Kiran Kumar, Yalla; Ranjith Kumar, Gadi; Sridhar Reddy, Maddi
Convenient and general Hg(ii)/Pt(iv) catalyzed syntheses of γ-butyrolactams and α,β-unsaturated γ-butyrolactones/lactams are described via intramolecular electrophilic cyclizations of bromoalkynes with tosylamino and hydroxyl tethers. The reaction features the use of wet solvents, the exclusion of any base and additive, mild conditions and practical yields. We also synthesised few chiral lactams through this pathway. Additionally, it is shown that the NHTs group distanced further from the homopropargylic position assists regioselective bromoalkyne hydration to yield useful α-bromoketones. Furthermore, Boc protected bromo homo propargyl amines undergo 6-endo-dig cyclization through Boc oxygen to give bromomethylene substituted oxazinones.
Full Text Available The cis- and trans-stereoselective radical additions to α-methylene-γ-alkyl- γ-lactams were investigated and the scope and limitation of the reaction were also revealed. This stereoselective radical reaction was used for synthesis of chiral pyroglutamic acid derivatives starting from a commercially available chiral amino acid.
Zhang, Jingwei; Barajas, Jesus F.; Burdu, Mehmet
-aminovaleric acid into δ-valerolactam and 6-aminocaproic acid into ε-caprolactam. Recombinant E. coli expressing ORF26 produced valerolactam and caprolactam when 5-aminovaleric acid and 6-aminocaproic acid were added to the culture medium. Upon coexpressing ORF26 with a metabolic pathway that produced 5......ε-Caprolactam and δ-valerolactam are important commodity chemicals used in the manufacture of nylons, with millions of tons produced annually. Biological production of these highly valued chemicals has been limited due to a lack of enzymes that cyclize ω-amino fatty acid precursors to corresponding...... lactams under ambient conditions. In this study, we demonstrated production of these chemicals using ORF26, an acyl-CoA ligase involved in the biosynthesis of ECO-02301 in Streptomyces aizunensis. This enzyme has a broad substrate spectrum and can cyclize 4-aminobutyric acid into γ-butyrolactam, 5...
Patton, Andrew P; Chesham, Johanna E; Hastings, Michael H
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian oscillator encoding time-of-day information. SCN timekeeping is sustained by a cell-autonomous transcriptional-translational feedback loop, whereby expression of the Period and Cryptochrome genes is negatively regulated by their protein products. This loop in turn drives circadian oscillations in gene expression that direct SCN electrical activity and thence behavior. The robustness of SCN timekeeping is further enhanced by interneuronal, circuit-level coupling. The aim of this study was to combine pharmacological and genetic manipulations to push the SCN clockwork toward its limits and, by doing so, probe cell-autonomous and emergent, circuit-level properties. Circadian oscillation of mouse SCN organotypic slice cultures was monitored as PER2::LUC bioluminescence. SCN of three genetic backgrounds-wild-type, short-period CK1ε(Tau/Tau) mutant, and long-period Fbxl3(Afh/Afh) mutant-all responded reversibly to pharmacological manipulation with period-altering compounds: picrotoxin, PF-670462 (4-[1-Cyclohexyl-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]-2-pyrimidinamine dihydrochloride), and KNK437 (N-Formyl-3,4-methylenedioxy-benzylidine-gamma-butyrolactam). This revealed a remarkably wide operating range of sustained periods extending across 25 h, from ≤17 h to >42 h. Moreover, this range was maintained at network and single-cell levels. Development of a new technique for formal analysis of circadian waveform, first derivative analysis (FDA), revealed internal phase patterning to the circadian oscillation at these extreme periods and differential phase sensitivity of the SCN to genetic and pharmacological manipulations. For example, FDA of the CK1ε(Tau/Tau) mutant SCN treated with the CK1ε-specific inhibitor PF-4800567 (3-[(3-Chlorophenoxy)methyl]-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-amine hydrochloride) revealed that period acceleration in the mutant is due to inappropriately phased