been found to have re-entered the market,China's National Food Safety Rectification Office(NFSRO)said on March 15.

  13. Buyers Guide for 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This annual guide gives names and addresses of manufacturers worldwide equipment for drilling, blasting, tunnel boring, loading, haulage, support, concreting and grouting, tunnel furnishing and safety protection. Electrical, mechanical and geotechnical equipment are also included.

  14. Buyer beware transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jeremy R; Delmonico, Francis L

    2016-05-01

    Poor long-term outcomes of commercial transplantation of transplant tourists reinforce the need to prevent this form of human trafficking. The development of an International Convention by the Council of Europe is highlighted and the implications for physicians of the criminalizing of organ trafficking are considered. The causes of poor outcomes from transplant tourism are considered, with the actions needed to provide both equity and sufficiency of access to transplantation as critical deterrent measures. PMID:27083275

  15. Investigating the Effect of Social Stimulants of Store Atmosphere on Buyer Extra-role Behavior A Study of Refah Chain Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mansouri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is impossible for retailers to establish a competitive and successful store Atmosphere in the marketplace via making a distinction in the outer facades of their stores, altering the pricing system, and diversifying the products offered in the store, due to the intense competition emerged in retailing markets. In addition to the economic effect on buyers’ behavior, the stores should try their best to attain their goals by less costing. Furthermore, as retailers can change the buyers’ behavior to the extra-role behavior, they can attain more appropriate goals. The social stimulants of store Atmosphere is one of the most important and effective factors on buyers’ behavior at shopping place. So, In this research We’ve connected these variables according to the different studies and designed our model. The statistical society of this study is customers of Refah chain stores in Tehran and The number of sample is 413 people that they were in sore. Validity of questionnaire was calculated based on opinions of university professors, vendors and also through factor analysis. We’ve also used Coefficient alpha (Cronbach, 87 percent and split half (83 percent for getting the reliability(83 percent. According to the results, it was confirmed that Social Stimulants of store atmosphere in Refah chain stores have effect on emotional-cognitive indicators and at a result, they have effect on buyer extra role behavior and this effect is not affected by buyers gender and age

  16. Analysis on the Game of Online Buyers and Sellers%浅析网购买卖双方的博弈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜维权; 张莹

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of games can be found in the area of e-commerce, such as, game between network and general retail outlets, sellers and buyer, seller and seller, and so on. This article conducted game theory modeling of the online buyers and sellers from three directions, static game theory under complete information, dynamic games of complete and perfect information and repeat game.%电子商务领域中存在着各种博弈,网络零售商与普通零售商的博弈、买方和卖方的博弈、销售商之间的博弈等等。本文以完全信息下的静态博弈、完全且完美信息动态博弈以及重复博弈三个方向对网购买卖双方进行博弈论角度的建模研究。

  17. The Renewal of Cost Behavior in The Buyer-based Market Environment%买方市场环境下的成本习性创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳辉

    2001-01-01

    Traditional cost behavior refers to cost quantitativebehavior.The formation of buyer-based environment makes cost behavior renew.This paper intends to combine the principle of competitive strategy and evaluation choice of competitive stategy in different analysis of cost behavior.%传统的成本习性指的是成本数量习性,买方市场环境的形成,使成本习性得以创新,本文将成本习性分析与竞争战略原理相结合,对不同成本习性分析下的竞争战略选择进行评价。

  18. Optimal software pricing strategy with foresighted buyers%考虑前瞻性买者的软件定价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦一凡; 吴东军; 陈剑

    2012-01-01

    Software differs from traditional goods in negligible marginal costs, network effects and switching costs, all of which play a non trivial role in customers' decision making of software adoption. A two-period dynamic pricing model was developed to investigate the impact of foresighted buyers, in the presence of network effects and switching costs, with three popular pricing strategies being evaluated. The results show that while the subscription model is always suboptimal, the license model is optimal when buyers are fully foresighted, and that the time limited freernium model is optimal when network effects are sufficiently large, which provide theoretical guidance for software providers' pricing strategy.%软件与传统商品在边际成本、网络外部性和转移成本等3方面存在显著差异,而具有前瞻性的消费者在购买软件时会充分考虑到这些因素的长期影响,因此,深入理解和充分利用这些关键特征对于软件的价格制定具有重要意义。该文采用了理论经济模型的分析方法,通过建立两周期模型考查了前瞻性买者和网络外部性对于企业决策的影响,并基于此得到了订阅武定价、一次支付式定价和限期免费策略等3类在实践中普遍采用的软件定价策略的最优参数。数值试验结果表明:在一定条件下,一次支付式定价和限期免费策略可以替代最优的动态定价策略。这些结论为信息产品提供商的价格决策提供了重要的理论依据。

  19. The Empirical Study on Buyer Loyalty Formation Mechanism for B2B E-Intermediary: Moderating Role of Switching Cost%B2B电子中介买方用户忠诚形成机理实证研究——基于转移成本的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兆霞; 李莉

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims at B2B e-intermediary providing support service for both buyers and sellers, explores buyers loyalty information mechanism and key dimensions of switching cost, and theorizes a measurement model of buyers loyalty based on moderating role of switching cost. Then buyer loyalty formation mechanism and the moderating role of switching cost on buyer loyalty formation mechanism are empirically validated using a sampling survey of buyers and SEM (structural equation modeling) approach to test hypotheses. Finally, influential factors, influential degrees of buyer loyalty and moderating scope of switching cost are presented, providing guidance for training loyal buyers of B2B e-intermediary%以提供买卖双方支持服务的B2 B电子中介为研究对象,探索了买方用户忠诚的形成机理以及转移成本的关键维度,建立了基于转移成本调节作用的买方用户忠诚概念模型,然后采集数据,运用结构方程建模技术对买方用户忠诚的形成机理以及转移成本对买方用户忠诚形成机理的调节作用进行了检验,得出了买方用户忠诚的影响因素、影响程度以及转移成本的具体调节范围等.

  20. Development of an Internet Questionnaire System for Sports Lottery Buyers%体育彩票彩民网上问卷调查系统研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖毅; 李海; 吴殷

    2012-01-01

    Due to the deficiencies of paper questionnaire,such as insufficient samples,unreal data,long survey period,high cost,low efficiency of statistics analysis,etc,the author,based on the merits of the traditional questionnaire design and web design,shifts the paper questionnaire for identifying the purchasing behavior of problem lottery buyers to web questionnaire.A system for internet questionnaire and statistics analysis has been designed and developed.The article introduces the design concept,structure,function module and application of the system.%针对目前彩民购彩行为纸质问卷调查存在的样本量不够、数据不真实、调查周期长、成本较高、统计分析效率低等不足,结合传统调查问卷的设计方法和网页设计的优点,将用于甄别问题彩民购彩行为的纸质问卷转换为网络问卷,设计并开发了一套彩民购彩行为网上问卷调查与统计分析系统,介绍了系统的设计思路、架构、功能模块及其应用。

  1. The Advantages and Use Analysis of Buyer-led Medicare Negotiations%医保谈判买方主导的优势及利用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡大洋

    2012-01-01

      医疗保险谈判已经具备买方主导的诸多优势,并在镇江、淮安取得了合理控制费用、医疗质量提升的良好效果;但仍然存在着基金管理分散、谈判能力不足等问题;下一步应在发挥医保优势,完善谈判机制,利用谈判成果上下功夫。%  Buyer-led Medical insurance negotiations already have many advantages, and have achieved good results in reasonable cost control and improving medical care quality of Zhenjiang and Huai'an. Problems as decentralized fund management and lack of negotiating capacity still exist. Further efforts should be made in bringing Medicare advantage into play, perfecting negotiation mechanism, and use of negotiations’ outcome.

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility in Buyer-Supplier Relationships: Is it Beneficial for Top-Tier Suppliers to Market their Capability to Ensure a Responsible Supply Chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Leppelt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR-related supply management practices affects the reputation of top-tier suppliers in business-to-business (B2B markets. In a cross-functional multiple-case study involving marketing, purchasing, and sustainability executives of five supplier organizations in Central Europe, we explored four distinct approaches for marketing superior CSR management abilities in B2B markets that potentially foster long-term comparative advantages: (1 Fact-based communication of measurable CSR capabilities, (2 targeting of indirect customers and influencers, (3 marketing through education, and (4 marketing of CSR as a service. Moreover, our inductive results provide evidence that the effective marketing of CSR capabilities enhances a supplier’s reputation only if it sends consistent signals to the market. Therefore, a close integration of marketing and purchasing is crucial for achieving signaling consistency. Building on an established framework of purchasing-marketing integration in the particular context of CSR we developed a crossfunctional theory on the link between marketing, supply chain alignment and reputation, which is expressed in four sets of testable research propositions.

  3. Theory Analysis of Retail Trading Buyer Power based on Galbraith Hypothesis%基于加尔布雷斯假说的零售业买方势力理论思辨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2014-01-01

    Galbraith hypothesis once again becomes a hot issue of academia along with the formation of retailers ′buyer power .Galbraith hypothesis holds that the countervailing power from retailers′buyer power is conducive to enhancing consumer welfare , which contradicts the academic viewpoint that large retailers′buyer power undermines fair competi-tion.The paper demonstrates that the only way to advance consumer welfare of retailers is to achieve economies of scale , but not to exercise buyer power , and even that buyer power of large retailers is detrimental to retail competition especially in homogenization market .Then the author advocates that guiding large retailers toward pursuing economies of scale and small retailers′toward exploring diversified development can optimization market competition and promote the healthy de -velopment of retailing .%伴随着我国零售商买方势力的形成,加尔布雷斯假说再次成为学术界的热点议题。加尔布雷斯假说所阐述的“抗衡势力提升消费者剩余”的观点,与业界对“大型零售商凭借买方势力破坏公平竞争”的诟病构成了看似无法调和的矛盾。通过理论思辩,本文论证了只有实现规模经济的零售商集中才能促进消费者福利的提升,大型零售商的买方势力在同质化竞争下是有损市场竞争的。因此,需要积极引导我国大型零售商实现规模经济,推动小型零售商差异化经营,以优化零售业的市场竞争格局,促进我国零售业健康发展。

  4. Determination of the Bona Fide Buyer in the Couple Shared House Dealing%夫妻共有房屋买卖中善意买受人的认定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如霞

    2013-01-01

      夫妻一方未经对方同意,出卖夫妻共有房屋给买受人,会引发对该房屋权属问题的争论。理论界和司法界在解决该问题时,主要从是否适用善意取得制度加以把握。善意取得制度通过在真实权利人与善意买受人之间进行利益衡量,最终保障了善意买受人的物权。这无疑是对真实权利人的一种重大打击。因此,我们必须科学界定善意取得制度的适用条件。本文从善意取得制度的一个适用条件,即“买受人主观上是善意的”切入,着重探讨了夫妻一方擅自出卖夫妻共有房屋时,善意买受人产生的背景以及买受人善意的具体认定问题,以期对完善我国的法制有所裨益。%It will cause on the housing ownership issues that one of the spouses sells the couple shared houses to the buyer without the consent of the other party.The theory circles and the judicial circles solve the problem mainly from the system of bona fide acquisition applicable.Through the interest measure between the real obligee and the bona fide buyer,the system of bona fide acquisition ultimately protects the property of the bona fide buyer.It is a great blow to the real obligee. Therefore,we need to scientifically define applicable conditions of the bona fide acquisition system. The article makes a applicable conditions of the system of bona fide acquisition,namely“the buyer is subjectively good”as the breakthrough point,focuses on bona fide buyer’s background and the concrete determination problem of the buyer’s bona fide when one of the spouses sells the couple shared houses without authorization,so as to perfect our country’s legal system.

  5. Global Competition: A Buyer's Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Industrial development agencies (IDAs) around the globe are luring potential developers to Europe, the Far East, and the Caribbean. Programs in each of these geographic areas and types of incentives offered are discussed. These incentives include tax holidays, free-trade zones, free land, and grants of cash. (DH)

  6. 1998 buyer's guide and directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new listing of more than 800 environmental product and service companies from across North America was presented. The listing of companies is alphabetical; and the index of company names is organized into 60 environmental and pollution abatement categories. The new listing can also be found on the magazine's web site page at www.hazmatmag.com. With the on-line directory, products and services can be searched by company name, category or geographical area. In addition to the printed version of the directory reproduced here, the database is also available on diskette

  7. Car buyers and fuel economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrentine, Thomas S. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: tturrentine@sbcglobal.net; Kurani, Kenneth S. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    This research is designed to help researchers and policy makers ground their work in the reality of how US consumers are thinking and behaving with respect to automotive fuel economy. Our data are from semi-structured interviews with 57 households across nine lifestyle 'sectors.' We found no household that analyzed their fuel costs in a systematic way in their automobile or gasoline purchases. Almost none of these households track gasoline costs over time or consider them explicitly in household budgets. These households may know the cost of their last tank of gasoline and the unit price of gasoline on that day, but this accurate information is rapidly forgotten and replaced by typical information. One effect of this lack of knowledge and information is that when consumers buy a vehicle, they do not have the basic building blocks of knowledge assumed by the model of economically rational decision-making, and they make large errors estimating gasoline costs and savings over time. Moreover, we find that consumer value for fuel economy is not only about private cost savings. Fuel economy can be a symbolic value as well, for example among drivers who view resource conservation or thrift as important values to communicate. Consumers also assign non-monetary meaning to fuel prices, for example seeing rising prices as evidence of conspiracy. This research suggests that consumer responses to fuel economy technology and changes in fuel prices are more complex than economic assumptions suggest. The US Department of Energy and the Energy Foundation supported this research. The authors are solely responsible for the content and conclusions presented.

  8. Buyer-seller coordination and quantity discount pricing model in the supply-chain%供应链中的买-卖协调及数量折扣定价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓军; 陈秋双

    2000-01-01

    供应链中买方与卖方之间的协调.涉及到采购、组织生产、库存管理和双方用于贸易的必不可少的通讯、交通等多个环节.研究买方、卖方如何协调以节约各个环节的费用,对于降低买卖双方的成本,提高经济效益是非常重要的.国内外学者在这方面已经做了大量的工作,本文就买方-卖方联合系统及数量折扣定价模型进行了总结和分析.%One of the three coordinations defined by operational planning in supply-chain management is the buyerseller coordination. It includes several stages ,such as purchase ,production,inventroy control,communication and transportation used to the trade. It is important for buyer and seller how toreduce the cost and improve the benefit for both sides. There is a lot of literatures on this topic. This paper makes a summary about the buyer-seller joint system and quantity discount pricing model.

  9. 浅析拐卖人口案件侦查之买方市场的防控%Analysis of Prevention and Control of Buyer's Market in the Investigation of Human Trafficking Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 匡爱明

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of human trafficking continues despite repeated prohibition, and one of the fundamental reasons for which lies in the existence and development of the buyer's market. Based on the research of the background conditions for the existence and development of the buy's market of the trafficked population, and on the analysis of the present situation and prevention and control difficulties, the paper has pointed out the complexity of the composition structure of the buyer's market and the lack of coordination for one-sided combat. Through expert consultation, literature review and in-depth communication with the front-line policemen at the major regions of criminal cases, the paper has summed up practical measures. In particular, it has stressed the importance of adopting a systematic combat method to cope with the new characteristics of existing population trafficking. Relevant suggestions on the measures of prevention and control of the buyer's market are proposed, which have certain guiding significance for the investigation of human trafficking cases.%拐卖人口现象屡禁不止,根本原因之一是买方市场的存在及发展.本研究基于对拐卖人口买方市场存在发展的背景条件以及当前形势和防控难点进行分析研究,指出买方市场组成结构的复杂性与单方面打击不协调等问题.针对当前背景下采取系统作战方式应对拐卖人口新特点的重要性,通过咨询专家、文献研究以及与主要案发地区一线民警深入沟通,给买方市场防控措施提出相关建议,以期望对拐卖人口案件侦查有一定借鉴意义.

  10. 浅析拐卖人口案件侦查之买方市场的防控%Analysis of Prevention and Control of Buyer's Market in the Investigation of Human Trafficking Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 匡爱明

    2015-01-01

    拐卖人口现象屡禁不止,根本原因之一是买方市场的存在及发展.本研究基于对拐卖人口买方市场存在发展的背景条件以及当前形势和防控难点进行分析研究,指出买方市场组成结构的复杂性与单方面打击不协调等问题.针对当前背景下采取系统作战方式应对拐卖人口新特点的重要性,通过咨询专家、文献研究以及与主要案发地区一线民警深入沟通,给买方市场防控措施提出相关建议,以期望对拐卖人口案件侦查有一定借鉴意义.%The phenomenon of human trafficking continues despite repeated prohibition, and one of the fundamental reasons for which lies in the existence and development of the buyer's market. Based on the research of the background conditions for the existence and development of the buy's market of the trafficked population, and on the analysis of the present situation and prevention and control difficulties, the paper has pointed out the complexity of the composition structure of the buyer's market and the lack of coordination for one-sided combat. Through expert consultation, literature review and in-depth communication with the front-line policemen at the major regions of criminal cases, the paper has summed up practical measures. In particular, it has stressed the importance of adopting a systematic combat method to cope with the new characteristics of existing population trafficking. Relevant suggestions on the measures of prevention and control of the buyer's market are proposed, which have certain guiding significance for the investigation of human trafficking cases.

  11. 多属性逆向拍卖环境下采供双方利润分配研究%Profits allocation between suppliers and buyers in multi-attribute reverse auctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田剑; 陈曲

    2013-01-01

    针对多属性逆向拍卖环境下采供双方的利润分配问题,分别构建了非合作与合作博弈模型,分析了两种情形中影响利润分配的因素,以及建立和发展合作关系的条件,并确定了利润分配的比例.结论表明:在满足建立合作关系的基本条件时,采供双方合作策略的总利润优于非合作的总利润.在满足基本条件的前提下,同时满足维持和发展长期合作的必需条件,则可以确定利润分配的合理比例,使采供双方获得共赢,实现长期合作.%This paper focuses on the allocation of profits between suppliers and buyers in multi-attribute reverse auctions. By constructing a non-cooperative game model and a cooperative game model, it analyses the factors influencing the profits allocation in multi-attribute reverse auctions and the requirements of establishing and developing a partnership between the supplier and the buyer, and determines the ratio values of profits allocation. It concluded that when the basic conditions of establishing the partnership are met, the total profits in cooperative models are better than in non-cooperative models, and if the requirements of developing the long-term cooperation are met, they can obtain a win-win situation and create a long-term relationship with a rational allocation ratio.

  12. 买方势力、资产专用性与技术创新——基于中国汽车工业的实证检验%Buyer Power,Asset Specificity and Technological Innovation——An Empirical Research on Chinese Automobile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓华; 郑辉

    2011-01-01

    Buyer power and asset specificity are important factors of affecting technological innovation in vertical market.Taking Chinese automobile industry statistics from 2000 to 2008 as samples,this paper empirically tests the relationship between buyer power,asset specificity and technological innovation through the panel data model.The results show that technological innovation depends not only on supplier market conditions,but also on the competitive conditions of downstream industry.Buyer market power helps promote upstream technological innovation activities;buyer asset specificity has a significant negative effect on their own technological innovation,the higher the proportion of fixed assets is,the less RD inputs will be.In addition,buyer technological capabilities and the rapid growth of market demand have a positive impact on technological innovation,while equal market power between upstream and downstream industries is an obstacle to technological innovation.%在纵向关联市场中,买方势力和资产专用性是影响企业技术创新的重要因素。本文以我国汽车工业2000-2008年统计数据为样本,利用面板数据模型对买方市场势力、资产专用性与技术创新的关系进行了实证检验,研究结果表明:技术创新行为不仅取决于企业自身所处的市场条件,还与作为买方的下游行业市场竞争状况有关,买方市场势力的增强有利于上游企业技术创新活动的开展;下游企业的资产专用性对上游企业技术创新具有显著的负效应,固定资产比例越高,研发投入越少。此外,较快的市场需求增长率和买方技术能力对技术创新具有积极影响,上下游行业之间较为对等的市场势力会阻碍技术创新。

  13. Investigation of supplier/buyer coordination performance in chinese companies Investigação sobre o desempenho da coordenação cliente/fornecedor em empresas chinesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhixiang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of supplier/buyer coordination in supply chain systems in China based on data from a survey of that country's business sector. The survey indicates that the rapidly expanding economy has raised the awareness of an increasing number of Chinese firms to the importance of cooperating and coordinating with partners in supply chain management. However, although coordinated delivery, quality and responsiveness show an upward trend, such is not the case in information sharing and in cooperative efforts to reduce inventory and costs. Hence, many companies have yet to form close cooperative relationships with partners. This study may be useful for both Chinese and foreign companies, serving to underpin the development of new strategies for operating supply chains in the changing global economy.Este artigo discute o desempenho da coordenação entre cliente/fornecedor em cadeias de suprimento da China com base em dados de uma pesqquisa de avaliação (survey. Os resultados indicam que a rápida expansão da economia fez com que um número crescente de empresas chinesas passasse a dar mais atenção para a importância da cooperação e coordenação entre os parceiros na gestão da cadeia de suprimentos. Embora entrega, qualidade e responsividade apresentem uma tendência de melhora o mesmo não é observado para compartilhamento da informação e esforços conjuntos para redução de custos e inventários. Portanto, muitas empresas ainda precisam estabelecer relacionamentos cooperatives com os seus parceiros. Este estudo pode ser útil tanto para empresas chinesas quanto para empresas estrangeiras, servindo de base para o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias para a gestão de cadeias de suprimentos numa economia global em mudança.

  14. 基于买方垄断势力的产业集群纵向压榨分析%Analysis on Vertical Squeeze in Industrial Clusters by the Buyer Power of Multinational Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 高佳琪

    2011-01-01

    依靠集群战略吸引外来投资是发展中国家发展经济的重要手段,而处于产业链下游的跨国公司利用买方垄断势力对当地配套企业的纵向压榨导致本地企业生存状况窘迫.基于双重加价模型构建了一个集群内买方垄断势力下跨国公司对当地配套企业的纵向压榨模型,并以昆山IT产业集群为例分析纵向压榨产生的原因,认为纵向压榨起因于跨国公司的买方垄断势力和上下游市场势力的严重不对等.而减少对下游跨国公司的依赖和增强自身的不可替代性是当地配套企业避免陷入恶性竞争的重要手段.%Attracting foreign investments depend on the strategy of cluster is one of the most important way to develop economy for developing countries.While the multinational corporations squeeze profit out of the local enterprises by buyer power,which would make local enterprises go bankrupt.The basic model of vertical relations in the clusters based on the model of double marginalization was established,set example of IT industrial clusters in Kunshan,and considered the oligopsony power and unequal powers of downstream and upstream marker were important reason of leading vertical squeeze.Decreasing the dependence on multinational corporations and enhancing the non-substituability are important tactic of avoiding excessive competition and vertical squeeze for local enterprises.

