WorldWideScience

Sample records for butylated hydroxytoluene

  1. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytoluene. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 582.3173 Section 582.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 582.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytol- uene. (b) Tolerance....

  3. Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Butylated Hydroxytoluene

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of foods and the management of oxidative stress related diseases by acting on reactive oxygen species and free radicals. However, their use in high temperature processed food and pharmaceuticals are limited due to its low thermal stability. The objective of the study was to use the bioeld energy treatment on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) i.e. antioxidant and analyse its impact on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of BH...

  4. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk : results from analyses in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kleinjans, J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    Both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The association between dietary intake of BHA and BHT and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)

  5. Biological fate of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in rats, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is the chemical widely used not only as the antioxidant for food additives but also as that for containers. 14C-BHT was administered orally to rats, and the subcellular distribution and the change of existence mode in course of time in kidneys were investigated, also the separation and identification of the metabolites in urine were tested. Radioactivity was determined with a liquid scintillation counter. Subcellular fractions were separated by the gel-filtration with Sephadex, and thin layer autoradiography was performed, and radioactive parts were confirmed. The radioactivity in each fraction of the reference group showed the highest 6 hours after the administration, and then it decreased rapidly, but the radioactivity in microsome fraction was the highest at 12 hours after the administration. Only BHT acids was identified out of the metabolites in urine by the thin layer autoradiography, and further investigation will be made about other metabolites. (Kobatake, H.)

  6. Radiostability of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): An ESR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, H.; Korkmaz, M.

    2007-05-01

    In the present work, the effects of gamma radiation on solid butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which is used as an antioxidant, were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. While unirradiated BHT presented no ESR signal, irradiated BHT exhibited an ESR spectrum with many resonance maxima and minima spread over a magnetic field range of 12 mT and centered at about g = 2.0026. Weak satellite and central intense resonance lines, likely, originated from radical species of different stabilities and ratios were observed to be responsible from experimental ESR spectrum of gamma irradiated BHT. Studies based on the variations of the observed line intensities and spectrum area under different experimental conditions were carried out and characteristic features of the radical species responsible from experimental ESR spectrum were determined. Mesomeric radical species of different stabilities providing to BHT a G value of 0.25 were believed to be induced in gamma irradiated BHT. While species responsible from weak satellite lines were unstable, the species causing central intense lines were found to be relatively stable. BHT belongs to a class of compounds with low radiosensitivity ( G = 0.25). This feature of BHT enables the feasibility of radiosterilizations of the products containing BHT as antioxidant without very much loss from its antioxidant benefit. BHT has been shown to provide an opportunity in the estimation of applied radiation dose with a reasonable accuracy if an appropriate mathematical function is used to describe experimental dose-response data.

  7. Radiostability of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): An ESR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuner, H. [Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)]. E-mail: htuner@hacettepe.edu.tr; Korkmaz, M. [Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    In the present work, the effects of gamma radiation on solid butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which is used as an antioxidant, were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. While unirradiated BHT presented no ESR signal, irradiated BHT exhibited an ESR spectrum with many resonance maxima and minima spread over a magnetic field range of 12 mT and centered at about g = 2.0026. Weak satellite and central intense resonance lines, likely, originated from radical species of different stabilities and ratios were observed to be responsible from experimental ESR spectrum of gamma irradiated BHT. Studies based on the variations of the observed line intensities and spectrum area under different experimental conditions were carried out and characteristic features of the radical species responsible from experimental ESR spectrum were determined. Mesomeric radical species of different stabilities providing to BHT a G value of 0.25 were believed to be induced in gamma irradiated BHT. While species responsible from weak satellite lines were unstable, the species causing central intense lines were found to be relatively stable. BHT belongs to a class of compounds with low radiosensitivity (G = 0.25). This feature of BHT enables the feasibility of radiosterilizations of the products containing BHT as antioxidant without very much loss from its antioxidant benefit. BHT has been shown to provide an opportunity in the estimation of applied radiation dose with a reasonable accuracy if an appropriate mathematical function is used to describe experimental dose-response data.

  8. Effect of Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Some Properties of Kidney Fat and Tail Fat During Frozen Storage

    OpenAIRE

    ATAY, Ömür

    1998-01-01

    Some physical and chemical properties of kidney fat (obtained from cattle) and tail fat (obtained from sheep) were determined in this study. Effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and BHT+BHA on free fatty acids (FFA) contents, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and peroxide number were also examined during frozen storage at -18°C for 9 months. The following values were determined for kidney fat; melting point 47°C, saponification number 193, iodine number...

  9. Voltammetric Determination of Dinonyl Diphenylamine and Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Mineral and Synthetic Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Yaling; Qian, Xuzheng; Hua, Meng; Cheng, Bingxue; Chen, Wu; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A method is reported for the determination of diphenylamine and butylated hydroxytoluene in mineral and synthetic oil. The procedure used differential pulse voltammetry with a glassy carbon electrode. This method was then used for determining these antioxidants in supporting electrolyte consisting of dilute sulfuric acid and sodium dodecyl sulfonate in ethanol. Anodic peaks were obtained for both analytes. Oxidation peaks at 250 mV were observed from a mixture of butylated hydroxytol...

  10. Instrumental laboratories based on the analysis of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiginton, John Franklin

    A semester-long series of instrumental analysis laboratory activities appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students is described. The activities incorporate five analytical instruments commonly found in post-secondary educational, industrial, and governmental laboratories: a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC), a gas chromatograph with a mass specific detector (GC/MS), a high-pressure liquid chromatograph with a UV-Visible detector (HPLC), a high-performance liquid chromatograph with a mass specific detector (LC/MS), and a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR). The series of activities utilizes two analytes, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), which are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, then structurally characterized. The protocol for each laboratory activity directs students to accomplish a specific analysis in the most efficient manner, but leaves the actual procedure vague enough to give the student a chance to experiment with the instrument. Student success is assessed by two means, having the student submit a detailed journal-style lab report and a class-wide discussion regarding the development of experimental protocols and individual instrument capabilities and limitations.

  11. Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Meyer, Otto A.; Bille, N.;

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 60, 40, 40 and 60 F0 Wistar rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated and groups of 100, 80, 80 or 100 F1 rats of each sex...

  12. The antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene prevents early cholesterol-induced microcirculatory changes in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiu, R J; Freyschuss, A; X Ying; Berglund, L.; Henriksson, P; Björkhem, I

    1994-01-01

    Microcirculation was studied during 10 wk in untreated rabbits (n = 13) and in rabbits treated with dietary addition of 1% cholesterol (n = 13), 1% cholesterol + 1% of the antioxidant BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) (n = 11), or 1% BHT (n = 5). The studies were performed by direct intravital microscopic imaging of the left and right conjunctivae with the use of a stereo microscope and a high resolution television camera. Microvessel diameter, erythrocyte flow velocity, and microhemorheologic c...

  13. Neutrophils Are Required for 3-Methylcholanthrene-Initiated, Butylated Hydroxytoluene-Promoted Lung Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vikis, Haris G.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Franklin, Andrew; Stein, Lauren; Rymaszewski, Amy; Zhu, Jihong; Liu, Pengyuan; Tichelaar, Jay W.; Krupnick, Alexander S.; You, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown a link between chronic inflammation and lung tumorigenesis. Inbred mouse strains vary in their susceptibility to methylcholanthrene (MCA)-initiated butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-promoted lung carcinogenesis. In the present study we investigated whether neutrophils play a role in strain dependent differences in susceptibility to lung tumor promotion. We observed a significant elevation in homeostatic levels of neutrophils in the lungs of tumor-susceptible BALB/cByJ...

  14. The reorientation of t-butyl groups in butylated hydroxytoluene: A deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectral and relaxation time study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, James M.; Fyfe, J. D. Dean; Jeffrey, Kenneth R.

    1991-03-01

    Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and spin-lattice relaxation times were determined in order to study the dynamics of t-butyl groups in butylated hydroxytoluene. The results are consistent with a model first proposed by Beckmann et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 36, 199 (1979)], where there is an inequivalence between the methyl groups within each t-butyl group. While two methyl groups reorient rapidly relative to the whole t-butyl rotation, the remaining methyl group is more restricted in its motion, reorienting at a rate comparable to that of the t-butyl group itself. The spin-lattice relaxation data show two T1 minima, the high temperature minimum (40 °C) corresponding to the combined t-butyl and ``slow'' methyl rotations, and the low temperature minimum corresponding to ``fast'' methyl group rotation. Using an explicitly defined T1 fitting function, the T1 data yield activation energies of 2.2 and 6.0 kcal/mol for the fast methyl and t-butyl rotations, respectively, both in agreement with Beckmann's values obtained from proton T1 experiments. It was also possible to simulate the low temperature deuterium NMR spectra from T=-160 °C to T=-80 °C using the aforementioned dynamical inequivalence between the t-butyl methyl groups. While the fast methyl group rotation was in the motional narrowing region for T>-160 °C, it was possible, from the simulations, to determine the t-butyl exchange rates to within 10%. The jump rates are remarkably close to the values predicted from the T1 results. Above -80 °C, the spectra could not be simulated, implying that a third motion must be present to further alter the high temperature line shapes. The effective axial asymmetry of the T>-20° spectra indicates that the additional motion involves a two site exchange.

  15. Comparative cytotoxicity between butylated hydroxytoluene and its methylcarbamate derivative, terbucarb, on isolated rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Yaguchi, K.; Suzuki, T. (Tokyo Metropolitan Research Lab. of Public Health (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene; BHT) is widely used as phenolic antioxidant in processed foods, cosmetics and petroleum products. It is well known that high doses of BHT cause acute hepatic damage accompanied by centrilobular necrosis in rats. The hepatic damage is associated with prolonged depletion of glutathione (GSH). Terbucarb (2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-tolyl-methylcarbamate), which has a methylcarbamate group substituted for the phenol group on BHT, was developed as an insecticide and is also presently used as a herbicide on turfgrass. Despite the metabolic and toxicological details known about BHT in vivo and in vitro, no extensive studies have been reported on the metabolism and toxicity of Terbucarb. The isolated hepatocyte system provides a very useful system for the study of the temporal sequences leading to cell damage caused by chemicals and drugs. Here, using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, we report on the comparative toxic effects of BHT and its methylcarbamate derivative, Terbucarb. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Enhanced tumor development by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in liver, lung and gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witschi, H.P.

    1986-04-03

    Continuous feeding of 0.5% or 0.05% of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) enhances the development of spontaneously occurring liver tumors in C3H mice, but not in BALB/c mice. In mouse lung, the tumor-enhancing effects of BHT vary with the carcinogen used and in the gastrointestinal tract of mice and rats BHT enhances development of dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors but is without effect on tumors produced by methylnitrosourea. Strain differences, effect upon various carcinogens, paradoxical dose-responses and mechanisms of action remain major questions in the toxicology of BHT. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Pengaruh Penambahan Antioksidan BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene) Terhadap Bilangan Peroksida RBDPO (Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil)

    OpenAIRE

    Milana, Muharinnisa

    2014-01-01

    The quality standard is the most important thing to determine a good quality cooking oil. One of the factors that determine the quality standard of cooking oil is peroxide value. Peroxide value is the index of the amount of fat or oil that has undergone oxidation. The amount of peroxide in the cooking oil can cause rancidity. The addition of antioxidants Butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT) with iodometric titrimetric method can reduce the number of peroxide so as to improve the quality of the cooki...

  18. Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira; Tatiana Fontoura Vidal; Marcílio Costa Teixeira; Patrícia Freitas de Oliveira; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco Pompeu; Marieta Maria Martins Vieira; Jorge Fernando Fuentes Zapata

    2011-01-01

    The effects of mango seed extract (MSE) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on pH, lipid oxidation, and color of Bologna-type mortadella during refrigerated storage for 21 days were studied. Bologna-type mortadella samples were formulated to contain 0.1% MSE, 0.2% MSE, or 0.01% BHT. After 14 days of storage, the products containing MSE 0.1 or 0.2% had higher pH values than those containing BHT 0.01%. Lipid oxidation values increased with storage time but were not affected by the type of antiox...

  19. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Giddings, A.M.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four food chemicals, namely butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG) and thiabendazole (TB), on cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms in cultured human hepatocytes. 2. Treatment of human hepatocytes for 72 h with 2-200

  20. Modification of radiation-induced genetic damage in Drosophila melanogaster male germ cells by butylated hydroxytoluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation were studied in post-meiotic male cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Prior to submitting Samarkand males to 2 krad of X-rays, BHT was administered (a) with the food (0.2 per cent final concentration) from emergence of the imago for 7 days or (b) by intra-abdominal injection (0.05 per cent) to 7-day-old adults. Dominant lethality (embryonic and total), II-III translocations and sex-linked recessive lethals were recorded. The only effect of BHT observed was a decrease in the frequency of recessive lethals induced, detected in early spermatids. Since oxygen plays an important role in the high radiosensitivity of these cells, it is suggested that the sparing action of BHT was due to its antioxidative and radical scavenging properties. (U.K.)

  1. Tests for mutagenic effects of ammoniated glycyrrhizin, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gum arabic in roden germ cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, C.W.; Cain, K.T.; Rushbrook, C.J.; Jorgenson, T.A.; Generoso, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ammoniated glycyrrhizin, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gum Arabic are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances that are used primarily as additives in foods. These substances were incorporated into rodent diets and fed to male rats and mice for 10 and 8 wk, respectively. The treated male mice and rats were then tested for dominant lethal effects. The mice were also tested for induced heritable translocation. Results of the rat studies indicated a statistically significant dominant lethal effect of each of the compounds tested; however, the biological significance of this response is not known. Results of the mouse dominant lethal and heritable translocation studies, on the other hand, indicated no adverse effects of the compounds tested.

  2. Effect of various concentrations of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on freezing capacity of Turkman stallion sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi-Jamadi, Afshin; Kohram, Hamid; Zareh-Shahne, Ahmad; Dehghanizadeh, Parvaneh; Ahmad, Ejaz

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of different concentrations of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on post-thaw stallion sperm quality. The ejaculates collected from four healthy mature Turkmen stallions were pooled and divided into eight aliquots. The samples were diluted with extenders containing different concentrations (0.5, 1 or 2mM/mL) of BHA or BHT. The positive control (PC) samples were diluted with extender containing 0.5% ethanol (v/v) whereas; the negative control (NC) samples were diluted with basic extender only. Semen samples were frozen according to a standard protocol. After thawing of samples, sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, total abnormality and lipid peroxidation were assessed. The greatest (P<0.05) values for total sperm motility, viability and plasma membrane functionality and least values for malonedialdehyde (MDA) concentration were observed in samples supplemented either with 1mM BHT or 2mM BHA. However, the progressive motility was greater (P<0.05) only in samples treated with 2mM BHA. In conclusion, the use of 1mM BHT or 2mM BHA in extender improves the freezing capacity of stallion sperm by reducing oxidative stress during freeze-thaw process. PMID:27112036

  3. Levels of synthetic antioxidants (ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole) in fish feed and commercially farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebye, A-K; Hove, H; Måge, A; Bohne, V J B; Hamre, K

    2010-12-01

    Several synthetic antioxidants are authorized for use as feed additives in the European Union. Ethoxyquin (EQ) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are generally added to fish meal and fish oil, respectively, to limit lipid oxidation. The study was conducted to examine the concentrations of EQ, BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in several commercially important species of farmed fish, namely Atlantic salmon, halibut and cod and rainbow trout, as well as concentrations in fish feed. The highest levels of BHT, EQ and BHA were found in farmed Atlantic salmon fillets, and were 7.60, 0.17 and 0.07 mg kg(-1), respectively. The lowest concentrations of the synthetic antioxidants found were in cod. The concentration of the oxidation product ethoxyquin dimer (EQDM) was more than ten-fold higher than the concentration of parent EQ in Atlantic salmon halibut and rainbow trout, whereas this dimer was not detected in cod fillets. The theoretical consumer exposure to the synthetic antioxidants EQ, BHA and BHT from the consumption of farmed fish was calculated. The contribution of EQ from a single portion (300 g) of skinned fillets of the different species of farmed fish would contribute at most 15% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for a 60 kg adult. The consumption of farmed fish would not contribute measurably to the intake of BHA; however, a 300 g portion of farmed Atlantic salmon would contribute up to 75% of the ADI for BHT. PMID:20931417

  4. Hydrolysis of the quinone methide of butylated hydroxytoluene in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcockson, Maren Gulsrud; Toteva, Maria M; Stella, Valentino J

    2013-10-01

    Butylated hydroxytoluene or BHT is an antioxidant commonly used in pharmaceutical formulations. BHT upon oxidation forms a quinone methide (QM). QM is a highly reactive electrophilic species that can undergo nucleophilic addition. Here, the kinetic reactivity of QM with water at various apparent pH values in a 50% (v/v) water-acetonitrile solution at constant ionic strength of I = 0.5 (NaCl)4 , was studied. The hydrolysis of QM in the presence of added acid, base, sodium chloride, and phosphate buffer resulted in the formation of only one product--the corresponding 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (BA). The rate of BA formation was catalyzed by the addition of acid and base, but not chloride and phosphate species. Nucleophilic excipients, used in the pharmaceutical formulation, or nucleophilic groups on active pharmaceutical ingredient molecule may form adducts with QM, the immediate oxidative product of BHT degradation, thus having implications for drug product impurity profiles. Because of these considerations, BHT should be used with caution in formulations containing drugs or excipients capable of acting as nucleophiles. PMID:23873381

  5. Hepatotoxicity induced by the anti-oxidant food additive, butylated hydroxytoluene BHT, in rats. An electron microscopical study

    OpenAIRE

    Safer, A.M.; Al-Nughamish, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The anti-oxidant food additive, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), was fed to Sprague-Dawley rats at three concentrations: 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% for periods of 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks, and the results were compared with corresponging groups treated with a potent carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) groups, with olive oil, and with untreated control groups. BHT resulted in a significant increase in liver weight. The liver cells presented gradual vacuo...

  6. The effect of 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene on glycogen levels of liver, muscle, testis, and tumor tissues of rats

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Fikriye; DERE, Egemen; GÜL, Eylem; YELKUVAN, İzzet; ÖZDEMİR, Öztürk; BİNGÖL, Günsel

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of separate and combined applications of 3-methylcholanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and potent carcinogenic agent, and butylated hydroxytoluene, the antioxidant food additive, on the glycogen levels of liver, muscle, testis, and tumor tissues in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats weighing 100-110 g at 8 weeks of age were used in this study. This study consisted of a control group (n = 9) and 3 different experiment groups in which rats were chronic...

  7. Analysis of Ki-ras Exon 2 Gene Mutations in 3-Methylcholanthrene and Butylated Hydroxytoluene-Induced Rat Lung Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Fikriye; ÖZDEMİR, Öztürk; ELAGÖZ, Şahende

    2008-01-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (MCA) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and potent carcinogenic agent that is often used in experimental cancer studies. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) has been widely used for many years as an antioxidant to preserve and stabilize the freshness, nutritional value, flavor, and color of foods. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the application of MCA and BHT in the development of lung cancer, and to detect any mutation in the Ki-ras gene exon 2....

  8. Cell kinetics in mouse lung following administration of carcinogens and butylated hydroxytoluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments is described which was designed to test the hypothesis that, in mouse lung, enhancement of tumor development could occur independently of overall alveolar cell hyperplasia. Male A/J mice were given 1000 mg/kg of urethane or 10 mg/kg of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Alveolar cells were labeled through continuous infusion of [3H]thymidine for 6 weeks after administration of the carcinogen. Urethane produced a significant hyperplasia of the type II alveolar cell population, whereas MCA had no such effect. Five repeated injections of 300 mg/kg of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a procedure known to enhance lung tumor development, produced cell hyperplasia only during the first 2 weeks; later the mice became resistant to the action of BHT. In animals treated with piperonyl butoxide prior to BHT, cell proliferation was abolished. BHT still had a small but significant enhancing effect on tumor development. However, this effect was dwarfed by the observation that piperonyl butoxide alone greatly inhibited tumor development. The data do not allow exclusion of alveolar cell hyperplasia as a mechanism in BHT-mediated enhancement of mouse lung tumor development. 19 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  9. Understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehye, Wageeh A; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Ariffin, Azhar; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Alhadi, Abeer A; Kadir, Farkaad A; Yaeghoobi, Marzieh

    2015-08-28

    Hindered phenols find a wide variety of applications across many different industry sectors. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a most commonly used antioxidant recognized as safe for use in foods containing fats, pharmaceuticals, petroleum products, rubber and oil industries. In the past two decades, there has been growing interest in finding novel antioxidants to meet the requirements of these industries. To accelerate the antioxidant discovery process, researchers have designed and synthesized a series of BHT derivatives targeting to improve its antioxidant properties to be having a wide range of antioxidant activities markedly enhanced radical scavenging ability and other physical properties. Accordingly, some structure-activity relationships and rational design strategies for antioxidants based on BHT structure have been suggested and applied in practice. We have identified 14 very sensitive parameters, which may play a major role on the antioxidant performance of BHT. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current knowledge on this topic, which is of significance in selecting and designing novel antioxidants using a well-known antioxidant BHT as a building-block molecule. Our strategy involved investigation on understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of BHT, whether through hydrogen or electron transfer mechanism to enable promising anti-oxidant candidates to be synthesized. PMID:26150290

  10. Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Meyer, Otto A.; Bille, N.;

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 60, 40, 40 and 60 F0 Wistar rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated and groups of 100, 80, 80 or 100 F1 rats of each sex...... were formed from 40, 29, 30 and 44 litters, respectively. After weaning, the highest dose (500 mg BHT/kg/day) was lowered to 250 mg/kg/day for the F1 rats. The numbers of litters of ten or more pups at birth decreased with increasing BHT dose. At weaning, treated F1 rats had lower body weights than the...... controls, the extent of the reduction being dose related; the effect, which persisted throughout the study, was most pronounced in the males. The survival of BHT-treated F1 rats of both sexes was significantly better than that of the controls. No significant changes attributable to BHT treatment were found...

  11. Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mango seed extract (MSE and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on pH, lipid oxidation, and color of Bologna-type mortadella during refrigerated storage for 21 days were studied. Bologna-type mortadella samples were formulated to contain 0.1% MSE, 0.2% MSE, or 0.01% BHT. After 14 days of storage, the products containing MSE 0.1 or 0.2% had higher pH values than those containing BHT 0.01%. Lipid oxidation values increased with storage time but were not affected by the type of antioxidant. The highest values for color parameter L* were observed for mortadella containing BHT 0.01% after 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Values for the color parameters a* and b* tended to decrease during mortadella storage. Products containing 0.1 or 0.2% MSE showed higher values for color parameter a* and lower values for color parameter b* compared to those containing 0.01% BHT. It can be concluded that MSE can be used in 0.1 or 0.2% levels in Bologna-type mortadella with similar or better antioxidant effects than those of BHT 0.01%.

  12. Radioprotection by butylated hydroxytoluene against radiation induced genetic and lethal effects in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a phenolic antioxidant which is used widely in food industry as a food preservative for fats and oils; in plastics and also in cosmetics and fragrances. Generally it is considered harmless, however BHT has also shown potentiation of radiation effects in some studies. The objective of this study was to test the modifying properties of BHT in a eukaryotic model system comprising of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, a diploid yeast strain, against the genotoxic effects induced by 60Co gamma radiation. Log phase cells were exposed to 100 Gy of radiation in the absence or presence of 0.025-0.25 mM BHT. In another set of experiments, log phase cells were exposed to 400 Gy of radiation in the absence or presence of 0.025 mM BHT. Cells were washed and plated. The results indicated that presence of BHT reduced the frequencies of gene conversion and back mutation as well as cell killing induced by radiation. The results obtained in the present study can be explained on the basis of potent radical scavenging ability of BHT, which is a well known standard antioxidant and whose free radical scavenging ability has been very well established and documented using stable free radical DPPH. (author)

  13. Butylated Hydroxytoluene Analogs: Synthesis and Evaluation of Their Multipotent Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageeh A. Yehye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A computer-aided predictions of antioxidant activities were performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of Substances (PASS program. Antioxidant activity of compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and lipid peroxidation assays to verify the predictions obtained by the PASS program. Compounds 3 and 5 showed more inhibition of DPPH stable free radical at 10−4 M than the well-known standard antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Compound 5 exhibited promising in vitro inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation of the essential egg yolk as a lipid-rich medium (83.99%, IC50 16.07 ± 3.51 µM/mL compared to a-tocopherol (a-TOH, 84.6%, IC50 5.6 ± 1.09 µM/mL. The parameters for drug-likeness of these BHT analogues were also evaluated according to the Lipinski’s “rule-of-five” (RO5. All the BHT analogues were found to violate one of the Lipinski’s parameters (LogP > 5, even though they have been found to be soluble in protic solvents. The predictive polar surface area (PSA and absorption percent (% ABS data allow us to conclude that they could have a good capacity for penetrating cell membranes. Therefore, one can propose these new multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation processes.

  14. Lung damage induced by butylated hydroxytoluene in mice. Biochemical, cellular, and morphologic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L J

    1984-11-01

    This study was designed to characterize the biochemical, cellular, and morphologic events produced in mice by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and to relate these events to changes in extracellular angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On Day 1 after the administration of BHT, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) ACE activity increased 4-fold (p less than 0.001), its specific activity relative to BAL protein increased 3-fold (p less than 0.001), and both type 1 cell damage and endothelial cell damage were detected by electron microscopy. The early increase in BAL ACE activity preceded changes in plasma ACE levels, BAL cell number, protein, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in both plasma and BAL, and the ACE content of alveolar macrophages. On Day 2, BAL ACE activity increased 9-fold, BAL protein increased 4-fold (p less than 0.001), BAL LDH activity increased 34% (p less than 0.05), and the BAL cell count doubled (p less than 0.01). Changes in each animal's appearance, body weight, wet and dry lung weights, and plasma ACE levels occurred between Days 3 and 5. The BAL differential cell count, which consisted of greater than 95% macrophages in uninjured mice, did not change until Day 5 when there was a small increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). On Day 7, the number of PMN peaked, and some of the other measures of lung injury began returning toward normal. These results indicate that BAL ACE activity is a sensitive, early marker of BHT-induced lung injury, which appears to reflect damage to the cells of the alveolar-capillary barrier. In addition, PMN do not appear to play a major role in this model of lung injury. Because of its effects on angiotensin, bradykinin, and prostaglandins, the early release of ACE from damaged cells may modulate the subsequent injury. PMID:6093659

  15. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against the clastogenic acitivity of cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate in hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Grillo Claudia A.; Seoane Analía I.; Dulout Fernando N.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a widely used food additive, on chromosomal alterations induced by cadmium chloride (CC) and potassium dichromate (PD) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was studied both at metaphase and anaphase-telophase. CHO cells were cultured for 15-16 h in the presence of PD (6.0, 9.0 or 12.0 mM), BHT (1.0 mg/ml), or PD plus BHT as well as CC (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM), BHT or CC plus BHT for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations. To perform the anaphase-tel...

  16. Effect of supplementation of butylated hydroxytoluene on post-thaw sperm viability, motility and membrane integrity of Hariana bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Akhil Patel; Atul Saxena; Dilip Kumar Swain; Dushyant Yadav; Sanjay Singh Yadav; Abhishek Kumar; Anuj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to see the beneficial effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a semen additive of Hariana bull semen. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Hariana bulls. Twenty-four ejaculates from two bulls were used for this study. Each ejaculate was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and supplemented with BHT at two concentrations as 0.5 mM (T1) and 1.0 mM (T2). After dilution, equilibration and 24 h of cryopreservation, the samples w...

  17. Mechanisms of butylated hydroxytoluene chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis-inhibition of aflatoxin B1 metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemoprevention of toxicoses and/or cancer through the use of nutrients or pharmacologic compounds is the subject of intense study. Among the many compounds examined, food additives such as antioxidants are being considered due to their ability to reduce disease formation by either induction or inhibition of key enzyme systems. One such compound, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), has been found to protect against cancer formation caused by exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rodents. We have shown that dietary BHT protects against clinical signs of aflatoxicosis in turkeys, a species that is very susceptible to this mycotoxin. In this study, the effect of BHT on AFB1 metabolism and other cytochrome P450 (CYP)-related enzyme activities in turkey liver microsomes was examined to discern possible mechanisms of BHT-mediated protection against aflatoxicosis. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), prototype activities for CYP1A1 and 1A2, respectively, were decreased in the BHT fed (4000 ppm) animals, while oxidation of nifedipine, a prototype activity for CYP3A4, was increased. However, BHT added to microsomal incubations inhibited these CYP activities in a concentration-related manner. Importantly, BHT inhibited conversion of AFB1 to the reactive intermediate AFB1-8,-9-epoxide (AFBO), exhibiting Michaelis-Menton competitive inhibition kinetics (Ki = 0.81 μM). Likewise, microsomes prepared from turkeys fed BHT were significantly less active in AFBO formation compared to those from control birds. When turkeys were fed BHT for up to 40 days, residual BHT was present in liver, breast meat, thigh meat and abdominal fat in concentrations substantially below U.S. FDA guidelines for this antioxidant, but in concentrations greater than the Ki, likely sufficient to inhibit bioactivation of AFB1in vivo. BHT-induced hydropic degeneration in the livers of BHT fed animals was significantly greater in birds that remained on BHT treatment for up to 30

  18. Free radical-derived quinone methide mediates skin tumor promotion by butylated hydroxytoluene hydroperoxide: expanded role for electrophiles in multistage carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, K Z; Bhan, P; Kuppusamy, P.; Zweier, J L; Trush, M A; Kensler, T W

    1991-01-01

    Free radical derivatives of peroxides, hydroperoxides, and anthrones are thought to mediate tumor promotion by these compounds. Further, the promoting activity of phorbol esters is attributed, in part, to their ability to stimulate the cellular generation of oxygen radicals. A hydroperoxide metabolite of butylated hydroxytoluene, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroperoxyl-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHTOOH), has previously been shown to be a tumor promoter in mouse skin. BHTOOH is extensively metabo...

  19. Transcriptome analysis provides new insights into liver changes induced in the rat upon dietary administration of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, R.; Conesa, A.; Heijne, W.; Ommen, B.v.; Junker, K.; Scott, M.P.; Price, R.J.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.; Groten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptomics was performed to gain insight into mechanisms of food additives butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG), and thiabendazole (TB), additives for which interactions in the liver can not be excluded. Additives were administered in diets for 28 days to Sprague-D

  20. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Katnik; Javier Cuevas

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+] i ) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin t...

  1. Rational Design and Synthesis of New, High Efficiency, Multipotent Schiff Base-1,2,4-triazole Antioxidants Bearing Butylated Hydroxytoluene Moieties

    OpenAIRE

    Wageeh A. Yehye; Noorsaadah Abdul Rahman; Omar Saad; Azhar Ariffin; Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid; Alhadi, Abeer A.; Kadir, Farkaad A; Marzieh Yaeghoobi; Abdulsalam A. Matlob

    2016-01-01

    A new series of multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs), namely Schiff base-1,2,4-triazoles attached to the oxygen-derived free radical scavenging moiety butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were designed and subsequently synthesized. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the designed antioxidants was established alongside the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS). The antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds 4–10 were tested by the DPPH bioassay. The synthesized compounds...

  2. Effect of supplementation of butylated hydroxytoluene on post-thaw sperm viability, motility and membrane integrity of Hariana bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Patel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to see the beneficial effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT as a semen additive of Hariana bull semen. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Hariana bulls. Twenty-four ejaculates from two bulls were used for this study. Each ejaculate was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and supplemented with BHT at two concentrations as 0.5 mM (T1 and 1.0 mM (T2. After dilution, equilibration and 24 h of cryopreservation, the samples were analyzed for progressive motility, sperm viability and membrane integrity. Results: Progressive motility, sperm viability and sperm membrane integrity were significantly (p<0.05 increased in the samples fortified with BHT as compared to the control during the process of cryopreservation and thawing. The BHT concentration of 1 mM revealed better results as compared to 0.5 mM. Conclusion: Addition of 1.0 mM BHT was found better in cryopreservation of Hariana bull semen compared to 0.5 mM BHT and control samples. The addition of BHT has improved the sperm quality by acting as an antioxidant thereby reducing the lipid peroxidation of the sperms.

  3. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT against the clastogenic acitivity of cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate in hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillo Claudia A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, a widely used food additive, on chromosomal alterations induced by cadmium chloride (CC and potassium dichromate (PD in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells was studied both at metaphase and anaphase-telophase. CHO cells were cultured for 15-16 h in the presence of PD (6.0, 9.0 or 12.0 mM, BHT (1.0 mg/ml, or PD plus BHT as well as CC (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM, BHT or CC plus BHT for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations. To perform the anaphase-telophase test, cells were cultured in cover glasses and treated 8 h before fixation with the same chemicals. An extra dose of CC (4 mM was used in this test. Both metal salts significantly increased chromosomal aberration frequencies in relation to untreated controls, and to DMSO- and BHT-treated cells. Post-treatment with BHT decreased the yield of chromosomal damage in relation to treatments performed with CC and PD. However, chromosomal aberration frequencies were significantly higher than those of the controls. In the anaphase-telophase test, CC significantly increased the yield of lagging chromosomes with the four doses employed and the frequency of lagging fragments with the highest dose. In combined treatments of CC and BHT, frequencies of the two types of alterations decreased significantly in relation to the cells treated with CC alone. No significant variation was found in the frequencies of chromatin bridges. Significant increases of numbers of chromatin bridges, lagging chromosomes and lagging fragments were found in cells treated with PD. The protective effect of BHT in combined treatments was evidenced by the significant decrease of chromatid bridges and lagging chromosomes in relation to PD-treated cells. Whereas BHT is able to induce chromosomal damage, it can also protect against oxidative damage induced by other genotoxicants.

  4. Butylated hydroxytoluene can protect polyunsaturated fatty acids in dried blood spots from degradation for up to 8 weeks at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Metherel, Adam H; Hogg, Ryan C; Buzikievich, Lindy M; Stark, Ken D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dried blood spots (DBS) from fingertip prick blood can enable high throughput fatty acid profiling but may be prone to lipid peroxidation during storage. The use of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on chromatography paper can prevent polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) loss but examinations on the length of storage times possible are not comprehensive. Method In the first study, venous whole blood was saturated on paper strips pre-soaked with 0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/mL BHT and exposed to air ...

  5. The influence of subsequent dehydroepiandrosterone, diaminopropane, phenobarbital, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene treatment on the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the rat initiated with di-hydroxy-di-n-propyl nitrosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M A; Thamavit, W; Tsuda, H; Ito, N

    1986-02-01

    The comparative modifying potential of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), diaminopropane (DAP), phenobarbital (PB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the development of lesions initiated by dihydroxy-di-n-propyl nitrosamine (DHPN) in F344 rats were investigated. DHEA, BHA and BHT were all associated with significant reduction in numbers of glutathione-S-transferase P form (GST-P) positive foci in the liver whereas PB brought about their enhanced development. BHT and PB exerted promoting activity on the incidence of thyroid adenomas while DAP similarly increased lung adenoma formation. The results illustrate the advantages to be gained from two stage experiments using broad spectrum carcinogen initiation for comparative analysis of 'modifiers' of the neoplastic process and suggest that studies of enzyme alteration within putative preneoplastic lesions may be directly relevant to elucidation of mechanisms underlying such modification. PMID:2937531

  6. Rational Design and Synthesis of New, High Efficiency, Multipotent Schiff Base-1,2,4-triazole Antioxidants Bearing Butylated Hydroxytoluene Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageeh A Yehye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new series of multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs, namely Schiff base-1,2,4-triazoles attached to the oxygen-derived free radical scavenging moiety butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were designed and subsequently synthesized. The structure-activity relationship (SAR of the designed antioxidants was established alongside the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS. The antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds 4–10 were tested by the DPPH bioassay. The synthesized compounds 4–10 inhibited stable DPPH free radicals at a level that is 10−4 M more than the well-known standard antioxidant BHT. Compounds 8–10 with para-substituents were less active than compounds 4 and 5 with trimethoxy substituents compared to those with a second BHT moiety (compounds 6 and 7. With an IC50 of 46.13 ± 0.31 µM, compound 6 exhibited the most promising in vitro inhibition at 89%. Therefore, novel MPAOs containing active triazole rings, thioethers, Schiff bases, and BHT moieties are suggested as potential antioxidants for inhibiting oxidative stress processes and scavenging free radicals, hence, this combination of functions is anticipated to play a vital role in repairing cellular damage, preventing various human diseases and in medical therapeutic applications.

  7. Rational Design and Synthesis of New, High Efficiency, Multipotent Schiff Base-1,2,4-triazole Antioxidants Bearing Butylated Hydroxytoluene Moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehye, Wageeh A; Abdul Rahman, Noorsaadah; Saad, Omar; Ariffin, Azhar; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Alhadi, Abeer A; Kadir, Farkaad A; Yaeghoobi, Marzieh; Matlob, Abdulsalam A

    2016-01-01

    A new series of multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs), namely Schiff base-1,2,4-triazoles attached to the oxygen-derived free radical scavenging moiety butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were designed and subsequently synthesized. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the designed antioxidants was established alongside the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS). The antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds 4-10 were tested by the DPPH bioassay. The synthesized compounds 4-10 inhibited stable DPPH free radicals at a level that is 10(-4) M more than the well-known standard antioxidant BHT. Compounds 8-10 with para-substituents were less active than compounds 4 and 5 with trimethoxy substituents compared to those with a second BHT moiety (compounds 6 and 7). With an IC50 of 46.13 ± 0.31 µM, compound 6 exhibited the most promising in vitro inhibition at 89%. Therefore, novel MPAOs containing active triazole rings, thioethers, Schiff bases, and BHT moieties are suggested as potential antioxidants for inhibiting oxidative stress processes and scavenging free radicals, hence, this combination of functions is anticipated to play a vital role in repairing cellular damage, preventing various human diseases and in medical therapeutic applications. PMID:27367658

  8. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Katnik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0 produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses.

  9. Adsorption of 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-hydroxytoluene (BHT) on gold nanoparticles: Assignment and interpretation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Xie, Yun-Fei; Wang, He-Ya; Qian, He; Yao, Wei-Rong

    2012-11-01

    2,6-Di-t-butyl-p-hydroxytoluene (BHT), a common antioxidant, has been implicated in oil foods and food packaging materials as a substance that could migrate into the food supply chain and cause suppression of human respiratory enzymes. In this study, BHT solutions in different solvents were measured by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in combination with SERS-active substrates: gold colloidal nanoparticles. The limit of detection of BHT can reach the level of 10 μg/mL with SERS in methanol. The Raman peak at 766 cm-1 was used as the index of quantitative analysis and the correlation coefficient was 0.9761. These results demonstrated the applicability of utilizing SERS to detect low concentrations of BHT. By comparing the features of SERS peaks with the density functional theory (DFT)-calculated Raman spectrum, the adsorption behavior of BHT on the surface of gold nanoparticles was analyzed in detail and it was determined that the dominant contribution to the SERS signal in this case should be the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism. A charge-transfer mechanism also contributed to the SERS signal for BHT adsorbed on gold nanoparticles by the Phsbnd O(H) (Ph = phenyl) coalescent format.

