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Sample records for butyric acids

  1. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  2. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  3. Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Vaseji; Naheed Mojgani; Cyrus Amirinia; Iranmanesh, M

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. Butyric acid concentrations have positive impact on the quality control of milk, yogurt and other probiotic dairy products. The present investigation was undertaken to determine and compare the concentrations of butyric acid (C4) in the ordinary and probiotic y...

  4. Cholesterylbutyrate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a Butyric Acid Prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mauro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterylbutyrate (Chol-but was chosen as a prodrug of butyric acid.Butyrate is not often used in vivo because its half-life is very short and therefore too largeamounts of the drug would be necessary for its efficacy. In the last few years butyric acid'santi-inflammatory properties and its inhibitory activity towards histone deacetylases havebeen widely studied, mainly in vitro. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs, whose lipid matrixis Chol-but, were prepared to evaluate the delivery system of Chol-but as a prodrug and totest its efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Chol-but SLNs were prepared using the microemulsionmethod; their average diameter is on the order of 100-150 nm and their shape is spherical.The antineoplastic effects of Chol-but SLNs were assessed in vitro on different cancer celllines and in vivo on a rat intracerebral glioma model. The anti-inflammatory activity wasevaluated on adhesion of polymorphonuclear cells to vascular endothelial cells. In thereview we will present data on Chol-but SLNs in vitro and in vivo experiments, discussingthe possible utilisation of nanoparticles for the delivery of prodrugs for neoplastic andchronic inflammatory diseases.

  5. Modeling of Clostridium t yrobutyricum for Butyric Acid Selectivity in Continuous Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Du; Amy McGraw; Jamie A. Hestekin

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe batch and continuous fermentation of glucose to organic acids with Clostridium tyrobutyricum . A modified Monod equation was used to describe cell growth, and a Luedeking-Piret equation was used to describe the production of butyric and acetic acids. Using the batch fermentation equations, models predicting butyric acid selectivity for continuous fermentation were also developed. The model showed that butyric acid production was a strong function...

  6. Modeling of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for Butyric Acid Selectivity in Continuous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Du

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed to describe batch and continuous fermentation of glucose to organic acids with Clostridium tyrobutyricum. A modified Monod equation was used to describe cell growth, and a Luedeking-Piret equation was used to describe the production of butyric and acetic acids. Using the batch fermentation equations, models predicting butyric acid selectivity for continuous fermentation were also developed. The model showed that butyric acid production was a strong function of cell mass, while acetic acid production was a function of cell growth rate. Further, it was found that at high acetic acid concentrations, acetic acid was metabolized to butyric acid and that this conversion could be modeled. In batch fermentation, high butyric acid selectivity occurred at high initial cell or glucose concentrations. In continuous fermentation, decreased dilution rate improved selectivity; at a dilution rate of 0.028 h−1, the selectivity reached 95.8%. The model and experimental data showed that at total cell recycle, the butyric acid selectivity could reach 97.3%. This model could be used to optimize butyric acid production using C. tyrobutyricum in a continuous fermentation scheme. This is the first study that mathematically describes batch, steady state, and dynamic behavior of C. tyrobutyricum for butyric acid production.

  7. Conversion regular patterns of acetic acid,propionic acid and butyric acid in UASB reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Min; REN Nan-qi; CHEN Ying; ZHU Wen-fang; DING Jie

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of continuous tests and batch tests, conversion regular patterns of acetate, propionate and butyrate in activated sludge at different heights of the UASB reactor were conducted. Results indicated that the conversion capacity of the microbial is decided by the substrate characteristic when sole VFA is used as the only substrate. But when mixed substrates are used,the conversion regulations would have changed accordingly. Relationships of different substrates vary according to their locations. In the whole reactor, propionate's conversion is restrained by acetate and butyrate of high concentration. On the top and at the bottom of the reactor, conversion of acetate, but butyrate, is restrained by propionate. And in the midst, acetate's conversion is accelerated by propionate while that of butyrate is restrained. It is proved, based on the analysis of specific conversion rate, that the space distribution of the microbe is the main factor that affects substrates' conversion. The ethanol-type fermentation of the acidogenic-phase is the optimal acid-type fermentation for the two-phase anaerobic process.

  8. Involvement of Sp1 in Butyric Acid-Induced HIV-1 Gene Expression

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    Kenichi Imai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The ability of human immunodeficiency virus-1(HIV-1 to establish latent infection and its re-activation is considered critical for progression of HIV-1 infection. We previously reported that a bacterial metabolite butyric acid, acting as a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs, could lead to induction of HIV-1 transcription; however, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of butyric acid on HIV-1 gene expression. Methods: Butyric acid-mediated HIV-1 gene expression was determined by luciferase assay and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Western blot analysis and ELISA were used for the detection of HIV-1. Results: We found that Sp1 binding sites within the HIV-1 promoter are primarily involved in butyric acid-mediated HIV-1 activation. In fact, Sp1 knockdown by small interfering RNA and the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A abolished the effect of butyric acid. We also observed that cAMP response element-binding-binding protein (CBP was required for butyric acid-induced HIV-1 activation. Conclusions: These results suggest that butyric acid stimulates HIV-1 promoter through inhibition of the Sp1-associated HDAC activity and recruitment of CBP to the HIV-1 LTR. Our findings suggest that Sp1 should be considered as one of therapeutic targets in anti-viral therapy against HIV-1 infection aggravated by butyric acid-producing bacteria.

  9. Butyric acid esterification kinetics over Amberlyst solid acid catalysts: the effect of alcohol carbon chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Venkata K S; Kanyi, Victor; Santhanakrishnan, Arati; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of butyric acid with a series of linear and branched alcohols is examined. Four strong cation exchange resins, Amberlyst™ 15, Amberlyst™ 36, Amberlyst™ BD 20, and Amberlyst™ 70, were used along with para-toluenesulfonic acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The effect of increasing alcohol carbon chain length and branching on esterification rate at 60°C is presented. For all catalysts, the decrease in turnover frequency (TOF) with increasing carbon chain length of the alcohol is described in terms of steric hindrance, alcohol polarity, and hydroxyl group concentration. The kinetics of butyric acid esterification with 2-ethylhexanol using Amberlyst™ 70 catalyst is described with an activity-based, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model that includes autocatalysis by butyric acid.

  10. Enhanced butyric acid tolerance and bioproduction by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Cai, Jin; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin; Yang, Shangtian; Li, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Repeated fed-batch fermentation of glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was successfully employed to produce butyric acid at a high final concentration as well as to adapt a butyric-acid-tolerant strain. At the end of the eighth fed-batch fermentation, the butyric acid concentration reached 86.9 ± 2.17 g/L, which to our knowledge is the highest butyric acid concentration ever produced in the traditional fermentation process. To understand the mechanism and factors contributing to the improved butyric acid production and enhanced acid tolerance, adapted strains were harvested from the FBB and characterized for their physiological properties, including specific growth rate, acid-forming enzymes, intracellular pH, membrane-bound ATPase and cell morphology. Compared with the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, the adapted culture showed significantly reduced inhibition effects of butyric acid on specific growth rate, cellular activities of butyric-acid-forming enzyme phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and ATPase, together with elevated intracellular pH, and elongated rod morphology.

  11. Effects of ptb knockout on butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Yu, Mingrui; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium that produces butyrate, acetate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide from various saccharides, including glucose and xylose. Phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) is a key enzyme in the butyric acid synthesis pathway. In this work, effects of ptb knockout by homologous recombination on metabolic flux and product distribution were investigated. When compared with the wild type, the activities of PTB and butyrate kinase in ptb knockout mutant decreased 76 and 42%, respectively; meanwhile, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase increased 7 and 29%, respectively. However, ptb knockout did not significantly reduce butyric acid production from glucose or xylose in batch fermentations. Instead, it increased acetic acid and hydrogen production 33.3-53.8% and ≈ 11%, respectively. Thus, the ptb knockout did increase the carbon flux toward acetate synthesis, resulting in a significant decrease (28-35% reduction) in the butyrate/acetate ratio in ptb mutant fermentations. In addition, the mutant displayed a higher specific growth rate (0.20 h(-1) vs. 0.15 h(-1) on glucose and 0.14 h(-1) vs. 0.10 h(-1) on xylose) and tolerance to butyric acid. Consequently, batch fermentation with the mutant gave higher fermentation rate and productivities (26-48% increase for butyrate, 81-100% increase for acetate, and 38-46% increase for hydrogen). This mutant thus can be used more efficiently than the parental strain in fermentations to produce butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen from glucose and xylose.

  12. Micropatterned polyvinyl butyral membrane for acid-base diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszol, László; Lawson, Thuy; Koncz, Viktória; Noszticzius, Zoltán; Wittmann, Maria; Sarkadi, Tamás; Koppa, Pál

    2010-11-04

    Until now, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel cylinders have been used in electrolyte diodes as a connecting element between the acidic and alkaline reservoirs. In this paper, a new connecting element is reported: a breath figure templated polyvinyl butyral (PVB) membrane prepared with dip-coating from a dichloromethane solution of the polymer in a humid atmosphere. The procedure gives a 1.5-2 μm thick membrane with a hexagonal pattern, the average characteristic length of which is 1 μm. After an acidic etching, it was found to be a good connecting element. The voltage-current characteristics and dynamic properties of PVA and PVB were measured and compared. The PVB membrane has a faster response to voltage changes than the PVA gel, but in both cases, there was a slow drift in the current that prevented it from reaching a steady state. Reproducible characteristics can be obtained, however, after the current reaches a well-defined quasi-steady state.

  13. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guo-qing; KONG Qing; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB.

  14. Anticarcinogenic actions of tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidor, Renato; Ortega, Juliana Festa; de Conti, Aline; Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2012-12-01

    Bioactive food compounds (BFCs) exhibit potential anticarcinogenic effects that deserve to be explored. Butyric acid (BA) is considered a promising BFC and has been used in clinical trials; however, its short half-life considerably restricts its therapeutic application. Tributyrin (TB), a BA prodrug present in milk fat and honey, has more favorable pharmacokinetic properties than BA, and its oral administration is also better tolerated. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that TB acts on multiple anticancer cellular and molecular targets without affecting non-cancerous cells. Among the TB mechanisms of action, the induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation and the modulation of epigenetic mechanisms are notable. Due to its anticarcinogenic potential, strategies as lipid emulsions, nanoparticles, or structured lipids containing TB are currently being developed to improve its organoleptic characteristics and bioavailability. In addition, TB has minimal toxicity, making it an excellent candidate for combination therapy with other agents for the control of cancer. Despite the lack of data available in the literature, TB is a promising molecule for anticancer strategies. Therefore, additional preclinical and clinical studies should be performed using TB to elucidate its molecular targets and anticarcinogenic potential.

  15. Stimulation of butyrate production by gluconic acid in batch culture of pig cecal digesta and identification of butyrate-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Koyama, Hironari; Okada, Masaaki; Ushida, Kazunari

    2002-08-01

    Gluconic acid reaches the large intestine to stimulate lactic acid bacteria. However, the fermentation pattern of gluconic acid has yet to be elucidated. Accordingly, we examined the fermentation properties induced by gluconic acid in the pig cecal digesta in vitro. We also tested sorbitol and glucose, substrates for which the fermentation rate and patterns are known. The gluconic acid-utilizing bacteria were further isolated from pig cecal digesta and identified to examine the effect of gluconic acid on hind gut fermentation. Gluconic acid was fermented more slowly than were the other two substrates. Gluconic acid stimulated butyrate production; the butyrate molar percentage reached 26%, which is considered a high butyrate production. The majority of gluconic acid fermenters were identified as lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus reuteri and L. mucosae, and acid-utilizing bacteria, such as Megasphaera elsdenii and Mitsuokella multiacida. The gluconic acid fermented by lactic acid bacteria, and the lactate and acetate that were produced were used to form butyrate by acid-utilizing bacteria, such as M. elsdenii. Gluconic acid may be useful as a prebiotic to stimulate butyrate production in the large intestine.

  16. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways.

  17. Adaptation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced tolerance to butyric acid in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2003-01-01

    By immobilization in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB), we succeeded in adapting and selecting an acid-tolerant strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that can produce high concentrations of butyrate from glucose and xylose. This mutant grew well under high butyrate concentrations (>30 g/L) and had better fermentative ability as compared to the wild-type strain used to seed the bioreactor. Kinetic analysis of butyrate inhibition on cell growth, acid-forming enzymes, and ATPase activity showed that the adapted cells from the FBB are physiologically different from the original wild type. Compared to the wild type, the adapted culture's maximum specific growth rate increased by 2.3-fold and its growth tolerance to butyrate inhibition increased by 29-fold. The key enzymes in the butyrate-forming pathway, phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and butyrate kinase (BK), were also more active in the mutant, with 175% higher PTB and 146% higher BK activities. Also, the mutant's ATPase was less sensitive to inhibition by butyric acid, as indicated by a 4-fold increase in the inhibition rate constant, and was more resistant to the enzyme inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). The lower ATPase sensitivity to butyrate inhibition might have contributed to the increased growth tolerance to butyrate inhibition, which also might be attributed to the higher percentage of saturated fatty acids in the membrane phospholipids (74% in the mutant vs 69% in the wild type). This study shows that cell immobilization in the FBB provides an effective means for in-process adaptation and selection of mutant with higher tolerance to inhibitory fermentation product.

  18. Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Vaseji

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. Butyric acid concentrations have positive impact on the quality control of milk, yogurt and other probiotic dairy products. The present investigation was undertaken to determine and compare the concentrations of butyric acid (C4 in the ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples by GC method.Materials and Methods: Probiotic yogurt samples were prepared under laboratory scale conditions using two different commercial starters ABY1 and 211, while ordinary yogurt samples lacked the probiotic starter cultures. All samples were analyzed in duplicate, for C4 concentrations by gas chromatography after day 1, 2, 10 and 20 of production, during storage at 4ºC. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan test.Results: The level of the mentioned fatty acid in ABY1 yogurt sample was significantly higher (0.2% than in 211 samples (0.17%. These values were significantly lower in ordinary yogurt samples and only 0.07% was recorded in these samples on first day of storage which decreased gradually during storage. The level of reduction in the yogurt samples tested during different time intervals was not similar in all the examined samples, and some showed enhanced reduction than other samples.Conclusions: Compared to ordinary yogurt samples, probiotic yogurt samples used in study showed higher levels of butyric acid with increased shelf life.

  19. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-09-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l(-1) of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v(-1) ) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60-80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g(-1) of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9-1.0 g g(-1) of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7.

  20. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqing; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Leathers, Timothy D; Qureshi, Nasib; Rich, Joseph O; Hughes, Stephen R

    2013-09-01

    A novel Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213 was found producing butyrate under strict anaerobic conditions. This strain produced 9.47 g L(-1) butyric acid from MRS media (0.48 g/g glucose). RPT-4213 was also used to ferment dilute acid pretreated hydrolysates including wheat straw (WSH), corn fiber (CFH), corn stover (CSH), rice hull (RHH), and switchgrass (SGH). Results indicated that 50% WSH with a Clostridia medium (Ct) produced the most butyric acid (8.06 g L(-1), 0.46 g/g glucose), followed by 50% SGH with Ct (6.01 g L(-1), 0.44 g/g glucose), however, 50% CSH Ct showed growth inhibition. RPT-4213 was then used in pH-controlled bioreactor fermentations using 60% WSH and SGH, with a dilute (0.5×) Ct medium, resulting 9.87 g L(-1) butyric acid in WSH (yield 0.44 g/g) and 7.05 g L(-1) butyric acid in SGH (yield 0.42 g/g). The titer and productivity could be improved through process engineering.

  1. Consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production from rice straw with undefined mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binling Ai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L•d. In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41% and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for enhanced production of butyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Woo, Hee Moon; Im, Jung Ae; Kim, In Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-11-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum has been considered as an attractive platform host for biorefinery due to its metabolic diversity. Considering its capability to overproduce butanol through butyrate, it was thought that butyric acid can also be efficiently produced by this bacterium through metabolic engineering. The pta-ctfB-deficient C. acetobutylicum CEKW, in which genes encoding phosphotransacetylase and CoA-transferase were knocked out, was assessed for its potential as a butyric acid producer in fermentations with four controlled pH values at 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 6.4. Butyric acid could be best produced by fermentation of the CEKW at pH 6.0, resulting in the highest titer of 26.6 g/l, which is 6.4 times higher than that obtained with the wild type. However, due to the remaining solventogenic ability of the CEKW, 3.6 g/l solvents were also produced. Thus, the CEKW was further engineered by knocking out the adhE1-encoding aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent solvent production. Batch fermentation of the resulting C. acetobutylicum HCEKW at pH 6.0 showed increased butyric acid production to 30.8 g/l with a ratio of butyric-to-acetic acid (BA/AA) of 6.6 g/g and a productivity of 0.72 g/l/h from 86.9 g/l glucose, while negligible solvent (0.8 g/l ethanol only) was produced. The butyric acid titer, BA/AA ratio, and productivity obtained in this study were the highest values reported for C. acetobutylicum, and the BA/AA ratio and productivity were also comparable to those of native butyric acid producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum. These results suggested that the simultaneous deletion of the pta-ctfB-adhE1 in C. acetobutylicum resulted in metabolic switch from biphasic to acidogenic fermentation, which enhanced butyric acid production.

  3. Butyric acid fermentation from pre-treated wheat straw by a mutant clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter;

    ’s platform for a variety of products for industrial use. Butyric acid is considered as a potential chemical building-block for the production of chemicals for e.g. polymeric compounds and the aim of this work was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces less acetic...... acid (higher selectivity), has a higher yield and a higher productivity of butyric acid from pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass. Pre-treated wheat straw was used as the main carbon source. After one year of serial adaptation and selection a mutant strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. This new...

  4. Efficient production of butyric acid from Jerusalem artichoke by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Cai, Jin; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Huang, Lei; Yang, Shang-Tian; Xu, Zhinan

    2011-02-01

    Butyric acid is an important specialty chemical with wide industrial applications. The feasible large-scale fermentation for the economical production of butyric acid requires low-cost substrate and efficient process. In the present study, butyric acid production by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully performed in a fibrous-bed bioreactor using Jerusalem artichoke as the substrate. Repeated-batch fermentation was carried out to produce butyric acid with a high butyrate yield (0.44 g/g), high productivity (2.75 g/L/h) and a butyrate concentration of 27.5 g/L. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using sulfuric acid pretreated Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate resulted in a high butyric acid concentration of 60.4 g/L, with the yield of 0.38 g/g and the selectivity of ∼ 85.1 (85.1g butyric acid/g acetic acid). Thus, the production of butyric acid from Jerusalem artichoke on a commercial scale could be achieved based on the system developed in this work.

  5. Extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zetang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2003-04-05

    A novel extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose, using immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous bed bioreactor, was developed by using 10% (v/v) Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol as the extractant contained in a hollow-fiber membrane extractor for selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The extractant was simultaneously regenerated by stripping with NaOH in a second membrane extractor. The fermentation pH was self-regulated by a balance between acid production and removal by extraction, and was kept at approximately pH 5.5 throughout the study. Compared with conventional fermentation, extractive fermentation resulted in a much higher product concentration (>300 g/L) and product purity (91%). It also resulted in higher reactor productivity (7.37 g/L. h) and butyric acid yield (0.45 g/g). Without on-line extraction to remove the acid products, at the optimal pH of 6.0, the final butyric acid concentration was only approximately 43.4 g/L, butyric acid yield was 0.423 g/g, and reactor productivity was 6.77 g/L. h. These values were much lower at pH 5.5: 20.4 g/L, 0.38 g/g, and 5.11 g/L. h, respectively. The improved performance for extractive fermentation can be attributed to the reduced product inhibition by selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The solvent was found to be toxic to free cells in suspension, but not harmful to cells immobilized in the fibrous bed. The process was stable and provided consistent long-term performance for the entire 2-week period of study.

  6. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, David E. [Environmental Energy Inc., Blacklick, OH (United States); Yang, Shang-Tian [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2005-08-25

    prices as a chemical are at $3.00 per gallon – wholesaling in 55 gallon drums for $6.80, with a worldwide market of 1.4 billion gallon per year. The market demand is expected to increase dramatically since butanol can now be produced economically from low-cost biomass. Butanol’s application as a replacement for gasoline will outpace ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen when its safety and simplicity of use are seen. Butanol’s application for the Department of Defense as a clean-safe replacement for batteries when used in conjunction with fuel cell technology is seen as an application for the future. Disposable canisters made of PLA that carry butanol to be reformed and used to generate electricity for computers, night vision and stealth equipment can be easily disposed of. In a typical ABE fermentation, butyric, propionic and acetic acids are produced first by C. acetobutylicum; the culture then undergoes a metabolic shift and solvents (butanol, acetone, and ethanol) are formed (Fond et al., 1985). In conventional ABE fermentations, the butanol yield from glucose is low, typically at ~15% (w/w) and rarely exceeds 25% (0.77–1.3 gallons per bushel corn respectfully). The production of butanol is also limited by severe product inhibition. Butanol at a concentration of 10 g/L can significantly inhibit cell growth and the fermentation. Consequently, butanol titers in conventional ABE fermentations are usually lower than 13 g/L. The low butanol yield and butanol concentration made butanol production from glucose by ABE fermentation uneconomical.

  7. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed.

  8. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased

  9. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1).

  10. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  11. Concentrations of butyric acid bacteria spores in silage and relationships with aerobic deterioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Germination and growth of spores of butyric acid bacteria ( BAB) may cause severe defects in semihard cheeses. Silage is the main source of BAB spores in cheese milk. The objectives of the study were to determine the significance of grass silages and corn silages as sources of BAB spores and to inve

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Butyric Acid Producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain CIP I-776 (IFP923).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasels, François; Clément, Benjamin; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2016-03-03

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CIP I-776 (IFP923), an efficient producer of butyric acid. The genome consists of a single chromosome of 3.19 Mb and provides useful data concerning the metabolic capacities of the strain.

  13. Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, a Butyric Acid-Overproducing Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Zhu, Liying; Xu, Xian; Li, Yanping; Li, Shuang; Huang, He

    2013-05-30

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an efficient producer of butyric acid. Here we report a 3.01-Mb assembly of its genome sequence and other useful information, including the coding sequences (CDSs) responsible for an alternative pathway leading to acetate synthesis as well as a series of membrane transport systems.

  14. Minimizing the level of butyric acid bacteria spores in farm tank milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    A year-long survey of 24 dairy farms was conducted to determine the effects of farm management on the concentrations of butyric acid bacteria (BAB) spores in farm tank milk (FTM). The results were used to validate a control strategy derived from model simulations. The BAB spore concentrations were m

  15. Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, a Butyric Acid-Overproducing Strain

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an efficient producer of butyric acid. Here we report a 3.01-Mb assembly of its genome sequence and other useful information, including the coding sequences (CDSs) responsible for an alternative pathway leading to acetate synthesis as well as a series of membrane transport systems.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Butyric Acid Producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain CIP I-776 (IFP923)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CIP I-776 (IFP923), an efficient producer of butyric acid. The genome consists of a single chromosome of 3.19 Mb and provides useful data concerning the metabolic capacities of the strain.

  17. Improving farm management by modeling the contamination of farm tank milk with butyric acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, te M.C.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Control of contamination of farm tank milk (FTM) with the spore-forming butyric acid bacteria (BAB) is important to prevent the late-blowing defect in semi-hard cheeses. The risk of late blowing can be decreased via control of the contamination level of FTM with BAB. A modeling approach was applied

  18. Butyric acid glycerides in the diet of broiler chickens: effects on gut histology and carcass composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Martini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to verify the effects of butyric acid glycerides, as a supplemental ingredient in the diet, on live performance of broiler chickens and on the morphology of their small intestine, since short chain fatty acids are known as selective protection factors against intestinal microbial parasites, potent growth promoters of the gut wall tissues, also in terms of immune modulation response. An experiment was carried out on 150 Ross 308 female chickens, allotted to 5 treatments, over a 35 d ays period: the control, with soybean oil as the energy supplement, and 4 treatments with increasing amounts (0.2, 0.35, 0.5, 1% mixed feed of a mixture of butyric acid glycerides (mono-, di- and tri- glycerides. Treated animals showed a higher live weight at slaughtering (P<0.05 with a better feed conversion rate. The carcase characteristics were not influenced, but the small intestine wall resulted slightly modified with shorter villi, longer microvilli (P<0.01 and larger crypts depth in jejunum (P<0.01, only with lowest concentration of the supplement (0.2%. It is concluded that butyric acid glycerides are an efficient supplement to broilers’ diets, deserving particular attention as a possible alternative to antimicrobial drugs, which have been banned in Europe.

  19. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolyzed wheat straw by C.tyrobutyricum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Westermann, Peter; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    and xylose at a concentration of 71,6±0,2 g/l and 55,4±0,2 g/l respectively, with TS content 20,87% (g/g). From an economical point of view, the conversion of both sugars is very important. In fact C.tyrobutyricum has the capability to convert both hexose and pentose sugars. Results from batch experiments......Butyric acid fermentation has long been discussed in the last decade due to the wide application of butyric acid in chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Among other microbial strains, C.tyrobutyricum was found interesting due to its higher yield (more than 93% of the theoretical yield...

  20. Production of butyric acid from glucose and xylose with immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2010-01-01

    Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 was immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor to evaluate the performance of butyrate production from glucose and xylose. The results showed that the final concentration and yield of butyric acid were 13.70 and 0.46 g g(-1), respectively, in batch fermentation when 30 g L(-1) glucose was introduced into the bioreactor. Furthermore, high concentration 10.10 g L(-1) and yield 0.40 g g(-1) of butyric acid were obtained with 25 g L(-1) xylose as the carbon source. The immobilized cells of C. tyrobutyricum ensured similar productivity and yield from repeated batch fermentation. In the fed-batch fermentation, the final concentration of butyric acid was further improved to 24.88 g L(-1) with one suitable glucose feeding in the fibrous-bed bioreactor. C. tyrobutyricum immobilized in the fibrous-bed bioreactor would provide an economically viable fermentation process to convert the reducing sugars derived from plant biomass into the final bulk chemical (butyric acid).

  1. Liquid - liquid equilibria of the water + butyric acid + decanol ternary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Kirbaslar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data for the water + butyric acid + decanol ternary system were determined experimentally at temperatures of 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining the solubility curve and the tie lines. The reliability of the experimental tie line data was confirmed with the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC method was used to predict the phase equilibrium of the system using the interaction parameters for groups CH3, CH2, COOH, OH and H2O determined experimentally. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  2. Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids increase the rate of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Rumberger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA on rates of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Prolonged treatment with butyrate (5 mM increased the rate of lipolysis approximately 2–3-fold. Aminobutyric acid and acetate had little or no effect on lipolysis, however propionate stimulated lipolysis, suggesting that butyrate and propionate act through their shared activity as histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors. Consistent with this, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (1 µM also stimulated lipolysis to a similar extent as did butyrate. Western blot data suggested that neither mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation nor perilipin down-regulation are necessary for SCFA-induced lipolysis. Stimulation of lipolysis with butyrate and trichostatin A was glucose-dependent. Changes in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation mediated by glucose were independent of changes in rates of lipolysis. The glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetate prevented both butyrate- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-(TNF-α mediated increases in rates of lipolysis indicating glucose metabolism is required. However, unlike TNF-α– , butyrate-stimulated lipolysis was not associated with increased lactate release or inhibited by activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH with dichloroacetate. These data demonstrate an important relationship between lipolytic activity and reported HDAC inhibitory activity of butyrate, other short-chain fatty acids and trichostatin A. Given that HDAC inhibitors are presently being evaluated for the treatment of diabetes and other disorders, more work will be essential to determine if these effects on lipolysis are due to inhibition of HDAC.

  3. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; Psilage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake).

  4. Transport and Metabolism of the Endogenous Auxin Precursor lndole-3-Butyric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucia C. Strader; Bonnie Bartel

    2011-01-01

    T Plant growth and morphogenesis depend on the levels and distribution of the plant hormone auxin. Plants tightly regulate cellular levels of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Although the transporters that move IAA into and out of cells are well characterized and play important roles in development, little is known about the transport of IAA precursors. In this review, we discuss the accumulating evidence suggesting that the IAA precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is transported independently of the characterized IAA transport machinery along with the recent identification of specific IBA efflux carriers and enzymes suggested to metabolize IBA. These studies have revealed important roles for IBA in maintaining IAA levels and distribution within the plant to support normal development.

  5. Butyric acid production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Liu, Xiaoguang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-02-01

    A fermentation process using Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) was developed for butyric acid production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate. SCB was first treated with dilute acid and then hydrolyzed with cellulases. The hydrolysate containing glucose and xylose was used as carbon source for the fermentation without detoxification. The bacterium was able to grow at a specific growth rate of ∼0.06 h(-1) in media containing 15-20% (w/v) SCB in serum bottles. In batch cultures in the FBB, both glucose and xylose in the SCB hydrolysate were simultaneously converted to butyrate with a high yield (0.45-0.54 g/gsugar) and productivity (0.48-0.60 g/Lh). A final butyrate concentration of 20.9 g/L was obtained in a fed-batch culture, with an overall productivity of 0.51 g/Lh and butyrate yield of 0.48 g/g sugar consumed. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using SCB as a low-cost feedstock to produce butyric acid.

  6. Continuous Fermentation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum with Partial Cell Recycle as a Long-Term Strategy for Butyric Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar C. Clausen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In making alternative fuels from biomass feedstocks, the production of butyric acid is a key intermediate in the two-step production of butanol. The fermentation of glucose via Clostridium tyrobutyricum to butyric acid produces undesirable byproducts, including lactic acid and acetic acid, which significantly affect the butyric acid yield and productivity. This paper focuses on the production of butyric acid using Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a partial cell recycle mode to improve fermenter yield and productivity. Experiments with fermentation in batch, continuous culture and continuous culture with partial cell recycle by ultrafiltration were conducted. The results show that a continuous fermentation can be sustained for more than 120 days, which is the first reported long-term production of butyric acid in a continuous operation. Further, the results also show that partial cell recycle via membrane ultrafiltration has a great influence on the selectivity and productivity of butyric acid, with an increase in selectivity from ≈9% to 95% butyric acid with productivities as high as 1.13 g/Lh. Continuous fermentation with low dilution rate and high cell recycle ratio has been found to be desirable for optimum productivity and selectivity toward butyric acid and a comprehensive model explaining this phenomenon is given.

  7. Construction and characterization of pta gene-deleted mutant of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Xiaoguang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2005-04-20

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium, producing butyrate and acetate as its main fermentation products. In order to decrease acetate and increase butyrate production, integrational mutagenesis was used to disrupt the gene associated with the acetate formation pathway in C. tyrobutyricum. A nonreplicative integrational plasmid containing the phosphotransacetylase gene (pta) fragment cloned from C. tyrobutyricum by using degenerate primers and an erythromycin resistance cassette were constructed and introduced into C. tyrobutyricum by electroporation. Integration of the plasmid into the homologous region on the chromosome inactivated the target pta gene and produced the pta-deleted mutant (PTA-Em), which was confirmed by Southern hybridization. SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis results indicated that protein expression was changed in the mutant. Enzyme activity assays using the cell lysate showed that the activities of PTA and acetate kinase (AK) in the mutant were reduced by more than 60% for PTA and 80% for AK. The mutant grew more slowly in batch fermentation with glucose as the substrate but produced 15% more butyrate and 14% less acetate as compared to the wild-type strain. Its butyrate productivity was approximately 2-fold higher than the wild-type strain. Moreover, the mutant showed much higher tolerance to butyrate inhibition, and the final butyrate concentration was improved by 68%. However, inactivation of pta gene did not completely eliminate acetate production in the fermentation, suggesting the existence of other enzymes (or pathways) also leading to acetate formation. This is the first-reported genetic engineering study demonstrating the feasibility of using a gene-inactivation technique to manipulate the acetic acid formation pathway in C. tyrobutyricum in order to improve butyric acid production from glucose.

  8. Construction and characterization of ack deleted mutant of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid and hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Ying; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2006-01-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum produces butyrate, acetate, H(2), and CO(2) as its main fermentation products from glucose and xylose. To improve butyric acid and hydrogen production, integrational mutagenesis was used to create a metabolically engineered mutant with inactivated ack gene, encoding acetate kinase (AK) associated with the acetate formation pathway. A non-replicative plasmid containing the acetate kinase gene (ack) fragment was constructed and introduced into C. tyrobutyricum by electroporation. Integration of the plasmid into the homologous region on the chromosome should inactivate the target ack gene and produce ack-deleted mutant, PAK-Em. Enzyme activity assays showed that the AK activity in PAK-Em decreased by approximately 50%; meanwhile, phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and hydrogenase activities each increased by approximately 40%. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that the expression of protein with approximately 32 kDa molecular mass was reduced significantly in the mutant. Compared to the wild type, the mutant grew more slowly at pH 6.0 and 37 degrees C, with a lower specific growth rate of 0.14 h(-1) (vs 0.21 h(-1) for the wild type), likely due to the partially impaired PTA-AK pathway. However, the mutant produced 23.5% more butyrate (0.42 vs 0.34 g/g glucose) at a higher final concentration of 41.7 g/L (vs 19.98 g/L) as a result of its higher butyrate tolerance as indicated in the growth kinetics study using various intial concentrations of butyrate in the media. The mutant also produced 50% more hydrogen (0.024 g/g) from glucose than the wild type. Immobilized-cell fermentation of PAK-Em in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) further increased the final butyric acid concentration (50.1 g/L) and the butyrate yield (0.45 g/g glucose). Furthermore, in the FBB fermentation at pH 5.0 with xylose as the substrate, only butyric acid was produced by the mutant, whereas the wild type produced large amounts

  9. Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid interaction with the transgenic flax fibers: FT-IR and Raman spectra of the composite extracted from a GM flax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Żuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-07-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman studies have been performed on commercial 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, commercial poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid as well as poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB) produced by bacteria. The data were compared to those obtained for poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid extracted from natural and genetically modified flax. Genetically modified flax was generated by expression of three bacterial genes coding for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid. Thus transgenic flaxes were enhanced with different amount of the PHB. The discussion of polymer structure and vibrational properties has been done in order to get insight into differences among these materials. The interaction between the cellulose of flax fibers and embedded poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid has been also discussed. The spectroscopic data provide evidences for structural changes in cellulose and in PHB when synthesized in fibers. Based on this data it is suggesting that cellulose and PHB interact by hydrogen and ester bonds.

  10. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp.

  11. Hepatic metabolism of anaesthetized growing pigs during acute portal infusion of volatile fatty acids and hydroxy-methyl butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    intervals and analyzed for contents of paraamino- hippuric acid (PAH; blood flow marker) and plasma metabolites. Total VFA was infused at a rate of 0 mmol/h (background; Inf1, Inf6), 60 mmol/h (Inf2) or 120 mmol/h (Inf3 to Inf5). Infused VFA contained 70, 20, and 5% of acetate, propionate, and butyrate......, respectively, for Inf2 and Inf3, or 65%, 20%, and 10% of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively, for Inf4 and Inf5. In addition, for Inf5, HMB was infused at 2 mmol/h. Statistical analysis included fixed effects of infusion and interaction between infusion and samplings within infusion while...... accounting for repeated measurements. A net hepatic uptake of propionate, butyrate, and lactate was observed, whereas the liver released acetate, glucose, and urea. The portal lactate absorption could not account for the net hepatic uptake of lactate, suggesting lactate originated from partial oxidation...

  12. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid.

  13. Butyric acid released during milk lipolysis triggers biofilm formation of Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasvolsky, Ronit; Zakin, Varda; Ostrova, Ievgeniia; Shemesh, Moshe

    2014-07-02

    Bacillus species form biofilms within milking pipelines and on surfaces of equipment in the dairy industry which represent a continuous hygiene problem and can lead to serious economic losses due to food spoilage and equipment impairment. Although much is known about the mechanism by which the model organism Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms in laboratory mediums in vitro, little is known of how these biofilms are formed in natural environments such as milk. Besides, little is known of the signaling pathways leading to biofilm formation in other Bacillus species, such as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis, both of which are known to contaminate milk. In this study, we report that milk triggers the formation of biofilm-related structures, termed bundles. We show this to be a conserved phenomenon among all Bacillus members tested. Moreover, we demonstrate that the tasA gene, which encodes a major portion of the matrix which holds the biofilm together, is vital for this process. Furthermore, we show that the free fatty acid (FFA) - butyric acid (BA), which is released during lipolysis of milk fat and demonstrates antimicrobial activity, is the potent trigger for biofilm bundle formation. We finally show that BA-triggered biofilm bundle formation is mediated by the histidine kinase, KinD. Taken together, these observations indicate that BA, which is a major FFA within milk triggers biofilm formation in a conserved mechanism among members of the Bacillus genus.

  14. Performance evaluation of biofilters and biotrickling filters in odor control of n-butyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Han, Zhiying; Wu, Weixiang; Shi, Dezhi; Chen, Yingxu; Li, Wenhong

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of swine production in China, odor pollution associated with piggery facilities has become an increasing environmental concern. N-butyric acid (n-BA) is one of the key odor compounds selected to represent volatile fatty acids (VFAs) found in piggery facilities. In this study, two biofilters (BFs) packed with compost (BFC) or sludge (BFS) and two biotrickling filters (BTFs) packed with pall rings (BTFP) or multidimensional hollow balls (BTFM), respectively, were compared with regard to their performances in the removal of n-BA. The non-biological removal capacities of packing material of the bioreactors on a per unit volume basis were BFS>BFC>BTFM>BTFP. Maximum biological removal capacities per unit volume of packing material of the bioreactors all exceeded 9.1 kg/m(3)·d and in the order of BFC>BTFM>BFS>BTFP. Kinetic analysis as well as overall evaluation by radar graphs showed that the BTFs achieved superior removal rates to the BFs in the order of BTFM>BTFP>BFC>BFS. The biotrickling filter packed with multidimensional hollow balls could be an effective technology for VFAs removal. Results from this research provide economical and effective alternatives for odor control in piggery facilities.

  15. Selective optimization in thermophilic acidogenesis of cheese-whey wastewater to acetic and butyric acids: partial acidification and methanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Keunyoung; Yu, Youngseob; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2003-05-01

    For partial acidogenesis of cheese-whey wastewater, a set of experiments were carried out to produce short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) in laboratory-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The maximum rate of acetic and butyric acid production associated with simultaneous changes in hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, and temperature was investigated, in which the degree of acidification of the whey to the short-chain VFAs was less than 20% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration. Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum physiological conditions where the maximum rates of acetic and butyric acid production occurred. These were 0.40-day HRT, pH 6.0 at 54.1 degrees C and 0.22-day HRT, pH 6.5 at 51.9 degrees C, respectively. The optimum conditions for acetic acid production were selected for partial acidification of cheese-whey wastewater because of a higher rate in combined productions of acetic and butyric acids than that at optimum conditions for butyric acid production. A thermophilic two-phase process with the partial acidification followed by a methanation step was operated. Performance of the two-phase process was compared to the single-phase anaerobic system. The two-phase process clearly showed a better performance in management of cheese-whey wastewater over the single-phase system. Maximum rate of COD removal and the rate of methane production in the two-phase process were, respectively, 116% and 43% higher than those of the single-phase system.

  16. Rhizogenic behavior of black pepper cultivars to indole-3-butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington Secundino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available regarding vegetative propagation of the species Piper nigrum L. to generate technical recommendations for the production of seedlings on a commercial scale. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rhizogenic behavior of cultivars of this species regarding indol-3-butyric acid (IBA. The experiment was performed at a vegetation house equipped with an intermittent nebulization irrigation system. The experimental site was located in the University Center of Northern Espírito Santo (CEUNES of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme: three cultivars (Bragantina, Iaçará and Guajarina x five IBA concentrations (0; 1,500; 3,000; 4,500 and 6,000 mg kg-1, with four repetitions of 16 cuttings each. Total immersion of the cuttings in IBA is recommended for the Iaçará and Guajarina cultivars, and immersion of only the basal region is recommended for cv. Bragantina. The recommended IBA concentration for these cultivars is 4,000 mg kg-1.

  17. ROOTING OF GUANANDI (Calophyllum brasiliense CAMBESS CUTTINGS USING INDOLE-BUTYRIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ciriello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial reforestation of Brazilian native species to produce hardwood for sawmills has been recently intensified in the country. Among the potential species planted by the logging industry is guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess because it is widely distributed in the country, highly adapted to different soil and climate conditions, good bole form and high quality timber. The development of genetic improvement programs should prioritize gains in productivity and yields in the medium and long term. For such programs to be successful, the study of vegetative propagation techniques to abbreviate steps in forest improvement and allow its mass production is fundamental. To assess the viability of vegetative propagation of the species, two successive experiments were carried out during two years testing the best type of cutting, hormone concentration and management. Different cuttings types submitted to increasing doses of indole-butyric acid (IBA were tested to evaluate survival, sprouting, rooting and callus formation. Results indicate that the species is viable for vegetative propagation with 85 to 90% rooting of cuttings from seedlings in the IBA concentrations of 3000 to 7000 mg.L-1. For the cuttings, sprouting from the base of adult trees 3000 mg.L-1 was the best concentration of IBA.

  18. Subclinical Ketosis on Dairy Cows in Transition Period in Farms with Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents in Silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05. As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake.

  19. Investigation of extraction fraction in confined impinging jet reactors for tri-butyl-phosphate extracting butyric acid process☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengming Gao; Manting Zhao; Yun Yu; Zhipeng Li; Jing Han

    2016-01-01

    The extraction fraction E and overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa of TBP extracting butyric acid pro-cess in confined impinging jet reactors (CIJR) with two jets were investigated. The main variables tested were the concentration of tri-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and butyric acid, the impinging velocity V, the impinging velocity ratio of two phases Vorg/Vaq, the nozzle inner diameter di and the distance L between the jet axes and the top wall of the impinging chamber. The results showed that E and kLa increase with an increase of the impinging ve-locity V, the concentration of TBP Corg, and the impinging velocity ratio Vorg/Vaq. However, E and kLa decrease with an increase of the inner diameter di from 1 to 2 mm, the concentration of butyric acid Caq from 0.5%(v/v) to 2%(v/v). The factor L ranging from 3 to 11 mm has a negligible effect on E and kLa. A correlation on these variables and kLa was proposed based on the experimental data. These results indicated good mass transfer performance of CIJR in the extraction operation.

  20. A survey on anticancer effects of artemisinin, iron, miconazole, and butyric acid on 5637 (bladder cancer and 4T1 (Breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Shahbazfar

    2014-01-01

    The groups treated with miconazole showed identical changes, with less severity compared to combination therapy groups. In butyric acid-treated groups, the only detectable changes were, mild cell swelling, few apoptosis, and rare necrosis. Conclusions: A combination therapy with artemisinin can be more effective against cancer cells than monotherapy with that. Butyric acid was not effective on cancer cells. Miconazole deviated the nature of cell death from apoptosis to necrosis and it must be used under caution.

  1. Effect of Indole Butyric Acid on the Transportation of Stored Calcium in Malus hupehensis Rhed. Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; YANG Hong-qiang; YAN Tian-li; SHU Huai-rui

    2006-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the metabolism of higher plants. Recently, research on Ca2+ in plants has been focused especially at the cellular and molecular levels. Uptake, transport, and distribution are also very important for Ca to accomplish its function at the whole-plant level. In this experiment, one-year-old apple seedlings (M. hupehensis Rehd.) were investigated to determine the distribution of stored Ca, the different forms of Ca, and Ca2+-ATPase activity after treatment with indole butyric acid (IBA). The results showed that the total Ca measured in mature leaves and Ca2+-ATPase activity in tender leaves were higher compared with those in the control (CK). Calcium nitrate and calcium chloride (ALe-Ca) and calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate (HAC-Ca) decreased in both mature leaves and shoots,whereas water-soluble calcium (H2O-Ca), calcium pectate (NaCl-Ca), and calcium oxalate (HCl-Ca) increased. The percentage of active calcium, calcium pectate, and water-soluble calcium increased, whereas the percentage of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate decreased. When treated with IBA, calcium fractions and percentage of the different forms of Ca was enhanced in 40 part per million (ppm) IBA compared with 20 ppm IBA and water. The results indicated that IBA increased the percentage of both active calcium (NaCl-Ca and H2O-Ca) in tender shoots and boosted the transportation of stored Ca in plants. IBA promoted Ca2+-ATPase activity and Ca2+ uptake in tender shoots of M. hupehensis. It can improve the total Ca contents and the relative percentage of Ca.

  2. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  3. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively.

  4. Continuous fermentation and in-situ reed separation of butyric acid for higher sugar consumption rate and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter;

    fermentation coupled with Reverse Enhanced Electro-Dialysis (REED) at D=0.0417 h-1 (1 day HRT) in experiments with a mixture of glucose and xylose in synthetic growth medium as well as with increasing concentrations of PHWS (up to 100%). Data obtained from experiments with synthetic medium showed......) and resulted in a butyric acid productivity and yield of 1.31g/L/h and 0.44 g/g, respectively at 1 day HRT. Acknowledgements: This work is a part of EU-7th Framework programme supported project SUPRABIO (FP7-cooperationproject no 241640)....

  5. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23-0.99 U mg(-1) protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg(-1) protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24-7.64 U mg(-1) protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities.

  6. Comparison of the effects of high energy carbon heavy ion irradiation and Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. on biosynthesis butyric acid efficiency in Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Shu-Yang; Lu, Xi-Hong; Liang, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of butyric acid. In this work, using high-energy carbon heavy ion irradiated C. tyrobutyricum, then butyric acid fermentation using glucose or alkali and acid pretreatments of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. as a carbon source was carried out. Initially, the modes at pH 5.7-6.5 and 37°C were compared using a model medium containing glucose as a carbon source. When the 72gL(-1) glucose concentration was found to be the highest yield, the maximum butyric acid production from glucose increased significantly, from 24gL(-1) for the wild type strains to 37gL(-1) for the strain irradiated at 126AMeV and a dose of 35Gy and a 10(7)ions/pulse. By feeding 100gL(-1) acid pretreatments of E. ulmoides Oliv. into the fermentations, butyrate yields (5.8gL(-1)) and butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio (4.32) were achieved.

  7. Hepatic metabolism of anaesthetized growing pigs during acute portal infusion of volatile fatty acids and hydroxy-methyl butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of the experiment was to study hepatic metabolism during infusion of volatile fatty acids (VFA) differing in amounts and composition or infusion of HMB. Three fasted (20 h) pigs (mean BW ± SE; 58 kg ± 1) were fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein...... intervals and analyzed for contents of paraamino- hippuric acid (PAH; blood flow marker) and plasma metabolites. Total VFA was infused at a rate of 0 mmol/h (background; Inf1, Inf6), 60 mmol/h (Inf2) or 120 mmol/h (Inf3 to Inf5). Infused VFA contained 70, 20, and 5% of acetate, propionate, and butyrate......, respectively, for Inf2 and Inf3, or 65%, 20%, and 10% of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively, for Inf4 and Inf5. In addition, for Inf5, HMB was infused at 2 mmol/h. Statistical analysis included fixed effects of infusion and interaction between infusion and samplings within infusion while...

  8. A probe on the intermolecular forces in diisopropyl ether-n-butyric acid mixture by dielectric, FTIR studies and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, G; Shanmugam, R; Elangovan, A

    2013-03-15

    The results of FTIR spectral measurement on equimolar diisopropyl ether-butyric acid binary mixture and quantum chemical calculations on the complex molecule have been presented. Dielectric studies have been carried out on the binary mixture over the entire composition range and at four different temperatures 303 K, 308 K, 313 K and 318 K. n-Butyric acid seems to prefer less polar ether to interact with it. It appears that the usual interpretation of variation of static dielectric constant and positive deviation of excess permittivity from ideal mixture behavior needs to be relooked.

  9. Fermentation of sweet sorghum derived sugars to butyric acid at high titer and productivity by a moderate thermophile Clostridium thermobutyricum at 50°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Ou, Mark S; Nieves, Ismael; Erickson, John E; Vermerris, Wilfred; Ingram, L O; Shanmugam, K T

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a moderate thermophile Clostridium thermobutyricum is shown to ferment the sugars in sweet sorghum juice treated with invertase and supplemented with tryptone (10 g L(-1)) and yeast extract (10 g L(-1)) at 50°C to 44 g L(-1) butyrate at a calculated highest volumetric productivity of 1.45 g L(-1)h(-1) (molar butyrate yield of 0.85 based on sugars fermented). This volumetric productivity is among the highest reported for batch fermentations. Sugars from acid and enzyme-treated sweet sorghum bagasse were also fermented to butyrate by this organism with a molar yield of 0.81 (based on the amount of cellulose and hemicellulose). By combining the results from juice and bagasse, the calculated yield of butyric acid is approximately 90 kg per tonne of fresh sweet sorghum stalk. This study demonstrates that C. thermobutyricum can be an effective microbial biocatalyst for production of bio-based butyrate from renewable feedstocks at 50°C.

  10. Photovoltaic Properties of Poly (3-Hexylthiophene: [6, 6]-Phenyl C61-Butyric Acid 3-Ethylthiophene Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Omer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated and studied the electrical and photovoltaic properties of organic solar cell based on poly (3-hexylthiophene (P3HT as an electron donor blended with the acceptor [6, 6]-Phenyl C61-Butyric Acid 3-Ethylthiophene Ester (modified fullerene. The active layer composed of (3:1, w/w mixture of P3HT and the modified fullerene was sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO and aluminum (Al. The ideality factor n and barrier hight b values were determined from the dark current density-voltage characteristics and found as 2.45 and 0.78 eV, respectively. The device shows photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage of 400 mV, short circuit current of 22.9 A/cm2 and fill factor 0.32 under 2.8 mW/cm2 light intensity.

  11. Radiation-sensitive indicator based on radiation-chemical formation of acids in polyvinyl butyral films containing chloral hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Atef A.; El-Kelany, M.

    1998-03-01

    Radiation-sensitive indicators based on dyed polyvinyl butyral (PVB) containing acid-sensitive dye (bromophenol blue, BPB) and chloral hydrate (CCl 3CH(OH) 2, 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1, 1-diol) have been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo colour change from blue (the alkaline form of BPB) to yellow (the acidic form of BPB), indicating acid formation. The concentration of radiation-formed acids in the films containing different concentrations of chloral hydrate was calculated at different doses. The kinetics of the acid-formation reaction is discussed, indicating a half-order reaction with respect to chloral hydrate concentration. These films can be used as dosimeters for food irradiation applications where the maxima of the useful dose ranges are between 1 and 4 kGy depending on chloral hydrate concentration in the film. The response of these films depends on temperature during irradiation; therefore a correction should be applied. These films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the intermediate range of relative humidity from 10 to 70% as well as good post-irradiation stability when stored in the dark at room temperature.

  12. The use of high pressure CO2 -facilitated pH swings to enhance in situ product recovery of butyric acid in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric C; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    Through the use of high partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2 ) to facilitate temporary pH reductions in two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs), improved pH dependent partitioning of butyric acid was observed which achieved in situ product recovery (ISPR), alleviating end-product inhibition (EPI) during the production of butyric acid by Clostridium tyrobutyricum (ATCC 25755). Through high pressure pCO2 studies, media buffering effects were shown to be substantially overcome at 60 bar pCO2 , resulting in effective extraction of the organic acid by the absorptive polymer Pebax® 2533, yielding a distribution coefficient (D) of 2.4 ± 0.1 after 1 h of contact at this pressure. Importantly, it was also found that C. tyrobutyricum cultures were able to withstand 60 bar pCO2 for 1 h with no decrease in growth ability when returned to atmospheric pressure in batch reactors after several extraction cycles. A fed-batch reactor with cyclic high pCO2 polymer extraction recovered 92 g of butyric acid to produce a total of 213 g compared to 121 g generated in a control reactor. This recovery reduced EPI in the TPPB, resulting in both higher productivity (0.65 vs. 0.33 g L(-1)  h(-1) ) and yield (0.54 vs. 0.40). Fortuitously, it was also found that repeated high pCO2 -facilitated polymer extractions of butyric acid during batch growth of C. tyrobutyricum lessened the need for pH control, and reduced base requirements by approximately 50%. Thus, high pCO2 -mediated absorptive polymer extraction presents a novel method for improving process performance in butyric acid fermentation, and this technique could be applied to the bioproduction of other organic acids as well.

  13. First European Report of Social Wasps Trapped in Response to Acetic acid, Isobutanol, 2-Methyl-2-propanol, and Heptyl butyrate in Tests Conducted in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of social wasps were captured in trapping tests in Hungary that evaluated the attractiveness of acetic acid, isobutanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, and heptyl butyrate to social wasps. Both Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (Fabr.), were captured in traps baited with isobutanol, t...

  14. Origin of the enhanced performance in poly(3-hexylthiophene) : [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester solar cells upon slow drying of the active layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihailetchi, Valentin D.; Xie, Hangxing; Boer, Bert de; Popescu, Lacramioara M.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Blom, Paul W.M.; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    2006-01-01

    The origin of the enhanced performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on slowly dried films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester is investigated, combining charge transport measurements with numerical device simulations. Slow drying leads to a 33

  15. Demonstration of in situ product recovery of butyric acid via CO2 -facilitated pH swings and medium development in two-phase partitioning bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric C; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Production of organic acids in solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) is challenging, and highly pH-dependent, as cell growth occurs near neutral pH, while acid sorption occurs only at low pH conditions. CO2 sparging was used to achieve acidic pH swings, facilitating undissociated organic acid uptake without generating osmotic stress inherent in traditional acid/base pH control. A modified cultivation medium was formulated to permit greater pH reduction by CO2 sparging (pH 4.8) compared to typical media (pH 5.3), while still possessing adequate nutrients for extensive cell growth. In situ product recovery (ISPR) of butyric acid (pKa = 4.8) produced by Clostridium tyrobutyricum was achieved through intermittent CO2 sparging while recycling reactor contents through a column packed with absorptive polymer Hytrel® 3078. This polymer was selected on the basis of its composition as a polyether copolymer, and the use of solubility parameters for predicting solute polymer affinity, and was found to have a partition coefficient for butyric acid of 3. Total polymeric extraction of 3.2 g butyric acid with no CO2 mediated pH swings was increased to 4.5 g via CO2 -facilitated pH shifting, despite the buffering capacity of butyric acid, which resists pH shifting. This work shows that CO2 -mediated pH swings have an observable positive effect on organic acid extraction, with improvements well over 150% under optimal conditions in early stage fermentation compared to CO2 -free controls, and this technique can be applied other organic acid fermentations to achieve or improve ISPR.