  15. Technology Acquisition of Public Goods Technological Innovation under Buyer-determined Scenaro%买方决定条件下公共产品技术创新技术获取策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海江涛; 仲伟俊; 梅姝娥

    2013-01-01

    政府部门可以通过直接采购包含所需技术的产品或进行研发采购的方式向社会提供非排他性的公共产品.以买方决定的在线逆向拍卖理论和寻租竞争理论为基础,构建了相应的离散选择模型,分析了预期的市场规模、投标企业技术特征以及获得研发采购合同投标商的研发成本等因素对政府部门技术获取策略的影响,得到了政府部门进行研发采购的条件以及进行研发采购时最优的技术采购规则.%Government departments generally purchases available technologies directly or undertake pre-commercial procurement to provide non-excludable public goods. Based on the buyer determined online reverse auction theory and rent-seeking contests models, we construct a discrete choice model and demonstrate future market size, technical characteristics and R&D cost of the bidding companies to fully obtain pre-commercial procurement as the major factors that influence the technology acquisition policies. We present the necessary condition for pre-commercial procurement and the optimal procurement rules of state-of-the-art technology for public sectors.

  16. Buyer-supplier relationships and planning solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.; Steger-Jensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on supply chain relationships and segmented planning and ICT concepts. Major supplier segments are distinguished based on literature: capacity suppliers, standard suppliers, system suppliers and key suppliers. Next, current supply chain planning solutions are distinguished: vendor

  17. Vendor-Buyer Coordination in Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.J. Verheijen (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCollaboration between firms in order to coordinate supply chain operations can lead to both strategic and operational benefits. Many advanced forms of collaboration arrangements between firms exist with the aim to coordinate supply chain decisions and to reap these benefits. This dissert

  18. Wooing the Chinese Car-Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; CHRISTINE TSANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Zhu Ce is a 22-year old salesman at Beijing's largest car market, North Asia Car Market, or Beiya Cheshi (北亚车市). He has been working there a few months, and on average makes about IO sales a month. But Zhu knows next to nothing about cars. He doesn't own one himself, and his employers simply provided him with a small information pamphlet by way of training.

  19. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  20. The Relationship between Virtual Try-On,Buyer Show and Impulsive Buying Based on Virtual Haptic%基于触觉视角的虚拟试穿、买家展示对消费者冲动性购买意愿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚旭彤

    2015-01-01

    In this paper ,the theoretical model of the relationship between virtual try‐on ,buyer show and consumer’s impulsive buying intentions is established from the virtual haptical perspective. Then ,the theoretical model is tested through structural equation model. Results show that vir‐tual try‐on and buyer show have both direct and indirect effects on impulsive buying intentions ,and virtual haptic acts an intermediary role in the indirect effect.%从虚拟触觉的视角,构建了虚拟试穿、买家展示与消费者冲动性购买意愿关系的理论模型。并基于结构方程的方法对理论模型进行了验证。验证结果表明,虚拟试穿和买家展示对消费者冲动性购买意愿既有直接作用又有间接作用,虚拟触觉在两者对冲动购买意愿的间接作用中充当了中介作用。

  1. Understanding Knowledge Transfer in Sino-Foreign Buyer-Supplier Relationships%中外企业间差异对知识转移的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢恩; 梁杰

    2015-01-01

    Effective knowledge transfer is critical to the success of inter-organizational alliances. However, achie-ving effective knowledge transfer is often problematic in cross-cultural strategic cooperations, and is a primary cause of failure in many such relationships. The article first identified inter-firm diversity in management and tech-nology as two major impediments of knowledge transfer, and posited that selecting appropriate communication me-dia and employing control mechanisms could help organizations reduce the impact of inter-firm diversity on know-ledge transfer. Based on a cross-sectional survey of 178 Chinese manufacturing firms that have entered into strate-gic buyer-supplier relationships with foreign Western firms, the research found that inter-firm diversity, more speci-fically managerial diversity, indeed has a negative influence on knowledge transfer. The empirical results also sup-ported the hypotheses on the moderating effects of communication media and control mechanisms, indicating that while IT-based communication media are more effective in alleviating the effect of technological diversity, face-to-face communication helps in moderating the negative impact of managerial diversity on knowledge transfer. The use of social control mechanisms was found to be effective in enhancing knowledge transfer in Sino-foreign alliance. Implications for theory and practice were discussed.%有效的知识转移是组织联盟取得成功的关键因素之一。然而在跨文化的战略合作中,实现有效的知识转移经常存在着一些障碍,容易导致双方合作的失败。首先,确定企业间管理和技术的差异性是阻碍企业间知识转移的两个重要因素,进一步提出选择适当的沟通媒介以及采用合适的控制机制可以降低差异性对知识转移的作用。基于中国制造业和国外企业建立供应关系的178家企业的调查研究,发现企业间管理差异性对知识转移存在着负向

  2. 供应商、经销商议价能力与公司业绩——来自2005-2007年中国制造业上市公司的经验证据%Bargaining Power of Suppliers and Buyers, and Corporate Performance——Evidences from Chinese Manufacturing Listed Companies from 2005 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐跃军

    2009-01-01

    传统的企业与企业的竞争已经演化为供应链与供应链(或产业链与产业链)之间的竞争,这使得改进供应链(或产业链)管理成为提升公司竞争力的必由之路.本文利用来自2005-2007年中国制造业上市公司的经验证据,探讨供应商和经销商(客户)议价能力对公司业绩可能存在的影响以及具体的影响程度和影响方式.实证研究证实:①供应商、经销商(客户)的集中度和议价能力越低,公司业绩越好;②供应商的集中度和议价能力与公司业绩之间表现为倒"U"形关系;③和已有的研究不同,经销商(客户)的集中度和议价能力在与公司业绩显著负相关的同时,表现为左高右低的正"U"形关系.%The traditional competition among companies has evolved into competition among supply chains (or industry chains), hence the improvement of supply chains (or industry chains) management becomes absolutely necessary for promotion of enterprise competitive power. Based on empirical evidence from Chinese manufacturing listed companies between 2005 and 2007, this paper explores the impact suppliers and franchisers (buyers) may have on corporate performance, as well as the impact degree and means. The empirical research proves that: ①lower the concentration degree of suppliers and franchisers (buyers) is, better corporate performance will be; ②suppliers' concentration degree and bargaining power have an inverted U -shape relationship with corporate performance; ③different from existing researches, franchisers'(buyers') concentration degree and bargaining power have significant negative relationship with corporate performance; meanwhile, a U-shape relationship with higher left wing and lower right wing exists between them.

  3. ON DIFFERENTIATION OF CONSUMPTION MODE AND ITS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN NETWOEK SOCIETY--- The Game between Sellers and Buyers%网络社会消费方式的分化及其社会心理分析--卖家和买家的博弈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范和生; 徐玲; 沈江茜

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new media causes people to change their habits. Meanwhile it also creates new business modes and economic operation ways and network consumption is one of its derivatives. Online shopping gradually replaces the traditional shopping because of its cost performance, convenience, personalization, various goods, etc. advantage is gradually replacing the traditional way of shopping, attracting more and more consumers. However, the network may inevitably cause a series of con-suming issues, such as the confidence crisis between sellers and buyers, the guarantee of goods quality, the guarantee of the ex-press industry, etc., all of which cause us to ponder network consumption deeply more. At the same time, in the consumption process, the contradiction between sellers and buyers is also increasingly apparent.%新媒体的出现,在改变人们生活习惯的同时,也创造了新的商业模式和经济运行方式,网络消费就是其衍生品之一。网络消费因其性价比、方便性、个性化、商品数量多、品种齐全等等优势也逐渐代替传统购物方式,吸引着越来越多的消费者。然而网络消费也不可避免的引起一系列问题,例如卖家与买家的信任危机、商品质量的保证、快递行业的保证等等,都促使我们对网络消费的普及需要进行更为深入的思考。同时,在消费过程中,卖家与买家矛盾也日益显现。

  4. Comparison of Grocery Purchase Patterns of Diet Soda Buyers to Those of Regular Soda Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    James, Binkley; Golub, Alla A.

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate effect of regular and diet carbonated soft drinks on energy intakes depends on possible relations with other dietary components. With this motivation, this study compared grocery purchase patterns of regular and diet soft drink consumers using a large sample of US single person households. We tested for differences in food spending shares allocated to 43 food categories chosen mainly for their desirable/undesirable nutritional properties. We also investigated whether differences ...

  5. A Interactive Market Model about the Buyer Monopoly and Seller Monopoly in the Land Reserve Bank%土地储备制度中买方与卖方垄断的联动市场模型研究——兼对耕地保护和征地补偿问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹飞

    2013-01-01

    Under the situtiation of the monopoly of buyers and sellers,this paper constructed "land acquisiton-land transfer" interactive market model of land reserve center.Through the theorical analysis,we came to the conclusions:Firstly,the current land reserve system of buyer monopoly of agricultural land and seller monopoly of the first level of land market surely leaded the local government to pursue "land finance" by abusing the power of land acquisition.If the government is not "regulators of the land market",the interactive land maket will be in a non-equilibrium state.It makes the land market become a market full of government failure.Secondly,bilateral monopoly market of buyers and sellers of the land reserve system inevitably resulted in the absence of macroeconomic regulation and micro control the offside and also dislocation of the land of asset management,Next we build a model about the land protection and land acquisition compensation,The results show that:there will be a low price and high supplied quantity and also high profits in the legitimate zero-level market.Thirdly,the market structure of bilateral monopoly of buyer and seller inevitably leaded to the loss of arable land and the low compensation to the farmers.The paper suggested that in order to protect arable land and increase farmers' compensation,the most important measure that we shoud take was to break the bilateral monopoly of buyers and sellers in the land reserve system.%本文构建了买、卖方垄断下土地储备中心“征地—出让”的联动市场模型,理论分析表明:农地征收买方垄断和一级土地市场卖方垄断的现行土地储备制度,必然带来地方政府滥用征地权征地追求“土地财政”的后果,如果地方政府并非是“单一的土地市场监管者和宏观调控者”,则这个联动市场模型将处于一种非均衡的状态.同时表明土地储备制度买卖方双边垄断市场化经营的结果必然导致宏观调控的缺位

  6. 零售商买方势力一定会导致通道费吗?--基于纵向市场结构的合作博弈分析%Does Buyer Power of Retailer Would Lead to Slotting Allowances?---the Analysis Based on Cooperative Game in Vertical MarKet Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 李凯

    2014-01-01

    关于通道费的研究,有一种观点认为通道费是零售商买方势力的体现。但是现实经济中有些具有买方势力的零售商收取通道费,而另一些却不收取通道费,买方势力的观点不能对这一现象作出解释。针对此,构建双边双寡头的纵向市场结构模型,并在模型中引入零售商的价格竞争和服务竞争,在合作博弈的框架下分析研究了零售商买方势力与通道费之间的关系。研究发现买方势力并不是出现通道费的充分条件,而只是必要条件,通道费的出现与否除了与零售商买方势力有关外,还与其他的市场环境因素有关。最后,通过线性需求函数的特例对这一结论进行了验证,并在此基础之上提出了相应的规制政策建议。%There is a view that slotting allowances is a manifestation of the buyer power among the exist-ing studies about slotting allowances. But this point of view can't explain the phenomenon that some retailers which has countervailing power charge slotting allowances while the others don't charge in real retailer indus-try. Then what the relationship between the countervailing power and slotting allowances are?The existing studies seldom research on this problem. This paper studies the relationship between buyer power and slotting allowances in the framework of cooperative game by constructing a vertical market structure model which con-sisted by two manufactures and two retailers,and introducing price competition and service competition into the model. The study finds that buyer power is not sufficient condition but is only necessary condition for slotting allowances. Whether the slotting allowances will appear also has something to do with other market environ-ment factors. Finally,a special case of the linear demand function is studied to verify the conclusion. The cor-responding regulation policy recommendations are also put forward based on the conclusion.

  7. 刚需购房者对全装修住宅装修内容的需求--利用因子分析法进行探讨%Demands on Decorated Apartments for Home Buyers:Explored by the Method of Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐川

    2013-01-01

      This paper focus on consumers’preferences, discovering the most suitable decorating items in basic refined decoration, high grade refined decoration and fully furnished decoration to home buyers based on factor analysis. Meanwhile, it would help real estate companies effectively carry out the value engineering, and try to help more companies put housing industrialization concept into practice in refined decoration field.%  本文从消费者的需求出发,利用因子分析对刚需购房者心目中最符合基础精装修、高端精装修、拎包入住精装修的装修内容进行探讨,以帮助地产商更为有效地实施全装修住宅产品的价值工程,使住宅产业化理念可以在全装修领域有所实践。

  8. 转移成本对感知质量与满意之间关系的调节作用——对B2B电子中介买方用户的实证研究%The Moderating Role of Switching Cost on the Relationship between Perceived Quality and Satisfaction-An Empirical Study on Buyer of B2B E-Intermediary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兆霞; 李莉

    2012-01-01

    Based on B2B e-intermediary providing support service for both buyers and sellers, the paper explores the relationship between buyers perceived quality and satisfaction, the influence of switching cost on above relationship, and develops a measurement model based on the moderating role of switching cost. Then the relationship between perceived quality and satisfaction, the relationship between switching cost and satisfaction and the moderating role of switching cost are validated using a sampling survey of buyers and unconstrained approach. The results show that perceived quality and switching cost have a positive effect on satisfaction, and switching cost has a negative effect on the relationship between perceived quality and satisfaction, providing empirical basis for developing satisfaction from the view of switching cost.%如何提高用户满意,对于为买卖双方提供交易支持服务的B2B电子中介而言,是扩大平台运营规模和增加市场竞争力的基础。本文以B2B电子中介的买方用户为研究对象,建立了基于转移成本调节的感知质量与用户满意因果关系概念模型.借助于国内知名的B2B电子中介采集了覆盖五大洲114个国家的649份样本数据,然后运用无约束方法验证了用户感知质量与满意之间、转移成本与满意之间的正向影响关系。以及转移成本对感知质量和满意之间关系影响的负向调节作用。实证研究结果显示,较高的转移成本会减弱买方用户的感知质量对满意的影响,有利于B2B电子中介提高买方用户的满意水平,进而为B2B电子中介如何从转移成本角度提高买方用户满意提供了实证基础。

  9. Multimarket linkages, buyer power, and the productivity puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Noriaki; Zhao, Laixun

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between firms' productivity improvement and the volume of exports, and shows that it can be sometimes negative. Specifically, we simultaneously take into account intermediate retailers (i.e., vertically) and multimarket linkages (i.e., horizontally). We find that an improvement of the manufacturing productivity affects the bargained wholesale prices in opposite directions in asymmetric markets, causing retailers to make corresponding changes that look surp...

  10. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-12-01

    This annual guide features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  11. 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  12. Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  13. Exclusive Dealing and the Market Power of Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoko Oki; Noriyuki Yanagawa

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts offered by an incumbent distributor. The effectiveness of exclusive dealing contracts offered by distributors is quite differrent from those offered by incumbent manufacturers. The traditional literature has focused solely on exclusive dealing contracts made by incumbent manufacturers and has derived multiple equilibria within homogeneous price competition models. In contrast, this paper asserts that exclusive dealing contracts ma...

  14. Exclusive Dealing and the Market Power of Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Oki, Ryoko; Yanagawa, Noriyuki

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts offered by an incumbent distributor. The effectiveness of exclusive dealing contracts offered by distributors is quite different from those offered by incumbent manufacturers. The traditional literature has focused solely on exclusive dealing contracts made by incumbent manufacturers and has derived multiple equilibria within homogeneous price competition models. In contrast, this paper asserts that exclusive dealing contracts mad...

  15. Issues and strategies for large power buyers in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's leading commodity risk management company, Enron has 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2000. It operates EnronOnline, the largest e-commerce site in the world. With some corporate profile information on Enron and Enron Canada and its involvement in the Alberta electricity market, the author proceeded to discuss risk management issues and program development. It was stated that Enron believes that future outcomes can be changed, and risk management is a dynamic and iterative process used as a tool to decrease uncertainty. The risk appetite is defined and electricity risks clarified, then a review of physical operation characteristics is conducted. The risk management program and policy are defined, as well as the controls and reporting. The tools and tactics are defined and one is now ready for the implementation phase. The next section was devoted to credit and contracting issues before moving to the Alberta electricity market fundamentals and pricing and some insight provided on questions such as import/export in Alberta, regulatory issues, prices in Alberta. The last section of the presentation touched on EnronOnline which is a free, Internet-based global transaction system where one can view real time prices. tabs., figs

  16. Issues and strategies for large power buyers in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D. [ENRON Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    America's leading commodity risk management company, Enron has 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2000. It operates EnronOnline, the largest e-commerce site in the world. With some corporate profile information on Enron and Enron Canada and its involvement in the Alberta electricity market, the author proceeded to discuss risk management issues and program development. It was stated that Enron believes that future outcomes can be changed, and risk management is a dynamic and iterative process used as a tool to decrease uncertainty. The risk appetite is defined and electricity risks clarified, then a review of physical operation characteristics is conducted. The risk management program and policy are defined, as well as the controls and reporting. The tools and tactics are defined and one is now ready for the implementation phase. The next section was devoted to credit and contracting issues before moving to the Alberta electricity market fundamentals and pricing and some insight provided on questions such as import/export in Alberta, regulatory issues, prices in Alberta. The last section of the presentation touched on EnronOnline which is a free, Internet-based global transaction system where one can view real time prices. tabs., figs.

  17. Can Cocoa Farmer Organizations Countervail Buyer Market Power?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Michael D.; Abbott, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    Structural adjustment in less developed countries has often mandated removal of state-run marketing boards to enhance efficiency in the marketing chain and to raise farm income. Concerns have been mounting about the negative side effects of cocoa market liberalization, including replacement of the parastatal by imperfectly competitive marketing institutions and the loss of public goods (e.g. research and extension). It is believed that the link of the supply chain closest to the farmgate may ...

  18. Buyer power and exclusion in vertically related markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl; Johansen, Bjørn Olav

    2012-01-01

    We explore how the incentives for exclusion, both in upstream and downstream vertical markets, are related to the bargaining position of suppliers and retailers. We consider a model with a dominant upstream manufacturer and a competitive fringe of producers of imperfect substitutes offering their products to two differentiated downstream retailers. In this model we contrast the equilibrium outcome in two alternative situations. The first one is when the dominant supplier holds all the bargain...

  19. Clean Cities 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-11

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  20. A Buyer's and User's Guide to Astronomical Telescopes and Binoculars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, James

    This book is offered as a no-nonsense practical guide to the selection and use of telescopes and binoculars for stargazing. But these devices should not be looked upon as yet more gadgets to add to our collection of modern technical possessions. Rightly viewed, they are truly magical instruments, for they are literally "spaceships of the mind," "time machines," and "windows on creation" that allow their users to roam the universe in what is surely the next best thing to actually being there!

  1. The structure and evolution of buyer-supplier networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Souma, Wataru; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the structure and evolution of customer-supplier networks in Japan using a unique dataset that contains information on customer and supplier linkages for more than 500,000 incorporated non-financial firms for the five years from 2008 to 2012. We find, first, that the number of customer links is unequal across firms; the customer link distribution has a power-law tail with an exponent of unity (i.e., it follows Zipf's law). We interpret this as implying that competition among firms to acquire new customers yields winners with a large number of customers, as well as losers with fewer customers. We also show that the shortest path length for any pair of firms is, on average, 4.3 links. Second, we find that link switching is relatively rare. Our estimates indicate that the survival rate per year for customer links is 92 percent and for supplier links 93 percent. Third and finally, we find that firm growth rates tend to be more highly correlated the closer two firms are to each other in a customer-supplier network (i.e., the smaller is the shortest path length for the two firms). This suggests that a non-negligible portion of fluctuations in firm growth stems from the propagation of microeconomic shocks - shocks affecting only a particular firm - through customer-supplier chains. PMID:25000368

  2. Tourism Enterprises as Buyers of Knowledge-Intensive Business Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Borodako

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to assess the business relations between the tourism sector and suppliers of various types of business services. It focuses on knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS. The reasons why tourism businesses purchase outsourced services are also discussed. An Internet survey was conducted and the results were used to calculate and discuss a number of indices. Cross-tabulation statistics are used to assess the interrelation between types of tourist firms, their localization and size, and the types and number of services they use. The largest numbers of KIBS used by the Polish tourism sector are from the accounting, IT, and advertising sectors, whereas the smallest relate to research and experimental development in the social sciences and humanities. This article fills a gap in the knowledge about usage of KIBS services by the tourism sector at the national level.

  3. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry

  4. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes and binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers of all skill levels are always contemplating their next telescope, and this book points the way to the most suitable instruments. Similarly, those who are buying their first telescopes – and these days not necessarily a low-cost one – will be able to compare and contrast different types and manufacturers. This revised new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand, and model on today’s market, a truly invaluable treasure-trove of information and helpful advice for all amateur astronomers. Originally written in 2006, much of the first edition is inevitably now out of date, as equipment advances and manufacturers come and go. This second edition not only updates all the existing sections but adds two new ones: Astro-imaging and Professional-Amateur collaboration. Thanks to the rapid and amazing developments that have been made in digital cameras it is...

  5. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  6. Approaching the millennium - strategies for the gas buyers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of what is in store for gas purchasing in Ontario's new deregulated market was presented. Basically, responsibilities will shift from the utility to market players. The impact of this shift on marketers, on end-users and on the utility were assessed. In the new millennium, Consumers Gas, which is Canada's largest and oldest natural gas distributor, will be operating under a new name, Enbridge. The company will focus on developing marketing programs to position natural gas as the number one fuel choice for residential, commercial, apartments, vehicles, cogeneration and industrial markets. The evolution of the 200 customer market model( i.e. large volume customers, gas marketers, commercial customers and residential customers as a group), what each of these groups want from Enbridge, and what Enbridge can deliver as the wholesale provider of natural gas delivery services rounded out the discussion. figs

  7. The structure and evolution of buyer-supplier networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Mizuno

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the structure and evolution of customer-supplier networks in Japan using a unique dataset that contains information on customer and supplier linkages for more than 500,000 incorporated non-financial firms for the five years from 2008 to 2012. We find, first, that the number of customer links is unequal across firms; the customer link distribution has a power-law tail with an exponent of unity (i.e., it follows Zipf's law. We interpret this as implying that competition among firms to acquire new customers yields winners with a large number of customers, as well as losers with fewer customers. We also show that the shortest path length for any pair of firms is, on average, 4.3 links. Second, we find that link switching is relatively rare. Our estimates indicate that the survival rate per year for customer links is 92 percent and for supplier links 93 percent. Third and finally, we find that firm growth rates tend to be more highly correlated the closer two firms are to each other in a customer-supplier network (i.e., the smaller is the shortest path length for the two firms. This suggests that a non-negligible portion of fluctuations in firm growth stems from the propagation of microeconomic shocks - shocks affecting only a particular firm - through customer-supplier chains.