  10. Phenothiazines inhibit copper and endothelial cell-induced peroxidation of low density lipoprotein. A comparative study with probucol, butylated hydroxytoluene and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugnot, C; Mazière, C; Salmon, S; Auclair, M; Santus, R; Morlière, P; Lenaers, A; Mazière, J C

    1990-11-01

    The effect of two phenothiazines, chlorpromazine (CPZ) and trifluoperazine (TFP) on the copper and endothelial cell-induced peroxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been studied and compared to that of drugs previously shown to protect LDL against peroxidation: probucol (PBC) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Incubation with CPZ or TFP inhibited in a dose-dependent manner LDL peroxidation induced either by copper ions or by cultured endothelial cells. Both the electrophoretic mobility and the thiobarbituric reactive substance content of LDL returned to almost normal values in the presence of 50 microM CPZ or TFP. The two studied phenothiazines also strongly inhibited the hydrolysis of LDL phosphatidylcholine which accompanies copper or endothelial cell-induced peroxidation of the particle. CPZ and TFP were as effective as PBC and BHT in inhibiting the LDL peroxidation. Whereas copper or endothelial cell-oxidized LDL were recognized and rapidly catabolized by mouse peritoneal macrophages, CPZ- or TFP-, as well as PBC- or BHT-treated LDL were not. Moreover, it was found that, in contrast to vitamin E, neither CPZ nor PBC reacted with model peroxy radicals formed by gamma irradiation of aerated ethanol. The possible mechanisms underlying this protective effect of phenothiazines against LDL oxidative modification are discussed. PMID:2242028

  11. Evaluation of Keishi-bukuryo-gan in a diabetic nephropathy model by comparison with aminoguanidine, butylated hydroxytoluene and captopril

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Takako; Oya, Takeshi; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Yokozawa, Takako

    2002-01-01

    桂枝茯苓丸の糖尿病性腎症に対する作用を,モデルラットを用い検討した。腎機能パラメーター,病理組織学的検討に加え,advanced glycation end products(AGEs)の蓄積,酸化ストレスに及ぼす影響を,アミノグアニジン(AGEs阻害薬),カプトプリル(アンジオテンシン変換酵素阻害薬),buthylated hydroxytoluene(BHT)(抗酸化剤)とで比較検討した。桂枝茯苓丸では腎機能(血清Cr,尿蛋白排泄量)と病理所見の有意な改善作用が認められ,糖尿病性腎症の進展を抑制することが実験的に明らかとなったが,このような腎保護作用はカプトプリルよりは弱く,アミノグアニジンと同程度であった。BHTには腎保護作用は認められなかった。腎組織中のAGEsの蓄積に対しては,桂枝茯苓丸,カプトプリル,BHTがいずれも有意に低下していたが,アミノグアニジンの作用よりは弱かった。腎組織中の脂質過酸化量はBHTで最も低下し,桂枝茯苓丸,カプトプリルでも有意に低下していた。一方,血中脂質過酸化に対しては,すべてにおいて有意な低下作用が認められたが,カプトプリルで最も強かった。...

  12. Butylated hydroxytoluene can reduce oxidative stress and improve quality of frozen-thawed bull semen processed in lecithin and egg yolk based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumran, A M; Yimer, N; Rosnina, Y; Ariff, M O; Wahid, H; Kaka, Asmatullah; Ebrahimi, M; Sarsaifi, K

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of anti-oxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), when added at different concentrations into lecithin-based Bioxcell(®) (BX) and two egg-yolk-based; Tris (TY) and citrate (CE) semen extenders, on post-thaw bull sperm quality and oxidative stress. A total of 30 ejaculates from three bulls were collected using an electro ejaculator. Ejaculates were extended with one of the BX, TY and CE extenders, which contained different concentrations (0.0 - control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0mM/ml) of BHT. The extended semen samples were chilled to 4 °C, and then frozen slowly to -196 °C in 0.25 ml straws before being stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. Results showed that supplementation of BHT improved (P<0.05) general motility, progressive motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity and malondialdehyde of sperm at 0.5mM/ml for BX and at 1-1.5mM/ml of BHT for TY and CE when compared with the control. However, greater concentrations of 2.0 and 3.0mM/ml of BHT had a detrimental (P<0.05) effect compared with the control with all extenders evaluated. In conclusion, BHT supplementation at lesser concentrations (0.5-1.5mM/ml) could improve frozen-thawed bull sperm quality by reducing oxidative stress produced during the freezing-thawing procedures in either lecithin or egg-yolk based extenders. PMID:26515370

  13. Effects of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retinal degeneration induced transplacentally by a single low dosage of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B; Cooke, C B; Yielding, K L

    1988-01-01

    A 1 mg/kg dose of the DNA alkylating agent, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), when administered on day 16 of gestation provokes a progressive retinal degeneration in CD-1 albino mice reared under standard fluorescent lighting conditions (12 hr light: 12 hr dark); this degeneration begins at about 4 weeks post-natally and worsens with age. It is accelerated by constant fluorescent light exposure but is retarded greatly by constant darkness, suggesting the importance of secondary insults in the post-natal period for development of the degenerative disease. To determine whether the secondary photochemical damage might be specifically blocked, MNU-exposed and control animals in the present study were fed an antioxidant-enriched diet of Purina mouse chow supplemented with 0.75% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). A second group of MNU-exposed and control animals were fed a non-BHT supplemented standard Purina mouse chow diet. Systematic measurements of the number of rows of photoreceptor cell nuclei, the thickness of the inner/outer segment layer, and the thickness of the whole retina were made, to quantify and degenerative changes in animals 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age. By 8 weeks, retinas of BHT-fed, MNU-exposed animals were significantly thicker and had more rows of photoreceptor cell nuclei than regular-diet, MNU-exposed animals. Moreover, the retinas of BHT-fed animals, both for MNU-exposed and controls, demonstrated sporadic morphologic changes in the form of circular configurations composed of ganglion cells, arcades of nuclear and plexiform layers, and, in one control animal, a hyperplastic nodule. These experiments suggested that MNU-induced retinal degeneration may be retarded by a BHT-enriched diet; however, continuous high doses of this compound pre- and postnatally may induce other retinal abnormalities. PMID:2906176

  14. Activation of liver X receptor inhibits the development of pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixue; Sun, Lei; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xingzhe; Li, Qi; Chen, Yuanli; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Di; Li, Xiaoju; Xiang, Rong; Wei, Yuquan; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that LXR ligand, T0901317, inhibited the growth of inoculated Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice by activating IFN-γ production. However, the effects of T0901317 on carcinogen-induced pulmonary carcinomas remain unknown. In this study, we initially conducted a statistical analysis on the data of human lung cancer samples extracted from the TCGA database, and determined that survival rate/time of lung cancer patients and grade of lung adenocarcinoma were positively and negatively related to lung IFN-γ levels, respectively. We then determined the inhibitory effects of T0901317 on mouse pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or urethane. We found that T0901317 reduced morbidity and mortality in MCA/BHT-injected BALB/c mice by inhibiting lung adenocarcinoma. T0901317 also protected C57BL/6 mice, but not IFN-γ deficient (IFN-γ(-/-), C57BL/6 background) mice, against MCA/BHT-induced lung hyperplasia/inflammation. In addition, we determined that T0901317 inhibited urethane-induced lung tumors in BABL/c mice. Furthermore, we determined that T0901317 prevented metastasis of 4T1 breast cancer cells in BALB/c mice. Administration of T0901317 substantially increased serum IFN-γ levels and lung IFN-γ expression in BABL/c and C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that LXR inhibits MCA/BHT-induced pulmonary carcinomas in BABL/c mice and the inhibition is associated with induction of IFN-γ production. PMID:27250582

  15. Carbonyl reductase inactivation may contribute to mouse lung tumor promotion by electrophilic metabolites of butylated hydroxytoluene: protein alkylation in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Colin T; Fritz, Kristofer S; Meier, Brent W; Kirichenko, Oleg V; Thompson, John A

    2008-08-01

    Promotion of lung tumors in mice by the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is mediated by electrophilic metabolites produced in the target organ. Identifying the proteins alkylated by these quinone methides (QMs) is a necessary step in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Covalent adducts of the antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin 6 and Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase were detected previously in lung cytosols from BALB/c mice injected with BHT, and complimentary in vitro studies demonstrated that QM alkylation causes inactivation and enhances oxidative stress. In the present work, adducts of another protective enzyme, carbonyl reductase (CBR), were detected by Western blotting and mass spectrometry in mitochondria from lungs of mice one day after a single injection of BHT and throughout a 28-day period of weekly injections required to achieve tumor promotion. BHT treatment was accompanied by the accumulation of protein carbonyls in lung cytosol from sustained oxidative stress. Studies in vitro demonstrated that CBR activity in lung homogenates was susceptible to concentration- and time-dependent inhibition by QMs. Recombinant CBR underwent irreversible inhibition during QM exposure, and mass spectrometry was utilized to identify alkylation sites at Cys 51, Lys 17, Lys 189, Lys 201, His 28, and His 204. Except for Lys 17, all of these adducts were eliminated as a cause of enzyme inhibition either by chemical modification (cysteine) or site-directed mutagenesis (lysines and histidines). The data demonstrated that Lys 17 is the critical alkylation target, consistent with the role of this basic residue in NADPH binding. These data support the possibility that CBR inhibition occurs in BHT-treated mice, thereby compromising one pathway for inactivating lipid peroxidation products, particularly 4-oxo-2-nonenal. These data, in concert with previous evidence for the inactivation of antioxidant enzymes, provide a molecular basis to explain lung inflammation leading to

  16. Activation of liver X receptor inhibits the development of pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene in BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixue; Sun, Lei; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xingzhe; Li, Qi; Chen, Yuanli; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Di; Li, Xiaoju; Xiang, Rong; Wei, Yuquan; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that LXR ligand, T0901317, inhibited the growth of inoculated Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice by activating IFN-γ production. However, the effects of T0901317 on carcinogen-induced pulmonary carcinomas remain unknown. In this study, we initially conducted a statistical analysis on the data of human lung cancer samples extracted from the TCGA database, and determined that survival rate/time of lung cancer patients and grade of lung adenocarcinoma were positively and negatively related to lung IFN-γ levels, respectively. We then determined the inhibitory effects of T0901317 on mouse pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or urethane. We found that T0901317 reduced morbidity and mortality in MCA/BHT-injected BALB/c mice by inhibiting lung adenocarcinoma. T0901317 also protected C57BL/6 mice, but not IFN-γ deficient (IFN-γ−/−, C57BL/6 background) mice, against MCA/BHT-induced lung hyperplasia/inflammation. In addition, we determined that T0901317 inhibited urethane-induced lung tumors in BABL/c mice. Furthermore, we determined that T0901317 prevented metastasis of 4T1 breast cancer cells in BALB/c mice. Administration of T0901317 substantially increased serum IFN-γ levels and lung IFN-γ expression in BABL/c and C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that LXR inhibits MCA/BHT-induced pulmonary carcinomas in BABL/c mice and the inhibition is associated with induction of IFN-γ production. PMID:27250582

  17. Effect of previous chilling storage on quality loss in frozen (–20 °C) sierra (Scomberomorus sierra) muscle packed with a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene

    OpenAIRE

    Herlinda Soto-Valdez; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; Enrique Márquez-Ríos; Wilfrido Torres-Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Rancidity development during frozen storage (–20 °C) of sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra) was studied. Fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with and without butylated hydroxytoluene added (BHT-LDPE and LDPE respectively). Fillets stored with no package were used as control. Special attention was given to the effect of previous ice storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) on the quality of the frozen fish. Physical (pH and texture) and chemical (peroxide value, PV and thiobarbituric ...

  18. Effect of Naphthalene, Butylated Hydroxytoluene, Dioctyl Phthalate, and Adipic Dioctyl Ester, Chemicals Found in the Nests of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on a Saprophytic Mucor sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are commonly found associated with termites and their nests. Four chemicals that have been isolated from the nests of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated to determine their effect on a common nest fungus, a saprophytic Mucor sp. Butylated hydroxyto...

  19. Development and validation of a reverse phase-liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of butylated hydroxytoluene as antioxidant in paricalcitol hard gelatin capsule formulation dosage form

    OpenAIRE

    Vaghela, Bhupendrasinh; Rao, Surendra Singh; Sharma, Nitish; Balakrishna, P.; Reddy, A. Malleshwar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A novel and simple isocratic reverse phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of antioxidant-butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) in paricalcitol hard gelatin capsule. In the paricalcitol capsule BHT concentration is very low. This method is precisely able to estimate BHT at low concentration at about 0.0039 μg/mL and to separate BHT from paricalcitol main compound and other oil-based excipients. Materials and Methods: The method wa...

  20. Effect of previous chilling storage on quality loss in frozen (–20 °C sierra (Scomberomorus sierra muscle packed with a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlinda Soto-Valdez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rancidity development during frozen storage (–20 °C of sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra was studied. Fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with and without butylated hydroxytoluene added (BHT-LDPE and LDPE respectively. Fillets stored with no package were used as control. Special attention was given to the effect of previous ice storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days on the quality of the frozen fish. Physical (pH and texture and chemical (peroxide value, PV and thiobarbituric acid index, TBA-i analyses were carried out. Lipid oxidation increased with ice storage time in fish muscle without film packing, being greater than the film packed muscle (with and without antioxidant. An effect of previous ice storage time was observed on the frozen product (in all treatments. However, fish muscle with film packing containing antioxidant showed less lipid deterioration. Under the conditions applied in this study, the plastic films with antioxidant prevented the lipids oxidation during the cold handling of the sierra muscle.

  1. Effect of. cap alpha. -tocopherol, butylated-hydroxytoluene and hydroxy-anisole on the activation and binding of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ to macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ch' ih, J.J.; Biedrzycka, D.; Devlin, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The anti-oxidants, ..cap alpha..-tocopherol(TPA), butylated-hydroxy-toluene(BHT) and hydroxyanisole(BHA) inhibit the carcinogenic and toxic effects of a variety of chemical compounds, their effect on aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) activation and binding was examined utilizing rat liver microsomes and cells. With a NADPH generating system, oxygen, microsomes, (/sup 3/H)-AFB/sub 1/, 2.2 pmoles/h/mg protein was activated and bound to macromolecules. In hepatocytes, 3.4 and 1.4 pmoles of AFB/sub 1/ per 10/sup 6/ cells were taken up and bound to macromolecules, whereas the nucleic acid fraction contained 0.19 pmoles of bound AFB/sub 1/. Moderate decreases of AFB/sub 1/ activation and binding were observed when TPA was present in both cell-free and hepatocytes systems. Only in hepatocytes, BHT inhibited the AFB/sub 1/ uptake and binding to nucleic acids. BHA, however, inhibited microsomal activation of AFB/sub 1/ by 73%; maximum inhibition was reached at 1 mM. AFB/sub 1/ uptake, and binding to nucleic acids were inhibited by 65% and 79% by BHA. GSH-transferase activity of cells treated with these agents was not altered. The effect of BHA at various concentrations on AFB activation was compared with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors; the ED/sub 50/ of SKF 525A, BHA and metyrapone was 9 uM, 80 uM and 380 uM respectively. The data suggest that TPA, BHA and BHT exert their effect by different mechanisms.

  2. BIBRA toxicity profile of butylated hydroxytoluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-31

    The BIBRA Toxicity Profile is a comprehensive yet concise review of the toxicological data on the profiled chemical. All studies identified have been carefully evaluated (using primary data sources wherever possible), but only the data most pertinent to hazard assessment are included. Information is summarized, where available, on the effects in man, as well as other species, and studies relating to the principal exposure routes are given precedence. The Profile is divided into the following main sections: Summary, Identification, Local Effects (including skin, eye and respiratory tract irritation), Sensitization and Intolerance, General Systemic Effects (including single and repeated administration), Reproductive Toxicity, Carcinogenicity and Other Genotoxicity.

  3. Biological fate of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in rats, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption, distribution and excretion of BHT were studied by the subcutaneous administration of 14C-labelled BHT in rats, and the following results were obtained. The absorption of radioactive BHT after the subcutaneous administration was slow. The distributions of 14C-BHT in blood, serum, spleen, liver, kidney, heart, intestine, lung, brain, testis, fat and skin were slow and low. The excretion of 14C-BHT in urine and feces increased rapidly after 24 hours, and the excretion ratio for 3 days reached 5 percent of the total amount of administration. The olive oil solution injected subcutaneously for a long time, and after 3 days, the olive oil solution was found around the injection points. The radioactivity in the skin around the injection parts was 11.6% of the total injection dose. (J.P.N.)

  4. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on sperm function in human spermatozoa cryopreserved by vitrification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, O; Aguagüiña, W E; Esponda, P; Risopatrón, J; Isachenko, E; Isachenko, V; Sánchez, R

    2015-03-01

    Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), a synthetic analogue of vitamin E, shows antioxidant and antiviral properties and has been successfully used for mammalian sperm cryopreservation. In this study, BHT was included in a vitrification solution to determine its cryoprotective effect on human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were selected by swim-up and vitrified in close sealed straw using either a combination of human tubal fluid (HTF), sucrose and BHT 1 mm (VMBHT), or only HTF and sucrose (VM). The optimal concentration of BHT was determined by the observation of preserved progressive sperm motility (PSM) after warming and detection of plasma membrane (PMI), membrane mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) and DNA integrity. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also detected. The PSM was significantly higher in the VMBHT group (80.86 ± 5.41%) compared with the VM group (68.9 ± 3.67%) (P < 0.05). Butylhydroxytoluene significantly preserved DNA integrity (4.0 ± 0.1% versus 6.1 ± 1.6%; P < 0.05) and reduced ROS production (5.5 ± 2.2 versus 8.6 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05). Plasma membrane and ΔΨm showed no statistical differences. One millimolar BHT effectively maintained cell function and due to its antioxidant and antiviral properties could be used in semen cryopreservation of patients with viral infections transmitted by seminal plasma. PMID:24612426

  5. Butylated Hydroxytoluene Analogs: Synthesis and Evaluation of Their Multipotent Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Wageeh A. Yehye; Noorsaadah Abdul Rahman; Alhadi, Abeer A.; Hamid Khaledi; Ng Seik Weng; Azhar Ariffin

    2012-01-01

    A computer-aided predictions of antioxidant activities were performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of Substances (PASS) program. Antioxidant activity of compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation assays to verify the predictions obtained by the PASS program. Compounds 3 and

  6. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of solubilized C60 and its conjugates with butylated hydroxytoluene

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, A. S.; A Matias; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Graça, Anabela; Simplício, Ana Luísa

    2011-01-01

    It has been described that fullerenes (C60) present interesting properties with potential application in clinical conditions related to oxidative stress. One of the most prominent features of fullerenes is the ability to quench free radicals. However, because of its poor solubility, this has been studied mostly in organic solutions, while the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of fullerenes and their derivates in aqueous medium is not well characterized. The antioxidant capacity of s...

  7. The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC--MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to measure concentration of Photophysical Characterization(BHT) and determine percent recovery in chewing gum is described. The results demonstrated that over time, the concentration of BHT in the extract decreased owing to aerial oxidation.

  8. Activation of liver X receptor inhibits the development of pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene in BALB/c mice

    OpenAIRE

    Qixue Wang; Lei Sun; Xiaoxiao Yang; Xingzhe Ma; Qi Li; Yuanli Chen; Ying Liu; Di Zhang; Xiaoju Li; Rong Xiang; Yuquan Wei; Jihong Han; Yajun Duan

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that LXR ligand, T0901317, inhibited the growth of inoculated Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice by activating IFN-γ production. However, the effects of T0901317 on carcinogen-induced pulmonary carcinomas remain unknown. In this study, we initially conducted a statistical analysis on the data of human lung cancer samples extracted from the TCGA database, and determined that survival rate/time of lung cancer patients and grade of lung adenocarcinoma were positively and...

  9. Hepatic retention and toxicological responses during feeding and depuration periods in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) fed graded levels of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaas, Eivind; Bohne, Victoria B; Hamre, Kristin; Arukwe, Augustine

    2008-12-10

    The human safety aspects of seafood production require the expansion of vital knowledge of both nutrients and possible contaminants along the entire production chain. Thus, production of safer seafood can be achieved by using feed materials that are low in contaminants, while maintaining balanced nutrition, in order to secure optimal fish and consumer health. Our understanding of primary responses of fish health and production related diseases, as well as biological processes that influence carry-over and lowering of contaminants in farmed fish, will contribute to a sustainable production of safer seafood products. Therefore, we have studied the liver deposition and toxicological effects in salmon fed graded levels of BHT during a 12-week feeding followed by a 2-week depuration period using chemical, molecular, and catalytic assays. In general, our data showed that BHT was significantly retained in the liver and selectively modulated toxicological responses in the xenobiotic biotransformation pathways during the feeding period. Specifically, BHT produced consistent dose- and time-specific gene expression patterns for AhR2alpha, AhR2beta, CYP1A1, CYP3A, UGT1, and GSTpi. The effect of BHT on the gene expression of biotransformation enzyme did not parallel enzyme activity levels, suggesting a possible inhibition by parent BHT or its metabolites. As a safety precaution, the production of farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway requires a mandatory 2-week depuration period prior to slaughtering and market delivery to ensure the elimination of veterinary medicaments, additives, and other undesirable components. Comparison of feeding and depuration periods showed that BHT was highly retained in fish liver, as only 8-13% of fed BHT was eliminated during the 2-week depuration period. This is just a part of the total concentration in the whole fish, since BHT may have been distributed and accumulated in other organs. Since BHT or its metabolites putatively inhibited biotransformation enzymes and affected metabolism of the compound, they may have potential for toxicological and adverse health effects for both fish and fish consumers through carry-over processes from the fish products. PMID:19007167

  10. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  11. Short-term pathological and proliferative effects of butylated hydroxy anisole and other phenolic antioxidants in the forestomach of Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food grade butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) when incorporated in the diet and fed to male Fischer 344 rats for 9 or 27 days induced proliferative squamous epithelial changes in the lesser curvature of the forestomach proximate to the plandular stomach. These changes were assessed histopathologically and by (methyl-3H) thymidine radioautography. It was shown that BHA mixed dry into powdered diet, incorporated into the diet in corn oil, or in a pelleted diet, induced similar effects. When levels of 2%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.1% and BHA were incorporated in rat diet for 9 days, the proliferative effect appeared to show a no effect level at 0.25% based on the (methyl-3H) thymidine-labelling index. Other food use antioxidants, namely butylated hydroxytoluene or tertiary butylhydroquinone, induced a lesser reponse than BHA at the maximum dose employed in the study. Propyl gallate was without effect. Propyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, a food use phenol, on the other hand, induced a less pronounced response that BHA but was more effective than the other antioxidants. Because increased cellular proliferation often provides an optimal milieu for tumor formation, it is suggested that these observations may be relevant to rat forestomach tumors induced by BHA (author)

  12. Compound list: butylated hydroxyanisole [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available butylated hydroxyanisole BHA 00156 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/...LATEST/Human/in_vitro/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/o...pen-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  13. 40 CFR 180.232 - Butylate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butylate; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.232 Butylate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the herbicide butylate in...

  14. 21 CFR 182.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxyanisole. 182.3169 Section 182.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... generally recognized as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butylated hydroxyanisole. 582.3169 Section 582.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... substance is generally recognized as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not...

  16. Thermal Polymerization of N-Butyl Acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Simple new polymerization method enables production of n-butyl acrylate polymer of desired high molecular weight, without disadvantages that usually attend more conventional methods. Process, which is hybrid of thermal, solution, and emulsion polymerization methods, involves controlled thermal polymerization of monomer at moderate temperatures without use of catalysts or additives.

  17. CT colonography with and without butyl scopolamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare colorectal distention with and without butyl scopolamine (Buscopan) during CT colonography. A sixty-four-detector row CT colonography was performed without the administration of butyl scopolamine in 75 subjects (group without buscopan). These subjects were compared to 75 subjects who were premedicated with 20 mg of butyl scopolamine (group with buscopan). The large intestine was divided into six segments, and three observers recorded the degrees of colorectal distention using a 4-point scale for both dual positions (1=completely collapsed, 2=partially collapsed, 3=adequately but not optimally distended, 4=optimally distended). A total of 1,800 segments were evaluated. The average colorectal distention scores for the group without and with buscopan were 3.59 and 3.57, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of colorectal distention (p=0.48). Butyl scopolamine administration before CT colonography does not improve the overall adequacy of colorectal distention and our results do not support its routine use for CT colonography for screening purposes. (author)

  18. Recovering/recycling of butyl and halogenated butyl rubber via ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) attain a continuous and raising proportion of urban and industrial scraps discarded in landfills; their impact on environment are more and more concerning. The implementation of new technologies in order to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment, at an effective cost, proved to be a great problem, due to inherent complexity for polymers re-using. Ionizing radiation is capable to modify structure and properties of polymeric material. Butyl and halobutyl rubbers have been used within a comprehensive scale, applications such as tires spare parts and diverse artifacts. The major high energy photon effect, as gamma-rays in butyl and halo butyl rubbers consists in free-radicals generation along changes in mechanical properties.This work aims to the development of controlled degradation processes (devulcanization) of butyl and halo butyl (chlorine and bromine) rubbers, in order to characterize their availability for transformation and modification of properties. Experimental results obtained showed that butyl and halobutyl rubbers,irradiated at 25 kGy and further sheared, are able to be used as an initial point for mixtures with pristine. (author)

  19. tert-Butyl 1-hydroxypiperidine-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Brücher

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H19NO3, is a disubstituted piperidine bearing substituents in two equatorial positions. One of the substituents is a hydroxy group bound to nitrogen and the second a tert-butyl ester group bound to the carbon next to the endocyclic nitrogen. Enantiomers of the title compound form hydrogen-bridged dimers across a center of inversion.

  20. An efficient and highly selective ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether catalyzed by sulfonated ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamdari Reza Fareghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of sulfonic acid-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs was found to act as efficient catalysts for ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE as the tert-butylating agent without an added solvent. The mono o-tert-butylated product was obtained in up to 80.4% isolated yield and 95.2% selectivity under such green conditions. No O-tert-butylated byproducts were formed.

  1. An efficient and highly selective ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether catalyzed by sulfonated ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Alamdari Reza Fareghi; Zamani Faezeh Ghorbani; Zekri Negar

    2014-01-01

    A novel series of sulfonic acid-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs) was found to act as efficient catalysts for ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as the tert-butylating agent without an added solvent. The mono o-tert-butylated product was obtained in up to 80.4% isolated yield and 95.2% selectivity under such green conditions. No O-tert-butylated byproducts were formed.

  2. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rice, butylated hydroxytoluene may be added as an optional ingredient in an amount not to exceed 0.0033... paragraph (a)(4) of this section is added, the statement “Butylated hydroxytoluene added as a...

  3. Solubilization of meso-carbon microbeads by potassium- or dibutylzinc-promoted butylation and structural analysis of the butylated products; Mesocarbon microbeads no butyl ka ni yoru kayoka to erareta butyl kabutsu no kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, S.; Zhang, Y.; Kidena, K.; Nomura, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility and structure of the butylated products of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) were studied experimentally. In experiment, MCMB-A and MCMB-B obtained from two kinds of coal-tar pitch were used as specimens. MCMBs were butylated by BZ method using dibutylzinc-butyl iodide and KT method using K-butyl iodide-THF, and the butylated products were successfully obtained. The butylated products were investigated through THF solubility test, {sup 13}C-NMR measurement and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurement. As the experimental result, a BZ method produced the butylated products at a yield of nearly 170%, while a KT method produced them at a yield of nearly 130%. The THF solubility was estimated to be 89-97%. As the study result of molecular weight distributions by GPC measurement of solvent solubles, the molecular weight of raw material MCMB was estimated to be 590-770 in terms of polystyrene. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

    1994-01-01

    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  5. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF CONGENITAL VASCULAR ANOMALIES WITH N BUTYL CYANOACRYLATE

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Prasad; Biswajit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congenital vascular malformation is stressful both to the patient and the treating physician. Use of sclerosing agent followed by surgical excision has been used by many. In our study we have used percutaneous injection of N - butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in such lesions to make these lesions a menable to easy excision. N Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is a rapidly hardening liquid adhesive often referred to as glue. The substance polymerizes immediately...

  6. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of butyl cyclohexyl phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Çinel; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karabay Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü

    2016-03-01

    Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate (BCP) is frequently used in personal care products, medical and household applications. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate possible cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of BCP using in vitro and in vivo assays. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of BCP was investigated on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929 cells) by MTT assay. The result showed that BCP inhibits cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value = 0.29 µg/mL). For genotoxicity assessment, tested concentrations of BCP demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of S9 mix with the Salmonella strain TA100 in the Ames test. Results showed that BCP is a secondary mutagenic substance even in low concentrations. The data obtained from 28-days repeated toxicity tests on mice revealed that BCP caused abnormalities of chromosome number, in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA damage, particularly DNA strand breaks, was assessed by Comet assay. The test result shows that BCP seemed to have genotoxic potential at a high level of exposure. PMID:25501535

  7. Radiation degradation of spent butyl rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telnov, A. V.; Zavyalov, N. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Sitnikov, N. P.; Smetanin, M. L.; Tarantasov, V. P.; Shadrin, D. N.; Shorikov, I. V.; Liakumovich, A. L.; Miryasova, F. K.

    2002-03-01

    Radiation methods of materials modification applied in technological chains can have significant economical and ecological advantages as compared to the established chemical, thermal and mechanical methods. Each year the problems of nature resources economy through the use of production and consumption wastes acquire a more significant value, as it allows to solve also ecological issues along with economical ones. This is mostly acute in relation to polymeric systems based on saturated rubbers, for example butyl rubber (BR) used in the tyre industry, as due to their high resistance to the action of oxygen, ozone, solar radiation and bacteria, they contaminate the environment for rather a long period. At VNIIEF and KSPU experiments were carried out on application of electron beams with energy from 6 to 10 MeV for radiation destruction of spent rubber based on BR. The radiation-degraded material was tested for re-use in the formulation of initial diaphragm mixture, rubber mixture for producing rubberized fabric and roofing.

  8. Radiation degradation of spent butyl rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation methods of materials modification applied in technological chains can have significant economical and ecological advantages as compared to the established chemical, thermal and mechanical methods. Each year the problems of nature resources economy through the use of production and consumption wastes acquire a more significant value, as it allows to solve also ecological issues along with economical ones. This is mostly acute in relation to polymeric systems based on saturated rubbers, for example butyl rubber (BR) used in the tyre industry, as due to their high resistance to the action of oxygen, ozone, solar radiation and bacteria, they contaminate the environment for rather a long period. At VNIIEF and KSPU experiments were carried out on application of electron beams with energy from 6 to 10 MeV for radiation destruction of spent rubber based on BR. The radiation-degraded material was tested for re-use in the formulation of initial diaphragm mixture, rubber mixture for producing rubberized fabric and roofing

  9. NQR in tert-butyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Aldo H.

    2004-03-01

    Tert-butyl chloride has been broadly studied experimentally through various techniques such as X-ray crystallography, DTA, and NMR. It was also studied experimentally through nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), but this study was limited and incomplete. In this paper, we present a more detailed study of TBC through the NQR of 35Cl. Our results show that near 120 K, the onset of the CH 3 groups semirotations around symmetry axis C3 takes place with an activation energy U=16.1 kJ mol -1. This intramolecular movement produces a T1 minimum near 148 K and is the dominant mechanism of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in phase III of this compound. In phase II of TBC, we show that there are not only methyl groups semirotations, but also semirotations of the whole molecule around a different axis from the symmetry axis C' 3 (C-Cl bond) with an activation energy of E=10.4 kJ mol -1.

  10. Thyroid Disruption by Di-n-Butyl Phthalate (DBP) and Mono-n-Butyl Phthalate (MBP) in Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Ouxi; Wu, Wei; Du, Guizhen; Liu, Renping; Yu, Lugang; Sun, Hong; Han, Xiumei; Jiang, Yi; Shi, Wei; Hu, Wei; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Shoulin; Wang, Xinru

    2011-01-01

    Background Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a chemical widely used in many consumer products, is estrogenic and capable of producing seriously reproductive and developmental effects in laboratory animals. However, recent in vitro studies have shown that DBP and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), the major metabolite of DBP, possessed thyroid hormone receptor (TR) antagonist activity. It is therefore important to consider DBP and MBP that may interfere with thyroid hormone system. Methodology/Principal ...

  11. Separation and determination of trace amounts of zinc, lead, cadmium and mercury in tap and Qaroun lake water using polyurethane foam functionalized with 4-hydroxytoluene and 4-hydroxyacetophenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable chelating sorbent was synthesized by covalently linking 4-hydroxytoluene or 4-hydroxyacetophenone with the polyurethane foam (PUF) through -N=N- group. The synthesized chelating sorbents were characterized by IR and UV/vis measurements. The modified foams show excellent stability towards various solvents. Factors influencing the extraction process of Zn(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) were studied and evaluated as a function of pH of metal ion solution and equilibration shaking time. The values of sorption capacity of metal ions (μg g-1) were determined with the two types of bonded foams. The two phenolic bonded foams were studied comparatively. The potential applications of the two newly synthesized foams for the removal and separation of the examined metal ions from two natural water samples (drinking tap water and Qaroun lake water at Fayoum City, Egypt) were investigated. Precision (assessed as a relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was also evaluated and found to be ≤7.3% (N = 5) with a detection limit under 0.46 μg L-1

  12. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  13. 76 FR 59906 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Performance Liquid Chromatography/Ultra-Violet Spectrometry (HPLC/UV)) is available to enforce the tolerance... of fluazifop-P-butyl in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, refined oil; and cotton, undelinted... Tolerance In the Federal Register of December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78240) (FRL- 8853-1), EPA issued a...

  14. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  15. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  16. A Study of the Teratogenicity of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst; Meyer, Otto A.

    1978-01-01

    A teratogenicity study on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was carried out in SPF New Zealand White rabbits. BHA was given by gavage from day 7–18 of the gestation period in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt./day. The fetuses were removed on day 28. No effect related to the treatment with BHA...

  17. Degradace methyl tert-butyl etheru (MTBE) v bioreaktoru.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehnert, Radek; Gavlasová, Pavla; Kuncová, Gabriela; Bolyó, Juraj

    Bratislava: -, 2007, s. 225-226. [Zjazd chemikov /59./. Tatranské Matliare, Vysoké Tatry (SK), 02.09.2007-06.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/2637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biodegradation * methyl terc-butyl ether (MTBE) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  18. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi; Mohammad Tehrani; Mohammad Bashashati

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B). Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission tim...

  19. (R)-N-{2-tert-Butyl-2-[(R)-tert-butyl­sulfonamido]ethylidene}-tert-butane­sulfonamide

    OpenAIRE

    Cong-Bin Fan; Xiao-Xia Sun; Yu Hu

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C14H30N2O2S2, is the product of the monoaddition reaction of tert-butyl magnesium chloride with bis-[(R)-N-tert-butanesulfinyl]ethanediimine. There are two almost identical molecules in the asymmetric unit, the molecular conformation of which is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond.

  20. Endocrine disrupting effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA - E320)

    OpenAIRE

    POP, ANCA; KISS, BELA; Felicia LOGHIN

    2013-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is extensively used as antioxidant in foods, food packaging, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the past years, it raised concerns regarding its possible endocrine disrupting effect. The existing in vitro studies indicate that BHA presents a weak estrogenic effect and also anti-androgenic properties while an in vivo study found it to have antiestrogenic properties. There is no sufficient data available at the moment to draw a conclusion regarding the safety of BH...

  1. Endocrine Disrupting Effects Of Butylated Hydroxyanisole (Bhabhabha - E320)

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Pop; Bela Kiss; Felicia Loghin

    2014-01-01

        Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is extensively used as antioxidant in foods, food packaging, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the past years, it raised concerns regarding its possible endocrine disrupting effect. The existing in vitro studies indicate that BHA presents a weak estrogenic effect and also anti-androgenic properties while an in vivo study found it to have antiestrogenic properties.    There is no sufficient data available at the moment to draw a conclusion regarding the safet...

  2. Biodistribution of poly(butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles were radiolabelled with a technetium-99m-dextran complex and the biodistribution pattern of the intravenously injected particles determined in rabbits using γ-scintigraphy. The nanoparticles were found to localise partly in the liver/spleen region (about 60%) and partly to stay in the circulation (about 30%) before degrading and releasing the radiolabel. Coating the nanoparticles with the block copolymer poloxamer 338 or poloxamine 908 did not significantly influence the biodistribution pattern. (Auth.)

  3. Preoperative Embolization of Meningiomas with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Kominami*, S.; Watanabe, A; M. Suzuki; Mizunari, T.; Kobayashi, S; Teramoto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Meningiomas are often embolized before their surgical resection to reduce blood loss during surgery. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles have been the most frequently used material for embolization of meningiomas. We have used n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) as the first-choice material since 2001. Thirty-one meningiomas were embolized with NBCA. We report the result of embolization of meningiomas with NBCA in comparison with PVA particles.

  4. European Union Summary Risk Assessment Report - Benzyl Butyl Phthalate (BBP)

    OpenAIRE

    PAKALIN Sazan; ASCHBERGER Karin; COSGROVE Orna; PAYA PEREZ Ana; VEGRO Stefania

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a summary, with conclusions, of the risk assessment report of the substance benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) that has been prepared by Norway in the context of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 on the evaluation and control of existing substances. For detailed information on the risk assessment principles and procedures followed, the underlying data and the literature references the reader is referred to the comprehensive Final Risk Assessment Report (Final RAR) that ca...

  5. 2-Benzhydryl-6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Yoon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H26O, was prepared by the reaction between 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and diphenylmethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid. Three benzene rings are attached directly to the central C—H group in a twisted propeller conformation with the local pseudo-C3 rotational axis coinciding with the C—H bond. There are three short C—H...O contacts in the molecule.

  6. Study of the butyl acetate synthesis - 1. Catalyst selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a laboratory scale selection study over eight catalytic agents was made, in the acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (seven lon exchange resins and a zeolytic solid. Considering some physicochemical characteristics as the activation pre-treating requirements, acidity, thermal stability, reaction performance, etc., it was found that macroporous ion exchange resins are the most efficient catalysts, especially Lewatit K-2431 resin.

  7. 76 FR 5696 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... fluazifop-P-butyl in or on potato, tuber at 1.1 ppm; potato, peel (wet) at 1.1 ppm; potato, chips at 3.0 ppm... Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 864) (FRL-8801- 5), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408...) at 3.5 ppm. In the Federal Register of February 4, 2010 (75 FR 5790) (FRL-8807- 5), EPA issued...