  16. Valproic acid and butyrate induce apoptosis in human cancer cells through inhibition of gene expression of Akt/protein kinase B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiao

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotic cells, the genomic DNA is packed with histones to form the nucleosome and chromatin structure. Reversible acetylation of the histone tails plays an important role in the control of specific gene expression. Mounting evidence has established that histone deacetylase inhibitors selectively induce cellular differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis in variety of cancer cells, making them a promising class of anticancer drugs. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer effects of these inhibitors have yet to be understood. Results Here, we report that a key determinant for the susceptibility of cancer cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors is their ability to maintain cellular Akt activity in response to the treatment. Also known as protein kinase B, Akt is an essential pro-survival factor in cell proliferation and is often deregulated during tumorigenesis. We show that histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as valproic acid and butyrate, impede Akt1 and Akt2 expression, which leads to Akt deactivation and apoptotic cell death. In addition, valproic acid and butyrate induce apoptosis through the caspase-dependent pathway. The activity of caspase-9 is robustly activated upon valproic acid or butyrate treatment. Constitutively active Akt is able to block the caspase activation and rescues cells from butyrate-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that although the primary target of histone deacetylase inhibitors is transcription, it is the capacity of cells to maintain cellular survival networks that determines their fate of survival.

  17. Growth inhibitory effect of 4-phenyl butyric acid on human gastric cancer cells is associated with cell cycle arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Zhu Li; Hong-Xia Deng; Wen-Zhu Lou; Xue-Yan Sun; Meng-Wan Song; Jing Tao; Bing-Xiu Xiao; Jun-Ming Guo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the growth effects of 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) on human gastric carcinoma cells and their mechanisms. METHODS: Moderately-differentiated human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 and lowly-differentiated MGC-803 cells were treated with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 μmol/L PBA for 1-4 d. Cell proliferation was detected using the MTT colorimetric assay. Cell cycle distributions were examined using flow cytometry. RESULTS: The proliferation of gastric carcinoma cells was inhibited by PBA in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Flow cytometry showed that SGC-7901 cells treated with low concentrations of PBA were arrested at the G0/G1 phase, whereas cells treated with high concentrations of PBA were arrested at the G2/M phase. Although MGC-803 cells treated with low concentrations of PBA were also arrested at the G0/G1 phase, cells treated with high concentrations of PBA were arrested at the S phase. CONCLUSION: The growth inhibitory effect of PBA on gastric cancer cells is associated with alteration of the cell cycle. For moderately-differentiated gastric cancer cells, the cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 and G2/M phases. For lowly-differentiated gastric cancer cells, the cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 and S phases.

  18. Upregulation of Na+,Cl--Coupled Betaine/ γ-Amino-Butyric Acid Transporter BGT1 by Tau Tubulin Kinase 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Almilaji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The serine/threonine kinase Tau-tubulin-kinase 2 (TTBK2 is expressed in various tissues including kidney, liver and brain. Loss of function mutations of TTBK2 lead to autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 11 (SCA11. Cell survival is fostered by cellular accumulation of organic osmolytes. Carriers accomplishing cellular accumulation of organic osmolytes include the Na+, Cl--coupled betaine/γ-amino-butyric acid transporter BGT1. The present study explored whether TTBK2 participates in the regulation of BGT1 activity. Methods: Electrogenic transport of GABA was determined in Xenopus oocytes expressing BGT1 with or without wild-type TTBK2, truncated TTBK2[1-450] or kinase inactive mutants TTBK2- KD and TTBK2[1-450]-KD. Results: Coexpression of wild-type TTBK2, but not of TTBK2[1-450], TTBK2-KD or TTBK2[1-450]-KD, increased electrogenic GABA transport. Wildtype TTBK2 increased the maximal transport rate without significantly modifying affinity of the carrier. Coexpression of wild-type TTBK2 significantly delayed the decline of transport following inhibition of carrier insertion with brefeldin A, indicating that wild-type TTBK2 increased carrier stability in the cell membrane. Conclusion: Tau-tubulin-kinase 2 TTBK2 is a powerful stimulator of the osmolyte and GABA transporter BGT1.

  19. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (Pcarbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet.

  20. Interactions between lead-zirconate titanate, polyacrylic acid, and polyvinyl butyral in ethanol and their influence on electrophoretic deposition behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscer, Danjela; Bakarič, Tina; Kozlevčar, Bojan; Kosec, Marija

    2013-02-14

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive method for the fabrication of a few tens of micrometer-thick piezoelectric layers on complex-shape substrates that are used for manufacturing high-frequency transducers. Niobium-doped lead-zirconate titanate (PZT Nb) particles were stabilized in ethanol using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). With Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), we found that the deprotonated carboxylic group from the PAA is coordinated with the metal in the perovskite PZT Nb structure, resulting in a stable ethanol-based suspension. The hydroxyl group from the polyvinyl butyral added into the suspension to prevent the formation of cracks in the as-deposited layer did not interact with the PAA-covered PZT Nb particles. PVB acts as a free polymer in ethanol-based suspensions. The electrophoretic deposition of micro- and nanometer-sized PZT Nb particles from ethanol-based suspensions onto electroded alumina substrates was attempted in order to obtain uniform, crack-free deposits. The interactions between the PZT Nb particles, the PAA, and the PVB in ethanol will be discussed and related to the properties of the suspensions, the deposition yield and the morphology of the as-deposited PZT Nb thick film.

  1. Homology modeling of human γ-butyric acid transporters and the binding of pro-drugs 5-aminolevulinic acid and methyl aminolevulinic acid used in photodynamic therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Baglo

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a safe and effective method currently used in the treatment of skin cancer. In ALA-based PDT, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, or ALA esters, are used as pro-drugs to induce the formation of the potent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX. Activation of PpIX by light causes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and toxic responses. Studies have indicated that ALA and its methyl ester (MAL are taken up into the cells via γ-butyric acid (GABA transporters (GATs. Uptake via GATs into peripheral sensory nerve endings may also account for one of the few adverse side effects of ALA-based PDT, namely pain. In the present study, homology models of the four human GAT subtypes were constructed using three x-ray crystal structures of the homologous leucine transporter (LeuT as templates. Binding of the native substrate GABA and the possible substrates ALA and MAL was investigated by molecular docking of the ligands into the central putative substrate binding sites in the outward-occluded GAT models. Electrostatic potentials (ESPs of the putative substrate translocation pathway of each subtype were calculated using the outward-open and inward-open homology models. Our results suggested that ALA is a substrate of all four GATs and that MAL is a substrate of GAT-2, GAT-3 and BGT-1. The ESP calculations indicated that differences likely exist in the entry pathway of the transporters (i.e. in outward-open conformations. Such differences may be exploited for development of inhibitors that selectively target specific GAT subtypes and the homology models may hence provide tools for design of therapeutic inhibitors that can be used to reduce ALA-induced pain.

  2. Vegetative propagation of Litsea monopetala, a wild tropical medicinal plant: Effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on stem cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarit Kumar Baul; Mohammad Mosharraf Hossain; Mohammad Mezbahuddin; bMohammed Mohiuddin

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the rooting ability and the growth performance of juvenile single-node leafy stem cuttings of Litsea mo- nopetala (Roxb) Pers. Collected from two mature mother trees preserved in the hill forest of Chittagong district, Bangladesh. The rooting ability of cuttings was studied under 0%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) treatments. Significantly better rooting response (p ≤ 0.05) was observed with 0.1% IBA compared to control (0% IBA). The mean number of roots and the length of the longest root of cuttings in different treatments showed no significant difference (P≤50.05). After transfer into polythane bags from non-mist propagator, rooted cuttings treated with 0%, 0.1% and 0.2% IBA demonstrated the highest (100 ± 0.00%) sur- vival capacity. The mean number of shoots developed in cuttings in the polythene bags in first three weeks varied significantly (p≤0.05) among the treatments. Effects of three fertilizer treatments, viz. T0 (no fertilizer), T1 (10g Urea, 20g TSP, 10g MOP dissolved in I L water) and T2 (10g Urea, 20g TSP, 10g MOP dissolved in 2 L water) on initial growth of stecklings were also measured over a 90-days period. The increment of leaf area of stecklings was significantly higher (p≤0.05) under T0 com- pared with that under T1 and T2 while the increment of stem length, collar diameter and root biomass varied insignificantly among different fertilizer treatments. The results suggest that rooting juvenile single-node leafy stem cuttings could be an effective mean of regenerating L. Mo- nopetala. The application of 0.1% IBA concentration is recommended for rooting of juvenile leafy stem cuttings and application of fertilizer appeared unnecessary for the subsequent growth of steeklings in poly- thene bags.

  3. Biochemical changes in barberries during adventitious root formation: the role of indole-3-butyric acid and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tehranifar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenolic compounds and total sugars (TS were investigated during root formation in cuttings of Berberis vulgaris var. asperma (BVA and Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea (BTA treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and IBA+H2O2. Rooting was observed on BTA cuttings but not on BVA cuttings. The BTA cuttings treated with IBA and IBA+H2O2 showed higher rooting percentages, number of roots, and root length over the control. Those treated with IBA+H2O2 recorded the lowest peroxidase activity after planting. BTA cuttings treated with IBA+H2O2 showed the highest peroxidase activity at 50 d after planting; BVA cuttings under different treatments showed no significant difference for peroxidase activity at planting time or up to 80 d after planting. PPO activity for the BTA cuttings in the control treatment was lower than for other treatments during root formation. The cuttings in the IBA and IBA+H2O2 treatments showed increased PPO activity from 0 to 50 d after planting and a slight decrease in PPO activity from 60 to 80 d after planting. PPO activity for the BVA cuttings was significantly lower than for BTA during root formation. The BTA cuttings treated with IBA and IBA+H2O2 showed the highest phenolic compound content during root formation. The BVA cuttings displayed higher TS than BTA during the initial stage of root formation. A comparison of the anatomical structure of easy-to-root and difficult-to-root cuttings indicated that physical inhibitors did not affect the rooting capacity of BVA.

  4. Plasmonic-based colorimetric and spectroscopic discrimination of acetic and butyric acids produced by different types of Escherichia coli through the different assembly structures formation of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Ju A; Lim, Sora; Park, Hyo Jeong; Heo, Min-Ji; Sang, Byoung-In; Oh, Min-Kyu; Cho, Eun Chul

    2016-08-24

    We present a plasmonic-based strategy for the colourimetric and spectroscopic differentiation of various organic acids produced by bacteria. The strategy is based on our discovery that particular concentrations of dl-lactic, acetic, and butyric acids induce different assembly structures, colours, and optical spectra of gold nanoparticles. We selected wild-type (K-12 W3110) and genetically-engineered (JHL61) Escherichia coli (E. coli) that are known to primarily produce acetic and butyric acid, respectively. Different assembly structures and optical properties of gold nanoparticles were observed when different organic acids, obtained after the removal of acid-producing bacteria, were mixed with gold nanoparticles. Moreover, at moderate cell concentrations of K-12 W3110 E. coli, which produce sufficient amounts of acetic acid to induce the assembly of gold nanoparticles, a direct estimate of the number of bacteria was possible based on time-course colour change observations of gold nanoparticle aqueous suspensions. The plasmonic-based colourimetric and spectroscopic methods described here may enable onsite testing for the identification of organic acids produced by bacteria and the estimation of bacterial numbers, which have applications in health and environmental sciences.

  5. Continuous hydrogen and butyric acid fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755: effects of the glucose concentration and hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert J; Kim, Ji-Seong; Jeon, Byung-Seung; Sang, Byoung-In

    2009-11-01

    The effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT=8, 10, 12 or 16.7 h) and glucose concentration (30, 40 or 50 g/L) on the production of hydrogen and butyrate by an immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum culture, grown under continuous culturing conditions, were evaluated. With 30 g/L glucose, the higher HRTs tested led to greater butyrate concentrations in the culture, i.e., 9.3 g/L versus 12.9 g/L with HRTs of 8 h and 16.7 h, respectively. In contrast, higher biogas and hydrogen production rates were generally seen when the HRT was lower. Experiments with different glucose concentrations saw a significant amount of glucose washed out when 50 g/L was used, the highest being 22.7 g/L when the HRT was 16.7 h. This study found the best conditions for the continuous production of hydrogen and butyric acid by C. tyrobutyricum to be with an HRT of 12 h and a glucose concentration of 50 g/L, respectively.

  6. Preparation of highly conjugated water-dispersible graphene-butyric acid for the enhancement of electron transfer within polyamic acid-benzoxazole: potential applications in electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Chen, Shi-Liang; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Hua, Mu-Yi

    2013-08-15

    To break through the long time and complex procedures for the preparation of highly conjugated reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) in developing electrochemical sensor, a time-saving and simple method is investigated in this study. One novel step of the exfoliated accompanying carboxylated graphene sheet from pristine is achieved via Friedel-Crafts acylation. By electrophilic aromatic substitution, the succinic anhydride ring is opened and attaches covalently to the graphene sheet (Gs) to form exfoliated graphene with grafted 1-one-butyric acid (Gs-BA). The grafting chain converts anions in aqueous solution to maintain Gs-BA in a stable dispersion and noticeably decreases the π-π stacking of the exfoliated Gs during the drying process. The analytical results of the absorption spectroscopy demonstrate that the conjugation of Gs-BA is not significantly destroyed by this chemical modification; Gs-BA retains the Gs electrical properties favorable for developing electrochemical sensors. When polyamic acid-benzoxazole (PAA-BO), a hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-sensitive probe, hybridizes with Gs-BA to form Gs-BA-PAA-BO, the electron transfer rate relating to the response time improves markedly from 1.09 s(-1) to 38.8 s(-1). Additionally, it offers a high performance for H₂O₂ sensing in terms of sensitivity and response time, making this method applicable for developing glucose and choline biosensors.

  7. Butyrate-induced transcriptional changes in human colonic mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutvin, S.A.L.W.; Troost, F.J.; Hamer, H.M.; Lindsey, P.J.; Koek, G.H.; Jonkers, D.M.A.E.; Kodde, A.; Venema, K.; Brummer, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon results in the production of short chain fatty acids (mainly propionate, butyrate and acetate). Butyrate modulates a wide range of processes, but its mechanism of action is mostly unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of butyrate on

  8. 水-丁酸-壬醇三相系统的液液平衡%Liquid-Liquid Equilibria of Water + Butyric Acid + Nonanol Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.üsmail K1rbaslar; Sema Yüksel; Erol ínce; ísmail Boz

    2004-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the water + butyric acid + nonanol system have been determined experimentally at the temperatures of 298.15 K, 308.15 K and 318.15 K. Tie-line compositions were correlated by Othmer-Tobias method. The universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient (UNIFAC) and modified UNIFAC methods were used to predict the phase equilibrium in the system using the interaction parameters between CH3, CH2, COOH, OH and H2O functional groups. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  9. Effects of Exogenous Indole Butyric Acid and Callus Formation on the Anti-oxidant Activity, Total Phenolic, and Anthocyanin Constituents of Mulberry Cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of exogenous indole butyric acid (IBA) and callus formation on the antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and anthocyanin constituents of Morus nigra L. and M. alba L. cuttings, we investigated the variations before and after the treatment. The results indicate that anti-oxidant ability, total phenolic, and anthocyanin constituents of the callus stems of both Morus species were higher than those of non-callus forming species. There were also increases observed in anti-oxidant ability, total phenolic,and anthocyanin constituents of calli treated with IBA (1 000-3 000 mg/L).

  10. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae induce interleukin-8 production from intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells in the presence of butyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, Shizue; Totsuka, Mamoru; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Hosoi, Tomohiro

    2004-07-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are important in initiation and regulation of immune responses against numerous foreign substances including food, microorganisms and their metabolites in the intestine. Since the responses of IEC against yeasts have not yet been well understood, we investigated the effects of Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and their cell wall components on interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion by the IEC-like Caco-2 cells. Live cells of both yeast species stimulated Caco-2 cells to produce IL-8 only in the presence of butyric acid, which is a metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. S. cerevisiae zymosan and glucan also enhanced IL-8 secretion. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid increased the expression of mRNAs coding for Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR6 and dectin-1, which recognize zymosan. C. albicans induced more IL-8 secretion and also decreased transepithelial electrical resistance more rapidly than S. cerevisiae. These results suggest that both yeasts in the intestine stimulate the host's mucosal immune systems by interacting with IEC.

  11. Increased papillae growth and enhanced short-chain fatty acid absorption in the rumen of goats are associated with transient increases in cyclin D1 expression after ruminal butyrate infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Moolchand; Gui, Hongbing; Yao, Lei; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Gäbel, Gotthold; Shen, Zanming

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the proliferative effects of intraruminal butyrate infusions on the ruminal epithelium are linked to upregulation in cyclin D1 (CCND1), the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and their possible association with enhanced absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Goats (n=23) in 2 experiments (Exp.) were fed 200 g/d concentrate and hay ad libitum. In Exp. 1, goats received an intraruminal infusion of sodium butyrate at 0.3 (group B, n=8) or 0 (group C, n=7) g/kg of body weight (BW) per day before morning feeding for 28 d and were slaughtered 8 h after the butyrate infusion. In Exp. 2, goats (n=8) received butyrate infusion and feeding as in Exp. 1. On d 28, epithelial samples were biopsied from the antrium ruminis at 0, 3, and 7 h after the last butyrate infusion. In Exp. 1, the ruminal molar proportional concentration of butyrate increased in group B by about 110% after butyrate infusion and remained elevated for 1.5 h; thereafter, it gradually returned to the baseline (preinfusion) level. In group C, the molar proportional concentration of butyrate was unchanged over the time points. The length and width of papillae increased in B compared with C; this was associated with increased numbers of cells and cell layers in the epithelial strata and an increase in the surface area of 82%. The mRNA expression of CCND1 increased transiently at 3 h but returned to the preinfusion level at 7 h following butyrate infusion in Exp. 2. However, it did not differ between B and C in Exp. 1, in which the ruminal epithelium was sampled at 8 h after butyrate infusion. The mRNA expression of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4, but not MCT1, was stably upregulated in B compared with C. The estimated absorption rate of total SCFA (%/h) increased in B compared with C. We conclude that transient increases in cyclin D1 transcription contribute to butyrate-induced papillae growth and subsequently to the increased absorption of SCFA in the ruminal epithelium

  12. Periodontal disease level-butyric acid amounts locally administered in the rat gingival mucosa induce ER stress in the systemic blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueno, Marni E; Saito, Yuko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2016-05-01

    Periodontal diseases have long been postulated to contribute to systemic diseases and, likewise, it has been proposed that periodontal disease treatment may ameliorate certain systemic diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are major secondary metabolites produced by oral anaerobic bacteria and, among the SCFAs, butyric acid (BA) in high amounts contribute to periodontal disease development. Periodontal disease level-butyric acid (PDL-BA) is found among patients suffering from periodontal disease and has previously shown to induce oxidative stress, whereas, oxidative stress is correlated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This would imply that PDL-BA may likewise stimulate ER stress, however, this was never elucidated. A better understanding of the correlation between PDL-BA and systemic ER stress stimulation could shed light on the possible systemic effects of PDL-BA-related periodontal diseases. Here, PDL-BA was injected into the gingival mucosa and the systemic blood obtained from the rat jugular was collected at 0, 15, 60, and 180 min post-injection. Collected blood samples were purified and only the blood cytosol was used throughout this study. Subsequently, we measured blood cytosolic GADD153, Ca(2+), representative apoptotic and inflammatory caspases, and NF-κB amounts. We found that PDL-BA presence increased blood cytosolic GADD153 and Ca(2+) amounts. Moreover, we observed that blood cytosolic caspases and NF-κB were activated only at 60 and 180 min post-injection in the rat gingival mucosa. This suggests that PDL-BA administered through the gingival mucosa may influence the systemic blood via ER stress stimulation and, moreover, prolonged PDL-BA retention in the gingival mucosa may play a significant role in ER stress-related caspase and NF-κB activation. In a periodontal disease scenario, we propose that PDL-BA-related ER stress stimulation leading to the simultaneous activation of apoptosis and inflammation may contribute to periodontal disease

  13. Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Hanigan, M.D.; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    liquid marker (Cr-EDTA), and initial and final buffer volumes were fitted to a dynamic simulation model. The model was used to estimate ruminal liquid passages, residual liquid, and water influx (saliva and epithelia water) for each combination of cow and buffer (n = 24). Epithelial blood flow increased......The effect of reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow on the absorption of propionate as a volatile fatty acid (VFA) marker in 8 lactating Holstein cows was studied under washed rumen conditions. The cows were surgically prepared with ruminal cannulas and permanent catheters in an artery...... and mesenteric, right ruminal, and hepatic portal veins. The experiment was designed with 2 groups of cows: 4 cows adapted to high crude protein (CP) and 4 to low CP. All cows were subjected to 3 buffers: butyric, ammonia, and control in a randomized replicated 3 × 3 incomplete Latin square design. The buffers...

  14. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  15. Growth and development of moringa (Moringa oleifera L. stem cuttings as affected by diameter magnitude, growth media, and indole-3-butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddeen Rufai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The acknowledged status of Moringa oleifera L. in sub-Saharan Africa, especially western Africa, has of recent accorded it the significance of being a good source of income to a large segment of many of its populace. Intensification of research into the realization of its full economic potential will be of utmost value to impoverished societies globally. One way to achieve this is the full exploration of all possible means that will facilitate its successful growth, propagation, and domestication. Even though it can be successfully raised through seeds, the high level outcrossing (64.3% observed is a hindrance to realization of true to type trees. Vegetative propagation can be employed as an option to tackle the noted limitation, ease the cultivation process, and achieve the required realization of its economic potential. Our trial was carried out to study the influence of two growth media and three levels of indole 3-butyric acid (IBA on root and shoot development in cuttings taken from a coppiced moringa tree existent in Universiti Putra Malaysia. Semi-hardwood cuttings of moringa, of between 20 and 30 mm diameter, cut into 25 cm length, were obtained, rinsed with a fungicide, then dipped, through their basal portion, inside varying levels (0, 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA for between 7 and 10 seconds. The treated cuttings were then transplanted into a polyethylene bags (23 cm × 36 cm, containing two growth media - a munchong series soil (M and a combination of a munchong series soil thoroughly mixed with biochar (MB in a 3:1 ratio sequence. The trial was conducted inside a shade house where the humidity of the experimental area was manipulated through a regular daily manual hand sprinkling. Plant height, percentage of primary branch produced, leaf area, and dry matter (DM were found to be significantly (P<0.05 influenced by variation in stem diameter magnitude, while the diameter of the primary branch and spad

  16. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Berni Canani; Margherita Di Costanzo; Ludovica Leone; Monica Pedata; Rosaria Meli; Antonio Calignano

    2011-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from nonabsorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport,ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status,reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition,a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases,hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different;many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine.

  17. Bile acid deoxycholate induces differential subcellular localisation of the PKC isoenzymes beta 1, epsilon and delta in colonic epithelial cells in a sodium butyrate insensitive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Eileen; Long, Aideen; Kelleher, Dermot; Volkov, Yuri

    2005-05-10

    Elevated levels of bile acids have been implicated in the abnormal morphogenesis of the colonic epithelium thus contributing to colorectal cancer (CRC). Alternatively sodium butyrate (NaB) produced by anaerobic fermentation of dietary fibre is regarded as being protective against colon cancer. Bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) are thought to mediate some of their actions by differentially activating protein kinase C (PKC). We examined the effects of DCA on the subcellular localisation of PKC-beta(1), -epsilon and -delta and whether these responses could be modulated by NaB. HCT116 cells endogenously express PKC-epsilon and -delta but not PKC-beta. DCA treatment results in endogenous PKC-epsilon translocation but not PKC-delta after 1 hr. To study the subcellular localisation of PKC isoforms in response to DCA in real time, PKC-beta(1), PKC-epsilon and PKC-delta functionally intact green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs were used. Stimulation with 300 microM DCA induces rapid translocation of PKC-beta(1)-GFP and PKC-epsilon-GFP but not PKC-delta-GFP from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in 15 min. Interestingly, pretreatment with 4mM NaB does not modify the response of the PKC isoenzymes to DCA as PKC-beta(1)-GFP and PKC-epsilon-GFP translocates to the plasma membrane in 15 min whereas PKC-delta-GFP localisation remains unaltered. Immunofluorescence shows that PKC-beta(1)-GFP and PKC-epsilon-GFP cells treated with DCA colocalise with the cytoskeletal elements actin and tubulin adjacent to the plasma membrane. Our findings demonstrate that the differential activation of the PKC isoenzymes by DCA may be of critical importance for the functional responses of colonic epithelial cells. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the International Journal of Cancer website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0020-7136/suppmat/index.html.

  18. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Paternò, Giuseppe Maria; Tregnago, Giulia; Cacialli, Franco [Department of Physics and Astronomy and London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Treat, Neil; Stingelin, Natalie [Department of Materials Science, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of “molecular terraces” whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.

  19. Dielectric relaxation dependent memory elements in pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bi-layer field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoungnam

    2015-03-02

    We fabricate a pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) featuring large hysteresis that can be used as memory elements. Intentional introduction of excess electron traps in a PCBM layer by exposure to air caused large hysteresis in the FET. The memory window, characterized by the threshold voltage difference, increased upon exposure to air and this is attributed to an increase in the number of electron trapping centers and (or) an increase in the dielectric relaxation time in the underlying PCBM layer. Decrease in the electron conduction in the PCBM close to the SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric upon exposure to air is consistent with the increase in the dielectric relaxation time, ensuring that the presence of large hysteresis in the FET originates from electron trapping at the PCBM not at the pentacene. - Highlights: • Charge trapping-induced memory effect was clarified using transistors. • The memory window can be enhanced by controlling charge trapping mechanism. • Memory transistors can be optimized by controlling dielectric relaxation time.

  20. Identification of genes involved in indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Chengcai; Ma, Chunlei; Zhang, Liqun; Gong, Wuyun; Wu, Liyun

    2013-02-10

    The plant hormone auxin plays a key role in adventitious rooting. To increase our understanding of genes involved in adventitious root formation, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in single nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 77 differentially expressed transcripts, including 70 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated sequences, were identified in tea cuttings under IBA treatment. Seven candidate transcripts were selected and analyzed for their response to IBA, and IAA by real time RT-PCR. All these transcripts were up regulated by at least two folds one day after IBA treatment. Meanwhile, IAA showed less positive effects on the expression of candidate transcripts. The full-length cDNA of a F-box/kelch gene was also isolated and found to be similar to a group of At1g23390 like genes. These unigenes provided a new source for mining genes related to adventitious root formation, which facilitate our understanding of relative fundamental metabolism.

  1. Efficient and stable, structurally inverted poly(3-hexylthiopen): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester heterojunction solar cells with fibrous like poly(3-hexylthiopen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandara, Jayasundera, E-mail: jayasundera@yahoo.com [Applied Functional Polymers and Laboratory for Solar Energy Research, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, CP 20000, Kandy (Sri Lanka); Shankar, Karthik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Grimes, Craig A., E-mail: cgrimes@engr.psu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Thelakkat, Mukundan, E-mail: mukundan.thelakkat@unibayreuth.de [Applied Functional Polymers and Laboratory for Solar Energy Research, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2011-10-31

    We investigated an inverted organic photovoltaic device structure in which a densely packed {approx} 100 nm thin TiO{sub 2} layer on fluorine doped conducting glass serves as anode and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate)/Au layer on top of the active layer serves as cathode. The active layer is comprised of a blend of poly(3-hexylthiopene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The rectification behavior of such a device is improved significantly and injection losses are minimized compared to devices without any compact TiO{sub 2} layer. Moreover, nanostructured P3HT active layer was achieved in-situ by spin coating concentrated pure P3HT and P3HT:PCBM blend and solar cell performances on thickness of the active layer were also investigated. For the inverted solar cells constructed with different concentrations of P3HT and PCBM keeping the P3HT:PCBM ratio 1:0.8 (wt.%), the highest short circuit current and efficiency was observed when the P3HT and PCBM concentration was equal to 1.5 (wt.%) and 1.2 (wt.%) respectively. This leads to highly stable and reproducible power conversion efficiency above 3.7% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity under AM 1.5 conditions.

  2. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Paternò, Giuseppe Maria; Tregnago, Giulia; Treat, Neil; Stingelin, Natalie; Yacoot, Andrew; Cacialli, Franco

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of "molecular terraces" whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.

  3. Mobility-limited polyarylamine biscarbonate ester (PABC) /[6,6]-phenyl $C_{61}$ butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Liang-Bih; Preske, Amanda E; Mamiya, Arthur A; Filho, Demétrio A da Silva; Cardoso, George C

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices made from blends of a polyarylamine biscarbonate ester (PABC) and [6,6]-phenyl $C_{61}$ butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have been fabricated and characterized. PABC is a hole transporting co-polymer prepared from reacting N,N'diphenyl-N,N'bis(3-hydroxyphenyl)1,1;biphenyl(4,4'diamine), diethylene glycol bischloroformate, and triethylemine. By varying the polymer loading in the blend, optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 0.45\\% has been achieved for a blend consisting of 25 wt\\% PABC, which is an order of magnitude higher than the PCE for a 45 wt\\% blend. The optimal ratio is at about 0.44:0.56 molar ratio of the active hole transporting to electron transporting moieties. Results of mobility studies suggest that blends with higher PABC loading have efficiencies limited by 'hole' transport. Also responsible for the lower efficiency at higher PABC concentrations was optical filtering. The efficiency does not appear to be limited by deep charge trapping. Density fun...

  4. Solvated crystals based on [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with the hexagonal structure and their phase transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lidong; Han, Yanchun

    2012-02-09

    This work focuses on the structural exploration of micro-sized crystals based on a well-known methanofullerene, [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). We have succeeded in producing PCBM crystals with the hexagonal symmetry through the liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation (LLIP) method. We found that smaller but more regular PCBM crystals tend to form in the oversaturated PCBM solutions with solvents of lower solubility for PCBM, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane. The structure of the produced crystals also shows a dependence on the solvents, which can be attributed to the incorporation of different solvent molecules into PCBM crystals. Under thermal annealing, for the first time, we have observed a crystalline to crystalline phase transformation of these hexagonal PCBM crystals. Along with the phase transformation, the morphology of the crystals has also been transformed from the hexagon to long needles. In addition, the needlelike crystals arrange themselves with a relative angle of 60° to each other, which implies an intrinsic structural correlation between needlelike and hexagonal crystals.

  5. Review article: The role of butyrate on colonic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, H.M.; Jonkers, D.; Venema, K.; Vanhoutvin, S.; Troost, F.J.; Brummer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, is a main end-product of intestinal microbial fermentation of mainly dietary fibre. Butyrate is an important energy source for intestinal epithelial cells and plays a role in the maintenance of colonic homeostasis. Aim: To provide an overview on the pr

  6. Discoloration of Polyvinyl Butyral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Q.; Shumka, A.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents results of study of discoloration in polyvinyl butyral (PVB). Clear PVB gradually turns yellowish brown in simulated-aging tests and outdoor environmental tests. Discoloration severely reduces solar-cell output. Using methods of modern analytical chemistry - transmission absorption, Fourier transform infrared absorption, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and scanning-electron microscopy - study uncovered major cause of yellowing.

  7. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  8. Butyrate-induced transcriptional changes in human colonic mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A L W Vanhoutvin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon results in the production of short chain fatty acids (mainly propionate, butyrate and acetate. Butyrate modulates a wide range of processes, but its mechanism of action is mostly unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of butyrate on the transcriptional regulation of human colonic mucosa in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five hundred genes were found to be differentially expressed after a two week daily butyrate administration with enemas. Pathway analysis showed that the butyrate intervention mainly resulted in an increased transcriptional regulation of the pathways representing fatty acid oxidation, electron transport chain and oxidative stress. In addition, several genes associated with epithelial integrity and apoptosis, were found to be differentially expressed after the butyrate intervention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Colonic administration of butyrate in concentrations that can be achieved by consumption of a high-fiber diet enhances the maintenance of colonic homeostasis in healthy subjects, by regulating fatty acid metabolism, electron transport and oxidative stress pathways on the transcriptional level and provide for the first time, detailed molecular insight in the transcriptional response of gut mucosa to butyrate.

  9. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  10. Study of indole butyric acid (IBA effects on cutting rooting improving some of wild genotypes of damask roses (Rosa damascena Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Fardin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa damascena is very important for essential oil production, medicinal properties and it is also widely cultivated as a garden rose. The Rose species is mainly propagated by stem cutting. In the present study, the effect of different levels of 0, 500 and 1,000 mg l-1 (quick dip method for 20 s of indole butyric acid (IBA on the rooting of 12 wild genotypes (including: Kurdistan 1 to Kurdistan 12 of R. damascena was investigated. The results show that the rooting ability of R. damascena differs significantly between the twelve genotypes. The highest rooting (79.56% and callus production (69.08%, number of roots (8.33, root fresh and dry weights (361.80 and 244.74 mg, respectively were recorded in Kurdistan 5 genotype with 1,000 mg l-1 IBA. The maximum root length (5.84 cm was observed in Kurdistan 5 genotype with 500 mg l-1 IBA that showed a significant difference compared to the control treatment (0.96 cm. The highest number of leaves per bud (7.33 at 500 mg l-1 IBA and number of buds (5.00 at 1,000 mg l-1 IBA were recorded in Kurdistan 1 genotype. The current study demonstrated that the different genotypes of R. damascena were in a difficult-toroot state, which suggests that cutting treatment with 1,000 mg l-1 IBA overcame the problem of the difficult-to-root state, and it can also enhance the rooting percentage in the studied genotypes.

  11. Quantum confinement-tunable ultrafast charge transfer at the PbS quantum dot and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester interface

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, AlA'A O.

    2014-05-14

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells have emerged as promising low-cost alternatives to existing photovoltaic technologies. Here, we investigate charge transfer and separation at PbS QDs and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interfaces using a combination of femtosecond broadband transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy and steady-state photoluminescence quenching measurements. We analyzed ultrafast electron injection and charge separation at PbS QD/PCBM interfaces for four different QD sizes and as a function of PCBM concentration. The results reveal that the energy band alignment, tuned by the quantum size effect, is the key element for efficient electron injection and charge separation processes. More specifically, the steady-state and time-resolved data demonstrate that only small-sized PbS QDs with a bandgap larger than 1 eV can transfer electrons to PCBM upon light absorption. We show that these trends result from the formation of a type-II interface band alignment, as a consequence of the size distribution of the QDs. Transient absorption data indicate that electron injection from photoexcited PbS QDs to PCBM occurs within our temporal resolution of 120 fs for QDs with bandgaps that achieve type-II alignment, while virtually all signals observed in smaller bandgap QD samples result from large bandgap outliers in the size distribution. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that charge transfer rates at QD interfaces can be tuned by several orders of magnitude by engineering the QD size distribution. The work presented here will advance both the design and the understanding of QD interfaces for solar energy conversion. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  12. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume.

  13. Ectopic expression of UGT75D1, a glycosyltransferase preferring indole-3-butyric acid, modulates cotyledon development and stress tolerance in seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jin, Shang-Hui; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Dong, Rui-Rui; Li, Pan; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The formation of auxin glucose conjugate is proposed to be one of the molecular modifications controlling auxin homeostasis. However, the involved mechanisms and relevant physiological significances are largely unknown or poorly understood. In this study, Arabidopsis UGT75D1 was at the first time identified to be an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) preferring glycosyltransferase. Assessment of enzyme activity and IBA conjugates in transgenic plants ectopically expressing UGT75D1 indicated that the UGT75D1 catalytic specificity was maintained in planta. It was found that the expression pattern of UGT75D1 was specific in germinating seeds. Consistently, we found that transgenic seedlings with over-produced UGT75D1 exhibited smaller cotyledons and cotyledon epidermal cells than the wild type. In addition, UGT75D1 was found to be up-regulated under mannitol, salt and ABA treatments and the over-expression lines were tolerant to osmotic and salt stresses during germination, resulting in an increased germination rate. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of ABA INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) and ABI5 gene in ABA signaling were substantially down-regulated in the transgenic lines under stress treatments. Interestingly, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 16 (ARF16) gene of transgenic lines was also dramatically down-regulated under the same stress conditions. Since ARF16 functions as an activator of ABI3 transcription, we supposed that UGT75D1 might play a role in stress tolerance during germination through modulating ARF16-ABI3 signaling. Taken together, our work indicated that, serving as the IBA preferring glycosyltransferase but distinct from other auxin glycosyltransferases identified so far, UGT75D1 might be a very important player mediating a crosstalk between cotyledon development and stress tolerance of germination at the early stage of plant growth.

  14. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jintao Zhang; Man Yi; Longying Zha; Siqiang Chen; Zhijia Li; Cheng Li; Mingxing Gong; Hong Deng; Xinwei Chu; Jiehua Chen; Zheqing Zhang; Limei Mao; Suxia Sun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated au...

  15. Acid Tolerance Response of Anaerobic Sludge with Butyric Acid Stress during the Enhanced Biohydrogen Process%生物产氢过程中厌氧污泥耐酸响应的生物化学机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟影; 张光生; 王爱杰; 严群

    2012-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of biomass,large amounts of organic acids were produced. This results in an inhibitory effect on anaerobic microbiology,which in turn inhibits large-scale production of hydrogen. In this study, butyric acid was use as stress on the sludge, and it was found that the production rates of butyric acid, acetic acid and hydrogenwas reached at 400 mmol/mol, 1100 mmol/mol, 3690 mL/mol, respectively, which was higher 110%, 54% and 65% than that of the corresponding values in the control group. Moreover, glutamate acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity, dehydrogenase activity and the content of DNA was in-creased to 11. 6 ,μm/(g · TS · h), 6982. 12 μg TF/(g · TS · h) 14. 72 ng/mL, with an increment of 48%, 50%, 10.7%, respectively, and the content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have improved significantly, loose bound protein, loose bound polysaccharide, tight bound protein and tight bound polysaccharide content were 147%, 34. 8%, 35%, 21. 6% higher than that of the control. The results demonstrate that the appropriate concentration of butyric acid stress on sludge can excite acid tolerance response (Acid tolerance response, ATR) and to improve acid tolerance of sludge, and improve the efficiency of anaerobic hydrogen production.%生物质厌氧发酵产氢过程中积累的大量酸性物质,会对厌氧微生物产生抑制作用,进而制约氢气的持续产生.作者采用不同浓度丁酸对污泥进行胁迫,结果表明:当丁酸胁迫质量浓度为6 g/L时,污泥厌氧发酵过程中丁酸、乙酸以及氢气产量最高,分别达到1 071 mmol/mol,462mmol/mol和3 690 mL/mol,比对照组分别提高了110%,54%和65%;此外,产氢过程中谷氨酸脱羧酶(glutamic acid decarboxylase,GAD)、脱氢酶以及DNA总量活性最高达到11.6μmol/(g·TS·h),6 982.12 μg TF/(g·TS·h),14.72 ng/mL,相对于对照组分别提高了48%,50%,10.7%;同时,经过酸胁迫后,

  16. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.

  17. Effects of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation to sows in late gestation on absorption and hepatic metabolism of glucose and amino acids during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Lyby, H; Storli, K S;

    2012-01-01

    A multicatheter sow model was established to study the effects of dietary β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation on net portal flux (NPF) and net hepatic flux (NHF) of HMB, glucose, and the AA Ala, Gly, Ile, Leu, Phe, Tyr, and Val. Eight second parity sows were fitted with permanent in...

  18. A new highly selective metabotropic excitatory amino acid agonist: 2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)butyric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Sløk, F A; Skjaerbaek, N;

    1996-01-01

    , however, shown to be a specific and rather potent agonist at mGlu6, approximately 4 times weaker than the nonselective excitatory amino acid receptor agonist (S)-glutamic acid. 2-Aminoadipic acid (3), which shows a complex excitatory amino acid synaptic pharmacology, was an agonist at mGlu6 as well as m......The homologous series of acidic amino acids, ranging from aspartic acid (1) to 2-aminosuberic acid (5), and the corresponding series of 3-isoxazolol bioisosteres of these amino acids, ranging from (RS)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (AMAA, 6) to (RS)-2-amino-6-(3-hydroxy-5......-methylisoxazol-4-yl)hexanoic acid (10), were tested as ligands for metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors (mGlu1 alpha, mGlu2, mGlu4a, and mGlu6). Whereas AMAA (6) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propinoic acid (AMPA, 7) are potent and highly selective agonists at N...

  19. Mechanism of block of single protopores of the Torpedo chloride channel ClC-0 by 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)butyric acid (CPB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, M; Accardi, A; Liantonio, A; Ferrera, L; De Luca, A; Camerino, D C; Conti, F

    2001-07-01

    We investigated in detail the mechanism of inhibition by the S(-) enantiomer of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)butyric acid (CPB) of the Torpedo Cl(-)channel, ClC-0. The substance has been previously shown to inhibit the homologous skeletal muscle channel, CLC-1. ClC-0 is a homodimer with probably two independently gated protopores that are conductive only if an additional common gate is open. As a simplification, we used a mutant of ClC-0 (C212S) that has the common gate "locked open" (Lin, Y.W., C.W. Lin, and T.Y. Chen. 1999. J. Gen. Physiol. 114:1-12). CPB inhibits C212S currents only when applied to the cytoplasmic side, and single-channel recordings at voltages (V) between -120 and -80 mV demonstrate that it acts independently on individual protopores by introducing a long-lived nonconductive state with no effect on the conductance and little effect on the lifetime of the open state. Steady-state macroscopic currents at -140 mV are half-inhibited by approximately 0.5 mM CPB, but the inhibition decreases with V and vanishes for V > or = 40 mV. Relaxations of CPB inhibition after voltage steps are seen in the current responses as an additional exponential component that is much slower than the gating of drug-free protopores. For V = 60 mV) with an IC50 of approximately 30-40 mM. Altogether, these findings support a model for the mechanism of CPB inhibition in which the drug competes with Cl(-) for binding to a site of the pore where it blocks permeation. CPB binds preferentially to closed channels, and thereby also strongly alters the gating of the single protopore. Since the affinity of CPB for open WT pores is extremely low, we cannot decide in this case if it acts also as an open pore blocker. However, the experiments with the mutant K519E strongly support this interpretation. CPB block may become a useful tool to study the pore of ClC channels. As a first application, our results provide additional evidence for a double-barreled structure of ClC-0 and ClC-1.

  20. The dominant glutamic acid metabolic flux to produce γ-amino butyric acid over proline in Nicotiana tabacum leaves under water stress relates to its significant role in antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuili; Zhao, Li; Yu, Guanghui

    2011-08-01

    γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) and proline play a crucial role in protecting plants during various environmental stresses. Their synthesis is from the common precursor glutamic acid, which is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase and Δ(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase respectively. However, the dominant pathway under water stress has not yet been established. To explore this, excised tobacco leaves were used to simulate a water-stress condition. The results showed GABA content was much higher than that of proline in leaves under water-deficit and non-water-deficit conditions. Specifically, the amount of GABA significantly increased compared to proline under continuous water loss for 16 h, indicating that GABA biosynthesis is the dominant pathway from glutamic acid metabolism under these conditions. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and protein Western gel-blot analysis further confirmed this. To explore the function of GABA accumulation, a system producing superoxide anion (O(2) (-) ), peroxide hydrogen (H(2) O(2) ), and singlet oxygen ((1) O(2) ) was employed to investigate the scavenging role on free-radical production. The results demonstrated that the scavenging ability of GABA for O(2) (-) , H(2) O(2) , and (1) O(2) was significantly higher than that of proline. This indicated that GABA acts as an effective osmolyte to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species under water stress.

  1. Nanofibrillar self-organization of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester by dip-coating: a simple method to obtain efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, L; Bagnis, D; Kenny, J M

    2009-03-04

    In this paper the dip-coating technique has been investigated as a method for the production of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based solar cells. We found that the utilization of the dip-coating technique for the RR-P3HT:PCBM system can facilitate its self-assembly into a nanofibrillar lamellar structure after evaporation of the solvent. The condition for the formation of the nanofibrillar structures leads to a power conversion efficiency of 3.6% by using only this approach without thermal treatment.

  2. Relationship between Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in Apple (Malus pumila Mill) Rootstocks Cultured in Vitro and Adventitious Root Formation in the Presence of Indole-3-Butyric Acid 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Nissen, Scott J.; Sutter, Ellen G.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro rooting response and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were examined in two genetically related dwarfing apple (Malus pumila Mill) rootstocks. M.26 and M.9 were cultured in vitro using Linsmaier-Skoog medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (PG). Rooting response was tested in Lepoivre medium supplemented with IBA and PG. IBA concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 micromolar induced the maximum rooting percentages for M.9 and M.26, respectively. At these concentrations rooting response was 100% for M.26 and 80% for M.9. Free and conjugated IAA levels were determined in M.26 and M.9 shoots prior to root inducing treatment by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using 13[C6]IAA as internal standard. Basal sections of M.26 shoots contained 2.8 times more free IAA than similar tissue in M.9 (477.1 ± 6.5 versus 166.6 ± 6.7 nanograms per gram fresh weight), while free IAA levels in apical sections of M.26 and M.9 shoots were comparable (298.0 ± 4.4 versus 263.7 ± 9.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight). Conjugated IAA levels were significantly higher in M.9 than in M.26 indicating that a greater proportion of total IAA was present as a conjugate in M.9. These data suggest that differences between M.26 and M.9 rooting responses may be related to differences in free IAA levels in the shoot base. PMID:16666562

  3. Effect of γ-amino Butyric Acid and Phytic Acid Content in Germinated Brown Rice by Adding Exogenous Phytase%外源植酸酶对发芽糙米γ一氨基丁酸和植酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玮; 曹龙奎

    2015-01-01

    Effects of adding exogenous phytase on germinated brown rice γ-amino butyric acid and phytic acid content were studied.γ-amino butyric acid content in germinated brown rice could be increase, and levels of phytase could be reduce by adding exogenous phytase, thus nutritional value of brown rice germination could be improve.%本文研究了添加外源植酸酶对发芽糙米γ一氨基丁酸和植酸含量的影响,通过添加外源植酸酶,可以增加发芽糙米γ一氨基丁酸含量,降低植酸酶含量,从而提高发芽糙米的营养价值。

  4. Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyric acid is a major short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced in the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacterial fermentation which has been demonstrated to have beneficial health effects in many species including poultry. To understand the immunomodulating effects of butyrate on chicken macropha...

  5. The Volumetric Properties of Some α-Amino Acids in Aqueous Sodium Butyrate Solutions at 308.15 K%α-氨基酸在丁酸钠水溶液中的体积性质(308.15K)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜振宁; 成庆堂; 王键吉; 刘大壮

    1999-01-01

    Density data have been reported for glycine,DL-α-alanine,DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid,DL-valine and DL-leucine in aqueous solutions of 0.5,1.0,1.5 and 2.0 mol.kg-1 sodium butyrate at 308.15 K.The apparent molar volumes V2,φand standard partial molar volumes for the amino acids in aqueous sodium butyrate solutions have been calculated.The linear correlation between and the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the amino acids has been observed and utilized to estimate the contributions of the charged end groups ,CH2 group and other alkyl chains of the amino acids to .The results show that values for increase,while those for CH2 decrease,with sodium butyrate concentration.The hydration number of the amino acids decreases with increasing electrolyte concentrations.These phenomena are discussed by means of the dehydration effect of electrolyte on the amino acids.

  6. Synthesis and characterisation of multifunctional alginate microspheres via the in situ formation of ZnO quantum dots and the graft of 4-(1-pyrenyl) butyric acid to sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guilin; Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Yingying; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Growth factor-loaded fluorescent alginate microspheres, which can realise sustained growth factor release and fluorescence imaging, were synthesised by in situ formation of ZnO quantum dots (QDs) and covalent graft of 4-(1-pyrenyl) butyric acid (PBA). BSA was chosen as a growth factor model protein to study the release kinetic of growth factors from alginate microspheres. The microsphere size and fluorescent properties were also investigated. Investigations of cell culture were used for evaluating biocompatibility of BSA-loaded fluorescent microspheres and fluorescence imaging property of ZnO QDs and PBA-grafted sodium alginate from the microspheres. The results show that they have good fluorescent property either to microspheres or to cells and fluorescent microspheres have good biocompatibility and property in sustained release of growth factors. The obtained microspheres will be expected to realise the imaging of cells and materials and also the release of growth factor in tissue engineering or in cell culture.

  7. Optical Properties of Poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl and Poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl / [6,6]-Phenyl C61-butyric Acid 3-ethylthiophene Ester Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Omer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT were prepared from chloroform, 1,2 dichlorobenzene and toluene solutions by spin coating technique on quartz substrates. The absorption and photoluminescence (PL measurements were performed on the P3HT films to investigate the influence of solvent on the optical properties of the films. The results shows that the UV-vis absorption of P3HT film spin-coated from toluene is red shifted compared to the spectra of the films spin-coated from either chloroform or 1,2 dichlorobenzene. The surface morphology of P3HT: [6, 6]-Phenyl C61-butyric Acid 3-ethylthiophene Ester (Modified Fullerene thin films spin-coated from different solvents were studied using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, the thin film spin-coated from 1,2 dichlorobenzene show the smoother surface.

  8. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ∼2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  9. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data in aqueous solutions of propionic and butyric acids with 1-heptanol at T=(298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Ali Ghanadzadeh; Gilani, Hossein Ghanadzadeh; Saadat, Seyedeh Laleh Seyed; Nasiri-Touli, Elham; Peer, Mahrokh [Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Liquid-liquid phase equilibrium (LLE) data were determined for the (water+propionic or butyric acid+1- heptanol) ternary systems at T=(298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K and p=101.3 kPa. For both systems, a type-1 LLE phase diagram was obtained. The quality of the experimental LLE data was determined through the Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft equations. The experimental tie-lines were fitted using the UNIQUAC and NRTL correlation models. For the studied systems, a comparison was made between the experimental and correlated distribution coefficients and separation factors. The LSER model of Katritzky was applied to obtain the contributions of intermolecular interactions in these systems.

  10. Ultrafast transient optical studies of charge pair generation and recombination in poly-3-hexylthiophene(P3ht):[6,6]phenyl C61 butyric methyl acid ester (PCBM) blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, James; Keivanidis, Panagiotis E; Bruno, Annalisa; Ma, Fei; Haque, Saif A; Yarstev, Arkady; Sundstrom, Villy; Nelson, Jenny

    2011-12-29

    Charge generation and recombination are studied in blend films of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6']phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. We find that the charge generation yield depends upon both blend film composition and thermal annealing. The data suggest that recombination occurs over a wide range of time scales and that, in the least favorable cases, the fastest charge recombination occurs on a time scale similar to exciton diffusion. The results are explained using a simple model that incorporates the effect of P3HT domain size on exciton diffusion and uses empirical models of recombination kinetics. We propose our method as a route to interpretation of spectroscopic data where different processes occur on similar time scales.

  11. Selective agonists at group II metabotropic glutamate receptors: synthesis, stereochemistry, and molecular pharmacology of (S)- and (R)-2-amino-4-(4-hydroxy[1,2,5]thiadiazol-3-yl)butyric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Rasmus P; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Greenwood, Jeremy R;

    2002-01-01

    Homologation of analogues of the central excitatory neurotransmitter glutamic acid (Glu), in which the distal carboxy group has been bioisosterically replaced by acidic heterocyclic units, has previously provided subtype selective ligands for metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). The (S......)-form of the 1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-ol Glu analogue, 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxy[1,2,5]thiadiazol-3-yl)propionic acid (TDPA, 6), is an 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist, which in addition stereospecifically activates group I mGluRs. We have now synthesized the (S)- and (R......)-forms of 2-amino-4-(4-hydroxy[1,2,5]thiadiazol-3-yl)butyric acid (homo-TDPA, 7) and shown that whereas neither enantiomer interacts with AMPA receptors, (S)- and (R)-7 appear to be selective and equipotent agonists at group II mGluRs as represented by the mGluR2 subtype. The activities of (S)- and (R)-7...

  12. Screening of a Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid-Producing Strain of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Pickled Vegetable%从酸菜液中筛选产γ-氨基丁酸的菌株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金钟; 田宇; 王风青

    2011-01-01

    从腌制的酸菜液中,采用乳酸菌分离纯化法,经初筛、复筛得到一株产γ-氨基丁酸的菌株,编号为LpL-0212,对菌株进行形态学观察和生理生化实验及16S rDNA、atpA基因序列分析鉴定,鉴定该菌株为Enterococcus faecium。在含2%谷氨酸钠的TYG发酵培养基中静置培养24h,经薄层层析定性、高效液相色谱法测定,发酵液中的γ-氨基丁酸含量可达到102.37μmol/L。%A strain capable of producing γ-amino butyric acid(GABA),named as LpL-0212,was screened from pickled cabbage by a previously reported method for isolating and screening lactic acid bacteria.The strain was identified as Enterococcus faecium according to morphological observations,physiological and biochemical experiments,16S rRNA sequence analysis,and atpA gene sequence analysis.Using quantitative thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography,the content of GABA was determined to be 102.37 μmol/L in the fermentation broth obtained after 24 h culture of the strain in TYG medium containing 2% monosodium glutamate.

  13. Butyrate induces ROS-mediated apoptosis by modulating miR-22/SIRT-1 pathway in hepatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Kishor; Yadav, Ajay K; Gupta, Parul; Islam, Rakibul; Saraya, Anoop; Venugopal, Senthil K

    2017-03-07

    Butyrate is one of the short chain fatty acids, produced by the gut microbiota during anaerobic fermentation of dietary fibres. It has been shown that it can inhibit tumor progression via suppressing histone deacetylase and can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the comprehensive pathway by which butyrate mediates apoptosis and growth arrest in cancer cells still remains unclear. In this study, the role of miR-22 in butyrate-mediated ROS release and induction of apoptosis was determined in hepatic cells. Intracellular expression of miR-22 was increased when the Huh 7 cells were incubated with sodium butyrate. Over-expression of miR-22 or addition of sodium butyrate inhibited SIRT-1 expression and enhanced the ROS production. Incubation of cells with anti-miR-22 reversed the effects of butyrate. Butyrate induced apoptosis via ROS production, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3, whereas addition of N-acetyl cysteine or anti-miR-22 reversed these butyrate-induced effects. Furthermore, sodium butyrate inhibited cell growth and proliferation, whereas anti-miR-22 inhibited these butyrate-mediated changes. The expression of PTEN and gsk-3 was found to be increased while p-akt and β-catenin expression was decreased significantly by butyrate. These data showed that butyrate modulated both apoptosis and proliferation via miR-22 expression in hepatic cells.

  14. Inhibitory effects of butyrate on biological hydrogen production with mixed anaerobic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xian-Jun; Yu, Han-Qing

    2005-01-01

    In this study batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of butyrate addition on hydrogen production from glucose by using anaerobic mixed cultures. Experimental results showed that addition of butyrate at 4.18 and 6.27 g/l only slightly inhibited hydrogen production, and addition of butyrate at 8.36-12.54 g/l imposed a moderate inhibitory effect on hydrogen production. At addition of 25.08 g/l, butyrate had a strong inhibitory influence on substrate degradation and hydrogen production. The distribution of the volatile fatty acids produced from the acidogeneisis of glucose was significantly influenced by the addition of butyrate. The inhibition of butyrate addition on hydrogen production was described well by a non-competitive and non-linear inhibition model, with the maximum hydrogen production rate of 59.3 ml/g-SS/h, critical added butyrate concentration of 25.08 g/l, and inhibition degree of 0.323, respectively. The C(I,50) values (the butyrate concentration at which bioactivity is reduced by 50%) for hydrogen production rate and yield were estimated as 19.39 and 20.78 g/l of added butyrate, respectively.