  8. Patterns of Buyer Behavior: Regularities, Models, and Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Uncles; Andrew Ehrenberg; Kathy Hammond

    1995-01-01

    Many empirical regularities in the buying behavior of consumers have been linked together into a comprehensive model, the Dirichlet. In this paper we list some of the well-established regularities, show how they are theoretically intertwined, and illustrate how this approach to modeling can assist the marketing analyst.

  9. Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?

    OpenAIRE

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The notion persists that battery technology and cost remain as barriers to commercialization of electric-drive passenger vehicles. Within the context of starting a market for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), we explore two aspects of the purported problem: (1) PHEV performance goals and (2) the abilities of present and near-term battery chemistries to meet the resulting technological requirements. We summarize evidence stating that battery technologies do not meet the requirements th...

  10. RURAL BUYER BEHAVIOUR: A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO SOFT DRINKS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K.SINGARAVELU; K.R. Kavitha

    2012-01-01

    The rural market in India is not a separate entity in itself and it is highly influenced by the sociological and behavioural factors operating in the country. The rural population in India accounts for around 627 million, which is exactly 74.3 percent of the total population. On account of green revolution, the rural areas are consuming a large quantity of industrial and urban manufactured products. In this context, a special marketing strategy, namely, rural marketing has emerged. But often,...

  11. Health care consumerism: engaging the real buyers--employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Many employers have begun moving toward health care consumerism strategies designed to encourage employees to take more responsibility for their health care and the cost of that care. Recent surveys suggest ways employers can ensure their consumerism strategies succeed in engaging employees and, ultimately, encourage employees to change their behavior. This article describes what those surveys reveal about employer and employee perspectives on consumerism and suggests steps employers can take to align their interests with those of their employees in order to manage the demand for and use of health care.

  12. BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT IN STRUCTURED CONTRACTS ENVIRONMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN A MULTINATIONAL FIRM GESTIÓN DE RELACIONAMIENTO COMPRADOR-PROVEEDOR EN AMBIENTES CON CONTRATOS ESTRUCTURADOS: EL CASO DE UNA GRAN MULTINACIONAL GESTÃO DO RELACIONAMENTO COMPRADOR-FORNECEDOR EM AMBIENTES COM CONTRATOS ESTRUTURADOS: O CASO DE UMA GRANDE MULTINACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pagiola de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article objective is to analyze the relationships between buyers and sellers in organizational environments where structured contracts are used, more specifically when it is used to ruled relational aspects in these relationships.  The focus of this analysis was a big multinational company and its suppliers. Five relationships were selected, and three categories were chosen by which was structured the interviews script, to be applied to eleven managers. The results had shown that there is not a relational contract to treat all the relationship management issues, but verified the existence of informal rules and norms agreed between the parts that provide attendance to this finality.El objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar las relaciones  entre contratante y contratados en ambientes con utilización de contratos estructurados, más específicamente el empleo de esos contratos para tratar de los aspectos relacionales de esas relaciones. Así que, el foco principal de la presente investigación son las relaciones entre una gran multinacional y sus proveedores de productos y servicios. Como estrategia de investigación, fue realizada,  primeramente, un sondeo en 94 contratos establecidos por la contratante. A partir de ese levantamiento, teniendo como referencia seis parámetros identificados en la revisión de la literatura, fue realizada la elección de los cinco casos (contratos a ser estudiados. Esos mismos parámetros fueron utilizados para la definición del guión de la entrevista. Una vez definidos los casos, fueron seleccionados once gestores (sujetos de la investigación de la contratante y de los contratados, para la realización de las entrevistas. Como conclusión, se observa que en contratos con suministro de poca tecnología existe mayor dependencia de la contratada, mas esa dependencia diminuye a medida que se incorpora más tecnología en el suministro de productos y servicios. En relación a la

  13. Development of Enterprise Accounting Policy on Accounting of Receivables within Payment System with Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Tsehelnyk

    2014-01-01

    The growth in receivables is one of the reasons of low solvency of domestic agricultural companies. Therefore, the important significance in the management of financial flows in the company belongs to the accounting policy as complex of principles, methods and procedures used by the company for preparation and presentation of financial statements. Successfully selected accounting policy allows optimize the payments from customers and promotes the formation of timely and relevant information o...

  14. The Impact of Channel Function Performance on Buyer-Seller Relationships in Marketing Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); M. Kacker (Manish); C. Nieuwlaat (Chantal)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractDistributors, across sectors and countries, are faced by the threat of disintermediation. In many industries, horizontal consolidation and advances in information technology have made it easier for manufacturers to bypass distributors and do business directly with consumers. Distributor

  15. Can High Prices Ensure Product Quality When Buyers do not Know the Sellers' Cost?

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Rasmusen; Timothy Perri

    1999-01-01

    The Klein-Leffler (1981) model of product quality does not explain why high-quality firms would dissipate the rents they earn from quality- assuring price premia, and it relies on consumers knowing the cost functions of firms. In the present paper, consumers do not know any firm's cost of producing quality goods, so high-quality firms must engage in conspicuous spending to demonstrate they earn a profitable mark-up over cost. Complete rent dissipation occurs only when high and low cost firms ...

  16. Stock or cash? The trade-offs for buyers and sellers in mergers and acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, A; Sirower, M L

    1999-01-01

    In 1988, less than 2% of large deals were paid for entirely in stock; by 1998, that number had risen to 50%. The shift has profound ramifications for shareholders of both the acquiring and acquired companies. In this article, the authors provide a framework and two simple tools to guide boards of both companies through the issues they need to consider when making decisions about how to pay for--and whether to accept--a deal. First an acquirer has to decide whether to finance the deal using stock or pay cash. Second, if the acquirer decides to issue stock, it then must decide whether to offer a fixed value of shares or a fixed number of them. Offering cash places all the potential risks and rewards with the acquirer--and sends a strong signal to the markets that it has confidence in the value not only of the deal but in its own stock. By issuing shares, however, an acquirer in essence offers to share the newly merged company with the stockholders of the acquired company--a signal the market often interprets as a lack of confidence in the value of the acquirer's stock. Offering a fixed number of shares reinforces that impression because it requires the selling stockholders to share the risk that the value of the acquirer's stock will decline before the deal goes through. Offering a fixed value of shares sends a more confident signal to the markets, as the acquirer assumes all of that risk. The choice between cash and stock should never be made without full and careful consideration of the potential consequences. The all-too-frequent disappointing returns from stock transactions underscore how important the method of payment truly is. PMID:10662003

  17. Supply chain single vendor – Single buyer inventory model with price-dependent demand

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Ahmadi Rad; Farid Khoshalhan; Mostafa Setak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is developing an integrated production-inventory-marketing model for a two-stage supply chain. The demand rate is considered as the Iso-elastic decreasing function of the selling price.  The main research goal of the article is to obtain the optimal values of the selling price, order quantity and number of shipments for the proposed model under independent and also joint optimization. In addition, the effects of the model’s parameters on the optimal solution a...

  18. INFLUENCE OF BRAND NAME ON CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS- AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON CAR BUYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed ALAMGIR; Tasnuba NASIR; Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA; Alexandru NEDELEA

    2010-01-01

    In the modern society brands not only represent the product or company but also have a strong association with perceived quality, consumers’ life style, social class, taste etc. The purpose of this paper is to create a deeper consideration of what influence a brand name can have, when people go for purchasing, choose the products between different brands, especially private vehicle like car. Moreover, this paper also tries to explore the relation between brands and the consumer decision makin...

  19. Inter-firm network capability: how it affects buyer-supplier performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, G.W.; Henseler, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a view that a firm's critical resources and capabilities span firm boundaries, and are embedded in inter-firm resources and routines. Design/methodology/approach – Building on a capability view the paper argues that firms can engender sustainable com

  20. Buyer's guide to telescopes at the best sites: Dome A, L2, and Shackleton Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, J. Roger P.

    2004-10-01

    Future optical/infrared telescopes will need to be much larger than today"s, if they are to address such key challenges as direct observations of Earth-like exoplanets and of the first stars formed after the big bang. In this paper I consider the most promising of the new sites, both on the ground and in space, and telescope concepts to take advantage of their complementary scientific potential. Ground based telescopes with adaptive optics will be capable of diffraction limited imaging, down to a short wavelength limit set by the amplitude and speed of the atmospheric turbulence. The best conditions are on the high Antarctic plateau, where recent measurements at Dome C show turbulence typically half the amplitude of the best temperate sites, with temporal evolution at half the speed1. Thus uniquely in Antarctica, diffraction limited imaging at optical wavelengths should be practical. Conditions there are also best for infrared astronomy, given the combination of minimal aberration and winter temperatures averaging as low as 200K at Dome A (the highest point). In space, well away from the warm Earth, conditions are even better, with 24 hour/day observing free from all atmospheric aberration, and the potential for passive cooling to 50K or less by use of a sunshield. L2 and the Moon's south pole are such optimal space locations. A telescope at L2 requires only a little fuel to stay on orbit, and can be accurately pointed despite solar torques by well established active methods based on star trackers, gyros and reaction wheels. By contrast, the Moon provides a completely stable platform where a telescope with no moving parts can remain pointed indefinitely along the spin axis, or a telescope on a hexapod mount can be oriented and tracked by reaction to the turning lunar surface. Solar shielding on the Moon requires a polar location such as the high rim of the Shackleton crater, adjacent to the south pole, where there is also nearly continuous solar power. Long term operation large telescopes in space should be possible at affordable cost if we adopt the strategy used on the ground, where the same telescope OTA and mount is maintained for decades while instruments are periodically upgraded. HST has already shown the power of this modus operandi in space. It makes sense because the optical image quality of any telescope cannot be improved once the diffraction limit is reached, while instruments need to be renewed to keep pace with scientific and technical developments. Thus if future space exploration results in long-term robotic or human infrastructure on the Moon, the Shackleton rim would be favored as an observatory site, especially for ultra-deep optical/infrared surveys. If, on the other hand, exploration is centered a new station in free space, out of the Earth's gravitational potential well, observatories at L2 would be more easily supported. When contrasting the performance of ground and space telescope options, an important trade is larger aperture on Earth versus lower background in space The thermal zodiacal background of space is typically 105 times lower than even the Antarctic background, and the optical scattered starlight background in space is much less, but because of the strong dependence of sensitivity on diameter a 100 m telescope at Dome A or Dome C would have sensitivity and power to study Earth-like planets comparable to that of NASA's proposed TPF coronagraphic and interferometric missions combined. For ultradeep field studies in the infrared, integration time is also important, thus a 20 m fixed telescope on the lunar south pole surveying just the south ecliptic pole region would have nearly 100 times the sensitivity of the JWST at L2. Neither Dome A nor the Moon"s south pole has yet been explored, even robotically. If large telescopes are ever to be built at these optimum sites, smaller precursors must be built first to develop the required technology and to gain experience. On the Moon, a start which would yield already interesting science could be made with a 3-m class, fixed, roboticall

  1. Strategic Purchasing, Supply Management Practices and Buyer Performance Improvement: An empirical study of UK manufacturing organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Benn; Cousins, Paul; Handfield, Robert; Petersen, Kenneth J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purchasing is increasingly seen as an important strategic activity of the firm. However, there is little evidence examining the effects of strategic purchasing on a firm?s inter-organizational supply management practices and performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of strategic purchasing on the supply management practices of socialization, supplier integration and supplier flexibility, together with relationship performance. Using empirical data col...

  2. 40 CFR 1051.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-cooling systems, and adjusting idle speed, governor, engine bolt torque, valve lash, or injector lash, or... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission..., including the emission-control system. The maintenance instructions also apply to service accumulation...

  3. 40 CFR 1048.125 - What maintenance instructions must I give to buyers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to service accumulation on your emission-data engines, as described in 40 CFR part 1065. (a) Critical... these inspection or maintenance steps during service accumulation on your emission-data engines, as long... air, fuel, or oil filters, servicing engine-cooling systems, and adjusting idle speed,...

  4. Do They See What You See? Marketing to a New Generation of Child Care Buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassom, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses generational differences among four generational groups in America today--Maturers, Boomers, Generation X-ers, and Millenials. She author takes a closer look at two of these groups--Boomers and Generation X-ers. The Boomers are a generational group that includes those born between 1946 and 1964. A whopping 78…

  5. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses. PMID:24833979

  6. French fair trade coffee buyers' purchasing motives: An exploratory study using means-end chains analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ferran, Florence; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper, we examine the motives and the values underlying this purchase through a laddering methodology with 54 French fair trade coffee purchasers. A quantitative analysis of the ladders allows us to define several groups of motives that are socially and individually oriented. Moreover, our results...

  7. Structure of global buyer-supplier networks and its implications for conflict minerals regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structure of global inter-firm linkages using a dataset that contains information on business partners for about 400,000 firms worldwide, including all the firms listed on the major stock exchanges. Among the firms, we examine three networks, which are based on customer-supplier, licensee-licensor, and strategic alliance relationships. First, we show that these networks all have scale-free topology and that the degree distribution for each follows a power law with an exponent of 1.5. The shortest path length is around six for all three networks. Second, we show through community structure analysis that the firms comprise a community with those firms that belong to the same industry but different home countries, indicating the globalization of firms' production activities. Finally, we discuss what such production globalization implies for the proliferation of conflict minerals (i.e., minerals extracted from conflict zones and sold to firms in other countries to perpetuate fighting) through g...

  8. 78 FR 68814 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... export interest directory, and provision of complimentary hotel accommodations for DOC staff as explained... first-time or horizontal (non-industry specific) events generally will not be considered. General... that have high export potential, as determined by DOC sources, including industry analysts'...

  9. Transfers of Family Businesses to Non-Family Buyers - The Selling Business Family Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sten, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on business families and how they handle transitions such as business transfers. It also tries to shift the balance of research away from successions and towards business transfers as a key topic for family business researchers. In addition, it contributes to the family business research field by further highlighting the importance of the various different contributions in the family business from business family members other than the entrepreneurial founder. Based on ...

  10. Estimating the Degree of Buyers' Market Power: Evidence from the Ukrainian Meat Processing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Matyukha, Andriy; Glauben, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This study develops a structural market model for the econometric analysis of buyers’ market power in the Ukrainian meat processing industry, because there is some evidence that suggests that meat processors may excise market power in the agricultural market of slaughtered livestock. The estimation results did not produce any evidence suggesting the existence of buyers’ market power. Contrary to many other NEIO-studies, we extended the market structure market model by the three subsequent mod...

  11. Information asymmetries as antecedents of opportunism in buyer-supplier relationships: testing principal-agent theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinle, Claus; Schiele, Holger; Ernst, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A severe problem in supplier selection refers to moral hazard: suppliers not behaving in the expected way once contracted. Principal-agent theory could provide insights on how to reduce this problem. Because buyer–supplier relationships can be interpreted as principal-agent situations, the

  12. Motives for e-marketplace participation: differences and similarities between buyers and suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Kragh, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    organizations decide to buy and/or sell goods or services in e-marketplaces. We develop a theoretical framework for the categorization of motivational factors, resulting in four different types of motives. We then apply the framework to a dataset consisting of 41 case studies covering 20 industries in 12......-marketplaces to find new or alternative suppliers. Similarly, even though demands from existing customers have spurred their initial decision to participate in e-marketplaces, many suppliers also use the marketplaces to search for new customers. When expressing their motives for engaging in e-marketplace activities...

  13. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses.

  14. 27 CFR 10.54 - Criteria for determining trade buyer independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Exclusion § 10.54 Criteria... a particular practice between an industry member and an officer, employee, or representative of...

  15. Review of survey data on the importance of energy efficiency to new home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    The surveys reviewed for this report support the notion that the Council's model conservation standards will be received reasonably well and can be successfully marketed. A number of subtopics are addressed including the home purchase process and the role of energy efficiency considerations in the process, the importance of energy efficiency considerations in the decision to purchase a new home, the relative importance of energy efficiency in comparison to other home selection attributes, homeowner preferences for particular energy efficiency features, and measures of the willingness to pay for energy efficiency improvements.

  16. Improving the Response Time of Online Buyers in Nigeria: The Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Ajayi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Though electronic commerce (e-commerce is yet at its infancy in Africa and other developing countries, several factors such as lack of trust, technology infrastructure, funds and shortage of manpower can be attributed to this. However, the current model of web server response time as it pertains to developing countries will however hinder its general acceptability. The ability of E-commerce sites to satisfy and retain their customers will no doubt depend largely on the quality of their service delivery. Existing Quality of Service (QoS provisioning architectures for E-commerce placed emphasis on WWW server and bandwidth inadequacies. This study identified the necessity to include client’s device limitation into e-commerce QoS frameworks especially for web applications to be deployed in Africa, if user-perceived QoS (usually measured by response time is to be improved. As indicated in the study, client’s device limitation is an important factor that should be given priority. Most computer users in Africa due to the high cost of ownership of PCs used outdated or cloned PCs whose performance could not be guaranteed

  17. 75 FR 53640 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    .... For trade shows more than five days in duration, or requiring more than one International Business... requiring more than two International Business Centers, the participation fee will be negotiated, but shall.... exhibitors in receiving international business visitors during the trade show. A significant number of...

  18. Market profile of autonomous solar boiler buyers in the period 1995-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a first evaluation of solar water heater users, who decided to purchase or rent a solar boiler independent and autonomous, are presented. The results are compared with customer profiles of small photovoltaic power supplies and (potential) 'green energy' customers. Based on those results public utilities and other interested parties can set up specific activities and send out mailings

  19. Modelling and analysis of inventory replenishment for perishable agricultural products with buyer-seller collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dongjie; Lai, K. K.; Leung, Stephen C. H.; Liang, Liang

    2011-07-01

    In this article, we study the inventory replenishment model for perishable agricultural products in a simple two-level supply chain. Collaborative forecasting is introduced into the inventory replenishment decisions to avoid overstocking and understocking of agricultural products, and to maximise profits. We analyse the model with ordering cost, holding cost, shortage cost, deterioration cost and opportunity lost cost of perishable agricultural products. Extensive numerical analysis is carried out to study the performance of the inventory policy. The optimal replenishment policy that minimises the total cost can be obtained from the model. It has demonstrated that the supply chain cost decreases with supplier and retailer's collaborative forecasting.

  20. A Buyer Behaviour Framework for the Development and Design of Software Agents in E-Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Susan; Archer, Norm

    2000-01-01

    Software agents are computer programs that run in the background and perform tasks autonomously as delegated by the user. This paper blends models from marketing research and findings from the field of decision support systems to build a framework for the design of software agents to support in e-commerce buying applications. (Contains 35…

  1. Inter-firm coordination in the Mexican avocado (Persea americana) industry: the packer-buyer relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical coordination is an effective response to uncertainties in marketing environments. This article presents evidence relating the influence of transaction characteristics on interfirm coordination to respond what conditions determine the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and buye

  2. Social Aspects in Buyer-Supplier Relationships of SMEs in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gubik

    2010-01-01

    Cooperation among companies was brought to the focus of attention by the fast changes of economic circumstances and the role it can play in coping with risk, appreciating all those characteristics which can help fast reactions and adaptability, like faith among business partners and long run relationships. The entrepreneur him/herself has a great influence on the characteristics of cooperation as well, besides these processes pushing them to the direction of cooperation, whose intention to ge...

  3. Power Relationships along the Value Chain: Multinational Firms, Global Buyers and Performance of Local Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrobelli, Carlo; Saliola, Federica

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing literature exploring the role of international trade channels on economic growth, looking at the mechanisms through which import and export flows might affect productivity, technology diffusion and output growth. However, most of this literature appears to neglect an important part of the story, which is the form and the organisation of the relationships (the governance) among the various actors involved in these activities and their implications for development. The recent...

  4. Neighborhood preferences of house buyers: the case of klang valley, malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Teck Hong

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the impacts of neighborhood types, as defined by a gated-guarded neighborhood with landscape compound and a freehold tenure neighborhood on residential property values in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A weighted least squares method together with a heteroscedasticity consistent covariance matrix estimator is used to estimate the coefficients of structural, locational, and neighborhood attributes of dwellings on house prices. Results show the gated-guarded neighborhoo...

  5. 76 FR 54428 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... and conditions in the MOA, including construction of an international business center at the trade... in duration, or requiring more than one International Business Center, a participation fee of $14,000... International Business Centers, the participation fee will be negotiated, but shall not be less than...

  6. Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Value of Online Shopping Considering Price Sensitivity and Variety-Seeking of Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Alhoseini Almodarresi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ease of access to information, possibility to compare products quickly, and many other facilities that Internet provides for consumers, increase the power of consumers much higher. Internet sellers for the purpose of increasing their sales, often offer lower prices in compare to retailer's price. Nevertheless, the recent studies represent that even price-sensitive customers, avoid shopping from low price online stores. Rather value is considered as the key driver of costumers' decision-making in economic and marketing. Therefore, it is necessary to try to identify those factors affecting online shopping. This research is aimed to study the effective factors on customer's values using survey research method, descriptive-causal type. The research statistical population consists of people who have an experience of on-line shopping at lease for one time. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling method via LISREL software and partial least squares method via SMART PLS software. The results showed that, although system quality is an effective factor on utilitarian shopping values, information quality have no effect on both utilitarian and hedonic values. Generally, utilitarian and hedonic values could cause to online consumers' satisfaction, and satisfaction significantly could improve repurchase intention. Moreover, the results show the moderating effect of price sensitivity in relation of system quality and information with utilitarian value and also moderating effect of variety-seeking in relation of information quality with hedonic value.