  8. Methyltert-butyl Ether (MTBE) Degradation by a Microbial Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Mortazavi; A Nikpey; A. Rezaee; H Asilian; A Khavanin; H. Kazemian

    2005-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to reformulated gasoline to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act directives. Widespread use of MTBE in gasoline has resulted in groundwater contamination. Because of its undesirable effects on drinking water and ecologically harmful effects, MTBE removal has become a public health and environmental concern. In this study, we have isolated a mixed bacterial culture which is capable of degrading the MTBE as a sole carbon and energy source. This consortium was deve...

  9. Solution of a gallstone with methyl-tertiary butyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J.; Roeren, T.; Holstege, A.; Raedecke, J.

    1987-08-01

    Methyl-t-butyl ether is a new agent to dissolve gallstones. The substance proves to be very successful and acts very rapidly. A percutaneous transhepatic drainage supplies an adequate access route to dissolve calculi within the bile ducts. We report the case of a patient where before insertion of an internal stent a stone in the common bile duct was dissolved within 3 1/2 hours.

  10. Contribution to the study of uranyl salts in butyl phosphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopic study in the normal infrared region and involving the following associations: tri-alkyl phosphates (tri-butyl, tri-ethyl, tri-methyl), uranyl salts (nitrate, chloride, acetate) has confirmed the existence of an interaction between the phosphoryl group and the uranium atom, as shown by a movement of absorption band for the valency P = 0 from ∼ 1270 cm-1 to ∼ 1180 cm-1. A study of the preparation, analysis and spectroscopy of the solids obtained by the precipitation of uranyl salts by acid butyl phosphates has been carried out. By infrared spectrophotometry it has been shown that the tri-butyl and di-butyl phosphates are associated in non-polar diluents even before the uranium is introduced. The extraction of uranyl salts from acid aqueous solutions by a diluted mixture of tri-butyl and di-butyl phosphates proceeds by different mechanisms according to the nature of the ion (nitrate or chloride). (author)

  11. Molecular recognition study of Carbamazepine, antiseizure drug, by p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, C.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-03-01

    The formation of inclusion complex of Carbamazepine, a antiseizure drug molecule, with the supra molecule, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene was the host molecule and Carbamazepine was the guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to study the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(8)arene with Carbamazepine. The stochiometry of the host-guest complex and the binding constant were determined.

  12. Tris(tert-butyl isocyanide-κC)carbonylnickel(0)

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Imhof; Helmar Görls; Kathi Halbauer

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Ni(C5H9N)3(CO)], was prepared from Ni(CO)4 and a tenfold excess of tert-butyl isocyanide. It crystallizes with two symmetry-independent mol­ecules per asymmetric unit. The central Ni atom of each independent mol­ecule has a nearly perfect tetra­hedral coordination environment, comprising one carbon monoxide and three isocyanide ligands. The title compound is the first structurally characterized Ni0 compound with a mixed CO/RNC coordination.

  13. A Study of the Teratogenicity of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst; Meyer, Otto A.

    1978-01-01

    A teratogenicity study on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was carried out in SPF New Zealand White rabbits. BHA was given by gavage from day 7–18 of the gestation period in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt./day. The fetuses were removed on day 28. No effect related to the treatment with B...... was observed on the number of corpora luteae, implantations, fetuses dead or alive, or on gross malformations, skeletal and internal malformations, and on the weight of the fetuses....

  14. Effect of Parameters on Oxychlorination of Tert-Butyl Ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Gaca, Jerzy; Gackowska, Alicja; Belt, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    The effect of concentration, molar ratios of reagents, pH, and temperature on formation of chloro-organic products in reaction of tert-butyl ethers with chloride ions and hydrogen peroxide has been determined. A significant effect of Cl− ions and H2O2 molar ratios on the rate of chloro-organic product formation has been observed. Studies on oxychlorination of tert-butylethyl ether (ETBE) at pH 7, 3.5, and 2.5 have been carried out. It was found that introduction of hydronium ions into the rea...

  15. tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2-ylcarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene C. Hsu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H13NO2S, the dihedral angle between the thiophene ring and the carbamate group is 15.79 (14°. In the crystal structure, intramolecular C—H...O interactions in tandem with the tert-butyl groups render the packing of adjacent molecules in the [001] direction nearly perpendicular [the angle between adjacent thiophene rings is 74.83 (7°]. An intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond gives rise to a chain extending along [001]. The crystal studied was found to be a racemic twin.

  16. Densities and isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the mixtures formed by four butyl esters and 1-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E.; Ortega, J. [Univ. of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    1996-01-01

    Densities of 298.15 K and the vapor-liquid equilibria for 1-butanol + butyl methanoate, + butyl ethanoate, + butyl propanoate, and + butyl butanoate have been measured at 101.32 kPa in small capacity ebulliometer. All results were found to be thermodynamically consistent with a point-to-point test. The mixtures containing butyl methanoate and butyl ethanoate show azeotropes at T = 379.14 K, x = 0.871 and T = 389.64 K, x = 0.222, respectively. Different group-contribution methods were applied to these mixtures.

  17. Radiolytic decontamination of Di-n-butyl phthalate from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a considerable amount of phthalic acid esters (PAE), the most widely utilized plasticizer, has been released into and polluted the environment. Since their toxicity and teratogenicity, although fairly low, to experimental animals have recently been shown, the removal of them from the environment, especially from the drinking water, is desirable. As an attempt for the removal, the radiolytic degradation of 7-14C-di-n-butyl phthalate (14C-DBP) in water was investigated at several pHs. Approximately 50% of 14C-DBP (1 ppm aqueous solution) was decomposed by 60Co γ-irradiation to a dose of 3 x 104 rad at pH 7 and the main product was mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP). At pHs 3 and 11 14C-DBP was more easily radiolyzed and converted to ether-soluble compounds other than MBP or phthalic acid (PA). By irradiation to 106 rad 14C-DBP as well as 14C-MBP and 14C-PA, at pH value tested, was almost completely decomposed to volatile or water-soluble substances of possibly low molecular weight. These findings suggest that the γ-irradiation is effective to make the PAE-polluted water clean. (auth.)

  18. Thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarov, Javid, E-mail: javid.safarov@uni-rostock.de [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Kul, Ismail [Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Widener University, One University Place, Chester, PA 19013 (United States); El-Awady, Waleed A. [Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Mansoura Univeristy, Mansoura (Egypt); Shahverdiyev, Astan [Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Hassel, Egon [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > (p, {rho}, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. > The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. > The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Pressure, density, temperature (p, {rho}, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [C4mpyr][BF{sub 4}] at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K and pressures up to p = 100 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of {Delta}{rho}/{rho} = {+-}(0.01 to 0.08)% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, {rho}, T) data of [C4mpyr][BF{sub 4}] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → (p, ρ, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. → The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. → The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Pressure, density, temperature (p, ρ, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [C4mpyr][BF4] at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K and pressures up to p = 100 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of Δρ/ρ = ±(0.01 to 0.08)% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, ρ, T) data of [C4mpyr][BF4] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  20. Thermophysical properties of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► (p, ρ, T) data of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. ► The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. ► The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Thermophysical properties, {(p, ρ, T) at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K, pressures up to p = 100 MPa, and viscosity at T = (283.15 to 373.15) K and p = 0.101 MPa}, of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF4] are reported. The measurements were carried out with a recently constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter and a fully automated SVM 3000 Anton-Paar rotational Stabinger viscometer. The vibration-tube densimeter was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene, and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, ρ, T) data of [b4mpy][BF4] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  1. Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorothe Dinangayi Tshilanda; Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana; Damase Nguwo Vele Onyamboko; Blaise Mavinga Mbala; Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua; Damien Sha Tshibey Tshibangu; Matthieu Kokengo Bokolo; Kalulu Muzele Taba; Teddy Kabeya Kasonga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. Methods:The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). Results: The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. Conclusions:The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying.

  2. Production of butyl solvents from lignocellulose: An economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J D; Daling, R; Sandel, R L; Fitzpatrick, S W

    1986-11-01

    A process is described that produces butyl solvents, butanol, isopropanol, and ethanol from wood or other lignocellulosic feedstock. Two new elements of technology introduced are the processing batch reactor developed at SERI that produces high yields of fermentable sugars (hexoses and pentoses) at the appropriate concentration for the butyl solvents fermentation and a novel method of separating products using liquid-liquid extraction, which reduces the separation energy required to about 30% of energy required in the conventional batch method. Economic analysis suggests that the project is attractive at a feedstock capacity of 400,000 dry MTA or larger (178 million lb/yr solvents). There are, however, uncertainties associated with the project because of the relatively early stage of development of the key elements of the process technology and the sensitivity of the DCFIROR to estimated capital cost. A further conclusion is that the process economics would benefit greatly from reduced capital cost of the fermentation section. This could perhaps be accomplished by developing a continuous fermentation process. Such fermentation technology has been demonstrated on laboratory scale, but as far as is known, has not been developed to pilot scale. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Methyltert-butyl Ether (MTBE Degradation by a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Mortazavi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is added to reformulated gasoline to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act directives. Widespread use of MTBE in gasoline has resulted in groundwater contamination. Because of its undesirable effects on drinking water and ecologically harmful effects, MTBE removal has become a public health and environmental concern. In this study, we have isolated a mixed bacterial culture which is capable of degrading the MTBE as a sole carbon and energy source. This consortium was developed from mixed urban and petrochemical activated sludge after 4 month's enrichment. Enrichment was conducted in batch reactor, fitted with a screw cap and butyl rubber septum. MTBE concentration was measured in head space by gas chromatography. Degradation was determined by MTBE removal. MTBE biodegradation was depended to Dissolved Oxygen (DO concentration and not affected by the changes in concentration of trace element solution or other stimulator Substances. Degradation rates were nearly 1.478 mg MTBE h-1 g-1 (wet biomass and didn't change with MTBE concentration (up 500 mg L-1.

  4. Reactive Distillation for Producing n-Butyl Acetate: Experiment and Simulation%Reactive Distillation for Producing n-Butyl Acetate: Experiment and Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晖; 黄智贤; 邱挺; 王晓达; 吴燕翔

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a reactive distillation (RD) column was applied for synthesis n-butyl acetate from n-butanol and acetic acid. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) kinetic model and an equilibrium stage model for separation were employed to study the RD process. The results obtained from the equilibrium stage model agreed well with the experiments. The effects of operating variables on the n-butanol conversion and n-butyl acetate purity were further investigated. The optimal column configuration for the production of n-butyl acetate was designed with 5 rectifying stages, 8 reaction stages and 13 stripping stages by the simulation study. According to the simulation results, n-butanol conversion and n-butyl acetate purity all reached greater than 96%.

  5. 76 FR 46796 - Butylate; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Register on July 28, 2010 (75 FR 44240; FRL-8835-2). For the remaining butylate product registrations... published in the Federal Register on March 23, 2011 (76 FR 16147, FRL-8867-8). Due to the cancellation...-use registrant, Arysta Lifescience North America, LLC, to voluntarily cancel the last butylate...

  6. Recovering/recycling of butyl and halogenated butyl rubber via ionizing radiation; Recuperacao/reciclagem de compostos de borrachas butilica e halobutilica por meio de radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Sandra Regina Scagliusi

    2013-07-01

    Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) attain a continuous and raising proportion of urban and industrial scraps discarded in landfills; their impact on environment are more and more concerning. The implementation of new technologies in order to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment, at an effective cost, proved to be a great problem, due to inherent complexity for polymers re-using. Ionizing radiation is capable to modify structure and properties of polymeric material. Butyl and halobutyl rubbers have been used within a comprehensive scale, applications such as tires spare parts and diverse artifacts. The major high energy photon effect, as gamma-rays in butyl and halo butyl rubbers consists in free-radicals generation along changes in mechanical properties.This work aims to the development of controlled degradation processes (devulcanization) of butyl and halo butyl (chlorine and bromine) rubbers, in order to characterize their availability for transformation and modification of properties. Experimental results obtained showed that butyl and halobutyl rubbers,irradiated at 25 kGy and further sheared, are able to be used as an initial point for mixtures with pristine. (author)

  7. Synthesis of Highly Porous Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Asymmetric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2016-03-24

    For the first time, self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation was applied to polysulfone-based linear block copolymers, reaching mechanical stability much higher than other block copolymers membranes used in this method, which were mainly based on polystyrene blocks. Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k) with a low polydispersity of 1.4 was synthesized by combining step-growth condensation and RAFT polymerization. Various advanced electron microscopies revealed that PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k assembles into worm-like cylindrical micelles in DMAc and adopts a “flower-like” arrangement with the PSU central block forming the shell. Computational modeling described the mechanism of micelle formation and morphological transition. Asymmetric nanostructured membranes were obtained with a highly porous interconnected skin layer and a sublayer with finger-like macrovoids. Ultrafiltration tests confirmed a water permeance of 555 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 with molecular weight cut-off of 28 kg/mol. PtBA segments on the membrane surface were then hydrolyzed and complexed with metals, leading to cross-linking and enhancement of antibacterial capability.

  8. Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the binary system methanol + 2-butyl alcohol and the quaternary system methyl acetate + methanol + 2-butyl alcohol + 2-butyl acetate at P = 101.33 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • VLE data for methanol + 2-butyl alcohol were determined. • VLE data for methyl acetate + methanol + 2-butyl alcohol + SBAC were determined. • The binary interaction parameters were obtained based on the binary VLE data. • The data of quaternary system have been predicted. • Both Wilson and NRTL models are suitable to describe the VLE of quaternary system. - Abstract: In this paper, isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the binary system methanol + 2-butyl alcohol and the quaternary system methyl acetate + methanol + 2-butyl alcohol + 2-butyl acetate were determined at P = 101.33 kPa in a modified Rose still. The binary VLE data were found to be thermodynamic consistency by the Herrington method. The VLE data for the binary system were correlated by the Wilson and NRTL equations respectively, which were used to predict the VLE data of the quaternary system. The results showed that the Wilson and NRTL models matched well with the (vapor + liquid) phase equilibrium data. The deviations for the vapor-phase compositions and the equilibrium temperatures are reasonably small and the models are both suitable for these systems

  9. Interactions between water and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, Tatiana A; Husson, Pascale; DeVine, Jessalyn A; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Greenbaum, Steven G; Castner, Edward W

    2015-08-14

    We report experimental results on the diffusivity of water in two ionic liquids obtained using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method. Both ionic liquids have the same cation, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, but different trifluoromethyl-containing anions. One has a strongly hydrophobic anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, while the second has a hydrophilic anion, trifluoromethylsulfonate. Transport of water in these ionic liquids is much faster than would be predicted from hydrodynamic laws, indicating that the neutral water molecules experience a very different friction than the anions and cations at the molecular level. Temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and densities are reported as a function of water concentration to further analyze the properties of the ionic liquid-water mixtures. These results on the properties of water in ionic liquids should be of interest to researchers in diverse areas ranging from separations, solubilizing biomass and energy technologies. PMID:26277141

  10. Microemulsion polymerization of butyl acrylate irradiated by γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation polymerization of butyl acrylate was carried out in microemulsion with high monomer and low emulsifier content. The rate of polymerization shows three intervals--the increasing period, the plateau period and the decreasing period for most cases. The length of nucleation period is independent of monomer content and temperature, and becomes longer with the increase of dose rate and the decrease of emulsifier content. The length of Rp plateau region increases with the increase of monomer and emulsifier content and with the decrease of dose rate. By studying the kinetics, the following formula were derived: Rp ∝ [M]0.93D1.27 [E]-1.07; Mn ∝ [M]0.65D0.28 [E]-1.66. (author)

  11. Interactions between water and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeeva, Tatiana A.; DeVine, Jessalyn A.; Castner, Edward W., E-mail: ed.castner@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Husson, Pascale [CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 80026, F-63171 Aubière (France); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Costa Gomes, Margarida F. [CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 80026, F-63171 Aubière (France); Greenbaum, Steven G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College, CUNY, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    We report experimental results on the diffusivity of water in two ionic liquids obtained using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method. Both ionic liquids have the same cation, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, but different trifluoromethyl-containing anions. One has a strongly hydrophobic anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, while the second has a hydrophilic anion, trifluoromethylsulfonate. Transport of water in these ionic liquids is much faster than would be predicted from hydrodynamic laws, indicating that the neutral water molecules experience a very different friction than the anions and cations at the molecular level. Temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and densities are reported as a function of water concentration to further analyze the properties of the ionic liquid-water mixtures. These results on the properties of water in ionic liquids should be of interest to researchers in diverse areas ranging from separations, solubilizing biomass and energy technologies.

  12. Interactions between water and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report experimental results on the diffusivity of water in two ionic liquids obtained using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method. Both ionic liquids have the same cation, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, but different trifluoromethyl-containing anions. One has a strongly hydrophobic anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, while the second has a hydrophilic anion, trifluoromethylsulfonate. Transport of water in these ionic liquids is much faster than would be predicted from hydrodynamic laws, indicating that the neutral water molecules experience a very different friction than the anions and cations at the molecular level. Temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and densities are reported as a function of water concentration to further analyze the properties of the ionic liquid-water mixtures. These results on the properties of water in ionic liquids should be of interest to researchers in diverse areas ranging from separations, solubilizing biomass and energy technologies

  13. Gamma-radiation effect on thermal ageing of butyl rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butyl rubber has a comprehensive use in sealing systems, especially in tires inner tubes, due to their low permeability to gases. So, it is required that butyl rubber compounds show a better performance, more and more. Butyl rubber is provided with excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Besides showing these properties, radiation exposures impart modifications in physical-chemical and morphological properties on butyl rubber materials. When exposed to gamma-radiation, rubbers suffer changes in their mechanical and physical properties, caused by material degradation. The major radiation effect in butyl rubbers is chain scission; besides, ageing promotes too the same effect with further build-up of free radicals. This work aims to the study of gamma-radiation in physical-chemical properties of butyl rubber subjected to thermal ageing. Doses used herein were: 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 KGy. Samples were evaluated before and after ageing according to traditional essays, such as: hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break. From accomplished assessments it is possible to affirm that at doses higher than 50 kGy it was observed a sharp decreasing in butyl rubber physical-chemical properties, before and after exposure to ageing. (author)

  14. Gamma-radiation effect on thermal ageing of butyl rubber compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Butyl rubber has a comprehensive use in sealing systems, especially in tires inner tubes, due to their low permeability to gases. So, it is required that butyl rubber compounds show a better performance, more and more. Butyl rubber is provided with excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Besides showing these properties, radiation exposures impart modifications in physical-chemical and morphological properties on butyl rubber materials. When exposed to gamma-radiation, rubbers suffer changes in their mechanical and physical properties, caused by material degradation. The major radiation effect in butyl rubbers is chain scission; besides, ageing promotes too the same effect with further build-up of free radicals. This work aims to the study of gamma-radiation in physical-chemical properties of butyl rubber subjected to thermal ageing. Doses used herein were: 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 KGy. Samples were evaluated before and after ageing according to traditional essays, such as: hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break. From accomplished assessments it is possible to affirm that at doses higher than 50 kGy it was observed a sharp decreasing in butyl rubber physical-chemical properties, before and after exposure to ageing. (author)

  15. Genotoxicity of di-butyl-phthalate and di-iso-butyl-phthalate in human lymphocytes and mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, N H; Wallner, B C; Kastenbauer, E R; Weissacher, H; Harréus, U A

    2001-01-01

    The genotoxicity of phthalates, widely used plasticizers, has been shown previously for di-butyl-phthalate (DBP) and di-iso-butyl-phthalate (DBP) in human mucosal cells of the upper aerodigestive tract in a previous study using the Comet assay. Furthermore, higher genotoxic sensitivities of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of either the larynx or the oropharynx compared to non-tumor patients were described. Other authors have demonstrated DNA damage by a different phthalate in human lymphocytes. It was the aim of the present study to determine whether there is a correlation between the genotoxic sensitivities to DBP and its isomer DiBP in either mucosal cells or lymphocytes. The single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was applied to detect DNA strand breaks in human epithelial cells of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=132 specimens). Human mucosa was harvested from the oropharynx in non-tumor patients and patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx. Laryngeal mucosa of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas was harvested as well. Peripheral lymphocytes (n=49 specimens) were separated from peripheral blood. Xenobiotics investigated were DBP, DiBP, and N'methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as positive control, respectively. For statistical analysis, the SPSS correlation analysis according to Pearson and the Wilcoxon test were performed. Genotoxicity was found for DBP and DiBP in epithelial cells and lymphocytes (Pintermediate correlation (r=0.570). Correlation in lymphocytes was the same (r=0.570). Phthalates have been investigated as a potential health hazard for a variety of reasons, including possible xenoestrogenic impact, peroxisome proliferation, and membrane destabilization. The present investigation suggests a correlated DNA-damaging impact of DBP and DiBP in human mucosal cells and in lymphocytes, respectively. PMID:11301413

  16. Free radical scavenging abilities of flavonoids as mechanism of protection against mutagenicity induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or cumene hydroperoxide in Salmonella typhimurium TA102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenharder, R; Grünhage, D

    2003-09-01

    Mutagenicity induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (BHP) or cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 was effectively reduced by flavonols with 3',4'-hydroxyl groups such as fisetin, quercetin, rutin, isoquercitrin, hyperoxide, myricetin, myricitrin, robinetin, and to a lesser extent also by morin and kaempferol (ID50=0.25-1.05 micromol per plate). With the exception of isorhamnetin, rhamnetin, morin, and kaempferol, closely similar results were obtained with both peroxides. Hydrogenation of the double bond between carbons 2 and 3 (dihydroquercetin, dihydrorobinetin) as well as the additional elimination of the carbonyl function at carbon 4 (catechins) resulted in a loss of antimutagenicity with the notable exception of catechin itself. Again, all flavones and flavanones tested were inactive except luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, diosmetin, and naringenin. The typical radical scavenger butylated hydroxytoluene also showed strong antimutagenicity against CHP (ID50=5.4 micromol per plate) and BHP (ID50=11.4 micromol per plate). Other lipophilic scavengers such as alpha-tocopherol and N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine exerted only moderate effects, the hydrophilic scavenger trolox was inactive. The metal chelating agent 1,10-phenanthroline strongly reduced mutagenicities induced by CHP and BHP (ID50=2.75 and 2.5 micromol per plate) at low concentrations but induced mutagenic activities at higher concentrations. The iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate, however, was less effective in both respects. The copper chelator neocuproine effectively inhibited mutagenicity induced by BHP (ID50=39.7 micromol per plate) and CHP (ID50=25.9 micrommol per plate), the iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl was less potent (ID50=6.25 mmol per plate against BHP, 0.42 mmol per plate against CHP). In the absence of BHP and CHP, yet not in the presence of these hydroperoxides, quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin induced strong mutagenic activities in S

  17. 77 FR 1682 - Butylate, Fenoxycarb, Sodium Tetrathiocarbonate, and Temephos Registration Review Final Decisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... field corn, pop corn, and sweet corn. The last butylate pesticide product registered for use in the... a soil fumigant used for the management of nematodes and phytophthora root rot, oak root fungus,...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (EGBE) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessme...

  19. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  20. Plasma transport of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champailler, A.; Gremillet, E.; Decousus, M.; Kassir, A.; Voutay, M.; Healy, J.C.

    1985-05-01

    Plasma transport of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA was measured by four in vitro methods: trichloroacetic acid precipitation, electrophoresis, HPLC, and Scatchard binding isotherm. The data are in accord with protein transport, the main carrier being albumin with two categories of sites. This work suggests that after IV injection of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA in humans plasma protein binding is one of the limiting factors for the hepatic deposition of the radiopharmacentical.

  1. Effect of N-butyl cyanoacrylate on fracture healing in segmental rat tibia fracture model

    OpenAIRE

    Akcal, Mehmet Akif; Poyanli, Oguz; Unay, Koray; Esenkaya, Irfan; Gokcen, Bahadir; Fıratlıgil, Ayşe Sanem

    2014-01-01

    Background Comminuted fractures can occur due to severe traumas. The treatment of these fractures that may cause serious morbidity and sometimes mortality is N-butyl cyanoacrylate. It has been reported that this adhesive provides sufficient rigid fixation for bone healing. This study aims to examine cyanoacrylate radiologically and histologically to determine whether it provides adequate recovery in segmental fractures. The secondary objective is to evaluate N-butyl cyanoacrylate, an adhesive...

  2. Ruptured Duodenal Varices Successfully Managed by Endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyung Hun; Kim, Sung Eun

    2012-01-01

    Bleeding from ectopic varices is rare and accounts for only 1% and 5% of all variceal bleeding. However, once the bleeding starts, it becomes difficult to control and is sometimes fatal. We faced a 65-year-old man with ruptured duodenal varices and injected N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate into the spurting duodenal varices. As a result, oozing was successfully controlled. Subsequently, the patient remained hemodynamically stable, and no repeat -butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection was needed. He was final...

  3. Plasma transport of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma transport of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA was measured by four in vitro methods: trichloroacetic acid precipitation, electrophoresis, HPLC, and Scatchard binding isotherm. The data are in accord with protein transport, the main carrier being albumin with two categories of sites. This work suggests that after IV injection of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA in humans plasma protein binding is one of the limiting factors for the hepatic deposition of the radiopharmacentical. (orig.)

  4. Permeability of noble gases through Kapton, butyl, nylon, and 'Silver Shield'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble gas permeabilities and diffusivities of Kapton, butyl, nylon, and 'Silver Shield' are measured at temperatures between 22 and 115 deg. C. The breakthrough times and solubilities at 22 deg. C are also determined. The relationship of the room temperature permeabilities to the noble gas atomic radii is used to estimate radon permeability for each material studied. For the noble gases tested, Kapton and Silver Shield have the lowest permeabilities and diffusivities, followed by nylon and butyl, respectively.

  5. APPLICATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC PROCESS FOR REMOVAL OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER FROM HIGHLYCONTAMINATED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether is added to gasoline to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions by vehicles. The high mobility, water solubility, and resistance to natural attenuation associated with methyl tert-butyl ether may result in contamination of ground and surface waters. In this research the degradation of aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether at relatively high concentrations was investigated by UV-vis/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalytic process. The effect of important operational parameters such as pH, amount of H2O2, catalyst loading, and irradiation time were also studied. Concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and intermediates such as tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl alcohol were measured over a 180 min period using a gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector and combined with headspace sampler. Results showed that the time required for complete degradation increased from 30 to 180min, when the initial concentration was increased from 10 to 500mg/L. The first order rate constant for degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether from the hydroxyl radical was estimated to be 0.177 to 0.022 1/min as the concentration increased from 10 to 500mg/L. Study on the overall mineralization monitored by total organic carbon (TOC analysis showed that in the initial concentration of 100mg/L methyl tert-butyl ether, complete mineralization was obtained after 110min under UV-vis/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalytic process.

  6. Occupational exposures to new dry cleaning solvents: High-flashpoint hydrocarbons and butylal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Lee, Eun Gyung; Roberts, Jennifer; Streicher, Robert; Nourian, Fariba; Gong, Wei; Broadwater, Kendra

    2016-10-01

    The dry cleaning industry is moving away from using perchloroethylene. Occupational exposures to two alternative dry cleaning solvents, butylal and high-flashpoint hydrocarbons, have not been well characterized. We evaluated four dry cleaning shops that used these alternative solvents. The shops were staffed by Korean- and Cantonese-speaking owners, and Korean-, Cantonese-, and Spanish-speaking employees. Because most workers had limited English proficiency we used language services in our evaluations. In two shops we collected personal and area air samples for butylal. We also collected air samples for formaldehyde and butanol, potential hydrolysis products of butylal. Because there are no occupational exposure limits for butylal, we assessed employee health risks using control banding tools. In the remaining two shops we collected personal and area air samples for high-flashpoint hydrocarbon solvents. In all shops the highest personal airborne exposures occurred when workers loaded and unloaded the dry cleaning machines and pressed dry cleaned fabrics. The air concentrations of formaldehyde and butanol in the butylal shops were well below occupational exposure limits. Likewise, the air concentrations of high-flashpoint hydrocarbons were also well below occupational exposure limits. However, we saw potential skin exposures to these chemicals. We provided recommendations on appropriate work practices and the selection and use of personal protective equipment. These recommendations were consistent with those derived using control banding tools for butylal. However, there is insufficient toxicological and health information to determine the safety of butylal in occupational settings. Independent evaluation of the toxicological properties of these alternative dry cleaning solvents, especially butylal, is urgently needed. PMID:27105306

  7. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  8. Palladium electrodeposition in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In aqueous solutions, Pd electrodeposition is complicated by hydrogen embrittlement. As an alternative, ionic liquids have been suggested. However, the physical and chemical properties of each ionic liquid are unique. In this work, Pd electrodeposition was investigated on Ni at room temperature in one of the promising air- and water-stable ionic liquids, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide ([Bmpyrr][DCA]). The goal of this study was to elucidate kinetics of the Pd electro-reduction in [Bmpyrr][DCA] on Ni using current-time transient method (CTT) and its effect on the structure of the Pd deposits using chronoamperometry. The kinetics of the electrodeposition process was found to be limited by mass transfer. The nucleation and growth mechanism on Ni, extracted from the CTTs and analyzed using Scharifker and Hills model, showed potential dependence; at lower overpotential, the nucleation and growth was progressive that transitioned to instantaneous as the overpotential increased. Pd films obtained after potential holds for 30 min were crack-free and had a surface morphology that was less granular when overpotential increased showing clear potential-dependent nucleation and growth. Evidence of [Bmpyrr][DCA] on the surface of the Pd films was observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Pd films had well-defined crystallinity only after heat treatment at 600 °C

  9. Embolotherapy using N-butyl cyanoacrylate for abdominal wall bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Ho; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Cha, Joo Hee; Lee, Eun Hye; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    We describe our experience with the use of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of abdominal wall bleeding and we evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the procedure. Embolization was performed in nine patients with abdominal wall bleeding. The sites of embolization were the left first lumbar (n = 1), left second lumbar (n = 1), right inferior epigastric (n 2), left inferior epigastric (n = 3), right circumflex iliac (n = 1), and left circumflex iliac artery (n = 1). A coil was used with NBCA in one patient due to difficulty in selecting only a bleeding focus and anticipated reflux. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:4. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the embolization procedure, and the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Hemostasis was obtained in six out of the nine patients and technical success was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure-related complications. Four out of the nine patients died due to rebleeding of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), multiorgan failure (n = 1), and hepatic failure (n =2) that occurred two to nine days after the embolization procedure. One patient had rebleeding. The five surviving patients had no rebleeding, and the patients continue to visit the clinical on an outpatient basis. NBCA embolization is a clinically safe procedure and is effective for abdominal wall bleeding.

  10. Embolotherapy using N-butyl cyanoacrylate for abdominal wall bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe our experience with the use of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of abdominal wall bleeding and we evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the procedure. Embolization was performed in nine patients with abdominal wall bleeding. The sites of embolization were the left first lumbar (n = 1), left second lumbar (n = 1), right inferior epigastric (n 2), left inferior epigastric (n = 3), right circumflex iliac (n = 1), and left circumflex iliac artery (n = 1). A coil was used with NBCA in one patient due to difficulty in selecting only a bleeding focus and anticipated reflux. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:4. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the embolization procedure, and the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Hemostasis was obtained in six out of the nine patients and technical success was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure-related complications. Four out of the nine patients died due to rebleeding of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), multiorgan failure (n = 1), and hepatic failure (n =2) that occurred two to nine days after the embolization procedure. One patient had rebleeding. The five surviving patients had no rebleeding, and the patients continue to visit the clinical on an outpatient basis. NBCA embolization is a clinically safe procedure and is effective for abdominal wall bleeding

  11. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Pretreatment on Malaysia Lignocellulose Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are of great interest as potential solvents for the production of fuels from lignocellulose biomass which is a potential source of bio fuels. To study the effects of pretreatment, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([B mim]Cl) was used to pretreat woody plants, kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) and jelutong (Dyera costulata), and non-woody plants, kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and rice husk (Oryza sativa) at 120 degree Celsius for 24 h. Cellulose was regenerated by the addition of water. The cell wall composition and structure of the lignocellulose bio masses before and after the ILs pretreatment were observed and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out to identify the total reducing sugars (TRS) yields using dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Regenerated lignocellulose bio masses resulted in high TRS yields compared to their counter-parts which are in agreement with the findings of FESEM, ATR FT-IR and XRD that exhibited regenerated cellulose were less crystalline and more amorphous upon IL pretreatment. Therefore, kempas and jelutong can be alternate sources for the bio fuels production. (author)

  12. Strategies for production of butanol and butyl-butyrate through lipase-catalyzed esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxue; Basu, Anindya; Yang, Kun-Lin; He, Jianzhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a fermentation process for production of butanol and butyl-butyrate by using Clostridium sp. strain BOH3 is developed. This strain is able to produce butyric acid and butanol when it ferments 60 g/L xylose. Meanwhile, it also excreted indigenous lipases (induced by olive oil) which naturally convert butyric acid and butanol into 1.2 g/L of butyl-butyrate. When Bio-OSR was used as both an inducer for lipase and extractant for butyl-butyrate, the butyl-butyrate concentration can reach 6.3 g/L. To further increase the yield, additional lipases and butyric acid are added to the fermentation system. Moreover, kerosene was used as an extractant to remove butyl-butyrate in situ. When all strategies are combined, 22.4 g/L butyl-butyrate can be produced in a fed-batch reactor spiked with 70 g/L xylose and 7.9 g/L butyric acid, which is 4.5-fold of that in a similar system (5 g/L) with hexadecane as the extractant. PMID:26710347

  13. Degradation of n-butyl xanthate using fly ash as heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍华; 杜冬云

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous Fenton-like process using fly ash as a catalyst was studied to degrade n-butyl xanthate form aqueous solution. The different reaction parameters on the degradation efficiency of the process were investigated. The fly ash/H2O2 catalyst possesses a high oxidation activity for n-butyl xanthate degradation in aqueous solution. It is found that both the dosage of catalyst and initial solution pH significantly affect the n-butyl xanthate conversion efficient. The results indicate that by using 1.176 mmol/L H2O2 and 1.0 g/L fly ash catalyst with mass fraction of 4.14%Fe(III) oxide at pH 3.0, almost 96.90%n-butyl xanthate conversion and over 96.66%COD removal can be achieved within 120 min with heterogeneous catalysis by fly ash. CS2 as an intermediate of n-butyl xanthate oxidation. Finally, it is demonstrated that the fly ash/H2O2 catalytic oxidation process can be an efficient method for the treatment of n-butyl xanthate containing wastewater.

  14. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail: jaemdphd@gmail.com; Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  15. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices

  16. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

  17. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Seong, Chang Kyu; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding.

  18. Butyl acetate synthesis using immobilized lipase in calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The esterification reaction of acetic acid and n-butanol using immobilized lipase encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (Lipase - CAB) and in chitosan coated calcium alginate beads (Lipase-CCAB) in n-hexane under mild reaction conditions were studied. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration (acetic acid and n-butanol) using Lipase - CAB, Lipase - CCAB and free lipase on the esterification reaction and their thermal stability towards esterification reaction were investigated. Results of temperature studies showed that the butyl acetate conversion increased with increase of temperature and reached the highest yield of about 70% around 50 degree Celsius for both immobilized systems but the yield of product catalyzed by free enzyme decreased as temperature was increased. Thermal stabilities studies showed that the Lipase-CCAB and Lipase-CAB were stable throughout the temperature range of 30-60 degree Celsius. However, free lipase became less stable at temperatures higher than 50 degree Celsius. The substrates, n-butanol and acetic acid exerted different effects on the esterification reaction and the reaction was favoured by higher acetic acid concentration than butanol. Kinetics parameters, Km and Vmax values for both substrates and the specific activities of the three enzyme system were also determined. The beads morphology was examined using SEM. Batch-wise operational stability studies for both immobilized systems demonstrated that the immobilized lipase performed better in the batch wise reactor system than the continuous bioreactor system and that the immobilized lipase remained active for at least 5 cycles of batch wise esterification reactions. (author)

  19. Radiation-induced degradation of butyl rubber vulcanized by three different crosslinking systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butyl rubber (IIR) is an isobutylene/isoprene copolymer and is provided with good properties including low permeability to gases, good thermal stability and high resistance to oxygen and ozone action, among others. It is well known that the major effect of ionizing radiations on butyl rubber is chain scission accompanied with a significant reduction in molar mass. This work aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation on the properties of butyl rubbers vulcanized by three different curing systems, such as, the ones based on sulfur, sulfur donor and phenolic resin to identify which curing system is the most stable under irradiation. The butyl rubber vulcanized by three different systems was gamma irradiated with doses of 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by the following techniques: tensile, elongation and hardness. It was observed that doses higher than 150 kGy practically destroy the assessed properties for all butyl compounds, irrespective of the vulcanization system used; however compounds cured with phenolic resin showed a decrease in properties proportional to the dose. - Highlights: ► Butyl rubber (IIR) has a great variety of applications. ► In butyl rubber, initial stages of degradation indicate a random breaking of bonds in the polymer chain. ► IIR vulcanized samples with “sulfur”, “sulfur donors” and “resin” had different sensitivities when irradiated. ► Mechanical properties of compounds vulcanized by the three systems are reduced. ► Above 100 kGy there was a major prejudice in assessed properties for all the three systems.

  20. Effects of antioxidants on the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis during production of structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2005-01-01

    In the production process of structured lipids, the influence of the addition of antioxidants before enzymatic acidolysis was investigated. Eight different antioxidants were screened: butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, ascorbyl palmitate, citric acid, EDTA, a...