  15. Biosynthesis of heparin. Effects of n-butyrate on cultured mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, K.G.; Riesenfeld, J.; Lindahl, U.

    1985-10-05

    Murine mastocytoma cells were incubated in vitro with inorganic (TVS)sulfate, in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM n-butyrate, and labeled heparin was isolated. The polysaccharide produced in the presence of butyrate showed a lower charge density on anion exchange chromatography than did the control material and a 3-fold increased proportion of components with high affinity for antithrombin. Structural analysis of heparin labeled with (TH) glucosamine in the presence of butyrate showed that approximately 35% of the glucosamine units were N-acetylated, as compared to approximately 10% in the control material; the nonacetylated glucosamine residues were N-sulfated. The presence of butyrate thus leads to an inhibition of the N-deacetylation/N-sulfation process in heparin biosynthesis, along with an augmented formation of molecules with high affinity for antithrombin. Preincubation of the mastocytoma cells with butyrate was required for manifestation of either effect; when the preincubation period was reduced from 24 to 10 h the effects of butyrate were no longer observed. A polysaccharide formed on incubating mastocytoma microsomal fraction with UDP-(TH)glucuronic acid, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, and 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate in the presence of 5 mM butyrate showed the same N-acetyl/N-sulfate ratio as did the corresponding control polysaccharide, produced in the absence of butyrate. These findings suggest that the effect of butyrate on heparin biosynthesis depends on the integrity of the cell.

  16. Presence of insulin receptors in cultured glial C6 cells. Regulation by butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, F; Ortiz-Caro, J; Villa, A; Pascual, A; Aranda, A

    1989-01-01

    The presence of insulin receptor and its regulation by butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids was studied in C6 cells, a rat glioma cell line. Intact C6 cells bind 125I-insulin in a rapid, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis of the binding data gives typical curvilinear plots with apparent affinities of approx. 6 nM and 70 nM for the low-affinity (approx. 90% of total) and high-affinity (approx. 10% of total) sites respectively. Incubation with butyrate results in a time- and dose-dependent decrease of insulin binding to C6 cells. A maximal effect was found with 2 mM-butyrate that decreased the receptor by 40-70% after 48 h. Butyrate decreased numbers of receptors of both classes, but did not significantly alter receptor affinity. Other short-chain fatty acids, as well as keto acids, had a similar effect, but with a lower potency. Cycloheximide caused an accumulation of insulin receptors at the cell surface, since insulin binding increased and receptor affinity did not change after incubation with the inhibitor. Simultaneous addition of butyrate and cycloheximide abolished the loss of receptors produced by the fatty acid. In cells preincubated with butyrate, cycloheximide also produced a large increase in receptor numbers, showing that in the absence of new receptor synthesis a large pool of receptors re-appears at the surface of butyrate-treated cells. PMID:2930502

  17. Butyrate enhances antibacterial effects while suppressing other features of alternative activation in IL-4-induced macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Maria R; Saxena, Alpana; Reyes, José-Luis; McKay, Derek M

    2016-05-15

    The short-chain fatty acid butyrate is produced by fermentation of dietary fiber by the intestinal microbiota; butyrate is the primary energy source of colonocytes and has immunomodulatory effects. Having shown that macrophages differentiated with IL-4 [M(IL-4)s] can suppress colitis, we hypothesized that butyrate would reinforce an M(IL-4) phenotype. Here, we show that in the presence of butyrate M(IL-4)s display reduced expression of their hallmark markers Arg1 and Ym1 and significantly suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide, IL-12p40, and IL-10 production. Butyrate treatment likely altered the M(IL-4) phenotype via inhibition of histone deacetylation. Functionally, M(IL-4)s treated with butyrate showed increased phagocytosis and killing of bacteria, compared with M(IL-4) and this was not accompanied by enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production. Culture of regulatory T cells with M(IL-4)s and M(IL-4 + butyrate)s revealed that both macrophage subsets suppressed expression of the regulatory T-cell marker Foxp3. However, Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4 + butyrate) produced less IL-17A than Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4). These data illustrate the importance of butyrate, a microbial-derived metabolite, in the regulation of gut immunity: the demonstration that butyrate promotes phagocytosis in M(IL-4)s that can limit T-cell production of IL-17A reveals novel aspects of bacterial-host interaction in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

  18. Combinatorial chemopreventive effect of butyric acid, nicotinamide and calcium glucarate against the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis attained by enhancing the induction of intrinsic apoptotic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2015-01-25

    We explored the basis of the combinatorial chemopreventive effect of butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) on mouse skin exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). We studied the effects of topical application of DMBA in the presence or absence of BA, NA and CAG on the regulators of apoptosis. DMBA treatment suppressed Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cyt c, Apaf1, caspase-9, -3 mediated apoptosis. Downregulation of p21 and upregulation of Bcl-2, mut p53 were also observed in only DMBA treated mice. Simultaneous application of BA, NA and CAG induced a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, characterized by a rise in the Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cyt c, upregulation of Apaf1 with down-stream activation of caspase-9, -3. Furthermore treatment with BA, NA and CAG demonstrated an upregulation of p21 and downregulation of Bcl-2, mut p53. But this effect was enhanced in the presence of all the three compounds together in combination. Chemoprevention by a combination of BA, NA and CAG by inducing the apoptosis, the natural cell death, suggest the importance of the potential combinational strategies capable of preventing skin tumor development.

  19. Synergetic Enhancement of Device Efficiency in Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl/[6,6]-phenyl C61 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Glycerol Addition in the Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobins Augustine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl(P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM is the widely used active layer for the bulk heterojunction solar cells. Annealing is essential for P3HT:PC60BM active layer, since it facilitates the creation of better network for the transfer of the charge carriers. However, the PC60BM in the active layer can crystallize excessively during annealing treatments and disrupt the favorable morphology by forming crystallites in micrometer ranges, thus reducing device efficiency. In this paper we used glycerol as an additive in the active layer. Due to high boiling point of glycerol, it makes slow drying of the active layer possible during the annealing. It thus gives enough time to both electron donor (P3HT and electron acceptor (PC60BM components of the active layer to self-organize and also restrict the crystal overgrowth of PC60BM. Further, the glycerol additive makes the active layer smoother, which may also improve adhesion between the electrode and the active layer. The devices with the pristine active layer showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE of about 2.1% and, with the addition of 30 vol% of glycerol in the active layer, the PCE value increased to 3%.

  20. Is butyrate the link between diet, intestinal microbiota and obesity-related metabolic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, L K; Astrup, A; Larsen, L H

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that there is a connection between diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal barrier function and the low-grade inflammation that characterizes the progression from obesity to metabolic disturbances, making dietary strategies to modulate the intestinal environment relevant. In this context, the ability of some Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria to produce the short-chain fatty acid butyrate is interesting. A lower abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria has been associated with metabolic risk in humans, and recent studies suggest that butyrate might have an anti-inflammatory potential that can alleviate obesity-related metabolic complications, possibly due to its ability to enhance the intestinal barrier function. Here, we review and discuss the potential of butyrate as an anti-inflammatory mediator in metabolic diseases, and the potential for dietary interventions increasing the intestinal availability of butyrate.

  1. 以木薯渣水解液为碳源固定化发酵产丁酸工艺的研究%Production of Butyric Acid from Casaba Dregs Hydrolysate by Immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum in Fibrous-bed Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金; 蔡谨; 施周铭; 黄磊; 徐志南

    2012-01-01

    As butyric acid is an important chemical raw material, using cheap non-grain biomass and FBB (fibrous-bed bioreactor)immobilized fermentation to produce butyric acid has important significance. The investigation showed that the four-column parallel immobilized fermentation technology can greatly improve the production efficiency due to the decrease of fermentation recycle to half. In the fermentation with cassava dregs hydrolysate as substrate, 25.2 g/L butyric acid was obtained and the yield was 0.46g/g. At last, the production of butyric acid was increased to 61.4g/L through fed-batch fermentation.%利用廉价的非粮原料及采用新型高效的固定化发酵技术对于实现丁酸的工业化发酵生产具有重要意义。文中研究了纤维床生物反应器组成形式对固定化酪丁酸梭菌产丁酸过程的影响,结果表明,采用纤维床生物反应器四柱并联发酵时,丁酸终浓度比单柱发酵提高7.19%,尤其是产率提高了136.7%。以木薯渣水解液为碳源,利用纤维床生物反应器四柱并联进行丁酸批次发酵和补料发酵。批次发酵产丁酸浓度达到25.2g/L,得率0.46g/g,采用补料发酵,丁酸终浓度可达61.4g/L。

  2. Mechanism of Butyrate Stimulation of Triglyceride Storage and Adipokine Expression during Adipogenic Differentiation of Porcine Stromovascular Cells.

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    Hui Yan

    Full Text Available Short chain fatty acids (SCFA, products of microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, exert multiple metabolic effects in cells. Previously, we had demonstrated that soluble fiber influenced fat mass accumulation, gut microbial community structure and SCFA production in pigs. The current study was designed to identify effects of SCFA treatment during adipogenic differentiation of porcine stromovascular cells on lipid metabolism and adipokine expression. Differentiating cells were treated with varying concentrations of butyrate. Results show that butyrate treatment enhanced adipogenesis and lipid accumulation, perhaps through upregulation of glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis and other mechanisms that include induction of SREBP-1c, C/EBPα/β, GLUT4, LPL, PPARγ, GPAT4, DGAT1 and DGAT2 expression. In addition, butyrate induced adiponectin expression, resulting in activation of downstream target genes, such as AMPK and AKT. Activation of AMPK by butyrate led to phosphorylation of ACC. Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Our studies also provide evidence that butyrate may inhibit lipolysis, perhaps in an FFAR3-dependent manner. Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity.

  3. Mechanism of Butyrate Stimulation of Triglyceride Storage and Adipokine Expression during Adipogenic Differentiation of Porcine Stromovascular Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2015-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), products of microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, exert multiple metabolic effects in cells. Previously, we had demonstrated that soluble fiber influenced fat mass accumulation, gut microbial community structure and SCFA production in pigs. The current study was designed to identify effects of SCFA treatment during adipogenic differentiation of porcine stromovascular cells on lipid metabolism and adipokine expression. Differentiating cells were treated with varying concentrations of butyrate. Results show that butyrate treatment enhanced adipogenesis and lipid accumulation, perhaps through upregulation of glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis and other mechanisms that include induction of SREBP-1c, C/EBPα/β, GLUT4, LPL, PPARγ, GPAT4, DGAT1 and DGAT2 expression. In addition, butyrate induced adiponectin expression, resulting in activation of downstream target genes, such as AMPK and AKT. Activation of AMPK by butyrate led to phosphorylation of ACC. Although increased ACO gene expression was seen with butyrate treatment, experiments with the peroxisomal fatty acid inhibitor, thioridazine, suggest that butyrate may have an inhibitory effect on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Our studies also provide evidence that butyrate may inhibit lipolysis, perhaps in an FFAR3-dependent manner. Therefore, this study presents a novel paradigm for butyrate action in adipocytes and shows that adipocytes are capable of utilizing butyrate, leading to increased expression of adiponectin for enhanced glucose uptake and improved insulin sensitivity.

  4. Quantitative structure-activity relationship and molecular docking studies of a series of quinazolinonyl analogues as inhibitors of gamma amino butyric acid aminotransferase

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    Usman Abdulfatai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity relationship and molecular docking studies were carried out on a series of quinazolinonyl analogues as anticonvulsant inhibitors. Density Functional Theory (DFT quantum chemical calculation method was used to find the optimized geometry of the anticonvulsants inhibitors. Four types of molecular descriptors were used to derive a quantitative relation between anticonvulsant activity and structural properties. The relevant molecular descriptors were selected by Genetic Function Algorithm (GFA. The best model was validated and found to be statistically significant with squared correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.934, adjusted squared correlation coefficient (R2adj value of 0.912, Leave one out (LOO cross validation coefficient (Q2 value of 0.8695 and the external validation (R2pred of 0.72. Docking analysis revealed that the best compound with the docking scores of −9.5 kcal/mol formed hydrophobic interaction and H-bonding with amino acid residues of gamma aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABAAT. This research has shown that the binding affinity generated was found to be better than the commercially sold anti-epilepsy drug, vigabatrin. Also, it was found to be better than the one reported by other researcher. Our QSAR model and molecular docking results corroborate with each other and propose the directions for the design of new inhibitors with better activity against GABAAT. The present study will help in rational drug design and synthesis of new selective GABAAT inhibitors with predetermined affinity and activity and provides valuable information for the understanding of interactions between GABAAT and the anticonvulsants inhibitors.

  5. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis.

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    Jintao Zhang

    Full Text Available Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells.Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29 were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5-5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining, and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot.Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II, beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin and genetic

  6. Formation of propionate and butyrate by the human colonic microbiota.

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    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2017-01-01

    The human gut microbiota ferments dietary non-digestible carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). These microbial products are utilized by the host and propionate and butyrate in particular exert a range of health-promoting functions. Here an overview of the metabolic pathways utilized by gut microbes to produce these two SCFA from dietary carbohydrates and from amino acids resulting from protein breakdown is provided. This overview emphasizes the important role played by cross-feeding of intermediary metabolites (in particular lactate, succinate and 1,2-propanediol) between different gut bacteria. The ecophysiology, including growth requirements and responses to environmental factors, of major propionate and butyrate producing bacteria are discussed in relation to dietary modulation of these metabolites. A detailed understanding of SCFA metabolism by the gut microbiota is necessary to underpin effective strategies to optimize SCFA supply to the host.

  7. Morphological and spectroscopic characterizations of inkjet-printed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl): Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends for organic solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, A., E-mail: annalisa.bruno@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Villani, F., E-mail: fulvia.villani@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Grimaldi, I.A.; Loffredo, F.; Morvillo, P.; Diana, R. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Haque, S. [Chemistry Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Minarini, C. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy)

    2014-06-02

    The most exploited active material for photovoltaic devices is the regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), p-type conjugated polymer, blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), n-type material. The deposition methods and the induced morphology strongly influence the functionality of the active material and in turn the final charge generation performances of a photoactive layer. In the present work, we studied the influence of PCBM concentration on the morphological and spectroscopic properties of the inkjet printed P3HT:PCBM blends through atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy. The aim is to value the charge formation yield in the blends, prepared by inkjet technology, as function of the acceptor concentrations in correlation with morphology and intermixing of the two components. For the inkjet printed samples the blends composition that corresponds to the best intermixing between P3HT and PCBM and the higher charges formation yield should be between 20% and 45% in weight (wt)., differently for what has been found previously for spin-coated samples. Indeed, for inkjet prepared film, the 45 wt.% blend ratio leads to much bigger domains with respect to the spin-coated samples as shown from the AFM measurements. - Highlights: • Inkjet-printed P3HT:PCBM blends for organic solar cell applications • Coarser morphology of inkjet P3HT:PCBM films with respect to the spin-coated film • Inkjet P3HT:PCBM films showed charge formation maximum for PCBM wt.% lower than 45.

  8. Preventive effects of butyric acid, nicotinamide, calcium glucarate alone or in combination during the 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis via modulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway and associated micro RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer is among the most common cancers worldwide and identifiable molecular changes for early and late stage of skin tumorigenesis can suggest the better targets for its control. In this study, we investigated the status of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway followed by NF-κB, cyclin D1, MMP-9 and regulatory micro RNA during 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mouse skin tumorigenesis and its prevention by butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG), individually or in combination with respect to time. DMBA upregulated the K-Ras, PI3K, Akt, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and MMP-9, but downregulated the PTEN in a time dependent manner. DMBA also reduced the levels of micoRNA let-7a but induced the levels of miR-21 and miR-20a as a function of time. BA, NA and CAG were found to prevent DMBA induced changes, but they were most effective when used together in a combination. Reduced let-7a and miR-211 were correlated with the overexpression of K-Ras and MMP-9. Overexpression of miR-21 and miR-20a was correlated with the down regulation of PTEN and overexpression of Cyclin D1. Collectively, the enhanced chemopreventive potential of natural compound in combination via regulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway along with regulatory micro RNAs provide a newer and effective mean for cancer management.

  9. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

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    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication.

  10. CSTR和ACR丁酸型发酵制氢系统的运行特性比较%Operation characteristic comparison of CSTR and ACR systems for hydrogen production by butyric acid type fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建政; 于泽; 昌盛; 苏晓煜

    2012-01-01

    In order to structure a better continuous flow bioreactor mode for fermentative hydrogen production, a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and an anaerobic contact digester (ACR) were evaluated with diluted molasses as raw material, and their operation characteristics during starting and running were analyzed and compared. Inoculated with aerobic pretreated sewage sludge, both the reactors started up at (35 ±1l)°C with an initial volatile suspended sludge (MLVSS) of 4. 8 g · L-1, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h and an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 5000 mg · L-1. The pH was controlled at 5. 5-6. 0 in both fermentation systems during the whole operation period. The results showed that the CSTR could reach steady butyric acid type fermentation in 15 d, much faster than in 25 d for ACR. During the steady state, the butyrate was dominated among the soluble metabolites and counted for 53% and 50% of the total liquid products in CSTR and ACR system, respectively. The hydrogen-producing efficiency was higher for ACR than for CSTR, indicating its better ability to maintain biomass. The substrate acidification ratio, the hydrogen production rate and specific hydrogen production rate of the sludge were 44% , 9 L · d-1 and 0. 15 L · (g MLVSS · d) -1, respectively, for the steady ACR system, and 1. 62, 2. 05 and 1. 15 times of corresponding values of CSTR system.%为寻求更好的连续流发酵生物制氧反应器模式,以稀释糖蜜为底物,控制反应系统为丁酸型发酵,比较研究了搅拌槽式反应器(CSTR)和厌氧接触式反应器(ACR)的启动运行特性.结果表明,以经曝气培养的下水道污泥为接种物,在接种量4.8gMLVSS·L-1、进水COD 5000 mg·L-1、HRT 12 h、温度(35±1)℃和pH 5.5~6.0等相同条件下,CSTR系统可以更快地达到稳定的丁酸型发酵状态,而ACR系统因其有效的生物持有能力而在产氢性能方面更具优势.在稳定运行状态下,ACR系统的底物酸化率

  11. Butyrate production enhancement by Clostridium tyrobutyricum using electron mediators and a cathodic electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyoung; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In

    2012-10-01

    Electron mediators and electron supply through a cathode were examined to enhance the reducing power for butyrate production by an acidogenic clostridium strain, Clostridium tyrobutyricum BAS 7. Among the tested electron mediators, methyl viologen (MV)-amended cultures showed an increase of butyrate productivity (1.3 times), final concentration (1.4 times), and yield (1.3 times). The electron flow altered by MV addition from the ferredoxin pool to the NADH pool was shown by one electron model, implying that more available NADH increased butyrate production. In the cathode compartment poised at -400 mV versus the Ag/AgCl electrode, the neutral red (NR)-amended cultures of Clostridium tyrobutyricum BAS 7 increased butyrate concentration (from 5 to 8.8 g/L) and yield (from 0.33 up to 0.44 g/g) with no acetate production at all. Given that electrically reduced NR (NR(red) , yellow) by the cathode was re-oxidized (NR(ox) , red) in the cells on the basis of color change, electron flow from NR(red) to NAD(+) (i.e., NADH generation) induced an increase in butyrate production. This is the first report to show the increase of butyric acid production by electrically driven acidogenesis. These results show that the electron flow altered NADH formation by electron mediators and by the cathodic electron donor, increasing the yield and selectivity of reduced end-products like butyrate.

  12. Butyrate protects rat liver against total hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury with bowel congestion.

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    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is an unavoidable consequence of major liver surgery, especially in liver transplantation with bowel congestion, during which endotoxemia is often evident. The inflammatory response aggravated by endotoxin after I/R contributes to liver dysfunction and failure. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of butyrate, a naturally occurring four-carbon fatty acid in the body and a dietary component of foods such as cheese and butter, on hepatic injury complicated by enterogenous endotoxin, as well as to examine the underlying mechanisms involved. SD rats were subjected to a total hepatic ischemia for 30 min after pretreatment with either vehicle or butyrate, followed by 6 h and 24 h of reperfusion. Butyrate preconditioning markedly improved hepatic function and histology, as indicated by reduced transaminase levels and ameliorated tissue pathological changes. The inflammatory factors levels, macrophages activation, TLR4 expression, and neutrophil infiltration in live were attenuated by butyrate. Butyrate also maintained the intestinal barrier structures, reversed the aberrant expression of ZO-1, and decreased the endotoxin translocation. We conclude that butyrate inhibition of endotoxin translocation, macrophages activation, inflammatory factors production, and neutrophil infiltration is involved in the alleviation of total hepatic I/R liver injury in rats. This suggests that butyrate should potentially be utilized in liver transplantation.

  13. Comparative in silico analysis of butyrate production pathways in gut commensals and pathogens

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    Swadha Anand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of butyrate by commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintenance of human gut health while dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been linked to several enteric disorders. Contrastingly, butyrate shows cytotoxic effects in patients with oral diseases like periodontal infections and oral cancer. In addition to these host associations, few syntrophic bacteria couple butyrate degradation with sulfate reduction and methane production. Thus, it becomes imperative to understand the distribution of butyrate metabolism pathways and delineate differences in substrate utilization between pathogens and commensals.The bacteria utilize four pathways for butyrate production with different initial substrates (Pyruvate, 4-aminobutyrate, Glutarate and Lysine which follow a polyphyletic distribution. A comprehensive mining of complete/draft bacterial genomes indicated conserved juxtaposed genomic arrangement in all these pathways. This gene context information was utilized for an accurate annotation of butyrate production pathways in bacterial genomes. Interestingly, our analysis showed that inspite of a beneficial impact of butyrate in gut, not only commensals, but a few gut pathogens also possess butyrogenic pathways. The results further illustrated that all the gut commensal bacteria (Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Butyrivibrio, commensal species of Clostridia etc ferment pyruvate for butyrate production. On the contrary, the butyrogenic gut pathogen Fusobacterium utilizes different amino acid metabolism pathways like those for Glutamate (4-aminobutyrate and Glutarate and Lysine for butyrogenesis which leads to a concomitant release of harmful by-products like ammonia in the process. The findings in this study indicate that commensals and pathogens in gut have divergently evolved to produce butyrate using distinct pathways. No such evolutionary selection was observed in oral pathogens (Porphyromonas and Filifactor which showed presence of pyruvate as

  14. Comparative In silico Analysis of Butyrate Production Pathways in Gut Commensals and Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Swadha; Kaur, Harrisham; Mande, Sharmila S.

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of butyrate by commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintenance of human gut health while dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been linked to several enteric disorders. Contrastingly, butyrate shows cytotoxic effects in patients with oral diseases like periodontal infections and oral cancer. In addition to these host associations, few syntrophic bacteria couple butyrate degradation with sulfate reduction and methane production. Thus, it becomes imperative to understand the distribution of butyrate metabolism pathways and delineate differences in substrate utilization between pathogens and commensals. The bacteria utilize four pathways for butyrate production with different initial substrates (Pyruvate, 4-aminobutyrate, Glutarate and Lysine) which follow a polyphyletic distribution. A comprehensive mining of complete/draft bacterial genomes indicated conserved juxtaposed genomic arrangement in all these pathways. This gene context information was utilized for an accurate annotation of butyrate production pathways in bacterial genomes. Interestingly, our analysis showed that inspite of a beneficial impact of butyrate in gut, not only commensals, but a few gut pathogens also possess butyrogenic pathways. The results further illustrated that all the gut commensal bacteria (Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Butyrivibrio, and commensal species of Clostridia etc) ferment pyruvate for butyrate production. On the contrary, the butyrogenic gut pathogen Fusobacterium utilizes different amino acid metabolism pathways like those for Glutamate (4-aminobutyrate and Glutarate) and Lysine for butyrogenesis which leads to a concomitant release of harmful by-products like ammonia in the process. The findings in this study indicate that commensals and pathogens in gut have divergently evolved to produce butyrate using distinct pathways. No such evolutionary selection was observed in oral pathogens (Porphyromonas and Filifactor) which showed presence of pyruvate as well as

  15. Restricted distribution of the butyrate kinase pathway among butyrate-producing bacteria from the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Petra; Duncan, Sylvia H; McCrae, Sheila I; Millar, Jacqueline; Jackson, Michelle S; Flint, Harry J

    2004-04-01

    The final steps in butyrate synthesis by anaerobic bacteria can occur via butyrate kinase and phosphotransbutyrylase or via butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase. Degenerate PCR and enzymatic assays were used to assess the presence of butyrate kinase among 38 anaerobic butyrate-producing bacterial isolates from human feces that represent three different clostridial clusters (IV, XIVa, and XVI). Only four strains were found to possess detectable butyrate kinase activity. These were also the only strains to give PCR products (verifiable by sequencing) with degenerate primer pairs designed within the butyrate kinase gene or between the linked butyrate kinase/phosphotransbutyrylase genes. Further analysis of the butyrate kinase/phosphotransbutyrylase genes of one isolate, L2-50, revealed similar organization to that described previously from different groups of clostridia, along with differences in flanking sequences and phylogenetic relationships. Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase activity was detected in all 38 strains examined, suggesting that it, rather than butyrate kinase, provides the dominant route for butyrate formation in the human colonic ecosystem that contains a constantly high concentration of acetate.

  16. Production of the Butyric Acid from Cassava Residue Hydrolysate with Clostridium tyrobutyricum in Fibrous-bed Bioreactor%纤维床固定化酪丁酸梭菌发酵木薯渣水解液生产丁酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振; 江凌; 朱丽英; 林明; 李燕萍

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究纤维床固定化酪丁酸梭菌发酵木薯渣水解液生产丁酸的可行性.[方法]以酪丁酸梭菌为生产菌株,初步优化了木薯渣的水解条件,并开展了纤维床固定化生物反应器半连续发酵木薯渣水解液生产丁酸的研究.[结果]加压条件下,稀酸水解木薯渣的总还原糖得率达到0.56 g/g.酪丁酸梭菌能有效利用葡萄糖、木糖进行单糖或混合糖发酵生产丁酸;固定化补料流加发酵有利于提高丁酸的产量和得率,降低副产物乙酸的产量和得率;以木薯渣水解液用于固定化批次发酵生产丁酸时,丁酸的产量和得率均较高,分别为(23.20士1.32)g/L和(0.44±0.01) g/g.[结论]木薯渣水解液对丁酸生产菌的生长和代谢没有明显的抑制作用,发酵各参数指标均能达到利用葡萄糖时的同等水平,可作为未来微生物发酵工业化生产丁酸的廉价原料来源.%[Objective] The research aimed to study feasibility for production of the butyric acid from cassava residue hydrolysate by C. Tyro-butyricum immobilized in fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB). [Method] C. Lyrobutyricum. As producing strain, production of the butyric acid from cassava residue hydrolysate by fibrous-bed bioreactor was studied, as well as optimization for hydrolysis condition of the cassava residue. [ Result] At high pressure, yield for total reducing sugar of the cassava residue hydrolyzed by dilute HC1 was 0.56 g/g. Glucose and xylose could be well utilized by C. Tyrobutyricum to produce butyric acid. The fed-batch immobilized fermentation mode has been successfully used to produce more butyric acid with higher final concentration and yield when compared with the free-cell fermentation mode, together with lower acetic acid output. The fermentation reached a maximum butyric acid concentration of (23. 20 ?1.32) g/L and a yield of (0.44 ?.01) g/g from cassava residue hydrolysate in batch FBB mode. [ Conclusion] Cassava residue hydrolysate

  17. The role of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor in diabetes mellitus: experimental evidence for therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in diabetes mellitus (DM), β-cell reprogramming and its complications is an emerging concept. Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between DM and histone deacetylases (HDACs), because HDAC inhibitors promote β-cell differentiation, proliferation, function and improve insulin resistance. Moreover, gut microbes and diet-derived products can alter the host epigenome. Furthermore, butyrate and butyrate-producing microbes are decreased in DM. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers by microbiota and has been proven as an HDAC inhibitor. The present review provides a pragmatic interpretation of chromatin-dependent and independent complex signaling/mechanisms of butyrate for the treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 DM, with an emphasis on the promising strategies for its drugability and therapeutic implication.

  18. Determination of γ-amino butyric acid in mature vinegar by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定老陈醋中的γ-氨基丁酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云龙; 陕方; 胡俊君

    2012-01-01

    通过采用10%三氯乙酸水溶液对老陈醋样品进行预处理,以邻苯二甲醛(OPA)、氯甲酸-9-芴基甲酯(FMOC-CL)为衍生剂,用反相C18柱为分离柱,柱温40℃,梯度洗脱,在EX:250nm,EM:410nm下检测,建立了OPA柱前自动衍生-荧光检测老陈醋中γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的HPLC法。结果表明,老陈醋中的GABA获得了很好的分离,GABA在0.004~0.30mg/mL范围内线性相关性好,其线性方程为Y=26016X-38.72(R2=0.9994),加样平均回收率达到了96.22%以上。该方法稳定、灵敏、重现性好,可用于测定老陈醋中GABA含量定量分析。%A method for γ-Amino Butyric Acid(GABA) determination in mature vinegar with ortho-phthaladehyde(OPA) automatic pre-column derivation and fluorescence detection by high performance-liquid chromatography was established.Firstly mature vinegar was pretreated with trichloroacetic acid of 10%,derived OPA and 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate(FMOC-CL),and then separated and assayed with reversed phase C18 column,finally eluted at 40℃ and determinated by HPLC at EX:250nm,EM:410nm.The result showed that GABA in mature vinegar was separated well with this method,and in the range of 0.004~0.30mg/mL of calibration curve,GABA kept linear with regression equation of Y=26016X-38.72(R2=0.9994).The relative error was 96.22%,which indicated that method was a sensitive,reproduced and specific assay for the determination of GABA in mature vinegar.

  19. Butyrate Increases Intracellular Calcium Levels and Enhances Growth Hormone Release from Rat Anterior Pituitary Cells via the G-Protein-Coupled Receptors GPR41 and 43

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Consolata Miletta; Vibor Petkovic; Andrée Eblé; Ammann, Roland A; Flück, Christa E.; Primus-E Mullis

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous...

  20. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43

    OpenAIRE

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Ammann, Roland; Flück, Christa; Mullis, Primus-Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous...

  1. Butyrate enhances disease resistance of chickens by inducing antimicrobial host defense peptide gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi T Sunkara

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs constitute a large group of natural broad-spectrum antimicrobials and an important first line of immunity in virtually all forms of life. Specific augmentation of synthesis of endogenous HDPs may represent a promising antibiotic-alternative approach to disease control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous administration of butyrate, a major type of short-chain fatty acids derived from bacterial fermentation of undigested dietary fiber, is capable of inducing HDPs and enhancing disease resistance in chickens. We have found that butyrate is a potent inducer of several, but not all, chicken HDPs in HD11 macrophages as well as in primary monocytes, bone marrow cells, and jejuna and cecal explants. In addition, butyrate treatment enhanced the antibacterial activity of chicken monocytes against Salmonella enteritidis, with a minimum impact on inflammatory cytokine production, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst capacities of the cells. Furthermore, feed supplementation with 0.1% butyrate led to a significant increase in HDP gene expression in the intestinal tract of chickens. More importantly, such a feeding strategy resulted in a nearly 10-fold reduction in the bacterial titer in the cecum following experimental infections with S. enteritidis. Collectively, the results indicated that butyrate-induced synthesis of endogenous HDPs is a phylogenetically conserved mechanism of innate host defense shared by mammals and aves, and that dietary supplementation of butyrate has potential for further development as a convenient antibiotic-alternative strategy to enhance host innate immunity and disease resistance.

  2. Butyrate: A dietary inhibitor of histone deacetylases and an epigenetic regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, also known as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by microbial fermentation. Consumption of dietary fibers has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as increasing satiety, an...

  3. Oncogenic Ras promotes butyrate-induced apoptosis through inhibition of gelsolin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klampfer, Lidija; Huang, Jie; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard

    2004-08-27

    Activation of Ras promotes oncogenesis by altering a multiple of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, differentiation, and apoptosis. Oncogenic Ras can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the cell type and the nature of the apoptotic stimuli. The response of normal and transformed colonic epithelial cells to the short chain fatty acid butyrate, a physiological regulator of epithelial cell maturation, is also divergent: normal epithelial cells proliferate, and transformed cells undergo apoptosis in response to butyrate. To investigate the role of k-ras mutations in butyrate-induced apoptosis, we utilized HCT116 cells, which harbor an oncogenic k-ras mutation and two isogenic clones with targeted inactivation of the mutant k-ras allele, Hkh2, and Hke-3. We demonstrated that the targeted deletion of the mutant k-ras allele is sufficient to protect epithelial cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis. Consistent with this, we showed that apigenin, a dietary flavonoid that has been shown to inhibit Ras signaling and to reverse transformation of cancer cell lines, prevented butyrate-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. To investigate the mechanism whereby activated k-ras sensitizes colonic cells to butyrate, we performed a genome-wide analysis of Ras target genes in the isogenic cell lines HCT116, Hkh2, and Hke-3. The gene exhibiting the greatest down-regulation by the activating k-ras mutation was gelsolin, an actin-binding protein whose expression is frequently reduced or absent in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We demonstrated that silencing of gelsolin expression by small interfering RNA sensitized cells to butyrate-induced apoptosis through amplification of the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-7. These data therefore demonstrate that gelsolin protects cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis and suggest that Ras promotes apoptosis, at least in part, through its ability to down-regulate the expression of gelsolin.

  4. Fat coating of Ca butyrate results in extended butyrate release in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Buyse, J.; Niewold, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on its described beneficial effects on small and large intestinal epithelium, butyrate can be a very good alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters. Effective dietary application requires coating because the majority of uncoated butyrate is purportedly absorbed before reaching the proximal

  5. A new oral formulation for the release of sodium butyrate in the ileo-cecal region and colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aldo Roda; Patrizia Simoni; Maria Magliulo; Paolo Nanni; Mario Baraldini; Giulia Roda; Enrico Roda

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To develop a new formulation with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose and Shellac coating for extended and selective delivery of butyrate in the ileo-caecal region and colon.METHODS:One-gram sodium butyrate coated tablets containing 13C-butyrate were orally administered to 12 healthy subjects and 12 Crohn's disease patients and the rate of 13C-butyrate absorption was evaluated by 13CO2 breath test analysis for eight hours.Tauroursodeoxycholic acid(500 mg)was co-administered as a biomarker of oro-ileal transit time to determine also the site of release and absorption of butyrate by the time of its serum maximum concentration.RESULTS:The coated formulation delayed the 13C-butyrate release by 2-3 h with respect to the uncoated tablets.Sodium butyrate was delivered in the intestine of all subjects and a more variable transit time was found in Crohn's disease patients than in healthy subjects.The variability of the peak 13CO2 in the kinetic release of butyrate was explained by the inter-subject variability in transit time.However,the coating chosen ensured an efficient release of the active compound even in patients with a short transit time.CONCLUSION:Simultaneous evaluation of breath 13CO2 and tauroursodeoxycholic acid concentrationtime curves has shown that the new oral formulation consistently releases sodium butyrate in the ileo-cecal region and colon both in healthy subjects and Crohn's disease patients with variable intestinal transit time.This formulation may be of therapeutic value in inflammatory bowel disease patients due to the appropriate release of the active compound.

  6. Enzymology of butyrate formation by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T L; Jenesel, S E

    1979-04-01

    Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is a major butyrate-forming species in the bovine and ovine rumen. The enzymology of butyrate formation from pyruvate was investigated in cell-free extracts of B. fibrisolvens D1. Pyruvate owas oxidized to acetylcoenzyme A (CoA) in the presence of CoA.SH and benzyl viologen or flavin nucleotides. The bacterium uses thiolase, beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, and crotonyl-CoA reductase to form butyryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA. Reduction of acetoacetyl-CoA to beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA was faster with NADH than with NADPH. Crotonyl-CoA was reduced to butyryl-CoA by NADH, but not by NADPH, only in the presence of flavin nucleotides. Reduction of flavin nucleotides by NADH was much slower than the flavin-dependent reduction of crotonyl-CoA. This indicates that flavoproteins rather than free flavin participated in the reduction of crotonyl-CoA. Butyryl-CoA was converted to butyrate by phosphate butyryl transferase and butyrate kinase.

  7. The thickness of the intestinal mucous layer in the colon of rats fed various sources of non-digestible carbohydrates is positively correlated with the pool of SCFA but negatively correlated with the proportion of butyric acid in digesta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette S; Theil, Peter K; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment aimed to study the influence of six sources of non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) on the mucous layer in the colon of rats. The NDC sources used were as follows: cellulose (C); pectin (P); inulin; resistant starch (RS); barley hulls. The diets contained 108-140g NDC/kg DM...... of the hindgut and, within compartments, the MUC genes may be regulated differently. In conclusion, a diet providing a large pool of SCFA with a low proportion of butyrate in the colon stimulates the formation of a thick mucous layer, which probably benefits intestinal health........ A fibre-free (FF) diet served as a control. The diets were fed to forty-eight rats for 34-41d. The thickness of the total mucous layer in the colon was increased (Pdiet. In the colon, positive correlations were observed between the total...

  8. Collagen-Immobilized Lipases Show Good Activity and Reusability for Butyl Butyrate Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewei, Song; Min, Chen; Haiming, Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Candida rugosa lipases were immobilized onto collagen fibers through glutaraldehyde cross-linking method. The immobilization process has been optimized. Under the optimal immobilization conditions, the activity of the collagen-immobilized lipase reached 340 U/g. The activity was recovered of 28.3 % by immobilization. The operational stability of the obtained collagen-immobilized lipase for hydrolysis of olive oil emulsion was determined. The collagen-immobilized lipase showed good tolerance to temperature and pH variations in comparison to free lipase. The collagen-immobilized lipase was also applied as biocatalyst for synthesis of butyl butyrate from butyric acid and 1-butanol in n-hexane. The conversion yield was 94 % at the optimal conditions. Of its initial activity, 64 % was retained after 5 cycles for synthesizing butyl butyrate in n-hexane.

  9. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Consolata Miletta

    Full Text Available Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  10. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Ammann, Roland A; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  11. Kinetics of thermophilic, anaerobic oxidation of straight and branched chain butyrate and valerate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    parameter set occupied mutually exclusive parameter spaces, indicating that all were statistically different from each other. However, qualitatively, the influence on model outputs was similar, and the lumped set would be reasonable for mixed acid digestion. The main characteristic not represented by Monod......The degradation kinetics of normal and branched chain butyrate and valerate are important in protein-fed anaerobic systems, as a number of amino acids degrade to these organic acids. Including activated and primary wastewater sludge digesters, the majority of full-scale systems digest feeds...... with a significant or major fraction of COD as protein. This study assesses the validity of using a common kinetic parameter set and biological catalyst to represent butyrate, n-valerate, and i-valerate degradation in dynamic models. The i-valerate degradation stoichiometry in a continuous, mixed population system...

  12. Dielectric relaxation studies in polyvinyl butyral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehendru, P. C.; Kumar, Naresh; Arora, V. P.; Gupta, N. P.

    1982-10-01

    Dielectric measurements have been made in thick films (˜100 μm) of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) having degree of polymerization n=1600, in the frequency range 100 Hz-100 KHz and temperature range 300-373 K. The results indicated that PVB was in the amorphous phase and observed dielectric dispersion has been assigned as the β-relaxation process. The β relaxation is of Debye type with symmetrical distribution of relaxation times. The dielectric relaxation strength Δɛ and the distribution parameters β¯ increase with temperature. The results can be qualitatively explained by assuming the hindered rotation of the side groups involving hydroxyl/acetate groups.

  13. Controlled Morphology of Porous Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A simple and effective method for the fabrication of porous nanofibers based on the solvent evaporation methods in one-step electrospinning process from the commercial polyvinyl butyral (PVB) is presented. The obtained nanofibers are prevalently amorphous with diameters ranging from 150 to 4350 nm and specific surface area of approximately 2–20 m2/g. Pore size with irregular shape of the porous PVB fibers ranged approximately from 50 to 200 nm. The effects of polymer solution concentration,...

  14. Ácido fumárico e sua combinação com os ácidos butírico ou fórmico em dietas de leitões recém desmamados Fumaric, butyric and formic acid combinations in feed formulation for recently weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Gomes

    2007-10-01

    .0% fumaric acid; T4: CD + 0.5% fumaric acid + 0.1% butyric acid; T5: CD + 0.5% fumaric acid + 0.5% formic acid; T6: CD + 1,0% fumaric acid + 0.1% butyric acid and T7: CD + 1.0% fumaric acid + 0.5% formic acid, five replicates and six piglets per experimental unit. No effects of treatment (P0.05 from 16 to 36 days of age. Significant differences (P<0.05 between treatments for duodenal epithelium height were observed, but not for jejunum and ileum epithelium heights. Normal villus patterns were observed in the electromicrographs of duodenum from piglets fed all different diets.

  15. Sodium butyrate improves growth performance of weaned piglets during the first period after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Prandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to evaluate whether the addition of sodium butyrate to feed could facilitate wean- ing and growth response in piglets. For 56 days two groups of 20 piglets (9.2±1.4 kg LW were fed an acidified basal diet (containing formic and lactic acid at 0.5 and 1.5 g/kg of feed, respectively without (control group or with sodium butyrate (SB at 0.8 g/kg. Average daily gain (ADG, daily feed intake (DFI, feed efficiency (FE and live weight (LW were recorded. In the first two weeks, butyrate supplementation increased ADG (+20%; P<0.05 and DFI (+16%; P<0.05. During the subsequent period (15 to 35 days animals fed SB had a higher DFI but lower feed efficiency (+10% and -14%, respectively; P<0.05 than animals fed the control diet. No other benefits were observed thereafter. The data presented showed that the use of sodium butyrate facilitated only the initial phase of adaptation to a solid diet in piglets.

  16. Genome-wide ChIP-seq mapping and analysis of butyrate-induced H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and epigenomic landscapes alteration in bovine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (VFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are nutrients especially critical to ruminants. Beyond their nutritional impact, clear evidence is beginning to link modifications in chromatin structure induced by butyrate to cell cycle progression, DNA replication and over...

  17. The synergistic effect of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and sodium butyrate on the death of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Rie; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Azuma, Hideki; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2014-04-05

    It has been suggested that the combined effect of natural products may improve the effect of treatment against the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the combination of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), obtained from Alpinia galangal, and sodium butyrate, a major short chain fatty acid, on the growth of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and found that treatment had a synergistic inhibitory effect. The number of HepG2 cells was synergistically decreased via apoptosis induction when cells were treated with both ACA and sodium butyrate. In ACA- and sodium butyrate-treated cells, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and NADPH oxidase activities were increased significantly. The decrease in cell number after combined treatment of ACA and sodium butyrate was diminished when cells were pretreated with catalase. These results suggest that an increase in intracellular ROS levels is involved in cancer cell death. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor, plays an essential role in controlling processes related to tumor development. In ACA- and sodium butyrate-treated cells, AMPK phosphorylation was induced significantly, and this induction improved when cells were pretreated with catalase. These results suggest that the increase in intracellular ROS is involved in the increase of AMPK phosphorylation. In normal hepatocyte cells, treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate did not decrease cell numbers or increase ROS levels. In conclusion, combined treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate synergistically induced apoptotic cell death via an increase in intracellular ROS and phosphorylation of AMPK. Our findings may provide new insight into the development of novel combination therapies against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Sodium butyrate sensitizes TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by induction of transcription from the DR5 gene promoter through Sp1 sites in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho; Park, Jong-Wook; Lee, Jai-Youl; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2004-10-01

    Sodium butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid naturally present in the human colon, is able to induce cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in various cancer cells. Sodium butyrate is most probably related to the inhibition of deacetylases leading to hyperacetylation of chromatin components such as histones and non-histone proteins and to alterations in gene expression. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that sodium butyrate selectively up-regulated DR5 but had no effect on the expression of the other TNF-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor, DR4. Sodium butyrate-induced expression of DR5 involves the putative Sp1 site within the DR5 promoter region. Using a combination of the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and the luciferase reporter assay, we found that a specific Sp1 site (located at -195 bp relative to the transcription start site) is required for sodium butyrate-mediated activation of the DR5 promoter. When HCT116 cells were incubated with sodium butyrate and TRAIL, enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis was observed. The enhanced apoptosis was measured by fluorescent activated cell sorting analysis, DNA fragmentation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, down-regulation of XIAP and caspase activity. Taken together, the present studies suggest that sodium butyrate may be an effective sensitizer of TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

  19. Butyrate greatly enhances derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells by promoting epigenetic remodeling and the expression of pluripotency-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant; Chou, Bin-Kuan; Yen, Jonathan; Ye, Zhaohui; Zou, Jizhong; Dowey, Sarah; Brodsky, Robert A; Ohm, Joyce E; Yu, Wayne; Baylin, Stephen B; Yusa, Kosuke; Bradley, Allan; Meyers, David J; Mukherjee, Chandrani; Cole, Philip A; Cheng, Linzhao

    2010-04-01

    We report here that butyrate, a naturally occurring fatty acid commonly used as a nutritional supplement and differentiation agent, greatly enhances the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell derivation from human adult or fetal fibroblasts. After transient butyrate treatment, the iPS cell derivation efficiency is enhanced by 15- to 51-fold using either retroviral or piggyBac transposon vectors expressing 4 to 5 reprogramming genes. Butyrate stimulation is more remarkable (>100- to 200-fold) on reprogramming in the absence of either KLF4 or MYC transgene. Butyrate treatment did not negatively affect properties of iPS cell lines established by either 3 or 4 retroviral vectors or a single piggyBac DNA transposon vector. These characterized iPS cell lines, including those derived from an adult patient with sickle cell disease by either the piggyBac or retroviral vectors, show normal karyotypes and pluripotency. To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of butyrate stimulation, we conducted genome-wide gene expression and promoter DNA methylation microarrays and other epigenetic analyses on established iPS cells and cells from intermediate stages of the reprogramming process. By days 6 to 12 during reprogramming, butyrate treatment enhanced histone H3 acetylation, promoter DNA demethylation, and the expression of endogenous pluripotency-associated genes, including DPPA2, whose overexpression partially substitutes for butyrate stimulation. Thus, butyrate as a cell permeable small molecule provides a simple tool to further investigate molecular mechanisms of cellular reprogramming. Moreover, butyrate stimulation provides an efficient method for reprogramming various human adult somatic cells, including cells from patients that are more refractory to reprogramming.

  20. Rice genotypes evaluate under the interactive phytotoxic effect of acetic, propionic and butyric acidsAvaliação de genótipos de arroz sob o efeito fitotóxico interativo dos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of 20 rice genotypes to acetic, pripionic and butyric acid, a phytotoxic compounds produced in low drainage soils with high organic matter content. This work was performed in hydroponics with four acid doses (0; 3; 6 e 9 mM and 6:3:1 relationship acetic, propionic and butyric respectively. A factorial random block design with three replications were performed. The variables measured were root (CR and shoot (CPA length, number of roots (NR and root (MSR and shoot (MSPA dry matter. The data relative to the measured variables were subjected to an analysis of variance in a factorial model (4x20 and regression fitting, considering dose and genotype as fixed factors. Significance for the interaction (genotype vs. dose was found only for CR and CPA. The variable CR was the most influenced by the acid and the regression stablished for the variables CR and CPA revealed 2 genotypes with root length stability and 3 with shoot length stability front to organic acid stress. Genotypes with higher rusticity and developed for irrigated systems were more tolerant. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de 20 genótipos de arroz aos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico, compostos fitotóxicos produzidos em solos de deficiente drenagem e alto teor de matéria orgânica. O trabalho foi executado em sistema de hidroponia com 4 doses (0; 3; 6 e 9 mM dos ácidos na relação 6:3:1 acético, propiônico e butírico respectivamente. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados com 3 repetições num esquema fatorial. As variáveis mensuradas foram comprimento de raízes (CR e parte aérea (CPA, número de raízes (NR e massa seca de raízes (MSR e parte aérea (MSPA. Os dados relativos às variáveis mensuradas foram submetidos à análise de variância em um modelo fatorial (4x20, considerando dose e genótipo como fatores fixos e ajuste de regressões. A variável CR foi a mais afetada

  1. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition with butyrate acutely increases structural aspects of intestinal adaptation after an 80% jejunoileal resection in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholome, Anne L; Albin, David M; Baker, David H

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) enhances intestinal adaptation in the adult rodent model. However, the ability and timing of SCFA to augment adaptation in the neonatal intestine is unknown. Furthermore, the specific...... SCFA inducing the intestinotrophic effects and underlying regulatory mechanism(s) are unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of SCFA supplemented TPN on structural aspects of intestinal adaptation and hypothesized that butyrate is the SCFA responsible for these effects. METHODS: Piglets (n = 120......) were randomized to (1) control TPN or TPN supplemented with (2) 60 mmol/L SCFA (36 mmol/L acetate, 15 mmol/L propionate and 9 mmol/L butyrate), (3) 9 mmol/L butyrate, or (4) 60 mmol/L butyrate. Within each group, piglets were further randomized to examine acute (4, 12, or 24 hours) and chronic (3 or 7...

  2. Controlled Morphology of Porous Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lubasova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and effective method for the fabrication of porous nanofibers based on the solvent evaporation methods in one-step electrospinning process from the commercial polyvinyl butyral (PVB is presented. The obtained nanofibers are prevalently amorphous with diameters ranging from 150 to 4350 nm and specific surface area of approximately 2–20 m2/g. Pore size with irregular shape of the porous PVB fibers ranged approximately from 50 to 200 nm. The effects of polymer solution concentration, composition of the solvents mixture, and applied voltage on fiber diameter and morphology were investigated. The theoretical approach for the choice of poor and good solvents for PVB was explained by the application Hansen solubility parameter (HSP and two-dimensional graph. Three basic conditions for the production of porous PVB nanofibers were defined: (i application of good/poor solvent mixture for spinning solution, (ii differences of the evaporation rate between good/poor solvent, and (iii correct ratios of good/poor solvent (v/v. The diameter of prepared porous PVB fibers decreased as the polymer concentration was lowered and with higher applied voltage. These nanofiber sheets with porous PVB fibers could be a good candidate for high-efficiency filter materials in comparison to smooth fibers without pores.

  3. Thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) butyrate in argon atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Yue, Zhao; Xiao, Tang;

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of La(C3H7CO2)3·xH2O (x≈0.82) was studied in argon during heating at 5K/min. After the loss of bound H2O, the anhydrous butyrate presents at 135°C a phase transition to a mesophase, which turns to an isotropic liquid at 180°C. The decomposition of the anhydrous butyrate ...

  4. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  5. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis.

  6. 4,4,4-三氟-3-(吲哚-3-)丁酸对樱桃萝卜的生长和产量的影响%Effects of 4 ,4 ,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric Acid on Thickening Growth and Yield of Raphanus sativus L .

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀平; 张艳来; 世川英夫

    2012-01-01

      为了探讨4,4,4-三氟-3-(吲哚-3-)丁酸(TFIBA )对樱桃萝卜的生长和产量的影响,以樱桃萝卜品种Akamaru 为试材,研究了 TFIBA 对樱桃萝卜生长和产量的影响。结果表明:100μmol・L-1 TFIBA 浸泡种子处理通过基质培养显著促进了萝卜的肉质根生长,在播种28、35、42 d 后,产量分别增加了139%、53%、24%,干物质重量也得到明显提高。%  In order to discuss the influence of 4 ,4 ,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid(TFIBA )to radish growth and yield ,using radish variety Akamaru as experimental material ,the effect of TFIBA on thickening growth of radish hypocotyl were investigated .The results showed that when radish seeds were soaked in 100 μmol・L-1 TFIBA solution during germination and cultured in a green house ,thickening growth of hypocotyl(edible part) was increased by 139% ,53% and 24% of untreated control at 28 ,35 and 42 days after transplanting ,respec-tively .In this study ,it showed that TFIBA was a useful plant growth regulator to increase radish growth and yield .

  7. Enraizamento de diferentes tipos de estacas de oliveira (Olea europaea L. utilizando ácido indolbutírico Rooting of different types of olive (Olea europaea L. tree cuttings using indol butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do número de pares de folhas e testar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de AIB (ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de oliveira. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4 x 3, sendo quatro concentrações de AIB (0, 1000, 2000, e 3000 mg L-1 e três tipos de estacas (sem folhas, com um par de folhas e com dois pares de folhas. As estacas foram padronizadas com 12 cm de comprimento. Após o preparo inicial, as estacas foram imersas nas soluções de AIB por cinco segundos e, em seguida, colocadas em bandejas de polipropileno contendo o substrato Plantmax® e transportadas para casa-de-vegetação, com umidade e temperatura controladas, onde permaneceram por 90 dias. As variáveis analisadas foram: porcentagem de estacas enraizadas e brotadas, número de folhas, brotos e raízes emitidas por estaca e com primento médio das brotações e das raízes. O AIB apenas promoveu influência ao sistema radicular; a concentração de 2000 mg L-1 de AIB promoveu maior enraizamento e a concentração de 3000 mg L-1 de AIB em estacas com dois pares de folhas promoveu melhores resultados para número de raízes por estacas e comprimento médio das raízes; estacas ausentes de folhas favoreceram maior brotação nas estacas.The present work was developed with the objective to evaluate the influence of the number of leaves and test the effect of different concentrations of IBA (indolbutyric acid in the cutting propagation of olive tree. The experimental design was complete randomized, in a two factors arrangement (4 x 3, with four different concentrations of IBA (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg L-1 and three different types of cuttings (without leaves, one pair of leaves and two pairs of leaves. The cuttings were padronized with 12 cm of length and treated with IBA for five seconds. After that, they were taken to polysty

  8. Síntese enzimática de butirato de isoamila empregando lipases microbianas comerciais Enzymatic synthesis isoamyl butyrate employing commercial microbial lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Cardoso Aragão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoamyl butyrate production was investigated using free and immobilized lipases by esterification of butyric acid with isoamyl alcohol in a solvent-free system and in an organic media. Among the enzymes studied, Lipozyme TL IM was found to be the most active catalyst in n-hexane as a solvent. The effects of different solvents and the amount of water added on conversion rates were studied. A maximum conversion yield of 80% in n-hexano at 48 h was obtained under the following conditions: 3 g L-1 of Lipozyme TL IM, 30 ºC, 180 rpm of agitation, isoamyl alcohol to butyric acid molar ratio of 1:1 and acid substrate concentration of 0.06 M.