  7. The Influence of Marketing Communication on the Consumer’s Buyer Behavior – A Relationship Marketing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tichindelean Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to identify the nature of the influence of a company’s marketing communication of the actual consumer behaviour. To achieve this purpose, the paper is structures in two parts; firstly, the recent literature regarding relationship marketing paradigm is reviewed and the value chain concept is presented. The second part contains a survey-based research which uses book-store customers as target unit. Sales promotion and advertising are used as input variables in identi...

  8. Does energy efficiency matter to home-buyers? An investigation of EPC ratings and transaction prices in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates whether energy performance ratings, as measured by mandatory Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs), are reflected in the sale prices of residential properties. This is the first large-scale empirical study of this topic in England involving 333,095 dwellings sold at least twice in the period from 1995 to 2012. Applying hedonic regression and an augmented repeat sales regression, we find a positive relationship between the energy efficiency rating of a dwelling and the transaction price per square metre. The price effects of superior energy performance tend to be higher for terraced dwellings and flats compared to detached and semi-detached dwellings. The evidence is less clear-cut for rates of house price growth but remains supportive of a positive association. Overall, the results of this study suggest that energy efficiency labels have a measurable and significant impact on house prices in England. - Highlights: • We apply hedonic model to test effect of energy efficiency rating on house prices. • We use a sample of English dwellings with Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) data. • Dwellings in EPC bands A and B sell for a 5% premium, all else equal; for C, it is 1.8%. • The effect is about £8900 on an average house price (£177,824 as of Aug. 2014). • There is considerable variation in these effects by region and property types

  9. How are investment decisions in the steam coal market affected by demand uncertainty and buyer-side market power?

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, China has evolved into the largest consumer by far and one of the largest importers of coal. The main driver for the increase in coal demand in China has been economic growth. Future Chinese growth rates, and therefore coal consumption and coal imports, are highly uncertain, which may a ffect proffitability of new investments of international mining companies. Furthermore, China has actively employed an array of instruments to control coal trade flows in the last years...

  10. The Influence of Marketing Communication on the Consumer’s Buyer Behavior – A Relationship Marketing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichindelean Mihai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to identify the nature of the influence of a company’s marketing communication of the actual consumer behaviour. To achieve this purpose, the paper is structures in two parts; firstly, the recent literature regarding relationship marketing paradigm is reviewed and the value chain concept is presented. The second part contains a survey-based research which uses book-store customers as target unit. Sales promotion and advertising are used as input variables in identifying the variation in the client’s buying behaviour. Client behaviour was measured through three variables: monetary value spent by the clients within their last purchasing experience, buying frequency of the clients, and their buying intention.

  11. Secure ICT service provisioning for cloud, mobile and beyond a workable architectural approach balancing between buyers and providers

    CERN Document Server

    von Faber, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces a reference architecture that enhances the security of services offered in the information and communication technology (ICT) market. It enables customers to compare offerings and to assess risks when using third-party ICT services including cloud computing and mobile services. Service providers are given a comprehensive blueprint for security implementation and maintenance covering service portfolio management, bid phases and realization projects as well as service delivery management. The architecture is completely modular and hierarchical. It contains a security taxonom

  12. How packaging affects the product preferences of children and the buyer behaviour of their parents in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ogba, Ike; Johnson, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Health is becoming an increasingly important issue in the UK as well as the rest of Europe. Emphasis on the importance of healthy eating is ongoing for many reasons, including the growing concern about childhood obesity resulting in the ban of advertising of unhealthy foods to children in the UK in April 2007. However, although legislation has been placed upon the advertising of unhealthy food products, no such restrictions have been placed on the packaging of children's foods despi...

  13. The Influence of New Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption: Increasing Student Comprehension with the "Bidding for Buyers" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The five characteristics that influence new product rate of adoption are routinely covered in the Principles of Marketing course. Any particular marketing concept such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability may not capture interest or engagement among students who take the course as a graduation…

  14. A Dynamic Model for Sharing Reputation of Sellers Among Buyers for Enhancing Trust in Agent Mediated E-Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vibha Gaur; Neeraj Kumar Sharma; Punam Bedi

    2011-01-01

    Reputation systems aim to reduce the risk of loss due to untrustworthy participants. This loss is aggravated by dishonest advisors trying to pollute the e-market environment for their self-interest. A major task of a reputation system is to promote and encourage advisors who repeatedly respond with fair advice and to apply an opinion filtering or honesty checking mechanism to detect and resist dishonest advisors. This paper provides a dynamic approach to compute the aggregated shared reputati...

  15. Identification of Factors that Most Influence the Advertising Spaces Buyers in Choosing Print Media to Advertise in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wijoga, Wiradiatma

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently with the increasing competition in the print media industry in Indonesia, together with the growing interest of readers, the increase in purchasing power and the growing of the economy have made advertisers seize this opportunity to increase their profits by maximizing their marketing activities through various means including advertising. In the advertising decision, advertiser acquire service provided by media agencies to assist them in conducting the media planning ...

  16. Study on the Buyer Power in China%中国的买方垄断势力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈甬军; 胡德宝

    2008-01-01

    自从中国建立市场经济制度以来,一个重要的变化就是实现了从卖方市场向买方市场的转变,并伴随着买方市场地位的增强,出现了买方势力.本文分析了买方势力的来源及其经济效应,并利用双边垄断理论解释了由此产生的抗衡势力.结合当前零售业内的最新发展趋势,构建了博弈模型,分析出抗衡势力的存在确实能降低零售价格,但是与“加尔布雷斯假说”的作用机制不同.最后,结合发达国家对买方垄断的经济管制经验,为中国如何对买方垄断进行管制提出了相应的建议.

  17. 买方拒收权之比较研究%Comparble Rearch on Buyer's Power of Refusing to Accept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔燕

    2006-01-01

    买卖合同是合同中最普遍、最常见的一种合同,而拒收权是法律赋予买方当事人的合法权利,根据我国的拒收权与英美法律规定的比较,确定买方拒收权行使的法律要件.

  18. IMPACT OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING AND CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS ON THE PESTER POWER AND BUYER BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Fulwadhya, Aakrati / A

    2009-01-01

    Children these days decide everything. They have indirectly become decision makers of the household. From the purchases in the house to what clothes they want to wear. The market at present is of children and the youth. Children are referred to as ‘the king’ in the consumer group. The aim of this dissertation is to understand the factors responsible for this empowerment of children in the consumer sector. How much of an impact do factors like television advertising and celebrity endorsements ...

  19. Purchasing Drivers of Professional Wine Buyers. The Role of Denominations of Origin in the Buynig Decision of Italian Upscale Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    V. Zampi; M. Faraoni; di Folco, E.

    2008-01-01

    Attraverso un'ampia ricerca empirica condotta a livello italiano su un campione statistico di acquirenti professionali nel settore della ristorazione qualificata, è stato definito il posizionamento relativo di alcune delle principali denominazioni di origine di vini italiani cercando anche di identificare quali siano le determinanti del posizionamento di un brand territoriale. abstract: This paper investigate the perceived value of territorial wine brands (appellations) in the specialize...

  20. 78 FR 42503 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Select Service for Calendar Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... interested in expanding their sales into international markets. Through the IBP, the DOC selects trade shows..., including industry analysts' assessment of export potential, US&FCS best prospects lists, and U.S. export.... exhibitors should be new-to-export or seeking to expand their sales into additional export markets. (h)...

  1. Understanding the consumption process through in-branch and e-mortgage service channels: A first-time buyer perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Macredie, RD; Patel, N.

    2011-01-01

    This article is (c) Emerald Group Publishing and permission has been granted for this version to appear here (////BURA web address here). Emerald does not grant permission for this article to be further copied/distributed or hosted elsewhere without the express permission from Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose – The twin aims of this paper are to explore the differences in the consumption process between the traditional in-branch and web-based (e-mortgage) service channels and how ...

  2. PURCHASE PREFERENCE OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN MOTORCYCLE BUYERS: THE DISCRIMINATING ROLE OF PERCEPTION OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF BRAND AND ETHNOCENTRISM

    OpenAIRE

    Neoh Chee Yeong; Osman Mohamad; T. Ramayah; Azizah Omar

    2007-01-01

    The influence of country of origin on the evaluation of products and purchase intention has been studied for decades. However, this paradigm has shifted where nowadays, products are typically designed in one country, manufactured in another and assembled elsewhere which led to the proliferation of "hybrid products". Consumers are confused and are no longer able to identify or recognize the difference between country of origin of brand and country of assembly or country of product design which...

  3. PURCHASE PREFERENCE OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN MOTORCYCLE BUYERS: THE DISCRIMINATING ROLE OF PERCEPTION OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF BRAND AND ETHNOCENTRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neoh Chee Yeong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of country of origin on the evaluation of products and purchase intention has been studied for decades. However, this paradigm has shifted where nowadays, products are typically designed in one country, manufactured in another and assembled elsewhere which led to the proliferation of "hybrid products". Consumers are confused and are no longer able to identify or recognize the difference between country of origin of brand and country of assembly or country of product design which, in turn, may lead towrong purchasing decisions. The objective of this study is to understand the variables influencing consumers' purchase preference related to motorcycles in the Malaysian market. Results have confirmed that country of origin of brand and consumer ethnocentrism influence consumer purchase preference. Implications of the results and directions for future researches are also discussed.

  4. When are contracts and trust necessary for innovation in buyer-supplier relationships? : A necessary condition analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Wendy; Sumo, Regien; Dul, Jan; Schroeder, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Main stream research predominantly views contracts as being sufficient for (i.e., driving) performance. In contrast, necessity-thinking implies that contracts allow performance to exist: if the necessary condition is not in place (at the right level), the desired performance will not occur, irrespec

  5. On how German retail buyers perceive the identity, image and competitive context of the retailers they work for

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. This paper presents some preliminary...

  6. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    : Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. CONCLUSIONS: Wine buyers...

  7. Does the Incoterms 2010 FOB and DDP guarantee the rights for the buyer in case of violation the delivery clause in the contract?

    OpenAIRE

    Jankauskas, Vilius

    2014-01-01

    ICC – International Chamber of commerce in 1936 first time introduced Incoterms clause. The Incoterms in the most simply way that may be defined as delivery terms. It represents seller’s and buyer’s (manufacturer and customer) relationship in the sales of good contract regarding the goods delivery clause. There were more than one revision of Incoterms until the latest 2010 versions has been released. Incoterms 2010 separated delivery terms into two different transportation ways – sea and inla...

  8. Buyer Beware: Negotiating Legal and Fair Contracts between Schools and Food and Beverage Companies. A Legal Memorandum: Quarterly Law Topics for School Leaders, Fall 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Exclusive vending contracts with food and beverage companies can produce much-needed revenue for school districts. However, these pouring and vending contracts as well as other forms of exclusive vendor contracts are often the subject of contentious public debate and legal challenges. Even the language used to refer to such agreements varies:…

  9. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region.

  10. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Z. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steward, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Palmer, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builders team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  11. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 5; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Marine Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C.; Taylor, Z. T.; Bartlett, R.; Gilbride, T.; Hefty, M.; Steward, H.; Love, P. M.; Palmer, J. A.

    2006-10-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the Marine climate region. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team--from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  12. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 5; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Marine Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-10-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in the Marine climate region.

  13. Attracting Health Insurance Buyers through Selective Contracting: Results of a Discrete-Choice Experiment among Users of Hospital Services in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Bergrath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Netherlands commenced market based reforms in its health care system. The reforms included selective contracting of health care providers by health insurers. This paper focuses on how health insurers may increase their market share on the health insurance market through selective contracting of health care providers. Selective contracting is studied by eliciting the preferences of health care consumers for attributes of health care services that an insurer could negotiate on behalf of its clients with health care providers. Selective contracting may provide incentives for health care providers to deliver the quality that consumers need and demand. Selective contracting also enables health insurers to steer individual patients towards selected health care providers. We used a stated preference technique known as a discrete choice experiment to collect and analyze the data. Results indicate that consumers care about both costs and quality of care, with healthy consumers placing greater emphasis on costs and consumers with poorer health placing greater emphasis on quality of care. It is possible for an insurer to satisfy both of these criteria by selective contracting health care providers who consequently purchase health care that is both efficient and of good quality.

  14. Simple energy conservation. Mid-terrace houses. Modernisation recommendations for homeowners and house buyers; Einfach Energie sparen. Reihenmittelhaeuser. Modernisierungsempfehlungen fuer Hauseigentuemer und Hauskaeufer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ronny

    2012-07-01

    The book under consideration provides a type-specific and construction year-specific orientation to building substances, insulation thicknesses and building services. It is addressed to persons planning an energetic retrofitting of houses. The book contains information on special features and weaknesses of each building as well as appropriate proposals for energy efficiency. It also presents energy assessments and recommendations as a basis for assessing the results of the energy consulting.

  15. 买方势力下我国零售商盈利模式转型分析%Analysis on Retailers' Profit Pattern Transformation under Buyer Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车卉淳; 李世朋

    2015-01-01

    在对零售商买方势力及其盈利模式进行介绍的基础上,阐述了零售商买方势力形成的原因和表现形式,并提出了买方势力下我国零售商盈利模式转型的对策建议.

  16. Analysis on Buyer Power in Household Electric Appliances Retailing%家电零售业的买方势力问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季霆; 黄向梅

    2007-01-01

    从家电行业的产业链结构和零售企业行为的角度对家电连锁零售行业的买方势力进行了考察;认为通道费有多方面的含义,不能一概否定,但目前的通道费占行业利润比例过高,对行业发展不利;指出后向一体化在当前只是获取品牌租金,并不排斥竞争;并从厂商的角度和消费者角度对行业规制政策提出了建议.

  17. Buyer Power: Welfare Analysis and its Public Policy%零售商买方势力:福利分析及公共政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王再平

    2007-01-01

    零售商买方势力的增强改变了产业链上制造商与零售商的传统约束方向,约束方向的改变也带来相应社会福利损失的改变.文中介绍了测量零售商买方势力大小的指标,分析了由于零售商买方势力的增长带来的社会福利状态改变和买方势力对社会效率的影响,提出了抑制零售商买方势力负面效应的对策.

  18. How to enter the buyer side market for electric power%电力如何进入买方市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴运生; 刘雪慧; 曾瑶; 邹建英

    2004-01-01

    买方市场是供大于求,以买方为主导的市场.目前,电力短缺,仍然是以卖方为中心的市场,尚不能判定我国已形成电力买方市场;制约电力买方市场形成的有非体制与体制方面因素;并提出了加快电力买方市场形成的对策.

  19. On Vertical Market Structure and Buyer Countervailing Power%纵向市场结构与买方抗衡势力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绪亮

    2010-01-01

    本文重新界定双重垄断、双边垄断、双侧垄断等不同类型的纵向市场结构,考察当存在双边垄断的时候,在双侧垄断与单侧垄断竞争格局下零售商买方垄断势力日益增长的福利后果有何不同.研究发现,在双侧垄断情形下,从消费者福利角度考虑,纵向一体化结果优于纵向分离结果,而在单侧垄断的情形下,纵向分离结果则反过来优于纵向一体化结果,因此单侧垄断(或者说单侧竞争)的纵向市场结构有效地克服了双重加价问题,此时买方抗衡势力假说有一定的说服力.考虑到跨期因素,这一结论尤为可信.

  20. Review on the Theory of Retailers' Buyer Power%零售商买方势力理论研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程贵孙

    2010-01-01

    随着零售业集中化趋势不断增强和大型零售商不断涌现,零售商买方势力日益突出.买方势力问题已经受到了理论界和产业界的高度关注.文章梳理了买方势力理论研究的主要成果,从买方势力的内涵、形成因素、经济效应和政府规制等几个方面系统地阐述了买方势力理论的研究进展,并对未来的研究方向进行了展望.

  1. 零售商买方势力的滥用及其对策研究%Research on Retailer Buyer Power Abuses and Counter-measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龙龙; 裴艳丽

    2003-01-01

    零售商的连锁化、规模化和零售商为主导的供应链是经济发展的必然趋势,这种趋势对经济效率与社会福利具有正面影响,但伴随而来的是零售业竞争的扭曲,大型零售商滥用其买方势力侵害供应商与消费者利益,从而对经济效率与社会福利造成损害,因此,政府在制定相关政策时须在利弊间权衡.本文试图通过理论分析,探讨正确认识和评价零售商买方势力的方法,寻求解决上述问题的途径.

  2. A Discussion on Supervision and Management of "Single Buyer" Mode Power Market%论单一买方下的电力市场监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管人龙

    2000-01-01

    介绍了目前单一买方模式的定义,根据定义,详细论述了对单一买方的监管、对输电业务的监管、对配电业务的监管以及对市场的管理.最后结合1996年颁布的的实际内容,建议在修订时应增加有关监管的法律条款.

  3. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-08-01

    The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates.

  4. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-08-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  5. Distress and Other Situational Factors that Influence Consumer Willingness to Provide Personal Information in an Online Buyer-Seller Exchange: An Equity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barto, Thomas Peter

    2011-01-01

    Global electronic markets will profoundly impact commerce in the 21 st century. Brick-and-mortar retailers are using technology for electronic marketing purposes where the familiar layout of the physical store becomes a maze of pulldown menus, product indices, and search features creating a new unknown for consumers and concerns for information…

  6. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 1; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    This Building America Best Practices guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot and humid climate.

  7. RISKS AND RESPONSIBILITIES BETWEEN BUYER AND SELLER IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION. WAYS OF SHARING IN THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Gabriel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrating formal intergovernmental cooperation can be determined in order to adapt to economic change and social legislation and the need to replace national laws become obstacle to informal integration with a common permissive and favored the free movement of flows informal and proactive when political aims redirection informal flows to other structures (patterns than those created by market forces. In the literature, rich in delimitation of the concept of integration, different economists have distinguished reputation in the field, according to a series of economic criteria, political, social, geographical, structural, etc., following degrees of economic integration trends corresponding to more intense or smaller equalization coordinate economic, social and political - the degree of integration over time of economic integration theories have become independent. Is in fact the international development strategy choice determine segments we address (target segment in an overview of the markets. This choice goes beyond the country, and the notion of the target segment should not be confused with the country markets.

  8. The Analysis of the Consume Behaviour of Resident Under the Buyer Market%买方市场下居民消费行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦和

    2001-01-01

    我国市场格局由卖方市场转变为买方市场,由生产者主权经济转变为消费者主权经济,消费者行为由被动适应型转变为主动选择型,因而出现了家计核算新趋势,家政管理新特点,理性化和个性化的特点.

  9. 30 CFR 206.104 - What publications are acceptable to MMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... buyers and sellers frequently use; (2) Publications frequently mentioned in purchase or sales contracts... daily surveys of buyers and sellers of crude oil, and, for ANS spot prices, buyers and sellers of...

  10. Purchase Contract Management for Fashion Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qunzhi; TSAO Debi

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a tow-stage purchase contract for fashion products to manage the buyer's cost. In addition to require a commitment, the purchase contract allows the buyer to adjust the commitment at a later stage. We model the buyer's problem and obtain explicit formulae to describe the buyer's optimal behavior. We analyze the effect of parameters on the buyer's cost and prove that such contract can decrease the buyer's cost numerically.

  11. Dejavniki uspešnosti omrežja povezav med prodajalci in kupci na medorganizacijskem trgu: Success factors of the network of relationships between buyers and sellers on B2B market:

    OpenAIRE

    Konda, Iva

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the dimensions of sense-making in a network of relationships and the conditions for the effectiveness of cooperation in the network of relationships, this article discusses the risks associated with the network of relationships as well as the success of the network. The discussion indicates that the network of relationships forms the social capital point of view and strategic alliances between firms as well. The study concludes that knowing the success factors of the network of...

  12. 我国代工企业与国际品牌客户竞合关系的影响因素%Determinants of Coopetition Relationship between Domestic Subcontracting Manufacturers and International Branding Buyers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斯丹; 袁静

    2011-01-01

    针对目前还比较缺乏对代工企业与国际品牌客户之间的竞争与合作关系同时进行研究的现状,从竞合理论的视角,系统地探讨了环境不确定性、同业竞争程度、产品标准化程度、整体代工能力、代工企业交易专用性投资、客户交易专用性投资以及代工企业的学习意图这七个因素是如何影响我国代工企业与国际品牌客户之间的竞争与合作关系的.

  13. 买手与S&OP双重模式下的服装库存协同管理研究%Practice of Clothing Inventory Management under Buyer-and-S&OP Double Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任力; 王正成

    2015-01-01

    快时尚和电子商务运营模式的迅速发展,使企业面临更大的库存风险.买手模式可以帮助企业根据市场信息和供求关系锁定投放产品的品类、数量及价格等信息,缩短产品开发前导时间,增强企业竞争力.S&OP(sales&operations planning)销售与运营计划模式帮助企业优化供求关系,达到内部职能部门的计划协同.文章提出在买手和S&OP双重模式下分阶段对服装企业库存进行管控,将库存管理与企业财务目标挂钩,针对不同企业类型设定库存管理KPI指标,兼顾服装企业库存去化的速度与利润空间的平衡,达到各项库存管理指标协同匹配的结果.

  14. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  15. 基于JIT方式下单一供方和单一需方总成本的研究%Approach to Total Cost between Single Vendor and Single Buyer in the JIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂立桥

    2005-01-01

    JIT (just-in-time)是一种按需供给的生产方式,也是一种视一切库存为浪费的生产方式,它遵循的是供需协调原则.在这种生产方式下,供方必须根据需方需要的产品品种、数量、交货时间和地点来组织生产,因而没有了生产的独立性和灵活性.为了提高供方的独立性和灵活性,许多学者提出了一种基于JIT方式下,单一供方和单一需方如何保持协作来减少总成本的库存模型,本文对此库存模型作了修正,并在此基础上进一步研究了两个对总成本影响的因素:(1)生产率p与需求率d之比 (在d一定的条件下);(2)生产提前期T.本文的研究结果对供需双方更好实施JIT生产方式有一定的参考作用.

  16. Simple energy conservation. Detached single-family houses and semidetached houses. Modernisation recommendations for homeowners and house buyers; Einfach Energie sparen. Freistehende Ein-/Zweifamilienhaeuser. Modernisierungsempfehlungen fuer Hauseigentuemer und Hauskaeufer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ronny

    2012-07-01

    The book under consideration provides a type-specific and construction year-specific orientation to building substances, insulation thicknesses and building services. It is addressed to persons planning an energetic retrofitting of houses. The book contains information on special features and weaknesses of each building as well as appropriate proposals for energy efficiency. It also presents energy assessments and recommendations as a basis for assessing the results of the energy consulting.