  1. High energy radiation effects on mechanical properties of butyl rubber compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozenato, Cristina A.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: cangioletto@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The high energy radiation on butyl rubber compounds causes a number of chemical reactions that occur after initial ionization and excitation events. These reactions lead to changes in molecular mass of the polymer through scission and crosslinking of the molecules, being able to affect the physical and mechanical properties. Butyl rubber has excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance as well as low gas and water vapor permeability. Due to all these properties butyl rubber is widely used industrially and particularly in tires manufacturing. In accordance with various authors, the major effect of high energy, such as gamma rays in butyl rubber, is the yielding of free-radicals along with changes in mechanical properties. There were evaluated effects imparted from high energy radiation on mechanical properties of butyl rubber compounds, non-irradiated and irradiated with 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy. It was also observed a sharp reducing in stress rupture and elongation at break for doses higher than 50 kGy, pointing toward changes in polymeric chain along build-up of free radicals and consequent degradation. (author)

  2. Thermal decomposition mechanism of p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chennakesavulu, K., E-mail: chennanml@yahoo.com [National Metallurgical Laboratory Madras Centre, CSIR Madras Complex, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India); Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600 119 (India); Sreedevi, P.; Raviathul Basaria, M. [National Metallurgical Laboratory Madras Centre, CSIR Madras Complex, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India); Ramanjaneya Reddy, G. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Guindy Campus, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Sasipraba, T. [International Research Centre, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600 119 (India); Bhaskar Raju, G.; Prabhakar, S. [National Metallurgical Laboratory Madras Centre, CSIR Madras Complex, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: • Systematic thermal decomposition, structural elucidation of intermediates at various quenched temperatures. • At solid state the phenolic free radical was quenched and was evidenced by recording stable EPR. • Since the lower decomposition energy these p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arenes can be used as a antioxidants for thermal stabilization of polyolefins. • Solid state NMR CP-MAS studies show the breakage of calixarene at bridged methylene. • Kinetic triplets of p-tert-butyl-calixarenes were determined by model free methods. - Abstract: Thermal decomposition of p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arene was studied using thermo gravimetry (TG) and differential thermo gram (DTG) methods. Non-isothermal TG was done under static air atmosphere with 1, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 K/min. Model-free methods such as Friedman and Flynn Wall Ozawa (FWO) were used to evaluate the kinetic parameters such as activation energy and exponential factors. The probable thermal decomposition mechanism was proposed by analyzing the quenched intermediate p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arene samples with FTIR, mass, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR cross polarization magic angle spectrometry (CP-MAS), EPR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The thermal stability of the polyolefins was checked with p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arene as an antioxidant additive.

  3. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent. PMID:27610302

  4. Endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate on esophagojejunal anastomotic leak: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelopoulos Stamatis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This case report describes an esophagojejunal anastomotic leak following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The leak was treated successfully with endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. This is the first case report on the endoscopic application of cyanoacrylate alone for the treatment of an anastomotic leak. Case presentation This report describes a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man who underwent surgery for gastric cancer. He underwent total gastrectomy and esophagojejunal anastomosis with Roux-en-Y anastomosis plus transverse colectomy. An anastomotic leak was treated conservatively at first for a total of three weeks. However, the leak persisted; therefore, the decision was made to apply topical endoscopic n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Conclusion The endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate alone can be used successfully to treat esophagojejunal anastomotic leakage.

  5. Molecular recognition study of ethosuximide by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supramolecule, p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene, forms inclusion complex with the antiseizure drug molecule, ethosuximide. This feature is explained on the basis of optical absorption spectroscopy. Here p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene is the host molecule and ethosuximide is the guest molecule. The stoichiometry of the host–guest complex and the binding constant has been determined using Benesi–Hildebrand plot. Based on the result obtained the structure of the inclusion complex has been proposed. -- Highlights: ► Third generation supramolecule, t-butyl calix (8) arene, is used as a host molecule. ► Anti seizure drug molecule is used as a guest molecule. ► Inclusion complex is formed between the host and guest molecule

  6. Percutaneous N-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a pancreatic pseudoaneurysm after failed attempts of transcatheter embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One common complication after major pancreatic surgery is bleeding. Herein we describe a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm which developed after pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for common bile duct cancer. Three attempts of transcatheter embolization failed since feeders to the pseudoaneurysm had unfavorable anatomy. Direct percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection was performed under fluoroscopy-guidance and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated. Percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided direct N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection may be a useful alternative when selective transcatheter embolization fails or is technically challenging.

  7. Temperature influence on mixing properties of {ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) + gasoline additives}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The densities and ultrasonic velocity of {ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) + (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, isooctane, tert-butyl alcohol, and ethanol)} over the temperature range (288.15 to 323.15) K and atmospheric pressure, have been measured over the whole concentration range. The experimental excess volumes and deviation of isentropic compressibilities data have been analysed in terms of different theoretical models. The gathered data improve open literature related to gasoline additives, and help to understand the ETBE volumetric and acoustic trend into different chemical environment

  8. Percutaneous N-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a pancreatic pseudoaneurysm after failed attempts of transcatheter embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ri Hyeon; Yoo, Roh Eul; Kim, Hyo Cheol [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    One common complication after major pancreatic surgery is bleeding. Herein we describe a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm which developed after pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for common bile duct cancer. Three attempts of transcatheter embolization failed since feeders to the pseudoaneurysm had unfavorable anatomy. Direct percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection was performed under fluoroscopy-guidance and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated. Percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided direct N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection may be a useful alternative when selective transcatheter embolization fails or is technically challenging.

  9. Irreversible H2-antagonism of the four isomeric butyl analogues of mifentidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaans, H M; Donetti, A; Kramer, K; Bietti, G; Cereda, E; Dubini, D; Mondini, M; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1990-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that bidentate hydrogen bonding plays an important role in the interaction of imidazolylphenylformamidines with the H2-receptor. The present study, in which the degree of pseudo-irreversible H2-antagonism of the four isomeric butyl substituted mifentidine analogues was determined on the spontaneously beating right atrium of the male guinea-pig, lends further support to this hypothesis. In solution the EE/EZ ratio is different for the four isomeric butylated mifentidine analogues. The rank order of the percentage of E,E conformation, which favors a bidentate interaction, of the formamidine moiety parallels the rank order of pseudo-irreversible H2-antagonism. PMID:1973582

  10. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a contaminant of concern to groundwater resources due to its persistence in subsurface environments. MTBE appears to be degraded readily in the presence of oxygen but is recalcitrant under the anaerobic conditions prevalent in the subsurface, and can be converted into the more toxic compound tert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as a renewable fuel and a replacement for MTBE in gasoline formulations, its potential impact on the biodegradation of pr...

  11. An alternative approach to synthesis of 2--butyl-5-nitrobenzofuran derivative: A key starting material for dronedarone hydrochloride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Raja Gopal; E R R Chandrashekar; M Saravanan; B Vijaya Bhaskar; P Veera Somaiah

    2012-09-01

    A practical synthesis of (2-butyl-5-nitrobenzofuran-3-yl)(4-hydroxyphenyl)methanone, a key intermediate in the preparation of anti arrhythmic drug, is described. The commercially available 4-nitrophenol (3) is converted in five steps to 2-butyl-5-nitrobenzofuran (9) which upon Friedel-Crafts acylation with 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride followed by deprotection of methyl group gives (2).

  12. 40 CFR 721.10193 - 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10193 Section 721.10193 Protection of...-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-06-263, Chemical B; CAS...

  13. Identification of mercury methylation product by tert-butyl compounds in aqueous solution under light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Tert-butyl alcohol and hydroperoxide are methyl donors of Hg photo-methylation. • The hydroxyl radical can initially promote the photo-methylation of inorganic Hg. • Excessive ·OH can lead to the degradation of MeHg. • MeHg can be produced via intramolecular methyl transfer. - Abstract: The methylation of mercury (Hg) is of great concern as methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic species, is produced. This study examined the possibilities of tert-butyl compounds (tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH)) and other alcohols serving as methyl donors for Hg photo-methylation under light irradiation. The yield of MeHg varied among the methyl donors, and it was also significantly influenced by salinity and pH. MeHg could be generated in the presence of TBH under visible light irradiation. The hydroxyl radical (·OH) was found to promote MeHg production at low levels, but degrade MeHg in excess. The photo-production of MeHg was tentatively proposed via the complexation of Hg and methyl donors, the formation of an intermediate (·O(Hg)C(CH3)3), and the intramolecular methyl transfer from methyl donors to Hg. This study implicates photoreactions between Hg and organic pollutants in understanding the fate and transformation of Hg in the aquatic environment

  14. A direct and sustainable synthesis of tertiary butyl esters enabled by flow microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degennaro, Leonardo; Maggiulli, Daniela; Carlucci, Claudia; Fanelli, Flavio; Romanazzi, Giuseppe; Luisi, Renzo

    2016-08-01

    Tertiary butyl esters find large applications in synthetic organic chemistry. A straightforward method for the direct introduction of the tert-butoxycarbonyl group into a variety of organic compounds has been developed using flow microreactor systems. The resultant flow process was more efficient, versatile and sustainable compared to the batch. PMID:27383138

  15. Percutaneous transhepatic embolization of biliary leakage with N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Gianpaolo Carrafiello; Anna Maria Ierardi; Filippo Piacentino; Larissa N Cardim

    2012-01-01

    Biliary leakage is a known complication after biliary surgery. In this report, we describe an uncommon treatment of a common biliary complication, wherein we used percutaneous transhepatic injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) to treat a biliary leak in an 83-year-old patient.

  16. Cirsoid renal arteriovenous malformation treated by endovascular embolization with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a rare case of renal arteriovenous malformation (rAVM) which was diagnosed by arteriography years after onset of intermittent haematuria. The rAVM of the cirsoid type was superselectively catheterized and embolized in toto with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate. Diagnostic imaging modalities and the technique of embolization are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Bilateral transrenal ureteral occlusion by means of n-butyl cyanoacrylate and AMPLATZER vascular plug

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Rosario F; Roberto Luigi Cazzato; Giacomo Luppi; Simona Mercurio; Francesco Giurazza; Riccardo Del Vescovo; Eliodoro Faiella; Bruno Beomonte Zobel

    2014-01-01

    AMPLATZER vascular plug is a widely used embolic agent. In the present paper, we present a case of an 86-year-old female patient who underwent bilateral ureteral occlusion by means of AMPLATZER vascular plug II coupled to n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) because of recurring pyelonephritis following cystectomy with subsequent bilateral ureterosigmoidostomy (sec. Mainz type II).

  18. Posttraumatic High-Flow Priapism Treated byN-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with high-flow priapism was treated by transcatheter embolization of a posttraumatic left cavernosal arteriovenous fistula using N-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA), resulting in complete detumescence. Erectile function has been preserved during a 3-month follow-up. Only two patients with NBCA embolization for high-flow priapism have been reported previously

  19. A case of successful ablation of a gastrophrenic fistula with n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Ashish; Rao, G; Lees, Gordon; Owen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman with a fistula between a subphrenic abscess and the fundus of the stomach was successfully treated with n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. Conservative management had failed. Clinical presentation, treatment progress and imaging findings by computed tomography scan, ultrasound, gastroscopy and fluoroscopy are presented, along with a brief review of the relevant literature.

  20. Bilateral transrenal ureteral occlusion by means of n-butyl cyanoacrylate and AMPLATZER vascular plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario F Grasso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AMPLATZER vascular plug is a widely used embolic agent. In the present paper, we present a case of an 86-year-old female patient who underwent bilateral ureteral occlusion by means of AMPLATZER vascular plug II coupled to n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA because of recurring pyelonephritis following cystectomy with subsequent bilateral ureterosigmoidostomy (sec. Mainz type II.

  1. N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and lipoidol pulmonary embolism (glue embolism)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glue embolisation is a rare happening and many clinicians who evaluate patients for post sclerotherapy problems may be unaware of this complication. We present a case of pulmonary embolism in a patient of cirrhosis liver secondary to gastric variceal sclerotherapy with N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and lipoidol solution. This is also called glue embolism. (author)

  2. N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate Embolization of Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: Presenting with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, B.J.; Kim, T.-K.; Seo, S.I.; Kyung, J.B.; Seol, H.Y.; Han, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) presenting with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Cure was achieved with endovascular treatment with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). A review of the literature revealed five cases of cervical SDAVF that presented with SAH. None of these cases were treated with NBCA.

  3. Kinetic Study of the Reaction between Tert-butyl Hydrazine and Nitrous Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The kinetic study of the reaction between tert-butyl hydrazine(TBH)and nitrous acid in nitric acid system is performed by spectrophotometry. The effect of some factors such as the concentration of TBH, the concentration of nitric acid, ionic strength, temperature and the

  4. Automatic mechanism generation for pyrolysis of di-tert-butyl sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Caleb A; Liu, Mengjie; Vandeputte, Aäron G; Green, William H

    2016-08-01

    The automated Reaction Mechanism Generator (RMG), using rate parameters derived from ab initio CCSD(T) calculations, is used to build reaction networks for the thermal decomposition of di-tert-butyl sulfide. Simulation results were compared with data from pyrolysis experiments with and without the addition of a cyclohexene inhibitor. Purely free-radical chemistry did not properly explain the reactivity of di-tert-butyl sulfide, as the previous experimental work showed that the sulfide decomposed via first-order kinetics in the presence and absence of the radical inhibitor. The concerted unimolecular decomposition of di-tert-butyl sulfide to form isobutene and tert-butyl thiol was found to be a key reaction in both cases, as it explained the first-order sulfide decomposition. The computer-generated kinetic model predictions quantitatively match most of the experimental data, but the model is apparently missing pathways for radical-induced decomposition of thiols to form elemental sulfur. Cyclohexene has a significant effect on the composition of the radical pool, and this led to dramatic changes in the resulting product distribution. PMID:27431650

  5. Energetic Materials Center Report--Small-Scale Safety and Thermal Testing Evaluation of Butyl Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

    2013-04-26

    Butyl Nitrate (BN) was examined by Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) Testing techniques to determine its sensitivity to impact, friction, spark and thermal exposure simulating handling and storage conditions. Under the conditions tested, the BN exhibits thermal sensitivity above 150 °C, and does not exhibit sensitive to impact, friction or spark.

  6. Ion-conductive polymer membranes containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate and 1-ethylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Sikora, Antonín; Plíšková, M.; Mališ, J.; Mazúr, P.; Paidar, M.; Bouzek, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 367, 1/2 (2011), s. 332-339. ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate * 1-ethylmethylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate * polymer electrolyte membrane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2011

  7. AN EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL BUTYL ETHER: INTERIM FINAL POSITION PAPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to determine the merit of a petition to remove ethylene glycol ether (EGBE) from the Agency's Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) list, EPA has developed an interim final position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, t...

  8. 2-Butyl-4-chloroimidazole based substituted piperazine-thiosemicarbazone hybrids as potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallapally, Anvesh; Addla, Dinesh; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Kantevari, Srinivas

    2014-12-01

    Here a series of 2-butyl-4-chloroimidazole based substituted piperazine-thiosemicarbazone hybrids were designed by combining three different pharmacophoric fragments in single molecular architecture. 2-Butyl-4-chloro-1-(3-(4-substituted)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carbaldehydes (4a-p) prepared by reacting carboxaldehyde 2 with N-alkyl piperazines 3a-p which were condensed with thiosemicarbazine to give desired compounds 5a-p in very good yields. Among all sixteen compounds screened for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB), two compounds (E)-2-((2-butyl-4-chloro-1-(3-(4-(o-tolyl) piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methylene)hydrazinecarbothioamide 5e and (E)-2-((2-butyl-4-chloro-1-(3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methylene) hydrazine carbothioamide 5f were found to be the most potent antitubercular agents (MIC: 3.13 μg/mL) with low toxicity profile. PMID:25451998

  9. A new efficient synthesis of isothiocyanates from amines using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik; Hansen, Jon S.; Pittelkow, Michael;

    2008-01-01

    Alkyl and aryl amines are converted smoothly to the corresponding isothiocyanates via the dithiocarbamates in good to excellent yields using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc(2)O) and 1-3 mol% of DMAP or DABCO as catalyst. As most of the byproducts are volatile, the work-up involves simple evaporation...

  10. 75 FR 44184 - Aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al.; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al..., etofenprox, fenbutatin-oxide, fosthiazate, propetamphos, and tebufenozide; the fungicides aluminum tris(O... for aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate) on pineapple fodder and forage because they are not...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Decai; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xinxin; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary. PMID:27313307

  12. Di-tert-butyl 1-[2-hydroxy-3-(methylsulfanylpropyl]hydrazine-1,2-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Bai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H28N2O5S, was synthesized by the reaction of 2-[(methylsulfanylmethyl]oxirane with di-tert-butyl oxalate in hydrazine hydrate. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds into supramolecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction.

  13. A new steroidal compound (β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl isolated from Caesalpinia gilliesii flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mohamed Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of total extracts from leaves, flowers and pods of Caesalpinia gilliesii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinoideae. In addition, a detailed phytochemical investigation of flower extracts was carried out to isolate and elucidate the structures of the bioactive compounds. Flower extract was the most cytotoxic against MCF7 and HepG2 cancer cells with IC50 values of 10 and 15.6 µg/mL, respectively. A new β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was isolated from dichloromethane fraction of flowers together with another known sterol (daucosterol, and two flavonoids (isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnoside. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was the most active compound against both HepG2 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 13.1 and 14.4 µg/mL, respectively. Isorhamnetin possesses a moderate antioxidant activity with an IC50 value 370 µg/mL as determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay.Industrial relevance. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl and the other phytosterols are responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extracts which would correlate with the known abortifacient, antimalarial and anthelmintic properties, which can provide a cheap alternative drug.Keywords. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant; Caesalpinia gilliesii; β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl; daucosterol; isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside

  14. Voltammetric determination of butylated hydroxyanisol in biodiesel, mineral and synthetic oils using gold electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomášková, M.; Chýlková, J.; Jehlička, V.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šelešovská, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2013 (2013), s. 155-172. ISSN 1211-5541 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-21409P Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : voltammetry * butylated hydroxyanisol * gold electrode Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. Simultaneous clostridial fermentation, lipase-catalyzed esterification, and ester extraction to enrich diesel with butyl butyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C. van den; Heeres, A.S.; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of 1-butanol from fermentation broth is energy-intensive since typical concentrations in fermentation broth are below 20gL -1. To prevent butanol inhibition and high downstream processing costs, we aimed at producing butyl esters instead of 1-butanol. It is shown that it is possible to

  16. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydrid...

  17. Polypyrrole-coated styrene-butyl acrylate copolymer composite particles with tunable conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liyan; HOU Wenbo; LIU Zhengping; ZHANG Qingyue

    2005-01-01

    A series of near or monodisperse styrene-butyl acrylate (SBA) copolymer latex particles with different butyl acrylate contents were coated with polypyrrole. The structure of the SBA/PPy composites was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and standard four-probe method. The core-shell morphology of the SBA/PPy composite particles was confirmed. The result of DSC showed that Tg of the composite is mainly determined by the core component. The effects of the concentration of polypyrrole, the butyl acrylate content in SBA copolymer and the nature of the counter-anion on the electrical conductivity of compression-moulded samples were studied. It was first found that the electrical conductivity of the samples can be tuned by varying the butyl acrylate content in SBA copolymer and the highest conductivity of the core-shell composite was 0.17 S·cm-1.

  18. INFLUENCE OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) ON LAKE WATER ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as an octane booster in gasoline in the United States since the 1970s. MTBE use increased greatly in the 1990s with the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The MTBE enhanced a more complete combustion of fuel hydroc...

  19. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or unprotected peptides.

  20. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or unpro

  1. (R-N-{2-tert-Butyl-2-[(R-tert-butylsulfonamido]ethylidene}-tert-butanesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Bin Fan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H30N2O2S2, is the product of the monoaddition reaction of tert-butyl magnesium chloride with bis-[(R-N-tert-butanesulfinyl]ethanediimine. There are two almost identical molecules in the asymmetric unit, the molecular conformation of which is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond.

  2. Percutaneous transhepatic embolization of biliary leakage with N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpaolo Carrafiello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biliary leakage is a known complication after biliary surgery. In this report, we describe an uncommon treatment of a common biliary complication, wherein we used percutaneous transhepatic injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA to treat a biliary leak in an 83-year-old patient.

  3. A thermal lensing study of a photolysis of di- t-butyl peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, K.; Hasegawa, A.; Ueda, M.; Itoh, M.

    1981-11-01

    A photolysis of di- t-butyl peroxide (BOOB) was studied by using a thermal lensing technique. This technique is found to be applicable to the determination Of the rate Constants of the decay of t-butoxy radical (BO ) and the hydrogen abstraction reaction.

  4. Optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distillation☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Tian; Suying Zhao; Huidong Zheng; Zhixian Huang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous investigation, a simulation model was used for optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distil ation. An experimental setup was established to verify the simulated results. The effects of various operating variables, such as ethanol feed location, acetic acid feed location, feed stage of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, and distil-late to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate column, on the ethanol/n-butanol conversions, ethyl acetate/n-butyl acetate purity, and energy consumption were investigated. The optimal results in the simulation study are as follows:ethanol feed location, 15th stage;acetic acid feed location, eighth stage;feed location of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, eighth stage;reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, 2.0;and distillate to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate, 0.6.

  5. Gas chromatographic determination of Di-n-butyl phosphate in radioactive lean organic solvent of FBTR carbide fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work Di-n- butyl phosphate (DBP) a degraded product of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) formed by acid hydrolysis and radiolysis in the PUREX process was analyzed. Lean organic streams of different fuel burn-up FBTR carbide fuel reprocessing solution was determined by standard Gas Chromatographic technique. The method involves the conversion of non-volatile Di-n-butyl phosphate into volatile and stable derivatives by the action of diazomethane and then determined by Gas Chromatograph (GC). A calibration graph was made for DBP concentration range of 200-2000 ppm with correlation coefficient of 0.99587 and RSD 1.2 %. (author)

  6. Cyhalofop-butyl has the potential to induce developmental toxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in early life stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyhalofop-butyl is a selective herbicide widely employed in paddy field, which can transfer into aquatic environments. However, details of the environmental risk and aquatic toxicity of cyhalofop-butyl have not been fully investigated. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to a range of cyhalofop-butyl until 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf) to assess embryonic toxicity of the chemical. Our results demonstrated that cyhalofop-butyl was highly toxic to zebrafish embryos, with concentration-dependent negative effects in embryonic development. In addition, exposure to cyhalofop-butyl resulted in significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell apoptosis in heart area. The mRNA levels of the genes related to oxidative stress and apoptosis were also altered significantly after cyhalofop-butyl exposure. Moreover, the activity of capspase-9 and caspase-3 were significantly increased. Therefore, we speculated that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis should be responsible for abnormal development during embryogenesis after cyhalofop-butyl exposure. - Highlights: • Cyhalofop-butyl can induce developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. • Cyhalofop-butyl can induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. • Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis might be responsible for abnormal development. - Cyhalofop-butyl could induce negative effects in embryonic development. The cyhalofop-butyl – induced developmental toxicity could be explained by oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

  7. 2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-[1-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenylethyl]phenyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincai Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C37H52O4S, was obtained by the reaction of 6,6′-(ethane-1,1-diylbis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonyl chloride. The molecular conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond. Two of the tert-butyl groups are disordered over two sets of sites with occupancies 0.530 (15/0.470 (15 and 0.615 (11/0.385 (11.

  8. Isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria and excess enthalpy data of {1-hexene + methyl butyl ether (MBE)} and {1-hexene + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)} binary systems at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Vapor pressures of (1-hexene + methyl butyl ether) or (1-hexene + methyl tert-butyl ether) are reported between (263 and 363) K. ► The two mixtures exhibit positive GE. ► Additionally, molar excess enthalpies, HE, for the two binary systems have been measured at 303.15. - Abstract: The vapor pressures of {1-hexene + methyl butyl ether (MBE)} and {1-hexene + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)} binary mixtures and of the three pure components were measured by means of a static device at temperatures between (263 and 333) K. The data were correlated with the Antoine equation. From these data, excess Gibbs functions were calculated for several constant temperatures and fitted to a third-order Redlich–Kister equation using the Barker’s method. Additionally, molar excess enthalpies, HE, for the two binary systems have been measured at 303.15 K using an isothermal flow calorimeter.

  9. Portal Hypertension Secondary to Spontaneous Arterio-Portal Venous Fistulas: Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Microcoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 73-year-old man with recurrent variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension caused by multiple intrahepatic arterio-portal venous fistulas, which were successfully occluded by embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and micro-coils

  10. Transcatheter Embolization of a Coronary Fistula Originating from the Left Anterior Descending Artery by Using N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we describe a successful percutaneous transcatheter n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate embolization of a coronary fistula originating from the left anterior descending artery in an adolescent with unexpected recurrent attacks of myocardial ischemia

  11. Studies on acrylated epoxydised triglyceride resin-co-butyl methacrylate towards the development of biodegradable pressure sensitive adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S Begila; Sathiyalekshmi, K; Gnana Raj, G Allen

    2009-12-01

    The potential chemical utility of Soya bean oil for the preparation of novel biodegradable polymeric pressure sensitive adhesive has been investigated. Epoxy resin was prepared through in situ epoxidation of Soya bean oil under controlled reaction conditions. Acrylated epoxidised triglyceride resin (AET resin) and copolymer of AET resin with butyl methacrylate were prepared and evaluated. Higher the concentration of butyl methacrylate higher is the degree of copolymerization of AET resin with butyl methacrylate. An optimum concentration of AET resin with butyl methacrylate (100 : 0.40) yields favourable shear holding time and peel strength to qualify as pressure sensitive adhesive. The candidate PSA formulation is biodegradable with antimicrobial activity against gram positive S. aureus ATCC 25923. PMID:18584126

  12. Recanalization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 65-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having microscopic polyangiitis developed sudden abdominal pain and entered a state of shock. Abdominal CT showed massive hemoperitoneum, and emergent angiography revealed a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm. After direct catheterization attempts failed due to tortuous vessels and angiospasm, transcatheter arterial embolization using an n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture was successfully performed. Fifty days later, the patient developed sudden abdominal pain again. Repeated angiography demonstrated recanalization of the splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysm. This time, the recanalized aneurysm was embolized using metallic coils with the isolation method. Physicians should keep in mind that recanalization can occur after transcatheter arterial embolization using N-butyl cyanoacrylate, which has been used as a permanent embolic agent.

  13. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping

    2016-02-01

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP.

  14. Changes in physical properties and molecular structure of butyl rubber during γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butyl rubber samples have been aged by γ-irradiation at 250C in air. The change in molecular structure due to chain scission and formation of oxygenated groups also change the number-average molecular weight, tensile strength and density of butyl rubber. The rubber predominantly undergoes chain scission upon γ-irradiation up to a dose of 50 Mrad, but there is also substantial chain crosslinking above 50 Mrad. The yield G(x) has been found, which provides an insight into the mechanism of the radiolytic degradation. Hydroperoxide is the major product and unsaturation is incorporated in the polymer back bone. The change in molecular structure due to recombination and chain scission are followed by the formation of a more ordered structure and hence an increase in density. (author)

  15. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C

    2016-09-20

    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique. PMID:27261731

  16. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mark H.

    2011-07-13

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  17. Crystal structure of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium dicarba-7,8-nido-undecaborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Klemes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C9H17N2+·C2H12B9−, the carborane cage has a bridging B—H—B bond on the open B3C2 face. The butyl side chain of the cation adopts an extended conformation [C—C—C—C = 179.6 (1°]. In the crystal, the imidazolium ring is almost coplanar with the open face of the carborane anion. The cations stack in the [010] direction and the dihedral angle between the imidazolium rings of adjacent cations is 68.45 (6°. The butyl chains extend into the space between carborane anions.

  18. Study on adsorption and desorption properties of the starch grafted p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arene for butyl Rhodamine B solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorbents of starch grafted p-tert-butyl-calix[4,6,8]arene-SGCn (SGC4, SGC6, SGC8) are prepared. The products are characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope. Static adsorption behavior is studied by using SGC8 as adsorbent, butyl Rhodamine B (BRB) solution as simulation dye wastewater. The adsorption of BRB onto SGC8 fits the second order kinetic model and the apparent adsorption rate constant is 0.002 g mg-1 min-1 at 25 deg. C. The equilibrium adsorption data are interpreted using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of BRB onto SGC8 is better represented by the Langmuir equation. The thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption reaction are calculated through van't Hoff analysis. The adsorbent may be easily regenerated by using ethanol solution as desorption agent to extract dye from SGC8. The rate of desorption of BRB is dependent on the concentration of ethanol and the temperature. SGC8 exhibits excellent adsorption and desorption properties toward dye molecule. The new-style adsorbent of SGC8 is regarded as a potential adsorbent to deal with dye or organic wastewater.

  19. Combined toxicities of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolite tert-butyl alcohol on earthworms via different exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Yoon, Youngdae; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-06-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) are among the major soil contaminants that threaten the health of soil ecosystems. Many MTBE-contaminated sites accumulate TBA, because TBA is the intermediate of MTBE biodegradation. To access the risk of MTBE and TBA in soil, we investigated the combined toxicities of MTBE and TBA using two earthworm species, Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei, as well as the toxic effects via different exposure routes. The combined toxicity showed weak antagonistic effects (LC50mix values were slightly greater than 1.0), and sensitivity toward same pollutants differed in the two earthworm species. Moreover, the toxicity of MTBE and TBA was also affected by the exposure route; both filter paper and artificial soil tests showed that dermal-only exposure to MTBE had an even greater toxic effect than combined dermal and oral exposure. Thus, we suggest that diverse environmental factors including organic materials, the physicochemical properties of the contact media, and the exposure routes of the organism, should be taken into consideration when assessing the effects of pollutants on organisms in diverse environmental systems. PMID:25706436

  20. Tri-n-butyl phosphate - the universal solvent for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri-n-butyl phosphates (TBP) is now Widely used in the processes of solvent extraction, especially in those, used in nuclear fuel cycle. Problems, related with actinide separation and purification, can be solved easily by accurate sampling of diluent, concentration and purification degree of a solvent, aqueous phase acidity and temperature. Physical and chemical properties of TBP, mechanism of actinide solvent extraction, TBP hydrolysis and radiolysis are considered

  1. 1-[(E-2-(5-tert-Butyl-2-hydroxyphenyldiazen-1-yl]naphthalen-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba Bougueria

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The non-H atoms of the title compound, C20H20N2O2, is located on a mirror plane except two methyl groups of the tert-butyl group. Intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds exist between the hydroxy and diazenyl groups. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds into supramolecular chains running along the a-axis direction.

  2. The relationship between crystal structure and NMR relaxation in molecular solids with tert-butyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rheingold, Arnold L.; DiPasquale, Antonio G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Beckmann, Peter A. [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Avenue, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010-2899 (United States)], E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu

    2008-04-03

    We correlate an X-ray determination of the molecular and crystal structures of 2-tert-butylanthracene and 2-tert-butylanthraquinone reported here with the previously reported dynamical nuclear magnetic resonance determination of the motions of the tert-butyl groups and their resident methyl groups in the solid state [P.A. Beckmann, K.S. Burbank, M.M.W. Lau, J.N. Ree, T.L. Weber, Chem. Phys. 290 (2003) 241].

  3. The relationship between crystal structure and NMR relaxation in molecular solids with tert-butyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We correlate an X-ray determination of the molecular and crystal structures of 2-tert-butylanthracene and 2-tert-butylanthraquinone reported here with the previously reported dynamical nuclear magnetic resonance determination of the motions of the tert-butyl groups and their resident methyl groups in the solid state [P.A. Beckmann, K.S. Burbank, M.M.W. Lau, J.N. Ree, T.L. Weber, Chem. Phys. 290 (2003) 241

  4. Transdermal Uptake of Diethyl Phthalate and Di(n-butyl) Phthalate Directly from Air: Experimental Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2015-01-01

    Background Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake of phthalate esters. Objectives This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods In a series of experiments, six h...

  5. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Congkui Tian; Jinren Ni; Fang Chang; Sitong Liu; Nan Xu; Weiling Sun; Yuan Xie; Yongzhao Guo; Yanrong Ma; Zhenxing Yang; Chenyuan Dang; Yuefei Huang; Zhexian Tian; Yiping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid path...

  6. Biodegradation of di-n-Butyl Phthalate by Achromobacter sp. Isolated from Rural Domestic Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Decai Jin; Xiao Kong; Yujie Li; Zhihui Bai; Guoqiang Zhuang; Xuliang Zhuang; Ye Deng

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial strain W-1, isolated from rural domestic wastewater, can utilize the environmental hormone di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as the sole carbon and energy source. The isolated bacterium species was confirmed to belong to the genus Achromobacter based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The results of substrate utilization tests showed that the strain W-1 could utilize other common phthalates and phenol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for D...

  7. Cerebral and splenic infarctions after injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in esophageal variceal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Dae-Seong; Chung, Cho-Yun; Park, Hyung-Chul; Kim, Jong-Sun; Cho, Sung-Bum; Lee, Wan-Sik; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Joo, Young-Eun

    2013-01-01

    Variceal bleeding is the most serious complication of portal hypertension, and it accounts for approximately one fifth to one third of all deaths in liver cirrhosis patients. Currently, endoscopic treatment remains the predominant method for the prevention and treatment of variceal bleeding. Endoscopic treatments include band ligation and injection sclerotherapy. Injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate has been successfully used to treat variceal bleeding. Although injection scle...

  8. n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Synthesis. A New Quality Step Using Microwaves

    OpenAIRE

    Yaquelin Ramos Carriles; Rubén Álvarez Brito; Ricardo Martínez Sánchez; Elayma Sánchez Acevedo; Paola Rodríguez Domínguez; Wolf-Dieter Mueller

    2014-01-01

    Alkyl cyanoacrylates are interesting products for use in industry because of their properties enabling them to stick together a wide range of substrates. n-Butyl cyanoacrylate is one of the most successfully used tissue adhesives in the field of medicine because it exhibits bacteriostatic and haemostatic characteristics, in addition to its adhesive properties. At present, its synthesis is performed with good yields via Knoevenagel condensation using conventional sources of heating, but this r...

  9. Bronchoscopic management of bronchopleural fistula with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl cyanoacrylate)

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Rakesh K.; Arun Madan; P K Bhardwaj; Kiran Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Context: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a communication between the pleural space and bronchial tree. Materials and Methods: A series of 9 cases are reported where BPF was identified and managed with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl-cyanoacrylate) through a video bronchoscope. Results: Out of 9 patients the BPF was successfully sealed in 8 cases (88.88%). In 1 patient of postpneumonectomy, the fistula was big, that is >8 mm who had a recurrence after the procedure. In one case of...

  10. Endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate on esophagojejunal anastomotic leak: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Angelopoulos Stamatis; Mantzoros Ioannis; Kanellos Ioannis; Vrakas Georgios; Pramateftakis Manousos-Georgios; Eleftheriades Efthymios; Lazarides Charalampos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This case report describes an esophagojejunal anastomotic leak following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The leak was treated successfully with endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. This is the first case report on the endoscopic application of cyanoacrylate alone for the treatment of an anastomotic leak. Case presentation This report describes a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man who underwent surgery for gastric cancer. He underwent total gastrectom...

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of the Transformations in Hibiscus sabdariffa-graft-poly(butyl acrylate)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaith, B. S.; Chauhan, Aashish

    2008-01-01

    Different reaction parameters for the graft copolymerization of butyl acrylate onto Hibiscus sabdariffa fiber were optimized. Graft copolymers thus obtained were subjected to characterization using XRD, TGA, DTA, SEM and FTIR techniques and were evaluated for physio-chemical changes in the behavior. The percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index were found to decrease with increase in grafting while there was reduction in moisture absorption and increase in chemical, thermal resistance ...

  12. Use of a Balloon and N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate for Treatment of Arteriovenous Fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a patient who developed a large arteriovenous fistula in right lower extremity after gunshot injury. Because other endovascular methods failed, the patient was successfully treated with concomitant use of detachable latex balloon and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). The combination of detachable balloon and NBCA can be effectively used for endovascular treatment of peripheral arteriovenous fistulas in selected cases when effective embolization could not be achieved with other embolizing agents or their various combinations.

  13. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene sulfonate aggregates in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O R Pal; V G Gaikar; J V Joshi; P S Goyal; V K Aswal

    2004-08-01

    The aggregation behaviour of a hydrotrope, sodium -butyl benzene sulfonate (Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope seems to form self-assemblies with aggregation number of 36–40 with a substantial charge on the aggregate. This aggregation number is weakly affected by the hydrotrope concentration.

  14. The preparation and characterisation of poly(butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Stephen John

    1985-01-01

    Poly (butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles have been prepared with a range of particle sizes by varying the nature and concentration of stabiliser added to the polymerisation medium. Particle size analysis was performed by photon correlation spectroscopy. The range of diameters produced using dextran stabilisers was found to be approximately 100 to 800nm. This could be extended to 3ym using j3 -cyclodextrin and to 20nm using polysorbate 20. The results infer that the nanoparticles are sterica...

  15. Effect of Impeller Agitation on Preparation of Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semiclathrate Hydrate Slurries

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiro Inoue; Kazunari Ohgaki; Shunsuke Hashimoto; Hiroyuki Ito

    2012-01-01

    The slurries-containing tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) solution and its semiclathrate hydrate have attracted a lot of interest as latent heat transport media. These hydrate slurries contain some microparticles of crystal, and the size and shape of these hydrate particles could affect the mobility of slurries. Hence, it is essential to investigate the efficient hydrate-slurry preparation methods and the effect of hydrate particles on the fluid property of slurries for the application to...

  16. Effect of solvents on scandium extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of solvents on scandium extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions by tri-n-butyl phosphate is studied. Analysis are presented of peculiarities of scandium distribution in two organic phases formed as a result of stratification when paraffin hydrocarbons are used as solvents. One--parameter correlations lgDSc with more then 80 parameters of solvents are considered. Correlations possessing the best statistical characteristics are selected

  17. Crystal structures of three complexes of zinc chloride with tri-tert-butyl­phosphane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Aaron D.; Gray, Danielle L.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Under anhydrous conditions and in the absence of a Lewis-base solvent, a zinc chloride complex with tri-tert-butyl­phosphane as the μ-bridged dimer is formed, viz. di-μ-chlorido-bis­[chlorido­bis­(tri-tert-butyl­phosphane)zinc], [ZnCl4(C12H27P)2], (1), which features a nearly square-shaped (ZnCl)2 cyclic core and whose Cl atoms inter­act weakly with C—H groups on the phosphane ligand. In the presence of THF, monomeric di­chlorido­(tetra­hydro­furan-κO)(tri-tert-butyl­phosphane-κP)zinc, [ZnCl2(C4H8O)(C12H27P)] or [P(tBu3)(THF)ZnCl2], (2), is formed. This slightly distorted tetra­hedral Zn complex has weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions between the Cl atoms and phosphane and THF C—H groups. Under ambient conditions, the hydrolysed complex tri-tert-butyl­phospho­nium aqua­tri­chlorido­zincate 1,2-di­chloro­ethane monosolvate, (C12H28P)[ZnCl3(H2O)]·C2H4Cl2 or [HPtBu3]+ [(H2O)ZnCl3]−·C2H4Cl2, (3), is formed. This complex forms chains of [(H2O)ZnCl3]− anions from hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the water H atoms and Cl atoms that propagate along the b axis. PMID:26870580

  18. Stark effect in the J = 3 4 microwave line of tert-butyl chloride molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierszal, S.; Mis-Kuzminska, E.; Stankowski, J.; Galica, J.