  9. Efficacy of the dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate alone or in combination with vitamin A against proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, F.O. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nagamine, M.K. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Conti, A. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chaible, L.M. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fontelles, C.C. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jordão Junior, A.A.; Vannucchi, H. [Divisão de Nutrição, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Dagli, M.L.Z. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bassoli, B.K.; Moreno, F.S.; Ong, T.P. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-22

    The combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and retinoids has been suggested as a potential epigenetic strategy for the control of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treatment with butyrate, a dietary HDACi, combined with vitamin A on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the crystal violet staining method. MCF-7 cells were plated at 5 x 10{sup 4} cells/mL and treated with butyrate (1 mM) alone or combined with vitamin A (10 µM) for 24 to 120 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was 34, 10 and 46% following treatment with butyrate, vitamin A and their combination, respectively, suggesting that vitamin A potentiated the inhibitory activities of butyrate. Furthermore, exposure to this short-chain fatty acid increased the level of histone H3K9 acetylation by 9.5-fold (Western blot), but not of H4K16, and increased the expression levels of p21{sup WAF1} by 2.7-fold (Western blot) and of RARβ by 2.0-fold (quantitative real-time PCR). Our data show that RARβ may represent a molecular target for butyrate in breast cancer cells. Due to its effectiveness as a dietary HDACi, butyrate should be considered for use in combinatorial strategies with more active retinoids, especially in breast cancers in which RARβ is epigenetically altered.

  10. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon; Uyeno, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10.

  11. In Vitro Effects of Dietary Inulin on Human Fecal Microbiota and Butyrate Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Hwan; Jeon, Woo-Min; Han, Kyoung-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Administration of dietary fibers has various health benefits, mainly by increasing numbers of beneficial bacteria and enhancing production of short-chain fatty acids in the colon. There has been growing interest in the addition of dietary fiber to human diet, due to its prebiotic effects. This study aimed to evaluate the prebiotic activity of inulin using an in vitro batch fermentation system with human fecal microbiota. Fermentation of inulin resulted in a significantly greater ratio of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacteria to Enterobacteria strains as an index of healthy human intestine and elevated butyrate concentration, which are related to improvement of gut health.

  12. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Anju

    2014-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague.

  13. Sodium Butyrate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Reverses Behavioral and Mitochondrial Alterations in Animal Models of Depression Induced by Early- or Late-life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Réus, Gislaine Z; Carvalho, André F; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on depressive-like behavior and mitochondrial alteration parameters in animal models of depression induced by maternal deprivation or chronic mild stress in Wistar rats. maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day 1 to day 10. Chronic mild stress was established by water deprivation, food deprivation, restraint stress, isolation and flashing lights. Sodium butyrate or saline was administered twice a day for 7 days before the behavioral tests. Depressive behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test. The activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) was measured in the striatum of rats. From these analyses it can be observed that sodium butyrate reversed the depressive-like behavior observed in both animal models of depression. Additionally, maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress inhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and increased the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Sodium butyrate treatment reversed -maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress- induced dysfunction in the striatum of rats. In conclusion, sodium butyrate showed antidepressant effects in maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress-treated rats, and this effect can be attributed to its action on the neurochemical pathways related to depression.

  14. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  15. Pré-tratamento com água e doses de ácido indolbutírico para estaquia herbácea de pitangueiras Pre-treatments with water and indole butyric acid dosis for herbaceous cuttings of Surinam cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Silva Lattuada

    2011-12-01

    . In this context, a study for the multiplication of Surinam cherry was conduced with herbaceous cuttings, taken from young and adult mother plants, immersed in indole butyric acid doses (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000mg L-1, in three different water periods (0, 24 or 48 hours. Survival rate (%, leaf retention and emission (No. leaves /cutting, callus rate (% and rooting (% were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, were also evaluated fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, leaf number and leaf area. The experiment has a completely randomized design with three replications of ten plants per treatment for nom destructive and three replications of five plants per treatment for the destrutive parameters. The herbaceous cuttings were efficient to produce seedlings of Surinam cherry, particularly when using cuttings derived from seedlings in the absence of the immersion in water and exogenous auxin.

  16. Rhizogenic Induction in Adult Juglans regia L. cv. Serr Tissue Induced by Indole Butyric Acid and Agrobacterium rhizogenes Inducción Rizogénica en Tejido Adulto de Juglans regia L. cv. Serr Mediada por Ácido Indol Butírico y Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sánchez-Olate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro introduction of adult walnut (Juglans regia L. tissue represents an opportunity to clone elite genotypes whose selection occurs in advanced ontogenic states. With the purpose of developing a protocol to allow mass propagation of valuable genotypes from adult material, a comparison was made between two root induction systems of walnut microshoots of the fourth subculture of adult walnut tissue of an in vitro introduction program previously reinvigorated through traditional grafting. Rhizogenic induction by indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and Agrobacterium rhizogenes was used. The rhizogenic process was analyzed in two phases for both auxinic (T1: 3 mg L-1 IBA; T2: 5 mg L-1 IBA and A. rhizogenes inductions (T3: A-477; T4: A-478. The first phase of root induction was during 3 days in the dark while the second phase, root manifestation, was 27 days. Rooting percentage was evaluated and the induced root systems characterized (number, length, diameter, and root insertion zone in all the procedures. The best rooting results were obtained in T2, although the response obtained with A. rhizogenes didn’t differ from the T1 response. This appears to be an increasingly interesting methodology for adventitious rhizogenesis in this species.La introducción in vitro de tejido adulto de nogal (Juglans regia L. representa una oportunidad de clonación de genotipos elite, cuya selección ocurre en estados ontogénicos avanzados. Así, con el objeto de desarrollar un protocolo que permita la propagación masiva de genotipos valiosos a partir de material adulto, se compararon dos sistemas de inducción rizogénica de microtallos de nogal provenientes del cuarto subcultivo de un programa de introducción in vitro de tejido adulto de nogal, previamente revigorizado mediante injerto tradicional. Se utilizó la inducción rizogénica por ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB y Agrobacterium rhizogenes. El proceso rizogénico se analizó tanto para inducción aux

  17. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted.

  18. Beneficial metabolic effects of a probiotic via butyrate-induced GLP-1 hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Lloyd, John; Walter, Peter; Rane, Sushil G

    2013-08-30

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with excess caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure resulting in a negative energy balance. The incidence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, and childhood diabetes and obesity are increasing alarmingly. Therefore, it is important to develop safe, easily deliverable, and economically viable treatment alternatives for these diseases. Here, we provide data supporting the candidacy of probiotics as such a therapeutic modality against obesity and diabetes. Probiotics are live bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and impart beneficial effects for health. However, their widespread prescription as medical therapies is limited primarily because of the paucity of our understanding of their mechanism of action. Here, we demonstrate that the administration of a probiotic, VSL#3, prevented and treated obesity and diabetes in several mouse models. VSL#3 suppressed body weight gain and insulin resistance via modulation of the gut flora composition. VSL#3 promoted the release of the hormone GLP-1, resulting in reduced food intake and improved glucose tolerance. The VSL#3-induced changes were associated with an increase in the levels of a short chain fatty acid (SCFA), butyrate. Using a cell culture system, we demonstrate that butyrate stimulated the release of GLP-1 from intestinal L-cells, thereby providing a plausible mechanism for VSL#3 action. These findings suggest that probiotics such as VSL#3 can modulate the gut microbiota-SCFA-hormone axis. Moreover, our results indicate that probiotics are of potential therapeutic utility to counter obesity and diabetes.

  19. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaro, Christopher, E-mail: cchiaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Lazarova, Darina L., E-mail: dlazarova@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Bordonaro, Michael, E-mail: mbordonaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that

  20. Importance of release location on the mode of action of butyrate derivatives in the avian gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moquet, P.C.A.; Onrust, L.; Immerseel, Van F.; Ducatelle, R.; Hendriks, W.H.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    In the field of animal nutrition, butyrate is used as a zootechnical ingredient and can be used as an unprotected salt or in the form of protected derivatives such as butyrate glycerides or butyrate-loaded matrices. Dietary butyrate supplementation has been shown to improve growth performance and

  1. ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS USED TO SUPPORT THE MICROBIALLY MEDIATED REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in environmental microcosm samples using ion-exclusion chromatography. The chromatographic behavior of various eluents was studied to determine the ...

  2. Experimental and Pathalogical study of Pistacia atlantica, butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and their combination on rat ulcerative colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mahdi; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Maqbool, Faheem; Baeeri, Maryam; Memariani, Zahra; Pousti, Iraj; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Pistacia atlantica (P. atlantica), butyrate, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and especially their combination therapy on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model. Rats were divided into seven groups. Four groups received oral P. atlantica, butyrate, L. casei and the combination of three agents for 10 consecutive days. The remaining groups were negative and positive controls and a sham group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were carried out along with determination of the specific biomarker of colonic oxidative stress, the myeloperoxidase (MPO). Compared with controls, the combination therapy exhibited a significant alleviation of colitis in terms of pathological scores and reduction of MPO activity (55%, p=0.0009). Meanwhile, the macroscopic appearance such as stool consistency, tissue and histopathological scores (edema, necrosis and neutrophil infiltration) were improved. Although single therapy by each P. atlantica, butyrate, and L. casei was partially beneficial in reduction of colon oxidative stress markers, the combination therapy was much more effective. In conclusion, the combination therapy was able to reduce the severity of colitis that is clear from biochemical markers. Future studies have to focus on clinical effects of this combination in management of human ulcerative colitis. Further molecular and signaling pathway studies will help to understand the mechanisms involved in the treatment of colitis and inflammatory diseases.

  3. Contribution of C. beijerinckii and C. sporogenes in association with C. tyrobutyricum to the butyric fermentation in Emmental type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourhis, Anne-Gaëlle; Doré, Joël; Carlier, Jean-Philippe; Chamba, Jean-François; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Tholozan, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-25

    The relationship between C. tyrobutyricum, C. sporogenes and C. beijerinckii in experimental cheese conditions, and their influences on late-blowing and butyric fermentation, have been investigated. A molecular approach using a PCR-TTGE method in combination with conventional methods, such as microbiological and physico-chemical analysis, was performed to monitor the evolution of these clostridial species, simultaneously with the occurrence of cheese defects. Sixteen Emmental type cheeses were produced from milk inoculated with different clostridial spore associations. In all cheeses inoculated with C. tyrobutyricum, obvious signs of late blowing were detected. In cheeses inoculated with C. beijerinckii or C. sporogenes, a formation of holes in cheese body was observed, with a concomitant slight amount of butyric acid production. Even though C. beijerinckii and C. sporogenes were less metabolically active and less numerically important than C. tyrobutyricum in cheese as shown by TTGE profiles, the association of these species to C. tyrobutyricum enhanced the butyric fermentation and the cheese defects. The level of butyric content in ripened cheese increased to 268 mg 100 g(-1) in presence of C. tyrobutyricum, and reached a maximum of 414 mg 100 g(-1) in presence of the C. beijerinckii-C. tyrobutyricum (1:10) association. The propionic fermentation was also higher in cheese inoculated with C. tyrobutyricum, and was slowed down in presence of C. beijerinckii and C. sporogenes. From 30 days of ripening, a strong correlation between the chemical contents and the intensity of cheese defects was demonstrated. A chemical analysis of cheese associated with a molecular method for microbial spoilage investigation allows the prediction of the level of late blowing at early stages of ripening, and the understanding of the origin of the defect.

  4. Increasing butanol/acetone ratio and solvent productivity in ABE fermentation by consecutively feeding butyrate to weaken metabolic strength of butyrate loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Zhigang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we attempted to increase butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in ABE fermentations with corn- and cassava-based media, by consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate/acetate during solventogenic phase to weaken the metabolic strengths in butyrate/acetate closed-loops. Consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate (a total of 3.0 g/L-broth) is most effective in improving performance of corn-based ABE fermentations, as it simultaneously increased average butanol/acetone ratio by 23 % (1.92-2.36) and total solvent productivity by 16 % (0.355-0.410 g/L/h) as compared with those of control. However, the butyrate feeding strategy could not improve butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in cassava-based ABE fermentations, where the metabolic strength of butyrate closed-loop had already been very low.

  5. Secondary polyvinyl butyral modified with potassium polytitanate for coatings with improved mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The technology of laminated glass is accompanied with a large amount of polyvinyl butyral wastes, which are used for recycling due to mechanical properties of recycled PVB as these properties are lower than those of the original polymer. The properties of composite coatings based on secondary polyvinyl butyral modified with potassium polytitanate were investigated. The composite coating was obtained by polyvinyl butyral dissolved in ethyl alcohol and then dispersed potassium polytitanate into...

  6. Vibrational Spectroscopic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Poly (vinyl butyral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Islam Ansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study was performed to investigate the normal modes of vibration and their dispersions in poly (vinyl butyral by using Urey-Bradley force field and Wilson’s GF matrix method as modified by Higgs. It provides detailed interpretation of FTIR. Characteristic feature of dispersion curves such as regions of high density–of–states, repulsion and character mixing of dispersion modes are discussed. Predictive values of heat capacity as a function of temperature between 0-350 K have been evaluated.

  7. Enraizamento de estacas, crescimento e respostas anatômicas de mudas clonais de cacaueiro ao ácido indol-3-butírico Stem cutting rooting, growth and anatomical responses of cacao tree clonal changes to the indole-3-butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto José dos Santos Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB no crescimento e na morfologia interna de quatro clones de Theobroma cacao (CCN-10, CP-53, PS-1319 e CA-1.4. O AIB foi aplicado na base da estaca de caule, em talco inerte, nas concentrações de 2; 4; 6 e 8 g kg-1, juntamente com o controle (sem AIB. A avaliação do crescimento de raízes, caule e folhas dos quatro clones foi realizada aos 160 dias após o estaqueamento (DAE para todas as concentrações de AIB, período também em que se realizou a coleta de material para os estudos anatômicos dos diversos órgãos, mas somente para a concentração de 4g kg-1 AIB e o controle. O clone CA-1.4 apresentou incremento na biomassa seca de raiz (BSR com o aumento das concentrações de AIB, ao passo que, nos demais clones, houve diminuições de BSR a partir dos 4 g kg-1 AIB. O mesmo fato foi observado para a biomassa seca de caule (BSC e de folha (BSF, exceto para a BSC do CCN-10 que não respondeu ao incremento das concentrações de AIB. Houve aumento de área foliar total para os clones CP-53 e PS-1319 com o incremento de AIB até 4 g kg-1, enquanto o aumento do número de folhas ocorreu somente para os clones CA-1.4 e CP-53 até as concentrações 8 e 4 g kg-1 AIB, respectivamente. Houve diminuição do número de estacas mortas para os clones CA-1.4 e CCN-10 até 8 g kg-1 de AIB e para o CP-53 até 4 g kg-1 de AIB. As melhores concentrações de AIB para o enraizamento de estacas de ramos dos clones de cacaueiros CP-53, PS-1319 e CCN-10 foram de 4, 4 e 6 g kg-1 AIB, respectivamente, enquanto para o clone CA-1.4 foi de 8 g kg-1 AIB; o aumento da concentração de AIB promoveu mudanças anatômicas nos órgãos vegetativos de todos os clones, influenciando na atividade do câmbio vascular e induzindo a formação de um maior número de raízes adventícias nas estacas.The effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA on growth and internal morphology of four clones of Theobroma cacao (CCN-10, CP

  8. Síntese do butirato de n-butila empregando lipase microbiana imobilizada em copolímero de estireno-divinilbenzeno Synthesis of butyl butyrate by microbial lipase immobilized onto styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos de Oliveira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the reaction parameters of an immobilized lipase in the esterification reaction of n-butanol and butyric acid. Microbial lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized onto styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (STY-DVB and subsequently introduced in an organic medium containing substrates in appropriate concentrations. Heptane was selected as solvent on the basis of its compatibility with the resin and the enzyme. The influence of molar ratio of acid to alcohol, amount of immobilized lipase and temperature on the butyl butyrate formation was determined. The results were compared with those achieved with free lipase and Lipozyme (commercially immobilized lipase under the same operational conditions.

  9. Kinetics of syntrophic cultures: a theoretical treatise on butyrate fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleerebezem, R; Stams, A J

    2000-03-01

    Numerous microbial conversions in methanogenic environments proceed at (Gibbs) free energy changes close to thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we attempt to describe the consequences of this thermodynamic boundary condition on the kinetics of anaerobic conversions in methanogenic environments. The anaerobic fermentation of butyrate is used as an example. Based on a simple metabolic network stoichiometry, the free energy change based balances in the cell, and the flux of substrates and products in the catabolic and anabolic reactions are coupled. In butyrate oxidation, a mechanism of ATP-dependent reversed electron transfer has been proposed to drive the unfavorable oxidation of butyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA. A major assumption in our model is that ATP-consumption and electron translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane do not proceed according to a fixed stoichiometry, but depend on the cellular concentration ratio of ATP and ADP. The energetic and kinetic impact of product inhibition by acetate and hydrogen are described. A major consequence of the derived model is that Monod-based kinetic description of this type of conversions is not feasible, because substrate conversion and biomass growth are proposed to be uncoupled. It furthermore suggests that the specific substrate conversion rate cannot be described as a single function of the driving force of the catabolic reaction but depends on the actual substrate and product concentrations. By using nonfixed stoichiometries for the membrane associated processes, the required flexibility of anaerobic bacteria to adapt to varying environmental conditions can be described.

  10. Acetate and butyrate as substrates for hydrogen production through photo-fermentation: Process optimization and combined performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikanth, S.; Venkata Mohan, S.; Prathima Devi, M.; Peri, Dinakar; Sarma, P.N. [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Hyderabad, AP 500 007 (India)

    2009-09-15

    Organic acids viz., acetate and butyrate were evaluated as primary substrates for the production of biohydrogen (H{sub 2}) through photo-fermentation process using mixed culture at mesophilic temperature (34 C). Experiments were performed by varying parameters like operating pH, presence/absence of initiator substrate (glucose) and vitamin solution, type of nitrogen source (mono sodium salt of glutamic acid and amino glutamic acid) and gas (nitrogen/argon) used to create anaerobic microenvironment. Experimental data showed the feasibility of H{sub 2} production along with substrate degradation utilizing organic acids as metabolic substrate but was found to be dependent on the process parameters evaluated. Maximum specific H{sub 2} production and substrate degradation were observed with acetic acid [3.51 mol/Kg COD{sub R}-day; 1.22 Kg COD{sub R}/m{sup 3}-day (92.96%)] compared to butyric acid [3.33 mol/Kg COD{sub R}-day; 1.19 Kg COD{sub R}/m{sup 3}-day (88%)]. Higher H{sub 2} yield was observed under acidophilic microenvironment in the presence of glucose (co-substrate), mono sodium salt of glutamic acid (nitrogen source) and vitamins. Argon induced microenvironment was observed to be effective compared to nitrogen induced microenvironment. Combined process efficiency viz., H{sub 2} production and substrate degradation was evaluated employing data enveloping analysis (DEA) methodology based on the relative efficiency. Integration of dark fermentation with photo-fermentation appears to be an economically viable route for sustainable biohydrogen production if wastewater is used as substrate. (author)

  11. Bioinformatic dissecting of TP53 regulation pathway underlying butyrate-induced histone modification in epigenetic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyrate affects cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. Butyrate inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. TP53 is one of the most active upstream regulators discovered by IPA in our RNA sequencing data set. The TP53 signaling pathway pl...

  12. Transcriptomic sequencing reveals a set of unique genes activated by butyrate-induced histone modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes induced by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell using deep RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq), a set of unique gen...

  13. Differential Cellular and Molecular Effects of Butyrate and Trichostatin A on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Ranganna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, butyrate and trichostatin A (TSA, are epigenetic histone modifiers and proliferation inhibitors by downregulating cyclin D1, a positive cell cycle regulator, and upregulating p21Cip1 and INK family of proteins, negative cell cycle regulators. Our recent study indicated cyclin D1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC that are proliferation-arrested by butyrate. Here we investigate whether cyclin D1 upregulation is a unique response of VSMC to butyrate or a general response to HDAC inhibitors (HDACi by evaluating the effects of butyrate and TSA on VSMC. While butyrate and TSA inhibit VSMC proliferation via cytostatic and cytotoxic effects, respectively, they downregulate cdk4, cdk6, and cdk2, and upregulate cyclin D3, p21Cip1 and p15INK4B, and cause similar effects on key histone H3 posttranslational modifications. Conversely, cyclin D1 is upregulated by butyrate and inhibited by TSA. Assessment of glycogen synthase 3-dependent phosphorylation, subcellular localization and transcription of cyclin D1 indicates that differential effects of butyrate and TSA on cyclin D1 levels are linked to disparity in cyclin D1 gene expression. Disparity in butyrate- and TSA-induced cyclin D1 may influence transcriptional regulation of genes that are associated with changes in cellular morphology/cellular effects that these HDACi confer on VSMC, as a transcriptional modulator.

  14. Zinc sensing receptor signaling, mediated by GPR39, reduces butyrate-induced cell death in HT29 colonocytes via upregulation of clusterin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Cohen

    Full Text Available Zinc enhances epithelial proliferation, protects the digestive epithelial layer and has profound antiulcerative and antidiarrheal roles in the colon. Despite the clinical significance of this ion, the mechanisms linking zinc to these cellular processes are poorly understood. We have previously identified an extracellular Zn(2+ sensing G-protein coupled receptor (ZnR that activates Ca(2+ signaling in colonocytes, but its molecular identity as well as its effects on colonocytes' survival remained elusive. Here, we show that Zn(2+, by activation of the ZnR, protects HT29 colonocytes from butyrate induced cell death. Silencing of the G-protein coupled receptor GPR39 expression abolished ZnR-dependent Ca(2+ release and Zn(2+-dependent survival of butyrate-treated colonocytes. Importantly, GPR39 also mediated ZnR-dependent upregulation of Na(+/H(+ exchange activity as this activity was found in native colon tissue but not in tissue obtained from GPR39 knock-out mice. Although ZnR-dependent upregulation of Na(+/H(+ exchange reduced the cellular acid load induced by butyrate, it did not rescue HT29 cells from butyrate induced cell death. ZnR/GPR39 activation however, increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein clusterin in butyrate-treated cells. Furthermore, silencing of clusterin abolished the Zn(2+-dependent survival of HT29 cells. Altogether, our results demonstrate that extracellular Zn(2+, acting through ZnR, regulates intracellular pH and clusterin expression thereby enhancing survival of HT29 colonocytes. Moreover, we identify GPR39 as the molecular moiety of ZnR in HT29 and native colonocytes.

  15. MODULATION OF MDR-1 GENE IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS BY SODIUM BUTYRATE AND DMSO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the regulation effect of MDR-1 gene inhuman breast cancer cell by the differentiating agents, sodium butyrate and dimethyl sulfoxide. Methods: 1. A sensitive assay, RT-PCR, was used to measure the mRNA level before and after the treatment of sodium butyrate, DMSO, using b -actin as control; 2. Evaluated the effect of sodium butyrate, DMSO on MDR-1 gene expression of human breast cancer at the protein level by immunoflow cytometry; 3. P-glycoprotein function was examined after accumulation of the fluorescent drug, Phodamine-123, by flow cytometry; 4. Chemosensitivity to doxorubicin was analyzed using the MTT assay. Results: Sodium butyrate and DMSO were found to increase the MDR characteristics on MDR-1 gene, MDR-1 expression levels, P-glycoprotein function and chemosensitivity to doxorubicin. Conclusion: sodium butyrate, DMSO can modulate the MDR-1 gene at gene level, protein level, protein function level and cell level.

  16. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) propionate and butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of yttrium(III) propionate monohydrate (Y(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) and yttrium(III) butyrate dihydrate (Y(C3H7CO2)3·2H2O) were studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage microscopy. These two...... of CO2 and a symmetrical ketone consisting of 3-pentanone and 4-heptanone respectively. Final conversion to Y2O3 takes pace with release of CO2. Elemental carbon that is left as a by-product is finally slowly burned by the residual oxygen present in the Ar atmosphere. Fusion is observed at ≈110°C...

  17. A method for purifying butyric crude oil fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saskovets, V.V.; Gayle, A.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Semenov, L.V.; Zakharov, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    In a method for purification of butyric fractions of oil through extraction by a selective solvent, in order to increase the output and to improve the quality of the purified oil, 2,5-dimethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole of the cited formula, or its mixture with 80 to 90 percent furfural is used as the selective solvent. The solvent is produced through a reaction between hydrazine and an acetic anhydride. The solvent is a colorless liquid with a weak characteristic smell, and is easily dissolved in water with a boiling point of 178 degrees and density at 4-20/sup 0/ of 1.0963. The solvent is thermally stable: after boiling at 220 degrees, its viscosity is essentially the same.

  18. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.H.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; Roelofsen, H.; Vonk, R.J.; Venema, K.

    2010-01-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced. However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser exten

  19. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, Sa'ad H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.; Venema, Koen

    2010-01-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser extent

  20. Butyrate inhibits cancerous HCT116 cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous NCM460 colon cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate at the cellular level remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser...

  1. In vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption of calcium [1-14C]butyrate in free or protected forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyrate is a by-product of microbial carbohydrate fermentation that occurs primarily in the large intestine. When added to feed, butyrate quickly disappears in the upper digestive tract. Because butyrate is important for the epithelial cell development and for mucosal integrity, and for animal grow...

  2. Sodium butyrate and its synthetic amide derivative modulate nociceptive behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Roberto; De Caro, Carmen; Avagliano, Carmen; Cristiano, Claudia; La Rana, Giovanna; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Berni Canani, Roberto; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the role of sodium butyrate (butyrate), and its more palatable derivative, the N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA), in animal models of acute and chronic pain. We found that oral administrations of butyrate (10-200mg/Kg) or equimolecular FBA (21.2-424mg/Kg) reduced visceral pain in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Both drugs were also effective in the formalin test, showing an antinociceptive effect. This analgesic effect was blocked by glibenclamide, suggesting the involvement of ATP-dependent K(+) channels. Moreover, following repeated administration butyrate (100-200mg/Kg) and FBA (212-424mg/Kg) retained their analgesic properties in a model of neuropathic pain, reducing mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. The involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) -α and -γ for the analgesic effect of butyrate was also investigated by using PPAR-α null mice or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. Western blot analysis, confirmed the role of peroxisome receptors in butyrate effects, evidencing the increase of PPAR-α and -γ expression, associated to the reduction of inflammatory markers (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and cFOS). In conclusion, we describe the role of butyrate-based drugs in pain, identifying different and converging non-genomic and genomic mechanisms of action, which cooperate in nociception maintenance.

  3. Duodenal histology and carcass quality of feedlot cattle supplemented with calcium butyrate and Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Simas de Oliveira Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Comigo Technology Center, in Rio Verde, State of Goiás, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effects of supplementation with calcium butyrate, as a growth promoting agent for the duodenal mucosa and Bacillus subtilis as a probiotic performance enhancer in feedlot cattle. Calcium butyrate (5 and 10 g per animal per day and Bacillus (10 g per animal per day were added to a basal diet. There were used 85 Nelore bulls, with average weight of 315 ± 7 kg. The experiment lasted 118 days, including the adaptation period, until slaughter at 30 months of age. Diets were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments, where: T1 = control (basal diet; T2 = basal diet + 5 g calcium butyrate; T3 = basal diet + 10 g calcium butyrate and T4 = basal diet + 10 g calcium butyrate + 10 g probiotic with four replications and five to six animals per replication. It was used a forage: concentrate ratio of 30:70, the roughage used was the corn silage. Height and width measurements of intestinal villi were taken, and carcass and meat quality were evaluated. The supplementation of calcium butyrate and Bacillus subtilis positively influenced (p < 0.05 the carcass marbling level and calcium butyrate increased the villus height in the small intestine.

  4. Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a butyrate-producing bacterium from the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläring, Karoline; Hanske, Laura; Bui, Nam; Charrier, Cédric; Blaut, Michael; Haller, Dirk; Plugge, Caroline M; Clavel, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-positive, spore-forming, non-motile, strictly anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from the caecal content of a TNF(deltaARE) mouse. The isolate, referred to as strain SRB-521-5-I(T), was originally cultured on a reduced agar medium containing yeast extract, rumen fluid and lactic acid as main energy and carbon sources. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the species most closely related to strain SRB-521-5-I(T) were Flavonifractor plautii and Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus (<95 % sequence similarity; 1436 bp). In contrast to F. plautii and P. capillosus, strain SRB-521-5-I(T) contained a substantial amount of C18 : 0 dimethylacetal. Additional major fatty acids were C14 : 0 methyl ester, C16 : 0 dimethylacetal and C18 : 0 aldehyde. Strain SRB-521-5-I(T) differed in its enzyme profile from F. plautii and P. capillosus by being positive for dextrin, maltotriose, turanose, dl-lactic acid and d-lactic acid methyl ester but negative for d-fructose. In reduced Wilkins-Chalgren-Anaerobe broth, strain SRB-521-5-I(T) produced approximately 8 mM butyrate and 4 mM acetate. In contrast to F. plautii, the strain did not metabolize flavonoids. It showed intermediate resistance towards the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, colistin and tetracycline. Based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose the name Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate strain SRB-521-5-I(T) ( = DSM 26588(T) = CCUG 63529(T)) as the type strain.

  5. Butyrate stimulates IL-32α expression in human intestinal epithelial cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayako; Kobori; Shigeki; Bamba; Hirotsugu; Imaeda; Hiromitsu; Ban; Tomoyuki; Tsujikawa; Yasuharu; Saito; Yoshihide; Fujiyama; Akira; Andoh

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of butyrate on interleukin (IL)-32α expression in epithelial cell lines. METHODS: The human intestinal epithelial cell lines HT-29, SW480, and T84 were used. Intracellular IL- 32α was determined by Western blotting analyses. IL- 32α mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time poly-merase chain reaction. RESULTS: Acetate and propionate had no effects on IL-32α mRNA expression. Butyrate significantly enhanced IL-32α expression in all cell lines. Butyrate also up-regulated IL-1β-i...

  6. Statistical design for formulation optimization of hydrocortisone butyrate-loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Patel, Sulabh; Sheng, Ye; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop hydrocortisone butyrate (HB)-loaded poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) with ideal encapsulation efficiency (EE), particle size, and drug loading (DL) under emulsion solvent evaporation technique utilizing various experimental statistical design modules. Experimental designs were used to investigate specific effects of independent variables during preparation of HB-loaded PLGA NP and corresponding responses in optimizing the formulation. Plackett-Burman design for independent variables was first conducted to prescreen various formulation and process variables during the development of NP. Selected primary variables were further optimized by central composite design. This process leads to an optimum formulation with desired EE, particle size, and DL. Contour plots and response surface curves display visual diagrammatic relationships between the experimental responses and input variables. The concentration of PLGA, drug, and polyvinyl alcohol and sonication time were the critical factors influencing the responses analyzed. Optimized formulation showed EE of 90.6%, particle size of 164.3 nm, and DL of 64.35%. This study demonstrates that statistical experimental design methodology can optimize the formulation and process variables to achieve favorable responses for HB-loaded NP.

  7. Cyclic AMP synergizes with butyrate in promoting β-defensin 9 expression in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Lakshmi T; Zeng, Xiangfang; Curtis, Amanda R; Zhang, Guolong

    2014-02-01

    Host defense peptides (HDP) have both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties. Specific induction of endogenous HDP synthesis has emerged as a novel approach to antimicrobial therapy. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and butyrate have been implicated in HDP induction in humans. However, the role of cAMP signaling and the possible interactions between cAMP and butyrate in regulating HDP expression in other species remain unknown. Here we report that activation of cAMP signaling induces HDP gene expression in chickens as exemplified by β-defensin 9 (AvBD9). We further showed that, albeit being weak inducers, cAMP agonists synergize strongly with butyrate or butyrate analogs in AvBD9 induction in macrophages and primary jejunal explants. Additionally, oral supplementation of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase agonist in the form of a Coleus forskohlii extract, was found to induce AvBD9 expression in the crop of chickens. Furthermore, feeding with both forskolin and butyrate showed an obvious synergy in triggering AvBD9 expression in the crop and jejunum of chickens. Surprisingly, inhibition of the MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway augmented the butyrate-FSK synergy, whereas blocking JNK or p38 MAPK pathway significantly diminished AvBD9 induction in chicken macrophages and jejunal explants in response to butyrate and FSK individually or in combination. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for concomitant use of butyrate and cAMP signaling activators in enhancing HDP expression, innate immunity, and disease resistance in both animals and humans.

  8. Kinetic and thermodynamic control of butyrate conversion in non-defined methanogenic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junicke, H; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kleerebezem, R

    2016-01-01

    Many anaerobic conversions proceed close to thermodynamic equilibrium and the microbial groups involved need to share their low energy budget to survive at the thermodynamic boundary of life. This study aimed to investigate the kinetic and thermodynamic control mechanisms of the electron transfer during syntrophic butyrate conversion in non-defined methanogenic communities. Despite the rather low energy content of butyrate, results demonstrate unequal energy sharing between the butyrate-utilizing species (17 %), the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (9-10 %), and the acetoclastic methanogens (73-74 %). As a key finding, the energy disproportion resulted in different growth strategies of the syntrophic partners. Compared to the butyrate-utilizing partner, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens compensated their lower biomass yield per mole of electrons transferred with a 2-fold higher biomass-specific electron transfer rate. Apart from these thermodynamic control mechanisms, experiments revealed a ten times lower hydrogen inhibition constant on butyrate conversion than proposed by the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1, suggesting a much stronger inhibitory effect of hydrogen on anaerobic butyrate conversion. At hydrogen partial pressures exceeding 40 Pa and at bicarbonate limited conditions, a shift from methanogenesis to reduced product formation was observed which indicates an important role of the hydrogen partial pressure in redirecting electron fluxes towards reduced products such as butanol. The findings of this study demonstrate that a careful consideration of thermodynamics and kinetics is required to advance our current understanding of flux regulation in energy-limited syntrophic ecosystems.

  9. Antagonistic Effects of Sodium Butyrate and N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl-retinamide on Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kuefer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Butyrates and retinoids are promising antineoplastic agents. Here we analyzed effects of sodium butyrate and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl-retinamide (4-HPR on prostate cancer cells as monotherapy or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Sodium butyrate and 4-HPR induced concentration-dependent growth inhibition in prostate cancer cells in vitro. The isobologram analysis revealed that sodium butyrate and 4-HPR administered together antagonize effects of each other. For the in vivo studies, a water-soluble complex (4-HPR with a cyclodextrin was created. A single dose of sodium butyrate and 4-HPR showed a peak level in chicken plasma within 30 minutes. Both compounds induced inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in xenografts of the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Analysis of the cytotoxic effects of the drugs used in combination demonstrated an antagonistic effect on inhibition of proliferation and on induction of apoptosis. Prolonged jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation induced by sodium butyrate and 4-HPR was strongly attenuated when both compounds were used in combination. Both compounds induced inhibition of NF-κ,B. This effect was strongly antagonized in LNCaP cells when the compounds were used in combination. These results indicate that combinational therapies have to be carefully investigated due to potential antagonistic effects in the clinical setting despite promising results of a monotherapy.

  10. Butyrate production in phylogenetically diverse Firmicutes isolated from the chicken caecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska; De Baere, Siegrid; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Louis, Petra; Vandamme, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Sixteen butyrate-producing bacteria were isolated from the caecal content of chickens and analysed phylogenetically. They did not represent a coherent phylogenetic group, but were allied to four different lineages in the Firmicutes phylum. Fourteen strains appeared to represent novel species, based on a level of ≤ 98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards their nearest validly named neighbours. The highest butyrate concentrations were produced by the strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV and XIVa, clusters which are predominant in the chicken caecal microbiota. In only one of the 16 strains tested, the butyrate kinase operon could be amplified, while the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene was detected in eight strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV, XIVa and XIVb. None of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates carried this gene based on degenerate PCR analyses. However, another CoA-transferase gene more similar to propionate CoA-transferase was detected in the majority of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates. Since this gene is located directly downstream of the remaining butyrate pathway genes in several human cluster XVI bacteria, it may be involved in butyrate formation in these bacteria. The present study indicates that butyrate producers related to cluster XVI may play a more important role in the chicken gut than in the human gut.

  11. Butyrate-induced GPR41 Activation Inhibits Histone Acetylation and Cell Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Wu; Zongli Zhou; Yinghe Hu; Suzhen Dong

    2012-01-01

    Butyrate has been recently identified as a natural ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41).In addition,it is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC).Butyrate treatment results in the hyperacetylation of histones,with resultant multiple biological effects including inhibition of proliferation,induction of cell cycle arrest,and apoptosis,in a variety of cultured mammalian cells.However,it is not clear whether GPR41 is actively involved in the above-mentioned processes.In this study,we generated a stable cell line expressing the hGPR41 receptor in order to investigate the involvement of GPR41 on butyrate-induced biochemical and physiologic processes.We found that GPR41 activation may be a compensatory mechanism to counter the increase in histone H3 acetylation levels induced by butyrate treatment.Moreover,GPR41 had an inhibitory effect on the anti-proliferative,pro-apoptotic effects of butyrate.GPR41 expression induced cell cycle arrest at the Gl-stage,while its activation by butyrate can cause more cells to pass the Gl checkpoint.These results indicated that GPR41 was associated with histone acetylation and might be involved in the acetylation-related regulation of cell processes including proliferation,apoptosis,and the cell cycle.

  12. Rapid Estimation of Enantioselectivity in Lipase-catalyzed Resolution of Glycidyl Butyrate Using pH Indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; WANG Lei; WANG Li-cheng; LI Chun-yuan; WANG Ren; MIAO Qing-hua; YANG Ming; WANG Zhi

    2009-01-01

    A simple method for rapid estimation of the enantioselectivity of lipase in resolution of chiral esters is described. The enantioselectivity of lipase can be estimated rapidly through comparing the dif-ference of hydrolysis rates for the racemic ester and its slow reacting enantiomer under the same condition because the difference mainly depends on the enantioselective ratio(E values). The higher the enantiose-lectivity of enzyme, the larger the difference of hydrolysis rate. The bromothymol blue(BTB) can be used as pH indicator for microplate reader to monitor the formation of acid in lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis ofesters. This method has been successfully used to rapidly estimate the enantioselectivity of several lipases in the resolution of glycidyl butyrate.

  13. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Liang

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1 sham group, sham burn treatment; 2 burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; 3 burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  14. Propolis augments apoptosis induced by butyrate via targeting cell survival pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Drago

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the major lifestyle factors affecting incidence of colorectal cancer (CC, and despite accumulating evidence that numerous diet-derived compounds modulate CC incidence, definitive dietary recommendations are not available. We propose a strategy that could facilitate the design of dietary supplements with CC-preventive properties. Thus, nutrient combinations that are a source of apoptosis-inducers and inhibitors of compensatory cell proliferation pathways (e.g., AKT signaling may produce high levels of programmed death in CC cells. Here we report the combined effect of butyrate, an apoptosis inducer that is produced through fermentation of fiber in the colon, and propolis, a honeybee product, on CC cells. We established that propolis increases the apoptosis of CC cells exposed to butyrate through suppression of cell survival pathways such as the AKT signaling. The programmed death of CC cells by combined exposure to butyrate and propolis is further augmented by inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Analyses on the contribution of the downstream targets of JNK signaling, c-JUN and JAK/STAT, to the apoptosis of butyrate/propolis-treated CC cells ascertained that JAK/STAT signaling has an anti-apoptotic role; whereas, the role of cJUN might be dependent upon regulatory cell factors. Thus, our studies ascertained that propolis augments apoptosis of butyrate-sensitive CC cells and re-sensitizes butyrate-resistant CC cells to apoptosis by suppressing AKT signaling and downregulating the JAK/STAT pathway. Future in vivo studies should evaluate the CC-preventive potential of a dietary supplement that produces high levels of colonic butyrate, propolis, and diet-derived JAK/STAT inhibitors.

  15. High performance films of cellulose butyral derivative having a necklace-like annular structure in the side chains

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated high performance films using cellulose butyral (CB) synthesized from native cellulose. Two-step reactions were adopted to produce the derivative CB, including etherification of cellulose with glycidol in NaOH/urea aqueous solution to yield O-(2, 3-dihydroxypropyl) cellulose (DHPC), and butyralization of DHPC. Both DHPC and CB products were easily processed into a thin film by hot-press molding. The butyral modifier significantly improved the tenacity of highly ductile DHPC, by v...

  16. Butyrate Inhibits Cancerous HCT116 Colon Cell Proliferation but to a Lesser Extent in Noncancerous NCM460 Colon Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Taussig, David P; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hakkak, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared with that in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, butyrate treatment increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), a survival signal, in NCM460 cells while it decreased p-ERK1/2 in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic potential in HCT116 cells may confer the increased sensitivity of cancerous colon cells to butyrate in comparison with noncancerous colon cells.

  17. The inhibitor of histone deacetylases sodium butyrate enhances the cytotoxicity of mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodinov, Anastas; Popova, Stanislava; Vassileva, Ivelina; Anachkova, Boyka

    2012-10-01

    The use of histone deacetylase inhibitors has been proposed as a promising approach to increase the cell killing effect of DNA damage-inducing drugs in chemotherapy. However, the molecular mechanism of their action remains understudied. In the present article, we have assessed the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate on the DNA damage response induced by the crosslinking agent mitomycin C. Sodium butyrate increased mitomycin C cytotoxicity, but did not impair the repair pathways required to remove mitomycin C-induced lesions as neither the rate of nucleotide excision repair nor the homologous recombination repair rate were diminished. Sodium butyrate treatment abrogated the S-phase cell-cycle checkpoint in mitomycin C-treated cells and induced the G(2)-M checkpoint. However, sodium butyrate treatment alone resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen species, double-strand breaks in DNA, and apoptosis. These results imply that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species-mediated increase in DNA lesion burden may be the major mechanism by which sodium butyrate enhances the cytotoxicity of mitomycin C.

  18. New holographic polymeric composition based on plexiglass, polyvinyl butyral, and phenanthrenquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusevich, Vladislav; Tolstik, Elen; Kowarschik, Richard; Egorova, Elena; Matusevich, Yuri I.; Krul, Leonid

    2013-05-01

    The newly developed Plexiglas films containing polyvinyl butyral resins and phenanthrenequinone molecules as photosensitive dopant, which are proposed for the practical application as interlayer of laminated safety glass, are shown for the first time. The injection of the phenanthrenequinone-poly(methyl methacrylate) into the polyvinyl butyral protective interlayer provides a homogenous distribution of the recording holographic medium in the layer and allows fixing the entire surface grating in the laminated glass. In addition, the original properties of polyvinyl butyral as a connecting material were preserved during manufacturing of the laminated glass. This allows a recording of holographic structures directly after baking of the laminated glass, thus reducing the destruction of the gratings due to the elevated temperatures. The diffractive structures in phenanthrenequinone-poly(methyl methacrylate)-polyvinyl butyral polymeric layers with thicknesses of hundreds of microns are sealed between two panels of glass (so-called laminated glass) and are generated by illumination with an Argon-laser of 514 nm. Efficiently fixed and long-term stable holographic gratings recorded in the phenanthrenequinone-poly(methyl methacrylate)-polyvinyl butyral layer enable to produce transparent laminated glass with inserted diffractive elements, which can be used e.g. for Head-up Displays in automobile windshields or as holographic light concentrators for solar cells.

  19. Blocking the butyrate-formation pathway impairs hydrogen production in Clostridium perfringens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruisong Yu; Ruofan Wang; Ting Bi; Weining Sun; Zhihua Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Inactivating competitive pathways will improve fermentative hydrogen production by obligate anaerobes,such as those of genus Clostridium.In our previous study,the hydrogen yield of Clostridium perfringens W13 in which L-lactate dehydrogenase was inactivated increased by 44% when compared with its original strain W12.In this study,we explored whether blocking butyrate formation pathway would increase hydrogen yield.The acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase gene (atoB) encodes the first enzyme in this pathway,which ultimately forms butyrate.Clostridium perfringens W14 and W15 were constructed by inactivating atoB in W13 and W12,respectively.The hydrogen yield of W14 and W15 was 44% and 33% of those of W13 and W12,respectively.Inactivation of atoB decreased the pyruvate synthesis and its conversion to acetyl-CoA in both mutants,and increased ethanol formation in W14 and W15.Proteomic analysis revealed that the expressions of five proteins involved in butyrate formation pathway were up-regulated in W14.Our results suggest that butyrate formation deficiency improved ethanol production but not hydrogen production,indicating the importance of butyrate formation pathway for hydrogen production in C.perfringens.

  20. Sodium butyrate attenuates high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice by improving gut microbiota and gastrointestinal barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Da; Pan, Qin; Xin, Feng-Zhi; Zhang, Rui-Nan; He, Chong-Xin; Chen, Guang-Yu; Liu, Chang; Chen, Yuan-Wen; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether gut microbiota metabolite sodium butyrate (NaB) is an effective substance for attenuating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the internal mechanisms. METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups, normal control were fed standard chow and model group were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 wk, the intervention group were fed HFD for 16 wk and treated with NaB for 8 wk. Gut microbiota from each group were detected at baseline and at 16 wk, liver histology were evaluated and gastrointestinal barrier indicator such as zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) were detected by immunohistochemistry and realtime-PCR, further serum or liver endotoxin were determined by ELISA and inflammation- or metabolism-associated genes were quantified by real-time PCR. RESULTS NaB corrected the HFD-induced gut microbiota imbalance in mice, while it considerably elevated the abundances of the beneficial bacteria Christensenellaceae, Blautia and Lactobacillus. These bacteria can produce butyric acid in what seems like a virtuous circle. And butyrate restored HFD induced intestinal mucosa damage, increased the expression of ZO-1 in small intestine, further decreased the levels of gut endotoxin in serum and liver compared with HF group. Endotoxin-associated genes such as TLR4 and Myd88, pro-inflammation genes such as MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ in liver or epididymal fat were obviously downregulated after NaB intervention. Liver inflammation and fat accumulation were ameliorated, the levels of TG and cholesterol in liver were decreased after NaB intervention, NAS score was significantly decreased, metabolic indices such as FBG and HOMA-IR and liver function indicators ALT and AST were improved compared with HF group. CONCLUSION NaB may restore the dysbiosis of gut microbiota to attenuate steatohepatitis, which is suggested to be a potential gut microbiota modulator and therapeutic substance for NAFLD. PMID:28104981

  1. BUTYRATE-MEDIATED GENOMIC CHANGES INVOLVED IN NON-SPECIFIC HOST DEFENSES, MATRIX REMODELING AND THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN THE RUMEN EPITHELIUM OF COWS AFFLICTED WITH SUBACUTE RUMINAL ACIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Dionissopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA is a disorder in cattle which can lead to chronic inflammation in the rumen epithelium, known as rumenitis. Butyrate has been shown to attenuate some of the detrimental effects of inflammatory gastroenteral disorders but the molecular mechanisms mediated by butyrate have not been defined. The objective of this study was to define the inflammatory-related genomic changes responsible for the beneficial effects of butyrate. Experimentally, 16 fistulated dairy cows at mid-lactation were fed a SARA-inducing (45% non-fiber carbohydrate diet beginning 2 days before the beginning of treatment and continuing throughout the experiment. Cows were then evenly divided into treatment groups where a carrier with (n = 8 or without (n = 8 supplemental butyrate (2.5% initial DM intake was deposited into the rumen daily for 7 days. The minimum rumen pH was higher in cows with supplemental butyrate (4.96±0.09 to 5.20±0.05, p = 0.040, but mean pH, maximum pH and the duration for which rumen pH was below 5.6 was unaffected. Free plasma Lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentration was unaffected by treatment as was the concentration of Serum Amyloid A (SAA, although the LPS Binding Protein (LBP concentration was increased by the addition of butyrate to the rumen (6.91±0.29 to 7.93±0.29 μg mL-1, p = 0.024. Of the rumen Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA tested, only butyrate showed a pronounced treatment effect, rising from 8.60±0.94 to 21.60±0.94 mM (p≤0.0001. Plasma Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA concentration also increased (799.50±265.24 to 3261.63±265.24 μM, p≤0.001. Butyrate infusion did not affect milk parameters (total fat, lactose, total protein and LOS; however, when related to dry matter intake, milk production efficiency was increased (p = 0.035. Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses of rumen papillae biopsies collected on day 7 found that butyrate administration affected (p≤0.05 the expression of genes

  2. Evaluation of recycling the effluent of hydrogen fermentation for biobutanol production: kinetic study with butyrate and sucrose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hsing; Jian, Zih-Ce

    2013-10-01

    Butyrate in the effluent of hydrogen-producing bioreactor is a potential feed for biobutanol production. For recycling butyrate, this study investigated the kinetics of biobutanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B592 from different paired concentrations of butyrate and sucrose in a series of batch reactors. Results show that the lag time of butanol production increased with higher concentration of either sucrose or butyrate. In regression analyses, the maximum specific butanol production potential of 6.49 g g(-1) of dry cell was projected for 31.9 g L(-1) sucrose and 1.3 g L(-1) butyrate, and the maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.87 g d(-1) g(-1) of dry cell was predicted for 25.0 g L(-1) sucrose and 2.6 g L(-1) butyrate. The specific butanol production potential will decrease if more butyrate is added to the reactor. However, both sucrose and butyrate concentrations are weighted equally on the specific butanol production rate. This observation also is true on butanol yield. The maximum butanol yield of 0.49 mol mol(-1) was projected for 25.0 g L(-1) sucrose and 2.3 g L(-1) butyrate. In addition, a confirmation study found butanol yield increased from 0.2 to 0.3 mol mol(-1) when butyrate addition increased from 0 to 1 g L(-1) under low sugar concentration (3.8 g L(-1) sucrose). The existence of butyrate increases the activity of biobutanol production and reduces the fermentable sugar concentration needed for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

  3. Sodium butyrate and dexamethasone promote exocrine pancreatic gene expression in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng REN; Li YAN; Chang-zhen SHANG; Jun CAO; Fang-ping LI; Jingyi LI; Hua CHENG; Jun MIN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The feasibility of inducing endocrine pancreatic differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells has been well documented. How-ever, whether ES cells possess the potential for exocrine pancreatic differentiation requires further exploration. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate and glucocorticoids were conducive to the exocrine pancreatic differentiation of ES cells. Methods: E14 mouse ES cells were cultured in suspension to form embryoid bodies (EBs). These EBs were cultured in differentiating medium containing varying concentrations of sodium butyrate. The effects of activinA and dexamethasone (Dex) on exocrine differen-tiation were also explored. Finally, the combination of sodium butyrate, activinA, and Dex was used to promote the differentiation of exocrine pancreatic cells. Specific exocrine pancreatic gene expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reac-tion (RT-PCR) and amylase expression was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Flow cytometry analysis was also performed to determine the percentage of amylase-positive cells after the treatment with activinA, sodium butyrate, and Dex. Results: Exposure of ES cells to 1 mmol/L sodium butyrate for 5 days promoted exocrine pancreatic gene expression. Further combi-nation with Dex and other pancreatic-inducing factors, such as activinA, significantly enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of exocrine pancreatic markers. Additionally, flow cytometry revealed that approximately 17% of the final differentiated cells were amylase-positive. Conclusion: These data indicate that the exocrine pancreatic differentiation of ES cells can be induced by activinA, sodium butyrate, and Dex, providing a potential tool for studying pancreatic differentiation and pancreas-related diseases.

  4. The expression of glucose regulated protein-94 in colorectal carcinoma cells treated by sodium butyrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The expression of glucose regulated protein 94 (GRP94)during the treatment of human colorectal carcinoma cell lineClone A cells with sodium butyrate was studied. Sodium butyrate (SB) can cause functional and morphological effects on Clone A cells including growth arrest at G0/G1 stage and cell differentiation as observed by morphological changes, MTT and flow cytometry assays, as well as reduced Grp94 gene expression as shown by Northern blot and Western blot assays. The possible mechanism of the correlation between Grp94 gene expression and tumor growth inhibition and cell differentiation is briefly discussed.

  5. The expression of glucose regulated protein—94 in colorectal carcinoma cells treated by sodium butyrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYIDI; JINDANSONG

    2000-01-01

    The expression of glucose regulated protein 94 (GPR94) during the treatment of human colorectal carcinoma cell lineClone A cells with codium butyrate was studied.Dodium butyrate (SB) can cause functional and morphological effects on Clone A cells including growth arrest at G0/G1 stage and cell differentiation as observed by morphological changes,MTT and flow cytometry assays,as well as reduced Grp94 gene expression as shown by Northern blot and Western blot assays.The possible mechanism of the correlation between Grp94 gene expression and tumor growth inhibition and cell differentiation is briefly discussed.

  6. Effects of Sodium Butyrate Treatment on Histone Modifications and the Expression of Genes Related to Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms and Immune Response in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Fed a Plant-Based Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Noelia; Rimoldi, Simona; Ceccotti, Chiara; Gliozheni, Emi; Piferrer, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria that inhabit the epithelium of the animals’ digestive tract provide the essential biochemical pathways for fermenting otherwise indigestible dietary fibers, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Of the major SCFAs, butyrate has received particular attention due to its numerous positive effects on the health of the intestinal tract and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms of action of this four-carbon chain organic acid are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effect on gene expression since butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that play a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. In the present work, we investigated in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) the effects of butyrate used as a feed additive on fish epigenetics as well as its regulatory role in mucosal protection and immune homeostasis through impact on gene expression. Seven target genes related to inflammatory response and reinforcement of the epithelial defense barrier [tnfα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) il1β, (interleukin 1beta), il-6, il-8, il-10, and muc2 (mucin 2)] and five target genes related to epigenetic modifications [dicer1(double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease), ehmt2 (euchromatic histone-lysine-N-methyltransferase 2), pcgf2 (polycomb group ring finger 2), hdac11 (histone deacetylase-11), and jarid2a (jumonji)] were analyzed in fish intestine and liver. We also investigated the effect of dietary butyrate supplementation on histone acetylation, by performing an immunoblotting analysis on liver core histone extracts. Results of the eight-week-long feeding trial showed no significant differences in weight gain or SGR (specific growth rate) of sea bass that received 0.2% sodium butyrate supplementation in the diet in comparison to control fish that received a diet without Na-butyrate. Dietary butyrate led to a twofold increase in the acetylation level of histone H4 at

  7. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.

  8. Effect of sodium butyrate on the small intestine development in neonatal piglets fed [correction of feed] by artificial sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotunia, A; Woliński, J; Laubitz, D; Jurkowska, M; Romé, V; Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R

    2004-07-01

    Feeding of neonates with artificial milk formulas delays the maturation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Na-butyrate has a complex trophic effect on the gastrointestinal epithelium in adults. The present study aimed to determine the effect of milk formula supplementation with Na-butyrate on the gut mucosa in neonatal piglets. Sixteen 3 day old piglets were randomly divided into two groups: control (C, n = 8), and Na-butyrate (B, n = 8). Animals were feed for 7 days with artificial milk formula alone (C) or supplemented with Na-butyrate (B). At the 10(th) day of life the piglets were sacrificed and whole thickness samples of the upper gut were taken for analyses. Administration of Na-butyrate led to significant increase in daily body weight gain as compared to control. In the duodenum, the villi length and mucosa thickness were reduced, however, in the distal jejunum and ileum, the crypt depth, villi length and mucosa thickness were increased in Na-butyrate supplemented piglets as compared to control. Supplementation with Na-butyrate did not affect the intestinal brush border enzyme activities but increased plasma pancreatic polypeptide and cholecystokinin concentrations. These results suggest that supplementation with Na-butyrate may enhance the development of jejunal and ileal mucosa in formula-fed piglets.