  17. Simple energy conservation. End-terrace houses / semi-detached houses. Modernisation recommendations for homeowners and house buyers; Einfach Energie sparen. Reiheneckhaeuser/Doppelhaushaelften. Modernisierungsempfehlungen fuer Hauseigentuemer und Hauskaeufer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ronny

    2012-07-01

    The book under consideration provides a type-specific and construction year-specific orientation to building substances, insulation thicknesses and building services. It is addressed to persons planning an energetic retrofitting of houses. The book contains information on special features and weaknesses of each building as well as appropriate proposals for energy efficiency. It also presents energy assessments and recommendations as a basis for assessing the results of the energy consulting.

  18. 我国零售商买方势力的反垄断规制研究%Study on the Antitrust Regulation of Retailers' Buyer Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清萍; 忻红

    2008-01-01

    随着我国零售市场的日益集中,零售商在上游市场的买方势力愈来愈明显.供应商对零售商的相对经济依赖性促成了零售商买方谈判势力的形成,现实中一些零售商由于把握好零供关系中的三重角色而具有了买方谈判势力.在我国,对零售商行使买方势力行为的反垄断规制应以"相对经济优势地位"为逻辑起点,遵循论辩规则对零售商进行反垄断调查.

  19. Heterogeneity influence of buyers' power on process innovation and product innovation: Model and empirical test%买方势力对工艺创新与产品创新的异质性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓华; 郑辉

    2013-01-01

    工艺创新和产品创新是企业技术创新的主要模式,不同创新模式下企业研发投入决策与作为买方的下游行业市场势力有关.本文通过构建纳入上下游企业的三阶段研发决策模型,考察了买方势力对上游企业工艺创新和产品创新的异质性影响,得到以下结论:买方市场势力越强(企业数越少),上游企业的工艺创新投入强度越小,而产品创新投入强度越大;卖方市场势力与本行业企业的产品创新正相关,与工艺创新的关系不确定;买方技术能力的提升能够通过产业间传导机制增强上游企业的产品创新激励,对工艺创新则存在负效应.进而,以我国制造业大中型企业的统计数据为样本对模型所得结论进行了实证检验,回归结果与理论预期基本一致,其中交互作用项的参数估计表明,买方势力对上游企业创新投入的作用依赖于卖方市场势力的条件效应.

  20. On the Determinants, Economic Effect and Government Regulation of Retail Buyer Power%零售商买方势力的成因、经济效应与政府规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程贵孙

    2010-01-01

    随着零售业集中化趋势不断增强和大型零售商不断涌现,零售商买方势力日益突出.买方势力问题已经受到了理论界和产业界的高度关注.零售商的纵向或横向兼并、由零售商规模所引致的谈判力量以及供应商对零售商的过度经济性依赖,是零售商买方势力形成的主要因素.买方势力所形成的经济效应主要包括对消费者和中小零售商产生负面影响的买方垄断效应和水床效应,以及能够产生正面影响的抗衡效应.对零售商买方势力的政府规制应该着重关注零售商的并购行为、滥用经济依赖性和纵向约束行为.

  1. Risk Assessment of Electricity Buyers and Sellers in Power Markets Based on Sequence Operation Theory%基于序列运算理论的购售电主体市场风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮; 夏清; 康重庆

    2008-01-01

    传统的市场风险评估一般侧重于售电侧,忽略了市场风险的成因与内在规律,不能如实反映出购售电主体所面临的风险.文中利用序列运算理论建立了购售电主体报价行为的不确定性模型,基于市场模拟的方法,分析其他购售电主体报价策略的可能变化及其对被评估市场主体成交结果产生的影响,并依据效用函数建立了相应的风险评估指标,从成交电价与成交电量2个方面综合地评估市场风险;最后利用具体算例验证了所提出的方法的合理性.

  2. Technological Innovation Decision of Duopoly Supplier Considering Buyer's Bargaining Power%考虑买方议价能力的双寡头供应商技术创新决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 李伟; 马亮

    2015-01-01

    在大型零售商的买方议价能力不断增强的背景下,研究了竞争供应商的技术创新决策问题.构建了由异质双寡头供应商、大型零售商组成的纵向市场结构模型,并将大型零售商的议价能力引入模型,考察了大型零售商议价能力条件下供应商的最优技术创新决策,分析了零售商议价能力的变化对不同供应商的技术创新决策的影响.研究发现:大型零售商议价能力的增强促进了小型供应商的技术创新、抑制了大型供应商的技术创新;当零售商的议价能力大于某一临界值时,小型供应商的技术创新水平会高于大型供应商.最后通过具体算例验证了研究结论,分析了参数变化对研究结论的影响.

  3. 买方市场势力、电煤价格与煤炭产业经济效率%Buyer's Market Power, Thermal Coal Price and the Economic Efficiency of Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江秀辉; 马宇

    2016-01-01

    电煤市场买方市场势力是解释电煤价格和煤炭产业经济效率的变化和理顺煤电关系的关键.从煤电纵向关系的角度出发,采用买方集中度和买方赫芬达尔指数对电煤市场买方市场势力进行测算,并检验了买方市场势力对煤炭价格、电煤价格以及煤炭产业经济效率的影响.结果表明:电煤市场买方市场势力不大;发电产业买方市场势力显著地降低了电煤价格、煤炭价格以及煤炭产业经济效率.协调煤电矛盾的政策选择在于:加快推进电力体制改革、实现电煤市场的完全市场化以及完善发电产业的市场化改革.

  4. 煤电纵向关系中的电力产业买方势力研究%MARKET POWER OF ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY AS THE BUYER OF COAL INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周梦艳; 马洪云

    2013-01-01

    运用电煤价格偏离度指标来衡量煤电纵向关系中的电力产业买方市场势力.结果表明,电力产业作为整个煤炭产业买方的市场势力不断增强,而且在其他因素不变的情况下,电煤价格偏离度越小,煤炭产业的销售利润率就越高,即电力产业的买方势力与煤炭产业经济绩效存在负相关关系.要从根本上理顺煤电关系,关键在于实行煤电一体化,以减少煤炭企业、电力企业和政府之间的博弈成本,煤、电企业之间的交易成本以及交易的不确定性.

  5. Consumption Externalities and Forming of Buyer Power in Vertical Structure%消费网络效应与专业零售商买方势力规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石奇; 孔群喜

    2009-01-01

    耐用品消费的网络效应导致大型专业零售商收取通道费的价格水平偏离了拉姆齐最优价格结构,这是实施政府规制的基本要件.同时,与非专业化大型零售商的情况不同,大型专业零售商经营的商品品种相对较少,品类规格相对简单,从而使得针对大型专业化零售商展开相应的经济规制具有经济上的可行性.所以应该在周密调查和研究以后,推出针对大型专业化零售商的纵向约束行为的规制措施,一方面提高纵向结构的效率,另一方面提高社会福利水平.%The consumption externalities arising for durable goods induce the slotting allowance of the specialty retailer to deviate from Ramsey pricing, which can be see the prerequisites for the regulation. Differing from modern big retailing, the specialty retailer have a finity assortment of goods, in consequence of this fact the regulation of the specialty retailer is provided with the economic feasibility. Regulation policy directed against vertical restraint by the specialty retailer should be bringed out after a strict inquiry and research, with a view to enhance efficiency of the vertical structure and raise the level of social welfare.

  6. Buyer's bidding strategies based on the static game theory with incomplete information%基于不完全信息静态博弈论的购电商竞价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段登伟; 刘俊勇

    2003-01-01

    分析了发、配电同时开放条件下电力市场竞价的基本过程.根据不完全信息静态博弈的基本理论,提出了购电商在信息不完全条件下参与竞价的最优报价策略.引入变量ε解决了购电商对市场清算电价的评价与市场对其评价不一致的问题.对购电商存在单一支付函数和多个支付函数的不同情况,分别推导了购电商竞价的纯战略和混合战略.还就一个简化模型分别给出了购电商采用纯战略报价和混合战略报价的具体算法.通过算例验证了采用该方法进行购电报价的实用性和有效性.

  7. 外资零售商买方势力的经济影响及规制研究%Research on the Impact and Regulation of Foreign Retailers' Buyer Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清萍

    2008-01-01

    伴随跨国零售商进入我国零售市场并迅速扩张,外资零售商在我国上游市场的买方势力不断增强.强势外资零售商行使买方势力的行为对我国的市场竞争及经济安全产生一系列的影响,我国针对外资零售商买方势力的规制政策应该是以为基础并设置相关的行政政策法规对其进行规制.

  8. 电力市场买电型和趸售型竞争模式福利比较%Welfare Comparison between One-buyer and Wholesale Market in Electricity Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓菁

    2009-01-01

    通过建立福利函数比较了电力市场单一买方多卖方的买电型竞争模式和多买方多卖方的趸售竞争模式.两种竞争模式中消费者福利的优劣取决于趸售竞争模式下双边叫价拍卖时买卖双方的最终成交价Pi是否高于买电型竞争模式下电网公司将电力商品售出的价格P·.生产者福利的优劣则取决于统一定价制下的买电型竞争模式中生产者按边际成本给出的上网报价Psi是否高于Pi.另外,在满足一定的条件下,两种电力竞争模式的社会总福利相等.

  9. 买方主垄断:政府规制与电煤价格的长期扭曲%Buyer's Monopoly, Regulation and Distortion of the Power-Use-Coal Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白让让

    2009-01-01

    本文从产业组织和政府规制的视角解释了电煤价格的扭曲现象.理论模型证明,随着电煤消费比重的增加和煤炭产业集中度的下降,电煤价格的扭曲度明显加大,而政府对电煤价格的干预则成为扭曲的体制根源.对1980~2006年的经验分析还发现,在"规制重建滞后和下游产业垄断"的背景下,政府的行政性干预和"完全"的市场化改革,都无法消除价格扭曲的发生.只有转变经济增长的模式、抑制垄断者的市场势力,煤炭和电力产业之间的不和谐因素才会被减少.初步的协整检验和回归分析在一定程度上支持了理论假设实际考察的结论.

  10. 跨国流通企业买方市场势力研究:空间生产的视角%A Study of Buyer' s Market Power of Transnational Circulation Enterprises: form the Perspective of Space Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宪萍; 周国强

    2013-01-01

    在全球生产能力严重过剩的情况下,跨国流通企业通过价值链的整体控制及企业关系重构,实现了买方市场势力的增强.突破本地市场空间容量限制,实行连锁复制已成为跨国流通企业在全球进行规模扩张增强买方市场势力的一种方式.跨国流通企业不仅在中国一线城市巩固地盘,而且逐步加大了对二、三线城市的投资,实现了买方市场势力在中国的整体布局战略.跨国流通企业买方市场势力的空间生产,实质上是跨国资本在空间的演化及空间的延伸,是剩余资本的经济利益通过空间实践扩张而共同逐利并实现其霸权的过程.

  11. Manufacturer's Technological Innovation Decision under Background of Buyer Power of Dominant Retailer%主导零售商买方势力背景下的制造商技术创新决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 李伟

    2015-01-01

    针对零售市场中大型零售组织买方势力不断增强的现象,研究了制造商的技术创新决策.在由上游垄断制造商、下游主导零售商和边缘零售商组成的纵向市场结构下,构建了四阶段的技术创新决策模型,提炼了主导零售商的谈判势力特征和市场份额特征,给出了主导零售商买方势力背景下制造商的最优创新决策,分析了主导零售商的谈判势力和市场份额对制造商技术创新决策的影响.最后通过具体算例探讨了参数变化对主要结论的影响,并据此提出了促进企业技术创新的建议.

  12. One-Sided Monopoly, Buyer Power and Antitrust Policy on Horizontal Merger%单侧垄断、买方势力与横向合并的反垄断政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绪亮

    2011-01-01

    本文将DW模型拓展到单侧垄断情形下加以分析,发现与DW模型明显不同,在单侧垄断情形下,零售企业集中度越高,则终端零售价格也越高.如果零售企业的横向合并仅仅增强其买方势力,而不会显著影响其卖方竞争格局,那么这种合并会增进消费者福利.现实中大型连锁零售企业往往采取全国统一采购,具有很强的买方势力,然而,在各个区域(城市)市场面临很多当地零售企业非常激烈的(卖方)竞争.在这种情形下,反垄断机构通过鼓励零售产业的横向合并行为来打造大型连锁零售企业的公共政策可能会增进消费者福利,但是前提是必须时时确保本土区域零售企业竞争的充分存在.

  13. 双边议价框架内主导零售商买方势力及政府规制取向%On Buyer Power of Dominant Retailers Based on the Bilateral Bargaining and Government Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玻; 张莉

    2009-01-01

    在双边议价框架内,外部选择价值决定纵向关系中交易双方各自的议价势力.规模以及作为产品进入市场的"守门人"角色是主导零售商自身所具备的影响外部选择价值的因素,是主导零售商买方势力的主要来源.在对称性寡头竞争的零售市场,主导零售商的买方势力产生有益的"抵消效应",而在非对称性寡头竞争的零售市场,主导零售商的买方势力可能产生有害的"水床效应"."水床效应"既可能会加剧零售市场垄断化趋势,又可能损害消费者权利.因此,政府规制应高度关注主导零售商的市场兼并行为,高度关注主导零售商剥削中小供应商的行为,高度关注主导零售商过度低价促销行为.

  14. 买方市场下的高校就业指导课程建设%The Course Construction of Careers Guidance in Universities under the Buyer's Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2010-01-01

    近年来,随着高校毕业生就业制度改革的深入和毕业生人数的增加,就业市场逐渐呈现由卖方市场向买方市场的转变.面对就业市场形势的转变,就业指导课的开展越来越成为高校就业指导工作的"重头戏".就业指导课程的适时性和实效性是衡量就业指导工作的重要指标.本文通过对当前就业市场形势的分析,结合自身多年的就业指导工作经验,对新形势下高校就业指导课程建设提出自己的思路.

  15. Dilemma of Slotting Allowances Regulations: Buyer Power or Market Rule%通道费的规制困境:买方势力抑或市场规则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳中刚

    2009-01-01

    近年来,通道费是零售商与供应商矛盾冲突的焦点.2006年实施的并没能够达到规范和降低通道费的预期效果,通道费的"双边市场特性"对传统的规制政策提出了一些挑战.通过分析通道费规制的"水床效应",以解释政府的规制困境;基于双边市场理论,构建通道费问题的双边市场框架,得出通道费是零售商平衡双边用户需求、内部化网络外部性的一种市场规则的结论,并以此进一步探讨通道费的规制原则.

  16. Government Regulation, Buyer Power and Technical Innovation: A Study of China' s Pharmaceutical Industry%政府规制、买方势力与技术创新:中国制药产业的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆霖; 郭嘉仪

    2013-01-01

    虽然针对药品市场的政府规制旨在降低患者药费支出和确保用药安全,但其对我国制药产业技术创新的负面影响是显而易见的,产业创新产出扭曲,创制新药难得一觅,虚假“新药”泛滥市场.另一方面,正是结合不合理的医疗卫生规制安排,医疗机构得以利用其在药品市场中的双边垄断势力扭曲药品需求结构,并传递到上游产业,从而引致制药产业的创新投入降低并扭曲创新结构.基于政府规制和买方势力的视角,利用面板数据的实证分析结果也印证了政府规制和买方势力对制药产业技术创新投入和产出有着显著的负面效应.从政策意义上说,放松政府规制或引入政府规制影响评价,同时限制医疗机构利用垄断地位滥用市场势力对于引导我国制药产业技术创新回到良性轨道是可参考的政策选择.

  17. An analysis on the co-opetition relationship between subcontracting manufacturers and foreign branding buyers and their performance%代工企业—国外品牌客户的竞合关系与绩效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斯丹; 毛蕴诗

    2014-01-01

    以99家样本企业的调研数据进行实证研究,探讨了本土代工企业与国外品牌客户之间竞合关系的类型和绩效差异.聚类分析结果表明,双方的竞合关系可分为强合作型、强竞争型、合作竞争俱强型及合作竞争俱弱型四类.回归分析结果表明,合作关系多个构面对升级绩效和经营绩效有较显著的正向影响,但竞争关系中制造、质量和价格等交易条件则对升级绩效有较显著的负向影响.方差分析结果表明,与客户建立了合作竞争俱强型的代工企业可以获得更好的升级绩效.

  18. 体育彩票机构社会责任对彩民消费行为的影响%Influence of Social Responsibility from Sport Lottery Organizations on the Consumption Behaviors of Lottery Buyers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 吴殷

    2015-01-01

    采用文献资料、问卷调查、数理统计等研究方法,分析上海市体育彩民对于体育彩票机构履行社会责任的感知情况,以及对其消费行为的影响.通过因子分析提取监管责任和产品责任2个因子,经回归分析发现,这2个因子对体育彩民的消费行为均产生一定的影响.

  19. 病态博彩及预防彩民病态博彩策略研究%Pathological gambling and strategy research on pathological gambling of lottery buyers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯

    2009-01-01

    采用文献资料法,对博彩、彩票以及病态博彩的内涵进行研究,对博彩行为和病态博彩行为进行理论分析.研究认为,为了预防彩民病态博彩行为的发生,应尽快推出,培养彩民健康的博彩观念,加强彩票行业的监管,规范彩票销售网点的售彩行为,优化玩法布局结构,吸引更多居民使用闲钱买彩票,严厉打击私彩,建立对病态博彩彩民的救助制度.

  20. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2. Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Z. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team—from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  1. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  2. Countervailing power and dynamic efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Inderst, Roman; Wey, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of buyer power on dynamic efficiency. We consider a bargaining model in which buyer power arises endogenously from size and may impact on a supplier's incentives to invest in lower marginal cost. We challenge the view frequently expressed in policy circles that the exercise of buyer power stifles suppliers' incentives. Instead, we find that the presence of larger buyers keeps a supplier 'more on his toes' and induces him to improve the competitiveness of his offe...

  3. Trust, Competition and Innovation: Theory and Evidence from German Car Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Calzolari, Giacomo; Felli, Leonardo; Koenen, Johannes; Spagnolo, Giancarlo; Konrad O. Stahl

    2015-01-01

    We develop a simple theoretical model of a long term buyer-supplier relationship with non-contractible buyer specific R&D investment, and derive predictions on the effects of trust and competition on suppliers' investment and buyers' procurement strategies. We address these issues empirically using unique survey data on individual buyer-supplier relationships in the German automotive industry. Consistent with the model's predictions, higher levels of trust are associated with higher investmen...

  4. Analysis of Successful Trades Information Disclosure Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Koki Murakata; Tokuro Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    In most of e-commerce sites evaluation systems are employed to evaluate each user after trades. Normally, seller's evaluation score is shown in e-commerce site and computed based on the score given by buyers. In recent e-commerce sites, the evaluation is based on multiple attributes and buyers give their thinking for each attribute. In this viewpoint, the seller evaluation in e-commerce is collected knowledge from buyers and the synthetic score is computational intelligence because each buyer...

  5. Repertoire and frequency of consumption in wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios

    Frequency of consumption has always been an important criterion for characterising and segmenting buyers. The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of the repertoire and loyalty structures between heavy and light wine buyers. Based on a study conducted with stated preference data...... buyers are more loyalty prone than light buyers, both as regards the brand name and the wine attributes examined in this study....

  6. Eliciting Demand Information through Cheap Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisell, Lars; Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.

    2008-01-01

    A uniform pricing rule may enable the communication of demand information from buyer to seller in situations where this would not have been possible if the seller could price discriminate. Importantly, such a rule can benefit both buyer and seller.......A uniform pricing rule may enable the communication of demand information from buyer to seller in situations where this would not have been possible if the seller could price discriminate. Importantly, such a rule can benefit both buyer and seller....

  7. Growing Exports by Signaling Product Quality: Trade Competition and the Cross-National Diffusion of ISO 9000 Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xun; Prakash, Aseem

    2011-01-01

    Trade policy is an important topic in global public policy. It is recognized that trade is hampered when buyers have incomplete information about the offered products, a problem accentuated in the international markets by the physical and cultural distances between buyers and sellers. Buyers look for proxies to assess product quality, and…

  8. How private is private information? The ability to spot deception in an economic game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Belot; J. van de Ven

    2014-01-01

    We provide experimental evidence on the ability to detect deceit in the 'Lemon Game': a buyer-seller game with asymmetric information. Sellers have private information about the value of a good and sometimes have incentives to mislead buyers. We examine if buyers can spot deception in face-to-face e

  9. A note on partial vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); H.J.M. Peters (Hans)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA simple model is constructed to show how partial vertical integration may emerge as an equilibrium market structure in a world characterized by rationing, differences in the reservation prices of buyers, and in the risk attitudes of buyers and sellers. The buyers with the high reservati

  10. 12 CFR 225.86 - What activities are permissible for any financial holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bringing together one or more buyers and sellers of any product or service for transactions that the... providing hypertext or similar links to the web sites of third party buyers or sellers. (B) Hosting on the... sellers (or buyers) to submit expressions of interest, bids, offers, orders and confirmations relating...

  11. Contract mechanisms for coordinating a supply chain with price and sales-effort dependent demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalla, V.R.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers a two-stage supply chain with a Buyer and a Supplier, where the endconsumer demand is influenced by two factors, namely the price of the product and the saleseffort made by the Buyer. It is assumed that the Buyer makes the sales-effort decision and incurs the associated cost. Fu

  12. The evolution of credence goods: A transaction approach to product specification and quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    1994-01-01

    for which the buyer's decision-making is dominated by concerns about credence characteristics. 2. Credence goods show an asymmetry between seller and buyer with respect to knowledge acquisition. Therefore, there is a need for the buyer to combine the quality claims of the seller with information about...... of their probability of 'breakdown', ie, the probability that they are unsatisfactory to be buyer. The buyers' learning about and reacti breakdowns are specified in a way which makes it rational for the retail chains to obtain a certain degree of uniformity with respect to the breakdown qualities of the different...

  13. Asking Price Mechanism with Dynamic Arrivals

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman Khezr; Abhijit Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies a popular selling mechanism relevant to the Australian housing market in which the seller of the object posts an asking price to attract potential buyers for further negotiations. The game is studied in a dynamic setting with the possibility of more than one potential buyer arriving at each period. The game is designed such that in the event when only one buyer arrives, the seller engages in negotiation with that buyer and when two or more buyers arrive, the seller runs an ...