    1984-03-01

    Stark effect in the J = 3 - 4 transition spectrum of the tert-butyl chloride has been investigated. The perturbation of the rotational levels by combined effect of the quadrupole and an intermediate electric fields was calculated and used for identify the Stark components. The rotational spectrum of tert-butyl chloride /CH 3/ 3CCl is characterised by the rotational constants A = 4518.70 MHz[1] and B = 3017.85 MHz, dipole moment U= 2.12 D, and quadrupole interaction constant eqQ = -67.58 MHz [2,3]. The energy of rotational states of the tert-butyl chloride molecule is described by the Hamiltonian ? where H 0 is the unperturbed rotational energy, H Q that of interaction of the angular momentum and quadrupole moment of the chlorine nucleus, and H E the Stark energy. Since H Q ˜ H E for the electric field strengths applied during the present investigation, we are dealing with the case of intermediate fields. To solve the problem theoretically we had recourse to the representation in F-space and calculated the energy for the perturbation H Q + H E as done by Low and Townes [4]. The theoretical distances of the Stark components from the absorption line of tert-butyl chloride for various electric field strengths at J = 3 - 4 and ΔM F = 0 is shown in Fig. 1a and 1b. We applied the theoretically calculated distances of the Stark components from the absorption line of /CH 3/ 3CCl as function of the electric field strength as well as the relative intensities of the components in order to interpret our experimental results concerning the Stark effect.

  19. Bis(1-tert-butyl-1H-imidazole-κN3)dichloridocobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Zeller, Alexander; Strassner, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [CoCl(2)(C(7)H(12)N(2))(2)], molecular units are formed by coordination of the unsubstituted N atoms of two tert-butyl-substituted imidazole molecules and two chloride ligands, which distinguishes the complex from structures of imidazolium-based dications with tetrachloridocobaltate dianions. There are two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, related by a noncrystallographic inversion centre. PMID:22669189

  20. Crystal structures of three complexes of zinc chloride with tri-tert-butyl-phosphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Aaron D; Gray, Danielle L; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Under anhydrous conditions and in the absence of a Lewis-base solvent, a zinc chloride complex with tri-tert-butyl-phosphane as the μ-bridged dimer is formed, viz. di-μ-chlorido-bis-[chlorido-bis-(tri-tert-butyl-phosphane)zinc], [ZnCl4(C12H27P)2], (1), which features a nearly square-shaped (ZnCl)2 cyclic core and whose Cl atoms inter-act weakly with C-H groups on the phosphane ligand. In the presence of THF, monomeric di-chlorido-(tetra-hydro-furan-κO)(tri-tert-butyl-phosphane-κP)zinc, [ZnCl2(C4H8O)(C12H27P)] or [P(tBu3)(THF)ZnCl2], (2), is formed. This slightly distorted tetra-hedral Zn complex has weak C-H⋯Cl inter-actions between the Cl atoms and phosphane and THF C-H groups. Under ambient conditions, the hydrolysed complex tri-tert-butyl-phospho-nium aqua-tri-chlorido-zincate 1,2-di-chloro-ethane monosolvate, (C12H28P)[ZnCl3(H2O)]·C2H4Cl2 or [HPtBu3](+) [(H2O)ZnCl3](-)·C2H4Cl2, (3), is formed. This complex forms chains of [(H2O)ZnCl3](-) anions from hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the water H atoms and Cl atoms that propagate along the b axis. PMID:26870580

  1. (2-tert-Butyl-5-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxan-5-ylmethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Vargas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H20O4, the dioxane ring adopts a chair conformation. The tert-butyl group occupies an equatorial position, and is staggered with respect to the O atoms of the dioxane ring. In the crystal, molecules are connected by O—H...O hydrogen-bonds into zigzag chains of R44(8 and R22(12 ring motifs that run parallel to the a axis.

  2. Adsorption of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether on Granular Zeolites: Batch and Column Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Lail, Laila; Bergendahl, John A.; Thompson, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be readily removed from water with powdered zeolites, but the passage of water through fixed beds of very small powdered zeolites produces high friction losses not encountered in flow through larger sized granular materials. In this study, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of MTBE onto granular zeolites, a coconut shell granular activated carbon (CS-1240), and a commercial carbon adsorbent (CCA) sample was evaluated. In addition, the effec...

  3. Two Cases of Adrenal Abscesses Following Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate) Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bo Young; Jang, Jae Young; Jeong, Soung Won; Bok, Gene Hyun; Ham, Jeong Ho; Cho, Joo Young; Lee, Joon Seong; Shim, Chan Sup

    2011-01-01

    We report two cases of adrenal abscesses that occurred following a Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate) injection for variceal bleeding. Patients had been diagnosed with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and gastric varices bleeding and received a Histoacryl® injection for the variceal bleeding. Patients had fever and abdominal tenderness and were diagnosed with an adrenal abscess at 2 months following the Histoacryl® injection. One patient received open drainage and the other underwent percutaneous ...

  4. Reactivity Ratios for Microemulsion Copolymerization of N-butyl Maleimide and Styrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oil-in-water microemulsion containing N-butyl maleimide(NBMI, M1) and styrene(St, M2) was prepared. The complexation properties of NBMI and St in microemulsion were investigated by means of 1H-NMR. With the participation of charge-transfer complex(CTC), four reactivity ratios and the relative reactivity of free monomers and CTC were obtained. The result was compared with that measured by Mayo-Lewis method.

  5. Alkylation of C60. Reaction between C60 anions and tert-butyl chloride and mass spectrometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, S.; Chaurand, P.; Ciot, C.; Della-Negra, S.; Fabre, C.; Greugny, V.; Marx, L.; Rassat, A.; Rousseau, A.

    1996-11-01

    Alkylation of C60 in tetrahydrofuran with tert-butyl chloride and lithium gives a variety of products. Adducts of general formula C60Hn(t-Bu)qOx(thf)y (where t-Bu is the tert-butyl group and thf the tetrahydrofuryl group (C4H7O)) have been detected by mass spectrometry, with n <= 8, q + y <= 18 and x = 0, 1, 2 depending on experimental conditions. IR and NMR spectra of products confirm these assignments.

  6. Analysis of di-n-butyl phthalate and other organic pollutants in Chongqing women undergoing parturition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 40 healthy women from Chongqing undergoing parturition were recruited and samples of venous blood, umbilical cord blood, breast milk and urine were collected for analysis of organic pollutants by GC/MS. A total of 292 different organic pollutants were detected, including 156 in venous blood, 139 in umbilical cord blood, 176 in breast milk and 138 in urine. Nine different PAEs were detectable in the samples: di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methylpropyl) phthalate, butyl-8-methyl-nonyl phthalate, di-ethyl phthalate, butyl-2-methylpropyl phthalate, butyloctyl phthalate, di-dodecyl phthalate, di-isodecyl phthalate, and di-tridecyl phthalate. DBP was one of the chemicals detected at the highest frequency (48.82%). DBP concentrations were 84.75 ± 33.52, 52.23 ± 32.50, 57.78 ± 35.42 and 24.93 ± 18.67 μg/l in venous blood, umbilical cord blood, breast milk and urine, respectively. This study represents the first investigation of organic pollutants in a Chongqing population. - This study represents the first investigation of organic pollutants in a Chongqing population

  7. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to ∼143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study

  8. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  9. Vapour phase alkylation of ethylbenzene with -butyl alcohol over mesoporous Al-MCM-41 molecular sieves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Umamaheswari; M Palanichamy; Banumathi Arabindoo; V Murugesan

    2002-06-01

    The alkylation of ethylbenzene with -butyl alcohol was studied over Al-MCM-41 (Si/Al = 50 and 90) and Al, Mg-MCM-41 (Si/(Al + Mg) =50) in the vapour phase from 200 to 400°C. The products were --butylethylbenzene (--BEB), --butylvinylbenzene (--BVB) and --butylethylbenzene ( --BEB). Ethylbenzene conversion decreased with increase in temperature and increase in the ethylbenzene content of the feed. The reaction between the freely diffusing ethylbenzene in the channel and the -butyl cations remaining as charge compensating ions yielded --BEB. --BVB, an unexpected product in this investigation, was produced by dehydrogenation of --BEB over alumina particles present in the channels of the molecular sieves. Adsorption of ethylbenzene on Brønsted acid sites and its subsequent reaction with very closely adsorbed -butyl cations proved to be necessary to obtain --BEB. Though --BEB was obtained, the corresponding --butylvinylbenzene was not observed in this study. Study of time durations indicated rapid and slow catalyst deactivation at lower and higher streams respectively.

  10. Discovery and application of new bacterial strains for asymmetric synthesis of L-tert-butyl leucine in high enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Zhong; Chang, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Jie

    2011-06-01

    Discovery of new bacterial strains with fast identification in a miniaturized system was performed for the synthesis of optically active L-tert-butyl leucine. With tert-butyl leucine amide as nitrogen source, one bacterial strain with high conversion and high enantioselectivity was discovered among 120 isolated microorganisms from local soils and identified as Mycobacterium sp. JX009. Glucose and ammonium chloride were examined as the good carbon source and nitrogen source for the cells' growth separately. The cells grew better at 30 °C and at pH 7.5 with higher activity of 2,650 U/l in comparison with other conditions. Cells' stability was improved by immobilization on synthetic resin 0730 without pretreatment. Tert-butyl leucine amide (30 mM) was successfully hydrolyzed by immobilized cells and examined as the highest chemical concentration that cells could endure. After six reaction cycles, the immobilized cells retained 90% activity with production of L-tert-butyl leucine in 98% ee. The results firstly reported the application of new bacterial strain in the hydrolysis of tert-butyl leucine amide to produce optically active L-tert-butyl leucine in an efficient way with investigation in detail. PMID:21153891

  11. Final report of the addendum to the safety assessment of n-butyl alcohol as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Valerie C

    2008-01-01

    n-Butyl Alcohol is a primary aliphatic alcohol historically used as a solvent in nail care cosmetic products, but new concentration of use data indicate that it also is being used at low concentrations in eye makeup, personal hygiene, and shaving cosmetic products. n-Butyl Alcohol has been generally recognized as safe for use as a flavoring substance in food and appears on the 1982 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of inactive ingredients for approved prescription drug products. n-Butyl Alcohol can be absorbed through the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. n-Butyl Alcohol may be formed by hydrolysis of butyl acetate in the blood, but is rapidly oxidized. The single oral dose LD(50) of n-Butyl Alcohol for rats was 0.79 to 4.36 g/kg. The dermal LD(50) for rabbits was 4.2 g/kg. Inhalation toxicity studies in humans demonstrate sensory irritation of the upper respiratory tract, but only at levels above 3000 mg/m(3). Animal studies demonstrate intoxication, restlessness, ataxia, prostration, and narcosis. Exposures of rats to levels up to 4000 ppm failed to produce hearing defects. High concentrations of n-Butyl Alcohol vapors can be fatal. Ocular irritation was observed for n-Butyl alcohol at 0.005 ml of a 40% solution. The behavioral no-effect dose for n-Butyl Alcohol injected subcutaneously (s.c.) was 120 mg/kg. Fetotoxicity has been demonstrated, but only at maternally toxic levels (1000 mg/kg). No significant behavioral or neurochemical effects were seen in offspring following either maternal or paternal exposure to 3000 or 6000 ppm. n-Butyl Alcohol was not mutagenic in Ames tests, did not induce sister-chromatid exchange or chromosome breakage in chick embryos or Chinese hamster ovary cells, did not induce micronuclei formation in V79 Chinese hamster cells, did not have any chromosome-damaging effects in a mouse micronucleus test, and did not impair chromosome distribution in the course of mitosis. Clinical testing of n-Butyl Alcohol for

  12. Evaluating UV/H2O2 processes for methyl tert-butyl ether and tertiary butyl alcohol removal: effect of pretreatment options and light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Hokanson, David R; Crittenden, John C; Trussell, Rhodes R; Minakata, Daisuke

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency of UV/H2O2 process to remove methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) from a drinking water source. Kinetic models were used to evaluate the removal efficiency of the UV/H2O2 technologies with different pretreatment options and light sources. Two commercial UV light sources, i.e. low pressure, high intensity lamps and medium pressure, high intensity lamps, were evaluated. The following pretreatment alternatives were evaluated: (1) ion exchange softening with seawater regeneration (NaIX); (2) Pellet Softening; (3) weak acid ion exchange (WAIX); and (4) high pH lime softening followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The presence or absence of a dealkalization step prior to the UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) was also evaluated for each pretreatment possibility. Pretreatment has a significant impact on the performance of UV/H2O2 process. The NaIX with dealkalization was shown to be the most cost effective. The electrical energy per order (EEO) values for MtBE and tBA using low pressure high output UV lamps (LPUV) and 10mg/LH2O2 are 0.77 and 3.0 kWh/kgal-order, or 0.20 and 0.79 kWh/m3-order, respectively. For medium pressure UV high output lamps (MPUV), EEO values for MtBE and tBA are 4.6 and 15 kWh/kgal-order, or 1.2 and 4.0 kWh/m3-order, for the same H2O2 dosage. PMID:18951605

  13. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data. PMID:26946495

  14. Antiproliferative effects of n-butyl-β-D-fructofuranoside from Kangaisan on Bel-7402 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Kangaisan is a powdered compound prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine which has been used in cancers for many years in Hubei province, China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of Kangaisan and screen bioactive components. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-Dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, flow cytometry, DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation assay, Western blot, and real time-polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate the antiproliferation effect of n-butyl-β-D-fructofuranoside on Bel-7402 cells. Statistical Analysis: All experiments were performed in triplicate and the results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance using Origin 8.0 software. Results: It was illustrated that treatment of Bel-7402 cells with various concentrations of n-butyl-β-D-fructofuranoside resulted in growth inhibition in both a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The arrest of G0/G1 phase was also induced (P < 0.05. The increasing of sub-G1 cell population indicated the apoplectic characteristic (P < 0.05. Furthermore, the emerging of DNA fragmentation and the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and p53 expression suggested the possible mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results illustrate that Kangaisan showed anticancer effects and n-butyl-β-D-fructofuranoside extracted from Kangaisan can suppress Bel-7402 cells via interfering cell cycle and by inducing apoptosis.

  15. Removal of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE from Contaminated Water by Photocatalytic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE has been commercially used as an octane enhancer to replace tetraethyl lead in gasoline since 1979. The high mobility, water solubility, and resistance to natural attenuation associated with MTBE may re­sult in contamination of ground and surface waters. In this investigation the degradation of aqueous MTBE at relatively high concentrations was studied by UV-vis/TiO2/O2 photocatalytic process. The effect of important operational parameters such as pH, oxygen flow, catalyst loading, and irradiation time were also studied."nMethods:Concentration of MTBE and intermediates such as tert-butyl formate (TBF and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA were meas­ured using a gas chromatograph equipped with flam ionization detector and combined with headspace sampler."nResults: The time required for complete degradation increased from 15 to 150 min, when the initial concentration was in­creased from 10 to 500 mg/L. The first order rate constant for degradation of MTBE from the hydroxyl radical was esti­mated to be 0.266 to 0.033 min-1 as the concentration increased from 10 to 500 mg/L. Study on the overall mineralization moni­tored by total organic carbon (TOC analysis showed that in the initial concentration of 100 mg/L MTBE, complete min­eralization was obtained after 110 min under UV-vis/TiO2/O2 photocatalytic process."nConclusion: The data presented in this paper clearly indicate that UV/TiO2/O2 advanced oxidation process provides an effi­cient treatment alternative for the remediation of MTBE contaminated water.  

  16. Molecular Dynamics of Tert-butyl Chloride Confined to CPG (7.4, 15.6 nm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutkowska, L.; Peplińska, B.; Jurga, S.

    2006-08-01

    The paper complements our earlier NMR investigation of molecular dynamics of tert-butyl chloride restricted by geometries of the type MCM-41 and CPG by the new sizes of CPG and by differential scanning calorimetry method. We report proton and deuteron NMR lineshapes and the spin-lattice relaxation results of tert-butyl chloride in CPG of the 15.6 nm and 7.4 nm pore diameter in the temperature range 70 K ≤ T ≤ 292 K. The bulk-like component of the confined tert-butyl chloride, in temperatures corresponding to phase III, is interpreted as a composition of two dynamically different subphases. The parameters of motions of both subphases are derived. The tert-butyl group motion in both subphases is more restricted than in the bulk tert-butyl chloride, although the activation energies are lower. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine temperatures of the phase transitions (140 K ≤T ≤292 K). The results show that the depression of the phase transition temperature is pore size dependent and that the confinement has less influence on transition to the plastic phase than on the freezing and on the solid II - solid III transition.

  17. Biodegradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by a Newly Isolated Halotolerant Sphingobium sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Decai Jin; Xiao Kong; Bingjian Cui; Zhihui Bai; Hongxun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-negative strain (TJ) capable of growing aerobically on mixed phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the Haihe estuary, Tianjin, China. It was identified as belonging to the Sphingobium genus on the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA and gyrb gene sequencing. The batch tests for biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by the Sphingobium sp. TJ showed that the optimum conditions were 30 °C, pH 7.0, and the ab...

  18. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on male rat reproduction following pubertal exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Ai-Mei; Man, Xiao-Ming; Guo, Xue-Jiang; Dong, Hui-Bin; Wang, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Hong; Wang, Yu-Bang; Zhou, Zuo-min; Sha, Jia-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that has the potential to affect male reproduction. However, the reproductive effects of low-dose DBP are still not well known, especially at the molecular level. In the present study, pubertal male Sprague–Dawley rats were orally administered DBP at a wide range of doses (0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 500 mg kg−1 day−1) for 30 days. The selected end points included reproductive organ weights, testicular histopathology and serum hormonal ...

  19. Oxidative DNA damage in male wistar rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellejus, A.; Dalgaard, Majken; Loft, S.

    2002-01-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters are used in the plastic industry and widely distributed in the environment, Previously, it has been shown that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) produces testicular atrophy and liver enlargement in rodents, and the mechanisms behind this could involve reactive oxygen species (ROS...... involved in the formation of testicular atrophy in phthalate-exposed rats, no apparent sign of oxidative DNA damage was found after phthalate exposure perinatally or during the preadult stage, With respect to phthalate-induced oxidative DNA damage in the liver, it appears that the developmental stage...

  20. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the physiology and ultrastructure of cucumber seedling roots

    OpenAIRE

    Ying ZHANG; Tao, Yue; Sun, Guoqiang; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural pollution caused by the use of plastic sheetings has been documented to be a widespread problem in most of the major crop-planting regions of the world. In order to better understand the phytotoxic mechanisms induced by phthalic acid esters involved with this problem, Cucumber sativus L. cv Jinyan No. 4 were sown in pots to the three-leaf-stage in the presence of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 0, 30, 50, 100, and 200 mg L−1) for 1, 3, 5, or 7 days. Physiology, biochemistry, and ultra...

  1. TRANS-ARTERIAL EMBOLIZATION WITH N-BUTYL CYANOACRYLATE GLUE FOR RENAL BLEEDING: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectivity in management of renal bleeding is to preserve a significant renal parenchyma tissue and prevent associated morbidities like anemic shock or renal impairment from substantial nephron demise or obstructed uropathy. Trans-arterial embolization therapy by interventional radiology offers a high success rate with potential of reserving normal renal tissue. The selection material for renal arterial embolization largely depends on vasculature anatomy and end-point of procedure. N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue in our experience is applied in lesion supplied by small size of end-artery. 

  2. Management of unresolved hemangiomas and venous malformations by N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Ashim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of unresolved hemangiomas and venous malformations is a real challenging problem because of their grotesque nature and aesthetic considerations. In our study we have used percutaneous injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA in such lesions to make these lesions amenable to easy excision. When the NBCA comes in contact with tissue fluid, it causes intercompartmental tissue adhesion, thus there is cessation of blood flow into the vascular malformation tissue. After few injections the whole mass forms a solid polymer, which is then excised. During excision there is remarkably minimum bleeding. In small lesions, per-operative injection just prior to surgery was also done.

  3. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hamidova; I. Kul; Safarov, J.; A. Shahverdiyev; Van Hassel, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pressure-density-temperature (p, ρ ,T) data of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BMIM][NTF2] at T = (273.15 to 413.15) K and pressures up to p =140 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of Δ ρ / ρ = ±(0.01 to 0.08)% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, aque...

  4. Adsorption properties of leather modified by radiation induced grafting with methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption properties of leathers modified by radiation induced grafting with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate have been investigated by the McBain method. Isotherms of adsorption and desorption of water vapour have been obtained and the specific surface for various leathers calculated. No change in the adsorption properties of modified leather was noticed up to 25% content of grafted polymer. At higher polymer content deterioration of hygienic properties of modified leather was observed. From the adsorption measurements it has been concluded that the size of millipores undergoes random distribution and no specific group of pores prevails. Explanation of the observed phenomena is proposed. (author)

  5. Postcatheterization Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula: Endovascular Treatment with N-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of an iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in a 67-year-old man presenting with right femoral bruit on the day after sheath removal for cardiac catheterization. This was successfully treated with embolization using N-butyl-cynoacrylate (NBCA) through a coaxial microcatheter. Transcatheter embolization of iatrogenic femoral AVFs with NBCA in selected cases may be a safe and effective treatment in the presence of long fistula tracts. It is then easy to perform in experienced hands and relatively inexpensive

  6. tert-Butyl N-[2-(N-isobutyl-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamidoethyl]carbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H30N2O5S, was synthesized by the reaction of tert-butyl 2-(isobutylaminoethylcarbamate with p-methoxyphenylsulfonyl chloride. In the molecule, two intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the imino group N atom and the ester group O atom into chains running parallel to the b axis. The chains are further connected by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the bc plane.

  7. Adsorption equilibria of butyl- and amylbenzene on monolithic silica-based columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzini, Alberto; Bardin, Gregory; Kaczmarski, Krzystof; Szabelski, Paweł; Al-Bokari, Majed; Guiochon, Georges

    2002-05-31

    The adsorption isotherms of butyl- and amylbenzene on silica monolithic columns were measured by frontal analysis. The external, internal and total porosities of these columns were determined by inverse size-exclusion chromatography. The adsorption isotherms are concave upward in the entire concentration range investigated. They were fitted to the anti-Langmuir model, an unusual model in liquid-solid and liquid-liquid phase equilibria. Band profiles under overloaded conditions were recorded. They were in good agreement with the profiles calculated using th,e lumped pore diffusion model of chromatography and these adsorption isotherms. PMID:12113336

  8. Kinetic Study of Np(Ⅵ) Reduction With Tert-butyl Hydrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tert-butyl hydrazine(TBH) is a new salt free reductant, it can effectively reduce Np(Ⅵ) to Np(Ⅴ) but reduce Pu(Ⅳ)very slowly. Further more, it has the highest ratio of rate constant for Np(Ⅵ) reduction to the rate constant for Pu(Ⅳ) reduction in hydrazine derivatives, so it’s a promising reductant to separate Np, Pu effectively,Reduction kinetic study of the reaction in nitric acid is performed by spectrophotometry. The effect of some factors such as concentration of TBH, HNO3, Np(Ⅵ) and temperature on the redox

  9. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A.

    2002-11-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  10. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[(3-tert-butyl­pyridine-κN)(4-tert-butyl­pyridine-κN)cadmium]-di-μ-thio­cyanato-κ2 N:S;κ2 S:N

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Julia; Reinert, Thorben; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cd(NCS)2(C9H13N)2] n , the CdII cations are coordinated in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry by one 3-tert-butyl­pyridine ligand, one 4-tert-butyl­pyridine ligand and two pairs of translationally-equivalent μ-1,3-bridging thio­cyanate ligands, all of which are in general positions. These μ-1,3-bridging thio­cyante anions bridge the CdII cations, forming chains that propagate parallel to the b axis.

  11. Acid-Assisted Ball Milling of Cellulose as an Efficient Pretreatment Process for the Production of Butyl Glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissou, Florent; Sayoud, Nassim; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Barakat, Abdellatif; Marinkovic, Sinisa; Estrine, Boris; Jérôme, François

    2015-10-12

    Ball milling of cellulose in the presence of a catalytic amount of H2SO4 was found to be a promising pre-treatment process to produce butyl glycosides in high yields. Conversely to the case of water, n-butanol has only a slight effect on the recrystallization of ball-milled cellulose. As a result, thorough depolymerization of cellulose prior the glycosylation step is no longer required, which is a pivotal aspect with respect to energy consumption. This process was successfully transposed to wheat straw from which butyl glycosides and xylosides were produced in good yields. Butyl glycosides and xylosides are important chemicals as they can be used as hydrotropes but also as intermediates in the production of valuable amphiphilic alkyl glycosides. PMID:26346950

  12. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla;

    2008-01-01

    Parabens are a group of antimicrobial preservatives widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in foods. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown weak estrogenic effects of some parabens. Thus, especially, exposure of fetus and infants via the mother is a matter of concern. In order...... to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...

  13. Catalytic Synthesis of Glycerol tert-Butyl Ethers as Fuel Additives from the Biodiesel By-Product Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol is a major by-product in the biodiesel production process. Every 100 kg of biodiesel produced generates approximately 10 kg of crude glycerol. As the biodiesel industry has expanded rapidly in recent years, finding new uses of the excess crude glycerol is important. Many studies have examined alternative uses of crude glycerol. One of them is the use of glycerol derivatives, such as glycerol tert-butyl ethers as fuel additives. In this paper, the etherification kinetics of glycerol with tert-butyl alcohol to glycerol tert-butyl ethers was studied using an Amberlyst catalyst. The influences of the catalyst type and loading, reaction time, molar ratio, and temperature were investigated in detail.

  14. Liquid phase equilibria of (water + phosphoric acid + 1-butanol or butyl acetate) ternary systems at T = 308.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibria and tie lines for the ternary systems of (water + phosphoric acid + 1-butanol) and (water + phosphoric acid + butyl acetate) were measured at T = 308.2 K. The experimental ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data were correlated with the UNIQUAC model. The reliability of the experimental tie lines was confirmed using Othmer-Tobias correlation. The average root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) values of (water + phosphoric acid + 1-butanol) and (water + phosphoric acid + butyl acetate) systems were 2.17% and 2.16%, respectively. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were measured to evaluate the extracting capability of the solvents. The results show that butyl acetate may be considered as a reliable organic solvent for the extraction of phosphoric acid from aqueous solutions

  15. BINDING OF THERMO-SENSITIVE AND pH-SENSITIVE BUTYLATED POLY(ALLYLAMINE)S WITH LYSOZYME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-jing Liu; Yun-feng Yan; Ping Yao

    2011-01-01

    Butyl modified poly(allylamine)s with butyl substitution degrees of 15% to 70% were prepared. The polymers show pH sensitive property and lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior. The LCST appears at lower temperature, lower pH and lower polymer concentration for the polymer with higher butylated degree. The binding of native lysozyme with the polymers depends on the hydrophobicity of the polymers at the pH range that the protein and the polymer carry the same positive charges. The increase of polymer hydrophobicity can increase the binding with lysozyme, but the self-aggregation of the polymer decreases the binding. The bound lysozyme molecules can recover their native activity completely after the dissociation of the complexes. Compared with native lysozyme, the denatured one which exposes the hydrophobic residues can increase the binding with the polymer and form stable complex nanoparticles.

  16. Molecular recognition of curcumin (Indian Ayurvedic medicine) by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, C.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-06-01

    The thermodynamic property of the host-guest complexes formed between the curcumin, component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine turmeric, a drug molecule, with the supra molecule, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene has been used as a host molecule and curcumin as a guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to investigate the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(8)arene with curcumin. The stochiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and the binding constant were determined. An interesting 1:1 and 4:1 stochiometric host-guest complexes were formed. Job's continuous method of variation and Benesi-Hildebrand expression were used for the determination of binding constant and the stochiometry of the host-guest complex formed.

  17. Vapor Pressure, Vaporization Enthalpy, Standard Enthalpy of Formation and Standard Entropy of n-Butyl Carbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoxiang Zeng⁎; Zhihong Yang; Weilan Xue⁎; Xiaonan Li

    2014-01-01

    The vapor pressures of n-butyl carbamate were measured in the temperature range from 372.37 K to 479.27 K and fitted with Antoine equation. The compressibility factor of the vapor was calculated with the Virial equation and the second virial coefficient was determined by the Vetere model. Then the standard enthalpy of vaporization for n-butyl carbamate was estimated. The heat capacity was measured for the solid state (299.39–324.2 K) and liquid state (336.65–453.21 K) by means of adiabatic calorimeter. The standard en-thalpy of formationΔfHϴ[crystal (cr),298.15 K] and standard entropy Sϴ(crystal,298.15 K) of the sub-stance were calculated on the basis of the gas-phase standard enthalpy of formationΔfHϴ(g,298.15 K) and gas-phase standard entropy Sϴ(g,298.15 K), which were estimated by the Benson method. The results are acceptable, validated by a thermochemical cycle.

  18. Enhancement of methyl tert-butyl ether degradation by the addition of readily metabolizable organic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplements with readily metabolizable organic substrates were investigated to increase the biomass and enhance degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) due to the low biomass yield of MTBE which has been one of the factors for low-rate MTBE degradation. The influence of various organic substrates on the rate of aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 was investigated, and only yeast extract (YE), beef extract and tryptone exhibited stimulatory effect. With the concentration of each substrate being 100 mg/L, the average MTBE removal rate could increase to 1.29, 1.20 and 1.04 mg/(L h), respectively, in comparison with 0.71 mg/(L h) when carried out in medium without addition. The stimulatory effects of YE addition, as well as induction period required by MTBE degradation, varied dramatically with the storage conditions, pre-culture medium and concentrations of the inoculums. The extent of stimulatory effects of YE might be closely related to the proportion of induction period in the total time of MTBE-degradation. The removal efficiency increased from about 50% to 90.5% with the addition of YE in a packed-bed reactor loaded with calcium alginate immobilized cells.

  19. Determination of methacrylic acid in food simulants by pyrolytic butylation-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Qiu, Ruofeng; Liu, Tingfei; Huang, Yilei; Zhu, Zuoyi; Wang, Lili

    2016-07-01

    An on-line pyrolytic butylation approach was proposed to determine methacrylic acid (MA) in food simulants by gas chromatography (GC) without an expensive pyrolyzer. MA in food simulants was converted into butyl methacrylate in the presence of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) without any pretreatment at 330°C in the injection-port, contributing to high GC signal response. The derivatizing conditions for the proposed method were optimized, namely the injection-port temperature, type and amount of the organic alkaline used for derivatization. A series of standard solutions of MA in the range of 1.0-50mg/kg were analyzed with correlation coefficient r≥0.9975. The limits of detection (LODs) were less than 0.15mg/kg for MA in four matrix simulants (distilled water, 3%w/v acetic acid, 10%v/v ethanol, and isooctane). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for retention time, peak height and peak area were all less than 3.88%. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of MA migrating from plastic cup samples, with recoveries of added MA in the range of 96.5-123.0%. Direct injection of the simulants into the GC system after migration tests, without any pretreatment step, makes the developed method of great value for rapid screening analysis of samples in bulks. PMID:27262371

  20. Relaxational study of poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-butyl acrylate) membrane by dielectric and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-butyl acrylate) (60VP-40BA) membrane is synthesized as a tractable and hydrophilic material, obtaining a water-swelling percentage around 60%. An investigation of molecular mobility by means of differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis and broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) is fulfilled in the dry membrane. Dielectric and viscoelastic relaxation measurements are carried out on the 60VP-40BA sample at several frequencies between −150 and 150 °C. The dielectric spectrum shows several relaxation processes labelled γ, β and α in increasing order of temperature, whereas in the mechanical spectrum only the β and α relaxation processes are completely defined. In the dielectric measurements, conductive contributions overlap the α-relaxation. The apparent activation energies have similar values for the β-relaxation in both, the mechanical and the dielectric measurements. The β process is a Johari–Golstein secondary relaxation and it is related to the local motions of the pyrrolidone group accompanied by the motion of the segments of the polymer backbone. The γ process is connected with the butyl unit's motions, both located in the side chains of the polymer. (paper)

  1. Phases and phase changes in clusters of tert-butyl thiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, James W.; Bartell, Lawrence S.

    1997-09-01

    Clusters of tert-butyl thiol (TBT) were generated by condensation of vapor in supersonic flow under various expansion conditions, and their structures were examined during their free flight by electron diffraction. The system had been selected because of its similarity to tert-butyl chloride (TBC), a much more thoroughly studied material with an interesting solid-state chemistry. The warmest crystalline phase of TBT observed for the clusters (diameter, ≈ 130 Å) was the known high-temperature cubic phase I with a lattice constant of 8.609(5) Å at ≈ 160 K. A second phase into which phase I nucleated at a rate of ≈ 10 28 m -3 s -1 at about 157 K was also observed, as well as a third phase generated under conditions of very cold flow. All of the phases gave the rapidly damped, diffuse diffraction patterns characteristic of submicroscopic, poorly ordered, plastically crystalline materials. Patterns were far less distinct than those of TBC, and the structures of the colder two phases could not be determined. From the rapid nucleation rate of phase I into the second phase, it could be inferred that a major translational rearrangement of the molecules could not have been involved.

  2. Effect of butyl paraben on the development and microbial composition of periphyton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaofeng; Lin, Juan; Huang, Xiaolong; Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Jiantong; Wu, Chenxi

    2016-03-01

    Parabens are extensively used as preservatives and bactericides in personal care and other consumer products, and are commonly found in wastewater and surface water as contaminants. However, few data are currently available on the ecotoxicity of parabens. Periphyton biofilm, a widely distributed microbial aggregate of ecological importance in aquatic environment, is frequently used for water quality monitoring, ecological restoration, and toxicity assessment. In this work, the effects of butyl paraben on the development and microbial composition of periphyton biofilm was studied in a laboratory experiment for 32 days using flow through channels. No effect was observed at the environmental relevant concentration level (0.5 μg L(-1)) during the experiment. At the highest tested concentration level (5000 μg L(-1)), following effects were noted: (1) inhibition on algae growth at the end of the experiment as indicated by the chlorophyll a and total biovolume; (2) inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency on day 24 as suggested by the maximal Photosystem II quantum yield (Fv/Fm); (3) decrease of the algal diversity on day 24 and 32 as reflected by the Pielou and Shannon-Weiner indices. Bacteria were less sensitive than algae in the periphyton biofilm, which showed no difference at all tested concentration levels as illustrated by the Biolog EcoPlates™ analysis. Therefore, we conclude that environmental residues of butyl paraben have a very low risk to periphyton in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26590928

  3. Butyl 2-(5-iodo-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk Lee

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17IO4S, the O atom and the methyl group of the methylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran fragment. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...π interactions between a methyl H atom of the methylsulfinyl group and the benzene ring of the benzofuran system, and by an I...O halogen bond of 3.173 (3 Å and a nearly linear C—I...O angle of 171.7 (1°. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The O atom of the carbonyl group and the butyl chain are both disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors from refinement of 0.55 (4 and 0.45 (4 (for the O atom, and 0.76 (2 and 0.24 (2 (for the butyl group.

  4. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne; Dalgaard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... banned for use in toys in the EU mainly due to their reproductive toxicity. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) has similar structural and application properties as DBP. and is being used as a substitute for DBR However, knowledge on male reproductive effects of DiBP in experimental animals is lacking, Methods...

  5. tert-Butyl N-[2-(N-isobutyl-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamido)-eth-yl]carbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Ju-Xian

    2014-06-01

    The title compound, C18H30N2O5S, was synthesized by the reaction of tert-butyl 2-(iso-butyl-amino)-ethyl-carbamate with p-meth-oxy-phenyl-sulfonyl chloride. In the mol-ecule, two intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the imino group N atom and the ester group O atom into chains running parallel to the b axis. The chains are further connected by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:24940254

  6. Use of a continuous-flow microreactor for thiol-ene functionalization of RAFT-derived poly(butyl acrylate)

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbergh, Joke; Junkers, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the synthesis of functionalized RAFT-derived poly(n-butyl acrylate) polymers via the use of a continuous-flow microreactor, in which aminolysis as well as thiol-ene reactions are executed in reaction times of just 20 minutes. Poly(n-butyl acrylate) (M-n = 3800 g mol(-1), PDI = 1.10) with a trithiocarbonate end group was prepared via a conventional RAFT process. The polymer was then functionalized via aminolysis/thiol-ene reactions in the micro-flow reactor with isobornyl ...

  7. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...... a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means...

  8. Moessbauer spectroscopic characterisation of catalysts obtained by interaction between tetra-n-butyl-tin and silica or silica supported rhodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy at 78 K was used to study the interaction between tetra-n-butyl-tin and the surfaces of silica or silica supported rhodium. At room temperature, the tetra-n-butyl-tin was physically adsorbed on the surfaces. After reaction under hydrogen at 373 K, the formation of grafted organometallic fragments on the Rh surface was confirmed whereas with pure silica, ≡SiO-Sn(n-C4H9)3 moieties were observed. After treatment at 523 K, the rhodium grafted organometallic species was completely decomposed and there was formation of a defined bimetallic RhSn compound

  9. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... histopathology. DiBP has similar testicular and developmental effects as DBP and DEHP, and although more developmental and especially postnatal studies are needed to clearly identify the reproductive effects of DiBP, this study indicates a reason for concern about the use of DiBP as a substitute for DBP. (c...

  10. Measurement of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in human blood by purge-and-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an isotope-dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, M A; Ashley, D L; Cardinali, F L; McCraw, J M; Wooten, J V

    1995-01-01

    We developed an isotope-dilution method for measuring methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in whole human blood using a purge-and-trap gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method. The labeled analogues for MTBE and TBA were [2H12]methyl tert-butyl ether and [2H9]-tert-butyl alcohol, respectively. Volatiles were removed from the blood by direct helium purging of the liquid; were trapped on a Tenax trap; and were desorbed, cryofocused, and chromatographed on a DB-624 capillary column that was connected directly to the ion source of a mass spectrometer. Detection was by mass analysis using a double-focusing magnetic-sector mass spectrometer operating in the full-scan mode at the medium mass resolution of 3000. For the isotope-dilution method, the minimum detection limits in blood (5-10 mL) are 0.01 microgram/L for MTBE and 0.06 microgram/L for TBA. The isotope-dilution method proved to be a big improvement in recovery, reproducibility, and sensitivity over our previous analytical method, which used the labeled ketone, [4-2H3]-2-butanone, as the internal standard for both MTBE and TBA. The isotope-dilution method has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring blood levels of MTBE and TBA in populations exposed to oxygenated fuels containing MTBE. PMID:7564298

  11. Balloon-assisted ultrasound-guided direct percutaneous embolization of a peripheral pseudoaneurysm with n-butyl cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the ultrasound-guided direct percutaneous injection of n-butyl cyanoacrylate to embolize an iatrogenic peripheral pseudoaneurysm secondary in a 33-year-old patient undergoing hemodialysis. We protected the parent artery with inflation of an angioplasty balloon across the neck during the cyanoacrylate injection. Complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm was achieved without ischemic complication. (orig.)