  9. Enhancing Butanol Production under the Stress Environments of Co-Culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae Integrated with Exogenous Butyrate Addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhen Luo

    Full Text Available In this study, an efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE fermentation strategy integrating Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culturing system with exogenous butyrate addition, was proposed and experimentally conducted. In solventogenic phase, by adding 0.2 g-DCW/L-broth viable S. cerevisiae cells and 4.0 g/L-broth concentrated butyrate solution into C. acetobutylicum culture broth, final butanol concentration and butanol/acetone ratio in a 7 L anaerobic fermentor reached the highest levels of 15.74 g/L and 2.83 respectively, with the increments of 35% and 43% as compared with those of control. Theoretical and experimental analysis revealed that, the proposed strategy could, 1 extensively induce secretion of amino acids particularly lysine, which are favorable for both C. acetobutylicum survival and butanol synthesis under high butanol concentration environment; 2 enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and over-produce intracellular NADH for butanol synthesis in C. acetobutylicum metabolism simultaneously; 3 direct most of extra consumed glucose into butanol synthesis route. The synergetic actions of effective amino acids assimilation, high rates of substrate consumption and NADH regeneration yielded highest butanol concentration and butanol ratio in C. acetobutylicum under this stress environment. The proposed method supplies an alternative way to improve ABE fermentation performance by traditional fermentation technology.

  10. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on rumen development in newborn calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in milk replacer (MR) or in starter mixture (SM) or in both MR and SM on performance, selected blood parameters, and rumen development in newborn calves was determined. Twenty-eight male calves with a mean age of 5 (±1) d were randomly allocated...

  11. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on gene expression in the duodenum of lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous study infusing butyrate into the abomasum of sheep produced increased oxygen, glucose, glutamate, and glutamine uptake by the portal-drained viscera. These changes were thought to be partially due to increases in glycolysis and cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate...

  12. Study on the role of mitochondria in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis of ovarian carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Tang Chunsheng; Rong Fengnian

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of mitochondria in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis of ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro.Methods:Human ovarian epithelial cancer 3AO cells were cultured in vitro and treated with sodium butyrate of different concentration for different time. The characters of apoptosis were assessed through light microscopy and DNA ladder analysis. The morphological changes of mitochondria were detected through electron and epifluorescence microscopy. The functional changes of mitochondria and the expression of Bcl-2/Bax protein were analyzed by flow cytometry.Results:As the concentration of sodium butyrate rose to 4mmol/L, the morphologic characters of apoptosis were found by light microscopy, DNA ladder was observed. Under epifluorescence microscope the fluorescence of the control group was stronger than that of the experimental group. Under electron microscope swelled mitochondria was detected. Flow cytometry analysis showed mitochondria transmembrane potentials decreased and there were down-regulate of Bcl-2 protein and up-regulate of the Bax protein(P<0.05).Conclusion:Sodium butyrate can induce apoptosis of 3AO cells in a time-dose dependent manner. Mitochondrion may play a key role in the procedure of apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells.

  13. Synthesis and Ionic Conductivity of Siloxane Based Polymer Electrolytes with Propyl Butyrate Pendant Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalagonia, Natia; Tatrishvili, Tamara; Markarashvili, Eliza; Aneli, Jimsher; Mukbaniani, Omar [Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Grazulevicius, Jouzas Vidas [Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2016-02-15

    Hydrosilylation reactions of 2.4.6.8-tetrahydro-2.4.6.8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane with allyl butyrate catalyzed by Karstedt's, H2PtCl6 and Pt/C catalyst were studied and 2.4.6.8-tetra (propyl butyrate)-2.4.6.8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane was obtained. The reaction order, activation energies and rate constants were determined. Ringopening polymerization of 2.4.6.8-tetra (propyl butyrate)-2.4.6.8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane in the presence of CaF2, LiF, KF and anhydrous potassium hydroxide in 60-70 .deg. C temperature range was carried out and methylsiloxane oligomers with regular arrangement of propyl butyrate pendant groups were obtained. The synthesized products were studied by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The polysiloxanes were characterized by wide-angle X-ray, gel-permeation chromatography and DSC analyses. Via sol-gel processes of oligomers doped with lithium trifluoromethylsulfonate or lithium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, solid polymer electrolyte membranes were obtained. The dependences of ionic conductivity of obtained polyelectrolytes on temperature and salt concentration were investigated, and it was shown that electric conductivity of the polymer electrolyte membranes at room temperature changed in the range 3.5x10{sup -4} - 6.4xa0{sup -7} S/cm.

  14. Evaluation of butyrate-induced production of a mannose-6-phosphorylated therapeutic enzyme using parallel bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavarao, Chikkathur N; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Wong, Lily; Müller-Loennies, Sven; Braulke, Thomas; Khan, Mansoor; Anderson, Howard; Johnson, Gibbes R

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactor process changes can have a profound effect on the yield and quality of biotechnology products. Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) glycan content and the enzymatic catalytic kinetic parameters are critical quality attributes (CQAs) of many therapeutic enzymes used to treat lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Here, we have evaluated the effect of adding butyrate to bioreactor production cultures of human recombinant β-glucuronidase produced from CHO-K1 cells, with an emphasis on CQAs. The β-glucuronidase produced in parallel bioreactors was quantified by capillary electrophoresis, the catalytic kinetic parameters were measured using steady-state analysis, and mannose-6-phosphorylation status was assessed using an M6P-specific single-chain antibody fragment. Using this approach, we found that butyrate treatment increased β-glucuronidase production up to approximately threefold without significantly affecting the catalytic properties of the enzyme. However, M6P content in β-glucuronidase was inversely correlated with the increased enzyme production induced by butyrate treatment. This assessment demonstrated that although butyrate dramatically increased β-glucuronidase production in bioreactors, it adversely impacted the mannose-6-phosphorylation of this LSD therapeutic enzyme. This strategy may have utility in evaluating manufacturing process changes to improve therapeutic enzyme yields and CQAs.

  15. Photovoltaic Properties of Film Composites of Polyvinyl Butyral and a CU/CA Heterometallic Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, N. A.; Davidenko, I. I.; Kokozay, V. N.; Studzinsky, S. L.; Petrusenko, S. R.; Plyuta, N. I.

    2015-11-01

    Photosensitive polymer fi lm composites based on non-photoconductive polyvinyl butyral with an added heterometallic Cu/Ca complex were prepared and investigated. It was found that such composites had photovoltaic properties and exhibited a photodielectric effect when irradiated in the complex absorption band. The mechanism and characteristics of the photovoltaic and photodielectric effects in the studied fi lm composites were discussed.

  16. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakaria, S.M.; Zein, S.H. Sharif; Othman, M.R.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospinning of hydroxyapatite (HA)/polyvinyl butyral solution resulted in the formation of fibers with average diameter of 937-1440 nm. These fibers were converted into HA nanoparticles with size <100 nm after undergoing calcination treatment at 600 degrees C. The diameter of the fiber was fo

  17. Protective effect of sodium butyrate on the cell culture model of Huntington disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Baorong; Tian Jun; Yin Xinzhen; Luo Wei; Xia Kun

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a cell culture model of Huntington disease and observe the effect of sodium butyrate on this cell culture model. Exon 1 of both a wild type and a mutant IT15 gene from the genomic DNA of a healthy adult and a patient with Huntington disease was amplified and cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C1. Human neuroblastoma SH-SYSY cells were transiently transfected with these recombinant plasmids in the absence and presence of sodium butyrate (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mmol/L). The MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. The results indicated that the N-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin formed perinuclear and intranuclear aggregates and caused a decrease of SH-SY5Y cell viability. Sodium butyrate inhibited the decrease of SH-SYSY cell viability caused by the N-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin. This suggests that sodium butyrate has a protective effect on this cell culture model of Huntington disease.

  18. Use of butyrate or glutamine in enema solution reduces inflammation and fibrosis in experimental diversion colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Goulart Pacheco; Christiano Costa Esposito; Lucas CM Müller; Morgana TL Castelo-Branco; Leonardo Pereira Quintella; Vera Lucia A Chagas; Heitor Siffert P de Souza

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether butyrate or glutamine enemas could diminish inflammation in experimental diversion colitis.METHODS:Wistar specific pathogen-free rats were submitted to a Hartmann's end colostomy and treated with enemas containing glutamine,butyrate,or saline.Enemas were administered twice a week in the excluded segment of the colon from 4 to 12 wk after the surgical procedure.Follow-up colonoscopy was performed every 4 wk for 12 wk.The effect of treatment was evaluated using video-endoscopic and histologic scores and measuring interleukin-1β,tumor necrosis factor-alpha,and transforming growth factor beta production in organ cultures by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Colonoscopies of the diverted segment showed mucosa with hyperemia,increased number of vessels,bleeding and mucus discharge.Treatment with either glutamine or butyrate induced significant reductions in both colonoscopic (P < 0.02) and histological scores (P < 0.01) and restored the densities of collagen fibers in tissue (P =0.015; P =0.001),the number of goblet cells (P =0.021; P =0.029),and the rate of apoptosis within the epithelium (P =0.043; P =0.011) to normal values.The high levels of cytokines in colon explants from rats with diversion colitis significantly decreased to normal values after treatment with butyrate or glutamine.CONCLUSION:The improvement of experimental diversion colitis following glutamine or butyrate enemas highlights the importance of specific luminal nutrients in the homeostasis of the colonic mucosa and supports their utilization for the treatment of human diversion colitis.

  19. Preparation and Catalytic Activity of SO42-/TiO-La2O3 in Synthesis of Butyl Butyrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shui-jin; LUO Yi; BAI Ai-min; HU Zhen-zhu; CHEN Fang

    2004-01-01

    Butyl butyrate is a very important compound, which is transparent liquid and has the pear,apple flavor. Natural exist is in the fruit, such as apple, pear, banana, grape and strawberry, etc.Primarily used for to prepare the edible spice and is also widely used in industrial intermediate product, solvent and synthetic perfumery. Until now, there are many methods to synthesize it.Conventionally H2SO4 was reported, but it causes many problems, such as the erosion of equipment,easily causes the vice-reaction, difficulty for after-treatment, environment pollution etc. A new environmentally friendly catalyst, SO42-/TiO2-La2O3 was prepared. And catalytic activity of catalyst in esterification of n-butanoic acid and n-butyl alcohol with SO42-/TiO2-La2O3 as catalyst has been no report up to now. Therefore, studying on the synthetic catalyst has theoretical and practical significances. The catalytic activity of catalyst in esterification of n-butanoic acid and n-butyl alcohol was measured.In this paper, we fast reported the preparation of SO42-/riO2-La2O3 and discussed the factors influencing the synthesis catalyst. The catalyst rare earth solid superacid SO42-/TiO2-La2O3 was The precipitate was filtered and washed thoroughly with distilled water until chloride ions were free.furnace at 480 ℃ for 3 h, and finally stored in a desiccator until use.The factors influencing the synthesis were discussed and the best conditions were found out. The experiment indicated that this catalyst has the following advantage. The amount of catalyst was little and getting high yield, its product has a good quanlity and is favour of reducing erosion of equipment, avoiding environment pollution. The optimum conditions are: molar ratio of n-butanoic acid to n-butyl alcohol was 1:1.5, the quantity of catalyst was equal to 1.5% of feed stocks, the reaction temperature was 93-114 ℃, and the reaction time was 1.0 h. Rare earth solid superacid SO42-/TiO2-La2O3 is an excellent catalyst for

  20. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  1. Níveis de ácido indol butírico (AIB no enraizamento in vitro de microestacas de mamoeiro ‘Tainung 01’ = Indole butyric acid (IBA levels in the in vitro rooting of microcuttings of papaya tree ‘Tainung 01’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edílson Romais Schmildt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar níveis de AIB no enraizamento in vitro de microestacas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. ‘Tainung 01’. Ápices caulinares de plantas com 120 dias de idade foram estabelecidos e avaliados em meio MS, suplementado comcomplementos orgânicos constituídos de sacarose a 87,64 mM, mio-inositol a 555,06 μM, tiamina-HCl a 0,30 μM, piridoxina-HCl a 2,43 μM, ácido nicotínico a 4,06 μM e 0; 0,74; 1,48; 2,96 e 5,92 μM de AIB, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e cinco tubos de ensaio por parcela. Após 30 dias, avaliou-se a percentagem de enraizamento, o crescimento das microestacas, o comprimento da maior folha e a massa de calo. Observou-se que o maior percentual estimado de enraizamento ocorreu com a adição de 5,92 μM no meio de cultivo. Apesar do maior crescimento das microestacas e da maior folha ocorrer em níveis de AIB superiores a 0,74 μM, ocorre, concomitantemente, maior formação de calos na base das microestacas e muitas das raízes são provenientes desses calos, as quais não possuem conexões com o sistema vascular dos ramos. The objective of this work was to test IBA levels in the in vitrorooting of microcuttings of papaya tree (Carica papaya L. 'Tainung 01'. Apical stems of plants at 120 days of age were established and evaluated onto MS supplemented medium with organic complements constituted of sucrose at 87.64 mM, myo-inositol at 555.06 μM, thiamin-HCl at 0.30 μM, pyridoxine-HCl at 2.43 μM, nicotinic acid at 4.06 μM and treated with 0, 0.74, 1.48, 2.96 and 5.92 μM of IBA, in a completely randomized design, with four replications. After 30 days, the percentage of rooted microcuttings, the development of microcuttings, the length of the largest leaf and callus mass were evaluated. It was observed that the largest percentage of rooting happens in the presence of IBA at 5.92 μM during of cultivation. In spite of the fact that larger growth of

  2. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmandas, Ekta; van den Heuvel, Corina N A M; Damen, Michelle S M A; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Netea, Mihai G; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with diabetes. We examined the influence of physiological concentrations of butyrate on cytokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Butyrate decreased Mtb-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses, while it increased production of IL-10. This anti-inflammatory effect was independent of butyrate's well-characterised inhibition of HDAC activity and was not accompanied by changes in Toll-like receptor signalling pathways, the eicosanoid pathway, or cellular metabolism. In contrast blocking IL-10 activity reversed the effects of butyrate on Mtb-induced inflammation. Alteration of the gut microbiota, thereby increasing butyrate concentrations, can reduce insulin resistance and obesity, but further studies are needed to determine how this affects susceptibility to tuberculosis.

  3. Butyrate ingestion improves hepatic glycogen storage in the re-fed rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigalleau Vincent

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butyrate naturally produced by intestinal fiber fermentation is the main nutrient for colonocytes, but the metabolic effect of the fraction reaching the liver is not totally known. After glycogen hepatic depletion in the 48-hour fasting rat, we monitored the effect of (butyrate 1.90 mg + glucose 14.0 mg/g body weight versus isocaloric (glucose 18.2 mg/g or isoglucidic (glucose 14.0 mg/g control force-feeding on in vivo changes in hepatic glycogen and ATP contents evaluated ex vivo by NMR in the isolated and perfused liver. Results The change in glycogen was biphasic with (i an initial linear period where presence of butyrate in the diet increased (P = 0.05 the net synthesis rate (0.20 ± 0.01 μmol/min.g-1 liver wet weight, n = 15 versus glucose 14.0 mg/g only (0.16 ± 0.01 μmol/min.g-1 liver ww, n = 14, and (ii a plateau of glycogen store followed by a depletion. Butyrate delayed the establishment of the equilibrium between glycogenosynthetic and glycogenolytic fluxes from the 6th to 8th hour post-feeding. The maximal glycogen content was then 97.27 ± 10.59 μmol/g liver ww (n = 7 at the 8th hour, which was significantly higher than with the isocaloric control diet (64.34 ± 8.49 μmol/g, n = 12, P = 0.03 and the isoglucidic control one (49.11 ± 6.35 μmol/g liver ww, n = 6, P = 0.003. After butyrate ingestion, ATP content increased from 0.95 ± 0.29 to a plateau of 2.14 ± 0.23 μmol/g liver ww at the 8th hour post-feeding (n = 8 [P = 0.04 versus isoglucidic control diet (1.45 ± 0.19 μmol/g, n = 8 but was not different from the isocaloric control diet (1.70 ± 0.18 μmol/g, n = 12]. Conclusion The main hepatic effect of butyrate is a sparing effect on glycogen storage explained (i by competition between butyrate and glucose oxidation, glucose being preferentially directed to glycogenosynthesis during the post-prandial state; and (ii by a likely reduced glycogenolysis from the newly synthesized glycogen. This first

  4. Use of sodium butyrate as an alternative to dietary fiber: effects on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative capacity of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1 control diet (C group, (2 high fat + high fiber diet (HF group, (3 high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group, and (4 HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.

  5. Long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor correlates with butyrate production and markers of protein fermentation during in vitro fecal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2014-09-01

    Diet influences gut microbiota composition. Therefore, we hypothesized that diet would impact the extent of dietary fiber utilization and the types of metabolic end-products produced by the microbiota during in vitro fecal fermentation. By obtaining long-term dietary records from fecal donors, we aimed to determine the correlations between dietary intake variables and dietary fiber degradation and short-/branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation. Eighteen subjects completed 1-year diet history questionnaires and provided fecal samples that were used for in vitro fermentation of a whole wheat substrate. The percentage of dietary fiber fermented was not correlated with nutrient intakes; however, butyrate production was correlated with fecal donor intake of many nutrients of which principal component analysis revealed were mostly contributed by grain-, nut-, and vegetable-based foods. Negative correlations were found for propionate with intake of total carbohydrate, added sugar, and sucrose and for ammonia and BCFA production with intake of unsaturated fats. Thus, our analysis did not support our first hypothesis: the percentage of dietary fiber fermented during in vitro fermentation was not correlated with dietary records. However, production of butyrate; BCFA; ammonia; and, to a lesser extent, propionate was correlated with the diet records of fecal donors, thus supporting our second hypothesis. These results suggest that diets high in plant-based foods and high in unsaturated fats are associated with microbial metabolism that is consistent with host health.

  6. Carboxymethyl Cellulose Acetate Butyrate: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Sakhawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB has gained increasing importance in several fields, particularly in coating technologies and pharmaceutical research. CMCAB is synthesized by esterification of CMC sodium salt with acetic and butyric anhydrides. CMCAB mixed esters are relatively high molecular weight (MW thermoplastic polymers with high glass transition temperatures (Tg. CMCAB ester is dispersible in water and soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, allowing varied opportunity to the solvent choice. It makes application of coatings more consistent and defect-free. Its ability to slow down the release rate of highly water-soluble compounds and to increase the dissolution of poorly soluble compounds makes CMCAB a unique and potentially valuable tool in pharmaceutical and amorphous solid dispersions (ASD formulations.

  7. Severity of atopic disease inversely correlates with intestinal microbiota diversity and butyrate-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, L; Nermes, M; Isolauri, E; Salminen, S; de Vos, W M; Satokari, R

    2015-02-01

    The reports on atopic diseases and microbiota in early childhood remain contradictory, and both decreased and increased microbiota diversity have been associated with atopic eczema. In this study, the intestinal microbiota signatures associated with the severity of eczema in 6-month-old infants were characterized. Further, the changes in intestinal microbiota composition related to the improvement of this disease 3 months later were assessed. The severity of eczema correlated inversely with microbiota diversity (r = -0.54, P = 0.002) and with the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria (r = -0.52, P = 0.005). During the 3-month follow-up, microbiota diversity increased (P microbiota and high abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria were associated with milder eczema, thus suggesting they have a role in alleviating symptoms of atopic eczema.

  8. Continuous butyric acid fermentation coupled with REED technology for enhanced productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter;

    A major step towards the development of a sustainable industrial society is a shift from petroleum-based resources to renewable resources. An ongoing effort is focused on developing bio-refineries as an alternative way of producing fuels and chemical building-blocks from renewable resources. Thus...

  9. Induction of porcine host defense peptide gene expression by short-chain fatty acids and their analogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfang Zeng

    Full Text Available Dietary modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections. However, HDP regulation by dietary compounds such as butyrate is species-dependent. To examine whether butyrate could induce HDP expression in pigs, we evaluated the expressions of a panel of porcine HDPs in IPEC-J2 intestinal epithelial cells, 3D4/31 macrophages, and primary monocytes in response to sodium butyrate treatment by real-time PCR. We revealed that butyrate is a potent inducer of multiple, but not all, HDP genes. Porcine β-defensin 2 (pBD2, pBD3, epididymis protein 2 splicing variant C (pEP2C, and protegrins were induced markedly in response to butyrate, whereas pBD1 expression remained largely unaltered in any cell type. Additionally, a comparison of the HDP-inducing efficacy among saturated free fatty acids of different aliphatic chain lengths revealed that fatty acids containing 3-8 carbons showed an obvious induction of HDP expression in IPEC-J2 cells, with butyrate being the most potent and long-chain fatty acids having only a marginal effect. We further investigated a panel of butyrate analogs for their efficacy in HDP induction, and found glyceryl tributyrate, benzyl butyrate, and 4-phenylbutyrate to be comparable with butyrate. Identification of butyrate and several analogs with a strong capacity to induce HDP gene expression in pigs provides attractive candidates for further evaluation of their potential as novel alternatives to antibiotics in augmenting innate immunity and disease resistance of pigs.

  10. Flexible thermoplastic composite of Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) and waste of rigid Polyurethane foam

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the preparation and characterization of composites with recycled poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and residue of rigid polyurethane foam (PUr), with PUr contents of 20, 35 and 50 wt %, using an extruder equipped with a Maillefer single screw and injection molding. The components of the composites were thermally characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry. The composites were evaluated by melt flow index (MFI), tensile and hardness mechanical te...

  11. Polyvinyl butyral films containing leuco-malachite green as low-dose dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hoang Hoa; Solomon, H. M.; Taguchi, M.; Kojima, T.

    2008-04-01

    Thin films containing leuco-malachite green (LMG) dye in polyvinyl butyral (PVB) have been developed for dose measurements of a few hundreds Gy level. The film shows significant color change in the visible range, and the sensitivity of the film to absorbed dose was enhanced by addition of chloride-containing compounds, such as chloral hydrate or 2,2,2-trichloroethanol. The film is suitable as dosimeters for dose measurements, e.g. in food irradiation and environmental protection.

  12. Characterization of defects of mullite fibers prepared by polyvinyl butyral as spinning aid

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Mullite fibers have been synthesized using polyvinyl butyral as spinning aids. Defects including cracks, core-sheath structure, randomly arranged powders, shots and rough surface were observed. The results showed that circumferential cracks were terminated by the main axial crack. The thermal shrinkage could be considered as the reason for the formation of cracks and core-sheath structure. Improper control of heat treatment resulted in the rough surface around fibers. The wet gel fibers...

  13. Constitutive Investigation on Viscoelasticity of PolyVinyl Butyral: Experiments Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PolyVinyl Butyral (PVB) film is now widely used in automotive industry and architectures serving as the protective interlayer. The dynamic modulus of PVB is measured through systematic experiments based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) method at various temperatures, heating rates, and vibration frequencies. Further, viscoelasticity of PVB influenced by time and temperature is systematically studied. Fitted empirical formulas describing the relationship between glass transition temperatur...

  14. Polyvinyl butyral films containing leuco-malachite green as low-dose dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Hoa Mai [Institute for Nuclear Science Technique, Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC), 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Solomon, H.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman Quezon City (Philippines); Taguchi, M. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi. Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kojima, T. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi. Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: kojima.takuji@jaea.go.jp

    2008-04-15

    Thin films containing leuco-malachite green (LMG) dye in polyvinyl butyral (PVB) have been developed for dose measurements of a few hundreds Gy level. The film shows significant color change in the visible range, and the sensitivity of the film to absorbed dose was enhanced by addition of chloride-containing compounds, such as chloral hydrate or 2,2,2-trichloroethanol. The film is suitable as dosimeters for dose measurements, e.g. in food irradiation and environmental protection.

  15. Photoconducting Properties of Film Composites Based on Polyvinyl Butyral and Heterometallic Cu/Mo Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, N. A.; Kokozay, V. N.; Davidenko, I. I.; Buvailo, H. I.; Makhankova, V. G.; Studzinsky, S. L.

    2016-11-01

    We have synthesized and studied novel photosensitive polymer film composites based on non-photoconducting polyvinyl butyral doped with heterometallic Cu/Mo complexes. We have established that these composites have photoconducting and photovoltaic properties and are characterized by hole-type photoconductivity. The photocurrent and the photo-EMF are higher for composites in which complexes are used that have a shorter distance between nearest-neighbor metallic copper centers, which is explained by better conditions for transport of nonequilibrium holes.

  16. Population dynamics of biofilm development during start-up of a butyrate-degrading fluidized-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellner, G.; Geveke, M.; Diekmann, H. (Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie); Conway de Macario, E. (New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research)

    1991-12-01

    Population dynamics during start-up of a fluidized-bed reactor with butyrate or butyrate plus acetate as sole substrates as well as biofilm development on the sand substratum were studied microbiologically, immunologically and by scanning electron microscopy. An adapted syntrophic consortium consisting of Syntrophospora sp., Methanothrix soehngenii, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus or Methanogenium sp. achieved high-rate butyrate degradation to methane and carbon dioxide. Desulfovibrio sp., Methanocorpusculum sp., and Methanobacterium sp. were also present in lower numbers. Immunological analysis demonstrated methanogens antigenically related to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1, Methanosarcina mazei S6, M. thermophila TM1, Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon in the biofilm. Immunological analysis also showed that the organisms isolated from the butyrate-degrading culture used as a source of inoculum were related to M. soehngenii Opfikon, Methanobacterium formicium MF and Methanospirillum hungatei JF1. (orig.).

  17. Dietary sodium butyrate alleviates the oxidative stress induced by corticosterone exposure and improves meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W H; Gao, F; Zhu, Q F; Li, C; Jiang, Y; Dai, S F; Zhou, G H

    2011-11-01

    The present study was to investigate the effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate (SB) and acute pre-slaughter stress, mimicked by subcutaneous corticosterone (CORT) administration, on BW, carcass characteristics, muscle antioxidant status, and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 120 1-d-old broiler chickens were fed a control diet (without SB) or a 0.4-g microencapsulated SB/kg diet. On 42 d, half of the birds from each treatment were given 1 single subcutaneous injection of CORT (4 mg/kg of BW in corn oil) to mimic acute stress, whereas the other half were injected with the same amount of corn oil (sham control). Three hours later, BW loss was determined and breast meat samples were collected. The results showed that the BW of the CORT-challenged groups lost much more than the sham control group (P stress (P chickens (P stress treatment on fatty acid composition was insignificant (P > 0.05). In addition, diet and stress did not significantly influence carcass characteristics and the chemical composition of breast meat (P > 0.05). These results suggest that microencapsulated SB was favorable for chickens in the presence of stress, which may be partially ascribed to the ability of SB to decrease catabolism and oxidative injury of tissues.

  18. Increased Butyrate Production During Long-Term Fermentation of In Vitro-Digested High Amylose Cornstarch Residues with Human Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Jiang, Hongxin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Yum, Man-Yu; Campbell, Mark R; Jane, Jay-Lin; White, Pamela J; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    An in vitro semi-continuous long-term (3 wk) anaerobic incubation system simulating lower gut fermentation was used to determine variability in gut microbial metabolism between 4 predigested high amylose-resistant starch residues (SR): SRV, SRVI, SRVII, and SRGEMS in human fecal samples. Subjects participated twice, 5 mo apart: 30 in Phase I (15 lean, 9 overweight and 6 obese), 29 in Phase II (15 lean, 9 overweight, 5 obese); 13 of 15 lean subjects participated in both phases. Of the 4 SRs, SRV displayed the highest gelatinization temperature, peak temperature, enthalpy changes, and the least digestibility compared with the other SRs. In both phases, compared with blank controls, all SRs increased butyrate ∼2-fold which stabilized at week 2 and only SRV caused greater propionate concentration (∼30%) after 3 wk which might have been partly mediated by its lesser digestibility. Fecal samples from lean and overweight/obese subjects incubated with SRs showed similar short-chain fatty acid production across both time points, which suggests that resistant starch may benefit individuals across BMIs.

  19. An Acute Butyr-Fentanyl Fatality: A Case Report with Postmortem Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Gary, Ray D; Wright, Jennifer; Mena, Othon

    2016-03-01

    In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of butyr-fentanyl in a fatality attributed principally to the drug. A man who had a history of intravenous drug abuse was found unresponsive on the bathroom floor of his home. Drug paraphernalia was located on the bathroom counter. Toxicology testing, which initially screened positive for fentanyl by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, subsequently confirmed butyr-fentanyl, which was then quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-specific ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM) analysis following liquid-liquid extraction. The butyr-fentanyl peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 58 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 97 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 320 ng/g, the vitreous was 40 ng/mL, the urine was 670 ng/mL and the gastric contained 170 mg. Acetyl-fentanyl was also detected in all biological specimens tested. Peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 38 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 32 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 110 ng/g, the vitreous was 38 ng/mL, the urine was 540 ng/mL and the gastric contained fentanyl, acetyl-fentanyl and cocaine intoxication, and the manner of death was certified as accident.

  20. Upregulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase by butyrate in Caco-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Schr(o)der; Sinan Turak; Carolin Daniel; Tanja Gaschott; Jürgen Stein

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible involvement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase [1α-25(OH)2D3] in butyrate-induced differentiation in human intestinal cell line Caco-2 cells.METHODS: Caco-2 cells were incubated either with 3 mmol/L butyrate and 1 μmol/L 25(OH)2D3 or with 1μmol/L 1α-25(OH)2D3 for various time intervals ranging from 0 to 72 h. Additionally, cells were co-incubated with butyrate and either 25(OH)2D3 or 1α-25(OH)2D3.1α-25(OH)2D3 mRNA was determined semi-quantitatively using the fluorescent dye PicoGreen. Immunoblotting was used for the detection of 1α-25(OH)2D3 protein.Finally, enzymatic activity was measured by ELISA.RESULTS: Both butyrate and 1α-25(OH)2D3 stimulated differentiation of Caco-2 cells after a 48 h incubation period, while 25(OH)2D3 had no impact on cell differentiation. Synergistic effects on differentiation were observed when cells were co-incubated with butyrate and vitamin D metabolite. Butyrate transiently upregulated 1α-25(OH)2D3 mRNA followed by a timely delayed protein upregulation. Coincidently, enzymatic activity was enhanced significantly. The induction of the enzyme allowed for comparable differentiating effects of both vitamin D metabolites.CONCLUSION: Our experimental data pr ovide a further mechanism for the involvement of the vitamin D signaling pathway in colonic epithelial cell differentiation by butyrate. The enhancement of 1α-25(OH)2D3 followed by antiproliferative effects of the vitamin D prohormone in the Caco-2 cell line suggest that 25(OH)2D3 in combination with butyrate may offer a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of colon cancer.

  1. Determination and Correlation of Solubility for D-Xylose in Volatile Fatty Acid Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 陈飞雄; 江振西; 任保增

    2014-01-01

    The solubility of D-xylose in formic acid and binary solvents of formic acid with formic acid and acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid or isobutyric acid was measured in the temperature range from 300.35 to 325.05 K using the synthetic method by a laser monitoring technique at atmospheric pressure. The solid-liquid equilibrium data will provide essential support for industrial design and further theoretical study. The experimental data show that the solubility of D-xylose in formic acid and in the mixtures of formic acid+acetic acid (1︰1), formic acid+propionic acid (1︰1), formic acid+n-butyric acid (1︰1), and formic acid+isobutyric acid (1︰1) increases with temperature. The Apelblat equation, theλh model, and the ideal solution equation correlate the solubility data well.

  2. Determination of organic acids evolution during apple cider fermentation using an improved HPLC analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, F.; Ji, B.; Nout, M.J.R.; Fang, Q.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient method for analyzing ten organic acids in food, namely citric, pyruvic, malic, lactic, succinic, formic, acetic, adipic, propionic and butyric acids, using HPLC was developed. Boric acid was added into the mobile phase to separate lactic and succinic acids, and a post-column buffer solu

  3. Butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by facilitating tight junction assembly via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Luying; Li, Zhong-Rong; Green, Robert S; Holzman, Ian R; Lin, Jing

    2009-09-01

    Butyrate, one of the SCFA, promotes the development of the intestinal barrier. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the butyrate regulation of the intestinal barrier are unknown. To test the hypothesis that the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier is mediated by the regulation of the assembly of tight junctions involving the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we determined the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and inulin permeability in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. We further used a calcium switch assay to study the assembly of epithelial tight junctions and determined the effect of butyrate on the assembly of epithelial tight junctions and AMPK activity. We demonstrated that the butyrate treatment increased AMPK activity and accelerated the assembly of tight junctions as shown by the reorganization of tight junction proteins, as well as the development of TER. AMPK activity was also upregulated by butyrate during calcium switch-induced tight junction assembly. Compound C, a specific AMPK inhibitor, inhibited the butyrate-induced activation of AMPK. The facilitating effect of butyrate on the increases in TER in standard culture media, as well as after calcium switch, was abolished by compound C. We conclude that butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by regulating the assembly of tight junctions. This dynamic process is mediated by the activation of AMPK. These results suggest an intriguing link between SCFA and the intracellular energy sensor for the development of the intestinal barrier.

  4. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and sodium butyrate block G1-to-S cell cycle progression in neurosphere formation by adult subventricular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughty Martin L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes that modulate gene expression and cellular processes by deacetylating histones and non-histone proteins. While small molecule inhibitors of HDAC activity (HDACi are used clinically in the treatment of cancer, pre-clinical treatment models suggest they also exert neuroprotective effects and stimulate neurogenesis in neuropathological conditions. However, the direct effects of HDACi on cell cycle progression and proliferation, two properties required for continued neurogenesis, have not been fully characterized in adult neural stem cells (NSCs. In this study, we examined the effects of two broad class I and class II HDACi on adult mouse NSCs, the hydroxamate-based HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, SAHA and the short chain fatty acid HDACi sodium butyrate. Results We show that both HDACi suppress the formation of neurospheres by adult mouse NSCs grown in proliferation culture conditions in vitro. DNA synthesis is significantly inhibited in adult mouse NSCs exposed to either SAHA or sodium butyrate and inhibition is associated with an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. HDACi exposure also resulted in transcriptional changes in adult mouse NSCs. Cdk inhibitor genes p21 and p27 transcript levels are increased and associated with elevated H3K9 acetylation levels at proximal promoter regions of p21 and p27. mRNA levels for notch effector Hes genes and Spry-box stem cell transcription factors are downregulated, whereas pro-neural transcription factors Neurog1 and Neurod1 are upregulated. Lastly, we show HDAC inhibition under proliferation culture conditions leads to long-term changes in cell fate in adult mouse NSCs induced to differentiate in vitro. Conclusion SAHA and sodium butyrate directly regulate cdk inhibitor transcription to control cell cycle progression in adult mouse NSCs. HDAC inhibition results in G1 arrest in adult mouse NSCs and transcriptional changes

  6. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-03-17

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild.

  7. Increased Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Is Associated With Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Butyrate Production in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Morrison, Mark; Dekker Nitert, Marloes

    2016-10-01

    The risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia is higher in obese pregnant women. In obesity, the composition of the gut microbiota is altered. Obesity is also associated with low-grade inflammation. Metabolites from the gut microbiota may contribute to both hypertension and inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese pregnant women is associated with blood pressure and levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The composition of the gut microbiota was determined with 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 205 women at 16 weeks gestation from the SPRING study (the Study of Probiotics in Gestational Diabetes). Expression of butyrate-producing genes in the gut microbiota was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured in fasting serum of a subset of 70 women. Blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in obese compared with overweight women. The abundance of the butyrate-producing genus Odoribacter was inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Butyrate production capacity was decreased, but plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations increased in obese pregnant women. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were inversely correlated with expression of butyrate kinase and Odoribacter abundance. This study shows that in overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks gestation, the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate production in the gut microbiota is significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Increasing butyrate-producing capacity may contribute to maintenance of normal blood pressure in obese pregnant women.

  8. Determination of organic acids during the fermentation and cold storage of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, E; McGregor, J U

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the present study was the separation and quantification of orotic, citric, pyruvic, lactic, uric, formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and hippuric acids in a single isocratic analysis by HPLC. Two methods of extraction were compared: 1) acetonitrile and water and 2) .01N H2SO4. Recoveries of orotic, lactic, acetic, and propionic acids were 90% for both methods. Recoveries of citric, pyruvic, uric, butyric, and hippuric acids were not satisfactory with the acetonitrile method, but were acceptable using the H2SO4 extraction procedure. Yogurts were manufactured under laboratory-scale conditions, and samples were analyzed during fermentation and after storage at 4 degrees C. Samples were analyzed for pH and organic acids. All of the organic acids exhibited varying degrees of increases and decreases during fermentation and storage. Formic and butyric acids were not detected under the conditions of this study.

  9. Tarsi of Male Heliothine Moths Contain Aldehydes and Butyrate Esters as Potential Pheromone Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Park, Kye-Chung; Meer, Robert Vander; Cardé, Ring T; Jurenka, Russell

    2016-05-01

    The Noctuidae are one of the most speciose moth families and include the genera Helicoverpa and Heliothis. Females use (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major component of their sex pheromones except for Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa gelotopoeon, both of which utilize (Z)-9-hexadecenal. The minor compounds found in heliothine sex pheromone glands vary with species, but hexadecanal has been found in the pheromone gland of almost all heliothine females so far investigated. In this study, we found a large amount (0.5-1.5 μg) of hexadecanal and octadecanal on the legs of males of four heliothine species, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa armigera, H. assulta, and Heliothis virescens. The hexadecanal was found on and released from the tarsi, and was in much lower levels or not detected on the remaining parts of the leg (tibia, femur, trochanter, and coxa). Lower amounts (0.05-0.5 μg) of hexadecanal were found on female tarsi. This is the first known sex pheromone compound to be identified from the legs of nocturnal moths. Large amounts of butyrate esters (about 16 μg) also were found on tarsi of males with lower amounts on female tarsi. Males deposited the butyrate esters while walking on a glass surface. Decapitation did not reduce the levels of hexadecanal on the tarsi of H. zea males, indicating that hexadecanal production is not under the same neuroendocrine regulation system as the production of female sex pheromone. Based on electroantennogram studies, female antennae had a relatively high response to hexadecanal compared to male antennae. We consider the possible role of aldehydes and butyrate esters as courtship signals in heliothine moths.

  10. Effect of sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract on bone characteristics in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzio Iwona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diet supplementation with sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract (0.2% and 0.3% on femur quality of growing pigs (n = 45. Material and Methods: At the age of 28, 35 and 56 d, five piglets from each group fed a different diet were euthanised and the femora were collected for further analyses. The bone characteristics were assessed based on weight, length, densitometric analysis of BMC and BMD, pQCT analysis (area, mineral content, volumetric density of trabecular and cortical part of metaphysis and diaphysis, respectively, ultimate strength, and geometrical parameters (cross-sectional area and second moment of inertia. Results: There were no significant differences in femur bone parameters among experimental groups on the 28th d of life. On the 35th d of life, piglets with 0.2% supplementation of sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract had significantly lower values of weight and second moment of inertia, and significantly higher trabecular BMD and BMC compared to other experimental groups. In 56-day-old pigs, the higher values were observed in both experimental groups regarding BMC, ultimate strength, geometrical parameters, cortical BMC, diaphyseal total area, and endosteal circumference (P < 0.05. Significant differences between experimental groups were observed only in bone weight and cortical thickness. Conclusion: This study proved that simultaneous supplementation with sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract positively influences bone quality in pigs in the post-weaning period. However, there were no differences in bone characteristics between the addition of 0.2% and 0.3% preparations.

  11. Thermoacoustical and Excess Properties of Binary Mixtures of Ethyl Butyrate with Methanol and Vinyl Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Prasad Shukla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to portray the nature of interaction present in the mixture of ethyl butyrate with methanol and vinyl acetate by computing various thermodynamic parameters at 298.15 K. Excess thermodynamic properties correlated with Redlich–Kister polynomial equation reveals the extent of interaction present in the mixture. Acoustical relations giving the molecular radii of liquid mixtures suggest the change in structure with composition quite well. A comparative study of various empirical and semi-empirical relations such as Flory’s Statistical Theory, Goldsack and Sarvas, Sanchez theory etc. for predicting ultrasonic velocity of the mixtures with the experimental values have been done.

  12. Converting carbon dioxide to butyrate with an engineered strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodard, Trevor L; Lovley, Derek R

    2014-10-21

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. Importance: The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  13. Sodium butyrate induces DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fusion and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tailor, Dhanir; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Kale, Raosaheb K.; Singh, Shivendra V.; Singh, Rana P.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBt) is the byproduct of anaerobic microbial fermentation inside the gastro-intestinal tract that could reach upto 20 mM, and has been shown to inhibit the growth of various cancers. Herein, we evaluated its effect on mitochondrial fusion and associated induction of apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells (CRC). NaBt treatment at physiological (1-5 mM) concentrations for 12 and 24 h decreased the cell viability and induced G2-M phase cell cycle arrest in HCT116 (12h) and SW480 ...

  14. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relation between a whole grain consumption and risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One tentative mechanism relates to colonic metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates. In a previous study, we reported a positive relation between colonic...... fermentation and improved glucose tolerance. This work can be seen as an extension of that study, focusing on the tentative role of specific colonic metabolites, i.e. SCFA. Plasma concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate were determined in the morning in healthy participants (5 women and 10 men...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P fermentation and generation of SCFA, where in particular...

  15. Converting Carbon Dioxide to Butyrate with an Engineered Strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Woodard, TL; Lovley, DR

    2014-08-26

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H-2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. IMPORTANCE The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  16. Characterization of defects of mullite fibers prepared by polyvinyl butyral as spinning aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mullite fibers have been synthesized using polyvinyl butyral as spinning aids. Defects including cracks, core-sheath structure, randomly arranged powders, shots and rough surface were observed. The results showed that circumferential cracks were terminated by the main axial crack. The thermal shrinkage could be considered as the reason for the formation of cracks and core-sheath structure. Improper control of heat treatment resulted in the rough surface around fibers. The wet gel fibers were easily inserted by some alumina powders which were used to obtain the uniform shrinkage during calcinations in the kiln.

  17. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P;

    2009-01-01

    Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine...... the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment...

  18. Protective effect of butyrate against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice by promoting the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and mucosal defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Fangyan; Luo, Haihua; Liu, Aihua; Li, Kangxin; Li, Cui; Jiang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcers (GUs) are a common type of peptic ulcer. Alcohol overdose is one of the main causes of GU, which is difficult to prevent. Although the protective effect of butyrate on inflammation-related diseases is well understood, its effect on GUs has not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of butyrate against ethanol-induced lesions to the gastric mucosa in mice and the underlying mechanisms. BALB/c mice were orally pretreated with butyrate for 30min prior to the establishment of the GU model by challenge with absolute ethanol. Ethanol administration produced apparent mucosal injuries with morphological and histological damage, whereas butyrate pretreatment reduced the gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner. Butyrate pretreatment also significantly ameliorated contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl proteins, and decreased levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. The Western blot results consistently demonstrated that butyrate pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK and ERKs in the gastric tissues. Additionally, gastric wall mucus (GWM), a parameter reflecting mucosal defense, was clearly increased by butyrate pretreatment. Butyrate pretreatment protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced lesions by strengthening the mucosal defense and anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. As a necessary substance for the body, butyrate may be applied to the prevention and treatment of GUs.

  19. Accelerated dysbiosis of gut microbiota during aggravation of DSS-induced colitis by a butyrate-producing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianpeng; Wu, Yanqiu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Guojun; Long, Wenmin; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Chenhong

    2016-06-06

    Butyrate-producing bacteria (BPB) are potential probiotic candidates for inflammatory bowel diseases as they are often depleted in the diseased gut microbiota. However, here we found that augmentation of a human-derived butyrate-producing strain, Anaerostipes hadrus BPB5, significantly aggravated colitis in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-treated mice while exerted no detrimental effect in healthy mice. We explored how the interaction between BPB5 and gut microbiota may contribute to this differential impact on the hosts. Butyrate production and severity of colitis were assessed in both healthy and DSS-treated mice, and gut microbiota structural changes were analysed using high-throughput sequencing. BPB5-inoculated healthy mice showed no signs of colitis, but increased butyrate content in the gut. In DSS-treated mice, BPB5 augmentation did not increase butyrate content, but induced significantly more severe disease activity index and much higher mortality. BPB5 didn't induce significant changes of gut microbiota in healthy hosts, but expedited the structural shifts 3 days earlier toward the disease phase in BPB5-augmented than DSS-treated animals. The differential response of gut microbiota in healthy and DSS-treated mice to the same potentially beneficial bacterium with drastically different health consequences suggest that animals with dysbiotic gut microbiota should also be employed for the safety assessment of probiotic candidates.

  20. Effect of different butyrate supplementations on growth and health of weaning pigs challenged or not with E. coli K88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Trevisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a full factorial design (4 diets X challenge, Yes/No, 72 weaning pigs were assigned to one of the diets: Control; experimental diets, obtained with the addition of 2 g/kg free sodium butyrate (fNaB, or 0.6 g/kg fat-protected sodium butyrate (pNaB, or 2 g/kg INVE-NutriAd commercial mixture (Mix, based on 75 g/kg protected butyrate. Oral challenge with Escherichia coli K88 was done on 2/3 of pigs on d 7. Pigs were slaughtered on d 13. The mortality in challenged pigs, tended to be higher in control group (50.0% than in the three supplemented groups (23.5%. Growth tended to be increased averagely by the supplements (p=0.100 after the challenge, that also significantly reduced growth. In general the diet did not affect the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli and Lactobacilli, the K88-specific IgA activity in blood, the morphology of oxyntic mucosa and the expression of H+/K+-ATPase gene. The supplementations tended to increase villous length of jejunum (p=0.101. On the whole, growth, villous height and surviving rate can be positively affected either when the supplementation is done by free butyrate, by protected butyrate or by the special Inve Nutri-Ad product and these effects are distributed both on pigs infected or not with Escherichia coli K88.

  1. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of short-chain fatty acids in gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal disorders: evaluation of metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate, a main end product of microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in human intestine, plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and overall health status. The effects exerted by butyrate are multiple and involve several distinct mechanisms of action including epigenetic modifications owing to its inhibitory effects on histone deacetylases, inhibition of NF-κB signaling, or direct agonism on the free fatty acid receptors. ...

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Clostridium butyricum against Vascular Dementia in Mice via Metabolic Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics actively participate in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the role of gut microbiota in brain disorders and vascular dementia (VaD remains unclear. We used a mouse model of VaD induced by a permanent right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of Clostridium butyricum. Following rUCCAO, C. butyricum was intragastrically administered for 6 successive weeks. Cognitive function was estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining. The BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway-related proteins were assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The diversity of gut microbiota and the levels of butyrate in the feces and the brains were determined. The results showed that C. butyricum significantly attenuated the cognitive dysfunction and histopathological changes in VaD mice. C. butyricum not only increased the levels of BDNF and Bcl-2 and decreased level of Bax but also induced Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt and ultimately reduced neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, C. butyricum could regulate the gut microbiota and restore the butyrate content in the feces and the brains. These results suggest that C. butyricum might be effective in the treatment of VaD by regulating the gut-brain axis and that it can be considered a new therapeutic strategy against VaD.

  3. Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jumei; Chen, Xue; Yu, Shuiqing; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P piglets on day 8 (P piglets with low impact on intestinal microbial structure, which suggests oral administration of SB may have a benefit role in the health of neonatal piglets. PMID:27611998

  4. Fabrication of transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral films by a facile solution surface dip coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Yu, Ting; Pui, Tzesian; Chen, Peng; Zheng, Lianxi; Liao, Kin

    2011-06-01

    We present a simple solution surface dip coating method for fabricating transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral (CNT/PVB) composite films. This fabrication process is simple to scale production and requires only ethanol and water as solvents, which is green and environment friendly.We present a simple solution surface dip coating method for fabricating transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral (CNT/PVB) composite films. This fabrication process is simple to scale production and requires only ethanol and water as solvents, which is green and environment friendly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10302d

  5. Short-term infusion of sodium butyrate, but not lactose, increases plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate and insulin in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several previous studies have identified beneficial effects of butyrate on rumen development and intestinal health in pre-ruminants. These encouraging findings have led to further investigations related to butyrate supplementation in the mature ruminant. However, the maximum tolerable dosage rate of...

  6. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  7. Sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis and ultrastructural changes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Hu, Peng-Chao; Ma, Yan-Bin; Fan, Rong; Gao, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Jing-Wei; Wei, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate (NaB) on Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells and analyzed the relevant mechanism. Here, we demonstrated that a certain concentration of NaB effectively induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detect cell viability and the apoptosis rate. Western blotting was used to detect changes in the Bcl-2 expression level. We observed cell shape changes with microscopy. Immunofluorescence revealed some apoptotic nuclei. Electron microscopy revealed thick nucleoli, chromatin margination, reduced mitochondria, and dramatic vacuoles. Collectively, our findings elucidated the morphological mechanism by which NaB changed the ultrastructure of MCF-7 cells.

  8. The effect of sugars on the retention of ethyl butyrate by gellan gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Patsiakou, Anna

    2014-08-15

    The effect of sucrose, glucose and fructose on the retention of ethyl butyrate by low acyl gellan gels was investigated by static headspace gas chromatography. The air/biopolymer partition coefficient (K) and percentage of retention (R%) were determined. When 5 g of sample were left to equilibrate at 37 °C for 24 h, the obtained results were explained in terms of gel rigidity, as increased rigidity resulted in increased aroma retention. Glucose showed the greatest aroma release among the sugars and resulted in either the same or increased aroma release with increasing concentration. Increasing concentrations of fructose and sucrose did not alter aroma release significantly. For 15 g of sample mass, sucrose exhibited the lowest partition coefficient values among the sugars. The two higher sucrose concentrations resulted in decreased coefficient values. For fructose and glucose, aroma retention decreased with increasing concentration. The percentage of retention values were positive for all sugars, throughout their concentration range and for both experiments.

  9. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Siti Maisurah; Sharif Zein, Sharif Hussein; Othman, Mohd Roslee; Jansen, John A

    2013-07-01

    Electrospinning of hydroxyapatite (HA)/polyvinyl butyral solution resulted in the formation of fibers with average diameter of 937-1440 nm. These fibers were converted into HA nanoparticles with size <100 nm after undergoing calcination treatment at 600°C. The diameter of the fiber was found to be influenced by applied voltage and spinning distance. The injection flowrate did not affect the diameter significantly. The electrospinning method successfully reduced the commercial HA particle size in the range of 400-1100 nm into <100 nm. The dispersion of the finally calcined HA nanoparticles was improved significantly after anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant was introduced. The experimental data of HA growth kinetics were subjected to the integral method of analysis, and the rate law of the reaction was found to follow the first order reaction.

  10. Fabrication of SiC-C composite from poycarbosilane, epoxy and polyvinyl butyral resin mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Wook; Park, Dong Won; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kang, Phil Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institte, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has wide application in various industrial fields because of their good high strength and modulus, low density, oxidation resistance and thermal stability. In this study, SiC-C composites were prepared from mixture of polycarbosilane (PCS), epoxy resin, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) with weight ration of 2/1/1. PCS/epoxy/PVB mixture was cured by electron beam irradiation at 5,000 kGy. The cured composite was pyrolyzed by heat treatment in flowing argon at 1,300 .deg. C for 1 hr. As the result of TGA analysis, the oxidation resistance showed 95.2% residue at 1,500 .deg. C under air.

  11. Photochromic properties of the N-Salicylideneaniline in Polyvinyl Butyral matrix: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Filippovich, Liudmila; Aharodnikova, M.; Almodarresiyeh, Hora A.; Hajikolaee, Fatemeh Haji; Kumar, Rakesh; Mashayekhi, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, isomerization, photophysical properties, thermal conductivity (λ) and spectral study of the N-Salicylideneaniline: 2-[(E)-(phenylimino)methyl]phenol (SA) under the action of UV radiation in the Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) matrix were studied using the Indicator method and Density Functional Theory (DFT). The electronic absorption spectra of SA and its isomers (SA1 and SA2) in dimethylformamide (DMF) solutions were also calculated. The nature of absorption bands of SA, SA1 and SA2 in the visible and near ultraviolet spectral regions was interpreted. The excitation energies, electronic transitions and oscillator strengths for SA, SA1 and SA2 have also been calculated. Thermal Conductivity of PVB-films containing SA before and after UV radiation was also measured. A Photochromic PVB - film on the basis of SA for application in optical devices and display technologies was made.

  12. Combined treatment with sodium butyrate and PD153035 enhances keratinocyte differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Sandra Leon; Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Sutter, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling is a critical determinant of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in both normal and diseased skin. Here we explore the effects of combined treatment with the differentiation-promoting agent sodium butyrate (SB) and the EGFR inhibitor (EGFRI) PD153035 on terminal differentiation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Cells treated with SB showed increased expression of the levels of mRNA and protein of the differentiation markers filaggrin and transglutaminase 1. Co-treatment with EGF significantly blunted these effects of SB. Combined treatment with SB and PD153035 alleviated these inhibitory actions of EGF, resulting in improved effects of decreased cell growth and increased terminal differentiation, relative to the individual treatments. These results indicate that the combined use of a differentiation-promoting agent and an EGFR inhibitor may offer an additional approach to the management of hyperproliferative skin diseases. PMID:24451036

  13. Synergistic Effect of Probiotics, Butyrate and l-Carnitine in Treatment of IBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Moeinian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic, environmental factors, dysregulation of immune system, intestinal microbes and oxidative stress are the most important factors that play the role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Current treatments do not always result in complete remission and usually accompanied with several adverse effects. Recent studies showed that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and oxidative stress play the pivotal role in the induction of inflammation. Butyrate, l-Carnitine, and probiotics have the potential to control inflammation by reduction of main inflammatory cytokines, including NF-κB and TNF-α. They also stimulate antioxidant enzymes and inhibit IκB kinase (IKK. Regarding the beneficial effects of these three compounds in inflammation via several mechanisms, we hypothesize that the mixture of these compounds would be synergistically effective in reduction of inflammation and alleviation of IBD. Further experimental investigations are needed, to evaluate the hypothesis.

  14. Nanonization of poorly water-soluble drug clobetasone butyrate by using femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sunqiang; Takebe, Gen; Suzuki, Masumi; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Ge, Jianhong; Liu, Chong; Hiramatsu, Mitsuo

    2014-02-01

    Nanonization, which involves the formation of the drug with nanometer particle size, is an effective method to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. A pulsewidth-tunable femtosecond laser was used to produce nanoparticles of clobetasone butyrate using poloxamer 188 as stabilizing agent. The effects of temperature and pulsewidth on the particle size and concentration were studied for the first time. The particle size and drug concentration dependence on the laser intensity and irradiation time were also investigated. Permeability test releaved that laser nanonization improved the drug permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayer. This laser nanonization method has a great potential to be used for new drug development.