  14. The Effects of Interdependence and Cooperative Behaviors on Buyer’s Satisfaction in the Semiconductor Component Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Pai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry is characterized by extreme competition in price and product features. Firms need to acquire or exchange resources with their supplier or buyer partners to stay at the leading edge of technology. Cooperation between buyers and suppliers is important and power is the mechanism that can explain the cooperative behaviors. This study aims to investigate how the power structure between the buyer and supplier influences the extent of suppliers’ cooperative behaviors, and the effects of these on buyer satisfaction with the buyer-supplier relationship. Opinions from firms in semiconductor manufacturing supply chain were used to investigate the proposed model. It is found that mutual interdependence between a supplier and its buyer can enhance cooperative behaviors and power asymmetry hurt firms’ investment in cooperative behaviors. Suggestions are then provided to semiconductor supply chain members based on the findings of this work.

  15. Strategic Interaction, Competition, Cooperation and Observability

    OpenAIRE

    Groh, Christian

    2001-01-01

    Both the Cournot and the Bertrand oligopoly model make an important distinction between buyers and sellers. Sellers act as strategic players and are able to influence prices, buyers act non-strategically and are just represented by a demand function. This dissertation looks at situations without distinctions between buyers and sellers. Chapter two analyzes strategic market games à la Shapley and Shubik (Journal of Political Economy, 1977) with sequential moves. Usually, strategic market games...

  16. Bargaining in Technology Markets: An empirical study of biotechnology alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Kinukawa, Shinya; Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    We empirically examine the distribution of bargaining power between buyers and sellers on the biotechnology markets by estimating the extracted surplus in alliance agreements, which depends on each party's bargaining power. The results show that buyers have extracted more surplus than sellers. However, these also reveal that the surplus extracted by buyers has been decreasing while that of the sellers has been increasing. We construe that the prices of biotechnologies have been lower than the...

  17. Trade credit contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Klapper, Leora; Laeven, Luc; Rajan, Raghuram

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the unique role of trade credit and contracting terms as a way for both sellers and buyers to mange business risk. The authors use a novel and unique dataset on almost 30,000 supplier contracts for 56 large buyers and more than 24,000 suppliers in Europe and North America. The sample of buyers and suppliers includes firms of varying size, investment grad...

  18. Ordered Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Raskovich

    2006-01-01

    When buyers choose the order in which they bargain with suppliers of known characteristics, prices are determined jointly by bargaining power and competitive intensity (the outside option to bargain with rival suppliers). Bargaining power becomes less important to the outcome as competition intensifies; prices fall to marginal cost in the limit. With positive visit costs and weak competition, some buyer power is necessary for trade. Incomplete buyer power may lead to inefficient choice of bar...

  19. Some factors affecting demand withholding in posted-offer markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffle, Bradley J.

    2000-01-01

    Both oligopoly theory and experiments are concerned almost uniquely with sellers' behavior. Buyers' ability to exhibit non-trivial behavior in different market institutions remains unaddressed. This paper investigates the impact of three variables (number of buyers, surplus division at the market-clearing price and information revelation) on strategic and fairness-motivated demand withholding. Demand withholding and its ability to force lower prices increase as the number of buyers or the sha...

  20. A laboratory stress-test of bid, double and offer auctions

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: This paper reports on the empirical properties of the bid auction (buyers propose prices), offer auction (sellers suggest prices) and double auction (both buyers and seller initiate price quotes). These trading institutions are stress-tested using a nonstationary monopolistic market environment in which the buyers' demand schedule and the single seller's supply curve shift unpredictably between trading periods. The principal result is threefold. First, double-auction ...

  1. Electronic and Physical Market Channels: A Multiyear Investigation in a Market for Products of Uncertain Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Overby; Sandy Jap

    2009-01-01

    Many markets that have traditionally relied on collocation of buyers, sellers, and products have introduced electronic channels. Although these electronic channels may provide benefits to buyers and sellers by lowering the transaction costs of participating in the market, there are trade-offs related to quality uncertainty and increased risk that may limit the adoption of the electronic channels. As a result, buyers and sellers use physical channels for some transactions and electronic channe...

  2. Typological Analysis of Buying Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Teodorescu; Nicolae Al. Pop; Felicia-Aurelia Stancioiu

    2008-01-01

    The typology of buyers and buying actions contracts are specific categories of consumer behaviour, determining group buyers and buying actions in classes, to fragment the markets. Market fragmentation through buyer typoligy and/or segmentation is presently characterized by a multitude of theoretical approaches and are especially generated by the common practice in the respective business. These two concepts are used for the same purpose, the essential difference being their starting point: th...

  3. A Theory of Commerce: Competitive Search Under Private Information

    OpenAIRE

    Miquel Faig; Belen Jerez

    2003-01-01

    Retail trade absorbs vast scarce resources because the physical process of trading is time con-suming, buyers match with sellers without coordination, and consumers prefer to purchase a diverse basket of goods. Sellers post prices to attract customers, but buyers care also about the expected time it takes to make a purchase. Retail prices can be non-linear due to packaging and quantity discounts. However, prices cannot depend on buyers preferences because these are private information. To ...

  4. Pre-Auction Offers in Asymmetric First-Price and Second-Price Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, René; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    for the seller than effcient second-price auctions. This is because the former favor the weak buyer. However, we show that the seller can do one better by augmenting the first-price auction by a pre-auction offer made exclusively to the strong buyer. Should thestrong buyer reject the offer, the object is simply...... never increase the profitability of second-price auctions, since they introduce the wrong kind of favoritism from the perspective of seller profits....

  5. Optimal trade credit and order quantity when trade credit impacts on both demand rate and default risk

    OpenAIRE

    K-R Lou; W-C Wang

    2013-01-01

    In practice, to attract new buyers and to avoid lasting price competition, a seller frequently offers its buyers a permissible delay in payment (ie, trade credit). However, the policy of granting a permissible delay in payment adds an additional dimension of default risk to the seller. In contrast to previous researchers for finding optimal solutions to buyers, we first propose an economic order quantity model from the seller's prospective to determine its optimal trade credit and order quant...

  6. Procuring Fast Delivery: Sole Sourcing with Information Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard P. Cachon; Fuqiang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies a queuing model in which a buyer sources a good or service from a single supplier chosen from a pool of suppliers. The buyer seeks to minimize the sum of her procurement and operating costs, the latter of which depends on the supplier's lead time. The selected supplier can regulate his lead time, but faster lead times are costly. Although the buyer selects the supplier to source from (possibly via an auction) and dictates the contractual terms, the buyer's bargaining power ...

  7. Demand aggregation and credit risk effects in pooled procurement: evidence from the Brazilian public purchases of pharmaceuticals and medical supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Klênio; Fiuza, Eduardo Pedral Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Pooled procurement has an important role in reducing acquisition prices of goods. A pool of buyers, which aggregates demand for its members, increases bargaining power and allows suppliers to achieve economies of scale and scope in the production. Such aggregation demand e ect lowers prices paid for buyers. However, when a buyer with a good reputation for paying suppliers in a timely manner is joined in the pool by a buyer with bad reputation may have its price paid increased due to the credi...

  8. Estimation of a Hedonic House Price Model with Bargaining: Evidence from the Italian Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Iacobini; Gaetano Lisi

    2012-01-01

    This empirical paper tests the role of bargaining in the formation process of housing prices in Italy. Housing markets are “thin”, local and decentralized, and thus buyers and sellers may have some market power. Hence, the selling price is influenced both by the characteristics of the product as well as by the bargaining power of the buyers and sellers. Furthermore, the bargaining power of the seller (buyer) can also be viewed as the cost of incomplete information imposed on the buyer (seller...

  9. Exclusive Dealing and Entry

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  10. NEMVP: North American energy measurement and verification protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This measurement and verification protocol discusses procedures that,when implemented, allow buyers, sellers, and financiers of energy projects to quantify energy conservation measure performance and savings.

  11. A Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimal Operating Parameters of VMI Systems in a Two-Echelon Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue-Ann, Goh; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    This paper focuses on the operational issues of a Two-echelon Single-Vendor-Multiple-Buyers Supply chain (TSVMBSC) under vendor managed inventory (VMI) mode of operation. To determine the optimal sales quantity for each buyer in TSVMBC, a mathematical model is formulated. Based on the optimal sales quantity can be obtained and the optimal sales price that will determine the optimal channel profit and contract price between the vendor and buyer. All this parameters depends upon the understanding of the revenue sharing between the vendor and buyers. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed for this problem. Solutions obtained from PSO is compared with the best known results reported in literature.

  12. Directory of Associations; Directory of Architects; Directory of Companies; 2002 Catalog & Product Showcase; 2002 Magazine Showcase; Directory of Products & Services; Directory of Materials Suppliers; Advertiser Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This buyer's guide for librarians lists associations, architects, companies (including contact information and Web sites), products, services, magazines, and materials that are geared toward libraries. (LRW)

  13. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Related Sites Buyers Guide Sound Waves Newsletter Ultrasound Awareness (MUAM) Member Directory Accreditation Application Instructions Frequently Asked Questions Access Accreditation Account Accredited ...

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2008 Brownfields Voluntary Cleanup Program Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Brownfields/Voluntary Cleanup Program (BVCP) provides property buyers, sellers, developers, bankers, development agencies, local government and other voluntary...

  15. Typological Analysis of Buying Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Teodorescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The typology of buyers and buying actions contracts are specific categories of consumer behaviour, determining group buyers and buying actions in classes, to fragment the markets. Market fragmentation through buyer typoligy and/or segmentation is presently characterized by a multitude of theoretical approaches and are especially generated by the common practice in the respective business. These two concepts are used for the same purpose, the essential difference being their starting point: the segmentation fragments the markets as a whole, while the typology of the buyer and of buying actions generate classifications starting from individual cases.

  16. 矿产资源有偿使用应当用价格分割供求双方的利益%The Price can be Used for Dividing the Interests of Sellers and Buyers with Regard to Compensated Utilization of Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希凯

    2014-01-01

    As naturally occurring natural resources, mineral resources is valuable, with the value of mining property, form the overall value of mineral resource assets. The mineral resource assets are the most important production factor of mining production. But its two intrinsic values and value actualization with speciifc characteristics are two separate interest subjects;and the relationship between each other is a kind of supply and demand. So the equilibrium point of their division of proift can be found by price. However, in China, rights and interests of resource owners are represented by resource compensation fee concerning long-term tax and fee system;and the low charging standard results the distribution of the interests of both serious deviations from the equilibrium. A lot of resources rights and interests are occupied by the rights and interests of the capital. This situation not only causes massive loss of the state-owned resources assets, but also goes against the conservation and reasonable utilization of mineral resources. Therefore, this paper offers that we must make full use of resource prices to implement the paid use of mineral resources;study and put forward the benchmark price and differential regulation price of mineral resources. On this basis, the benchmark price must be deifned according to dependent of mineral resource value and its important role in the formation of minerals income. And differential regulation price is additional beneifts on the basis of absolute return of mineral resources, attached to the excess proift. Furthermore, collection standards can be deifned depending on the excess proift level.%矿产资源作为天然形成的自然资源是有价值的,它与矿业权价值结合,形成矿产资源资产的整体价值。矿产资源资产是矿业生产最重要的生产要素,但它内在的两种价值及其实现却各具特点,又是两个独立的利益主体,相互之间是一种供求关系。它们的利益分割只有通过价格才能找到均衡点。但是在我国,长期实行的税费制度,用资源补偿费代表资源所有者权益,且收取标准太低,致使二者的利益分配严重偏离均衡点。大量的资源权益被资本权益所侵占,不仅使国有资源资产大量流失,也不利于矿产资源的节约和合理利用。因此,必须充分利用资源价格,来实行矿产资源的有偿使用;必须研究提出矿产资源的基准价和级差调节价。基准价应当根据矿产资源价值的依附性和它在形成矿产品收入中的重要作用加以确定;级差调节价是在矿产资源绝对收益基础上的追加收益,依附于超额利润,并根据超额利润水平的不同确定收取标准。

  17. The Influence of Suppliers' Brand Performance on Buyers' Repurchase Intention——An Empirical Study with Brand Relationship Quality as the Mediator%供应商品牌绩效对采购商重复购买意向的影响——以品牌关系质量为中介的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂华; 卢宏亮

    2010-01-01

    本文以采购商价值为研究视角,构建了以供应商品牌绩效为自变量,以品牌关系质量为中介变量,以采购商重复购买意向为因变量的理论模型进行实证研究.结果显示,本文提出的12条假设有10条通过检验;供应商品牌的财务价值、顾客价值和管理价值都能积极影响品牌信任和品牌承诺,从而有助于提升采购商的重购意向.但管理价值不仅正向影响采购商的品牌信任和品牌承诺,而且可以增强其对于品牌的满意程度,而财务价值和顾客价值对于品牌满意却没有显著影响.

  18. A Study on Obligations of the Seller and the Buyer in the Contract of International Sale of Goods under Incoterms(R)2010%Incoterms(R)2010规范下国际货物买卖合同当事人责任探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小薇

    2012-01-01

    Incoterms是国际商会有关贸易术语的重要国际惯例.本文主要探讨Incoterms(R)2010所规范的国际货物买卖合同当事人的主要责任,分析其修改的主要特点,以期更全面准确地把握Incoterms(R)2010及其贸易术语内涵.

  19. Vínculos de negócios entre grandes empresas compradoras e pequenos fornecedores locais: implicações para políticas públicas e desenvolvimento Business linkages between large buyers and small local suppliers: implications for public policy and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milber Fernandes Morais Bourguignon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo verifica as condições nas quais os programas e as políticas públicas promotoras de vínculos de negócios (VNs, entre grandes empresas compradoras e pequenos fornecedores locais agem, pressupondo que o Estado tem um importante papel nesse estímulo e que tais vínculos geram desenvolvimento regional e reduzem o desequilíbrio social. A pesquisa empírica, de natureza qualitativa, busca analisar ações e programas de promoção de VNs desenvolvidos no Brasil, bem como as instituições envolvidas, verificar os benefícios dessas ações e identificar oportunidades de intervenção do Estado. Os resultados indicam que políticas públicas podem ser criadas como complemento às políticas de desenvolvimento, voltadas à educação, ualificação de profissionais e incentivadoras de transferência de tecnologia e, de maneira mais ampla, como promotoras de um ambiente propício à atração de investimentos estrangeiros diretos e ao ambiente de negócios. Sugestões de pesquisas futuras são apresentadas como sistemas de governança que abrangem a relação entre as empresas e sua conexão com o setor público.This article analyzes the conditions under which public policies promoting business linkages (BL between large and small/medium enterprises act, assuming that the state has a fundamental role stimulating them, and those linkages generate regional development and reduce social inequalities. The empirical research, qualitative in nature, was designed to analyze actions and programs promoting BL developed in Brazil, as well as the institutions involved in it. It also verifies the benefits of those actions and identifies opportunities for public sector intervention. The results show that public policies can be created so as to complement those related to promoting development directed toward education, competence building and technology transfer, and, more generally, to those promoting favorable environment for business and foreign direct investment attraction. The paper also suggests future research, including governance systems involving the relationship between companies and their connection with the public sector.

  20. Asset Specificity Intensity,Buyer Countervailing Power and Strategic Alliance——An Investigation on a Case Which Airlines Own to Airports%资产专用性强度、买方抗衡势力与战略联盟——对航空公司拖欠机场费用案例的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀云; 郭永; 周鑫

    2010-01-01

    民航业改革分离了机场与航空公司的所有权,使两者之间由内部关系转变为纵向市场交易关系.在纵向关系下,资产专用性强度的不对称导致了航空公司对机场的"可置信的威胁"和"敲竹杠",同时航空公司通过增强横向市场势力形成买方抗衡势力,使得拖欠机场费用问题激化.本文运用公平市场交易和战略联盟两种模型对机场和航空公司市场绩效进行模拟测算,表明战略联盟可提高两者的效率及社会福利,是解决航空公司欠费问题的根本途径.

  1. 买方集中、纵向限制与抗衡势力--解析"加尔布雷斯假说"的反垄断涵义%Buyer Concentration, Vertical Restraints and Countervailing Power: Reflection on the Antitrust Implications of Galbraith Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绪亮

    2005-01-01

    "加尔布雷斯假说"提出以来,备受争议.最近几年,在国内外零售业市场结构发生较大变化背景下,一些学者又从不同角度论证了"加尔布雷斯假说"可以有条件成立.本文整合并扩展了近期关于买方集中、纵向限制与抗衡势力的理论研究,集中探讨零售服务可替代情形下,下游零售商对上游供货商的纵向限制行为.结论认为:零售市场集中对社会可能是有益的,前提条件是在零售层面某种形式的竞争必须依然存在.而且,就中国而言,零售业的反垄断政策还要兼顾规模经济,同时考虑到外资企业大举进入对东道国的特殊影响.

  2. 基于公平视角的买方垄断市场信任机制实证研究——以发电市场为例%Empirical Research on Trust Mechanism of Buyer's Monopoly Market: Taking the Electric Power Market as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思强; 杨伟文; 叶泽

    2013-01-01

    以纵向一体化分离改革后的发电市场为例,依据湖南200家电厂数据.实证结果表明,在买方处于垄断地位,决定卖方经营允许权的情况下,公平行为是建立完善信任机制的前提,其通过影响满意、价值感知的中介作用最终影响信任.据此买方垄断企业应建立完善客户关系信任机制,监管机构建立公平制度和相应平台,维护市场程序.

  3. Welfare Effects and Regulation Method of Buyer Power from Multinational Retailers-A Theoretical Model of Slotting Allowance%跨国零售买方势力的福利影响与规制思路——以通道费为例的模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄尚文; 赵亚平

    2009-01-01

    收取通道费是跨国零售行使买方势力的典型方式.本文将供应商区分为差异化产品生产者和同质产品生产者,结合双边市场的理论和模型研究,将零售商的服务纳入到模型分析,并将其内生化,以此为基础分析了零售商收取的差别化通道费对消费者福利的影响.结论表明,零售商对差异化产品收取通道费对其均衡价格没有影响,但是可以提高零售商的服务水平和降低同质产品的均衡价格,因而有利于增进消费者福利;但是,零售商对同质产品收取通道费会带来消费者福利的下降.据此提出了通道费的规制建议,并提出了关于跨国零售买方势力的规制思路.

  4. Relay Selection and Power Allocation Strategy for Decode-and-Forward(DF) Cooperative Relay Network Based on Buyer/Seller Game%DF协作中继网络基于买者/卖者博弈的中继选择和功率分配策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯峰; 冯穗力; 胡洁; 庄宏成

    2010-01-01

    该文针对采用解码-转发(DF)协议的协作中继网络,提出了一种基于买者-卖者博弈的中继选择和功率分配策略,通过将用户建模为买者,可以以最大效用为标准选择最优中继和确定最佳的购买功率;将中继建模为卖者,可通过先市场后利润的功率价格调整策略获得最大的利润.分析了两者博弈达到平衡的条件并进行了仿真,结果验证了纳什均衡点的存在并表明,该策略计算量少,收敛速度快,实用性强,在兼顾用户和中继节点的利益的同时可以有效提高用户的传输速率,扩大基站的覆盖范围,提高功率利用效率.

  5. 企业横向竞争行为与其买方势力关系研究——以钢铁产业为背景%Horizontal Competitive Behaviors and Buyer Power: Based on Iron and Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁培丽; 朱建峰; 石俊国

    2013-01-01

    本文以钢铁产业为背景,在假设下游钢铁企业存在“外部选择权”的前提下,用市场份额作为中间变量将企业横向竞争行为与买方势力建立联系,构建企业横向竞争行为与买方势力关系模型,研究企业横向竞争行为对企业买方势力的影响.研究表明:提高生产效率、提高产品横向差异化水平与纵向差异化水平都可以提高企业的市场占有率,并进而提高其在供应品市场的买方势力.本文对于理解钢铁企业纵向关系提供了新的视角,对于当前我国钢铁企业如何提高在铁矿石市场的买方势力,增强产业核心竞争力具有指导意义,对于钢铁企业制定战略决策及国家规划相关产业政策具有一定的参考意义.

  6. Approach and practice of fashion inventory control based on sales & operations planning process and buyer model%运用销售运营计划与买手模式的服装库存控制方法研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任力

    2015-01-01

    提出采用销售运营计划和设定买手管理库存指标分阶段进行库存管控,降低企业库存风险的方法.将库存指标量化,分析不同库存产品类型,设定库存管理关键绩效指标KPI,并与企业财务目标衔接,平衡服装库存投入与利润空间的关系,达到各项库存控制指标协同匹配的效果,形成完整的库存风险控制流程.在实践应用中,根据企业产品定位、运营模式等因素分析库存安全性,优化库存结构;协同内部职能部门计划,使企业经营进入良性循环.

  7. Regulatory stability of the national gas sector to attraction of investments: a juridical approach about the buyer creditory under the mode project finances; Estabilidade regulatoria do setor gaseifero nacional para atracao de investimentos: uma abordagem juridica acerca dos financiamentos sob a modalidade 'project finances'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Junior, Helio Varela de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos PRH-36-ANP/MCT. Curso de Direito

    2008-07-01

    A stability of the Natural Gas regulation's framework assumes nowadays, for sure, a relevant position, once means a way of attracting new investments to the Oil and Gas Industry's sector. Following a logic sequence - regulation stability brings legal certainty witch reduces, on the other hand, the risks and attracts investment - the idea of a regulation's commitment on the natural gas sector sets as a key element for investment's attraction. Likewise, the financial agents position is extremely important, especially for the 'Project Finances' funding, witch inherent peculiarity (market risk's reduction) keep full compatibility with the needs of today's Brazilian natural gas sector framework. (author)

  8. 权力、信任对冲突解决机制及其伙伴关系持续影响研究%The Impact of Power and Trust on Conflict Resolution and Partnership Link Durations in Buyer-supplier Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华

    2009-01-01

    在对以往供应链伙伴关系和冲突进行理论回顾和归纳的基础上,探索了供需企业间的权力运用、信任与合作、冲突以及回避性冲突解决之间的关系,并进一步分析了各种冲突解决机制对伙伴关系持续的影响.研究结果表明,协调性权力和信任有助于合作性冲突解决,从而推动伙伴关系的发展,而强制性权力的运用只会增强竞争性冲突解决和回避冲突解决,从而损坏供需双方之间的伙伴关系.%This paper explores the causal relationship of the use of power, trust and cooperation, conflict and avoidable conflict resolution based on literature, and further analyzes the effects of various conflict resolution mechanisms on partnership link duration. The results show that coordinated power and trust contribute to cooperative conflict resolution, and benefit for the development of partnership link. On the contrary, coercive power enhances competitive resolution and avoids conflict resolution, which has negative effect on partnership link duration.