  12. Complexation of uranium with 1, 3, 5-trimethoxy 2, 4, 6-tricarboxymethoxy-P-tert-butyl calix(6) arene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexation behaviour of UO22+ with 1,3,5-trimethoxy 2,4,6-tricarboxymethoxy-p-tert-butyl calix[6]arene under varying conditions of pH and acetate ion concentration has been studied. These studies indicate that extraction mechanism of uranium is influenced by the presence of Na+ ion. (author)

  13. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 μM quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 μM) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 μM and for 20 h with 5 μM quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult

  14. INTERACTION OF METHYL-TERT BUTYL ETHER AND WATER STRESS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN SOIL MICROCOSMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widespread contaminant in surface and ground water in the United States. Frequently irrigation is used to water fields to germinate planted seeds and sustain plant growth. A likely possibility exists that water used may have some MTBE. Our s...

  15. Rapid and high yields of synthesis of butyl acetate catalyzed by Novozym 435 : Reaction optimization by response surface methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, Andrea B.; Graebin, Natalia G.; Soibelmann Glock Lorenzoni, André; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Ayub, Marco A. Z.; Rodrigues, Rafael C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper is described the optimization of the esterification reaction of butyl acetate synthesis catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435). The reaction parameters temperature, substrate molar ratio, enzyme content, and added water, and their responses measured as conversion yields

  16. Zinc(II)-Chloride Induced Thioalkylation of Aluminium Enolates : Enantioselective Synthesis of Estradiol-3-Methyl-17-tert-Butyl Diether

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Ulrich; Kohler, Thomas; Taapken, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Zinc(II)-chloride induced thioalkylation of the aluminium enolate 6 generated by conlugate reduction of the enone 5 leads - directly or via its trimethylsilylenol ether 6 - to alkylated hydrindanones 10 which are important intermediates in the synthesis of 19-norsteroids such as the title compound estradiol-3-methyl-17-tert-butyl diether 12

  17. Synthesis and characterization of di- and triorganotin(IV) complexes of 2-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Sharma; Archana; Maridula Thakur; S S Bhatt; S C Chaudhry

    2007-07-01

    The di- and trialkyltin(IV) complexes of composition R2SnCl2-(OAr), and -Bu3Sn(OAr) (R = -Bu and Me; = 1 and 2; OAr = OC6H3Bu-2-Me-4) have been synthesized by the reactions of di-n-butyl and dimethyltin dichlorides and tri-n-butyltin(IV) chloride with 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and triethylamine in tetrahydrofuran. The reaction of triphenyltin chloride with trimethylsilyl-2-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide in the same solvent however, gives a complex of composition Ph3Sn(OAr). The complexes have been characterized by microanalyses, molar conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations and IR and 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR and mass spectral studies. Thermal behaviour of the complexes has been studied by TGA and DTA techniques. From the non-isothermal TG data, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated employing Coats-Redfern equation and the mechanism of decomposition has been computed using non-isothermal kinetic method. Thermal investigations on the blends of poly(methylmethacrylate). PMMA, with organotin(IV)-2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenoxides have shown increased thermal stability compared to pure PMMA suggesting thereby their potential as additives towards PMMA.

  18. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    bed reactor, was determined using a batch kinetic based approach. The procedure involved modeling of methyl tert-butyl ether removal rates from batch experiments followed by parameter estimations. It was estimated to be 5-14% (w/w) of the measured volatile suspended solids concentration in the reactor....

  19. Crystal structure of 2-tert-butyl-1,3-thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. El-Hiti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H12N2S, does not contain any strong hydrogen-bond donors but two long C—H...N contacts are observed in the crystal structure, with the most linear interaction linking molecules along [010]. The ellipsoids of the tert-butyl group indicate large librational motion.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7T, a Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Degrader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, Jessica; Guisado, Isabel M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Pozo, Clementina

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7(T) (= CECT 8558(T) = DSM 29760(T)), isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil pilot plant in Granada, Spain. The bacterium was isolated and sequenced due to its methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading properties. PMID:26893420

  1. Adsorption of N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline on Colg(111) Substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Kolivoška, Viliam; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Gál, M.

    Rila Mountains: EIA, 2014. s. 34-34. [International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance Analysis /10./. 01.06.2014-05.06.2014, Rila Mountains] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05180S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) anilin e Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  2. Voltammetric Determination of Nitro Derivative of Synthetic Antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chýlková, J.; Machalický, O.; Tomášková, M.; Šelešovská, R.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2016), s. 92-106. ISSN 0003-2719 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol * handing drop mercury electrode * nitration Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.030, year: 2014

  3. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ince

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  4. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from air: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake of...... phthalate esters. Objectives: This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods: In a series of experiments, six human participants were exposed for 6 hr in a chamber containing deliberately elevated air...... concentrations of DEP and DnBP. The participants either wore a hood and breathed air with phthalate concentrations substantially below those in the chamber or did not wear a hood and breathed chamber air. All urinations were collected from initiation of exposure until 54 hr later. Metabolites of DEP and Dn...

  5. Bronchoscopic management of bronchopleural fistula with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh K Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF is a communication between the pleural space and bronchial tree. Materials and Methods: A series of 9 cases are reported where BPF was identified and managed with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl-cyanoacrylate through a video bronchoscope. Results: Out of 9 patients the BPF was successfully sealed in 8 cases (88.88%. In 1 patient of postpneumonectomy, the fistula was big, that is >8 mm who had a recurrence after the procedure. In one case of pyopneumothorax the leak reduced slowly and it took us 14 days to remove the intercostal drainage tube. Rest of the patients had a favorable outcome. No complications were observed in a follow-up of 6 months. Conclusions: In our opinion, it is a cost-effective, viable, and safe alternative compared with costly, time-consuming, and high-risk surgical procedures.

  6. Radiolabelling of poly(butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles with a technetium-99m-dextran complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles have been radiolabelled with a sup(99m)Tc-dextran complex to allow their pattern of biodistribution to be followed by using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The method involves the performing of a sup(99m)Tc-dextran complex and using this as a polymeric stabiliser during the formation of nanoparticles. Copolymerisation of this complex with the cyanoacrylate monomer results in the radiolabel being covalently linked to the nanoparticle matrix with a labelling efficiency of approximately 18%. The radiolabelled nanoparticles slowly degrade and release the activity into buffer solution. The release rate was relatively unaffected by the presence of plasma proteins indicating that the system should be suitable for use in vivo. (author)

  7. Inhibition Effect of 1-Butyl-4-Methylpyridinium Tetrafluoroborate on the Corrosion of Copper in Phosphate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scendo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the concentration of 1-Butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (4MBPBF4 as ionic liquid (IL on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M PO43− solutions of pH 2 and 4 was studied. The research involved electrochemical polarization method, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. The results obtained showed that the inhibition efficiency of corrosion of copper increases with an increase in the concentration of 4MBPBF4 but decreases with increasing temperature. The thermodynamic functions of corrosion analysis and adsorptive behavior of 4MBPBF4 were carried out. During the test, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the copper surface in the phosphate solutions was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and had a physical mechanism.

  8. n-butyl acrylate as a sensitizer for radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a sensitizer for radiation vulcanization of NR latex n-butyl acrylate (n-BA) has several advantages such as high sensitizing efficiency and easiness of removal of residue by drying. However n-BA tends to destabilize NR latex. A study to stabilize NR latex against n-BA has been carried out. The most effective stabilizer is potassium hydroxide. By the addition of 0.2 phr KOH the stability of NR latex is sufficiently improved to withstand the addition of 5 phr n-BA. The sensitizing efficiency of n-BA is so high that the vulcanization dose is 15 kGy with 5 phr n-BA without the addition of carbon tetrachloride as a co-sensitizer. The radiation vulcanized NR latex has enough stability for a 90 days storage. (author)

  9. Treatment of intrahepatic arteriovenous fistula in hepatocellular carcinoma with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) continues to be one of the most common malignancies with an incidence of approximately one million cases per year and a dismal prognosis; some authors have reported a median survival of 1-2 months after diagnosis. Although surgery remains the only hope for cure, few patients are candidates. As a result, the rote of interventional radiology in the management of HCC has grown remarkably in the past decade. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), by far, is the most common technique used to treat unresectable HCC, that is usually performed with the selective arterial administration of ACA- lipiodol emulsion of iodized and gelatin sponge particles to occlude temporarily tumor feeding vessels. Arteriovenous shunt has been reported in HCC and is usually as a recognized contrain-dication of TACE. In this paper, a patient of HCC with intratumoral arteriovenous fistula was successfully embolized with the mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodol oil by us. (authors)

  10. Spectroscopic studies on uranyl complexes with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexes formed from uranyl salts and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in ionic liquids (ILs) were studied by spectroscopic methods. [UO2(TBP)4]2+ is formed from UO2(ClO4)2· xH2O with excess of TBP in ILs. The coordination number of uranyl in [UO2(TBP)4]2+ is determined as 4 by ATR-FTIR study. In [Bmim][NTf2], though TBP cannot replace the NO3- coordinated to uranyl, TBP/[Bmim][NTf2] can extract 'nitrate-free' uranyl complex from diluted HNO3 medium and the extracted complex is converted into [UO2(TBP)4]2+ after drying. The formation of [UO2(TBP)4]2+ provides spectroscopic evidence for the cation-exchange mechanism of uranyl extraction by TBP/[Bmim][NTf2] from diluted HNO3 medium. (author)

  11. Study of n-Butyl Acrylate Self-Initiation Reaction Experimentally and via Macroscopic Mechanistic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the self-initiation reaction of n-butyl acrylate (n-BA in free-radical polymerization. For the first time, the frequency factor and activation energy of the monomer self-initiation reaction are estimated from measurements of n-BA conversion in free-radical homo-polymerization initiated only by the monomer. The estimation was carried out using a macroscopic mechanistic mathematical model of the reactor. In addition to already-known reactions that contribute to the polymerization, the model considers a n-BA self-initiation reaction mechanism that is based on our previous electronic-level first-principles theoretical study of the self-initiation reaction. Reaction rate equations are derived using the method of moments. The reaction-rate parameter estimates obtained from conversion measurements agree well with estimates obtained via our purely-theoretical quantum chemical calculations.

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of alkane hydroperoxidation with tert-butyl hydroperoxide catalysed by a vanadate anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'pin, Georgiy B; Kozlov, Yuriy N

    2003-07-01

    tert-Butyl hydroperoxide oxidizes alkanes in acetonitrile at 60 degrees C if the soluble vanadium(v) salt, n-Bu4NVO3, is used as a catalyst. Alkyl hydroperoxides are formed as main products which decompose during the course of the reaction to produce the more stable corresponding alcohols and ketones. Turnover numbers (ie. numbers of moles of products per one mole of a catalyst) attained 250. The kinetics and selectivity of the reaction have been studied. The mechanism proposed involves the formation of a complex between the V(V) species and t-BuOOH (K5 was estimated to be 5 dm3 mol(-1)) followed by decomposition of this complex (k6 = 0.2 s(-1)). The generated V(IV) species reacts with another t-BuOOH molecule to produce an active t-BuO* radical which attacks the hydrocarbon. PMID:12945701

  13. Formation of microporous polymeric materials by microemulsion radiation polymerization of butyl acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microemulsion system composed of butyl acrylate (BA) and water with the mixture of sodium 12-acryloxy-9-octadecenate (SAO) and octylphenoxypoly(ethoxyethanol) (OP-10) as emulsifier was initiated by γ-ray at room temperature to polymerize and produce microporous polymeric materials. The morphology and swelling characteristics of the resulting polymeric materials were studied. It was found that they depend strongly on the composition (water content, crosslinker content, emulsifier content) of the precursor microemulsions. In addition, the swelling properties of polymer so prepared were also found to be sensitive to the pH of the swelling medium. The change in swelling behaviors of the polymeric materials is discussed in terms of the polyelectrolyte effect exhibited by polymerized anionic emulsifier SAO. (author)

  14. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek

    2010-12-01

    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Isolation and Initial Characterization of A Pure Cultures Capable to Degradation Methyl tert- Butyl Ether (MTBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikpey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, a gasoline octane enhancer, was introduced as a substitute for lead tetraethyl over 30 years ago. Widespread use of MTBE in gasoline, has introduced MTBE into the environment compartments, mostly into the under ground and surface water and water as a second most frequently detected contaminant. In this study, we have isolated pure cultures from bacterial consortium capable to use MTBE as a sole carbon and energy source. MTBE biodegradation rate was measured in headspace by gas chromatography. Initial liner rates of biodegradation by Pinpoint and white strains were found 2.9 mg and 3 mg MTBE hˉ1 gˉ1 wet biomass, respectively. The results of 16S rDNA PCR disclosed similarities in the banding patterns between the cultures, and the known degrading strain PM1. The results of this study suggest promising perspectives for engineering the in situ bioremediation of MTBE.

  16. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase

  17. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsudin, Intan Juliana [Chemistry Department, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase.

  18. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex using irradiation n-butyl acrylate aqueous emulsion as sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural rubber latex was vulcanized by gamma radiation with n-butyl acrylate aqueous emulsion irradiated at dose of 1.5 kGy as sensitizer. The total solid content of latex increases on the irradiation dose. The viscosity of latex on the standing time was investigated and became stable after one month of storage. The gel content of latex films increasing with irradiation dose and attained more than 94% at dose of 10 kGy. Tensile strength of films reached the values of 31MPa; 30 Mpa and 25 Mpa at vulcanization doses of 20 kGy, 15 kGy and 8 kGy for the concentrations of sensitizer 7 phr, 9 phr and 13 phr respectively. Elongation at break decreases as increasing dose. Tear strength of rubber films was from 30-40 N/mm. The tackiness of latex films decreases and smell of vulcanized latex is almost negligible. (author)

  19. Electron density analysis of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Olmo, Lourdes; Morera-Boado, Cercis; López, Rafael; García de la Vega, José M

    2014-06-01

    An analysis of the electron density of different conformers of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (bmimCl) ionic liquid by using DFT through the BVP86 density functional has been obtained within the framework of Bader's atom in molecules (AIM), localized orbital locator (LOL), natural bond orbital (NBO), and deformed atoms in molecules (DAM). We also present an analysis of the reduced density gradients that deliver the non-covalent interaction regions and allow to understand the nature of intermolecular interactions. The most polar conformer can be characterized as ionic by AIM, LOL, and DAM methods while the most stable and the least polar shows shared-type interactions. The NBO method allows to comprehend what causes the stabilization of the most stable conformer based on analysis of the second-order perturbative energy and the charge transferred among the natural orbitals involved in the interaction. PMID:24878801

  20. Characterization of cellulose II nanoparticles regenerated from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingquan; Zhou, Chengjun; French, Alfred D; Han, Guangping; Wu, Qinglin

    2013-05-15

    Regenerated cellulose nanoparticles (RCNs) including both elongated fiber and spherical structures were prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and cotton using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride followed by high-pressure homogenization. The crystalline structure of RCNs was cellulose II in contrast to the cellulose I form of the starting materials. Also, the RCNs have decreased crystallinity and crystallite size. The elongated RCNs produced from cotton and MCC had average lengths of 123 ± 34 and 112 ± 42 nm, and mean widths of 12 ± 5 and 12 ± 3 nm, respectively. The average diameter of spherical RCNs from MCC was 118 ± 32nm. The dimensions of the various RCNs were all well fitted with an asymmetrical log-normal distribution function. The RCN has a two-step pyrolysis, different from raw MCC and cotton that have a one-step process. PMID:23544632

  1. Influence of Cononsolvency on the Aggregation of Tertiary Butyl Alcohol in Methanol-Water Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kenji; Pattenaude, Shannon R; Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-07-27

    The term cononsolvency has been used to describe a situation in which a polymer is less soluble (and so is more likely to collapse and aggregate) in a mixture of two cosolvents than it is in either one of the pure solvents. Thus, cononsolvency is closely related to the suppression of protein denaturation by stabilizing osmolytes. Here, we show that cononsolvency behavior can also influence the aggregation of tertiary butyl alcohol in mixtures of water and methanol, as demonstrated using both Raman multivariate curve resolution spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results imply that cononsolvency results from the cosolvent-mediated enhancement of the attractive (solvophobic) mean force between nonpolar groups, driven by preferential solvation of the aggregates, in keeping with Wyman-Tanford theory. PMID:27363494

  2. Influence of mass transport towards deactivation in tert-butyl-source driven isobutane/2-butene alkylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschauer, S.J.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    The deactivation of i-butane/trans-2-butene alkylation using tert-butyl-halide promoted ionic liquid catalysts is studied.Here, the mass transport was modified by varying the feed rate and the type of promoter addition. The experimental data show that the deactivation increases with increasing feed rate. Moreover, a biliquid foam is formed when feed rates above 1 g/min are adjusted. As the results indicate a strong influence of the biliquid foam and its formation on deactivation, both aspects are also discussed.When the promoter is added to the feed mixture an increase of conversion with time on stream is observed. A deactivation in continuous promoter addition mode could not be noted in the investigated time-on-stream range. (orig.)

  3. Effect of butylated hydroxyanisole on the antifungal activity of amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, R F

    1983-01-01

    Monitoring the growth curves of Candida albicans has shown that in the presence of sub-MIC levels of amphotericin B the lag phase is extended. If butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is added prior to, or with the amphotericin B the lag phase is extended further. However, if BHA is added after the antibiotic, the growth curve is identical to that produced in the presence of amphotericin B alone. The effect of BHA was found to follow the kinetics of a zero order reaction, and adsorption data for amphotericin B to yeast cells shows that BHA may occupy sites in the cell wall of the organism normally occupied by amphotericin B. It is suggested that if the polyene binding capacity in the cell wall is satisfied by the BHA, then the effective concentration of amphotericin B available to exert its lethal effect on the sterol in the cell membrane is increased. PMID:6348488

  4. Design and Control of Glycerol-tert-Butyl Alcohol Etherification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vlad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Design, economics, and plantwide control of a glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA etherification plant are presented. The reaction takes place in liquid phase, in a plug flow reactor, using Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. The products' separation is achieved by two distillation columns where high-purity ethers are obtained and a section involving extractive distillation with 1,4-butanediol as solvent, which separates TBA from the TBA/water azeotrope. Details of design performed in AspenPlus and an economic evaluation of the process are given. Three plantwide control structures are examined using a mass balance model of the plant. The preferred control structure fixes the fresh glycerol flow rate and the ratio glycerol + monoether : TBA at reactor-inlet. The stability and robustness in the operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics.

  5. Two Cases of Adrenal Abscesses Following Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate) Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Young; Jang, Jae Young; Jeong, Soung Won; Bok, Gene Hyun; Ham, Jeong Ho; Cho, Joo Young; Lee, Joon Seong; Shim, Chan Sup

    2011-06-01

    We report two cases of adrenal abscesses that occurred following a Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate) injection for variceal bleeding. Patients had been diagnosed with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and gastric varices bleeding and received a Histoacryl® injection for the variceal bleeding. Patients had fever and abdominal tenderness and were diagnosed with an adrenal abscess at 2 months following the Histoacryl® injection. One patient received open drainage and the other underwent percutaneous drainage. When a patient has previously been injected with Histoacryl® for the treatment of variceal bleeding and presents with fever, an evaluation for an unusual complication such as adrenal abscess is recommended. PMID:21814609

  6. Positron annihilation studies of 4-n-butyl-4'-isothiocyanato-1,1'-biphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryzek, E; Juszyńska, E; Zaleski, R; Jasińska, B; Gorgol, M; Massalska-Arodź, M

    2013-08-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements were performed between 93 and 293 K in order to study the supercooled smectic-E (Sm-E) phase of 4-n-butyl-4'-isothiocyanato-1,1'-biphenyl (4TCB), the ordered molecular crystal of 4TCB, and the phase transition between the Sm-E phase and the ordered molecular crystal of 4TCB. The phase transition was well reflected in the abrupt increase of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and intensity. The value of the o-Ps lifetime in the Sm-E liquid crystalline phase of 4TCB, i.e., 2.21 ns at room temperature, was explained by the formation of bubbles induced by Ps atoms, which are created due to a liquidlike state of the butyl chains of 4TCB molecules in the Sm-E phase. The temperature dependence of the o-Ps intensity for the supercooled Sm-E phase can be explained by thermal generation of sites where bubbles are formed; an activation energy equal to 0.30±0.02 eV was estimated. This value was compared with the activation energies of molecular motions. The o-Ps lifetime in the ordered molecular crystal was interpreted as originating from the annihilation of o-Ps confined in molecular vacancy-type imperfections in the crystal lattice. The value of the o-Ps pickoff annihilation between 1.8 and 1.9 ns is in accordance with the size of the molecular vacancy for the 4TCB crystal lattice. Its intensity is lower than 5%. The isothermal crystallization of the 4TCB Sm-E phase was observed by PALS. The low-dimensional crystal growth was concluded from the Avrami equation fitted to the time dependence of the o-Ps intensity, which resulted in an Avrami exponent equal to 1.73. PMID:24032853

  7. Degradation of aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether by photochemical, biological, and their combined processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Asadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE at relatively high concentrations was investigated by various photo-induced oxidation processes such as UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 as well as biological processes and their combination. It was shown that the degradation of MTBE by UV/H2O2 and TiO2 photocatalytic followed a first-order model with apparent rate constant of 1.31×10−1 and 1.21×10−2 min-1, respectively. It was observed that UV/H2O2/TiO2 process did not have any advantages over each of the other processes alone. The biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE was evaluated using aerobic mixed culture with three different approaches, including ultimate biological oxygen demand (BODU assessment, nonacclimated, and acclimated mixed cultures. The apparent rate constant for the biodegradation of MTBE by nonacclimated mixed culture was 4.36×10−2 day-1. It was shown that the acclimatization of the mixed cultures enhanced the rate of biodegradation of MTBE to 3.24×10−1mg L-1h-1. Finally, the effects of the photocatalytic pretreatment of aqueous MTBE on its subsequent biological treatment were studied. It was observed that the rate of bioreaction was not enhanced and the photocatalytic pretreatment had adverse effects on its biological treatment so that the apparent rate constant decreased to 2.83×10−1 mg L-1h-1.

  8. Subchronic exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether resulting in genetic damage in Aldh2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Zuquan; Suda, Megumi; Ohtani, Katsumi; Mei, Nan; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2013-09-15

    Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) is biofuel additive recently used in Japan and some other countries. Limited evidence shows that ETBE has low toxicity. Acetaldehyde (AA), however, as one primary metabolite of ETBE, is clearly genotoxic and has been considered to be a potential carcinogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ALDH2 gene on ETBE-induced genotoxicity and metabolism of its metabolites after inhalation exposure to ETBE. A group of wild-type (WT) and Aldh2 knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 500ppm ETBE for 1-6h, and the blood concentrations of ETBE metabolites, including AA, tert-butyl alcohol and 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, were measured. Another group of mice of WT and KO were exposed to 0, 500, 1750, or 5000ppm ETBE for 6h/day with 5 days per weeks for 13 weeks. Genotoxic effects of ETBE in these mice were measured by the alkaline comet assay, 8-hydroxyguanine DNA-glycosylase modified comet assay and micronucleus test. With short-term exposure to ETBE, the blood concentrations of all the three metabolites in KO mice were significantly higher than the corresponding concentrations of those in WT mice of both sexes. After subchronic exposure to ETBE, there was significant increase in DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner in KO male mice, while only 5000ppm exposure significantly increased DNA damage in male WT mice. Overall, there was a significant sex difference in genetic damage in both genetic types of mice. These results showed that ALDH2 is involved in the detoxification of ETBE and lack of enzyme activity may greatly increase the sensitivity to the genotoxic effects of ETBE, and male mice were more sensitive than females. PMID:23810710

  9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Litsea elliptica Blume and Litsea resinosa Blume (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mui-Hung Wong

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Overall, methanol extracts from root and stem of both species showed antioxidant activity comparable to standard butylated hydroxytoluene. Extracts from L. resinosa demonstrated stronger antimicrobial properties compared to that from L. elliptica.

  10. Characterization of the Initial Reactions during the Cometabolic Oxidation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by Propane-Grown Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christy A.; O'Reilly, Kirk T.; Hyman, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The initial reactions in the cometabolic oxidation of the gasoline oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), by Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 have been characterized. Two products, tert-butyl formate (TBF) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), rapidly accumulated extracellularly when propane-grown cells were incubated with MTBE. Lower rates of TBF and TBA production from MTBE were also observed with cells grown on 1- or 2-propanol, while neither product was generated from MTBE by cells grown on casein-y...

  11. Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-blockpoly (acrylic acid) triblock terpolymers with highly asymmetric hydrophilic blocks: synthesis and aqueous solution properties

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, P; Yoncheva, K. (Krassimira); Mokreva, P. (Pavlina); Konstantinov, S.; J M Irache; Müller, A.H.E. (Axel H.E.)

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and aggregation behaviour in aqueous media of novel amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)- block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PEO–PnBA–PAA) triblock terpolymers were studied. Terpolymers composed of two highly asymmetric hydrophilic PEO (113 monomer units) and PAA (10–17 units) blocks, and a longer soft hydrophobic PnBA block (163 or 223 units) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) of n-butyl acrylate and tert-butyl acrylate ...

  12. HYOSCINE BUTYL BROMIDE VERSUS DROTAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN ACTIVE STAGE OF LABOUR-A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RATE OF CERVICAL DILATATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Pepsi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was conducted to compare the rate of cervical dilatation with hyoscine butyl bromide and drotaverine hydrochloride in active stage of labour. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Inclusion Criteria: 1. All women with initial cervical dilatation of 3 cms. 2. When there is a slow rate of cervical dilatation of less than 1.5 cms per hour or decent of less than 1 cm per hour for nulliparous and if dilatation was less than 2cms per hour for a multigravida. 3. And all singleton and cephalic pregnancies were included in this study. Exclusion Criteria included complications like Antepartum haemorrhage, Breech, C.P.D. In this study 400 women were allocated into two groups to receive either Hyoscine butyl bromide or Drotaverine hydrochloride. Two hours after admission in the active stage of labour, progress of labour was reassessed. If the progress of labour was satisfactory, then the wait and watch policy was adopted. If there was no progress they were administered one of the two drugs. 200 patients were administered 10mg of hyoscine butyl bromide suppositories rectally, (GROUP-1 AND THE OTHER 200 WITH 40mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intravenously (GROUP-2. The progress of labour was monitored by the partogram. Not more than 3 doses of hyoscine butyl bromide were administered. RESULTS: The rate of cervical dilatation was 2 cms per hour in group 1 (Hyoscine butyl bromide as compared to 1cm per hour in group 2 (Drotaverine hydrochloride. The difference in rate of cervical dilatation in both the groups was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There was significant improvement in the rate of cervical dilatation with Hyoscine butyl bromide group of patients. There was a significant reduction in the duration of active stage of labour, and there was no significant second and third stage complication when these drugs were used. No untoward side effects were noted when

  13. The mechanism of catalytic methylation of 2-phenylpyridine using di-tert-butyl peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Akhilesh K; Roy, Dipankar; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2014-07-14

    The mechanism of palladium chloride-catalyzed direct methylation of arenes with peroxides is elucidated by using the energetics computed at the M06 density functional theory. The introduction of a methyl group by tert-butyl peroxides at the ortho-position of a prototypical 2-phenyl pyridine, a commonly used substrate in directed C-H functionalization reactions, is examined in detail by identifying the key intermediates and transition states involved in the reaction sequence. Different possibilities that differ in terms of the site of catalyst coordination with the substrate and the ensuing mechanism are presented. The important mechanistic events involved are (a) an oxidative or a homolytic cleavage of the peroxide O-O bond, (b) C-H bond activation, (c) C-C bond activation, and (d) reductive elimination involving methyl transfer to the aromatic ring. We have examined both radical and non-radical pathways. In the non-radical pathway, the lowest energy pathway involves C-H bond activation prior to the coordination of the peroxide to palladium, which is subsequently followed by the O-O bond cleavage of the peroxide and the C-C bond activation. Reductive elimination in the resulting intermediate leads to the vital C-C bond formation between methyl and aryl carbon atoms. In the non-radical pathway, the C-C bond activation is higher in energy and has been identified as the rate-limiting step of this reaction. In the radical pathway, however, the activation barrier for the C-C bond cleavage is lower than for the peroxide O-O bond cleavage. A combination of a radical pathway up to the formation of a palladium methyl intermediate and a subsequent non-radical pathway has been identified as the most favored pathway for the title reaction. The predicted mechanism is in good agreement with the experimental observations on PdCl2 catalyzed methylation of 2-phenyl pyridine using tert-butyl peroxide. PMID:24875675

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy Secondary to Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunt: Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Microcoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 70-year-old woman with hepatic encephalopathy due to an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt that was successfully occluded by percutaneous transcatheter embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and microcoils

  15. Experimental Measurements and Correlations Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Water + Acetic Acid + Sec-butyl Acetate at 101.3 kPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; HE Yong; WU Yanxiang; ZOU Wenhu

    2013-01-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium(VLE) data for acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate and water + acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate systems were determined at 101.3 kPa using a modified Rose type.The nonideality of the vapor phase caused by the association of the acetic acid was corrected by the chemical theory and Hayden-O'Connell method.Thermodynamic consistency was tested for the binary VLE data.The experimental data were correlated successfully with the Non-Random Two Liquids (NRTL) model.The Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of the ternary system was 0.0038.The saturation vapor pressure of sec-butyl acetate at 329 to 385 K was measured by means of two connected equilibrium cells.The vapor pressures of water and sec-butyl acetate were correlated with the Antoine equation.The binary interaction parameters and the ternary VLE data were obtained from this work.

  16. The Emulsion Polymerization of Each of Vinyl Acetate and Butyl Acrylate Monomers Using bis (2-ethylhexyl) Maleate for Improving the Physicomechanical Properties of Paints and Adhesive Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the water sensitivity of polyvinyl acetate PVAc films as well as pressure sensitivity, adhesion and washability of poly butyl acrylate were achieved by using bis (2-ethylhexyl) maleate (BEHM). The emulsion polymerization kinetics of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate in presence of BEHM was studied. The order of the polymerization reaction with respect to the BEHM in presence of each of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate was studied. The physicomechanical properties of the polyvinyl acetate films and vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate copolymer films were studied in presence of BEHM and the obtained results were matched with those prepared in the presence of pluronic F 108 and showed superior values. The obtained mean average molecular weights were found to be smaller in presence of BEHM assuring the presence of chain transfer reaction.

  17. Formation of poly(butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) microcapsules and the microencapsulation of aqueous solutions of [125I]-labelled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some featrues of the polymerization reaction of butyl 2-cyanoacrylate at different aqueous/organic solvent interfaces have been investigated. In particular, the effects of pH and the presence of protein on the formation of microcapsules by in situ interfacial polymerization of butyl 2-cyanoacrylate in w/o emulsions have been studied. [125I]-labelled proteins have been used to study the procedure as a method of microencapsulating enzymes or other proteins within potentially biodegradable membranes. Preliminary in vitro degradation studies suggest that degradation of the microcapsules is inhibited by low levels of their breakdown products, thus allowing the storage of the microcapsules as aqueous suspensions for prolonged periods in sealed containers. (Auth.)

  18. Phase equilibrium conditions of semi-calthrate hydrates of (tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride + carbon dioxide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Carbon dioxide hydrate stability zone was enlarged with the help of TBAC. • Carbon dioxide uptake into TBAC semi-clathrate hydrates is confirmed. • Equilibrium pressure of hydrate decreased with the increase of TBAC mass concentration. • The addition of TBAC reduces the formation pressures of carbon dioxide hydrate by 2.5 MPa. - Abstract: In the present work, hydrate equilibrium conditions for (tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) + carbon dioxide + water) mixtures were investigated. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride was reported to form a semi-clathrate hydrate. The experiments were carried out within the TBAC mass fraction range of (0.05 to 0.3). The experimental results showed that the presence of TBAC decreased the formation pressure of carbon dioxide double hydrate within the experimental temperature range. Moreover, pressure reduction was dependent on the TBAC concentration

  19. On the viscosity of two 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids: effect of the temperature and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaciño, Félix M.; Comuñas, María J.P.; Regueira Muñiz, Teresa;

    2015-01-01

    to1000 s-1in a Couette rheometer. Dynamic viscosities were correlated as function of temperature and pressure with four differentequations with average absolute deviation lower than 1%. The pressure-viscosity and temperature-viscosity derived properties were analyzed and compared with those of other...... measure viscosities as a function of temperature and pressure fortwo ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphateand 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate.Besides, we have measured the flow curves at pressures up to 75 MPa and shear rates up...... ionic liquids. Furthermore, experimental data were used to check the application of the thermodynamic scaling approach as well as the hard-sphere scheme. Both models represent the viscosity values with average relative deviations lower than 2%....

  20. Thermal and thermo-mechanical behavior of butyl based rubber exposed to silicon oil at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica reinforced rubbers are used as chemical resistant seals at high temperature. In this study the effect of alkali and silicon oil on the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties of the silica reinforced butyl rubber exposed as an interface between two liquid media at elevated temperature is investigated. Rubber bladder containing alkaline solution was immersed in silicon oil at 195+-5 degree C for multiple cycles and loss in its thermal, thermo-mechanical and mechanical properties were studied by TGA, DMA and Tinius Olsen Testing Machine supported by FTIR and Optical microscopy. It was observed that the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties of butyl rubber were negatively affected due to leaching out of silica filler embedded in an organic matrix at elevated temperature. The thermal stability of exposed rubber was decreased around 200 degree C and the loss of storage modulus was observed up to 99.5% at -59 degree C. (author)

  1. Oil-in-water emulsion lotion providing controlled release using 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine n-butyl methacrylate copolymer as emulsifier

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Akiko; Fujii, Makiko; Morimoto, Kumi; Yamada, Tomomi; Koizumi, Naoya; Kondoh, Masuo; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2012-01-01

    Lotion is a useful vehicle for active ingredients used to treat skin disease because it can be applied to the scalp, can cover large areas of skin, and it is easy to spread due to low viscosity. An emulsion lotion (EL) containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine n-butyl methacrylate copolymer (PMB) as an emulsifier that provides controlled-release was developed. Diphenhydramine (DPH) was used as a model drug. Formulation with 5% DPH, 5% soybean oil, and 4% PMB in water was emulsified ...

  2. Influence of the strength of polarizing electric field on free relaxation of electric birefringence in poly(butyl-isocyanate) solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, N. V.; Mikhailova, M. E.; Lebedeva, E. V.; Lezov, A. A.; Rogozhin, V. B.; Rotinyan, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    Free relaxation of electric birefringence in tetrachloromethane solution of high molecular weight poly(butyl-isocyanate) was studied. The effect of electric field strength on the average relaxation time was observed. The relaxation spectrum was analyzed using the Rouse and Zimm theories. With increase in the electric field strength, the contribution of fast (deformation) relaxation modes also increased significantly. It is assumed that certain changes in intramolecular mobility occur under the influence of electric field.

  3. Studies on the separation of tri-n-butyl phosphate from diluent wash solution. Contributed Paper RD-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility study was carried out for the separation of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) from diluent obtained after diluent wash of aqueous streams of PUREX process using adsorption method. Batch experiments were carried out to determine adsorption behavior of TBP from organic solution (mixture of n-dodecane and TBP) on Tulsion ADS 55FsB resin. Analysis of experimental data indicated that adsorption isotherm of TBP can be modeled with the Freundlich to describe adsorption equilibrium. (author)

  4. Selective Preparation. 28.Preparation of 4,4'-di-t-Butyl-2,2'-di-Formyldiphenylmethane.

    OpenAIRE

    Tashiro, Masashi; Yamato, Takehiko

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of 4, 4'-di-t-butyl-2, 2'-bis (chloromethyl) diphenylmethane (3) with 2- nitropropane in the presence of sodium ethoxide afforded the corresponding diformyldiphenylmethane (2) in only 27% yield. The halogen exchange reaction of 3 with potassium iodide in refluxing acetone gave the corresponding diiodide (4) in 60% yield. When 4 was allowed to react with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) at 150°, 2 and unexpected compound 5 were obtained in 31 and 41% yields, respectively. A tentative mechani...

  5. Endovascular Treatment of Pseudoaneurysm of the Common Hepatic Artery with Intra-aneurysmal Glue (N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate) Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 40-year-old man, a chronic alcoholic, presented with acute epigastric pain. Selective celiac arteriography showed a pseudoaneurysm arising from the common hepatic artery. We hereby describe a technical innovation where complete pseudoaneurysm exclusion was seen after intra-aneurysmal N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (glue) injection with preservation of antegrade hepatic arterial flow and conclude that intra-aneurysmal liquid injection may have potential as a therapeutic option to reconstruct a defective vessel wall and thereby maintain the antegrade flow

  6. Healing of periodontal flaps when closed with silk sutures and N-butyl cyanoacrylate: A clinical and histological study

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni Sudhindra; Dodwad Vidya; Chava Vijay

    2007-01-01

    Background: The closure of the periodontal flaps post-surgery is a necessity for attainment of a primary union between the flap margins and the establishment of a healthy dentogingival junction. N-butyl cyanoacrylate is a tissue adhesive, which can be used for the closure of the incised wounds to overcome the problems associated with conventional suture materials like silk. Objective: The present study was carried out to assess the healing of the periodontal flaps when closed with the conv...

  7. Posttraumatic Pseudoaneurysm in Scalp Treated by Direct Puncture Embolization Using N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hee-Jin; Choi, Young Ho

    2005-01-01

    Here, we report a case of scalp pseudoaneurysm which was treated by direct puncture embolization using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The patient had a history of blunt trauma in the previous two months. Ultrasound-guided manual compression was initially attempted, but the results were unsatisfactory. Direct puncture embolization was then performed, and the pseudoaneurysm was completely obliterated. Non-surgical treatment options for pseudoaneurysm are briefly discussed.

  8. Posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm in scalp treated by direct puncture embolization using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we report a case of scalp pseudoaneurysm which was treated by direct puncture embolization using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The patient had a history of blunt trauma in the previous two months. Ultrasound-guided manual compression was initially attempted, but the results were unsatisfactory. Direct puncture embolization was then performed, and the pseudoaneurysm was completely obliterated. Non-surgical treatment options for pseudoaneurysm are briefly discussed

  9. Preparation of layered double hydroxides intercalated with organic anions and their application in LDH/poly(butyl methacrylate) nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Jindrová, E.; Lang, Kamil; Kubát, Pavel; Sedláková, Zdeňka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, 1-2 (2010), s. 260-270. ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100500651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Layered double hydroxides * intercalation * poly(butyl methacrylate) nanocomposite * photoactive materials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.303, year: 2010

  10. Solvent Extraction of Tellurium from Chloride Solutions Using Tri-n-butyl Phosphate: Conditions and Thermodynamic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dongchan Li; Yafei Guo; Tianlong Deng; Yu-Wei Chen; Nelson Belzile

    2014-01-01

    The extractive separation of tellurium (IV) from hydrochloric acid media with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene was investigated. The dependence on the extraction of tellurium species, concentrations of tellurium and TBP, extraction time and stage, organic/aqueous ratio, and interferences from coexist metallic ions were examined and are discussed. Besides, the stripping agent and stripping time were also studied. It was found that the extraction reaction corresponds to the neutral compl...