  15. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of growing lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if supplying butyrate to the post-ruminal gastrointestinal tract of growing lambs alters blood flow and nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic tissues. Polled Dorset wether lambs (n = 10; initial BW = 55 ± 3.3 kg) had cathet...

  16. Butyrate Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Bovine Cells through Targeting Gene Expression relevance to DNA Replication Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using both real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in bovine kidney epithelial cells, we systematically investigated the gene expression relevance to DNA replication apparatus targeted by butyrate. The real-time PCR and Western blot data generally confirmed the microarray analysis. From the quan...

  17. ChIp-seq of bovine cells (MDBK) to study butyrate-induced histone modification with 10 datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next-generation sequencing was combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technology to analyze histone modification (acetylation) induced by butyrate and to map the epigenomic landscape of normal histone H3, H4 in rumen cells of the cow. Ten variants of histone H3 and H4 modification were m...

  18. Concanavalin A and polyvinyl butyral use as a potential dengue electrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria D L; Correia, Maria T S; Diniz, Flamarion B

    2009-12-15

    Immobilization of concanavalin A on gold electrode by means of gold nanoparticles and polyvinyl butyral was carried out and investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The system was tested with sera from patients infected by dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (in the frequency range from 100mHz to 100KHz), and cyclic voltammetry (from -0.2 to 0.7V vs. Ag/AgCl), was performed in phosphate buffer solution containing 10mM K(3)[Fe(CN)(6)]/K(4)[Fe(CN)(6)] (1:1) mixture as a redox probe. As biomolecules accumulated on the electrode surface the voltammetric response changed from a clear diffusional to an irreversible behavior. Impedance spectroscopy showed a clear increase of the electron-transfer resistance when the sensor is exposed to contaminated sera (DF or DHF) as compared to exposure to uncontaminated serum (NDF). The results were analyzed through an equivalent circuit and values of charge transfer resistance and capacitance were obtained. Variations in charge transfer resistance were used to distinguish the sensor response for the different sera investigated (DF, DHF and NDF). Alternatively, a three-dimensional graph gave the best response for differentiation of all three blood sera. The distinctive patterns of impedimetric responses observed were ascribed to different glycoprotein patterns in the sera investigated. Therefore, the lectin immobilization on electrode surface with gold nanoparticles and polyvinyl butyral, combined with the three-dimensional impedance analysis introduced herein are valuable tools in the development of a biosensor for immunological response to diseases.

  19. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  20. Crosstalk between the Smad and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways is Essential for Erythroid Differentiation of Erythroleukemia Cells Induced by TGF-β, Activin, Hydroxyurea and Butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akel, Salem; Bertolette, Daniel; Ruscetti, Francis W

    2013-04-22

    The role of crosstalk between the Smad and the MAPK signaling pathways in activin-, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-, hydroxyurea (HU) - and butyrate-dependent erythroid differentiation of K562 leukemic cells was studied. Treatment with all four inducers caused transient phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and MAPK proteins including ERK, p38 and JNK. Use of specific inhibitors of p38, ERK and JNK MAPK proteins, and TGF-β type I receptor indicated that differentiation induced by each of these agents involves activation of Smad2/3 and p38 MAPK, and inhibition of ERK MAPK. Also, treatment of cells with an inhibitor of protein serine/threonine phosphatase, okadaic acid (OA), induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and p38 MAPK, coincident with its induction of erythroid differentiation. Specific inhibition of TGF-β type I receptor kinase activity not only abolished TGF-β/activin effects but also prevented Smad2/3 activation and erythroid differentiation induced by OA, HU and butyrate. The TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor blocked OA-induced differentiation but not p38 MAPK phosphorylation demonstrating that signals from both pathways are needed. As previously observed, addition of ERK1/2 MAPK inhibitors upregulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and enhanced differentiation, but these effects were dependent on signals from the TGF-β type I receptor. These data indicate that activation of both Smad2/3 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways is a prerequisite to induce erythroid differentiation of erythroleukemia cells by activin, TGF-β, HU, OA and butyrate.

  1. Synergistic effects of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on increase of neurogenesis induced by pyridoxine and increase of neural proliferation in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Dae Won; Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Soo Young; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-10-01

    We previously observed that pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) significantly increased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation without any neuronal damage in the hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor which serves as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression, on pyridoxine-induced neural proliferation and neurogenesis induced by the increase of neural proliferation in the mouse dentate gyrus. Sodium butyrate (300 mg/kg, subcutaneously), pyridoxine (350 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or combination with sodium butyrate were administered to 8-week-old mice twice a day and once a day, respectively, for 14 days. The administration of sodium butyrate significantly increased acetyl-histone H3 levels in the dentate gyrus. Sodium butyrate alone did not show the significant increase of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. But, pyridoxine alone significantly increased cell proliferation. Sodium butyrate in combination with pyridoxine robustly enhanced cell proliferation and neurogenesis induced by the increase of neural proliferation in the dentate gyrus, showing that sodium butyrate treatment distinctively enhanced development of neuroblast dendrites. These results indicate that an inhibition of HDAC synergistically promotes neurogenesis induced by a pyridoxine and increase of neural proliferation.

  2. Capturing one of the human gut microbiome’s most wanted: reconstructing the genome of a novel butyrate-producing, clostridial scavenger from metagenomic sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio eJeraldo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of the microbiome in health and disease is attracting great attention, yet we still know little about some of the most prevalent microorganisms inside our bodies. Several years ago, Human Microbiome Project (HMP researchers generated a list of most wanted taxa: bacteria both prevalent among healthy volunteers and distantly related to any sequenced organisms. Unfortunately, the challenge of assembling high-quality genomes from a tangle of metagenomic reads has slowed progress in learning about these uncultured bacteria. Here, we describe how recent advances in sequencing and analysis allowed us to assemble most wanted genomes from metagenomic data collected from four stool samples. Using a combination of both de novo and guided assembly methods, we assembled and binned over 100 genomes from an initial data set of over 1,300 Gbp. One of these genome bins, which met HMP’s criteria for a most wanted taxa, contained three essentially complete genomes belonging to a previously uncultivated species. This species is most closely related to Eubacterium desmolans and the clostridial cluster IV/Clostridium leptum subgroup species Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (71–76% average nucleotide identity. Gene function analysis indicates that the species is an obligate anaerobe, forms spores, and produces the anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate. It also appears to take up metabolically costly molecules such as cobalamin, methionine, and branch-chained amino acids from the environment, and to lack virulence genes. Thus, the evidence is consistent with a secondary degrader that occupies a host-dependent, nutrient-scavenging niche within the gut; its ability to produce butyrate, which is thought to play an anti-inflammatory role, makes it intriguing for the study of diseases such as colon cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. In conclusion, we have assembled essentially complete genomes from stool metagenomic data, yielding

  3. Capturing One of the Human Gut Microbiome’s Most Wanted: Reconstructing the Genome of a Novel Butyrate-Producing, Clostridial Scavenger from Metagenomic Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeraldo, Patricio; Hernandez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Henrik B.; Chen, Xianfeng; White, Bryan A.; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Nelson, Heidi; Alhquist, David; Boardman, Lisa; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The role of the microbiome in health and disease is attracting great attention, yet we still know little about some of the most prevalent microorganisms inside our bodies. Several years ago, Human Microbiome Project (HMP) researchers generated a list of “most wanted” taxa: bacteria both prevalent among healthy volunteers and distantly related to any sequenced organisms. Unfortunately, the challenge of assembling high-quality genomes from a tangle of metagenomic reads has slowed progress in learning about these uncultured bacteria. Here, we describe how recent advances in sequencing and analysis allowed us to assemble “most wanted” genomes from metagenomic data collected from four stool samples. Using a combination of both de novo and guided assembly methods, we assembled and binned over 100 genomes from an initial data set of over 1,300 Gbp. One of these genome bins, which met HMP’s criteria for a “most wanted” taxa, contained three essentially complete genomes belonging to a previously uncultivated species. This species is most closely related to Eubacterium desmolans and the clostridial cluster IV/Clostridium leptum subgroup species Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (71–76% average nucleotide identity). Gene function analysis indicates that the species is an obligate anaerobe, forms spores, and produces the anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate. It also appears to take up metabolically costly molecules such as cobalamin, methionine, and branch-chained amino acids from the environment, and to lack virulence genes. Thus, the evidence is consistent with a secondary degrader that occupies a host-dependent, nutrient-scavenging niche within the gut; its ability to produce butyrate, which is thought to play an anti-inflammatory role, makes it intriguing for the study of diseases such as colon cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. In conclusion, we have assembled essentially complete genomes from stool metagenomic data, yielding

  4. Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed m

  5. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  6. Inhibition of glycolysis and growth of colon cancer cells by 3-(3-pyridinyl-1-(4-pyridinyl-2-propen-1-one (3PO in combination with butyrate, 2-deoxy glucose, 3-bromopyruvate or biguanides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea MA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycolysis shows a positive correlation with growth of human colon cancer cells. PFKFB3 is an important enzyme regulating glycolysis in many tumor cells and presents a target for cancer chemotherapy. We studied the action of an inhibitor of PFKFB3, 3-(3-pyridinyl-1-(4-pyridinyl-2-propen-1-one (3PO, as a single agent and in combination with other molecules that affect glycolysis. Materials and methods: Effects on growth were studied in four human colon cancer cell lines. Glucose metabolism was monitored by uptake from the incubation medium and lactic acid production was judged by acidification of the medium. Induction of alkaline phosphatase served as a marker of differentiation. Results: Growth of colon cancer cells was inhibited by 3PO and butyrate but only butyrate induced activation of alkaline phosphatase. Although metformin and phenformin can increase glucose metabolism, they inhibit colon cancer cell growth and can exert additive inhibitory effects in combination with 3PO. Additive growth inhibitory effects with 3PO were also observed with two compounds that inhibit glycolysis: 2-deoxyglucose and 3-bromopyruvate. Conclusion: 3PO was an inhibitor of growth of colon cancer cells and may be a useful agent in combination with other drugs that inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation.

  7. In vitro fermentation of swine ileal digesta containing oat bran dietary fiber by rat cecal inocula adapted to the test fiber increases propionate production but fermentation of wheat bran ileal digesta does not produce more butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, D J; Thorsen, P T; Vollendorf, N W; Crenshaw, T D; Marlett, J A

    2000-03-01

    This experiment evaluated three hypotheses: i) production of propionate is increased during fermentation of substrate containing oat bran (OB)(6); ii) production of butyrate is increased during fermentation of substrate containing wheat bran (WB) and iii) results of in vitro fermentations using physiological substrates and inocula agree with in vivo data. Ileal digesta collected from swine fed OB and WB were the substrates. Digesta was fermented for 0-96 h in an anaerobic in vitro system using inocula prepared from ceca of rats fed the same fiber sources. Carbohydrate and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents in the fermentations were measured by gas chromatography. Fermentation of WB digesta did not produce more n-butyrate (P > 0.05) and was significantly slower (P mechanism by which WB may protect colonic mucosa; propionate production is increased during fermentation of beta-glucan in OB; and an in vitro system using physiological sources of inoculum and substrate containing WB and OB yields results that agree with in vivo findings in humans and rats.

  8. Pseudo catalytic transformation of volatile fatty acids into fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-03-01

    Instead of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable wastes for producing methane, this work introduced the transformation of acidogenesis products (VFAs) into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to validate the feasible production of short-chained fatty alcohols via hydrogenation of FAMEs. In particular, among VFAs, this work mainly described the mechanistic explanations for transforming butyric acid into butyric acid methyl ester as a case study. Unlike the conventional esterification process (conversion efficiency of ∼94%), the newly introduced esterification under the presence of porous materials via the thermo-chemical process reached up to ∼99.5%. Furthermore, the newly introduced esterification via the thermo-chemical pathway in this work showed extremely high tolerance of impurities: the conversion efficiency under the presence of impurities reached up to ∼99±0.3%; thus, the inhibition behaviors attributed from the impurities used for the experimental work were negligible.

  9. Immobilization of Lipase using Alginate Hydrogel Beads and Enzymatic Evaluation in Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenol Butyrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuang; Shang, Wenting; Yang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Shujuan; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jiawei [Renmin Univ. of China, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-15

    The immobilization of enzyme is one of the key issues both in the field of enzymatic research and industrialization. In this work, we reported a facile method to immobilize Candida Antarctica lipase B (CALB) in alginate carrier. In the presence of calcium cation, the enzyme-alginate suspension could be cross-linked to form beads with porous structure at room temperature, and the enzyme CALB was dispersed in the beads. Activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was verified by enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenol butyrate in aqueous phase. The effects of reaction parameters such as temperature, pH, embedding and lyophilized time on the reactive behavior were discussed. Reuse cycle experiments for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenol butyrate demonstrated that activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was maintained without marked deactivation up to 6 repeated cycles.

  10. Adsorption of gaseous formaldehyde and carboxylic acids by ammonium-ion-exchanged alpha-zirconium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, A; Fujimoto, Y; Ogawa, Y; Nakayama, H; Tsuhako, M

    2005-03-01

    Ammonium-ion-exchanged alpha-Zr(HPO(4))(2)H(2)O (alpha-ZrP) was obtained as a single phase with the interlayer distance of 9.4 A by the ion-exchange of proton with ammonium ion. The ammonium ion-exchanged alpha-ZrP could adsorb ill-smelling gases, such as formaldehyde and carboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid). The adsorption amounts of carboxylic acids increased in the order, butyric acidacidacidacid, whereas the adsorption amount of formaldehyde was the same as that of butyric acid. It was cleared that the adsorbed formaldehyde was partially decomposed to formic acid and methanol by self oxidation-reduction reaction in the interlayer region as evidenced by solid-state NMR. Thereby the interlayer distance after the adsorption of formaldehyde expanded to 14.4 A. In the case of formic acid, it was cointercalated into the interlayer region, and the interlayer distance expanded to 11.1 A. On the other hand, the interlayer distance of the other carboxylic acid-adsorbed compounds decreased to 7.6 A due to release by the evacuation.

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.

  12. Sodium butyrate reverses the inhibition of Krebs cycle enzymes induced by amphetamine in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Calixto, Karen V; Budni, Josiane; Resende, Wilson R; Varela, Roger B; de Freitas, Karolina V; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the possibility that mitochondrial impairment may play an important role in bipolar disorder (BD). The Krebs cycle is the central point of oxidative metabolism, providing carbon for biosynthesis and reducing agents for generation of ATP. Recently, studies have suggested that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may have antimanic effects. The present study aims to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB), a HDAC inhibitor, on Krebs cycle enzymes activity in the brain of rats subjected to an animal model of mania induced by D-amphetamine (D-AMPH). Wistar rats were first given D-AMPH or saline (Sal) for 14 days, and then, between days 8 and 14, rats were treated with SB or Sal. The citrate synthase (CS), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats. The D-AMPH administration inhibited Krebs cycle enzymes activity in all analyzed brain structures and SB reversed D-AMPH-induced dysfunction analyzed in all brain regions. These findings suggest that Krebs cycle enzymes' inhibition can be an important link for the mitochondrial dysfunction seen in BD and SB exerts protective effects against the D-AMPH-induced Krebs cycle enzymes' dysfunction.

  13. Sodium Butyrate Induces Apoptosis of Human Colon Cancer Cells by Modulating ERK and Sphingosine Kinase 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Min; LIU Yun Gang; ZOU Meng Chen; ZOU Fei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in apoptosis of human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. Methods After the HCT116 cells were pretreated with specific ERK inhibitor (U0126) or specific siRNA and exposed to 10 mmol/L sodium butyrate (NaBT) for 24 h, their apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, levels of SphK2 and ERK protein were measured by Western blot, and translocation of SphK2 was assayed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results The U0126 and siRNAs specific for SphK2 blocked the export of SphK2 from nuclei to cytoplasm and increased the apoptosis of HCT116 cells following NaBT exposure. Over-expression of PKD decreased NaBT-induced apoptosis of HCT116 cells, which was reversed by U0126. Furthermore, transfection of HCT116 cells with constitutively activated PKD plasmids recovered the U0126-blocked export of SphK2. Conclusion ERK regulates the export of SphK2 and apoptosis of HCT116 cells by modulating PKD. Modulation of these molecules may help increase the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to the physiologic anti-colon cancer agent, NaBT.

  14. Enhancement of Human Prolactin Synthesis by Sodium Butyrate Addition to Serum-Free CHO Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Rodrigues Goulart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium butyrate (NaBu has been used as a productivity enhancer for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. Thus, the influence of NaBu on the production of recombinant human prolactin (hPRL from CHO cells was investigated for the first time. CHO cell cultures were submitted to a treatment with different concentrations of NaBu (0.25 to 4 mM. Quantitative and qualitative analyses by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and Western blot or SDS-PAGE, carried out directly on CHO-conditioned medium, showed that the highest hPRL expression was obtained with 1 mM NaBu. In vitro biological assays based on noble rat lymphoma (Nb2 and mouse pro-B lymphoma (Ba/F3-LLP cells were carried out on purified hPRL. Its bioactivity in the presence of NaBu was not apparently different from that of the First International Reference Reagent of recombinant hPRL (WHO 97/714. Our results show that NaBu increased the synthesis of recombinant hPRL in CHO cells, apparently without compromising either its structure or function.

  15. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut. PMID:26394008

  16. A reference electrode based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB) polymer for decentralized chemical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinovart, Tomàs; Crespo, Gastón A; Rius, F Xavier; Andrade, Francisco J

    2014-04-22

    A new solid-state reference electrode using a polymeric membrane of polyvinyl butyral (PVB), Ag/AgCl and NaCl to be used in decentralized chemical measurements is presented. The electrode is made by drop-casting the membrane cocktail onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate. A stable potential (less than 1 mV dec(-1)) over a wide range of concentrations for the several chemical species tested is obtained. No significant influence to changes in redox potential, light and pH are observed. The response of this novel electrode shows good correlation when compared with a conventional double-junction reference electrode. Also good long-term stability (90±33 μV/h) and a lifetime of approximately 4 months are obtained. Aspects related to the working mechanisms are discussed. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies reveal the presence of nanopores and channels on the surface, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of optimized electrodes show low bulk resistances, usually in the kΩ range, suggesting that a nanoporous polymeric structure is formed in the interface with the solution. Future applications of this electrode as a disposable device for decentralized measurements are discussed. Examples of the utilization on wearable substrates (tattoos, fabrics, etc) are provided.

  17. Constitutive Investigation on Viscoelasticity of PolyVinyl Butyral: Experiments Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PolyVinyl Butyral (PVB film is now widely used in automotive industry and architectures serving as the protective interlayer. The dynamic modulus of PVB is measured through systematic experiments based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA method at various temperatures, heating rates, and vibration frequencies. Further, viscoelasticity of PVB influenced by time and temperature is systematically studied. Fitted empirical formulas describing the relationship between glass transition temperature and frequency, as well as the heating rate of PVB, are established. The master curve of PVB at 293 K is suggested based on the experiment data as to express the dynamic modulus variation at various frequencies in a wider range. Constitutive behavior of PVB is then analyzed based on Generalized Maxwell (GM model and Fractional Derivative (FD model, respectively. It is shown that PVB has higher efficiency of energy dissipation in its high energy absorption state, while both fifth-order GM model and FD model can characterize the viscoelasticity of PVB at glassy transition area. Results may offer useful fundamental experimental data and important constitutive characteristics of PVB and shed lights on further studies on viscoelasticity behavior of PVB and energy mitigation ability of laminated glass.

  18. Radiation-induced color bleaching of methyl red in polyvinyl butyral film dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zahrany, Awad A., E-mail: azahrany@kacst.edu.sa [Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, (KACST), P.O. BOX 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Rabaeh, Khalid A. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, (KACST), P.O. BOX 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Radiography Department, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); Basfar, Ahmed A. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, (KACST), P.O. BOX 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-11-15

    Radio-chromic film based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB) containing different concentrations of methyl red (MR) dye for 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mM has been introduced as high dose dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray from {sup 60}Co source at doses from 5 to 150 kGy. UV/vis spectrophotometry was used to investigate the optical density of unirradiated and irradiated films in terms of absorbance at 497 nm. The dose sensitivity of MR-PVB film dosimeter increases strongly with increase of absorbed dose as well as increase of concentrations of MR dye. The effects of irradiation temperature, relative humidity, dose rate and the stability of the response of the films after irradiation were investigated and found that these films could be used as routine dosimeter in industrial radiation processing. The useful dose range of developed MR-PVB film dosimeters is in the range of 5-100 kGy. - Highlights: > This manuscript relates to radio-chromic dosimeter for used in high dose radiation processing. > Methyl red MR contains azo group which breaking due to gamma radiation, resulting in color bleaching. > Radio-chromic film PVB containing different concentrations of MR dye has been introduced. > The color bleaching of MR-PVB film dosimeter increases gradually with increasing absorbed dose. > Response of MR-PVB films was slightly affected by irradiation temperature and relative humidity.

  19. Dosimetry characterization of nitro-blue tetrazolium polyvinyl butyral films for radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Rabaeh, Khalid A.; Moussa, Akram A.; Msalam, Rashed I.

    2011-06-01

    Nitro-blue tetrazolium polyvinyl butyral film dosimeters (NBT-PVB) were prepared and investigated based on radiation-induced reduction of NBT 2+. NBT-PVB film dosimeters containing different concentrations of NBT dye from 1 to 5 mM were prepared in a solution of ethanol. The dosimeters were irradiated with γ-ray from 60Co source at doses from 5 up to 55 kGy. UV/vis spectrophotometry was used to investigate the optical density of unirradiated and irradiated films in terms of absorbance at 529 nm. The absorbance increases with absorbed dose up to 55 kGy for NBT-PVB film dosimeters. The dose sensitivity of NBT-PVB film increases strongly with an increase in concentrations of NBT dye. The effects of irradiation temperature, humidity, dose rate and the stability of the response of the films after irradiation were investigated. The influence of irradiation temperature and humidity on the performance of the film was reduced significantly due to the use of PVB as a binder containing NBT dye.

  20. Polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl butyral composite as a stable binder for castable supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Herbeck-Engel, P.; Grobelsek, I.; Presser, V.

    2015-04-01

    Mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl butyral (PVP/PVB) are attractive binders for the preparation of carbon electrodes for aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors. The use of PVP/PVB offers several key advantages: They are soluble in ethanol and can be used to spray coat or drain cast activated carbon (AC) electrodes directly on a current collector. Infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements show that the PVP-to-PVB ratio determines the degree of binder hydrophilicity. Within our study, the most favorable performance was obtained for AC electrodes with a composition of AC + 1.5 mass% PVP + 6.0 mass% PVB; such electrodes were mechanically stabile and water resistant with a PVP release of less than 5% of total PVP while PVB itself is water insoluble. Compared to when using PVDF, the specific surface area (SSA) of the assembled electrodes was 10% higher, indicating a reduced pore blocking tendency. A good electrochemical performance was observed in different aqueous electrolytes for composite electrodes with the optimized binder composition: 160 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 for 1 M H2SO4 and 6 M KOH and 120 F g-1 for 1 M NaCl. The capacitance was slightly reduced by 2.5% after cycling to 1.2 V with 1.28 A g-1 in 1 M NaCl for 10,000 times.

  1. Radiation-induced color bleaching of methyl red in polyvinyl butyral film dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zahrany, Awad A.; Rabaeh, Khalid A.; Basfar, Ahmed A.

    2011-11-01

    Radio-chromic film based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB) containing different concentrations of methyl red (MR) dye for 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mM has been introduced as high dose dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray from 60Co source at doses from 5 to 150 kGy. UV/vis spectrophotometry was used to investigate the optical density of unirradiated and irradiated films in terms of absorbance at 497 nm. The dose sensitivity of MR-PVB film dosimeter increases strongly with increase of absorbed dose as well as increase of concentrations of MR dye. The effects of irradiation temperature, relative humidity, dose rate and the stability of the response of the films after irradiation were investigated and found that these films could be used as routine dosimeter in industrial radiation processing. The useful dose range of developed MR-PVB film dosimeters is in the range of 5-100 kGy.

  2. Dosimetry characterization of nitro-blue tetrazolium polyvinyl butyral films for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basfar, Ahmed A., E-mail: abasfar@kacst.edu.s [Radiation Technology Center, Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Rabaeh, Khalid A. [Radiation Technology Center, Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Radiography Department, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); Moussa, Akram A. [Biomedical Physics Department, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Msalam, Rashed I. [Radiation Technology Center, Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-06-15

    Nitro-blue tetrazolium polyvinyl butyral film dosimeters (NBT-PVB) were prepared and investigated based on radiation-induced reduction of NBT{sup 2+}. NBT-PVB film dosimeters containing different concentrations of NBT dye from 1 to 5 mM were prepared in a solution of ethanol. The dosimeters were irradiated with {gamma}-ray from {sup 60}Co source at doses from 5 up to 55 kGy. UV/vis spectrophotometry was used to investigate the optical density of unirradiated and irradiated films in terms of absorbance at 529 nm. The absorbance increases with absorbed dose up to 55 kGy for NBT-PVB film dosimeters. The dose sensitivity of NBT-PVB film increases strongly with an increase in concentrations of NBT dye. The effects of irradiation temperature, humidity, dose rate and the stability of the response of the films after irradiation were investigated. The influence of irradiation temperature and humidity on the performance of the film was reduced significantly due to the use of PVB as a binder containing NBT dye.

  3. Support film in transmission electron microscopy: experiences with polyvinyl butyral Pioloform BM 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissler, Ursula; Harendza, Sigrid; Helmchen, Udo

    2003-01-01

    Microscopic work with single-slot grids requires high-quality support films to span the relatively large gap. The imminent unavailability of the polyvinyl formal Pioloform FN 65, which to date has been used as the standard polyvinyl formal for the generation of support films in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), has necessitated the finding of a substitute material to produce such films. Therefore, we compared the polyvinyl butyral Pioloform BM 18 with the polyvinyl formal Pioloform FN 65 for the production of TEM support films, using operational criteria for assessment. Pioloform BM 18 with the solvent chloroform resulted in support films of unacceptable quality compared with Pioloform FN 65. Adding the softener dibutyl phthalate to the chloroform solvent for Pioloform BM 18 markedly improved the film quality, resulting in support films with high transparency and flexibility, and even greater stability in the electron beam when compared with films of Pioloform FN 65. Pioloform FN 65 also had the disadvantage of requiring highly toxic 1,2-dichloroethane as a solvent, whereas Pioloform BM 18 can be used with chloroform.

  4. Synthesis of ZSM-5 with intracrystal or intercrystal mesopores by polyvinyl butyral templating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Zhicheng; Kong, Dejin; Wang, Yangdong; Yuan, Xiaohong; Xie, Zaiku

    2009-03-15

    Three facile routes were utilized to synthesize ZSM-5 materials with intracrystal or intercrystal mesopores, where the polyvinyl butyral gel served as mesopore directing template. The three routes were divided into two synthesis strategies: the hydrothermal treatment of silica/PVB composite and re-crystallization of preformed zeolite precursor with the assistance of PVB gel. The fabrication of silica/PVB composite was accomplished by two routes including sol-gel process and impregnation method. The resulting composite was undergone hydrothermal treatment. During the crystallization PVB was occluded in the ZSM-5 crystal, creating intracrystal mesopores in the zeolite. The last route for the synthesis of mesoporous ZSM-5 was realized by re-crystallization of preformed ZSM-5 zeolite in the presence of PVB. This route involved the pre-crystallization of the amorphous aluminosilicate to produce the pre-formed ZSM-5 precursor. Upon further crystallization of the mixture of PVB gel and pre-formed ZSM-5, the ZSM-5 precursor was transformed into ZSM-5 aggregate of nanocrystals, while the PVB gel was occluded in the ZSM-5 particles. Removal of the template generated the typical microporosity associated with ZSM-5 structure along with intercrystal mesoporosity produced from the PVB. The mesoporous ZSM-5 exhibited enhanced catalytic activity in the toluene disproportionation and transalkylation with C(9) and C(10) aromatics.

  5. Flexible thermoplastic composite of Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB and waste of rigid Polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Sônego

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the preparation and characterization of composites with recycled poly(vinyl butyral (PVB and residue of rigid polyurethane foam (PUr, with PUr contents of 20, 35 and 50 wt %, using an extruder equipped with a Maillefer single screw and injection molding. The components of the composites were thermally characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetry. The composites were evaluated by melt flow index (MFI, tensile and hardness mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Tg determined by DSC of PVB sample (53 °C indicated the presence of plasticizer (Tg of pure PVB is 70 °C. MFI of the composites indicated a viscosity increase with the PUr content and, as the shear rate was held constant during injection molding, higher viscosities promoted higher shear stresses in the composites, thereby causing breaking or tearing of the PUr particles. The SEM micrographs showed low adhesion between PVB and PUr and the presence of voids, both inherent in the rigid foam and in the interphase PVB-PUr. The SEM micrographs also showed that PVB/PUr (50/50 composite exhibited the smallest particle size and a more homogeneous and compact structure with fewer voids in the interface. The stiffness of the composites increases with addition of the PUr particles, as evidenced in the mechanical tests.

  6. Preparation and characterization of nanoparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate containing acyclovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, Venkata Bharadwaz; Chopra, Maulick; Joseph, Emil; Mazumder, Sonal

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate complexed with the poorly soluble antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) were produced by precipitation process and the formulation process and properties of nanoparticles were investigated. Two different particle synthesis methods were explored—a conventional precipitation method and a rapid precipitation in a multi-inlet vortex mixer. The particles were processed by rotavap followed by freeze-drying. Particle diameters as measured by dynamic light scattering were dependent on the synthesis method used. The conventional precipitation method did not show desired particle size distribution, whereas particles prepared by the mixer showed well-defined particle size ~125-450 nm before and after freeze-drying, respectively, with narrow polydispersity indices. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed chemical stability and intactness of entrapped drug in the nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the drug was in amorphous state in the polymer matrix. ACV drug loading was around 10 wt%. The release studies showed increase in solution concentration of drug from the nanoparticles compared to the as-received crystalline drug.

  7. Carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate/poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide blends as antimicrobial coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Blachechen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blends of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB, a cellulose derivative, and poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide (QPVP-C5, an antimicrobial polymer, were prepared by casting method and characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and contact angle measurements. Miscibility between CMCAB and QPVP-C5 was evidenced by DSC measurements of blends, which showed a single thermal event of Tg, and SEM images, which revealed homogenous morphology, regardless the blend composition. Moreover, thermal stability of QPVP-C5 was substantially enhanced, when it was mixed with CMCAB. Upon increasing the QPVP-C5 content in the blend the wettability and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus increased, indicating the surface enrichment by pyridinium groups. In fact, blends with 70 wt% QPVP-C5 reduced 5 log and 4 log the colony-forming units of Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli, respectively.

  8. Transparent Blend of Poly(Methylmethacrylate/Cellulose Acetate Butyrate for the Protection from Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf Mahmood Raouf

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of transparent polymers as an alternative to glass has become widespread. However, the direct exposure of these materials to climatic conditions of sunlight and heat decrease the lifetime cost of these products. The aim of this study was to minimize the harm caused by ultraviolet (UV radiation exposure to transparent poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA, which usually leads to changes in the physical and chemical properties of these materials and reduced performance. This was achieved using environmentally friendly cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB. The optical, morphological, and thermal properties of CAB blended with transparent PMMA was studied using UV-VIS spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The results show that CAB was able to reduce the effects of UV radiation by making PMMA more transparent to UV light, thereby preventing the negative effects of trapped radiation within the compositional structure, while maintaining the amorphous structure of the blend. The results also show that CAB blended with PMMA led to some properties commensurate with the requirements of research in terms of a slight increase in the value of the modulus and the glass transition temperature for the PMMA/CAB blend.

  9. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Sabita N. Saldanha; Kala, Rishabh; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overe...

  10. Modulation of microRNAs expression in hematopoietic stem cells treated with sodium butyrate in inducing fetal hemoglobin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Behnoosh; Abrishami, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Shaban; Minayi, Neda; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Soleimani, Masoud; Dehghanifard, Ali; Atwan, Hossein; Ajami, Monireh; Ajami, Mansoureh

    2017-02-01

    Context Inherited hemoglobin diseases are the most common single-gene disorders. Induction of fetal hemoglobin in beta hemoglobin disorders compensate for abnormal chain and ameliorate the clinical complications. Sodium butyrate is used conventionally for fetal hemoglobin induction; it can be replaced by safer therapeutic tools like microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that control number of epigenetic mechanisms. Objective In this study, we compared the changes in the microRNAs of differentiated erythroid cells between control and sodium butyrate treated groups. The objective is to find significant association between these changes and gamma chain up regulation. Materials and methods First, CD133(+ ) hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from cord blood by magnetic cell sorting (MACS) technique. After proliferation, the cells were differentiated to erythroid lineage in culture medium by EPO, SCF, and IL3. Meanwhile, the test group was treated with sodium butyrate. Then, gamma chain upregulation was verified by qPCR technique. Finally, microRNA profiling was performed through microarray assay and some of them confirmed by qPCR. Result Results demonstrated that gamma chain was 5.9-fold upregulated in the treated group. Significant changes were observed at 76 microRNAs, in which 20 were up-regulated and 56 were down-regulated. Discussion Five of these microRNAs including U101, hsa-miR-4726-5p, hsa-miR7109 5p, hsa-miR3663, and hsa-miR940 had significant changes in expression and volume. Conclusion In conclusion, it can be assumed that sodium butyrate can up-regulate gamma chain gene, and change miRNAs expression. These results can be profitable in future studies to find therapeutic goal suitable for such disorders.

  11. High Sensitive Sensor Fabricated by Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers for Detecting Cu (II) in Water

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)/polyvinyl butyral (PVB) nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning technique with PVB as matrix and GO as a functional nanomaterial. GO/PVB nanofibers on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were reduced through electrochemical method to form reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/PVB nanofibers. The morphology and structure of GO/PVB nanofiber were studied by scanning election microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). RGO/PV...

  12. Butyrate activates the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 expression in breast cancer cells and enhances the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Odília; Preto, Ana; Pacheco, António; Pinheiro, Céline; Azevedo-Silva, João; Moreira, Roxana; Pedro, Madalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Baltazar, Fátima; Casal, Margarida

    2012-02-01

    Most malignant tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, which consists in increased glycolysis rates with production of lactate, even in the presence of oxygen. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), maintain these glycolytic rates, by mediating the influx and/or efflux of lactate and are overexpressed in several cancer cell types. The lactate and pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an inhibitor of the energy metabolism, which has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. In the present study, we aimed at determining the effect of 3-BP in breast cancer cells and evaluated the putative role of MCTs on this effect. Our results showed that the three breast cancer cell lines used presented different sensitivities to 3-BP: ZR-75-1 ER (+)>MCF-7 ER (+)>SK-BR-3 ER (-). We also demonstrated that 3-BP reduced lactate production, induced cell morphological alterations and increased apoptosis. The effect of 3-BP appears to be cytotoxic rather than cytostatic, as a continued decrease in cell viability was observed after removal of 3-BP. We showed that pre-incubation with butyrate enhanced significantly 3-BP cytotoxicity, especially in the most resistant breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We observed that butyrate treatment induced localization of MCT1 in the plasma membrane as well as overexpression of MCT4 and its chaperone CD147. Our results thus indicate that butyrate pre-treatment potentiates the effect of 3-BP, most probably by increasing the rates of 3-BP transport through MCT1/4. This study supports the potential use of butyrate as adjuvant of 3-BP in the treatment of breast cancer resistant cells, namely ER (-).

  13. Effects of different polypyrrole/TiO2 nanocomposite morphologies in polyvinyl butyral coatings for preventing the corrosion of mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, M. R.; Alias, Y.; Basirun, W. J.; Ebadi, M.

    2013-03-01

    This study addresses the synthesis and comparison of the corrosion protective properties of two different polypyrrole/TiO2 nanocomposite (PPy/TiO2 NC) morphologies in a polyvinyl butyral coating on mild steel. The polymerization was performed via low-temperature in situ chemical oxidative polymerization in the presence of methyl orange (MO) and dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA). The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show two different spherical and tube shapes in the core-shell structure of the PPy/TiO2 NCs synthesized in the presence DBSA and MO, respectively. The TEM results indicate that a thinner polypyrrole (PPy) shell is synthesized on the PPy/TiO2 NCs in the presence of MO than that synthesized in the presence of DBSA. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicate that the mass percentages of the TiO2 NPs in the PPy/TiO2 NCs synthesized in the presence of MO and DBSA are 29.71 and 33.84%, respectively. The PPy/TiO2 NCs synthesized in the presence of MO were found to yield better anti-corrosion performance than those synthesized in the presence of DBSA. This result is due to the effect of the PPy surface area, which has more influence over corrosion control than the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles in the nanocomposites.

  14. Conductive Fe3O4 nanoparticles accelerate syntrophic methane production from butyrate oxidation in two different lake sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Syntrophic methanogenesis is an essential link in the global carbon cycle and a key bioprocess for the disposal of organic waste and production of biogas. Recent studies suggest direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET is involved in electron exchange in methanogenesis occurring in paddy soils, anaerobic digesters and specific co-cultures with Geobacter. In this study, we evaluate the possible involvement of DIET in the syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in the enrichments from two lake sediments (an urban lake and a natural lake. The results showed that the production of CH4 was significantly accelerated in the presence of conductive nanoscale Fe3O4 or carbon nanotubes (CNTs in the sediment enrichments. Observations made with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and scanning electron microscope (SEM indicated that microbial aggregates were formed in the enrichments. It appeared that the average cell-to-cell distance in aggregates in nanomaterial-amended enrichments was larger than that in aggregates in the non-amended control. These results suggested that DIET-mediated syntrophic methanogenesis could occur in the lake sediments in the presence of conductive materials. Microbial community analysis of the enrichments revealed that the genera of Syntrophomonas, Sulfurospirillum, Methanosarcina and Methanoregula were responsible for syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in lake sediment samples. The mechanism for the conductive-material-facilitated DIET in butyrate syntrophy deserves further investigation.

  15. Conductive Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Accelerate Syntrophic Methane Production from Butyrate Oxidation in Two Different Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianchao; Lu, Yahai

    2016-01-01

    Syntrophic methanogenesis is an essential link in the global carbon cycle and a key bioprocess for the disposal of organic waste and production of biogas. Recent studies suggest direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is involved in electron exchange in methanogenesis occurring in paddy soils, anaerobic digesters, and specific co-cultures with Geobacter. In this study, we evaluate the possible involvement of DIET in the syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in the enrichments from two lake sediments (an urban lake and a natural lake). The results showed that the production of CH4 was significantly accelerated in the presence of conductive nanoscale Fe3O4 or carbon nanotubes in the sediment enrichments. Observations made with fluorescence in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope indicated that microbial aggregates were formed in the enrichments. It appeared that the average cell-to-cell distance in aggregates in nanomaterial-amended enrichments was larger than that in aggregates in the non-amended control. These results suggested that DIET-mediated syntrophic methanogenesis could occur in the lake sediments in the presence of conductive materials. Microbial community analysis of the enrichments revealed that the genera of Syntrophomonas, Sulfurospirillum, Methanosarcina, and Methanoregula were responsible for syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in lake sediment samples. The mechanism for the conductive-material-facilitated DIET in butyrate syntrophy deserves further investigation. PMID:27597850

  16. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  17. Effect of Whole-Body X-Irradiation of the Synthesis of Individual Fatty Acids in Liver Slices from Normal and Fasted Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, Lisbeth Grænge; Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    (1) Using (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate as precursors, rat-liver fatty acids were synthesized in vitro and assayed by paper chromatography. (2) Whole-body x-irradiation induced a change in the synthetic pattern of hepatic fatty acids towards a relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitic acid...

  18. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  19. Na-H Exchanger Isoform-2 (NHE2) Mediates Butyrate-dependent Na+ Absorption in Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Vazhaikkurichi M; Nanda Kumar, Navalpur S; Tse, Chung M; Binder, Henry J

    2015-10-16

    Diarrhea associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) occurs primarily as a result of reduced Na(+) absorption. Although colonic Na(+) absorption is mediated by both epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) and Na-H exchangers (NHE), inhibition of NHE-mediated Na(+) absorption is the primary cause of diarrhea in UC. As there are conflicting observations reported on NHE expression in human UC, the present study was initiated to identify whether NHE isoforms (NHE2 and NHE3) expression is altered and how Na(+) absorption is regulated in DSS-induced inflammation in rat colon, a model that has been used to study UC. Western blot analyses indicate that neither NHE2 nor NHE3 expression is altered in apical membranes of inflamed colon. Na(+) fluxes measured in vitro under voltage clamp conditions in controls demonstrate that both HCO3 (-)-dependent and butyrate-dependent Na(+) absorption are inhibited by S3226 (NHE3-inhibitor), but not by HOE694 (NHE2-inhibitor) in normal animals. In contrast, in DSS-induced inflammation, butyrate-, but not HCO3 (-)-dependent Na(+) absorption is present and is inhibited by HOE694, but not by S3226. These observations indicate that in normal colon NHE3 mediates both HCO3 (-)-dependent and butyrate-dependent Na(+) absorption, whereas DSS-induced inflammation activates NHE2, which mediates butyrate-dependent (but not HCO3 (-)-dependent) Na(+) absorption. In in vivo loop studies HCO3 (-)-Ringer and butyrate-Ringer exhibit similar rates of water absorption in normal rats, whereas in DSS-induced inflammation luminal butyrate-Ringer reversed water secretion observed with HCO3 (-)-Ringer to fluid absorption. Lumen butyrate-Ringer incubation activated NHE3-mediated Na(+) absorption in DSS-induced colitis. These observations suggest that the butyrate activation of NHE2 would be a potential target to control UC-associated diarrhea.

  20. In vivo regulation of colonic cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and P27Kip1 by dietary fish oil and butyrate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis.

  1. [Analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazuaki; Sakamoto, Jun; Nagaoka, Kazuya; Takayama, Yohichi; Kanahori, Takashi; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Sato, Shinji; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric, iso-valeric and n-valeric acid) in anaerobic digestion process waters for biogas production was examined by ion-exclusion chromatography with dilute acidic eluents (benzoic acid, perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and sulfuric acid) and non-suppressed conductivity/ultraviolet (UV) detection. The columns used were a styrene/divinylbenzene-based strongly acidic cation-exchange resin column (TSKgel SCX) and a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column (TSKgel Super IC-A/C). Good separation was performed on the TSKgel SCX in shorter retention times. For the TSKgel Super IC-A/C, peak shape of the acids was sharp and symmetrical in spite of longer retention times. In addition, the mutual separation of the acids was good except for iso- and n-butyric acids. The better separation and good detection was achieved by using the two columns (TSKgel SCX and TSKgel Super IC-A/C connected in series), lower concentrations of PFBA and sulfuric acid as eluents, non-suppressed conductivity detection and UV detection at 210 nm. This analysis was applied to anaerobic digestion process waters. The chromatograms with conductivity detection were relatively simpler compared with those of UV detection. The use of two columns with different selectivities for the aliphatic carboxylic acids and the two detection modes was effective for the determination and identification of the analytes in anaerobic digestion process waters containing complex matrices.

  2. Downregulation of the Expression of GLUT1 Plays a Role in Apoptosis Induced by Sodium Butyrate in HT-29 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Jin Yuan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of glucose and sodium butyrate transporters(glucose transporter1-5 and Monocarboxylate transporter 1 and their relationship with cell apoptosis induced bysodium butyrate in colonic caner cell line HT-29 were studied. Cell apoptosis was detectedby flow cytometric assay. The expression of MCT1 and GLUT1-5 mRNA were detected byRT-PCR and the uptake of glucose was detected using 2-deoxy-[3H]glucose. The expressionof bax and bcl-x/l were detected by westernblot assay. We found that sodium butyrateinduced apoptosis in HT-29 cell line. The expression of GLUT1 mRNA, bcl-x/l, as well theuptake of glucose was inhibited by sodium butyrate. The expression of MCT1 and GLUT2,GLUT3, GLUT5 was not regulated by sodium butyrate. However, the concentration ofglucose had positive correlation with the expression of bcl-x/l protein and negativecorrelation with the apoptosis induced by sodium butyrate. All the results suggested thatdownregulation of the expression of GLUT1 was associated with the apoptosis induced bysodium butyrate in HT-29 cell line.

  3. A reference electrode based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB) polymer for decentralized chemical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinovart, Tomàs [Departament de Química Orgànica i Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcellí Domingo s/n 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Crespo, Gastón A. [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Rius, F. Xavier [Departament de Química Orgànica i Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcellí Domingo s/n 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Andrade, Francisco J., E-mail: franciscojavier.andrade@urv.cat [Departament de Química Orgànica i Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcellí Domingo s/n 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A disposable solid-contact reference electrode for potentiometry is presented. • The device shows unsensitivity to most ions, redox potential and light. • Low-cost and good stability, ideal to build disposable potentiometric sensors. • Nanopores formed in the membrane control the flux of ions with the solution. Abstract: A new solid-state reference electrode using a polymeric membrane of polyvinyl butyral (PVB), Ag/AgCl and NaCl to be used in decentralized chemical measurements is presented. The electrode is made by drop-casting the membrane cocktail onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate. A stable potential (less than 1 mV dec⁻¹ over a wide range of concentrations for the several chemical species tested is obtained. No significant influence to changes in redox potential, light and pH are observed. The response of this novel electrode shows good correlation when compared with a conventional double-junction reference electrode. Also good long-term stability (90 ± 33 μV/h) and a lifetime of approximately 4 months are obtained. Aspects related to the working mechanisms are discussed. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies reveal the presence of nanopores and channels on the surface, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of optimized electrodes show low bulk resistances, usually in the kΩ range, suggesting that a nanoporous polymeric structure is formed in the interface with the solution. Future applications of this electrode as a disposable device for decentralized measurements are discussed. Examples of the utilization on wearable substrates (tattoos, fabrics, etc) are provided.

  4. Neuroprotective Effect of Sodium Butyrate against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium butyrate (NaB is a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber and serves as an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system. In this study, we further investigated that NaB attenuated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury in vivo and its possible mechanisms. NaB (5, 10 mg/kg was administered intragastrically 3 h after the onset of reperfusion in bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO mice. After 24 h of reperfusion, neurological deficits scores were estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining. The levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Apoptotic neurons were measured by TUNEL; apoptosis-related protein caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, the phosphorylation Akt (p-Akt, and BDNF were assayed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that 10 mg/kg NaB treatment significantly ameliorated neurological deficit and histopathology changes in cerebral I/R injury. Moreover, 10 mg/kg NaB treatment markedly restored the levels of MDA, SOD, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. 10 mg/kg NaB treatment also remarkably inhibited the apoptosis, decreasing the levels of caspase-3 and Bax and increasing the levels of Bcl-2, p-Akt, and BDNF. This study suggested that NaB exerts neuroprotective effects on cerebral I/R injury by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties and BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in antiapoptotic effect.

  5. Epigenetically reprogramming of human embryonic stem cells by 3-Deazaneplanocin A and sodium butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Azghadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Infertility affects about 6.1 million women aged 15-44 in the United States. The leading cause of infertility in women is quantitative and qualitative defects in human germ-cell development (these sentences are not mentioned in introduction so it is not correct to mention in abstract, you can omit. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC lines are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM of developing blastocysts and have a broad clinical potential. hESCs have been classified into three classes based on their epigenetic state. The goal of this study was to epigenetically reprogram Class II and Class III cell lines to Class I (naïve state, and to in vitro differentiation of potent hESCs to primordial germ cells (PGCs. Methods: Recent evidence suggests that 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep is a global histone methylation inhibitor which selectively inhibits trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3K27, and it is an epigenetic therapeutic for cancer. The characteristics of DZNep lead us to hypothesize that it is a good candidate to epigenetically reprogram hESCs to the Class I. Additionally, we used sodium butyrate (NaBu shown in previous studies to up-regulate the expression of germ cell specific markers (these sentences should be come in introduction. Results: We used these two drugs to produce epigenetically stable hESC lines. hESC lines are an appropriate system for disease modeling and understanding developmental stages, therefore producing stable stem cell lines may have an outstanding impact in different research fields such as preventive medicine. Conclusions: X-Chromosome inactivation has been used as a tool to follow the reprogramming process. We have used immunostaining and western blot as methods to follow this reprogramming qualitatively and quantitatively.

  6. Sodium butyrate induces DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fusion and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Dhanir; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Kale, Raosaheb K; Singh, Shivendra V; Singh, Rana P

    2014-05-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBt) is the byproduct of anaerobic microbial fermentation inside the gastro-intestinal tract that could reach up to 20mM, and has been shown to inhibit the growth of various cancers. Herein, we evaluated its effect on mitochondrial fusion and associated induction of apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells (CRC). NaBt treatment at physiological (1-5mM) concentrations for 12 and 24h decreased the cell viability and induced G2-M phase cell cycle arrest in HCT116 (12h) and SW480 human CRC cells. This cell cycle arrest was associated with mitochondria-mediated apoptosis accompanied by a decrease in survivin and Bcl-2 expression, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, NaBt treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the mitochondrial mass which is an indicator of mitochondrial fusion. Level of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a key regulator of mitochondrial fission and fusion where its up-regulation correlates with fission, was found to be decreased in CRC cells. Further, at early treatment time, DRP1 down-regulation was noticed in mitochondria which later became drastically reduced in both mitochondria as well as cytosol. DRP1 is activated by cyclin B1-CDK1 complex by its ser616 phosphorylation in which both cyclin B1-CDK1 complex and phospho-DRP1 (ser616) were strongly reduced by NaBt treatment. DRP1 was observed to be regulated by apoptosis as pan-caspase inhibitor showing rescue from NaBt-induced apoptosis also caused the reversal of DRP1 to the normal level as in control proliferating cells. Together, these findings suggest that NaBt can modulate mitochondrial fission and fusion by regulating the level of DRP1 and induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human CRC cells.

  7. Fasting serum concentration of short-chain fatty acids in subjects with microscopic colitis and celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Bjerregaard, Jens Holst; Skovbjerg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, have been shown to have many positive health effects. The amount and type of SCFAs formed from dietary fibre by the colonic microbiota depends on the substrate available and is reflected in blood. The total intake and type...... of dietary fibre in people with gastrointestinal diseases differs considerably from healthy subjects....

  8. Effect of Volatile Fatty Acids and Trimethylamine on Denitrification in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilersen, Ann Marie; Henze, Mogens; Kløft, Lene

    1995-01-01

    wastewaters from fish, potato and onion industries all stimulated denitrification. Reject water from anaerobic treatment of excess sludge had no significant effect on the denitrification processes. For isobutyric, isovaleric and n-valeric acid the undissociated compounds appear to act as the inhibitor......The effect of volatile fatty acids and trimethylamine on denitrification activity of activated sludge was studied in laboratory batch experiments. Formic acid had no effect on the denitrification rates. Acetic acid, n-butyric acid and trimethylamine all enhanced the rates. Acetate is the compound...... with the strongest effect, n-butyric acid has a moderate effect, while TMA only have a small effect in stimulating the rates. Propionic, isobutyric, n-valeric, isovaleric and caproic acid inhibit denitrification, nitrate reduction being more inhibited than nitrite reduction. The inhibitor concentration, KI, at which...

  9. Coated fatty acids alter virulence properties of Salmonella Typhimurium and decrease intestinal colonization of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Vanparys, A; Volf, J; Mahu, M; Van Immerseel, F; Rychlik, I; Dewulf, J; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F

    2008-12-10

    Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs are a major source of human foodborne salmonellosis. To reduce the number of infected pigs, acidification of feed or drinking water is a common practice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether some frequently used short- (SCFA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are able to alter virulence gene expression and to decrease Salmonella Typhimurium colonization and shedding in pigs using well established and controlled in vitro and in vivo assays. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 4 SCFA (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) and 2 MCFA (caproic and caprylic acid) were determined using 54 porcine Salmonella Typhimurium field strains. MIC values increased at increasing pH-values and were two to eight times lower for MCFA than for SCFA. Expression of virulence gene fimA was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth supplemented with sub-MIC concentrations of caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). Expression of hilA and invasion in porcine intestinal epithelial cells was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth containing sub-MIC concentrations of butyric acid or propionic acid (10 mM) and caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). When given as feed supplement to pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, coated butyric acid decreased the levels of faecal shedding and intestinal colonization, but had no influence on the colonization of tonsils, spleen and liver. Uncoated fatty acids, however, did not influence fecal shedding, intestinal or tonsillar colonization in pigs. In conclusion, supplementing feed with certain coated fatty acids, such as butyric acid, may help to reduce the Salmonella load in pigs.

  10. Sodium butyrate-induced death-associated protein kinase expression promote Raji cell morphological change and apoptosis by reducing FAK protein levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-tao ZHANG; Zhe-ling FENG; Jun WU; Ya-jun WANG; Xia GUO; Nian-ci LIANG; Zhen-yu ZHU; Jian-quan MA

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the role of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) on the apoptosis of Raji cells induced by sodium butyrate. Methods:The apoptosis of Raji cells were induced by sodium butyrate for 2,4,6,8,and 10 d. Simultaneity,the Raji cells were inhibited to adhere on culture flask by polyHEME. Cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the cell apoptosis percentage was estimated by flow cytometry. DAPK and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression were measured by Western blotting.Coding sequence on the C-terminal of DAPK,which can suppress the function of DAPK,was tranfected into the Raji cells to investigate whether the C-terminal of DAPK could inhibit the apoptosis of Raji cells induced by sodium butyrate. Results:After being treated with sodium butyrate,the Raji cells expressed DAPK and displayed many protrusions to adhere onto the culture flask. The Raji cells were susceptive to apoptosis when they were inhibited adhesion by polyHEME. At that time,the cell viability decreased,the cell apoptosis percentage increased and the protein levels of total FAK were reduced. The Raji cells,which were transfected with the coding region on the C-terminal of DAPK,sustained apoptosis and the FAK protein level when treated with sodium butyrate. Conclusion:Sodium butyrate induced DAPK expression. It caused the Raji cells to display many protrusions all around the cells and adhere onto the culture flask. DAPK expression prompted apoptosis by reducing the FAK protein level in sodium butyrate induced Raji cells.

  11. Effect of gluconic acid on piglet growth performance, intestinal microflora, and intestinal wall morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, G; Piva, A; Moschini, M; Vezzali, E; Roth, F X

    2006-02-01

    Gluconic acid (GA) derives from the incomplete oxidation of glucose by some Gluconobacter strains. When fed to nonruminant animals, GA is only poorly absorbed in the small intestine and is primarly fermented to butyric acid in the lower gut. This study investigated the effect of GA on in vitro growth response and metabolism of swine cecal microflora and on animal growth performance, intestinal wall morphology, and intestinal microflora. During a 24-h in vitro cecal fermentation, total gas production and maximum rate of gas production were increased by GA (linear, P acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, acetic to propionic acid ratio, and acetic + butyric to propionic acid ratio were linearly increased by GA (P acid bacteria were not affected by GA. Gluconic acid tended to increase total short-chain fatty acids in the jejunum (+174, +87, and +74% for GA at 3,000, 6,000, and 12,000 ppm, respectively; P of the model = 0.07; quadratic, P = 0.07). Morphological evaluation of intestinal mucosa from jejunum, ileum, and cecum did not show any significant differences among treatments. This study showed that feeding GA influences the composition and activity of the intestinal microflora and may improve growth performance of piglets after weaning.