  9. 基于客流和消费水平随机变化的社区服务网点规模及盈利条件分析%Study on the Scale and Benefiting Condition of Community Service Sites Based on Stochastic Buyer Flow and Consumptive Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付俐; 穆东

    2007-01-01

    基于影响服务网点利润的客流量和消费水平两个随机因素进行分析,运用概率论相关理论,给出了服务网点销售额和利润的慨率分布,由此确定投资规模及盈利条件.

  10. Coordination in a 3-player network formation game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Dogan

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the coordination behaviour in a finitely repeated network formation game between one seller and two buyers. If a competitive network is formed the seller gets the entire surplus. Buyers can prevent the competitive network from being formed by anti-coordinating their lin

  11. Procuring complex performance: the transition process in public infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, Jens; Frederiksen, Lars; Davies, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper analyses how public buyers transition from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance (PCP). The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during the

  12. A Note on the implementation of the Pareto efficient allocation in the Lagos-Wright model

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Peng

    2012-01-01

    This note modifies Lagos – Wright (2005) by adding subsidies to sellers. We show that this modification can result in a Pareto efficient allocation at the Friedman rule when buyers do not have all the bargaining power. We find that the optimal rate of subsidy is increasing in buyers' relative risk aversion coefficient.

  13. Internal Data Market Services: An Ontology-Based Architecture and Its Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Belt, van den Edwin; Verbruggen, Eddy; Vet, van der Paul

    2003-01-01

    On information markets, many suppliers and buyers of information goods exchange values. Some of these goods are data, whose value is created in buyer interactions with data sources. These interactions are enabled by data market services (DMS). DMS give access to one or several data sources. The majo

  14. Life Insurance: A Suggested Adult Business Education Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This course is aimed at the buyer or potential buyer of life insurance for the purpose of helping him to a better understanding of life insurance and of aiding him in making decisions about his own life insurance coverage. It is structured to be taught one evening a week for six to eight weeks. Each session would last about two hours. The course…

  15. The Pen and The Needle: Partner diversity and Technological collaboration in global subcontracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind

    1999-01-01

    The case describes the initiation, development and management of a strategic buyer-supplier relationship between Novo Nordisk (Denmark) and Nissho (Japan)......The case describes the initiation, development and management of a strategic buyer-supplier relationship between Novo Nordisk (Denmark) and Nissho (Japan)...

  16. Agent-Based Urban Land Markets: Agent's Pricing Behavior, Land Prices and Urban Land Use Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Parker, Dawn; Veen, van der Anne

    2009-01-01

    We present a new bilateral agent-based land market model, which moves beyond previous work by explicitly modeling behavioral drivers of land-market transactions on both the buyer and seller sides; formation of bid prices (of buyers) and ask prices (of sellers); and the relative division of the gains

  17. 40 CFR 1054.730 - What ABT reports must I send to EPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the actual production volume associated with each FEL. (5) The maximum modal power of the emission... of the buyer and any brokers. (ii) A copy of any contracts related to the trade. (iii) The families... family. (2) As the buyer, you must include the following information in your report: (i) The...

  18. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Iyer; Z. Sautner

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address mora

  19. 40 CFR 1039.730 - What ABT reports must I send to EPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engine power for each engine configuration, and the average engine power weighted by U.S.-directed... the buyer and any brokers. (ii) A copy of any contracts related to the trade. (iii) The engine... family. (2) As the buyer, you must include the following information in your report: (i) The...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.730 - What ABT reports must I send to EPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... power for each engine configuration, and your declared value of maximum engine power for the engine... must include the following information in your report: (i) The corporate names of the buyer and any... credits for the trade, including the number of emission credits from each family. (2) As the buyer,...

  1. The value of enhancing customisation in the existence of consumer preferences heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Hartanto; Lesmono, Dharma

    2011-01-01

    An integrated vendor-buyer model for a two-stage supply chain is developed and analyzed. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and delivers it in a number of equal-sized batches to the buyer. The items delivered are presented to the end customers in a display area and/or are kept i...

  2. Customer attractiveness, supplier satisfaction and preferred customer status: a review and a cycle model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, H.; Veldman, J.; Hüttinger, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of preferred customer status, i.e. a buyer is awarded preferential treatment of its important suppliers compared to their other customers. As there is a lack of knowledge of what motivates suppliers to serve selected buyers better than others, our research

  3. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  4. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW)

  5. Understanding Contract Audits: An Experimental Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.M. Bertrand; A.J.H.C. Schram; E.H.J. Vaassen

    2013-01-01

    A contract audit is a buyer-initiated audit of prices and other conditions, which aims to decrease the information asymmetry between a buyer and a seller. Contract audits are frequently used in monopolistic or oligopolistic markets, as in government procurement. We draw upon three distinct literatur

  6. Mail-in-rebates vs.combined rebate mechanism : Which of them is more effective for supply chain coordination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalla, V.R.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a business setting, where a Supplier sells a fashion product to a Buyer, who in turn sells the product to the end consumers. Both the Supplier and the Buyer set their own selling price. The end consumer demand is assumed to be a linearly decreasing function of the final selling

  7. Balancing the balance: Self-control mechanisms and compulsive buying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Büttner, O.B.; Belei, N.V.T.; Adigüzel, F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has mainly focused on identifying why compulsive buyers engage in excessive buying, while their attempts to control problematic buying behavior have largely been ignored. The present research examines the self-control attempts of compulsive buyers. Study 1 uses qualitative in-depth

  8. Identifying innovative suppliers in business networks : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels J.; Veldman, Jasper; Schiele, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, considerable attention has been given to the role of supplying firms in the context of innovation. However, not every supplier is capable of contributing to a buyer's innovation performance. In addition, the willingness and commitment of suppliers to collaborate with buyers is not

  9. The drivers of customer attractiveness, supplier satisfaction and preferred customer status: A literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttinger, L.; Schiele, H.; Veldman, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the preferential treatment of buyers by their suppliers. As there is a lack of detailed information regarding the reasons that suppliers serve some buyers better than others, our research addresses a supplier's evaluation of customers and how this evaluation can be influen

  10. Private Benefits in Corporate Control Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attaches more value to private benefits than the buyers and that toeholds are insignificant...

  11. Taming the Real Estate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sales offices for housing projects are no longer enjoying the overcrowded showrooms of prospective buyers.Agents of second-hand houses have resorted to canvassing chents by making repeated phone calls,only to see transaction volumes drop further,while Chinese home buyers walt with money in hand to see how the current housing situation plays out.

  12. A Lotting Method for Electronic Reverse Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAn increasing number of commercial companies are using online reverse auctions for their sourcing activities. In reverse auctions, multiple suppliers bid for a contract from a buyer for selling goods and/or services. Usually, the buyer has to procure multiple items, which are typically d

  13. 75 FR 1619 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Buyer and evidencing the export of the products shipped; and To: A bill of lading (or other shipping documents) identifying the Insured and the Buyer and evidencing the export of the products shipped; and... evidencing the export of the products shipped; and To: A bill of lading (or other shipping...

  14. Method for electronically publishing a single organization's requirements in an electronic publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Timothy Patrick; Brown, Zopalla Deyar; Leverenz, Julia B.; Danforth, Teresa Marie; Kyte, Shannan Dyan; Dempster, Karen Congiu

    2008-08-12

    A system for electronically publishing the requirements of a buyer that reduces the time and paperwork required by vendors to transact business with the buyer. The electronic publication includes one or more categorized lists of items that the buyer is seeking to procure. Each listed item includes the name of the item, a brief description of the item, the name of a contact person within the buyer's organization, and one or more dates relevant to the item. The name of the item is presented as a hyperlink that leads to a detailed description of the item and a list of electronically editable forms required by the buyer. The name of the contact person is also presented as a hyperlink that leads to contact information for the contact person. Within the electronic publication, vendors can register with the buyer regarding any listed item(s). Registered vendors receive automatic updates relating to items for which they registered. An administration section, accessible only to the buyer, allows the buyer to organize information and forms submitted by the vendors.

  15. Buying and selling crack: transactions at the retail level and the role of user-sellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Oteo Pérez; A. Benschop; D.J. Korf

    2013-01-01

    To assess key characteristics of the retail crack market and the role of users as buyers and sellers, data from a survey inside and outside institutional setting among 1,039 crack users in the three largest Dutch cities were analyzed to explore their role in the crack market as buyers and sellers. O

  16. 17 CFR 240.3b-16 - Definitions of terms used in Section 3(a)(1) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... constitute, maintain, or provide “a market place or facilities for bringing together purchasers and sellers... of multiple buyers and sellers; and (2) Uses established, non-discretionary methods (whether by... buyers and sellers entering such orders agree to the terms of a trade. (b) An organization,...

  17. 12 CFR 7.1002 - National bank acting as finder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sellers, and conducting market research to identify potential new customers for retailers; (5) Conveying... transaction; (6) Conveying other types of information between potential buyers, sellers, and other interested... service, including rules that: (i) Govern the submission of bids and offers by buyers, sellers, and...

  18. 75 FR 6709 - United States, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation Inc.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... product or set of services. In the absence of explicit conditioning, providing the buyer with an opportunity to buy the two products or sets of services separately is only conditioning if no reasonable buyer... Ticketmaster Host Platform includes the following software: Ticketmaster Classic Ticketing System (also...

  19. PATTERNS OF SUPPLIER LEARNING: CASE STUDIES IN THE MALAYSIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadzrina Abdul Kadir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier development programs support the development of a supplier's capabilities, usually with the assistance of a buyer. In an industrial environment that lacks home- grown technology, it is of interest to explore precisely how suppliers learn and increase their capabilities. There are also questions regarding how the buyer impacts this learning process, specifically with respect to dependent suppliers for which major buyers account for more than 20% of sales. It is claimed that support from buyers for supplier training has been deficient. Thus, there is a need to identify the types of training that suppliers themselves prefer. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the patterns of learning for dependent suppliers in the Malaysian automotive industry by exploring how suppliers learn best and defining the role of buyers in providing assistance. This study presents a model based on empirical findings and discusses the implications of the findings.

  20. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... (2003), the article assumes that Buyers may misrepresent, either intentionally or unintentionally, and that the Court cannot distinguish one from the other. A trade-off then arises between risk allocation and deterrence. From the perspective of risk allocation, the pro rata rule is preferable since...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  1. An Asymmetric Fingerprinting Scheme based on Tardos Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Charpentier, Ana; Furon, Teddy; Cox, Ingemar

    2010-01-01

    Tardos codes are currently the state-of-the-art in the design of practical collusion-resistant fingerprinting codes. Tardos codes rely on a secret vector drawn from a publicly known probability distribution in order to generate each Buyer's fingerprint. For security purposes, this secret vector must not be revealed to the Buyers. To prevent an untrustworthy Provider forging a copy of a Work with an innocent Buyer's fingerprint, previous asymmetric fingerprinting algorithms enforce the idea of the Buyers generating their own fingerprint. Applying this concept to Tardos codes is challenging since the fingerprint must be based on this vector secret. This paper provides the first solution for an asymmetric fingerprinting protocol dedicated to Tardos codes. The motivations come from a new attack, in which an untrustworthy Provider by modifying his secret vector frames an innocent Buyer.

  2. A TTP-Independent Watermarking Protocol Based on Commutative Cryptosystem for Copyright Protection in E-Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ting; YUAN Jun; HONG Fan

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of deterring unauthorized duplication and distribution of multimedia contents in e-commerce, some Buyer-seller watermarking protocols which combine of traditional watermarking and fingerprinting techniques have been proposed, However, previous protocols have potential risk from trust third party (TTP) because all entities (including multi-buyers and multi-sellers) mentioned in protocol construct a star topology like connection, in which the watermark certification authority (WCA) serves as the central point in the interaction and therefore its availability probably turns out to be the vital bottleneck of reliability and efficiency to the whole system. Secondly, WCA holds entire information about watermark used by Buyers so that an innocent Buyer can be found as guilty if WCA collude with the Seller. In this paper, we propose a watermarking protocol to address the problems using cryptographic technologies in phase of watermark generation. The result is a TTP-independent and collusion-secure buyer-seller watermarking protocol.

  3. Comparing sourcing strategies in two-echelon supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    In this paper we investigate four sourcing models with respect to both cooperative or noncooperative planning strategies, and sole or dual sourcing. A two-stage supply chain is considered, which includes a single buyer and either a single or dual vendor(s). At the buyer the product is consumed at...... is that determining the best strategy requires a detailed analysis. Furthermore, when total system costs are taken into account, dual sourcing does not appear as beneficial as sometimes claimed in the literature on lot splitting....... elements: inventory holding costs at the buyer and the vendors, backorder costs and ordering costs at the buyer, and setup costs at the vendors. The objective is to minimize the total system costs incurred by the buyer and the vendors. As there is no dominating combined strategy, a major finding......In this paper we investigate four sourcing models with respect to both cooperative or noncooperative planning strategies, and sole or dual sourcing. A two-stage supply chain is considered, which includes a single buyer and either a single or dual vendor(s). At the buyer the product is consumed...

  4. Business-to-Business: The Salesperson's Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There is a lack of research on B2B e-commerce, especially involving input from B2B executives. To bridge that gap, we investigate whether (1 buyers and sellers differ significantly in their preference for traditional over the online purchase method across different products and across different purchase criteria and whether (2 buyers prefer the traditional over the online method across the straight rebuy, modified rebuy and new task buying situations. In the process, we test the following hypotheses: In general, buyers prefer traditional B2B over online for B2B purchases; buyers prefer the online over traditional method of transaction for straight rebuy; buyers prefer the traditional over online method of transaction for modified rebuy and buyers prefer the traditional over online method of transaction for new task. Approach: The authors queried B2B salespersons and B2B purchase professionals across a wide range of industries, representing a crosssection of products and purchase criteria. We use independent samples t-test for our hypotheses, since the main objective is to test direction and/significance of (differences in preference. Results: The results show that traditional B2B is the buyers’ preferred procurement method. Buyers, however, prefer the online method for straight rebuy transactions and the traditional method for modified rebuy and new task situations. Conclusion: Efforts to measure purchase preference from a B2B buyer’s and seller’s perspectives are few and far between, the main reason being the difficulty of collecting data from industry professionals. Given the popularity of B2B e-commerce and the interesting managerial and academic implications we have provided, the authors believe that this research provides valuable contribution. We also offer suggestions for future research.

  5. Repayment Enforcement and Informational Advantages: Empirical determinants of trade credit use

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Hirofumi; Uesugi, Iichiro; HOTEI Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Using unique data we test various trade credit theories and find the following. First, the length of a buyer-seller relationship has a positive impact on the use of trade credit, especially for longer-term credit. In contrast, short-term trade credit is extended based on buyers' hard information. Second, trade credit is more frequently used for transactions in differentiated goods, and the relative bargaining power between the buyer and the seller also matters for the use/non-use of trade cre...

  6. Concurrent sourcing as a mechanism for safeguarding specific investments from opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    for short run expansion of production and reduces costs of lost customers. However, when complementarities and diseconomies of scale make concurrent sourcing an efficient choice for a buyer, the same complementarities and diseconomies of scale also weaken the threat that the internal production unit may......This paper identifies when concurrent sourcing is an effective safeguard. Concurrent sourcing shortens the period that a buyer needs in order to internalize production and thus, it shortens the period in which an external supplier is able to hold-up a buyer. Concurrent sourcing also allows...

  7. The buying motives related to important supplier and product attributes: An analysis of retail buying behaviour in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Kristensen, Gitte Hvoldal; Skytte, Hans

    1999-01-01

    attributes (Dzever 1993; Johnston 1996; Möller 1985; Skytte 1998;Woodruff 1997). Skytte and Blunch (1998) identified a number of attributes that make a difference when retail buyers in the European retail industry select a new supplier. In this study we interviewed retail buyers of fish products in Denmark...... and Germany using the laddering technique and means-end theory (Reynolds & Gut-man 1988). The purpose of the interview was to identify the content and relationship between attributes, consequences and values in order to get a deeper understanding of the retail buyer's cognitive structure. Our purpose...

  8. E-Supply Chain Incentive and Coordination Based on Revenue Sharing Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常志平; 蒋馥

    2004-01-01

    This paper took the buyer-biased electronic market as an example, where multiple suppliers selling short-life-cycle products are bidding for an order from a powerful buyer with stochastic customer demand. It used a single period newsvendor model to analyze the decision of supplied and buyers to do or not do business online. The results suggest that lack of Incentive is the key factor of B2B electronic markets failure. At the same time, it designed a revenue sharing contract to coordinate the E-supply chain in order to prevent failure of E-market.

  9. W-026 acceptance test report plant control system software(submittal {number_sign}223.02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-02-14

    Acceptance Testing of the WRAP 1 Plant Control System software was conducted throughout the construction of WRAP 1 with final testing on the glovebox software being completed in December 1996. The software tests were broken out into five sections; one for each of the four Local Control Units and one for the supervisory software modules. This document contains a completed copy of the software tests along with the applicable test log and completed Exception Test Reports. The ETRs outside the scope of the contractor are not signed off. These will be resolved by the Buyer and all 1280 open issues will be tracked on Buyer`s ETR database pending resolution.

  10. The Mortensen rule and efficient coordination unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoit; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    2006-01-01

    We apply the efficiency axioms of [Mortensen, D. (1982). Efficiency of mating, racing and related games. American Economic Review, 72 968–979.] to a set of matching games involving coordination frictions between buyers. These games include markets with finite numbers of buyers and sellers...... and markets with infinite numbers of heterogeneous buyers and homogenous sellers. We show that the Mortensen rule, but not the Hosios rule, gives constrained efficient allocations. We also show that the Mortensen rule is implemented by a simple auction...

  11. Comparing sourcing strategies in two-echelon supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate four sourcing models with respect to both cooperative or noncooperative planning strategies, and sole or dual sourcing. A two-stage supply chain is considered, which includes a single buyer and either a single or dual vendor(s). At the buyer the product is consumed at a constant rate, and an (r, Q) policy is used to generate replenishment orders. The vendors have a finite production rate and ship to the buyer in equal-sized batches. The delivery lead time is stoch...

  12. Imperfect Reworking Process Consideration in Integrated Inventory Model under Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Lo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an improved inventory model to help the enterprises to advance their profit increasing and cost reduction in a single vendor single-buyer environment with general demand curve, adjustable production rate, and imperfect reworking process under permissible delay in payments. For advancing practical use in a real world, we are concerned with the following strategy determining, which includes the buyer's optimal selling price, order quantity, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer. An algorithm and numerical analysis are used to illustrate the solution procedure.

  13. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  14. The market for used cars : new evidence of the lemons phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Winand; Sheldon, George

    2009-01-01

    The lemons model assumes that owners of used cars have an information advantage over potential buyers with respect to the quality of their vehicles. Owners of bad cars try to sell them to ill-informed buyers while owners of good cars hold on to theirs. Consequently, the quality of traded automobiles tends to be sub-average. In contrast to previous empirical work, the following paper investigates both the behavior of buyers and sellers, testing for adverse selection by sellers and for quality ...

  15. Pricing the Innovation for Market Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănut Tiberius Epure

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence pricing strategy change over the life of a product concept. The market defined by a product concept passes through four phases: development, growth, maturity, and decline. Briefly, the changes in the strategic environment over those phases are as follows: Market development. Buyers are price insensitive because they knowledge of the product’s benefits. Both production and not a threat since the potential gains from market development exceed those from competitive rivalry. Pricing strategy signals the product’s value to potential buyers, but buyer education remains the key to sales growth.

  16. Economic and legal aspects of utility consortiums for heliostat purchase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Sheppard, W.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    A preliminary exploration is given of the legal and economic considerations surrounding the formation and operation of some form of utility-sponsored collective buying arrangement for heliostats. Particular attention is focused on considerations of federal antitrust law surrounding collective buying and other joint operations by electric utilities. Attention is also given to considerations suggested by the economic theory of monopsony (markets with a single buyer) and oligopsony (markets with a small number of buyers). The advantages and disadvantages of such arrangements are examined from the viewpoints of the buyer and the seller. (LEW)

  17. Spiser vindrikkere sundere end øldrikkere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik;

    2007-01-01

    In a cross sectional study based on information on the number, type of item and total charge of 3(1/2) million transactions over a period of 6 months in various supermarkets in Denmark we examined whether people who buy wine also buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. We found that win...... buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cocking oil and low fat cheese, milk and meat than beer buyers who bought more ready cooked meals, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb and soft drinks than wine buyers....

  18. Fairness in Physical Products Delivery Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Mohammed Alaraj

    2012-01-01

    In an e-commerce transaction, a buyer purchases a physical product, such as a laptop, from an onlineseller. In an attempt to protect himself, any seller would prefer to collect payment from the buyer beforehe sends the product. Likewise, the buyer would prefer to have the product shipped to him before hemakes a payment to the seller. Both parties have a need to take precautions to minimize their risk in casethe other party proves to be untrustworthy. This paper proposes a new e-commerce fair ...

  19. Intermediation and Competing Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Schiff, Aaron

    We examine the effects of provision of information about seller qualities by a third-party in a directed search model with heterogeneous sellers, asymmetric information, and where prices are determined ex post. The third party separates sellers into quality-differentiated groups and provides...... this information to some or all buyers. We show that this always raises total welfare, even if it causes the informed buyers not to trade with low quality sellers. However, buyers and some sellers may be made worse off in equilibrium. We also examine the provision of information by a profit maximizing monopoly...

  20. Taxation and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad, K. A.; Morath, F.; Müller, W

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the incidence and welfare e¤ects of unit sales taxes in experimental monopoly and Bertrand markets. We nd, in line with economic theory, that rms with no market power are able to shift a high share of a tax burden on to consumers, independent of whether buyers are automated or human players. In monopoly markets, a monopolist bears a large share of the burden of a tax increase. With human buyers, however, this share is smaller than with automated buyers as the presence of human buye...