  11. Comparison and Characterisation of Regenerated Chitosan from 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride and Chitosan from Crab Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Saniyat Islam; Lyndon Arnold; Rajiv Padhye

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin which is naturally occurring in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. This paper reports dissolution and regeneration of chitosan by directly dissolving in an ionic liquid solvent, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl). This will provide an ideal platform to solubilise these kinds of polymers to achieve the dissolution. The current study dissolved chitosan from crab shell utilising BMIMCl as a solvent and characterised the resultant regenerated p...

  12. Crystal structure of bis-(benzoato-κO)di-butyl-tin(IV), nBu2Sn(bzo)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Hans; Okio, Coco K Y A

    2016-07-01

    The title compound, [Sn(C4H9)2(C6H5COO)2], was synthesized in order to study the inter-action between di-n-butyl-tin(IV) oxide and some carb-oxy-lic acids. Di-n-butyl-tin(IV) dibenzoate, nBu2Sn(obz)2, exhibits the same structural features as other diorganotin(IV) dibenzoates characterized by an unsymmetrical bidentate bonding mode [Δ(Sn-O) ≃ 0.4 Å] of the two benzoate groups to tin. In a first approximation, the coordination sphere at tin resulting from the two stronger bonded O atoms [2.1227 (17) and 2.1405 (16) Å] and the two α-C atoms of the n-butyl groups [2.125 (3) and 2.129 (2) Å] is compressed to a tetra-gonal disphenoid [〈(C-Sn-C) = 148.2 (1)° and 〈(O-Sn-O) = 82.01 (6)°]. This coordination sphere is expanded by the less strongly bonded two O atoms [2.507 (2) and 2.485 (2) Å] to a substanti-ally distorted octa-hedron and by a weak inter-molecular Sn⋯O inter-action [2.943 (2) Å] to a penta-gonal bipyramid with the formation of centrosymmetric dimers. The unbranched butyl groups adopt two different conformations: anti-gauche [torsion angles: 166.0 (2)-63.9 (4)°] and gauche-gauche [65.0 (3)-56.3 (3)°]. Inter-molecular inter-actions between the dimers are restricted to O⋯H-C contacts (2.64 Å) and van der Waals inter-actions. PMID:27555926

  13. THE EFFECT OF 2-BUTYL-CYANOACRYLATE ADHESIVE IN OSTEOTOMIES AND BONE GRAFTS IN RABBITS: MACROSCOPIC AND RADIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Mário Sérgio Viana; Leite, Vilnei Mattioli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of butyl-2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in osteotomies and bone grafts, with regard to macroscopic and radiographic characteristics. Methods: Forty-eight rabbits were used, randomly divided into four groups of 12 animals, with observation periods of two, four, eight and 16 weeks. Both thoracic limbs were operated in each animal and two osteotomies were performed in each of the radii, withdrawing a bone fragment (bone graft) of 1 cm in length. On one side, th...

  14. Anaerobic Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Microorganisms Identified in Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples by Stable Isotope Probing

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Weimin; Sun, Xiaoxu; Cupples, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation potential was investigated in samples from a range of sources. From these 22 experimental variations, only one source (from wastewater treatment plant samples) exhibited MTBE degradation. These microcosms were methanogenic and were subjected to DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted to both bacteria and archaea to identify the putative MTBE degraders. For this purpose, DNA was extracted at two time points, subjected to ultracentrif...

  15. Shear viscosity measurements in the binary mixture butyl cellosolve-water near its upper and lower critical consolute points

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Y; Dondos, A.; Picot, C.; Benoit, H.

    1981-01-01

    To further probe the hypothesis of universality of critical phenomena, the shear viscosity has been measured for a two-component critical liquid system, butyl cellosolve-water, in the region of both the entropy-driven lower (LCST) and the enthalpy-driven upper (UCST) critical solution temperature. The values of the critical exponents ϕn for the shear viscosity were obtained by analysing the results from the viewpoint of multiplicative renormalization of transport coefficients. We have obtaine...

  16. Low-pressure solubilities and thermodynamics of solvation of eight gases in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemin, J.; Husson, P.; Majer, V.; Gomes, M. F. C.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental values for the solubility of carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, argon and carbon monoxide in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [bmim][PF6] - a room temperature ionic liquid - are reported as a function of temperature between 283 and 343 K and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide is the most soluble and hydrogen is the least soluble of the gases studied with mole fraction solubilities of the order of 10-2 and 10-4, respectively...

  17. Modelling and simulation of batch distillation for tri-butyl phosphate -n-dodecane system. Contributed Paper MS-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri-Butyl Phosphate (TBP) with n-Dodecane (NDD) as diluent is used in nuclear industry to recover Uranium and Plutonium from spent fuel. Modelling and simulation for batch distillation is done for TBP-Dodecane system to get the evaporation rate. Experiments were done to obtain the VLE data for this system at 10 mm Hg. Evaporation rate was thus found out using mass balance equations. Experimental results were compared with model and good match was found between them. (author)

  18. Physical Properties and Biological Activity of Poly(butyl acrylate–styrene) Nanoparticle Emulsions Prepared with Conventional and Polymerizable Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Garay-Jimenez, Julio C.; Gergeres, Danielle; Young, Ashley; Dickey, Sonja; Lim, Daniel V; Turos, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratory have explored the use of polyacrylate nanoparticles in aqueous media as stable emulsions for potential applications in treating drug-resistant bacterial infections. These emulsions are made by emulsion polymerization of acrylated antibiotic compounds in a mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene (7:3 w:w) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a surfactant. Prior work in our group established that the emulsions required purification to remove toxicity associated w...

  19. Epoxidation and oxidation reactions using 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate crosslinked polystyrene-supported tertiary butyl hydroperoxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Sheela; K Sreekumar

    2004-11-01

    1,4-Butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDDMA) crosslinked polystyrene-supported -butyl hydroperoxide was employed in the epoxidation of olefins and oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds. The reagent proved to be successful as a recyclable solid phase organic reagent with as much or more efficiency when compared to its monomeric counterpart. The extent of reaction was found to be dependent on various reaction parameters like solvent, temperature, molar concentration and presence of catalyst.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of 1-Butyl-3 Methylimidazolium Chloride as Green Material for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar; Varma, Mahesh N.; Diwakar Z. Shende; Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Kailas L. Wasewar

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried ou...

  1. Clinical outcomes of gastric variceal obliteration using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in patients with acute gastric variceal hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Chung Hwan; Kim, Ka Rham; Yoon, Jae Hyun; Koh, Han Ra; Choi, Won Suk; Cho, Kyu Man; Lim, Sung Uk; Park, Chang Hwan; Joo, Young Eun; KIM, HYUN SOO; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBC; Histoacryl) for treatment of bleeding gastric varices. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the records of 455 patients with gastric variceal hemorrhage (GVH) who were consecutively treated with NBC from January 2004 to July 2013, with a mean follow-up period of 582 days. The patients' endoscopic findings, initial hemostasis, complications, rebleeding rates, and bleeding-relat...

  2. Endoscopic treatment of bleeding gastric varices with histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate): a South European single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Monsanto, P.; Almeida, N.; Rosa, A.; Maçôas, F; Lérias, C; Portela, F; Amaro, P.; Ferreira, MC; Gouveia, H.; Sofia, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is the current recommended treatment for gastric variceal bleeding. Despite the extensive worldwide use, there are still differences related to the technique, safety, and long term-results. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate in patients with gastric variceal bleeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 1998 and January 2010, 97 patients with gastric variceal bleeding underwent endoscopic...

  3. Temporary occlusion of the inferior lacrimal punctum and canaliculi of dogs with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate and 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane dos Santos Honsho; Karym Christine de Freitas Cardoso; Carolina Quarterone; Leandro Guimarães Franco; Adriana Torrecilhas Jorge Brunelli; Fernanda Gosuen Gonçalves Dias; Geórgia Modé Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    The occlusion of the inferior lacrimal punctum limits tear drainage and thus keeps it over the ocular surface, prolongs lubrication and minimizes the need of ocular lubricants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate and 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate adhesives in the occlusion of the inferior lacrimal punctum and canaliculi of dogs and their clinical repercussions over 180 days. Eleven dogs, were divided into two groups: occlusion with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (G...

  4. Recurrent bacteremia after injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for treatment of bleeding gastric varices: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Randi, Bruno A.; Ninomiya, Daniel A.; Nicodemo, Elizabeth L.; Lopes, Beatriz C.; Eduardo R. Cançado; Levin, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bleeding from gastric varices has high mortality rate, and obliteration using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is the treatment of choice. Recurrent bacteremia is rarely reported following the procedure. We aimed to report a case of recurrent bacteremia after N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate treatment and to review published cases. Case presentation and review In May 2014, a 43-year-old Brazilian male presented with lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy showed active bleeding from gastric varix...

  5. Silica-Supported Arsine Palladium(0) Complex: a Highly Active and Stereoselective Catalyst for Arylation of Butyl Acrylate and Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明中; 赵红; 胡文英

    2005-01-01

    A silica-supported arsine palladium(O) complex has been prepared from y-chloropropyltriethoxysilane via immobilization on fumed silica, followed by reaction with potassium diphenylarsenide and palladium chloride, and then reduction with hydrazine hydrate. The complex has been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and it is a highly active and stereoselective catalyst for arylation of butyl acrylate and acrylamide with aryl halides, affording a variety of tram-butyl cinnamates and trans-cinnamamides in high yields.

  6. Successful endoscopic treatment of bleeding gastric varices with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and lipiodol mixture injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Tuna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine effect of N-Butyl-2 Cyanoacrylate (CA and lipiodol mixture injection for hemostasis of bleeding gastric varices or lesions, which had bled from gastric varices.Materials and methods Fifteen patients with active bleeding or bleeding findings within two weeks who admitted to endoscopic unit of a low volume medical center were evaluated retrospectively between 2003 and 2010. We carried out endoscopic sclerotherapy successfully to gastric varices with combination of N-Butyl-2 Cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol (CALM, with dramatical success over months after sessions of sclerotherapy for each patient.Results: Sclerotherapy with cyanoacrylate achieved hemostasis in all actively bleeding nine patients initially. Rebleeding occurred in a patient 24 hours later and in another patient two months later (2/15, 13.3%. Eradication of gastric varices was achived in 13 (86.7 % patients during follow-up. One patient was operated because of rebleeding. One patient died as a result of liver failure. Five-year survival rate of the patients after eradication of gastric varices was 14/15 (93.3%.Conclution: This study indicated that sclerotherapy with N-Butyl-2 Cyanoacrylate and lipiodol mixture is an effective treatment method for patients with bleeding gastric varices and also for eradication of gastric varices.

  7. Nitrogen topdressing and application ways of fluazifop-p-butyl + fomesafen in weed control and agronomic performance of common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Matheus G; Arf, Orivaldo; Teodoro, Paulo E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of interaction between nitrogen topdressing and different application ways (active ingredients) a.i. fluazifop-p-butyl + fomesafen in weed control and agronomic performance of common bean. The experiment was conducted during winter 2003 in Selvíria/MS. The experimental design used was a randomized block design with four replications in a factorial scheme 2 x 7. The first factor was composed by the absence or presence of nitrogen topdressing, while the second factor consisted of different application ways of fluazifop-p-butyl + fomesafen. The following variables were measured: leaf N content, dry matter of plants, yield components (number of pods plant(-1), number of grains plant(-1), the average number of grains pod(-1) and mass of 100 grains), grain yield, phytotoxicity and weed control percentage. The nitrogen topdressing with 75 kg ha(-1) provided higher dry matter of plants, higher weed control and higher common bean yield of irrigated winter. In the absence of nitrogen topdressing in the application of urea before or together to fluazifop-p-butyl + fomesafen increased their effectiveness in controlling weeds without interference in the agronomic performance of common bean. PMID:26628016

  8. Density and viscosity of three (2,2,2-trifluoroethanol + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) ionic liquid binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Densities and viscosities from 278.15 to 333.15 K are reported for three binary (2,2,2-trifluoroethanol + an IL) systems. • TFE + [bmim][BF4] system presents positive VE values except for the highest mole fractions of TFE, at the highest temperatures. • TFE + [bmim][PF6] presents negative VE values except at the low TFE mole fractions for the lowest temperatures. • TFE + [bmim][NTf2] presents negative VE values for all the mole fractions and temperatures studied. • The three systems present negative viscosity deviations becoming less negative with increasing temperature. -- Abstract: Densities and viscosities were determined for binary mixtures of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([bmim][NTf2]) over the entire range of composition. The experimental measurements were carried out at temperatures ranging from 278.15 K to 333.15 K, at atmospheric pressure. The densities and viscosities of the pure ionic liquids and their mixtures with TFE were described successfully by an empirical third-order polynomial and by the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann equation, respectively. In addition, excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were determined from densities and viscosities of mixtures, respectively, and fitted by using the Redlich–Kister equation

  9. Distribution Equilibrium of o-Phthalic Acid and trans-Butenedioic in Water and Di-n-butyl Phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhenghong; YANG Xiaorui; HU Chaoquan; LI Jiang

    2006-01-01

    The organic dissolvent(di-n-butyl phthalate)needs to be washed by water to recycle itself in the process of recovering maleic anhydride by organic dissolvent. The design and optimization of the extraction process require the distribution coefficients of the organic solutes, o-phthalic acid and trans-butenedioic in water and di-n-butyl phthalate, on which the extraction efficiency depends. In this study, the distribution coefficients of o-phthalic acid and trans-butenedioic in water and di-n-bu-tyl phthalate(DBP)at 298.15 K, 318.15 K and 333.15 K were determined respectively by acid-alkali titration. The dissociation constants of o-phthalic acid and trans-butenedioic at those temperatures were obtained by fitting the measured hydrogen-ion concentrations and the known solute concentrations in the aqueous solution containing the two organic solutes. Then the distribution constants were calculated. Both the distribution coefficients and the distribution constants increase along with the temperature increasing. And the distribution coefficients at 333.15 K are large enough to ensure the efficiency of extraction process. In addition, the mutual solubility of water and di-n-butyl phthalate at 298.15 K, 318.15 K and 333.15 K was also measured respectively by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Karl Fischer Watertitration, which was not more than 0.5%(mass fraction).

  10. Studies of oxygen reduction in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide by microdisk voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of oxygen reduction in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI) was examined using staircase cyclic voltammetry on a 50 μm diameter platinum microdisk electrode. The diffusion coefficients for oxygen and superoxide, and the heterogeneous rate constants were obtained with a fit to experimental voltammograms. A modified transport equation in 1D spherical symmetry and Tsallis’ q-exponential function were utilized in the fit procedure, and its applicability was compared to 2D simulations made with Comsol Multiphysics. In addition, the formal standard potential of oxygen reduction was referenced to the cobaltocene/cobaltocenium (Co(cp)2+/0) redox couple. It was found that oxygen reacts with homogeneously with Co(cp)2+, making the quantitative determination of oxygen reaction kinetics rather difficult. Also, small amounts of water in the liquid cause complex reaction mechanisms. Finally, proton reduction was also measured, and its formal potential resides at ca. 1.45 V vs. Co(cp)2+/0 reference, which more than 1 V positive to those of water or oxygen reduction

  11. Absolute rate constants of alkoxyl radical reactions in aqueous solution. [Tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erben-Russ, M.; Michel, C.; Bors, W.; Saran, M.

    1987-04-23

    The pulse radiolysis technique was used to generate the alkoxyl radical derived from tert-butyl hydroperoxide (/sup t/BuOOH) in aqueous solution. The reactions of this radical with 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-6-benzothiazolinesulfonate) (ABTS) and promethazine were monitored by kinetic spectroscopy. The unimolecular decay rate constant of the tert-butoxyl radical (/sup t/BuO) was determined to be 1.4 x 10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/. On the basis of this value, the rate constants for /sup t/BuO attack on quercetin, crocin, crocetin, ascorbate, isoascorbate, trolox c, glutathione, thymidine, adenosine, guanosine, and unsaturated fatty acids were determined. In addition, the reaction of /sup t/BuO with the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was observed by directly monitoring the formation of the fatty acid pentadienyl radicals. Interestingly, the attack of /sup t/BuO on PUFA was found to be faster by about one order of magnitude as compared to the same reaction in a nonpolar solvent.

  12. Methyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation by indigenous aquifer microorganisms under natural and artificial oxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J E; Chapelle, F H; Herlong, H H; Bradley, P M

    2001-03-15

    Microbial communities indigenous to a shallow groundwater system near Beaufort, SC, degraded milligram per liter concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) under natural and artificial oxic conditions. Significant MTBE biodegradation was observed where anoxic, MTBE-contaminated groundwater discharged to a concrete-lined ditch. In the anoxic groundwater adjacent to the ditch, concentrations of MTBE were > 1 mg/L. Where groundwater discharge occurs, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations beneath the ditch exceeded 1.0 mg/Lto a depth of 1.5 m, and MTBE concentrations decreased to CO2 in laboratory liquid culture studies, with no accumulation of intermediate compounds. Upgradient of the ditch in the anoxic, MTBE- and BTEX-contaminated aquifer, addition of a soluble oxygen release compound resulted in oxic conditions and rapid MTBE biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms. In an observation well located closest to the oxygen addition area, DO concentrations increased from 0.4 to 12 mg/L in <60 days and MTBE concentrations decreased from 20 to 3 mg/L. In the same time period at a downgradient observation well, DO increased from <0.2 to 2 mg/L and MTBE concentrations decreased from 30 to <5 mg/L. These results indicate that microorganisms indigenous to the groundwater system at this site can degrade milligram per liter concentrations of MTBE under natural and artificial oxic conditions. PMID:11347923

  13. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  14. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculae, G.; Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions.

  15. Biodegradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by a Newly Isolated Halotolerant Sphingobium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Jin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A Gram-negative strain (TJ capable of growing aerobically on mixed phthalate esters (PAEs as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the Haihe estuary, Tianjin, China. It was identified as belonging to the Sphingobium genus on the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA and gyrb gene sequencing. The batch tests for biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP by the Sphingobium sp. TJ showed that the optimum conditions were 30 °C, pH 7.0, and the absence of NaCl. Stain TJ could tolerate up to 4% NaCl in minimal salt medium supplemented with DBP, although the DBP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased. In addition, substrate tests showed that strain TJ could utilize shorter side-chained PAEs, such as dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate, but could not metabolize long-chained PAEs, such as di-n-octyl phthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biodegradation characteristics of DBP by a member of the Sphingobium genus.

  16. Biodegradation of di-n-Butyl Phthalate by Achromobacter sp. Isolated from Rural Domestic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Jin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain W-1, isolated from rural domestic wastewater, can utilize the environmental hormone di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP as the sole carbon and energy source. The isolated bacterium species was confirmed to belong to the genus Achromobacter based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The results of substrate utilization tests showed that the strain W-1 could utilize other common phthalates and phenol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for DBP degradation were pH 7.0, 35 °C, and an agitation rate of 175 rpm. Under these conditions, 500 mg/L of DBP was completely degraded within 30 h. The effects of heavy metals (50 mg/L Cu2+ and 500 mg/L Pb2+ and surfactants (100 mg/L SDS and 500 mg/L Tween 20 on DBP degradation were investigated. The results demonstrated that Cu2+ and SDS severely inhibited DBP degradation and Pb2+ weakly inhibited DBP degradation, while Tween 20 greatly enhanced DBP degradation. Furthermore, phthalate degradation genes were found to be located on a plasmid present in Achromobacter sp. W-1.

  17. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Between March 1999 and December 2002, TAE for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed in 93 patients. The endoscopic approach had failed or was discarded as an approach for control of bleeding in all study patients. Among the 93 patients NBCA was used as the primary embolic material for TAE in 32 patients (28 men, four women; mean age, 59.1 years). The indications for choosing NBCA as the embolic material were: inability to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and effective wedging of the microcatheter into the bleeding artery. TAE was performed using 1:1 1:3 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. The angiographic and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The angiographic and clinical success rates were 100% and 91% (29/32), respectively. There were no serious ischemic complications. Recurrent bleeding occurred in three patients (9%) and they were managed with emergency surgery (n = 1) and with a successful second TAE (n = 2). Eighteen patients (56%) had a coagulopathy at the time of TAE and the clinical success rate in this group of patients was 83% (15/18). TAE with NBCA is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when it is not possible to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and when the patient has a coagulopathy

  18. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Arterial Esophageal Bleeding with the Use of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospita, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of arterial esophageal bleeding. Between August 2000 and April 2008, five patients diagnosed with arterial esophageal bleeding by conventional angiography, CT angiography or endoscopy, underwent a TAE with NBCA. We mixed NBCA with iodized oil at ratios of 1:1 to 1:4 to supply radiopacity and achieve a proper polymerization time. After embolization, we evaluated the angiographic and clinical success, recurrent bleeding, and procedure-related complications. The bleeding esophageal artery directly originated from the aorta in four patients and from the left inferior phrenic artery in one patient. Although four patients had an underlying coagulopathy at the time of the TAE, angiographic and clinical success was achieved in all five patients. In addition, no procedurerelated complications such as esophageal infarction were observed during this study. NBCA can be an effective and feasible embolic agent in patients with active arterial esophageal bleeding, even with pre-existing coagulopathy.

  19. Embolization of pediatric brain arteriovenous malformations using n-butyl cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current treatment options available for brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) include microsurgery, embolization and radiosurgery. At our hospital, we perform embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). When total obliteration of a BAVM is not achieved by embolization alone, gamma knife surgery (GKS) is used to eradicate the residual nidus. Because radiotoxicity is a serious problem, especially for pediatric patients, reduction of the radiation dose is essential. The objective of this paper is to clarify the role of NBCA embolization in the multimodal treatment of pediatric BAVMs based on our experience. Seven typical cases in patients under the age of 15 years were selected from among 145 individuals with BAVM who underwent embolization between 1997 and 2008 at our hospital. These cases were reviewed retrospectively. All the patients had undergone GKS after embolization of BAVMs, resulting in total obliteration or near total obliteration of the lesion. Although it is difficult to achieve a complete cure of BAVM with embolization alone, we believe that NBCA embolization contributes to the successful application of GKS by reducing the future marginal dose in pediatric patients. (author)

  20. Transcatheter embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate for renal arterial bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the effectiveness and safety of transcatheter embolization with N- butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in treating renal artery bleeding. Methods: During the period from Jan. 2006 to June 2013, transcatheter embolization with NBCA was carried out in 12 patients with renal arterial bleeding, who failed to respond to the conventional treatment. Of the 23 patients, only NBCA was used in 20 (80%), and NBCA together with Gelfoam and/or micro-coils was employed in 3 (13%). DSA showed that the lesions included pseudoaneurysm (n=10), arteriovenous fistula (n=8) and active bleeding (n=5). The clinical and imaging materials were retrospectively analyzed. The technical success rate, clinical result and procedure-related complications were recorded. Results: Technical success was obtained in all 23 patients. Angiography performed after the transcatheter embolization showed that the abnormal vascular manifestations disappeared in all cases. The bleeding stopped at 2 or 3 days after the procedure, and no recurrence was observed. No obvious complications occurred during and after the treatment. Conclusion: For renal bleeding due to various reasons, transcatheter embolization with NBCA only or with NBCA plus other embolic materials is safe and effective. Even for patients with poor coagulation function, NBCA can also get satisfactory result. (authors)

  1. Emergency endovascular embolization of traumatic intrarenal arterial pseudoaneurysms with N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The aim of this study is to report the effectiveness of selective endovascular embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in the treatment of traumatic intrarenal arterial pseudoaneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five patients (four males and one female) presented with massive haematuria. Five pseudoaneurysms were detected angiographically, and in all of the cases the aetiology was penetrating trauma. The pseudoaneurysms ranged in size between 7 and 30 mm (mean: 13.8 mm). After the superselective catheterization with a microcatheter-microguidewire system, embolization was performed using NBCA and Lipiodol mixture. RESULTS: All the pseudoaneurysms were successfully embolized and excluded from the circulation without any other major intrarenal arterial branch occlusion. There were no major or minor complications related to the embolization procedures. Haematuria ceased in 1-3 days after the embolization, and during the follow-up period both re-bleeding and deterioration of renal function did not occur. CONCLUSION: The endovascular management of renal artery branch pseudoaneurysms by embolization with NBCA is a reasonable and an effective therapeutic technique

  2. Selective arterial embolization of 36 aneurysmal bone cysts of the skeleton with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a lytic benign bone lesion representing about 1% of all primary bone tumors. The lesion causes pain and swelling, which are generally present for less than 3 months. From April 2003 to April 2008 36 patients affected by aneurysmal bone cysts were treated by selective arterial embolization with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate. The study population comprised 20 male and 16 female patients with an age range of 3.3-60.8 years. Nine lesions were localized in the appendicular skeleton (1 in the upper and 8 in the lower limb), 4 in the thoracic cage (1 rib lesion and 3 scapular lesions), 17 in the pelvis and 6 in the spine (1 thoracic and 5 sacral localizations). A total of 55 embolizations were performed: in 22 cases (61%) only one embolization was needed, whilst two embolizations were necessary in 9 cases (25%) and 3 in the remaining 5 patients (14%). The treatment was effective in 32 patients (94%): follow-up was 0.9-5 years. In one patient, previously surgically treated, only the cyanoacrylate embolization turned out to be useful for healing the lesion. Another 7 patients underwent surgery during the study period. In the 55 procedures we performed we had 3 complications (5%): 2 cases of skin necrosis and 1 of transient paresis. Arterial embolization with cyanoacrylate may be the treatment of choice for aneurysmal bone cysts. Embolization is a less invasive, lower cost, simpler procedure than surgery and is easily repeatable. (orig.)

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Arterial Esophageal Bleeding with the Use of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of arterial esophageal bleeding. Between August 2000 and April 2008, five patients diagnosed with arterial esophageal bleeding by conventional angiography, CT angiography or endoscopy, underwent a TAE with NBCA. We mixed NBCA with iodized oil at ratios of 1:1 to 1:4 to supply radiopacity and achieve a proper polymerization time. After embolization, we evaluated the angiographic and clinical success, recurrent bleeding, and procedure-related complications. The bleeding esophageal artery directly originated from the aorta in four patients and from the left inferior phrenic artery in one patient. Although four patients had an underlying coagulopathy at the time of the TAE, angiographic and clinical success was achieved in all five patients. In addition, no procedurerelated complications such as esophageal infarction were observed during this study. NBCA can be an effective and feasible embolic agent in patients with active arterial esophageal bleeding, even with pre-existing coagulopathy

  4. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Intramuscular Active Hemorrhage with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for intramuscular active hemorrhage of varied etiologies and anatomic sites. Methods: Eighteen patients who demonstrated hematoma with pseudoaneurysm and/or active extravasation of contrast media underwent TAE with NBCA. Etiologies of hematoma included trauma, postoperative complication, and coagulopathy (due to underlying disease or anticoagulation therapy). Sites of embolization included chest wall, abdomen wall, retroperitoneum, and extremity. TAE was performed by using 1:3 to 1:5 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil, either solely (n = 15) or in combination with microcoil (n = 3). The technical and clinical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results: The technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 83% (15/18), respectively. Two patients expired while admitted due to other comorbidities. One patient expired due to recurrent bleeding at another site. There were no serious complications relating to the embolization procedure. Conclusions: TAE with NBCA is effective and safe treatment modality for intramuscular active hemorrhage.

  5. N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization of Arterial Networks to Facilitate Hepatic Arterial Skeletonization before Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Shaun D.; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Avoidance of nontarget microsphere deposition via hepatoenteric anastomoses is essential to the safety of yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE). The hepatic hilar arterial network may remain partially patent after coil embolization of major arteries, resulting in persistent risk. We retrospectively reviewed cases where n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) glue embolization was used to facilitate endovascular hepatic arterial skeletonization before RE. Methods. A total of 543 RE procedures performed between June 2004 and March 2012 were reviewed, and 10 were identified where n-BCA was used to embolize hepatoenteric anastomoses. Arterial anatomy, prior coil embolization, and technical details were recorded. Outcomes were reviewed to identify subsequent complications of n-BCA embolization or nontarget RE. Results. The rate of complete technical success was 80 % and partial success 20 %, with one nontarget embolization complication resulting in a minor change in treatment plan. No evidence of gastrointestinal or biliary ischemia or infarction was identified, and no microsphere-related gastroduodenal ulcerations or other evidence of nontarget RE were seen. Median volume of n-BCA used was <0.1 ml. Conclusion. n-BCA glue embolization is useful to eliminate hepatoenteric networks that may result in nontarget RE, especially in those that persist after coil embolization of major vessels such as the gastroduodenal and right gastric arteries.

  6. N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization of Arterial Networks to Facilitate Hepatic Arterial Skeletonization before Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Avoidance of nontarget microsphere deposition via hepatoenteric anastomoses is essential to the safety of yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE). The hepatic hilar arterial network may remain partially patent after coil embolization of major arteries, resulting in persistent risk. We retrospectively reviewed cases where n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) glue embolization was used to facilitate endovascular hepatic arterial skeletonization before RE. Methods. A total of 543 RE procedures performed between June 2004 and March 2012 were reviewed, and 10 were identified where n-BCA was used to embolize hepatoenteric anastomoses. Arterial anatomy, prior coil embolization, and technical details were recorded. Outcomes were reviewed to identify subsequent complications of n-BCA embolization or nontarget RE. Results. The rate of complete technical success was 80 % and partial success 20 %, with one nontarget embolization complication resulting in a minor change in treatment plan. No evidence of gastrointestinal or biliary ischemia or infarction was identified, and no microsphere-related gastroduodenal ulcerations or other evidence of nontarget RE were seen. Median volume of n-BCA used was <0.1 ml. Conclusion. n-BCA glue embolization is useful to eliminate hepatoenteric networks that may result in nontarget RE, especially in those that persist after coil embolization of major vessels such as the gastroduodenal and right gastric arteries.

  7. Nonfoaming Bubble Separation for Recovery of Butyl Acetate from Discharged Wastewater During Penicillin Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴华; 常志东; 胡欣; 申淑锋; 刘会洲

    2005-01-01

    Two nonfoaming bubble separation techniques, air stripping and solvent sublation, are presented and discussed in order to recover butyl acetate (BA) from discharged wastewater after solvent extraction of penicillin. Results show air stripping is not suitable for the recovery of BA from the wastewater. Axial concentration of BA had a noted maximum point along the column. In contrast, solvent sublation is very effective to recover BA from the wastewater. In solvent sublation experiments, axial concentration of BA along the column first increased and then decreased from the bottom to the top because of two primary mass transport processes. One is the transport by adsorption or attachment to ascending bubbles, and the other is by dispersion at water-solvent interface and by water film in organic solvent layer. In order to elucidate the high removal efficiency in solvent sublation, the microstructure of the wastewater was studied with optic microscope, which was showed to be an emulsion of BA in water at large concentration of BA. Solvent sublation can be successfully used in the removal of BA from its emulsion in the wastewater. The surface tension of simulated solution composed of lysozyme and BA was studied to understand mutual effect of biological materials and BA. Results show that lysozyme affects the adsorption of BA at air-water interface and they may form a complex between BA and lysozyme molecules.

  8. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYLIMIDE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hamidova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pressure-density-temperature (p, ρ ,T data of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide [BMIM][NTF2] at T = (273.15 to 413.15 K and pressures up to p =140 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of Δ ρ / ρ = ±(0.01 to 0.08% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, aqueous NaCl solution, methanol, toluene and acetone. An empirical equation of state for fitting the (p, ρ ,T data of [BMIM][NTF2] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature. This equation is used for the calculation of the thermophysical properties of the ionic liquid, such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, thermal pressure coefficient, internal pressure, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, speed of sound and isentropic expansibility.

  9. Effects of Assistant Solvents and Mixing Intensity on the Bromination Process of Butyl Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 邹海魁; 初广文; 向阳; 彭晗; 陈建峰

    2014-01-01

    A slow bromination process of butyl rubber (IIR) suffers from low efficiency and low selectivity (S) of target-product. To obtain suitable approach to intensify the process, effects of assistant solvents and mixing inten-sity on the bromination process were systemically studied in this paper. The reaction process was found constantly accelerated with the increasing dosage and polarity of assistant solvent. Hexane with 30%(by volume) dichloro-methane was found as the suitable solvent component, where the stable conversion of 1,4-isoprene transferring to target product (xA1s) of 80.2%and the corresponding S of 91.2%were obtained in 5 min. The accelerated reaction process was demonstrated being remarkably affected by mixing intensity until the optimal stirring rate of 1100 r·min-1 in a stirred tank reactor. With better mixing condition, a further intensification of the process was achieved in a ro-tating packed bed (RPB) reactor, where xA1s of 82.6% and S of 91.9% were obtained in 2 min. The usage of the suitable solvent component and RPB has potential application in the industrial bromination process intensification.

  10. Bromo-butyl Rubber for Face Piece of a Respiratory Mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Kannan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory mask contains a number of components made of materials like rubber, plastics, and metals. Out of all the components, face piece is the main component exposed to the external environment. This study aims to evaluate degradation of bromo-butyl rubber. The experiments were carried out for thermal exposure, swelling study, saline exposure, etc. It is observed that the elongation at break was increased by 10 per cent when these were exposed to 100 oC. However, the tensile strength has been observed to decrease by 50 per cent when exposed to 55 oC. It is decreased to around 63 per cent when exposed to 80 oC and 100 oC. The morphological appearance of unaged sample was intact. Only samples at 120 oC aged for 48 h appeared to have developed minor cracks of <0.01 µm. There were no significant changes observed when the samples were exposed to saline (3 % NaCl and artificial sweat solution.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(5, pp.505-511, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1552

  11. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the physiology and ultrastructure of cucumber seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Tao, Yue; Sun, Guoqiang; Wang, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural pollution caused by the use of plastic sheetings has been documented to be a widespread problem in most of the major crop-planting regions of the world. In order to better understand the phytotoxic mechanisms induced by phthalic acid esters involved with this problem, Cucumber sativus L. cv Jinyan No. 4 were sown in pots to the three-leaf-stage in the presence of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 0, 30, 50, 100, and 200 mg L(-1)) for 1, 3, 5, or 7 days. Physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure of seedling roots were examined. The results indicated that activities of three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD)) were stimulated at low-DBP treatments and decreased under higher levels (>100 mg L(-1)) compared to the controls. On the other hand, SOD and POD provided a better defense against DBP-induced oxidative damage in the roots of cucumber seeding, compared to CAT. The productions of both malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline (Pro) were promoted under DBP stress. Visible impact on the cytoderm, mitochondrion, and vacuole was detected, possibly as a consequence of free radical generation. These results suggested that activation of the antioxidant system by DBP led to the formation of reactive oxygen species that resulted in cellular damage. PMID:24573460

  12. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions. (paper)

  13. Radiation grafting processes and properties of leathers modified with butyl acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions for radiation induced grafting with butyl acrylate dispersed in water emulsion onto chrome-tanned pig skins have been worked out for γ-rays and electron beam irradiations. The highest yield of grafting was observed at monomer concentration approximately 25% (w/w), dose equal to 25 kGy and dose rate not exceeding 10 MGy/h. At these conditions the yield of grafting attained a value approximately 25% and content of homopolymer in the leather amounted to 6%. The efficiency of monomer to polymer conversion decreases when the concentration of monomer in emulsion and dose rate increases. Yield of homopolymer is independent of the dose rate. An explanation of the observed relations has been proposed. The physical and used properties of grafted leathers were tested. Radiation processed leathers were found superior to samples finished by traditional methods. One has to point to better tolerance against chemical cleaning and reduced water take-up without loss of high permeability of water vapour, responsible for good hygienic properties of leather products. Recommendations for industrial scale radiation grafting are given. (author)

  14. Analysis of stochastic effects in chemically amplified poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate) resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of stochastic phenomena is essential to the development of a highly sensitive resist for nanofabrication. In this study, we investigated the stochastic effects in a chemically amplified resist consisting of poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate), triphenylsulfonium nonafluorobutanesulfonate (acid generator), and tri-n-octylamine (quencher). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of resist patterns were analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. It was estimated that a ±0.82σ fluctuation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule led to line edge roughness formation. Here, σ is the standard deviation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule after postexposure baking (PEB). The threshold for the elimination of stochastic bridge generation was 4.38σ (the difference between the average number of protected units after PEB and the dissolution point). The threshold for the elimination of stochastic pinching was 2.16σ.