  12. ENHANCED BUTYRIC ACID AND HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY ACK-DELETED MUTANT OF C CLOSTRIDIUM TYROBUTYRICUM. (R829479C016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PTA GENE DELETED MUTANT OF C CLOSTRIDIUM TYROBUTYRICUM FOR BUTYRIC ACID FERMENTATION. (R829479C016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. ADAPTATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM TYROBUTYRICUM FOR ENHANCED TOLERANCE TO BUTYRIC ACID IN A FIBROUS-BED BIOREACTOR. (R829479C016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. EFFECT OF PH ON METABOLIC PATHWAY SHIFT IN BUTYRIC ACID FERMENTATION BY C CLOSTRIDIUM TYROBUTYRICUM. (R829479C016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. BUTYRIC ACID AND HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY C CLOSTRIDIUM TYROBUTYRICUM ATCC 25755 AND M MUTANTS. (R829479C016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Origins of ultralow thermal conductivity in bulk [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhls, Jan-Hendrik; Johnson, Michel B; White, Mary Anne

    2016-01-14

    Bulk PCBM has exceptionally low thermal conductivity, 0.07 W m(-1) K(-1) at room temperature. We show that its ultralow thermal conductivity is an intrinsic property. Based on results for thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements down to thermal conductivity was developed. In the model the thermal energy is transferred between entities of phonons oscillating in a range of frequencies, and limited by the atomic density and the phonon mean speed. The model accurately represents the low thermal conductivity for both PCBM and C60/C70.

  18. Association between butyrate and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in gut contents and faeces in weaning piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    of citrus pectin (soluble fibre) and barley hulls (insoluble fibre) and gastrointestinal contents were collected at euthanasia 9 days after weaning. In Trial 2, 120 pair-wise penned piglets were allocated to the same experimental diets as in Trial 1 (24 piglets per treatment), and fresh faecal samples were...

  19. Effects of sodium butyrate supplementation on reproductive performance and colostrum composition in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B; Wang, M; Guo, H; Jia, Y; Yang, X; Zhao, R

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients are essential for the health and survival of human beings and animals. Also, they play a major role in enhancing reproductive efficiency. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on reproductive performance and colostrum composition in gilts. A total of 40 Large White×Landrace replacement gilts (at the age of 160 to 175 days) were fed either a standard diet (control group, n=20) or standard diet top dressed with encapsulated SB at the level of 500 mg/kg (SB group, n=20) from 1 month before mating to 7 days after farrowing. The rate of gilts regular return to estrus after insemination was lower in SB group than the control group. The total number of piglets born (P=0.179) and the litter weight at birth (P=0.063) did not differ between the two treatment groups. However, the mean BW at day 7 tended to be greater in SB group (P=0.051) and average daily gain of piglets was greater (P=0.011) compared with control group. Colostrum samples were collected at parturition and the concentrations of total protein (P=0.197), cholesterol (P=0.161) and lactose (P=0.923) were not influenced by SB supplementation. However, compared with control gilts, colostrum from SB-treated gilts contained lower triglyceride (P=0.050). Moreover, colostrum concentrations of prolactin (P=0.005) and leptin (P=0.006) were significantly lower in SB group. No significant differences were noted for the colostral concentrations of cortisol (P=0.899), thyroxine (P=0.891) or triiodothyronine (P=0.194). The concentration of lipopolysaccharide in colostrum was not influenced by SB supplementation (P=0.972). However, colostrum from SB-treated gilts had significantly lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) (P=0.030) and higher immunoglobulin A (IgA) (P=0.042). Collectively, SB supplementation could reduce the rate of gilts return to estrus, alter the composition of colostrum and enhance the growth rate of piglets. Moreover, SB could alter the immune function

  20. Development and Validation of a HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of L-Glutamic Acid and γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Mice Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancheti, J S; Shaikh, M F; Khatwani, P F; Kulkarni, Savita R; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2013-11-01

    A new robust, simple and economic high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of L-glutamic acid and γ-amino butyric acid in brain homogenate. The high performance thin layer chromatographic separation of these amino acid was achieved using n-butanol:glacial acetic acid:water (22:3:5 v/v/v) as mobile phase and ninhydrin as a derivatising agent. Quantitation of the method was achieved by densitometric method at 550 nm over the concentration range of 10-100 ng/spot. This method showed good separation of amino acids in the brain homogenate with Rf value of L-glutamic acid and γ-amino butyric acid as 21.67±0.58 and 33.67±0.58, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for L-glutamic acid was found to be 10 and 20 ng and for γ-amino butyric acid it was 4 and 10 ng, respectively. The method was also validated in terms of accuracy, precision and repeatability. The developed method was found to be precise and accurate with good reproducibility and shows promising applicability for studying pathological status of disease and therapeutic significance of drug treatment.

  1. STUDY ON IMMOBILIZED PORCINE PANCREATIC LIPASE CATALYZING TRANSESTERIFICATION BETWEEN METHYL—BUTYRATE AND 1—BUTANOL IN NONAQUEOUS SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XieZhidong; LueXianyu; 等

    1996-01-01

    Transesterification between methyl-butyrate and 1-butanol in nonaqueous systems was catalyzed by porcine pancreatic lipase which was immobilized on cross-linked polystyrene.Organic solvents,substrate concentration,contents of water and other parameters which affect the immobilized enzyme activity were studied.Lipase immobilized on hydrophobic crosslinked polystyrene can reduce its diffusion limit in the reaction.It was found that the activity of immobilized lipase in organic systems was two times as high as that of free lipase.

  2. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, Andrea; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Kertesz, Tereza; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F. [University Hospital, Goettingen (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Pradier, Olivier [University Hospital, Brest (France). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  3. Gut-derived short-chain fatty acids are vividly assimilated into host carbohydrates and lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den M.; Lange, K.; Havinga, R.; Dijk, van T.H.; Gerding, A.; Eunen, van K.; Müller, M.R.; Groen, A.K.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Bakker, B.M.; Reijngoud, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Acetate, propionate and butyrate are the main short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that arise from the fermentation of fibers by the colonic microbiota. While many studies focus on the regulatory role of SCFAs, their quantitative role as a catabolic or anabolic substrate for the host has received relativ

  4. Gut-derived short-chain fatty acids are vividly assimilated into host carbohydrates and lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Besten, Gijs; Lange, Katja; Havinga, Rick; van Dijk, Theo H.; Gerding, Albert; van Eunen, Karen; Muller, Michael; Groen, Albert K.; Hooiveld, Guido J.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the main short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that arise from the fermentation of fibers by the colonic microbiota. While many studies focus on the regulatory role of SCFAs, their quantitative role as a catabolic or anabolic substrate for the host has received relati

  5. Effects of volatile fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucose, and insulin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.H.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1972-01-01

    Our interest in the aetiology of ketosis in cattle recently led us to investigate possible metabolic control mechanisms of fat mobilization in bovine adipose tissue. Acetic, propionic and butyric acid are the major sources of metabolic energy made available to the adult ruminant by digestion and abs

  6. Changes in short-chain fatty acid plasma profile incurred by dietary fiber composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery...... higher net absorption of butyrate (2.4–4.0 vs. 1.6 mmol/h; P changing the fermentable substrate from predominantly cellulose to arabinoxylan-rich materials resulted in an altered SCFA uptake profile....

  7. Highly sensitive and ultrafast response surface acoustic wave humidity sensor based on electrospun polyaniline/poly(vinyl butyral) nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qianqian [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: liyang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang Mujie [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2012-10-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyanline/poly(vinyl butyral) nanofibers are prepared by electrospinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofiber-based SAW humidity sensor show high sensitivity and ultrafast response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SAW sensor can detect very low humidity. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANi) composite nanofibers were deposited on surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator with a central frequency of 433 MHz to construct humidity sensors. Electrospun nanofibers of poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinylidene fluoride), poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and humidity response of corresponding SAW humidity sensors were investigated. The results indicated that PVB was suitable as a matrix to form nanofibers with PANi by electrospinning (ES). Electrospun PANi/PVB nanofibers exhibited a core-sheath structure as revealed by transmittance electron microscopy. Effects of ES collection time on humidity response of SAW sensor based on PANi/PVB nanofibers were examined at room temperature. The composite nanofiber sensor exhibited very high sensitivity of {approx}75 kHz/%RH from 20 to 90%RH, ultrafast response (1 s and 2 s for humidification and desiccation, respectively) and good sensing linearity. Furthermore, the sensor could detect humidity as low as 0.5%RH, suggesting its potentials for low humidity detection. Attempts were done to explain the attractive humidity sensing performance of the sensor by considering conductivity, hydrophilicity, viscoelasticity and morphology of the polymer composite nanofibers.

  8. Nutrient balance of layers fed diets with different calcium levels and the inclusion of phytase and/or sodium butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Vieira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Hisex Brown layers in lay were evaluated between 40 and 44 weeks of age to evaluate the inclusion of bacterial phytase (Ph and sodium butyrate (SB to diets containing different calcium levels (CaL. Performance, average egg weight and eggshell percentage, in addition to nutrient metabolizability and Ca and P balance were evaluated for 28 days. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with three calcium levels (2.8, 3.3, 3.8%; the addition or not of phytase (500PhU/kg and the addition or not of sodium butyrate (20mEq/kg, composing 12 treatments with eight replicates of one bird each. There was no additive effect of phytase or SB on the evaluated responses. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were influenced by CaL, with the best performance obtained with 3.3% dietary Ca. Ca balance was positively affected by dietary Ca, and P balance by the addition of phytase. Ca dietary concentration, estimated to obtain Ca body balance, was 3.41%, corresponding to an apparent retention of 59.9% of Ca intake.

  9. Studies on Optical-fiber Sensor to Monitor Temperature using Reversible Thermochromic Gel Type Cobalt (II) Chloride/Polyvinyl Butyral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, KiSeob; Lee, JunYoung [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, JeaHeel; Ha, KiRyong [Keimyung University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    In this study, we developed an optical-fiber sensor using cobalt chloride solution to monitor temperature in real-time between long distance points unaffected by the electro-magnetic wave and the vibration. Cobalt chloride solutions were made using 10% water and 90% ethanol (v/v) solution. The transmittance of these solutions was analyzed on 655 nm using UV-Visible spectrometer regarding temperature change. Also 30.8 mM cobalt chloride solution was gelled by dissolving polyvinyl butyral and the transmittance of this was analyzed on 655 nm regarding temperature change. The results of transmittance and optical power measurement showed decrease of both transmittance and optical power with increase of temperature from 66.8% and 149.5 nW at 25 .deg. C to 7.1% and 48 nW at 70 .deg. C, respectively. These results support the possibility of gelled cobalt chloride/polyvinyl butyral as an optical-fiber sensor to monitor temperature change.

  10. Effect of butyrate on aromatase cytochrome P450 levels in HT29, DLD-1 and LoVo colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawłuszko, Agnieszka Anna; Sławek, Sylwia; Gollogly, Armin; Szkudelska, Katarzyna; Jagodziński, Paweł Piotr

    2012-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that colonic production of butyrate and estrogen may be involved in human susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). Estrone (E1) can be produced by the aromatase pathway during the conversion of androstenedione (A) to E1. Therefore, we studied the effect of sodium butyrate (NaBu) on the CYP19A1 transcript and protein levels and on the conversion of A to E1 in HT29, DLD-1 and LoVo CRC cells. We found that NaBu significantly downregulated CYP19A1 transcript and protein levels, a phenomenon that was associated with reduced conversion of A to E1 in HT29, DLD-1 and LoVo cells. Our studies demonstrated that, although butyrate exhibited a protective role in CRC development, this compound may reduce aromatase activity and the production of E1 in colon cancer cells.

  11. The effect of short-chain fatty acids on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastasi, Claudia; Candela, Marco; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2015-01-01

    negligible effects, while both butyrate and propionate strongly modulated gene expression in both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DC. An Ingenuity pathway analysis based on the differentially expressed genes suggested that propionate and butyrate modulate leukocyte trafficking, as SCFA strongly......The gut microbiota is essential for human health and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are end-products of microbial fermentation of macronutrients that distribute systemically via the blood....... The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to SCFA. Our data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. Acetate only exerted...

  12. Effects of tachyplesin and n-sodium butyrate on proliferation and gene expression of human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line BGC-823

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-Lin Shi; Yong-Ye Wang; Ying Liang; Qi-Fu Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of tachyplesin and n-sodium butyrate on proliferation and gene expression of human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line BGC-823.METHODS: Effects of tachyplesin and n-sodium butyrate on proliferation of BGC-823 cells were determined with trypan blue dye exclusion test and HE staining. Effects of tachyplesin and n-sodium butyrate on cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. Protein levels of c-erbB-2, c-myc, p53 and p16 were examined by immunocytochemistry.RESULTS: The inhibiting effects were similar after 2.0 mg/L tachyplesin and 2.0 mmol/L n-sodium butyrate treatment, the inhibitory rate of cellular growth was 62.66% and 60.19% respectively, and the respective maximum mitotic index was decreased by 49.35% and 51.69% respectively. Tachyplesin and n-sodium butyrate treatment could markedly increase the proportion of cells at G0/G1 phase and decrease the proportion at S phase.The expression levels of oncogene c-erbB-2, c-myc, and mtp53 proteins were down-regulated while the expression level of tumor suppressor gene p16 protein was up-regulated after the treatment with tachyplesin or n-sodium butyrate. The effects of 1.0 mg/L tachyplesin in combination with 1.0 mmol/L n-sodium butyrate were obviously superior to their individual treatment in changing cell cycle distribution and expression of c-erbB-2,c-myc, mtp53 and p16 protein. The inhibitory rate of cellular growth of BGC-823 cells after combination treatment was 62.29% and the maximum mitotic index was decreased by 51.95%.CONCLUSION: Tachyplesin as a differentiation inducer of tumor cells has similar effects as n-sodium butyrate on proliferation of tumor cells, expression of correlative oncogene and tumor suppressor gene. It also has a synergistic effect on differentiation of tumor cells.

  13. Amino Acids in the Martian Meteorite Nakhla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Brinton, Karen L. F.; McDonald, Gene D.

    1999-08-01

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, β -alanine, and γ -amino-n-butyric acid (γ -ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  14. Structure-activity relationship between carboxylic acids and T cell cycle blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kathleen M; DeLoose, Annick; Valentine, Jimmie L; Fifer, E Kim

    2006-04-04

    This study was designed to examine the potential structure-activity relationship between carboxylic acids, histone acetylation and T cell cycle blockade. Toward this goal a series of structural homologues of the short-chain carboxylic acid n-butyrate were studied for their ability to block the IL-2-stimulated proliferation of cloned CD4+ T cells. The carboxylic acids were also tested for their ability to inhibit histone deacetylation. In addition, Western blotting was used to examine the relative capacity of the carboxlic acids to upregulate the cyclin kinase-dependent inhibitor p21cip1 in T cells. As shown earlier n-butyrate effectively inhibited histone deacetylation. The increased acetylation induced by n-butyrate was associated with the upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21cip1 and the cell cycle blockade of CD4+ T cells. Of the other carboxylic acids studied, the short chain acids, C3-C5, without branching were the best inhibitors of histone deacetylase. This inhibition correlated with increased expression of the cell cycle blocker p21cip1, and the associated suppression of CD4+ T cell proliferation. The branched-chain carboxylic acids tested were ineffective in all the assays. These results underline the relationship between the ability of a carboxylic acid to inhibit histone deacetylation, and their ability to block T cell proliferation, and suggests that branching inhibits these effects.

  15. Body composition of piglets from sows fed the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate in late gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    Supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) to sows during late gestation or lactation has been shown to improve piglet health, survival, and growth. This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of HMB supplementation to late-gestating sows on body...... characteristics of piglets at weaning. Sows were fed a standard lactation diet from day –15 relative to parturition and throughout the experiment and a diet supplemented with (HMB; n = 2) or without [control (CON); n = 3] 15 mg Ca(HMB)2/kg BW in morning meals from day –10 until parturition. Fifty-six suckling...... piglets were weighed at day 28 and water content was assessed by deuterium oxide dilution. Piglets were euthanized, organ weights and lengths were recorded, the empty carcass was analyzed for dry matter, ash, and crude protein content, and body fat content was calculated. Two litters were treated...

  16. Study of liquid-solid catalytic reaction of epichlorohydrin with sodium butyrate in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Meng, Qingyi; Ban, Chunlan; Zhang, Rui; Gao, Yingyu

    2016-08-01

    The liquid-solid catalytic reaction of epichlorohydrin and sodium butyrate with tetrabutylammonium bromide as a phase transfer catalyst was studied in this paper. The shrinking core model was applied. The analysis of the reaction based on the kinetic model showed a reaction-controlled regime at temperatures varying from 90 to 100°C. The exterior diffusivity was removed between 300 and 400 rpm. The internal diffusivity was removed when the particle size was 2 × 10-4 m. Reaction rate constants were calculated at different temperatures. The correlation was obtained when the proposed kinetic model was applied to all the experimental data for predictive evaluations and the activation energy was 37.01 kJ mol-1.

  17. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Aramid Fabrics Impregnated with Carbon Nanotube/Poly (Vinyl Butyral/Ethanol Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Obradović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study six samples of polyurethane/p-aramid multiaxial fabric forms (Colon fabrics were coated with 10 wt.% poly (vinyl butyral (PVB/ethanol solution with the addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT. The solution was impregnated on both sides of each of the fabrics. All composite samples consisted of four layers of the impregnated fabrics. The MWCNT/PVB content was 0, 0.1 and 1 wt.%. The three samples of the fabrics with different MWCNT/PVB content were coated with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMEO silane/ethanol solution due to the surface modification. The mechanical properties of the prepared composite samples were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The 60% increase in storage modulus was achieved by addition of MWCNT and impregnation of aramid fabrics with AMEO silane. The pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT were introduced in order to enhance additionally the mechanical properties of the materials for ballistic protection.

  18. Novel potentiometry immunoassay with amplified sensitivity for diphtheria antigen based on Nafion, colloidal Ag and polyvinyl butyral as matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Zhang, Linyan; Zhong, Xia; Dai, Jianyuan; Liu, Yan

    2004-11-30

    A novel potentiometry immunoassay with amplified sensitivity has been developed for the detection of diphtheria antigen (Diph) via immobilizing diphtheria antibody (anti-Diph) on a platinum electrode based on Nafion, colloidal Ag (Ag), and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) as matrixes in this study. The modified procedure was further characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The influence and factors influencing the performance of resulting immunosensor were studied in detail. The resulting immunosensor exhibited sigmoid curve with log Diph concentrations, high sensitivity (51.4 mV/decade), wide linear range from 8 to 800 ng ml(-1) with a detection limit of 1.5 ng ml(-1), rapid potentiometric response (6 months). Analytical results of clinical samples show that the developed immunoassay is comparable with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) method, implying a promising alternative approach for detecting diphtheria antigen in the clinical diagnosis.

  19. Dielectric Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol, Poly(methyl Methacrylate), Polyvinyl Butyral Resin and Polyimide at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, D. Randy; Ellis, Alvin R.

    2008-03-01

    Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. For this reason dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low temperature power applications. In this work we report the dielectric properties of four polymers: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polyvinyl butyral resin (PVB), and polyimide (PI-Kapton®). The dielectric measurements are performed with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 45 K to 350 K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the polymers are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure. It is observed that PI and PMMA dissolved in toluene have the lowest dielectric losses for temperatures lower than 100 K. PVB and PI have the smallest spread in their breakdown strength data.

  20. DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE), POLYVINYL BUTYRAL RESIN AND POLYIMIDE AT LOW TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. For this reason dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low temperature power applications. In this work we report the dielectric properties of four polymers: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polyvinyl butyral resin (PVB), and polyimide (PI--Kapton\\textregistered). The dielectric measurements are performed with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 45K to 350K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the polymers are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure. It is observed that PI and \\pmma\\ dissolved in toluene have the lowest dielectric losses for temperatures lower than $100\\ \\kelvin$. \\Blx\\ and PI have the smallest spread in their breakdown strength data.

  1. High Sensitive Sensor Fabricated by Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers for Detecting Cu (II) in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Luo, Zhimin; Ma, Xiuling; Fan, Xiaoping; Xue, Liqun; Lin, Xiuzhu; Chen, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)/polyvinyl butyral (PVB) nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning technique with PVB as matrix and GO as a functional nanomaterial. GO/PVB nanofibers on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were reduced through electrochemical method to form reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/PVB nanofibers. The morphology and structure of GO/PVB nanofiber were studied by scanning election microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). RGO/PVB modified GCE was used for fabricating an electrochemical sensor for detecting Cu (II) in water. The analysis results showed that RGO/PVB modified GCE had good analytical results with the linear range of 0.06-2.2 μM, detection limit of 4.10 nM (S/N = 3), and the sensitivity of 103.51 μA·μM(-1)·cm(-2).

  2. Thermal decomposition of PVB (polyvinyl butyral) binder in the matrix and electrolyte of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J. J.; Kuk, S. T.; Kim, K.

    In order to determine the burnt-out condition of polyvinyl butyral as a binder in the fuel cell, thermal gravimetric analysis, gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are used to analyse decomposed products during the thermal decomposition process in the matrix-green sheet and electrolyte-green sheet. Most of thermal degradation takes place under 400 °C, but degradation-resistant structures still remain up to 700 °C. Adding water vapour to the atmosphere gas could be one method to promote thermal degradation. Butyraldehyde and butene peaks among the released gases show characteristic decomposition behaviour. Thus, the butyraldehyde and butene peaks can be used as an index to check the extent of decomposition in the thermal decomposition process.

  3. High Sensitive Sensor Fabricated by Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers for Detecting Cu (II in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO/polyvinyl butyral (PVB nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning technique with PVB as matrix and GO as a functional nanomaterial. GO/PVB nanofibers on glassy carbon electrode (GCE were reduced through electrochemical method to form reduced graphene oxide (RGO/PVB nanofibers. The morphology and structure of GO/PVB nanofiber were studied by scanning election microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR. RGO/PVB modified GCE was used for fabricating an electrochemical sensor for detecting Cu (II in water. The analysis results showed that RGO/PVB modified GCE had good analytical results with the linear range of 0.06–2.2 μM, detection limit of 4.10 nM (S/N=3, and the sensitivity of 103.51 μA·μM−1·cm−2.

  4. Colorful Hydrophobic Poly(Vinyl Butyral)/Cationic Dye Fibrous Membranes via a Colored Solution Electrospinning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; You, Ming-Hao; Lou, Tao; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Gong, Mao-Gang; Lv, Fu-Yan; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Long, Yun-Ze

    2016-12-01

    Colorful nanofibrous membranes have attracted much attention for their visual varieties and various functionalities. In this article, a colored solution electrospinning process was used to fabricate colorful hydrophobic poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB)/cationic dye nanofibrous membranes (NFMs) successfully. The color and morphology of these as-spun nanofibrous membranes have been analyzed by colorimetry, spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the as-spun colorful PVB-based membranes exhibit excellent level-dyeing property and color stability. Furthermore, the doping of cationic dye and the increase of dye concentration can decrease the diameter of the as-spun colored fibers, which results in better level-dyeing property and higher water contact angle more than 140°. The stained PVB fibrous membranes with excellent level-dyeing property and hydrophobicity are promising in some applications such as textiles, wallpapers, and anticorrosive coating/painting.

  5. The changes in telomerase activity and telomere length in HeLa cells undergoing apop- tosis induced by sodium butyrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The changes in telomerase activity and telomere length during apoptosis in HeLa cells as induced by sodium butyrate (SB) have been studied. After a 48 h SB treatment, HeLa cells demonstrated characteristic apoptotic hallmarks including chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA Laddering which were caused by the cleavage and degradation of DNA between nucleosomes. There were no significant changes in telomerase activity of apoptotic cells, while the telomere length shortened markedly. In the meanwhile, cells became more susceptible to apoptotic stimuli and telomere became more vulnerable to degradation after telomerase activity was inhibited. All the results suggest that the apoptosis induced by SB is closely related to telomere shortening, while telomerase enhances resistance of HeLa cells to apoptotic stimuli by protecting telomere.

  6. Study on the Effects of Increasing Production Rate of Ruminal Acetate and Butyrate on Their Absorption and Passage in Alimentary Tract of Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Rui-ping; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    Six Inner Mongolian semifine-wool wethers (1.5 years old,29-31 kg BW) fitted with a ruminal and a duodenum cannula were used to study the effects of increasing production rate of ruminal acetate and butyrate on their absorption and passage in alimentary tract by simulating continuous feeding and pulsecontinuous infusion technology.The sheep were divided into two groups randomly and fed the same basal diet,one group was for acetate measuring and the other group was for butyrate measuring.Diet was formulated according to maintain requirement of Inner Mongolian sheep and consisted of hay 69.64%,corn 18.11%,soybean meal 15.57%,wheat bran 5.57%,and premix 1.11%,the diet contained DM 92.34%,CP9.74%,ME 8.47 MJ/kg,Ca 0.31%,P 0.21%(dry matter basis).Three infusion levels of acetate and butyrate were designed to reach 2.5,3.0 and 4.0 multiple on the basis of basal production rate.The rumen and duodenum fluid samples were collected for measuring pH,Co-EDTA,acetate and butyrate concentration.

  7. A model experiment in the study of cocaine base smoking. Isolation of methyl 4-(3-pyridyl) butyrate from cocaine pyrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, M; Salemink, C A

    1984-01-01

    Cocaine base was pyrolysed at 600 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere and methyl 4-(3-pyridyl) butyrate was isolated as one of the main components from the cocaine pyrolysate. The structure of the compound was determined by spectral means as well as by comparison with a synthetic sample.

  8. Poly-(Epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: Morphology and thermal-mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and po...

  9. Nonstarch polysaccharides modulate bacterial microbiota, pathways for butyrate production, and abundance of pathogenic Escherichia coli in the pig gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Hooda, Seema; Pieper, Robert; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; van Kessel, Andrew G; Mosenthin, Rainer; Gänzle, Michael G

    2010-06-01

    The impact of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) differing in their functional properties on intestinal bacterial community composition, prevalence of butyrate production pathway genes, and occurrence of Escherichia coli virulence factors was studied for eight ileum-cannulated growing pigs by use of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and quantitative PCR. A cornstarch- and casein-based diet was supplemented with low-viscosity, low-fermentability cellulose (CEL), with high-viscosity, low-fermentability carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), with low-viscosity, high-fermentability oat beta-glucan (LG), and with high-viscosity, high-fermentability oat beta-glucan (HG). Only minor effects of NSP fractions on the ileal bacterial community were observed, but NSP clearly changed the digestion in the small intestine. Compared to what was observed for CMC, more fermentable substrate was transferred into the large intestine with CEL, LG, and HG, resulting in higher levels of postileal dry-matter disappearance. Linear discriminant analysis of NSP and TRFLP profiles and 16S rRNA gene copy numbers for major bacterial groups revealed that CMC resulted in a distinctive bacterial community in comparison to the other NSP, which was characterized by higher gene copy numbers for total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas, Clostridium cluster XIVa, and Enterobacteriaceae and increased prevalences of E. coli virulence factors in feces. The numbers of butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) CoA transferase gene copies were higher than those of butyrate kinase gene copies in feces, and these quantities were affected by NSP. The present results suggest that the NSP fractions clearly and distinctly affected the taxonomic composition and metabolic features of the fecal microbiota. However, the effects were more linked to the individual NSP and to their effect on nutrient flow into the large intestine than to their shared functional properties.

  10. Effects of orally applied butyrate bolus on histone acetylation and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in the liver of chicken – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mátis Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butyrate is known as histone deacetylase inhibitor, inducing histone hyperacetylation in vitro and playing a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. We hypothesized that butyrate, endogenously produced by intestinal microbial fermentation or applied as a nutritional supplement, might cause similar in vivo modifications in the chromatin structure of the hepatocytes, influencing the expression of certain genes and therefore modifying the activity of hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes. Methods An animal study was carried out in chicken as a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of butyrate’s epigenetic actions in the liver. Broiler chicks in the early post-hatch period were treated once daily with orally administered bolus of butyrate following overnight starvation with two different doses (0.25 or 1.25 g/kg body weight per day for five days. After slaughtering, cell nucleus and microsomal fractions were separated by differential centrifugation from the livers. Histones were isolated from cell nuclei and acetylation of hepatic core histones was screened by western blotting. The activity of CYP2H and CYP3A37, enzymes involved in biotransformation in chicken, was detected by aminopyrine N-demethylation and aniline-hydroxylation assays from the microsomal suspensions. Results Orally added butyrate, applied in bolus, had a remarkable impact on nucleosome structure of hepatocytes: independently of the dose, butyrate caused hyperacetylation of histone H2A, but no changes were monitored in the acetylation state of H2B. Intensive hyperacetylation of H3 was induced by the higher administered dose, while the lower dose tended to increase acetylation ratio of H4. In spite of the observed modification in histone acetylation, no significant changes were observed in the hepatic microsomal CYP2H and CYP3A37 activity. Conclusion Orally added butyrate in bolus

  11. The Putative Role of the Non-Gastric H+/K+-ATPase ATP12A (ATP1AL1 as Anti-Apoptotic Ion Transporter: Effect of the H+/K+ ATPase Inhibitor SCH28080 on Butyrate-Stimulated Myelomonocytic HL-60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jakab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The ATP12A gene codes for a non-gastric H+/K+ ATPase, which is expressed in a wide variety of tissues. The aim of this study was to test for the molecular and functional expression of the non-gastric H+/K+ ATPase ATP12A/ATP1AL1 in unstimulated and butyrate-stimulated (1 and 10 mM human myelomonocytic HL-60 cells, to unravel its potential role as putative apoptosis-counteracting ion transporter as well as to test for the effect of the H+/K+ ATPase inhibitor SCH28080 in apoptosis. Methods: Real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR was used for amplification and cloning of ATP12A transcripts and to assess transcriptional regulation. BCECF microfluorimetry was used to assess changes of intracellular pH (pHi after acute intracellular acid load (NH4Cl prepulsing. Mean cell volumes (MCV and MCV-recovery after osmotic cell shrinkage (Regulatory Volume Increase, RVI were assessed by Coulter counting. Flow-cytometry was used to measure MCV (Coulter principle, to assess apoptosis (phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, caspase activity, 7AAD staining and differentiation (CD86 expression. Results: We found by RT-PCR, intracellular pH measurements, MCV measurements and flow cytometry that ATP12A is expressed in human myelomonocytic HL-60 cells. Treatment of HL-60 cells with 1 mM butyrate leads to monocyte-directed differentiation whereas higher concentrations (10 mM induce apoptosis as assessed by flow-cytometric determination of CD86 expression, caspase activity, phosphatidylserine exposure on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane and MCV measurements. Transcriptional up-regulation of ATP12A and CD86 is evident in 1 mM butyrate-treated HL-60 cells. The H+/K+ ATPase inhibitor SCH28080 (100 µM diminishes K+-dependent pHi recovery after intracellular acid load and blocks RVI after osmotic cell shrinkage. After seeding, HL-60 cells increase their MCV within the first 24 h in culture, and subsequently

  12. Evaluation of models to predict the stoichiometry of volatile fatty acid profiles in rumen fluid of lactating Holstein cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morvay, Y.; Bannink, A.; France, J.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA), produced in the rumen by microbial fermentation, are the main energy source for ruminants. The VFA profile, particularly the nonglucogenic (acetate, Ac; butyrate, Bu) to glucogenic (propionate, Pr) VFA ratio (NGR), is associated with effects on methane production, milk co

  13. Differential modulation of enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells after exposure to short-chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malago, J.J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Douma, P.M.; Dirkzwager, A.; Veldman, K.T.; Hendriks, H.G.C.J.M.; Dijk, van J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The response of intestinal epithelial cells to short-chain fatty acids, which are increasingly used as food additives, was investigated. Human small intestinal epithelial cell model Caco-2 cells were exposed to formate, propionate and butyrate to assess their effect on cellular growth, metabolism, d

  14. Quantitative analysis of growth and volatile fatty acid production by the anaerobic ruminal bacterium Megasphaera elsdenii T81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaspheara elsdenii T81 grew on either DL-lactate or D-glucose at similar rates (0.85 per h), but displayed major differences in the fermentation of these substrates. Lactate was fermented at up to 210-mM concentration to yield acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids. The bacterium was able t...

  15. Functional and molecular effects of arginine butyrate and prednisone on muscle and heart in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo D Guerron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of promising therapeutic interventions for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is increasing rapidly. One of the proposed strategies is to use drugs that are known to act by multiple different mechanisms including inducing of homologous fetal form of adult genes, for example utrophin in place of dystrophin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have treated mdx mice with arginine butyrate, prednisone, or a combination of arginine butyrate and prednisone for 6 months, beginning at 3 months of age, and have comprehensively evaluated the functional, biochemical, histological, and molecular effects of the treatments in this DMD model. Arginine butyrate treatment improved grip strength and decreased fibrosis in the gastrocnemius muscle, but did not produce significant improvement in muscle and cardiac histology, heart function, behavioral measurements, or serum creatine kinase levels. In contrast, 6 months of chronic continuous prednisone treatment resulted in deterioration in functional, histological, and biochemical measures. Arginine butyrate-treated mice gene expression profiling experiments revealed that several genes that control cell proliferation, growth and differentiation are differentially expressed consistent with its histone deacetylase inhibitory activity when compared to control (saline-treated mdx mice. Prednisone and combination treated groups showed alterations in the expression of genes that control fibrosis, inflammation, myogenesis and atrophy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that 6 months treatment with arginine butyrate can produce modest beneficial effects on dystrophic pathology in mdx mice by reducing fibrosis and promoting muscle function while chronic continuous treatment with prednisone showed deleterious effects to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our results clearly indicate the usefulness of multiple assays systems to monitor both beneficial and toxic effects of drugs with

  16. The Role of the Microbial Metabolites Including Tryptophan Catabolites and Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Pathophysiology of Immune-Inflammatory and Neuroimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Carvalho, Andre; Caso, Javier R; Sanz, Yolanda; Walder, Ken; Maes, Michael

    2016-06-27

    There is a growing awareness that gut commensal metabolites play a major role in host physiology and indeed the pathophysiology of several illnesses. The composition of the microbiota largely determines the levels of tryptophan in the systemic circulation and hence, indirectly, the levels of serotonin in the brain. Some microbiota synthesize neurotransmitters directly, e.g., gamma-amino butyric acid, while modulating the synthesis of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). The composition of the microbiota determines the levels and nature of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) which in turn has profound effects on aryl hydrocarbon receptors, thereby influencing epithelial barrier integrity and the presence of an inflammatory or tolerogenic environment in the intestine and beyond. The composition of the microbiota also determines the levels and ratios of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate and propionate. Butyrate is a key energy source for colonocytes. Dysbiosis leading to reduced levels of SCFAs, notably butyrate, therefore may have adverse effects on epithelial barrier integrity, energy homeostasis, and the T helper 17/regulatory/T cell balance. Moreover, dysbiosis leading to reduced butyrate levels may increase bacterial translocation into the systemic circulation. As examples, we describe the role of microbial metabolites in the pathophysiology of diabetes type 2 and autism.

  17. Quantification of in Vivo Colonic Short Chain Fatty Acid Production from Inulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eef Boets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Short chain fatty acids (SCFA, including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced during bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the human colon. In this study, we applied a stable-isotope dilution method to quantify the in vivo colonic production of SCFA in healthy humans after consumption of inulin. Twelve healthy subjects performed a test day during which a primed continuous intravenous infusion with [1-13C]acetate, [1-13C]propionate and [1-13C]butyrate (12, 1.2 and 0.6 μmol·kg−1·min−1, respectively was applied. They consumed 15 g of inulin with a standard breakfast. Breath and blood samples were collected at regular times during the day over a 12 h period. The endogenous rate of appearance of acetate, propionate, and butyrate was 13.3 ± 4.8, 0.27 ± 0.09, and 0.28 ± 0.12 μmol·kg−1·min−1, respectively. Colonic inulin fermentation was estimated to be 137 ± 75 mmol acetate, 11 ± 9 mmol propionate, and 20 ± 17 mmol butyrate over 12 h, assuming that 40%, 10%, and 5% of colonic derived acetate, propionate, and butyrate enter the systemic circulation. In conclusion, inulin is mainly fermented into acetate and, to lesser extents, into butyrate and propionate. Stable isotope technology allows quantifying the production of the three main SCFA in vivo and proved to be a practical tool to investigate the extent and pattern of SCFA production.

  18. Quantification of in Vivo Colonic Short Chain Fatty Acid Production from Inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Eef; Deroover, Lise; Houben, Els; Vermeulen, Karen; Gomand, Sara V; Delcour, Jan A; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-10-28

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced during bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the human colon. In this study, we applied a stable-isotope dilution method to quantify the in vivo colonic production of SCFA in healthy humans after consumption of inulin. Twelve healthy subjects performed a test day during which a primed continuous intravenous infusion with [1-(13)C]acetate, [1-(13)C]propionate and [1-(13)C]butyrate (12, 1.2 and 0.6 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively) was applied. They consumed 15 g of inulin with a standard breakfast. Breath and blood samples were collected at regular times during the day over a 12 h period. The endogenous rate of appearance of acetate, propionate, and butyrate was 13.3 ± 4.8, 0.27 ± 0.09, and 0.28 ± 0.12 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively. Colonic inulin fermentation was estimated to be 137 ± 75 mmol acetate, 11 ± 9 mmol propionate, and 20 ± 17 mmol butyrate over 12 h, assuming that 40%, 10%, and 5% of colonic derived acetate, propionate, and butyrate enter the systemic circulation. In conclusion, inulin is mainly fermented into acetate and, to lesser extents, into butyrate and propionate. Stable isotope technology allows quantifying the production of the three main SCFA in vivo and proved to be a practical tool to investigate the extent and pattern of SCFA production.

  19. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lidiia Astakhova; Mtakai Ngara; Olga Babich; Aleksandr Prosekov; Lyudmila Asyakina; Lyubov Dyshlyuk; Tore Midtvedt; Xiaoying Zhou; Ingemar Ernberg; Liudmila Matskova

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell l...

  20. Avaliação das condições reacionais para a síntese enzimática do butirato de butila empregando lipase de Candida rugosa Evaluation of the reaction conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of the butyl butyrate using lipase from Candida rugosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Maciel Gomes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase de Candida rugosa na forma livre foi usada na síntese de butirato de butila pela esterificação direta de n-butanolcom ácido butírico. Um planejamento fatorial completo 2(4 foi empregado para determinar a influência da razão molar do álcool para ácido (1: 0,5-2,5, concentração de agente dessecante (0-20%, concentração de enzima (40-80 mg e temperatura de incubação (30-60 °C no rendimento de esterificação. A concentração de agente dessecante foi o fator mais significativo na esterificação, sendo sua influência negativa. O progresso da esterificação foi favorecido para substratos contendo ácido em excesso, mesmo em baixa concentrações de enzima (40 mg, sendo a conversão de 50%. Na região avaliada, a formação do butirato de butila (26,67 g/L foi maximizada para razão molar (1:2,5, ausência de agente dessecante, concentração de enzima (80 mg e temperatura de incubação de 30 °C.Free lipase from Candida rugosa was used for the synthesis of butyl butyrate by direct esterification of butyric acid and butyl alcohol. A full factorial experimental design (2(4 was employed to determine the effect of alcohol to acid ratio (1: 0.5-2.5, water adsorbent concentration (0-20%, enzyme concentration (40-80 mg and incubation temperature (30-60 °C on the esterification yield. Water adsorbent concentration has been found to be the most significant factor on the esterification reaction and its influence was negative. The extent of esterification was higher for substrates containing acid in excess even with a low enzyme concentration of 40 mg and 50% conversion was observed. The maximum predicted values for butyl butyrate yield (92.67% can be attained with substrate containing acid in excess (molar ratio alcohol to acid 1:2.5, 80 mg enzyme concentration in the absence of water adsorbent at temperature incubation of 30 °C.

  1. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid and 4-phenyl butyric acid alleviate endoplasmic reticulum stress and improve prognosis of donation after cardiac death liver transplantation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lu; Ling Lu; Zhen-Chao Xu; Yun-Jie Lu; Bo Zhao; Lin Zhuang; Bao-Bing Hao; Feng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inevitable  warm  ischemia  time  before organ procurement aggravates posttransplantation ischemia-reperfusion  injury.  Endoplasmic  reticulum  (ER)  stress  is involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury, but its role in donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver transplantation is not clear and the effect of ER stress inhibitors, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA), on the prognosis of recipient of DCD liver transplantation remains unclear. METHODS: Male  Sprague-Dawley  rats  (8-10  weeks)  were randomly divided into control group: liver grafts without warm ischemia were implanted; DCD group: warm ischemia time of the liver grafts was 60 minutes; TUDCA and PBA groups: based on the DCD group, donors were intraperitoneally injected with TUDCA or PBA 30 minutes before the organ procurements. Serum  aminotransferase  levels,  oxidative  stress  activation and expression of ER stress signal molecules were evaluated. Pathological examinations were performed. The survivals of the recipients in each group were compared for 14 days. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, DCD rats had signiifcantly higher levels of serum aminotransferase at 6 hours, 1 day and 3 days after operation (P CONCLUSIONS: ER stress was involved with DCD liver trans-plantation in rats. Preoperative intraperitoneally injection of TUDCA or PBA protected ER stress and improved prognosis.

  2. CATALYTIC ESTERIFICATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS WITH ALCOHOLS BY SULFO—POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuShanxin; ZHAOZongbao; 等

    1993-01-01

    Polyvinyl Chloride reacted with chlorosulfonic acid to from a polymer catalyst PVC-SO3H.This polymer catalyst was found to have high activity for resterification reaction between carboxylic acids and alcohols.This paper deals with the conditions in synthesis of n-butlyacetate catalyzed with PVC-SO3H.The PVC-SO3H was used as a catalyst for preparing 11 esters of acetic acid,propionic acid and butyric acid with the yields of 82-92%.

  3. Efeitos do butirato nos níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica sem trânsito fecal: estudo experimental em ratos Effects of butyrate on levels of lipid peroxidation in cells of the colonic mucosa without fecal stream: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Miguel do Monte Lameiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC representam o principal substrato energético para células da mucosa cólica. A derivação intestinal, reduzindo suprimento de AGCC, responsabiliza-se pela colite de exclusão (CE. Aplicação retal de butirato tem sido eficaz no tratamento da doença. Então, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os níveis de lipoperoxidação na mucosa cólica, após aplicação de butirato, em modelo de CE. Vinte seis ratos Wistar foram submetidos à colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos segundo sacrifício ser realizado em duas ou quatro semanas. Cada grupo foi subdividido em dois subgrups segundo intervenção com soro fisiológico ou butirato. O diagnóstico de CE foi estabelecido por estudo histopatológico e os níveis de lipoperoxidação pelos níveis de malondialdeído (MDA. Utilizaram-se os testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis (significantes quando pThe short-chain fatty acids (SCFA are the main energy substrate for the cells of the colonic mucosa. Diversion of the fecal stream reducing the supply of SCFA is responsible for diversion colitis (DC. Rectal application of butyrate has been demonstrated effective in the treatment of the disease. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of lipid peroxidation in the colon mucosa after application of butyrate in model of DC. Twenty-six rats were submitted to proximal colostomy and distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into two groups according sacrifice carried out in two or four weeks. Each group was divided into two subgroups according to intervention with saline solution or butyrate. The diagnosis of colitis was established by histopathology and the levels of lipid peroxidation by tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. We used the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, establishing a significance level of 5% (significant with p<0.05. After two weeks, the levels of MDA were lower in the segments

  4. 3-{[(Benzyloxycarbonyl]amino}butanoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Fujii

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H15NO4, the butyric acid group has a stretched trans conformation. The dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the oxycarboxyamino N—(C=O—O—C plane is 56.6 (2°. In the crystal, an inversion dimer is formed by a pair of O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are further linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds between amide groups, forming a tape along the b axis.

  5. Effect of sodium butyrate on diet-induced obesity in the Sprague-Dawley rat%丁酸钠对饮食诱导肥胖大鼠的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涵; 谭莎莎; 杨虹; 王凌

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obesity has been reported as an increasingly prevalent and highly heritable health problem leading to increased risks for several common diseases . Human obesity can be induced by genetic factors such as loss‐of‐function mutations in individual genes . The products of these genes are essential for normal body mass regulation in both laboratory animals and humans . Nevertheless , the role of gene‐environment interactions in the etiology of obesity cannot be ignored . Diet is a major factor of our current obesogenic environment , and the interests have been aroused in rodent models of diet‐induced obesity (DIO) . The SD (Sprague‐Dawley) rat model of DIO was been reported to exhibit a clear segregation into susceptible and resistant subpopulations shortly after being transferred to a high energy diet . We established the obesity‐susceptible ( OS) and obesity‐resistant ( OR) rat model and examined the effect of butyric acid , a short chain fatty acid formed by fermentation in the large intestine , in the regulation of obesity in mice fed a high‐fat diet . Male SD rats were divided into OS rats and OR rats after being fed with high fat diet for three weeks . Then both of them were fed with high fat diet for another 12 weeks . Measurements of body mass , body length , Lee�s index , and body mass index (BMI) were performed . After the rats were sacrificed , body fat content , serum total cholesterol ( TC ) , triglyceride ( TG ) , high density lipoprotein ( HDL ) , low density lipoprotein ( LDL) and serum leptin were measured . The results showed that there were significant differences in body mass , BMI , body fat content , TC , TG , LDL and serum leptin between OS rats and control rats . But there were no significant differences between OR rats and control rats . In the OS rats , sodium butyrate was administrated in the high‐fat diet at the concentration of 8 mmol/L for 16 weeks . Body mass , body length , Lee�s index , BMI , body fat

  6. Analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuaki ITO; Kazuhiko TANAKA; Jun SAKAMOTO; Kazuya NAGAOKA; Yohichi TAKAYAMA; Takashi KANAHORI; Hiroshi SUNAHARA; Tsuneo HAYASHI; Shinji SATO; Takeshi HIROKAWA

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids ( formic,acetic,propionic,iso-butyric,n-butyric,iso-valeric and n-valeric acid) in anaerobic digestion process waters for biogas production was examined by ion-exclusion chromatography with dilute acidic eluents (benzoic acid,perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and sulfuric acid) and non-suppressed conductivity/ultraviolet (UV) detection.The columns used were a styrene/divinylbenzene-based strongly acidic cation-exchange resin column ( TSKgel SCX) and a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column ( TSKgel Super IC-A/C ).Good separation was performed on the TSKgel SCX in shorter retention times.For the TSKgel Super IC-A/C,peak shape of the acids was sharp and symmetrical in spite of longer retention times.In addition,the mutual separation of the acids was good except for iso- and n-butyric acids.The better separation and good detection was achieved by using the two columns (TSKgel SCX and TSKgel Super IC-A/C connected in series),lower concentrations of PFBA and sulfuric acid as eluents,non-suppressed conductivity detection and UV detection at 210 nm.This analysis was applied to anaerobic digestion process waters.The chromatograms with conductivity detection were relatively simpler compared with those of UV detection.The use of two columns with different selectivities for the aliphatic carboxylic acids and the two detection modes was effective for the determination and identification of the analytes in anaerobic digestion process waters containing complex matrices.

  7. A glutamic acid-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from Malaysian fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound.

  8. Effects of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids in horses with induced gastric ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martínez A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the influence of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids (VFA concentrations in the gastric juice in horses with phenylbutazone (PBZ induced gastric ulcers and Correlate the gastroscopic findings with the VFA concentrations. Materials and methods. 15 horses were allotted in 3 groups. Group I (control received placebo during first 6 days (induction period and was treated with sucralfate for 2 weeks (treatment period. Groups II and III received PBZ during the induction phase. After 6 days, horses from group II received 70 mL of corn oil /100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks and horses from group III received 90 mL of corn oil/100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks. All horses were examined by gastroscopy at days 0, 7 and 21. The lesions were recorded and classified according to the number and severity. Samples from gastric fluid were taken to measure the concentrations of the acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids. Results. Both PBZ protocols produced lesions in the both non-glandular and glandular areas of the stomach. All the treatments produced healing of the injured mucosa glandular. Neither of the two corn oil treatments affected healing of the gastric ulcers located in the non-glandular area. Conclusions. The concentrations of acetic and butyric acids were highest in the gastric juice. The corn oil and sucralfate did not lead to differences in the concentration of acetic acid and butyric acid.

  9. Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets

    OpenAIRE

    Ulven, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84, and GPR120 has made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length. Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, a process which is important to health. The phylogenetically related 7-transmembrane (7TM) receptors...

  10. Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets

    OpenAIRE

    Trond eUlven

    2012-01-01

    The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84 and GPR120 made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length. Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, a process which is important to health. The phylogenetically related 7-transmembrane receptors free fatty...

  11. Biodegradation improvement of poly(3-hydroxy-butyrate) films by entomopathogenic fungi and UV-assisted surface functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Felipe; Marconatto, Leticia; Rodrigues, Roberta da Silva Bussamara; Lando, Gabriela Albara; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Weibel, Daniel Eduardo

    2014-01-05

    Ultraviolet (UV)-assisted surface modification in the presence of oxygen was used as initial step to achieve controlled degradation of poly(3-hydroxy-butyrate), PHB, films by entomopathogenic fungi. Treated surfaces were investigated by surface analysis techniques (water contact angle, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflectance mode, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and weight loss). After the UV-assisted treatments, new carbonyl groups in new chemical environments were detected by XPS and NEXAFS spectroscopy. The oxidizing atmosphere did not allow the formation of CC bonds, indicating that Norrish Type II mechanism is suppressed during or by the treatments. The higher hydrophilicity and concentration of oxygenated functional groups at the surface of the treated films possibly improved the biodegradation of the films. It was observed a clear increase in the growth of this fungus when oxygenated groups were grafted on the polymers surfaces. This simple methodology can be used to improve and control the degradation rate of PHB films in applications that require a controllable degradation rate.

  12. Monitoring Lipase/Esterase Activity by Stopped Flow in a Sequential Injection Analysis System Using p-Nitrophenyl Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pliego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05–1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed.

  13. Role of clevidipine butyrate in the treatment of acute hypertension in the critical care setting: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Awad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed S Awad, Michael E GoldbergDepartment of Anesthesiology, Cooper University Hospital, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden Campus, Camden, New Jersey, USAAbstract: Acutely elevated blood pressure in the critical care setting is associated with a higher risk of acute end-organ damage (eg, myocardial ischemia, stroke, and renal failure and perioperative bleeding. Urgent treatment and careful blood pressure control are crucial to prevent significant morbidity. Clevidipine butyrate (Cleviprex™ is an ultrashort-acting, third-generation intravenous calcium channel blocker. It is an arterial-selective vasodilator with no venodilatory or myocardial depressive effects. Clevidipine has an extremely short half-life of approximately 1 minute as it is rapidly metabolized by blood and tissue esterases. These metabolites are then primarily eliminated through urine and fecal pathways. The rapid onset and the short duration of action permit tighter and closer adjustment of the blood pressure than is possible with other intravenous agents.Keywords: calcium channel blocker, antihypertensive medications, end-organ damage, hypertensive crisis, hypertensive urgency

  14. Electrochemical characteristics of a platinum electrode modified with a matrix of polyvinyl butyral and colloidal Ag containing immobilized horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruo; Liu, Yan; Li, Qun-Fang; Chai, Ya-Qin; Mo, Chang-Li; Zhong, Xia; Tang, Dian-Ping; Dai, Jian-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A new hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed, which consisted of a platinum electrode modified by a matrix of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and nanometer-sized Ag colloid containing immobilized horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and using Co(bpy)3(3+) as mediator in the hydrogen peroxide solution. The electrochemical characteristics of the biosensor were studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The modified process was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The HRP immobilized on colloidal Ag was stable and retained its biological activity. The sensor displays excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H2O2. Analytical parameters such as pH and temperature were also studied. Linear calibration for H2O2 was obtained in the range of 1x10(-5) to 1x10(-2) M under optimized conditions. The sensor was highly sensitive to H2O2, with a detection limit of 2x10(-6) M, and the sensor achieved 95% of steady-state current within 10 s. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity and stability.

  15. Electrochemical evaluation of lectin-sugar interaction on gold electrode modified with colloidal gold and polyvinyl butyral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria D L; Correia, Maria T S; Coelho, Luana C B B; Diniz, Flamarion B

    2008-10-01

    In this work, ConA and CramoLL lectins were immobilized on gold nanoparticles (AuNp) with polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and adsorbed on the surface of gold (Au) electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the frequency range from 100mHz to 100KHz, and cyclic voltammetry (CV), from -0.2 to 0.7V, were performed on these electrodes, in phosphate buffer (PBS) solution containing 10mM K(3)[Fe(CN)(6)]/K(4)[Fe(CN)(6)] (1:1) mixture as a redox probe. EIS and CV measurements showed that redox probe reactions on the modified Au electrodes were partially blocked due to the adsorption of AuNp-ConA-PVB and AuNp-CramoLL-PVB. SEM images showed the presence of aggregates of AuNp-ConA on PVB spherules in a tridimensional structure on the surface of the Au electrode. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was adsorbed on the AuNp-Lectin-PVB modified electrode in order to block the remaining free gold sites. Both EIS and CV techniques yielded results that confirm positive responses of the lectins to ovalbumin agglutination. These results indicate an improvement of the sensitivity for detection of sugars that can be applicable to construction of a biosensor sensitive to glycoproteins in solution.

  16. A search for synbiotics: effects of enzymatically modified arabinoxylan and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens on short-chain fatty acids in the cecum content and plasma of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Jensen, Bent Borg; Purup, Stig;

    2016-01-01

    Identification of dietary strategies to increase large intestinal production and absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, is of great interest due to the possible health promoting effects. We explored the effect of an enzymatically modified arabinoxylan-rich diet (EAXD...

  17. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker Responses in east Greenland polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kathrine Eggers; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert;

    2015-01-01

    ), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptor density (dopamine-2 (D2), muscarinic cholinergic (mAChR) and gamma-butyric acid type A (GABA-A)) along with PFSA and PFCA concentrations. Average brain ∑PFSA concentration was 25ng/g ww where PFOS accounted for 91%. Average ∑PFCA concentration...