  1. The Influence of Negotiators' Roles on Bargaining Outcomes in Simulated Buy-Sell Transactions%买卖交易中谈判者角色影响谈判结果的机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢天; 韦庆旺; 郑全全

    2011-01-01

    In real life, negotiations occur in specific social contexts where negotiators always play certain roles. The current study explored how negotiators' roles influence their bargaining outcomes in buy-sell transactions. Based on Neal, Huber, & Northcraft (1987), we proposed that the buyer-seller role induces framing effect (s), and that negotiators' perceived bargaining pie (or the total value of the resources they are considering) mediates negotiators' roles and outcomes. In buy-sell bargaining settings, the buyer's role typically induces a loss frame, whereas the seller's role evokes a gain frame. Thus, buyers are more risk-seeking than sellers. These dynamics prompt buyers to perceive their pie as larger than sellers', and thus the former outperform the latter.Two hundred and four undergraduate students participated in two single-issue buy-sell simulated negotiation exercises. In both experiments, the power of the two parties was set to be equal by manipulating their number of best alternative to negotiated agreement (BATNA). In experiment 1, we explored how negotiators' roles influenced their bargaining outcomes. Eighty-two undergraduate students, I.e., 41 dyads, were randomly designated as buyers or sellers. The item for exchange was an eye-protection lamp. The result of experiment 1 showed that the buyers outperformed the sellers, and that the perceived size of the pie mediated the effect of negotiation role on bargaining performance. Moreover, the communication strategies used by the buyers and the sellers did not contribute to their performance, which means that the behavioral differences among the buyers and the sellers did not account for their contrasting performance.In experiment 2, we explored why negotiators' roles influenced negotiators' perceived size of the bargaining pie. One hundred and twenty-two participants I.e., 61 dyads, were randomly assigned to the experimental group (20 dyads), control group 1 (20 dyads), and control group 2 (21 dyads

  2. 零售商买方势力对零供关系质量及零售企业绩效的影响研究——理论分析与研究命题%Research of Impact of Buyer Power of Retailers on the Relationship Quality between Retailers and Suppliers and Business Performance of Retailers——Theoretical Analysis and Research Proposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙汝攀; 刘文超; 任俊生

    2014-01-01

    大型零售商的规模优势和品牌优势使其在供应链中占据主导地位并形成买方势力.这种买方势力不仅对零供采购谈判产生影响,而且对零供关系质量、零售企业采购绩效和企业绩效产生影响.零售商合理使用买方势力将有利于零售商在与供应商的采购谈判中掌握垄断势力或者抗衡势力,使得零售商在与供应商交易谈判中处于相对优势地位,这种相对优势地位会转化为谈判势力,进而降低采购成本,提高采购绩效,最终正向影响企业绩效.但是,如果零售商滥用买方势力,则会影响甚至破坏零供关系质量,进而负向影响零售企业的采购绩效和企业绩效.从理论上看,零售商买方势力对零供关系质量整体上产生负向影响作用;短期来看,零售商买方势力对零售企业绩效产生正向影响作用,长期则产生负向影响作用;零供关系质量对零售企业绩效产生正向影响作用.但是,这些影响关系是否真正成立,影响的方向及程度都有待于进一步的实证检验.

  3. Evaluation and election of suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the construction experience in nuclear power plants, the author presents some methods of evaluation and selection for suppliers. It is applicable to various stages of nuclear power plants, furthermore, it can be used for other buyers

  4. Developing Communications Strategies for Foreign Market Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, M F

    1984-01-01

    This paper sets out to examine the relationship between buyers' attitudes to international marketing companies and countries of origin. An understanding of this relationship is crucial to the development of appropriate international communication strategies.

  5. 7 CFR 1951.852 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... market, assuming the buyer and seller are prudent and knowledgeable, and the price is not affected by... which constitutes a margin or buffer for meeting obligations within the ordinary operating cycle of...

  6. Purchasing As Reverse Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Blenkhorn, D L; Banting, P M

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a new concept called reverse marketing, which is changing the conventional buyer-seller relationship and has important implications for the traditional role of the industrial marketer.

  7. Precious Coral Sales Report Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated sales log which collects information on sales of raw coral, including weight and revenue. Also includes seller and buyer information....

  8. 24 CFR 200.610 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Regulations § 200.610 Policy. It... programs shall pursue affirmative fair housing marketing policies in soliciting buyers and tenants,...

  9. ETHICS & CULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary F.Alexander

    2004-01-01

    @@ "The international market for used equipment is evolving very rapidly. Unfortunately, most buyers and sellers of used equipment have not made the effort to understand and keep pace with the global ramifications of the business they are in."

  10. 24 CFR 291.210 - Direct sales procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) Direct sales to displaced persons; razed lots; auctions. HUD may seek to dispose of individual properties to individual buyers through methods such as direct sales to displaced persons, sales of...

  11. Relationship characteristics and performance in fresh produce supply chains: the case of the Mexican avocado industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronado, J.J.A.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Inter-organisational relations research has shown that relationship characteristics can influence performance in seller-buyer transactions. Using a transaction cost economics approach, this research shows that relational elements such as expectation of continuity reduce the transaction risk

  12. 9 CFR 201.61 - Market agencies selling or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... association with dealers or other buyers which has a tendency to lessen the loyalty of the market agency to... commission shall, in filling orders, purchase livestock from a dealer whose operations it clears or...

  13. Protect Your Family from Lead in Your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a specific warning statement about lead-based paint. Buyers have up to 10 days to check for ... Sanding, grinding, planing, needle gunning, or blasting with power tools and equipment not equipped with a shroud ...

  14. Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans (DFSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Residency Young Physician Focus Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting ... specific cancer-causing molecules. This gives it the power to kill cancer cells while preventing serious damage ...

  15. 14 CFR 1300.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... guarantees, or otherwise participate in the Board's exercise of any executive power, but may provide such... institutional buyer, as defined in Section 102(a)(3) of the Act, that funds a financial obligation subject to...

  16. Do health insurers possess monopsony power in the hospital services industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Laurie J; Santerre, Rexford E

    2008-03-01

    This paper uses metropolitan data to test empirically if health insurers possess monopsony or monopoly-busting power on the buyer-side of the hospital services market. According to theory, monopsony power is indicated by a fall in output, whereas, monopoly-busting power is shown by an increase in output when buyer concentration rises. The empirical results provide evidence that greater health insurer buyer concentration is not associated with monopsony power. Instead, some evidence is found to suggest that higher health insurer concentration translates into increased monopoly-busting power. That is, metropolitan hospitals offer increased services when the buyer-side of the hospitals services market is more highly concentrated. PMID:17638072

  17. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., 2007; (2) Caused by a failure of power supply or brownouts; (3) Caused by the inability to market..., quarantine, boycott, or refusal of a buyer to accept production; (4) Caused by fire unless directly...

  18. Estimation of a Hedonic House Price Model with Bargaining: Evidence from the Italian Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Iacobini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper tests the role of bargaining in the formation process of housing prices in Italy. Housing markets are “thin”, local and decentralized, and thus buyers and sellers may have some market power. Hence, the selling price is influenced both by the characteristics of the product as well as by the bargaining power of the buyers and sellers. Furthermore, the bargaining power of the seller (buyer can also be viewed as the cost of incomplete information imposed on the buyer (seller. The empirical results derived from multiple regression analysis support our theoretical assumptions. In fact, the variables created as proxies of bargaining power of the parties, and incorporated into the hedonic price function, are statistically significant and help to improve the performance of the hedonic model, thus reducing the differences between predicted and observed selling prices.

  19. 26 CFR 1.170A-1 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts; allowance of deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell...) Transfers subject to a condition or power. If as of the date of a gift a transfer for charitable purposes...

  20. Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Residency Young Physician Focus Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting ... take control. Learn about psoriasis . Knowledge really is power. Learning about psoriasis will help you manage the ...

  1. 7 CFR 760.611 - Qualifying losses, eligible causes and types of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Losses caused by a failure of power supply or brownout as defined in § 760.602; (2) Losses caused by the inability to market nursery stock as a result of quarantine, boycott, or refusal of a buyer to...

  2. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  3. ВЫГОДЫ И ПРОБЛЕМЫ ИНТЕРНЕТ-ТОРГОВЛИ В РОССИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Аюшиева, Е.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the new form of doing business in Russia – Internet trade. The modern condition of Russian electronic market is describes. The main problems and benefits for the seller and buyer are considered

  4. 16th Edition Breaks New Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Breaking new ground,Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics,successfully closed its doors on October 22nd,2010at the Shanghai New International Exhibition Centre,attracting a record breaking,more than 57,000 buyers.

  5. 19 CFR 141.61 - Completion of entry and entry summary documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... country of registry (flag) of the vessel expressed in terms of Annex B, HTSUS, must be placed in the block... basis of the price paid by the buyer in a sale occurring earlier than the last sale prior to...

  6. 15 CFR 30.1 - Purpose and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... industry to comply with international arms control agreements. Buyer. The principal in the export... consignee may be the same. Cargo. Goods being transported. Carnet. An international customs document that... business of transporting passengers or goods. Airlines, trucking companies, railroad companies,...

  7. Communicating Sustainable Shoes to Mainstream Consumers: The Impact of Advertisement Design on Buying Intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.C.; Gattol, V.; Van der Helm, R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, marketing of sustainable products addresses green buyers, thus missing out on the mainstream consumers and volume necessary to cover the potentially higher cost of more sustainable materials. However, how to effectively communicate more sustainable products to mainstream consumers and

  8. Supply chain coordination with defective items and quantity discount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jen

    2014-12-01

    This study develops an integrated inventory system involving defective items and quantity discount for optimal pricing and ordering strategies. The model analysed in this study is one in which the buyer orders a quantity, the vendor produces more than buyer's order quantity in order to reduce set-up cost, and then he/she offers an all-units quantity discount to the buyer. Our objective is to determine the optimal order quantity, retail price, mark-up rate, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer, so that the entire supply chain joint total profit incurred has a maximum value. Furthermore, an algorithm of finding the optimal solution is developed. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  9. Art Taipei, 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Franklin

    2007-01-01

    ■The boom of Chinese contemporary art in recent years has been greatly assisted by the purchasing power of Taiwanese collectors. They constitute the largest art buyers in the Asian market and without them the scene would look

  10. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  11. Witnessing the Booming Home Textile Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanzy Wang

    2012-01-01

    This August, Intertextile Home Textiles concluded successfully in the city of Shanghai with record-breaking number of exhibitors and buyers, presenting the booming home textiles markets both in China and abroad.

  12. 77 FR 71780 - U.S. Trade Mission to Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia, The Philippines, Hong Kong...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... business appointments with pre-screened potential buyers, agents, distributors and joint-venture partners... markets such as India and Italy. It is also the sixth-largest agricultural market for the U.S., and...

  13. Managing the Online Middle Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ As shoppers abandon four-wheel carts and long checkout lines for the convenience of a mouse click,Chinese policymakers are sparing no efforts to regulate mushrooming thirdparty payment service providers frequently used by online buyers.

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Young Physician Focus Dermatology Daily AAD Buyer's Guide Awards, grants, and scholarships AAD Annual Meeting Registration Scholarship AAD CME Award AAD Cochrane Scholarship AAD Quality Improvement Activity Award ...

  15. 良好的伙伴詹姆斯托马斯%A Good Partnership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹姆斯·托马斯

    2011-01-01

    @@ Standards are essential to productivity,economic stability, and trade.Standards are the means to reliable product performance and consumer confidence; they serve as a language for buyers and sellers.

  16. Export financing in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of market conditions, credit types and the OECD ''Consensus'' focuses on the regulation of credit and the prefinancing requirements. The two types of credit granted to the client - buyer credit or supplier credit - are compared

  17. 一种与PKC结合的数字水印的改进方案%An improved digital watermarking scheme combining with PKC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋航; 卢明; 吴力合

    2005-01-01

    Digital watermarking is the enabling technology to prove ownership on such copyrighted product as software, documents, music, and video, monitor the usage of them, and even trace them back to the user with embedding of unique buyer identification (ID) as a part of watermark into them. This thread of detection will deter users from releasing unauthorized copies. A problem arises when the seller is dishonesty, he has a chance to use the digital watermarking with the buyer ID maliciously and make the buyer receive false-accusation. In this paper, an improved digital watermarking scheme is introduced to prevent false-accusation to an honest buyer, which is combined with the advantage of PKC(public key certificate) so that it fits the on-line transaction and helps to realize secure e-commerce. In addition, the extended application of this scheme is discussed.

  18. The stimulating factors of buying

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Claudia NEAMŢU; NEAMŢU Liviu

    2010-01-01

    The reason of buying, possibly is the most challenging concept in marketing deals with understanding why buyers do what they do (or don’t do). But such knowledge is critical for marketers since having a strong understanding of buyer behavior will help shed light on what is important to the customer and also suggest the important influences on customer decisionmaking. Using this information, marketers can create marketing programs that they believe will be of interes...

  19. PENERAPAN HUKUM DALAM PENYELESAIAN SENGKETA TRANSAKSI ELEKTRONIK DI PERADILAN UMUM

    OpenAIRE

    Rahadi Wasi Bintoro

    2011-01-01

    This research is study about law construction of forming electronic contract in transaction that exploiting information technology and law of evidence that applying for electronic document. and to explaing its, researcher use statue approach, conceptual approach and case approach, that is included in the approach method in legal research. Pursuant to research which have been done, agreement in e-commerce is form when there is an acceptance from buyer by electrically or when the buyer signing...

  20. Contracting for Efficiency. A Best Practices Guide for Energy -Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2016-04-25

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  1. Assessment of Information Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Christozov, D.; Mateev, P.

    2005-01-01

    2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 62P20, 91B42 In the process of trading, the seller and buyer participate with different initial knowledge about the technical capabilities and about the expected use of the good. This two-side asymmetry affects the success of the negotiation in e -trading. This paper discusses one practical approach to assess information asymmetry and the role of warranty in seller-buyer communication relationship. The presented approach is illustrated with a survey...

  2. Demographic Factors Influencing the Buying Process: Online Consumers from Denmark and Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Gylfi Aron Gylfason

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments have shown that U.S. online retailers have started to internationalize through global e-commerce as a result of buyer demand for lower prices and greater product availability. These firms though continue to struggle with how to effectively market to these online buyers as they vary greatly in terms of their consumer behavior and buying process. Past research on online consumer behavior has mainly focused on consumers purchasing products domestically, with scarce research o...

  3. Role selection and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, David J.; Sutter, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Team success relies on assigning team members to the right tasks. We use controlled experiments to study how roles are assigned within teams and how this affects team performance. Subjects play the takeover game in pairs consisting of a buyer and a seller. Understanding optimal play is very demanding for buyers and trivial for sellers. Teams perform better when roles are assigned endogenously or teammates are allowed to chat about their decisions, but the interaction effect between endogenous...

  4. An experiment on strategic capacity reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhael Shor

    2008-01-01

    A firm may strategically decrease capacity to gain bargaining power over its suppliers. Equilibrium models of competition imply that the incentive to reduce capacity to gain buyer power is small because the buyer captures all available surplus by excluding even a single supplier. However, these models can rest on behaviorally untenable actions prescribed to suppliers in equilibrium. In this paper, we test this theory using a laboratory experiment in which subjects compete to supply a single f...

  5. Allocation of Control Rights to Customised Products: Empirical Analysis of Finnish SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Paija, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Collaborative product development plays a pertinent role in many buyer-supplier relationships. It typically involves innovative components as the outcome of customisation and related R&D activities. The allocation of intellectual property rights (IPRs, e.g., patent, copyright, and trade secret) to collaborative output is a central aspect of buyer-supplier contracts. As IPR ownership provides the right to economically exploit and further develop an intellectual asset, they involve an incentive...

  6. Bidding for Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Julien, Benoit; Kennes, John; Ritter, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the mechanism by which club memberships, activities, and rules are chosen in a decentralized economy. For this purpose, we develop a model of competing auctions for club goods. This is a dynamic game where each seller first chooses an auction format; next, each buyer chooses a seller; and, finally, each buyer bids for membership. If sellers are restricted to simple auctions without reserve prices, then the decentralized equilibrium is generally inefficient across a multitud...

  7. Importance of Informational Labeling in Exporting Beef to South Korea: Preferences of Retailers, Wholesalers and Importers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Renee B.; Boyd, Milton S.

    2002-01-01

    Country of origin labeling and brand labeling play important roles in affecting purchasing behavior of buyers in the Korean beef supply chain. This paper presents a model which explain differences in the attitudes and purchase behaviors of three marketing groups regarding country of origin and other important quality attributes. The results show some of the diversity of buyers' attitudes, preferences and willingness to pay for different country of origin and brand of foreign packers in three ...

  8. Purchasing Power and Purchasing Strategies - Insights From the Humanitarian Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pazirandeh, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss how buyers practice purchasing strategies in an asymmetric power situation favoring suppliers, and how their purchasing strategies practiced impact their purchasing power and buyer-supplier relationships. Organizations enter exchange relationships to access required resources not produced internally, and are exposed to uncertainty from not being able to fully control or predict flow of resources. Consequently they become dependent on their partners. Their leve...

  9. Agent-Based Urban Land Markets: Agent's Pricing Behavior, Land Prices and Urban Land Use Change

    OpenAIRE

    Filatova, Tatiana; Parker, Dawn; Veen, van der, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new bilateral agent-based land market model, which moves beyond previous work by explicitly modeling behavioral drivers of land-market transactions on both the buyer and seller sides; formation of bid prices (of buyers) and ask prices (of sellers); and the relative division of the gains from trade from the market transactions. We analyze model output using a series of macro-scale economic and landscape pattern measures, including land rent gradients estimated using simple regress...

  10. MAXIMIZING WELFARE THROUGH COOPERATIVE NEGOTIATION IN A MULTI-AGENT INTERNET ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    PRITHVIRAJ DASGUPTA; P. MICHAEL MELLIAR-SMITH; Moser, Louise E.

    2006-01-01

    E-commerce over the Internet has become an attractive means of conducting business in today's world. However, the principles of classical economics demand a fresh insight before they can be adapted to the market structure presented by the Internet. Here, we investigate markets for goods that are characterized by an experience-limited supply curve. We propose an algorithm that maximizes the welfare in the e-market by maximizing the combined profit of the buyers and sellers. For this, the buyer...

  11. Two-sided Heterogeneity and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Moxnes, Andreas; Ulltveit-Moe, Karen Helene

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies of firms within industries consistently report substantial heterogeneity in measures of performance such as size and productivity. This paper explores the consequences of joint heterogeneity on the supply side (sellers) and the demand side (buyers) in international trade using a novel transaction-level dataset from Norway. Domestic exporters as well as foreign importers are explicitly identified in each transaction to every destination. The buyer-seller linked data reveal a ...

  12. Bilateral Matching and Latin Squares

    OpenAIRE

    Camera, Gabriele; Selcuk, Cemil

    2006-01-01

    We study equilibrium prices and trade volume with n identical buyers and a seller who initially commits to some capacity. Sales are sequential and each price is determined by strategic bargaining. A unique sub-game perfect equilibrium exists. It is characterized by absence of costly bargaining delays and each trade is settled at a different price. Prices increase with n and fall in the seller’s capacity, so if buyers have significant bargaining power, then the seller will strategically constr...

  13. Pricing and Signaling with Frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Delacroix; Shouyong Shi

    2007-01-01

    We study a large market with directed search and signaling. Each seller chooses an investment that determines the quality of the good which is the seller's private information. A seller also chooses the price of the good and the number of selling sites. After observing sellers' choices of prices and sites, but not quality, buyers choose which price to search. The sites posting the same price and the buyers searching for that price match with each other randomly. In this environment, a seller'...

  14. Price Dispersion in the Housing Market: The Role of Bargaining and Search Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a matching model à la Pissarides (2000) in order to explain a basic fact of housing markets: price dispersion. The variance in house prices is basically due to both the ex-ante heterogeneity of the parties (i.e., bargaining power, tastes, asymmetric information) and the search costs of buyers and sellers. In fact, sellers and buyers spend time and money before concluding the deal. Furthermore, the house price is substantially determined by bargaining between the parties. T...

  15. Transnational trafficking, law enforcement and victim protection: A middleman trafficker's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Akee, Randall K. Q.; Bedi, Arjun S.; Basu, Arnab K.; Chau, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    We explore three hitherto poorly understood characteristics of the human trafficking market – the cross-border ease of mobility of traffickers, the relative bargaining strength of traffickers and final buyers, and the elasticity of buyers' demand. In a model of two-way bargaining, the exact configuration of these characteristics is shown to determine whether domestic and foreign crackdowns on illicit employment mutually reinforce or counteract one another in efforts to stem the tide of traffi...

  16. On the role of asymmetric bargaining power in intermediate industry for existence of spiral effect

    OpenAIRE

    Prog, Kateryna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis proves the existence of the spiral effect in different scenarios with different modeling approaches. With a spiral effect is called the hypothesis that if, due to his bargaining power, one buyer has better procurement conditions than other buyers, he can use them to strengthen his market position in the sales market, which in turn improve his procurement situation, e.g. as he is in a position to negotiate additional quantity discounts. The analysis is divided into three blocks. In...

  17. Countervailing Power? Collusion in Markets with Decentralized Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Burani, Nadia; Ponsatí, Clara

    2002-01-01

    We consider the collective incentives of buyers and sellers to form cartels in markets where trade is realized through decentralized pairwise bargaining. Cartels are coalitions of buyers or sellers that limit market participation and compensate inactive members for abstaining from trade. In a stable market outcome, cartels set Nash equilibrium quantities and cartel memberships are immune to defections. We prove that the set of stable market outcomes is non-empty and we provide its full charac...

  18. Groundwater markets and water use efficiency: The case of Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak, S.C.; Chandrakanth, Mysore G.; Nagaraj, N.

    2005-01-01

    This study, based on primary data collected from 120 groundwater users in eastern dry zone of Karnataka compares the water use efficiency among different categories of water users, viz. well owners who do not sell water, well owners who sell water either for agricultural or non-agricultural use and water buyers (both agricultural and nonagricultural). Some of the important findings are- • The cropping pattern varies between categories, with both the sellers and buyers preferring low water int...

  19. Searching a bargain: power of strategic commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Özyurt, Selçuk; Ozyurt, Selcuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of reputation (in contact with inflexibility) on imperfectly competitive search markets where the sellers announce their initial demands prior to the buyer’s visit and the buyer directs his search for a better deal. The buyer facing multiple sellers can negotiate with only one at a time and can switch his bargaining partner with some cost. The introduction of commitment types that are inflexible in their demands, even with low probabilities, makes the equil...

  20. Optimizing the Two-Stage Supply Chain Inventory Model with Full Information Sharing and Two Backorders Costs Using Hybrid Geometric-Algebraic Method

    OpenAIRE

    Seliaman, Mohamed E.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the case of a two-stage serial supply chain system. This supply chain system involves a single vendor who supplies a single buyer with a single product. The vendor’s production rate is assumed finite. In addition, the demand at the buyer is assumed deterministic. In order to coordinate their replenishment policies and jointly optimize their operational costs, the two supply chain partners fully share their relevant information. For this purpose, we develop an integrated inventory ...