  18. Carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain via mixed culture fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; Wan, Caixia

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain (BSG) via mixed culture fermentation. The results showed that the distribution of fermentation products was significantly affected by pH conditions and the addition of electron donors. Lactic acid was the dominant component under acidic and alkaline conditions while volatile fatty acids (VFAs) became dominant under the neutral condition. Furthermore, the neutral condition favored the chain elongation of carboxylic acids, especially with ethanol as the electron donor. Ethanol addition enhanced valeric acid and caproic acid production by 44% and 167%, respectively. Lactic acid addition also had positive effects on VFAs production under the neutral condition but limited to C2-C4 products. As a result, propionic acid and butyric acid production was increased by 109% and 152%, respectively. These findings provide substantial evidence for regulating carboxylic acid production during mixed culture fermentation of BSG by controlling pH and adding electron donors.

  19. Cross-Feeding between Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Acetate-Converting, Butyrate-Producing Colon Bacteria during Growth on Oligofructose▿

    OpenAIRE

    Falony, Gwen; Vlachou, Angeliki; Verbrugghe, Kristof; De Vuyst, Luc

    2006-01-01

    In vitro coculture fermentations of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and two acetate-converting, butyrate-producing colon bacteria, Anaerostipes caccae DSM 14662 and Roseburia intestinalis DSM 14610, with oligofructose as the sole energy source, were performed to study interspecies interactions. Two clearly distinct types of cross-feeding were identified. A. caccae DSM 14662 was not able to degrade oligofructose but could grow on the fructose released by B. longum BB536 during oligofructose break...

  20. Contribution of C-beijerinckii and C-sporogenes in association with C-tyrobutyricum to the butyric fermentation in Emmental type cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bourhis, A. G.; Dore, J.; Carlier, J P; CHAMBA, J.F.; Popoff, M.R.; Tholozan, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between C. tyrobutyricum, C. sporogenes and C. beijerinckii in experimental cheese conditions, and their influences on late-blowing and butyric fermentation, have been investigated. A molecular approach using a PCR-TTGE method in combination with conventional methods, such as microbiological and physico-chemical analysis, was performed to monitor the evolution of these clostridial species, simultaneously with the occurrence of cheese defects. Sixteen Emmental type cheeses wer...

  1. Parâmetros reacionais para a síntese enzimática do butirato de butila em solventes orgânicos Reactional parameters for enzymatic synthesis of butyl butyrate in organic solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heizir F. CASTRO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A síntese orgânica catalisada por enzimas envolve um mecanismo complexo dependente do tipo de substrato, enzima, solvente orgânico e teor de água no meio reacional. Neste trabalho foi estudado a influência de alguns desses parâmetros no rendimento da esterificação do butanol com ácido butírico, utilizando uma preparação enzimática comercial de lipase. A polaridade e natureza do solvente, bem como a razão molar entre o butanol e ácido butírico, foram considerados os fatores que mais influenciaram o desenvolvimento dessa síntese enzimática.The organic synthesis catalyzed by enzymes is a complex function of substrate concentration, water concentration in the liquid phase, enzyme and organic solvent properties. In this work the influence of some parameters on the esterification of butanol with butyric acid was investigated, using a commercial lipase preparation. The polarity and nature of the solvent and also the substrate mole ratios played an important role in the performance of this enzymatic synthesis.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Sodium Butyrate and Thalidomide in the Induction of Fetal Hemoglobin Expression in Erythroid Progenitors Derived from Cord Blood CD133 + Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dehghanifard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of drugs with the ability to induce production of fetal hemoglobin as a novel therapeutic approach in treating β-Hemoglobinopathies is considered. γ-globin gene expression inducer drugs including sodium butyrate and thalidomide can reduce additional α-globin chains accumulation in erythroid precursors. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, MACS kit was used to isolate CD133+ cells of umbilical cord blood. Further, the effect of two drugs of thalidomide and sodium butyrate were separately and combined studied on the induction of quantitative expression of β-globin and γ-globin genes in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133+ stem cells in-vitro. For this purpose, the technique SYBR green Real-time PCR was used.Results: Flow cytometry results showed that approximately 95% of purified cells were CD133+. Real-time PCR results also showed the increased levels of γ-globin mRNA in the cell groups treated with thalidomide, sodium butyrate and combination of drugs as 2.6 and 1.2 and 3.5 times respectively, and for β-globin gene, it is respectively 1.4 and 1.3 and 1.6 times compared with the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: The study results showed that the mentioned drug combination can act as a pharmaceutical composition affecting the induction of fetal hemoglobin expression in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133 + cells.

  3. Pitfalls in global normalization of ChIP-seq data in CD4(+) T cells treated with butyrate: A possible solution strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Yukihiro; Endo, Takaho A; Obata, Yuuki; Ohara, Osamu; Ohno, Hiroshi; Hase, Koji

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a central role in the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses. Colonization of certain gut commensal microbes such as Clostridia class IV and XIVa in the gut can induce development of colonic Treg cells contributing to the maintenance of gut immune homeostasis. Clostridia-derived butyrate promotes the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells through upregulation of Foxp3, the master transcription factor of Treg cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis revealed that treatment of naïve T cells with butyrate induces Treg-polarizing conditions by enhanced histone H3 acetylation in the promoter and conserved non-coding sequence regions of the Foxp3 locus. In general, global normalization was utilized for ChIP-seq analysis to compare the data obtained from two or more samples. However, global normalization is not appropriate for the evaluation of ChIP-seq data when treatment can affect the total amount of target protein. Here, we introduce a unique normalization method for ChIP-seq analysis in cells treated with butyrate, a pan-HDAC inhibitor that is likely to affect total acetylation levels of histone H3.

  4. Efecto del consumo de la fibra dietética en la expresión cuantitativa del receptor de butirato GPR43 en colon de ratas Effect of dietary fiber in the quantitative expression of butyrate receptor GPR43 in rats colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Corte Osorio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los ácidos grasos de cadena corta (AGCC acetato, propionato y butirato, son productos de fermentación de la fibra dietética (FD en el intestino grueso. Recientemente, el butirato ha sido estudiado ya que es considerado indispensable para el mantenimiento de las funciones del colon y por su relación con la protección del cáncer colorrectal. Esto se atribuye a la capacidad de butirato de regular la expresión génica por mecanismos como la inhibición de la enzima histona deacetilasa. Se ha reportado que el receptor de AGCC, GPR43 está involucrado en el proceso de transducción de señales intracelulares una vez que se unen a ligandos como butirato para generar los efectos fisiológicos del butirato en los colonocitos. Objetivo: Determinar si el consumo de FD de nopal (Opuntia ficus I tiene influencia directa sobre la expresión cuantitativa del receptor específico de butirato GPR43. Métodos: Ratas adultas Wistar se sometieron a cuatro diferentes dietas variando el contenido de FD en 0, 5, 15 y 25% de FD denopal, respectivamente. Resultados y discusión: Los resultados mostraron un aumento significativo de la expresión relativa de GPR43 (93,1% cuando se suministró a las ratas una dieta conteniendo 5% de FD de nopal, usando como gen de referencia β-actina. Los resultados de esta investigación aportarán nuevos datos a los estudios que determinan la relación de la dieta con la salud intestinal, con el fin de ampliar el conocimiento sobre los efectos del ácido butírico en las funciones colónicas.Introduction: Short chain fatty acids (SCFA acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting

  5. Employing a Recombinant Strain of Advenella mimigardefordensis for Biotechnical Production of Homopolythioesters from 3,3′-Dithiodipropionic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Yongzhen; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Qi, Qingsheng; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7T was genetically modified to produce poly(3-mercaptopropionic acid) (PMP) homopolymer by exploiting the recently unraveled process of 3,3′-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP) catabolism. Production was achieved by systematically engineering the metabolism of this strain as follows: (i) deletion of its inherent 3MP dioxygenase-encoding gene (mdo), (ii) introduction of the buk-ptb operon (genes encoding the butyrate kinase, Buk, and the phosphotransbutyrylase,...

  6. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Lachmandas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with diabetes. We examined the influence of physiological concentrations of butyrate on cytokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Butyrate decreased Mtb-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses, while it increased production of IL-10. This anti-inflammatory effect was independent of butyrate’s well-characterised inhibition of HDAC activity and was not accompanied by changes in Toll-like receptor signalling pathways, the eicosanoid pathway, or cellular metabolism. In contrast blocking IL-10 activity reversed the effects of butyrate on Mtb-induced inflammation. Alteration of the gut microbiota, thereby increasing butyrate concentrations, can reduce insulin resistance and obesity, but further studies are needed to determine how this affects susceptibility to tuberculosis.

  7. Determination of some aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazuaki; Takayama, Yohichi; Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Taoda, Hiroshi; Xu, Qun; Hu, Wenzhi; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Sato, Shinji; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-11

    The determination of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, n-butyric, isovaleric and n-valeric acids in anaerobic digestion process waters was examined using ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection. The analysis of these biologically important carboxylic acids is necessary as a measure for evaluating and controlling the process. The ion-exclusion chromatography system employed consisted of polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin columns (TSKgel OApak-A or TSKgel Super IC-A/C). weakly acidic eluent (benzoic acid), and conductimetric detection. Particle size and cation-exchange capacity were 5 microm and 0.1 meq./ml for TSKgel OApak-A and 3 microm and 0.2 meq./ml for TSKgel Super IC-A/C, respectively. A dilute eluent (1.0-2.0 mM) of benzoic acid was effective for the high resolution and highly conductimetric detection of the carboxylic acids. The good separation of isobutyric and n-butyric acids was performed using the TSKgel Super IC-A/C column (150 mm x 6.0 mm i.d. x 2). The simple and good chromatograms were obtained by the optimized ion-exclusion chromatography conditions for real samples from mesophilic anaerobic digestors, thus the aliphatic carboxylic acids were successfully determined without any interferences.

  8. A metabolic link between mitochondrial ATP synthesis and liver glycogen metabolism: NMR study in rats re-fed with butyrate and/or glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauvieux Marie-Christine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butyrate, end-product of intestinal fermentation, is known to impair oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver and could disturb glycogen synthesis depending on the ATP supplied by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cytosolic glycolysis. Methods In 48 hr-fasting rats, hepatic changes of glycogen and total ATP contents and unidirectional flux of mitochondrial ATP synthesis were evaluated by ex vivo 31P NMR immediately after perfusion and isolation of liver, from 0 to 10 hours after force-feeding with (butyrate 1.90 mg + glucose 14.0 mg.g-1 body weight or isocaloric glucose (18.2 mg.g-1 bw; measurements reflected in vivo situation at each time of liver excision. The contribution of energetic metabolism to glycogen metabolism was estimated. Results A net linear flux of glycogen synthesis (~11.10 ± 0.60 μmol glucosyl units.h-1.g-1 liver wet weight occurred until the 6th hr post-feeding in both groups, whereas butyrate delayed it until the 8th hr. A linear correlation between total ATP and glycogen contents was obtained (r2 = 0.99 only during net glycogen synthesis. Mitochondrial ATP turnover, calculated after specific inhibition of glycolysis, was stable (~0.70 ± 0.25 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww during the first two hr whatever the force-feeding, and increased transiently about two-fold at the 3rd hr in glucose. Butyrate delayed the transient increase (1.80 ± 0.33 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww to the 6th hr post-feeding. Net glycogenolysis always appeared after the 8th hr, whereas flux of mitochondrial ATP synthesis returned to near basal level (0.91 ± 0.19 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww. Conclusion In liver from 48 hr-starved rats, the energy need for net glycogen synthesis from exogenous glucose corresponds to ~50% of basal mitochondrial ATP turnover. The evidence of a late and transient increase in mitochondrial ATP turnover reflects an energetic need, probably linked to a glycogen cycling. Butyrate, known to reduce oxidative

  9. Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2014-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of response surface method was used to optimize acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover, in respect to acid concentration (0.05-0.25%), treatment time (5-15 min) and reaction temperature (180-210°C). Acidogenic fermentations with different initial pH and hydrolyzates were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing acid production. The results showed that pretreatment with 0.25% acetic acid at 191°C for 7.74 min was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of corn stover under which the production of acids can reach the highest level. Acidogenic fermentation with the hydrolyzate of pretreatment at the optimal condition at the initial pH=5 was shown to be butyric acid type fermentation, producing 21.84 g acetic acid, 7.246 g propionic acid, 9.170 butyric acid and 1.035 g isovaleric acid from 100g of corn stover in 900 g of water containing 2.25 g acetic acid.

  10. Adsorption of organic acids from dilute aqueous solution onto activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.W.

    1980-06-01

    The radioisotope technique was used to study the removal of organic acid contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, n-hexanoic acid and n-heptanoic acid were studied at 278, 298, and 313/sup 0/K. Three bi-solute acid mixtures (acetic and propionic acids, acetic and butanoic acids, and propionic and butanoic acids) were studied at 278 and 298/sup 0/K. Isotherms of the single-solute systems were obtained at three different temperatures in the very dilute concentration region (less than 1% by weight). These data are very important in the prediction of bi-solute equilibrium data. A Polanyi-based competitive adsorption potential theory was used to predict the bi-solute equilibrium uptakes. Average errors between calculated and experimental data ranges from 4% to 14%. It was found that the competitive adsorption potential theory gives slightly better results than the ideal adsorbed solution theory.

  11. 丁酸钠对云南武定鸡生长性能的影响%Effects of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance of Yunnan Wuding Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂瑛; 施忠芬; 陈红艳; 郑绍洲; 刘燕; 廖启顺

    2011-01-01

    Four hundred Yunnan Wuding chickens(one day old) were used to investigate the effect of sodium butyrate on growth performance of broilers. The chickens were divided into five groups in this study(four replicates for each group, and twenty chickens per replicate). The groups were as follows: group A with basal diet and as control group, group B with basal diet and antibiotics(50 mg·k^-1 zinc bacitracin), group C with basal diet and 250mg·k^-1 sodium butyrate, group D with basal diet and 500mg·k^-1 sodium butyrate, and group E with basal diet and 750 mg·k^-1 sodium butyrate. Average daily gain and average daily feed intake of chickens at 7, 14, and 21 days old were recorded. At 14 and 21 days old, the growth performance of Yunnan Wuding chickens was studied. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed-weight ratio, and death ratio of Yunnan Wuding chickens among control and treatement groups (P〉0.05). The average daily gain and feed intake of Yunnan Wuding chickens increased along with increasing supplementation level of sodium butyrate. The feed-weight ratio, and death ratio of Yunnan Wuding chickens decreased along with increasing supplementation level of sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate may have a positive effect on the improvement of growth performance of Yunnan Wuding chickens.%选用1日龄云南武定肉仔鸡400只,随机分为5个处理组,每组4个重复,每个重复20只鸡。5个处理组分别为A组(基础日粮,对照组)、B组(基础日粮+杆菌肽锌50mg·k^-1,抗生素组)、C组(基础日粮+丁酸钠250131g.kg^-1)、D组(基础日粮+丁酸钠500mg·kg^-1)、E组(基础日粮+丁酸钠750mg·k^-1)。试验期21d,研究丁酸钠对云南武定鸡的生长性能的影响。试验结果表明,云南武定鸡的平均日增重、平均日采食量、饲料增重比与死淘率在对照组与各处理组

  12. Sodium Butyrate Protects Against High Fat Diet-induced Cardiac Dysfunction and Metabolic Disorders in Type II Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Du, Jianfeng; Yano, Naohiro; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Yu Tina; Patricia, Dubielecka-Szczerba; Zhuang, Shougang; Chin, Eugene Y; Qin, Gangjian; Zhao, Ting C

    2017-01-21

    Histone deacetylases are recently identified to act as key regulators for cardiac pathophysiology and metabolic disorders. However, the function of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in controlling cardiac performance in type II diabetes and obesity remains unknown. Here we determine whether HDAC inhibition attenuates high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac dysfunction and improves metabolic features. Adult mice were fed with either HFD or standard chow food for 24 weeks. Starting at 12 weeks, mice were divided into four groups randomly, in which sodium butyrate (1%), a potent HDAC inhibitor, was provided to chow and HFD-fed mice in drinking water, respectively. Glucose intolerance, metabolic parameters, cardiac function, and remodeling were assessed. Histological analysis and cellular signaling were examined at 24 weeks following euthanization of mice. HFD-fed mice demonstrated myocardial dysfunction and profound interstitial fibrosis, which were attenuated by HDAC inhibition. HFD-induced metabolic syndrome features insulin resistance, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, lipid accumulations, and cardiac hypertrophy, these effects were prevented by HDAC inhibition. Furthermore, HDAC inhibition attenuated myocyte apoptosis, reduced production of reactive oxygen species, and increased angiogenesis in the HFD-fed myocardium. Notably, HFD induced decreases in MKK3, p38, p38 regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK) and Akt-1, but not p44/42 phosphorylation, which were prevented by HDAC inhibition. These results suggest that HDAC inhibition plays a critical role to preserve cardiac performance and mitigate metabolic disorders in obesity and diabetes, which is associated with MKK3/p38/PRAK pathway. The study holds promise in developing a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of type II diabetic-induced heart failure and metabolic disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient derivation of functional hepatocytes from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells by a combination of cytokines and sodium butyrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi; YANG Yang; ZHANG Jian; WANG Guo-ying; LIU Wei; QIU Dong-bo; HEI Zi-qing; YING Qi-long; CHEN Gui-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte transplantation has been proposed as an alternative to whole-organ transplantation to support many forms of hepatic insufficiency.Unfortunately,the lack of donor livers makes it difficult to obtain enough viable human hepatocytes for hepatocyte-based therapies.Therefore,it is urgent to find new ways to provide ample hepatocytes.Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells,a breakthrough in stem cell research,may terminate these hinders for cell transplantation.For the promise of iPS cells to be realized in liver diseases,it is necessary to determine if and how efficient they can be differentiated into functional hepatocytes.Methods In this study,we directly compared the hepatic-differentiation capacity of mouse iPS cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells with three different induction approaches:conditions via embryonic body (EB) formation plus cytokines,conditions by combination of dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium butyrate and chemically defined,serum free monolayer conditions.Among these three induction conditions,more homogenous populations can be promoted under chemically defined,serum free conditions.The cells generated under these conditions exhibited hepatic functions in vitro,including glycogen storage,indocynine green (ICG) uptake and release as well as urea secretion.Although efficient hepatocytes differentiation from mouse iPS cells were observed,mouse iPS cells showed relatively lower hepatic induction efficiency compared with mouse ES cells.Results Mouse iPS cells would be efficiently differentiated into functional hepatocytes in vitro,which may be helpful in facilitating the development of hepatocytes for transplantation and for research on drug discovery.Conclusion We demonstrate that mouse iPS cells retain full potential for fetal liver development and describe procedures that facilitates the efficient generation of highly differentiated human hepatocyte-like cells from iPS cells in vitro.

  14. [Sodium butyrate inhibits HMGB1 expression and release and attenuates concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Quan; Chen, Mao-Jian; Wang, Chao; Nie, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Xiang; Shu, Ke-Gang; Li, Gang

    2014-10-25

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the protective effects of sodium butyrate (SB) pretreatment on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced acute liver injury in mice. The model animals were first administered intraperitoneally with SB. Half an hour later, acute liver injury mouse model was established by caudal vein injection with Con A (15 mg/kg). Then, levels of serous alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured using standard clinical method by an automated chemistry analyzer, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were measured by ELISA, and pathological changes in hepatic tissue were observed by using HE staining and light microscopy. The expression and release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were assessed by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The results showed that the pretreatment of SB significantly protected Con A-treated mice from liver injury as evidenced by the decrease of serum ALT, AST (P < 0.01) and reduction of hepatic tissues necrosis. SB also decreased levels of serous TNF-α and IFN-γ (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the expression and release of HMGB1 were markedly inhibited by SB pretreatment (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). These results suggest that the attenuating effect of SB on Con A-induced acute liver injury may be due to its role of reducing the TNF-α and IFN-γ production, and inhibiting HMGB1 expression and release.

  15. Development of theophylline floating microballoons using cellulose acetate butyrate and/or Eudragit RL 100 polymers with different permeability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvehgari, M; Maghsoodi, M; Nemati, H

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to design a sustained release floating microcapsules of theophylline using two polymers of different permeability characteristics; Eudragit RL 100 (Eu RL) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) using the oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation method. Polymers were used separately and in combination to prepare different microcapsules. The effect of drug-polymer interaction was studied for each of the polymers and for their combination. Encapsulation efficiency, the yield, particle size, floating capability, morphology of microspheres, powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were evaluated. The in vitro release studies were performed in PH 1.2 and 7.4. The optimized drug to polymer ratios was found to be 4:1 (F(2)) and 0.75:1 (F'(2)) with Eu RL and CAB, respectively. The best drug to polymer ratio in mix formulation was 4:1:1 (theophylline: Eu RL: CAB ratio). Production yield, loading efficiencies, and particle size of F(2) and F'(2) were found to be 59.14% and 45.39%, 73.93% and 95.87%, 372 and 273 micron, respectively. Microsphere prepared with CAB showed the best floating ability (80.3 ± 4.02% buoyancy) in 0.1 M HCl for over 12 h. The XRD and DSC showed that theophylline in the drug loaded microspheres was stable and in crystaline form. Microparticles prepared using blend of Eu RL and CAB polymers indicated more sustained pattern than the commercial tablet (PRL and CAB with 1:1 ratio were found to be a suitable delivery system for sustained release delivery of theophylline which contained lower amount of polymer contents in the microspheres.

  16. Prevention of volatile fatty acids production and limitation of odours from winery wastewaters by denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bories, André; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Sire, Yannick; Couderc, Marie; Lemaire, Sophie-Andréa; Kreim, Virginie; Roux, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the addition of nitrate to winery wastewaters to control the formation of VFA in order to prevent odours during storage and treatment was studied in batch bioreactors at different NO(3)/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratios and at full scale in natural evaporation ponds (2 x 7000 m(2)) by measuring olfactory intensity. In the absence of nitrate, butyric acid (2304 mgL(-1)), acetic acid (1633 mgL(-1)), propionic acid (1558 mgL(-1)), caproic acid (499 mgL(-1)) and valeric acid (298 mgL(-1)) were produced from reconstituted winery wastewater. For a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.4 gg(-1), caproic and valeric acids were not formed. The production of butyric and propionic acids was reduced by 93.3% and 72.5%, respectively, at a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.8, and by 97.4% and 100% at a ratio of NO(3)/COD=1.2 gg(-1). Nitrate delayed and decreased butyric acid formation in relation to the oxidoreduction potential. Studies in ponds showed that the addition of concentrated calcium nitrate (NITCAL) to winery wastewaters (3526 m(3)) in a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.8 inhibited VFA production, with COD elimination (94%) and total nitrate degradation, and no final nitrite accumulation. On the contrary, in ponds not treated with nitrate, malodorous VFA (from propionic to heptanoïc acids) represented up to 60% of the COD. Olfactory intensity measurements in relation to the butanol scale of VFA solutions and the ponds revealed the pervasive role of VFA in the odour of the untreated pond as well as the clear decrease in the intensity and not unpleasant odour of the winery wastewater pond enriched in nitrates. The results obtained at full scale underscored the feasibility and safety of the calcium nitrate treatment as opposed to concentrated nitric acid.

  17. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Ravinder; Berwal, Raj Singh; Sihag, Sajjan; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Lalit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control), T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate), T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate), T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate), T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate), T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate) and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate) consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen) and body weight gain (g). Different levels of supplementation significantly (phen-day egg production and egg mass production) as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg) per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05) in T4 and feed intake (kg) per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05) in T5 as comparison to control (T1) group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (play, egg weight, and FCR. From economical point of view, egg production was more profitable at 0.5% level of sodium butyrate and 0.5% level of calcium propionate which reduced the feed cost per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass production without affecting the egg quality. PMID:28096625

  18. Effect of short chain fatty acids on the performance and intestinal weight in germ-free and conventional chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, M; Yang, S I; Niwa, N; Okumura, J

    1991-03-01

    1. In experiment 1, the performance and tissue weights of germ-free (GF) and conventional (CV) chicks fed on diets containing 25.4 g acetic acid/kg diet (AD) or 25.4 g kaolin/kg diet (KD) were investigated. Body weight gain in GF chicks was significantly higher on the AD, but significantly lower on the KD compared with their CV counterparts. The values for food efficiency, protein retention and energy retention followed a similar pattern to that of the body weight gain. 2. The weights of all sections of the intestine except the colon were significantly greater in CV chicks. In CV but not in GF birds the jejunum and ileum were heavier from birds fed on the AD than from those on the KD diet. 3. In experiment 2, the influence of butyric acid administration on the weight of some organs in chicks was investigated. The weight of duodenum, jejunum and ileum was significantly increased by intraperitoneal administration of butyric acid (2 ml of 100 mM solution/d) for 4 d, but no significant effect was observed by oral administration. 4. It might be suggested that short chain fatty acids such as acetic and butyric acids formed by bacterial action in the crop and subsequently absorbed are at least partly responsible for the heavier gut weight in CV birds.

  19. Effet de l'acide indole butyrique, de l'acide gibbérellique et d'un inhibiteur d'éthylène sur la fructification et la qualité des fruits du piment cultivé sous serre froide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dridi, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Indole Butyric Acid, Gibberellic Acid and an Ethylene Inhibitor on Fructification and Fruit Quality of Pepper Grown under Unheated Plastic House. The yield and fruit quality of pepper grown under unheated plastic house are usually negatively affected by low night temperature occurring during four to five months, this disrupt the local market supply and restrict the export possibilities. The effect of indole butyric acid (AIB, gibberellic acid (GA3 and an ethylene inhibitor (AgNO3 on fructification and fruit quality of two hot and two sweet pepper varieties grown under unheated plastic house, was studied. These substances, sprayed once per week just before flower initiation of the first four bifurcations, stimulated flower initiation and development; AgNO3 produced a significant increase in flower buds (98% more than the control and reduced the buds abortion. Treatments did not affect bud flower and flower abortion, but increased fruit characteristics; treatment with AIB produced the longest fruits and the highest number of seed per fruit. On Beldi, hot pepper variety, gibberellic acid and indole butyric acid treatment increased fruit soluble solid content, citric acid, ascorbic acid concentration and chlorophyll a content, while AgNO3 treatment increased chlorophyll b concentration.

  20. Matrix-elimination with steam distillation for determination of short-chain fatty acids in hypersaline waters from pre-salt layer by ion-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda N; Carneiro, Manuel C; Vaitsman, Delmo S; Pontes, Fernanda V M; Monteiro, Maria Inês C; Silva, Lílian Irene D da; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover

    2012-02-03

    A method for determination of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in hypersaline waters by ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC), using steam distillation to eliminate matrix-interference, was developed. The steam distillation variables such as type of solution to collect the distillate, distillation time and volume of the 50% v/v H₂SO₄ solution were optimized. The effect of the addition of NaCl different concentrations to the calibration standards on the carboxylic acid recovery was also investigated. Detection limits of 0.2, 0.5, 0.3 and 1.5 mg L⁻¹ were obtained for formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. Produced waters from petroleum reservoirs in the Brazilian pre-salt layer containing about 19% m/v of NaCl were analyzed. Good recoveries (99-108%) were obtained for all acids in spiked produced water samples.

  1. Interaction of Dietary Fatty Acids with Tumour Necrosis Factor Family Cytokines during Colon Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Hofmanová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the TNF family (TNF-α, TRAIL, and FasL have potent inflammatory activities and can also regulate apoptosis, which plays an important role in cancer development. The results of our own research showed enhancement of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a combination of either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA or butyrate with TNF family cytokines, especially by promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulation of NFκB activity. This review is focused mainly on the interaction of dietary PUFAs and butyrate with these cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer development. We summarised recent knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects and outcomes for intestinal cell behaviour and pathologies. Finally, the possible application for the prevention and therapy of colon inflammation and cancer is also outlined.

  2. Interaction of dietary fatty acids with tumour necrosis factor family cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Straková, Nicol; Vaculová, Alena Hyršlová; Tylichová, Zuzana; Safaříková, Barbora; Skender, Belma; Kozubík, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the TNF family (TNF- α, TRAIL, and FasL) have potent inflammatory activities and can also regulate apoptosis, which plays an important role in cancer development. The results of our own research showed enhancement of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a combination of either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or butyrate with TNF family cytokines, especially by promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulation of NF κ B activity. This review is focused mainly on the interaction of dietary PUFAs and butyrate with these cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer development. We summarised recent knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects and outcomes for intestinal cell behaviour and pathologies. Finally, the possible application for the prevention and therapy of colon inflammation and cancer is also outlined.

  3. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, Sabita N., E-mail: sabivan@uab.edu [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104 (United States); Kala, Rishabh [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Tollefsbol, Trygve O., E-mail: trygve@uab.edu [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Center for Healthy Aging, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Diabetes Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells. - Highlights: • EGCG and NaB as a combination inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • The combination treatment induces DNA damage, G2/M and G1 arrest and apoptosis. • Survivin is effectively down-regulated by the combination treatment. • p21 and p53 expressions are induced by the combination treatment. • Epigenetic proteins DNMT1 and HDAC1 are

  4. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on maturation of the small intestine in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, P; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Zabielski, R; Kowalski, Z M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in milk replacer (MR), starter mixture (SM), or both on small intestine maturation in newborn calves was investigated. Twenty-eight male calves with a mean age of 5 (± 1) d were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 groups (7 animals per group) and fed (1) MR and SM, without SB (MR(-) and SM(-), respectively; MR(-)/SM(-)); (2) MR(-) and SM supplemented with SB encapsulated within triglyceride matrix (SM(+), 0.6% as fed; MR(-)/SM(+)); (3) MR supplemented with crystalline SB (MR(+), 0.3% as fed) and SM(-) (MR(+)/SM(-)); or (4) MR(+) and SM(+) (MR(+)/SM(+)). The MR was offered in amounts equal to 10% of initial body weight of the calf. The SM was blended with whole corn grain (50/50; wt/wt) and offered ad libitum as a starter diet. Calves were slaughtered at 26 d (± 1) of age and small intestine development was investigated. Treatment with MR(+) decreased villus height in the proximal jejunum and decreased villus height, crypt depth, and tunica mucosa thickness in the middle jejunum, whereas treatment with SM(+) tended to increase small intestine weight and crypt depth in the proximal jejunum, and increased villus height in the distal jejunum. In the duodenum, crypt depth and tunica mucosa thickness were greater for the MR(-)/SM(+) group compared with MR(-)/SM(-), MR(+)/SM(-), and MR(+)/SM(+) groups. In the ileum, crypt depth was less for MR(-)/SM(+) compared with MR(-)/SM(-). Supplementation with SB in both MR and SM enhanced cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis in the middle jejunum mucosa. Regarding brush border enzyme activities, addition of SB to MR increased lactase activity in the middle jejunum and maltase activity in the distal jejunum, and tended to increase lactase activity in the distal jejunum, aminopeptidase A activity in the middle jejunum and ileum, and aminopeptidase N activity in the ileum. In contrast, SM(+) increased dipeptidylpeptidase IV activity in the distal jejunum and tended to increase

  5. Free acetate production by rat hepatocytes during peroxisomal fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, F; Bergseth, S; Rørtveit, T; Christiansen, E N; Bremer, J

    1989-06-25

    The fate of the acetyl-CoA units released during peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was studied in isolated hepatocytes from normal and peroxisome-proliferated rats. Ketogenesis and hydrogen peroxide generation were employed as indicators of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, respectively. Butyric and hexanoic acids were employed as mitochondrial substrates, 1, omega-dicarboxylic acids as predominantly peroxisomal substrates, and lauric acid as a substrate for both mitochondria and peroxisomes. Ketogenesis from dicarboxylic acids was either absent or very low in normal and peroxisome-proliferated hepatocytes, but free acetate release was detected at rates that could account for all the acetyl-CoA produced in peroxisomes by dicarboxylic and also by monocarboxylic acids. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation also led to free acetate generation but at low rates relative to ketogenesis. The origin of the acetate released was confirmed employing [1-14C]dodecanedioic acid. Thus, the activity of peroxisomes might contribute significantly to the free acetate generation known to occur during fatty acid oxidation in rats and possibly also in humans.

  6. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  7. Dosimetric characteristics of a radiochromic polyvinyl butyral film containing 2,4-hexadiyn-1,6-bis(n-butyl urethane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, A A; Soliman, Y S; Bayomi, A M M; Abdel-Khalek, A A

    2014-04-01

    A radiation-sensitive compound 2,4-hexadiyn-1,6-bis(n-butyl urethane) (HDDBU) was synthesized, characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, and introduced into a thin polyvinyl butyral film to form a radiation dosimeter for industrial irradiation facilities. The monomer polymerizes under gamma radiation, inducing change in the film spectrum in the range of 200-400 nm. According to XRD spectroscopy, the film contains monomeric HDDBU in a non-crystalline state. The dose response function, radiation sensitivity, and dependences of the response on environmental factors were studied. Uncertainty of dose measurements with the proposed dosimetry system was analyzed in detail.

  8. Retraction: Open and closed conformations reveal induced fit movements in butyrate kinase 2 activation. J. Diao, Y. D. Ma, and M. S. Hasson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The following article from Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, "Open and closed conformations reveal induced fit movements in butyrate kinase 2 activation," by Jiasheng Diao, Yunglin D. Ma, and Miriam S. Hasson, published online on 21 October 2010 in Wiley Online Library (onlinelibrary.wiley.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Bertrand Garcia-Moreno, and Wiley Periodicals. The retraction has been agreed because it was established by internal investigation performed by Purdue University that the authors of this article are not the owners of the data and have no right to publication.

  9. Asymmetric synthesis of -aminophosphonates: The bio-isosteric analogs of -aminobutyric acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kalisankar Bera; Dwayaja Nadkarni; Iirishi N N Namboothiri

    2013-05-01

    The properties of aminophosphonates as transition state analogs of amino acids, and as antibacterial, antifungal and antiHIV agents attracted considerable attention in recent years. Although many reviews appeared in the literature covering - and -aminophosphonates, -aminophosphonates did not receive sufficient attention despite the fact that parent -aminophosphonic acid and its derivatives are bio-isosteric analogs of GABA (-amino butyric acid). This review provides a critical summary of the significance of -aminophosphonates and various approaches to their synthesis, with particular emphasis to asymmetric versions.

  10. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acids . Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. "Nonessential" means that our ... this amino acid from the food we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps ...

  11. Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D P; Bada, J L; Brinton, K L; McDonald, G D

    1999-08-03

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (gamma-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  12. Effect of carboxylic acid on sintering of inkjet-printed copper nanoparticulate films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Youngwoo; Lee, Byungyoon; Kim, Jonghee; Moon, Jooho

    2011-07-01

    The reduction effect of various carboxylic acids on inkjet-printed copper film was investigated. Carboxylic acids were exposed to the film by nitrogen gas that was bubbled through the liquid acids during the annealing process. It was observed that in the case of saturated monocarboxylic acid (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric), the acids with shorter hydrocarbon chains perform better in reducing the surface copper oxides in the printed copper conductive film. The printed films exposed to formic acid vapor exhibited the lowest resistivity (3.10 and 2.30 μΩ cm when annealed at 200 and 250 °C, respectively). In addition, the oxalic acid more effectively reduces copper oxide than formic acid and its usage can shorten the annealing time for highly conductive printed copper film. This reductive annealing process allows fabrication of copper patterns with low resistivity, (3.82 μΩ cm annealed at 250 °C) comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper.

  13. Effects of the use of acetic acid as the conservant in lucerne ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Nenad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of acetic acid as the chemical conservant in three doses (4, 6 8 g/kg green mass on the intensity of fermentation and proteolysis in lucerne silage was investigated. On the basis of chemical analysis, it was found that with the increase of conservant dose the pH value decreased aminogenesis and nitrogen solubility was limited. In silages treated the absolute and relative domination of acetic acid was found in total acid content. The increase of free and bonded acetic acid was discovered with the increase of conservant dose. Free butyric acid was not detected, while bonded butyric acid was present in negligible concentration, without effect on silage quality. Compared to control silage (III quality class according to DLG and Zelter method, a significant increase of acetic acid in silages resulted in the decline of their quality, and they were ranked as not useful (V quality class according to DLG method, or on the margin of usefulness (IV quality class according to Zelter method. In spite of some foreign references, domestic experiences show that acetic acid is not an effective conservant and it is not recommended for that use for lucerne that is not simple to ensile.

  14. Isoquercitrin Esters with Mono- or Dicarboxylic Acids: Enzymatic Preparation and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavříková, Eva; Langschwager, Fanny; Jezova-Kalachova, Lubica; Křenková, Alena; Mikulová, Barbora; Kuzma, Marek; Křen, Vladimír; Valentová, Kateřina

    2016-06-07

    A series of isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) esters with mono- or dicarboxylic acids was designed to modulate hydro- and lipophilicity and biological properties. Esterification of isoquercitrin was accomplished by direct chemoenzymatic reaction using Novozym 435 (lipase from Candida antarctica), which accepted C₅- to C12-dicarboxylic acids; the shorter ones, such as oxalic (C₂), malonic (C₃), succinic (C₄) and maleic (C₄) acids were not substrates of the lipase. Lipophilicity of monocarboxylic acid derivatives, measured as log P, increased with the chain length. Esters with glutaric and adipic acids exhibited hydrophilicity, and the dodecanedioic acid hemiester was more lipophilic. All derivatives were less able to reduce Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (FCR) and scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) than isoquercitrin; ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity was comparable. Dodecanoate and palmitate were the least active in FCR and ABTS scavenging; dodecanoate and hemiglutarate were the strongest DPPH scavengers. In contrast, most derivatives were much better inhibitors of microsomal lipoperoxidation than isoquercitrin; butyrate and hexanoate were the most efficient. Anti-lipoperoxidant activity of monocarboxylic derivatives, except acetates, decreased with increasing aliphatic chain. The opposite trend was noted for dicarboxylic acid hemiesters, isoquercitrin hemidodecanedioate being the most active. Overall, IQ butyrate, hexanoate and hemidodecanedioate are the most promising candidates for further studies.

  15. Isoquercitrin Esters with Mono- or Dicarboxylic Acids: Enzymatic Preparation and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavříková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside esters with mono- or dicarboxylic acids was designed to modulate hydro- and lipophilicity and biological properties. Esterification of isoquercitrin was accomplished by direct chemoenzymatic reaction using Novozym 435 (lipase from Candida antarctica, which accepted C5- to C12-dicarboxylic acids; the shorter ones, such as oxalic (C2, malonic (C3, succinic (C4 and maleic (C4 acids were not substrates of the lipase. Lipophilicity of monocarboxylic acid derivatives, measured as log P, increased with the chain length. Esters with glutaric and adipic acids exhibited hydrophilicity, and the dodecanedioic acid hemiester was more lipophilic. All derivatives were less able to reduce Folin–Ciocalteau reagent (FCR and scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl than isoquercitrin; ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical-scavenging activity was comparable. Dodecanoate and palmitate were the least active in FCR and ABTS scavenging; dodecanoate and hemiglutarate were the strongest DPPH scavengers. In contrast, most derivatives were much better inhibitors of microsomal lipoperoxidation than isoquercitrin; butyrate and hexanoate were the most efficient. Anti-lipoperoxidant activity of monocarboxylic derivatives, except acetates, decreased with increasing aliphatic chain. The opposite trend was noted for dicarboxylic acid hemiesters, isoquercitrin hemidodecanedioate being the most active. Overall, IQ butyrate, hexanoate and hemidodecanedioate are the most promising candidates for further studies.

  16. A novel immunosensor based on immobilization of hepatitis B surface antibody on platinum electrode modified colloidal gold and polyvinyl butyral as matrices via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Dai, Jianyuan; Zhong, Xia; Liu, Yan

    2004-12-01

    Hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) was immobilized to the surface of platinum electrode modified with colloidal gold and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) as matrices to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical measurements of cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy showed that K(4)[Fe(CN)(6)]/K(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] reactions on the platinum electrode surface were blocked due to the procedures of self-assembly of HBsAb-Au-PVB. The binding of a specific HBsAb to HBsAg recognition layer could be detected by measurements of the impedance change. A new strategy was introduced for improving the sensitivity of impedance measurements via the large specific surface area and high surface free energy of Au nanoparticles and the encapsulated effect of polyvinyl butyral. The results showed that this strategy caused dramatic improvement of the detection sensitivity of HBsAg and had good linear response to detect HBsAg in the range of 20-160 ng.ml(-1) with a detection limit of 7.8 ng.ml(-1). Moreover, the studied immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and long-term stability.

  17. Restoration of adenylate cyclase responsiveness in murine myeloid leukemia permits inhibition of proliferation by hormone. Butyrate augments catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, L; Fleming, J W; Klingberg, D; Gabig, T G; Boswell, H S

    1988-04-01

    Mechanisms of leukemic cell clonal dominance may include aberrations of transmembrane signaling. In particular, neoplastic transformation has been associated with reduced capacity for hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. In the present study, prostaglandin E, a hormonal activator of adenylate cyclase that has antiproliferative activity in myeloid cells, and cholera toxin, an adenylate cyclase agonist that functions at a postreceptor site by activating the adenylate cyclase stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs), were studied for antiproliferative activity in two murine myeloid cell lines. FDC-P1, an interleukin 3 (IL 3)-dependent myeloid cell line and a tumorigenic IL 3-independent subline, FI, were resistant to these antiproliferative agents. The in vitro ability of the "differentiation" agent, sodium butyrate, to reverse their resistance to adenylate cyclase agonists was studied. The antiproliferative action of butyrate involved augmentation of transmembrane adenylate cyclase activity. Increased adenylate cyclase catalyst activity was the primary alteration of this transmembrane signaling group leading to the functional inhibitory effects on leukemia cells, although alterations in regulatory G-proteins appear to play a secondary role.

  18. 3-pyrazolone analogues of the 3-isoxazolol metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptor agonist homo-AMPA. Synthesis and pharmacological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, D.; Janin, Y.L.; Brehm, L.

    1999-01-01

    -4-(1,2-dihydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-3H-pyrazol-4-yl)butyric acid (1) and (RS)-2-amino-4-(1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-3H-pyrazol-4-yl)butyric acid (2). At a number of steps in the reaction sequences used, the reactions took unexpected courses and provided products which could not be transformed...... into the target compounds, and attempts to synthesize the 2,5-dimethyl isomer of 2, compound 3, failed. An X-ray crystallographic analysis of the intermediate 1,2-dihydro-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,5-dimethyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one (5b) confirmed the expected regioselectivity of the reaction between methylhydrazine and a...

  19. The ability of antigen, but not interleukin-2, to promote n-butyrate-induced T helper 1 cell anergy is associated with increased expression and altered association patterns of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephanie K; DeLoose, Annick; Gilbert, Kathleen M

    2002-08-01

    The ability of the cell cycle inhibitor n-butyrate to induce T helper 1 (Th1) cell anergy is dependent upon its ability to block the cell cycle progression of activated Th1 cells in G1. Results reported here show that although both interleukin (IL)-2 and antigen (Ag) push Th1 cells into G1 where they are blocked by n-butyrate, only the Ag-activated Th1 cells demonstrate functional anergy once the n-butyrate has been removed from the culture. Because n-butyrate-induced Th1 cell anergy has been linked to increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, mechanistic experiments focused on the role of these inhibitors. It was found that when Th1 cells were reincubated in Ag-stimulated secondary cultures, the Th1 cells previously exposed to Ag and n-butyrate (anergic Th1 cells) demonstrated a cumulative increase in p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 when compared with Th1 cells previously exposed to recombinant (r)IL-2 and n-butyrate (non-anergic Th1 cells). p27Kip1 in the anergic Th1 cells from the secondary cultures was associated with cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). In contrast, p21Cip1 in the anergic Th1 cells, although present at high levels, did not associate significantly with cdks, suggesting that p21Cip1 may target some other protein in the anergic Th1 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that Th1 cell exposure to Ag and n-butyrate, rather than IL-2 and n-butyrate, is needed to induce the cumulative increase in p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 that is associated with the proliferative unresponsiveness in anergic Th1 cells. In addition, p21Cip1 may inhibit proliferation in the anergic Th1 cells by some mechanism other than suppression of cdks that is unique to the induction of Th1 cell anergy.

  20. A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria COZMA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via Δ-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

  1. Development of Quantitative Competitive PCR and Absolute Based Real-Time PCR Assays for Quantification of The Butyrate Producing Bacterium: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tahmoorespur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strains are presently recognized as the major butyrate-producing bacteria found in the rumen and digestive track of many animals and also in the human gut. In this study we reported the development of two DNA based techniques, quantitative competitive (QC PCR and absolute based Real-Time PCR, for enumerating Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strains. Despite the recent introduction of real-time PCR method for the rapid quantification of the target DNA sequences, use of quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR technique continues to play an important role in nucleic acid quantification since it is more cost effective. The procedure relies on the co-amplification of the sequence of interest with a serially diluted synthetic DNA fragment of the known concentration (competitor, using the single set primers. A real-time polymerase chain reaction is a laboratory technique of molecular biology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. It monitors the amplification of a targeted DNA molecule during the PCR. Materials and Methods At first reported species-specific primers targeting the 16S rDNA region of the bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens were used for amplifying a 213 bp fragment. A DNA competitor differing by 50 bp in length from the 213 bp fragment was constructed and cloned into pTZ57R/T vector. The competitor was quantified by NanoDrop spectrophotometer and serially diluted and co-amplified by PCR with total extracted DNA from rumen fluid samples. PCR products were quantified by photographing agarose gels and analyzed with Image J software and the amount of amplified target DNA was log plotted against the amount of amplified competitor. Coefficient of determination (R2 was used as a criterion of methodology precision. For developing the Real-time PCR technique, the 213 bp fragment was amplified and cloned into pTZ57R/T was used to draw a standard curve. Results and Discussion The specific primers of Butyrivibrio

  2. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  3. Evaluation of radiological data of some saturated fatty acids using gamma ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.; Palani Selvam, T.

    2016-02-01

    Radiological parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients (μm), total attenuation cross section (σtot), molar extinction coefficient (ε), mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and effective electronic cross section (σt, el) of saturated fatty acids, namely butyric acid (C4H8O2), caproic acid (C6H12O2), enanthic acid (C7H14O2), caprylic acid (C8H16O2), pelargonic acid (C9H18O2) and valeric acid (C5H10O2) were measured using NaI(Tl)-based gamma spectrometry. Radioactive sources used in the study are 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co and 22Na. Gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set up was used in the study. The measured data were compared against Win-XCOM-based data. The agreement is within 1%.

  4. Pyrene appended bile acid conjugates: Synthesis and a structure-gelation property study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shreedhar Bhat; Arto Valkonen; Juha Koivukorpi; Anupama Ambika; Erkki Kolehmainen; Uday Maitra; Kari Rissanen

    2011-07-01

    A wide variety of novel compounds obtained by combining two types of known organogelators, viz., bile acid alkyl amides and pyrene alkanoic acids, were synthesized and screened for their gelation ability. The 3 esters of 1-pyrene butyric acid (PBA) of alkylamides of deoxycholic acid (DCA) turned out to be effective in the gel formation with many organic solvents although the gelation has to be triggered by the addition of a charge transfer (CT) agent 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF). The special feature of these molecules is that the organogelation is achieved only after derivatizing the acid moiety of the 1-pyrenealkanoic acids. Additionally, the gelation properties can be fine-tuned by inserting different functional groups at the bile acid side chain. The gels obtained are deep red in colour and optically transparent up to 2% w/v. The SEM studies of the obtained xerogels revealed bundled rod-like morphology without specialized branching.

  5. The acquisition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum mutants with improved bioproduction under acidic conditions after two rounds of heavy-ion beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Shu-Yang; Liang, Jian-Ping; Lu, Xi-Hong; Wang, Liang

    2016-07-18

    End-product inhibition is a key factor limiting the production of organic acid during fermentation. Two rounds of heavy-ion beam irradiation may be an inexpensive, indispensable and reliable approach to increase the production of butyric acid during industrial fermentation processes. However, studies of the application of heavy ion radiation for butyric acid fermentation engineering are lacking. In this study, a second (12)C(6+) heavy-ion irradiation-response curve is used to describe the effect of exposure to a given dose of heavy ions on mutant strains of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. Versatile statistical elements are introduced to characterize the mechanism and factors contributing to improved butyric acid production and enhanced acid tolerance in adapted mutant strains harvested from the fermentations. We characterized the physiological properties of the strains over a large pH value gradient, which revealed that the mutant strains obtained after a second round of radiation exposure were most resistant to harsh external pH values and were better able to tolerate external pH values between 4.5 and 5.0. A customized second round of heavy-ion beam irradiation may be invaluable in process engineering.

  6. Effect of Gamma-Amino-Butyric Acid on Reproduction and Physiology%γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的生殖生理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包华琼; 王新庄

    2002-01-01

    r-氨基丁酸(GABA)作为一种抑制性神经递质,通过下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴系影响垂体和性腺生理机能,从而参与激素的分泌调节.GABA对卵巢颗粒细胞孕酮的分泌调节随动情期不同而呈现抑制和促进作用.GABA也可通过多巴胺抑制系统抑制垂体激素LH和PRL的分泌.GABA与孕酮协同作用,能明显促进精子的获能,提高精子的体外能力.

  7. Extraction and HPLC- UV Analysis of C60, C70, and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester in Synthetic and Natural Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have shown that C60 fullerene can form stable colloidal suspensions in water that result in C60 aqueous concentrations many orders of magnitude above C60's aqueous solubility; however, quantitative methods for the analysis of C60 and other fullerenes in environmental medi...

  8. 口服益生菌联合丁酸氢化可的松乳膏等治疗婴儿湿疹临床观察%Clinical Observations on Infant Eczema Treated with Probiotics and Hydrocortisone Butyrate Creama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽萍; 卢淑娇; 陈美珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the early intervention effect of probiotics on infant eczema. Methods Ninety-seven artificial feeding children with eczema were randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group ( n = 48) was given probiotics capsules orally for six months, when the eczema had exudation, 0. 1% hydrochloric acid Xiaochaihu solution were wet-packed. Those eczema without exudation, butyrate hydrocortison butyrate cream were used 2 times a day , if the lesion with infection, use antibiotic ointment externally, in some severe cases, the loratadine syrup were used; To the control group ( n = 49 ) , except the probiotics, the other method were the same. Observe the recurrence and severity of the eczema monthly in the clinic, by telephone or site visits for six months. Results probability of Eczema attack of the intervention group in the first two months was 31. 25% , 4 months was 27. 08% , 6 months was 20. 83% , and the severity gradually reduced. In the control group, probability of Eczema attack in 2 month was 51. 02% , 4 month was 46. 94% , 6 month was 40. 82% , the relapse rate and severity of eczema were significantly lower in the intervention group (P <0. 05) . Conclusion Early intervention with probiotics can reduce the attack and severity of eczema, provides a new idea for eczema prevention.%目的 探讨肠道益生菌对婴儿湿疹的早期干预效果.方法 97例人工喂养湿疹患儿,随机分干预组和对照组.干预组48例,口服双歧三联活菌胶囊,连续6个月,有渗液时用0.1%盐酸小柴胡碱溶液湿敷,无渗液时用丁酸氢化可的松乳膏,伴感染时加用莫匹罗星软膏外涂,少数严重者给氯雷他定糖浆口服;对照组49例,除不用双歧三联活菌胶囊外,其余与干预组相同.每月通过门诊、电话或上门探视等方式观察记录湿疹病情,共6个月.结果 干预组湿疹发生率在第2个月为31.25%、第4个月27.08%、第6个月20.83%,发病程度逐渐减轻

  9. Anaerobic biodegradation of oleic and palmitic acids: evidence of mass transfer limitations caused by long chain fatty acid accumulation onto the anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M A; Pires, O C; Mota, M; Alves, M M

    2005-10-05

    Palmitic acid was the main long chain fatty acids (LCFA) that accumulated onto the anaerobic sludge when oleic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor. The conversion between oleic and palmitic acid was linked to the biological activity. When palmitic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor it represented also the main LCFA that accumulated onto the sludge. The way of palmitic acid accumulation was different in the oleic and in the palmitic acid fed reactors. When oleic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (83% as palmitic acid) were mainly adsorbed and entrapped in the sludge that became "encapsulated" by an LCFA layer. However, when palmitic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (the totality as palmitic acid) was mainly precipitated in white spots like precipitates in between the sludge, which remained "non-encapsulated." The two sludges were compared in terms of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) in the presence of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and H(2)CO(2), before and after the mineralization of similar amounts of biomass-associated LCFA (4.6 and 5.2 g COD-LCFA/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), for the oleic and palmitic acid fed sludge, respectively). The "non-encapsulated," sludge exhibited a considerable initial methanogenic activity on all the tested substrates, with the single exception of butyrate. However, with the "encapsulated" sludge only methane production from ethanol and H(2)/CO(2) was detected, after a lag phase of about 50 h. After mineralization of the biomass-associated LCFA, both sludges exhibited activities of similar order of magnitude in the presence of the same individual substrates and significantly higher than before. The results evidenced that LCFA accumulation onto the sludge can create a physical barrier and hinder the transfer of substrates and products, inducing a delay on the initial methane production. Whatever the mechanism, metabolic or physical, that is behind this inhibition, it is reversible, being eliminated after the

  10. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  11. Physico-Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Acetate Butyrate/ Yellow Poplar Wood Fiber Composites as a Function of Fiber Aspect Ratio, Fiber Loading, and Fiber Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Enyiegbulam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve completely biodegradable thermoplastic polymer composite, the development of yellow poplar wood fiber (YPWF-reinforced cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB composites was carried out. The CAB/YPWF composite was prepared using a two-roll mill. Composite samples were prepared with two different fiber types with fiber content of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40wt %. While the untreated fibers (UTF were used as obtained without treatment and chemical modification, the other fiber type, Acetylated Alkali-Extracted Steam Exploded Fibers (AAEF were subjected to different physical and chemical treatments. Some physico-mechanical properties of the composites as well as the swelling characteristics in dimethylformamide were investigated. Also, scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to investigate the morphological characteristics of the tensile fracture surfaces of the composites. The modified wood fibers (AAEF enhanced both the physico-mechanical properties and the swelling characteristics of the composites studied.

  12. Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, Maud; Gallois, Mélanie; Sève, Bernard;

    2009-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (SB) provided orally favours body growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in milk-fed pigs. In weaned pigs, conflicting results have been obtained. Therefore, we hypothesised that the effects of SB (3 g/kg DM intake) depend on the period (before v. after weaning......) of its oral administration. From the age of 5 d, thirty-two pigs, blocked in quadruplicates within litters, were assigned to one of four treatments: no SB (control), SB before (for 24 d), or after (for 11-12 d) weaning and SB before and after weaning (for 35-36 d). Growth performance, feed intake...... and various end-point indices of GIT anatomy and physiology were investigated at slaughter. The pigs supplemented with SB before weaning grew faster after weaning than the controls (P intake was higher in pigs supplemented with SB before or after weaning (P

  13. Highly viscous guar gum shifts dietary amino acids from metabolic use to fermentation substrate in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochus, Kristel; Janssens, Geert P J; Van de Velde, Hannelore; Verbrugghe, Adronie; Wuyts, Birgitte; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Hesta, Myriam