  15. Photosonochemical degradation of butyl-paraben: optimization, toxicity and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghrir, R; Dimboukou-Mpira, A; Seyhi, B; Drogui, P

    2014-08-15

    The objective of the present work is to evaluate the potential of a photosonolysis process for the degradation of butyl-paraben (BPB). After 120 min of treatment time, high removal of BPB was achieved by the photosonolysis (US/UV) process (88.0±0.65%) compared to the photochemical (UV) and the conventional ultrasonication (US) processes. Several factors such as calorimetric power, treatment time, pH and initial concentration of BPB were investigated. Using a 2(4) factorial matrix, the treatment time and the calorimetric power are the main parameters influencing the degradation rate of BPB. Subsequently, a central composite design methodology has been investigated to determine the optimal experimental parameters for BPB degradation. The US/UV process applied under optimal operating conditions (at a calorimetric power of 40 W during 120 min and under pH7) is able to oxidize around 99.2±1.4% of BPB and to record 43.3% of mineralization. During the US/UV process, BPB was mainly transformed into 1 hydroxy BPB, dihydroxy BPB, hydroquinone and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Microtox biotests (Vibrio fisheri) showed that the treated effluent was not toxic. The pseudo-first order kinetic model (k=0.0367 min(-1)) described very well the oxidation of BPB. PMID:24858220

  16. Benzyl butyl phthalate induces epigenetic stress to enhance adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkar, Ravi; Powell, Catherine A; Choudhury, Mahua

    2016-08-15

    Endocrine disruptors, phthalates, may have contributed to recent global obesity health crisis. Our study investigated the potential of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) to regulate the mesenchymal stem cell epigenome to drive adipogenesis. BBP exposure enhanced lipid accumulation and adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner compared to control (P < 0.001). Adipogenesis markers, PPARγ (P < 0.001), C/EBPα (P < 0.01), and aP2 (P < 0.001) were significantly upregulated by increasing concentrations of BBP when compared to DMSO. BBP enhanced H3K9 acetylation while decreasing H3K9 dimethylation. Fifty μM BBP increased histone acetyltransferases, p300 (P < 0.05) and GCN5 (P < 0.01) gene expression. Furthermore, histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDAC3 (P < 0.01) and HDAC10 (P < 0.01, 10 μM BBP; P < 0.001, 50 μM BBP) and histone methyltransferases, SETDB1 (P < 0.01) and G9a (P < 0.01), were significantly downregulated by BBP exposure. BBP acts, in part, through PPARγ, as PPARγ knockdown led to decreased H3K9ac and rescued H3K9me2 during BBP exposure. In conclusion, BBP regulated MSCs towards adipogenesis by tipping the epigenomic balance. PMID:27164441

  17. Toxicity of methyl tertiary-butyl ether on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Vaghar-Moussavi, Mehrdad; Seydi, Enayatollah; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-05-01

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a synthetic solvent widely used as oxygenate in unleaded gasoline. Few studies have addressed the cellular toxicity of MTBE on some cell lines, and so far, no comprehensive study has been conducted to investigate the probable immunotoxicity of this compound. In this study, the toxicity of MTBE on human blood lymphocytes was evaluated. Blood lymphocytes were isolated from healthy male volunteers' blood, using Ficoll polysaccharide followed by gradient centrifugation. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels, and damage to mitochondria and lysosome were determined in blood lymphocytes after 6-h incubation with different concentrations of MTBE (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM). Our results showed that MTBE, in particular, decreased cell viability, which was associated with significant increase at intracellular ROS level and toxic alterations in mitochondria and lysosomes in human blood lymphocytes. Moreover, it was shown that MTBE strongly provoked lipid peroxidation and also depleted glutathione level at higher concentrations. Interestingly, MTBE exhibited its cytotoxic effects at low concentrations that may resemble to its concentrations in human blood following occupational and environmental exposure. It is therefore concluded that MTBE was capable of inducing oxidative stress and damage to mitochondria and lysosomes in human lymphocytes at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 μg/L, which may be present in human blood as a result of environmental exposure. PMID:26797945

  18. Studying the Kinetics of n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Tissue Adhesive and Its Oily Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedvedova, Marie; Kresalek, Vojtech; Vaskova, Hana; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-06-01

    This study deals with the measurement of the kinetics of tissue adhesives used for supporting the hemostasis and wound closure during surgical intervention. There are available several types of adhesives of different composition which is closely related with their application. When selecting an appropriate adhesive, the time of curing could play an important role because some applications may require very fast polymerization for prompt vessel or wound closure; conversely, some situations need slower solidification because of longer manipulation with the glue during surgery. The terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is used for studying the kinetics of the n-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue in this study. An oily substance is added to the glue samples to slow the reaction rate. The technique of attenuated total reflection is used in this application; the defined amount of glue sample or its mixture is applied on the silicon crystal and the terahertz response is measured in time. This time dependences are analyzed to find time constants for mathematical description of the glue kinetics. Further, the investigated samples were analyzed using light microscopy and Raman spectroscopy for description of the structures and compositions.

  19. Impetigo herpetiformis occurring during N-butyl-scopolammonium bromide therapy in pregnancy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, C; Lanza Silveri, S; Sisto, T; Rosati, D; De Simone, C; Fossati, B; Pomini, F; Rotoli, M; Amerio, P; Capizzi, R

    2008-01-01

    Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a rare dermatosis arising during the third trimester of pregnancy which is generally considered as a form of pustular psoriasis of unknown aetiology. Clinically it is characterized by erythematous plaques surrounded by sterile pustules associated with fever, diarrhea, sweating and increasing risk of stillbirth for placental insufficiency. We describe a case of developed erythematous plaques surrounded by pustules localised initially to the trunk of a 35-year-old woman at the 34th week of gestation after 5 days of treatment with N-Butyl-Scopolammonium, and which later involved the upper and lower limbs. Skin histology confirmed the diagnosis of generalised pregnancy pustular psoriasis (impetigo herpetiformis). IH is reported to be associated with hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, use of oral contraceptives and bacterial infections. This is the first report suggesting the potential role of drugs other than oral contraceptives in the pathogenetic mechanism of this disease. In this case an adverse cutaneous reaction to BB could be the cause of the development of Koebner isomorphism. PMID:18597707

  20. Selective arterial embolization of 36 aneurysmal bone cysts of the skeleton with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Giuseppe [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Interventional Angiographic Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, Eugenio; Vanel, Daniel [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Bartalena, Tommaso [University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Gerardi, Antonio [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Anatomical Human Science and Physiopathology of the Musculoskeletal System, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, Marco [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Pathological Anatomy, Bologna (Italy); Staals, Eric Lodwijk; Errani, Costantino; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Toscano, Angelo; Mercuri, Mario [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, V Division of Musculoskeletal Tumors, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a lytic benign bone lesion representing about 1% of all primary bone tumors. The lesion causes pain and swelling, which are generally present for less than 3 months. From April 2003 to April 2008 36 patients affected by aneurysmal bone cysts were treated by selective arterial embolization with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate. The study population comprised 20 male and 16 female patients with an age range of 3.3-60.8 years. Nine lesions were localized in the appendicular skeleton (1 in the upper and 8 in the lower limb), 4 in the thoracic cage (1 rib lesion and 3 scapular lesions), 17 in the pelvis and 6 in the spine (1 thoracic and 5 sacral localizations). A total of 55 embolizations were performed: in 22 cases (61%) only one embolization was needed, whilst two embolizations were necessary in 9 cases (25%) and 3 in the remaining 5 patients (14%). The treatment was effective in 32 patients (94%): follow-up was 0.9-5 years. In one patient, previously surgically treated, only the cyanoacrylate embolization turned out to be useful for healing the lesion. Another 7 patients underwent surgery during the study period. In the 55 procedures we performed we had 3 complications (5%): 2 cases of skin necrosis and 1 of transient paresis. Arterial embolization with cyanoacrylate may be the treatment of choice for aneurysmal bone cysts. Embolization is a less invasive, lower cost, simpler procedure than surgery and is easily repeatable. (orig.)

  1. Osmotic and apparent molar properties of binary mixtures alcohol + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Osmotic and physical properties of binary mixtures {alcohol + [BMim][TfO]} were measured. ► From experimental data, apparent molar properties and osmotic coefficients were calculated. ► The apparent properties were fitted using a Redlich–Meyer type equation. ► The osmotic coefficients were correlated using the Extended Pitzer model. -- Abstract: In this work, physical properties (densities and speeds of sound) for the binary systems {1-propanol, or 2-propanol, or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate} were experimentally measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to calculate the apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression which were fitted to a Redlich–Meyer type equation. This fit was used to obtain the corresponding apparent molar properties at infinite dilution. On the other hand, the osmotic and activity coefficients and vapor pressures of these binary mixtures were also determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapor pressure osmometry technique. The Extended Pitzer model of Archer was employed to correlate the experimental osmotic coefficients. From the parameters obtained in the correlation, the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures were calculated

  2. Electrodeposition of Nanocrystalline Chromium Coatings Based on 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium-Bromide Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinkuai; Zhu, Qingyun; Hou, Bailong; Cai, Youxing; Li, Chen; Fu, Liqin; Wu, Luye

    2015-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of trivalent chromium reduction from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-bromide ([BMIM]Br) ionic liquid is studied. The result of cyclic voltammetry shows that the Cr(III) reduction is irreversible and occurs in two steps, Cr(III)to Cr(II), and Cr(II) to Cr(0), respectively. In the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, the preferable equivalent circuit is made to fit the experimental data. The effects of electroplating parameters on coating thickness and electrodepositon rate are investigated by potentiostatic method on Cu electrode from Cr(III)-[BMIM]Br solution. The results show that the temperature and depositing potential have great effect on the coating thickness and electrodeposition rate. The surface morphology and composition of deposited Cr are investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). SEM analysis shows that chromium electrodeposits obtained on Cu electrodes present a ball-like structure. EDS analysis shows that the coatings are composed of Cr. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the as-deposited chromium layer is evaluated using polarization curves. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the chromium coatings obtained at higher potential is better. PMID:26682363

  3. Thermal radiation of di-tert-butyl peroxide pool fires-Experimental investigation and CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Hyunjoo [Umicore Korea Limited, 410 Chaam-dong, Cheonan-city, Chungnam, 330-200 (Korea, Republic of); Wehrstedt, Klaus-Dieter [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Working Group ' Explosive Substances of Chemical Industries' , Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Vela, Iris [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Chemical Engineering I, Universitaetsstrasse 5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Schoenbucher, Axel, E-mail: axel.schoenbucher@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Chemical Engineering I, Universitaetsstrasse 5, D-45141 Essen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Instantaneous and time averaged flame temperatures T-bar, surface emissive power SEP-bar and time averaged irradiances E-bar of di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) pool fires with d = 1.12 and 3.4 m are investigated experimentally and by CFD simulation. Predicted centerline temperature profiles for d = 1.12 m are in good agreement with the experimental emission temperature profiles for x/d > 0.9. For d = 3.4 m the CFD predicted maximum centerline temperature at x/d = 1.4 is 1440 K whereas the emission temperature experimentally determined from thermograms at x/d {approx} 1.3 is 1560 K. The predicted surface emissive power for d = 1.12 m is 115 kW/m{sup 2} in comparison to the measured surface emissive power of 130 kW/m{sup 2} whereas for d = 3.4 m these values are 180 and 250 kW/m{sup 2}. The predicted distance dependent irradiances agree well with the measured irradiances.

  4. Thermal radiation of di-tert-butyl peroxide pool fires-Experimental investigation and CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Hyunjoo; Wehrstedt, Klaus-Dieter; Vela, Iris; Schönbucher, Axel

    2009-08-15

    Instantaneous and time averaged flame temperatures T , surface emissive power SEP and time averaged irradiances E of di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) pool fires with d=1.12 and 3.4m are investigated experimentally and by CFD simulation. Predicted centerline temperature profiles for d=1.12m are in good agreement with the experimental emission temperature profiles for x/d>0.9. For d=3.4m the CFD predicted maximum centerline temperature at x/d=1.4 is 1440 K whereas the emission temperature experimentally determined from thermograms at x/d approximately 1.3 is 1560 K. The predicted surface emissive power for d=1.12m is 115 kW/m(2) in comparison to the measured surface emissive power of 130 kW/m(2) whereas for d=3.4m these values are 180 and 250 kW/m(2). The predicted distance dependent irradiances agree well with the measured irradiances. PMID:19185989

  5. Electrochemical behavior of cobalt from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrodeposition of metallic cobalt from a 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid was investigated. The electrochemical behavior of Co(II) in the ionic liquid on a platinum working electrode at 60 deg. C was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results from the cyclic voltammetry showed that the electrodeposition of metallic Co in the ionic liquid was an irreversible process and controlled by the diffusion of Co(II) on a platinum working electrode. The average value of αnα was calculated to be 0.35 and the diffusion coefficient (D0) of Co(II) was calculated to be 1.76 x 10-8 cm2/s at 60 deg. C. Chronoamperometric results indicated that the electrodeposition of Co on a platinum working electrode followed the mechanism of instantaneous nucleation and three-dimensional growth with diffusion-controlled. The cobalt plating was uniform, dense, shining in appearance with good adhesion to the platinum substrate at 60 deg. C. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs were used to confirm that the cobalt plating was denser and finer at 60 deg. C. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) profile showed that the obtained plating was pure cobalt. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicated that there was a preferred orientation direction and the average size of cobalt grains was 40 nm.

  6. Integrated two-stage chemically processing of rice straw cellulose to butyl levulinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Sasikumar; Agarwal, Bhumica; Runge, Troy M; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2016-10-01

    A two-stage reaction system was developed to synthesize butyl levulinate (BL), a derivative chemical of levulinic acid, from agricultural residue (rice straw). A single reactor was employed during the first processing stage for the conversion of rice straw cellulose to levulinic acid (LA) in a novel co-solvent system consisting of dilute phosphoric acid and tetrahydrofuran. The highest yield of 10.8% wt. LA concentration (i.e., ∼42% of theoretical LA yield) with intermediate residuals concentration of 1.5% wt. glucose and 0.5% wt. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) on dry weight basis of biomass was obtained at modest reaction conditions. During subsequent esterification reaction, approximately 7.8% wt. BL yield (at 89% conversion yield) was achieved from the solvent extracted precipitate containing majorly LA and residual 5-HMF in the presence of 0.5M sulfuric acid using n-butanol. Based on comparative esterification results obtained using commercial chemicals (LA and 5-HMF), apparently 5-HMF exhibited ∼8% wt. BL yield through direct synthesis in the presence of sulfuric acid using n-butanol under the same specified reaction conditions. Alongside, effectiveness of co-solvent treatment on rice straw for potential fermentable sugar release (glucose) was investigated by subjecting the respective post-reaction solid residues to enzymatic digestion using cellulase and yielded highest of 11% wt. per wt. solids (27% wt. glucose conversion efficiency), amongst solid residues underwent different processing conditions. PMID:27312640

  7. Metabolomic analysis reveals mechanism of antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole on lipid accumulation in Crypthecodinium cohnii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiao; Niu, Xiangfeng; Shi, Mengliang; Pei, Guangsheng; Li, Jinghan; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen

    2014-12-24

    The heterotrophic dinoflagellate alga Crypthecodinium cohnii is known to accumulate lipids with a high fraction of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we first evaluated two antioxidant compounds, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl gallate (PG), for their effects on lipid accumulation in C. cohnii. The results showed that antioxidant BHA could increase lipid accumulation in C. cohnii by 8.80% at a final concentration of 30 μM, while PG had no obvious effect on lipid accumulation at the tested concentrations. To decipher the molecular mechanism responsible for the increased lipid accumulation by BHA, we employed an integrated GC-MS and LC-MS metabolomic approach to determine the time-series metabolic profiles with or without BHA, and then subjected the metabolomic data to a principal component analysis (PCA) and a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) network analyses to identify the key metabolic modules and metabolites possibly relevant to the increased lipid accumulation. LC-MS analysis showed that several metabolites, including NADPH, could be important for the stimulation role of BHA on lipid accumulation. Meanwhile GC-MS and network analyses allowed identification of eight metabolic modules and nine hub metabolites possibly relevant to the stimulation role of BHA in C. cohnii. The study provided a metabolomics view of the BHA mode of action on lipid accumulation in C. cohnii, and the information could be valuable for a better understanding of antioxidant effects on lipid accumulation in other microalgae as well. PMID:25436856

  8. EPR study of gamma irradiated 2,5-di-tert-butyl-hydroquinone single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    γ-irradiated single crystals of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-hydroquinone (DTBHQ) were investigated using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The spectra of the crystals at different orientations in the magnetic field between temperatures of 120 and 450 K, were found to be temperature dependent. Taking into consideration the chemical structure and the experimental spectra of the irradiated single crystals of DTBHQ, we assumed that one or more paramagnetic species were produced, each having an unpaired electron delocalized in the phenyl ring. Pursuant to this assumption, four possible radicals were modeled using the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of density-functional theory. EPR parameters were calculated for these modeled radicals using the B3LYP method and TZVP basis set. The calculated hyperfine-coupling constants were used as starting points for simulations. The experimental and simulated spectra for each of the three crystallographic axes were well matched for the modeled radical R4; we thus identified the hydroquinone anion radical as a paramagnetic species produced in DTBHQ. The experimental g-factor of the hydroquinone anion radical were found to be anisotropic with the average value giso=2.0096. The hyperfine coupling constants of the Ηα proton was found anisotropic with the average value (aH7α)iso=6.3G and Ηβ proton was found isotropic with the average value (aH8β)=3.5G.

  9. Designing ionic liquids: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations with substituted tetraphenylborate counterions

    OpenAIRE

    van Koten, G; Broeke, J. van den; Stam, M.; Lutz, M.H.; Kooijman, H.; Spek, A.L.; Deelman, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrophobic, low melting, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIm) salts [BMIm][BPh4] (1), [BMIm][B(C6H4Me-4)4] (2), [BMIm][B{C6H4(CF3)-4}4] (3), [BMIm][B{C6H3(CF3)2-3,5}4] (4), [BMIm][B{C6H4(C6F13)-4}4] (5), [BMIm][B{C6H4(SiMe3)-4}4] (6), [BMIm][B(C6H4{SiMe2(CH2CH2CF3)}-4)4] (7), [BMIm][B{C6H4(SiMe2C8H17}-4}4] (8) and [BMIm][B(C6H4{SiMe2(CH2CH2C6F13)}-4)4] (9) have been prepared. Systematic variation of the substituents on the tetraphenylborate anion allowed an assessment of their influence on...

  10. Absolute configuration of 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole in male mouse urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaggioni, Andrea; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2003-11-01

    The absolute configuration of 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (DHT) in urine of adult male mice was determined through chiral trifluoroacetyl derivative capillary chromatography by comparing the retention time with synthetic standards. (S)-DHT was extracted from fresh urine, while neither (R)-DHT nor the racemization of (S)-DHT were detected. We can conclude that DHT in urine possesses the S configuration, although we cannot exclude a minor component in the R configuration. (S)-DHT was then characterized for binding to the complex of major urinary proteins of male mouse urine (MUP) and for a behavioral response, the competitive scent marking behavior (countermarking). The binding constant of (S)-DHT to MUP (determined by competitive displacement) was 8.2 +/- 0.6 microM (mean +/- SD) and was 10.5 +/- 0.6 microM for R-DHT, thus excluding a relevant difference in binding. (S)-DHT modified countermarking in a peculiar way. Male mice were slow in countermarking urinary spots streaked 2 days earlier and on top of which (S)-DHT was added shortly before the test. This response was not seen when adding (S)-DHT to freshly streaked urinary spots or to clean paper. Unlike (S)-DHT, (R)-DHT prompted countermarking rather than delaying it. We can further conclude that (S)-DHT in male mouse urine is an aversive chemosignal for countermarking. PMID:14654447

  11. Electrochemical Studies on Uranyl Chloride Complexes in 1-Butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Based Ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuhisa Ikeda; Katsuyuki Hiroe; Nobutaka Ohta; Masanobu Nogami; Atsushi Shirai [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-34 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Noriko Asanuma [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Tokai University 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Sample solutions were prepared by dissolving UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}-nH{sub 2}O or Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} into 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (BMICl). Their UV-visible absorption spectra showed that uranyl species in BMICl exist as [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}. Cyclic voltammograms were measured using a glassy carbon working electrode, a platinum wire counter electrode, and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode with a liquid junction filled with BMIBF{sub 4} at 80 {+-} 1 deg. C in glove box under an Ar atmosphere. Peaks of one redox couple were observed at around -0.73 V and -0.65 V on both systems. Potential differences between two peaks ({delta}E{sub p}) at scan rates in the range of 10 to 50 mV/s are 70 - 80 mV, which are almost consistent with theoretical {delta}E{sub p} value (67 mV) for the reversible one electron transfer reaction at 80 deg. C. From these results, it is concluded that [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-} in BMICl is reduced quasi-reversibly to [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 3-}. (authors)

  12. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jung, Ah Young; Lee, Whal; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Between March 1999 and December 2002, TAE for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed in 93 patients. The endoscopic approach had failed or was discarded as an approach for control of bleeding in all study patients. Among the 93 patients NBCA was used as the primary embolic material for TAE in 32 patients (28 men, four women; mean age, 59.1 years). The indications for choosing NBCA as the embolic material were: inability to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and effective wedging of the microcatheter into the bleeding artery. TAE was performed using 1:1 1:3 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. The angiographic and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The angiographic and clinical success rates were 100% and 91% (29/32), respectively. There were no serious ischemic complications. Recurrent bleeding occurred in three patients (9%) and they were managed with emergency surgery (n = 1) and with a successful second TAE (n = 2). Eighteen patients (56%) had a coagulopathy at the time of TAE and the clinical success rate in this group of patients was 83% (15/18). TAE with NBCA is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when it is not possible to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and when the patient has a coagulopathy.

  13. Removal of a type of endocrine disruptors-di-n-butyl phthalate from water by ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-yan; QU Jiu-hui; LIU Hui-juan

    2006-01-01

    Ozonation of synthetic water containing a type of endocrine disruptor-di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was examined. Key impact factors such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, ozone dosage and initial DBP concentration were investigated. In addition, the activities of radicals on uncatalysed and catalysed ozonation were studied. The degradation intermediate products were followed and the kinetic of the ozonation were assessed as well. Results revealed that ozonation of DBP followed two mechanisms. Firstly, the reaction rate of direct ozonation was slower at lower pH, temperature, and ionic strength. Secondly, when these factors were increased for indirect radical reaction, higher percentage of DBP was removed with the increase of the initial ozone dosage and the decrease of the initial DBP concentration. In addition, tert-butanol, humic substances and Fe(Ⅱ) affected DBP ozonation through the radical pathway. It was determined that ozonation was restrained by adding tert-butanol for its radical inhibition effect. Furthermore, humic substances enhanced the reaction to some extent, but a slight negative effect would be encountered if the optimum dosage was exceeded. As a matter of fact, Mn(Ⅱ) affected the ozonation by "active sites" mechanism. In the experiment, three different kinds of intermediate products were produced during ozonation, but the amount of products for each one of them decreased as pH, temperature,ionic strength and initial ozone dosage increased. A kinetic equation of the reaction between ozone and DBP was obtained.

  14. Conformations of n-butyl imidazole: Matrix isolation infrared and DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.

    2015-03-01

    Conformations of n-butyl imidazole (B-IMID) were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy by trapping in argon, xenon and nitrogen matrixes using an effusive nozzle source. The experimental studies were supported by DFT computations performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Computations identified nine unique minima for B-IMID, corresponding to conformers with tg±tt, tg±g∓t, tg±g±t, tg±tg±, tg±tg∓, tg±g∓g∓, tg±g±g±, tg±g∓g± and tg±g±g∓ structures, given in order of increasing energy. Computations of the transition state structures connecting the higher energy conformers to the global minimum, tg±tt structure were carried out. The barriers for the conformer inter-conversion were found to be ∼2 kcal/mol. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to understand the reasons for conformational preferences in B-IMID.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Wasewar, Kailas L; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z

    2016-05-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM]SCN has been presented on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel. The FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]SCN. Further, thermal, conductivity, moisture content, viscosity, and solubility analyses of [BMIM]SCN were carried out. The effects of time, temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of [BMIM]SCN on removal of dibenzothiophene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization, removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 86.5 % for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild process conditions. [BMIM]SCN could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, in the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazolium-based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels. PMID:26139406

  16. Effect of benzyl butyl phthalate on physiology and proteome characterization of water celery (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Huang, Han-Ching; Wang, Yei-Shung; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the effect of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), a phthalate ester (PAE) and an endocrine disruptor, on water celery, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., one of the most popular leaf vegetables in Taiwan. After 28 days of cultivation, treatment with 100 mgL⁻¹ BBP retarded plant growth and decreased biomass and number of mature leaves and caused the accumulation of proline in leaves of water celery, but the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves remained constant. 2-D gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the proteome of leaf tissue revealed five protein spots with up- and down-regulated expression. The predicted protein XP_001417439 was down-regulated, which explained inhibition of plant growth, and the proteina XP_001417040, calreticulin, GAI-like protein 1, and (-)-linalool synthase were up-regulated, which indicates interference with the cell cycle and protein synthesis, as well as dwarfism of water celery. BBP is a stressor on the growth of water celery, and proteome analysis revealed the up- and down-regulation of genes involved in plant growth with BBP treatment. PMID:21496923

  17. Ectopic Varices Rupture in the Gastroduodenal Anastomosis Successfully Treated with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takagi,Hitoshi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The term "ectopic varices" is used to describe dilated portosystemic collateral veins in unusual locations other than the gastroesophageal region. We recently experienced a rare case of ectopic varices that developed in the gastroduodenal anastomosis after subtotal gastrectomy. A 70-year-old male with liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus infection was admitted for hematemesis and tarry stool. He had received a subtotal gastrectomy with the Billroth-I method for gastric ulcer at 46 years of age. Although emergency endoscopy revealed esophageal and gastric fundal varices, there were no obvious bleeding points. After removal of the coagula, ectopic varices and a fibrin plug were observed on the gastroduodenal anastomosis. During the observation, blood began to spurt from the fibrin plug. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate with lipiodol injection succeeded in hemostasis. Splenic angiography showed gastric varices feeding from a short gastric vein and the posterior gastric vein. The blood flow around the bleeding point, as indicated by lipiodol deposition, had decreased, and no feeding vein was observed. Endoscopic and angiographic findings are shown and the treatment for such lesions is discussed.

  18. Theoretical analysis of photoactivated unimolecular dissociation: The overtone dissociation of t-butyl hydroperoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the master equation formalism to analyze the photoactivated unimolecular dissociation of a large polyatomic molecule, t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH). Our results are compared to the experimental results of Chandler, Farneth, and Zare and of Chuang et al. We find that the curvature in their Stern-Volmer plots cannot be explained by a collisional energy transfer mechanism. At high pressure, the theoretical Stern--Volmer plots are linear, independent of the collisional energy transfer properties. This linearity is related to the existence of a limiting high pressure ''reactive distribution.'' We identify three different pressure regimes that exist in photoactivated unimolecular reaction experiments, and we relate these regimes to the properties of the reactive distribution. In particular, we find that, when a Stern-Volmer analysis is used, curvature at very low pressure can result in systematic errors in determining the unimolecular rate constants. In addition, we have successfully analyzed the real time experiments of Rizzo and Crim using the same molecular model and parameters necessary to predict the experiments of Chandler et al

  19. tert-Butyl Carbocation in Condensed Phases: Stabilization via Hyperconjugation, Polarization, and Hydrogen Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Evgenii S; Gomes, Gabriel dos Passos

    2015-08-13

    Despite the seeming similarity of the infrared (IR) spectra between tert-butyl cations (t-Bu(+)) in gaseous and condensed phases, there are important but so far unrecognized differences. The IR spectroscopic investigation of the hydrogen (H)-bonding of t-Bu(+) with the immediate environment together with the X-ray crystallographic data shows that one CH3 group of t-Bu(+) differs from the other two. In the Ar-tagged t-Bu(+) in vacuum, this group is predominantly polarized, showing three C-H stretch vibrations at 2913, 2965, and 3036 cm(-1) whereas the other two methyls are predominantly involved in strong hyperconjugation, yielding an intense triple IR band with a maximum at 2839 cm(-1). In a condensed phase, the bulk solvent effect promoted participation of the polarized CH3 group in additional hyperconjugation, decreasing its νCH3 frequencies by approximately 120 cm(-1), whereas frequencies of the other CH3 groups decreased by only ca. 4-10 cm(-1). This observation indicates that the influence of the condensed phase on t-Bu(+) stabilization is substantial. Thus, enhancement of H-bonding between t-Bu(+) and Anion(-) strengthens hyperconjugation and promotes further cation stabilization. PMID:26172244

  20. Rat model hindlimb ischemia induced via embolization with polyvinyl alcohol and N butyl cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the feasibility of a rat model on hindlimb ischemia induced by embolization from the administration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles or N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced by embolization with NBCA (n = 4), PVA (n = 4) or surgical excision (n = 4) in a total of 12 Sprague-Dawley rats. On days 0, 7 and 14, the time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) and enhanced MRI were obtained as scheduled by using a 3T-MR scanner. The clinical ischemic index, volume change and degree of muscle necrosis observed on the enhanced MRI in the ischemic hindlimb were being compared among three groups using the analysis of variance. Vascular patency on TOF-MRA was evaluated and correlated with angiographic findings when using an inter-rater agreement test. There was a technical success rate of 100% for both the embolization and surgery groups. The clinical ischemic index did not significantly differ. On day 7, the ratios of the muscular infarctions were 0.436, 0.173 and 0 at thigh levels and 0.503, 0.337 and 0 at calf levels for the NBCA, PVA and surgery groups, respectively. In addition, the embolization group presented increased volume and then decreased volume on days 7 and 14, respectively. The surgery group presented a gradual volume decrease. Good correlation was shown between the TOF-MRA and angiographic findings (kappa value of 0.795). The examined hindlimb ischemia model using embolization with NBCA and PVA particles in rats is a feasible model for further research, and muscle necrosis was evident as compared with the surgical model.

  1. More about Interactions of Rhodamine 19 Butyl Ester with Rat Liver Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogov, A G; Trendeleva, T A; Aliverdieva, D A; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major factors underlying mitochondrial dysfunctions. One of the most promising approaches for alleviating or preventing oxidative stress is the use of cationic uncouplers that accumulate in mitochondria in accordance to the level of the membrane potential, producing "mild" uncoupling. Based on this theoretical background, cationic rhodamine 19 butyl ester (C4R1) was synthesized and tested within the framework of the research project guided by V. P. Skulachev. The results of these tests were presented (Khailova et al. (2014) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1837, 1739-1747), but one publication could not accommodate all data on interactions of C4R1 with isolated mitochondria. In addition to previously presented data, we found that the effect of C4R1 on the rate of oxygen uptake is subject to temporal variations, which probably reflects variable rates of C4R1 entry into the mitochondria. Consequently, transient stimulation of respiration can be followed by inhibition. C4R1 was found not to shunt electron flow from complex I of the respiratory chain; it largely acted as an inhibitor of complex I in the respiratory chain and showed antioxidant activity. C4R1 taken at low, non-uncoupling concentrations enhanced the uncoupling activity of fatty acids (e.g. palmitate). Relatively low C4R1 concentrations stimulated opening of a nonspecific Ca2+/Pi-dependent pore. ATP synthesis and hydrolysis were substantially inhibited by C4R1 at low concentrations that had no appreciable effects on respiration in states 4 and 3 and only slightly decreased the membrane potential. Besides, conditions were revealed allowing correct evaluation of the membrane potential generated at the inner mitochondrial membrane with safranin O upon oxidation of both succinate and NAD-dependent substrates in the presence of C4R1. PMID:27293102

  2. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, R

    1993-12-01

    Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of "oxygenates" with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). At the two sampled service stations that use only minimal amounts of MTBE (less than 1%), only 1 of 32 personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples from attendants was above the analytical limit of detection, reported at 0.16 ppm. The geometric mean concentration of benzene among this same population (n = 32) was 0.04 ppm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8020445

  3. Percutaneous Transportal Sclerotherapy with N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate for Gastric Varices: Technique and Clinical Efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was deigned to evaluate the technique and clinical efficacy of the use of percutaneous transportal sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for patients with gastric varices. Seven patients were treated by transportal sclerotherapy with the use of NBCA. For transportal sclerotherapy, portal vein catheterization was performed with a 6-Fr sheath by the transhepatic approach. A 5-Fr catheter was introduced into the afferent gastric vein and a microcatheter was advanced through the 5-Fr catheter into the varices. NBCA was injected through the microcatheter in the varices by use of the continuous single-column injection technique. After the procedure, postcontrast computed tomography (CT) was performed on the next day and then every six months. Gastroendoscopy was performed at one week, three months, and then every six months after the procedure. The technical success rate of the procedure was 88%. In six patients, gastric varices were successfully obliterated with 1-8 mL (mean, 5.4 mL) of a NBCA-Lipiodol mixture injected via a microcatheter. No complications related to the procedure were encountered. As seen on the follow-up endoscopy and CT imaging performed after six months, the presence of gastric varcies was not seen in any of the patients after treatment with the NBCA-Lipiodol mixture and the use of microcoils. Recurrence of gastric varices was not observed during the followup period. Worsening of esophageal varices occurred in four patients after transportal sclerotherapy. The serum albumin level increased, the ammonia level decreased and the prothrombin time increased at six months after the procedure (p < 0.05). Percutaneous transportal sclerotherapy with NBCA is useful to obliterate gastric varices if it is not possible to perform balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration

  4. Delivery of large molecules via poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles into the injured rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Pan, Yaohua; Shi, Yinfeng; Huang, Xianjian; Jia, Nengqin; Jiang, Ji-yao

    2012-04-01

    Poly(n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticles have been successfully applied to deliver small-molecule drugs to the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unclear whether PBCA nanoparticles can be used as the delivery system for large molecules to potentially treat traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we tested the capacity of PBCA nanoparticles in passing through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and transporting large molecules into normal and injured brains in the rat. We first synthesized PBCA nanoparticles by dispersion polymerization and then loaded the particles with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 44 kDa) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP, 29 kDa), which were further coated with polysorbate 80. Next, the polysorbate 80-coated HRP or EGFP-loaded PBCA nanoparticles were intravenously injected into the normal and brain-injured rats. We found that, at 45 min after injection, PBCA nanoparticle-delivered HRP or EGFP was hardly detected in the normal brains of the rats, but a small amount of EGFP carried by PBCA nanoparticles was noted in the normal brains 48 h after administration, which was further confirmed by immunolocalization with anti-EGFP antibodies. In contrast, at 4 h after TBI with a circulation time of 45 min, although the penetration of HRP or EGFP alone was hampered by the BBB, the PBCA nanoparticle-delivered HRP or EGFP was widely distributed near injured sites. Together, our findings provide histological evidence that PBCA nanoparticles can be used as an efficient delivery system for large molecules to overcome the barrier in the brain with TBI.

  5. Rat model hindlimb ischemia induced via embolization with polyvinyl alcohol and N butyl cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Cheong Il; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Song, Yong Sub; Cho, Hye Rim; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Jae, Hwan June; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To investigate the feasibility of a rat model on hindlimb ischemia induced by embolization from the administration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles or N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced by embolization with NBCA (n = 4), PVA (n = 4) or surgical excision (n = 4) in a total of 12 Sprague-Dawley rats. On days 0, 7 and 14, the time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) and enhanced MRI were obtained as scheduled by using a 3T-MR scanner. The clinical ischemic index, volume change and degree of muscle necrosis observed on the enhanced MRI in the ischemic hindlimb were being compared among three groups using the analysis of variance. Vascular patency on TOF-MRA was evaluated and correlated with angiographic findings when using an inter-rater agreement test. There was a technical success rate of 100% for both the embolization and surgery groups. The clinical ischemic index did not significantly differ. On day 7, the ratios of the muscular infarctions were 0.436, 0.173 and 0 at thigh levels and 0.503, 0.337 and 0 at calf levels for the NBCA, PVA and surgery groups, respectively. In addition, the embolization group presented increased volume and then decreased volume on days 7 and 14, respectively. The surgery group presented a gradual volume decrease. Good correlation was shown between the TOF-MRA and angiographic findings (kappa value of 0.795). The examined hindlimb ischemia model using embolization with NBCA and PVA particles in rats is a feasible model for further research, and muscle necrosis was evident as compared with the surgical model.

  6. Transarterial embolization of dural carotid cavernous fistulas with low concentration of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the technique of transarterial embolization of dural carotid- cavernous fistulas (DCCFs) with low concentration (14%-25%) of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and determine its value. Methods: Eight patients with DCCFs were treated by transarterial embolization with low concentration of NBCA using a wedged microcatheter. Of the 8 patients, 5 had unsuccessful transvenous embolization and 3 could not be treated with transvenous embolization. Results: Transarterial embolization with low concentration of NBCA using a wedged microcatheter resulted in complete obliteration of the affected cavernous sinus and related shunts in 5 patients, no residual arteriovenous shunt was demonstrated on post- embolization angiography. On clinical and angiographic follow-up 6-12 months later, complete resolution of clinical symptoms was observed in all 5 patients and there were no recurrent or residual DCCFs found. Partial obliteration of the involved cavernous sinus and the related shunt was achieved in the remaining 3 patients on immediate post-procedure angiography, but the volume of shunt diminished significantly. On clinical and angiographic follow-up 3 months later, in 2 patients, clinical symptoms were improved and the arteriovenous shunts were diminished; in the third patient, clinical symptom resolved and the shunt was obliterated. There were no major complications except for the transient worsening of ocular symptoms due to VI cranial nerve palsy in 1 patient. Conclusions: Transarterial embolization of DCCFs with low concentration of NBCA using a wedged microcatheter was a safe and effective treatment method. It is an optimal alternative for the patients with DCCFs in which transvenous route was unsuccessful, or impossible. (authors)

  7. Delivery of large molecules via poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles into the injured rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticles have been successfully applied to deliver small-molecule drugs to the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unclear whether PBCA nanoparticles can be used as the delivery system for large molecules to potentially treat traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we tested the capacity of PBCA nanoparticles in passing through the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and transporting large molecules into normal and injured brains in the rat. We first synthesized PBCA nanoparticles by dispersion polymerization and then loaded the particles with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 44 kDa) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP, 29 kDa), which were further coated with polysorbate 80. Next, the polysorbate 80-coated HRP or EGFP-loaded PBCA nanoparticles were intravenously injected into the normal and brain-injured rats. We found that, at 45 min after injection, PBCA nanoparticle-delivered HRP or EGFP was hardly detected in the normal brains of the rats, but a small amount of EGFP carried by PBCA nanoparticles was noted in the normal brains 48 h after administration, which was further confirmed by immunolocalization with anti-EGFP antibodies. In contrast, at 4 h after TBI with a circulation time of 45 min, although the penetration of HRP or EGFP alone was hampered by the BBB, the PBCA nanoparticle-delivered HRP or EGFP was widely distributed near injured sites. Together, our findings provide histological evidence that PBCA nanoparticles can be used as an efficient delivery system for large molecules to overcome the barrier in the brain with TBI. (paper)

  8. Aqueous Solutions of the Ionic Liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride Denature Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    As we advance our understanding, ionic liquids (ILs) are finding ever broader scope within the chemical sciences including, most recently, pharmaceutical, enzymatic, and bioanalytical applications. With examples of enzymatic activity reported in both neat ILs and in IL/water mixtures, enzymes are frequently assumed to adopt a quasi-native conformation, even if little work has been carried out to date toward characterizing the conformation, dynamics, active-site perturbation, cooperativity of unfolding transitions, free energy of stabilization, or aggregation/oligomerization state of enzymes in the presence of an IL solvent component. In this study, human serum albumin and equine heart cytochrome c were characterized in aqueous solutions of the fully water-miscible IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering. At [bmim]Cl concentrations up to 25 vol.%, these two proteins were found to largely retain their higher-order structures whereas both proteins become highly denatured at the highest IL concentration studied here (i.e., 50 vol.% [bmim]Cl). The response of these proteins to [bmim]Cl is analogous to their behavior in the widely studied denaturants guanidine hydrochloride and urea which similarly lead to random coil conformations at excessive molar concentrations. Interestingly, human serum albumin dimerizes in response to [bmim]Cl, whereas cytochrome c remains predominantly in monomeric form. These results have important implications for enzymatic studies in aqueous IL media, as they suggest a facile pathway through which biocatalytic activity can be altered in these nascent and potentially green electrolyte systems.

  9. Impact of tert-butyl alcohol on crystallization kinetics of gemcitabine hydrochloride in frozen aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Bhushan; Bansal, Arvind K

    2015-01-01

    The effect of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) on isothermal crystallization kinetics of gemcitabine hydrochloride (GHCl) in frozen aqueous solutions was assessed by cold-stage microscopy. Addition of TBA (0%-5%, w/w) increased the value of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami rate constant (1.3-33.3 h⁻¹) and reduced the Avrami exponent (2.5-1.0). Thermodynamic parameters [enthalpy (ΔH(‡)), entropy (ΔS(‡)), and free energy (ΔG(‡)) of activation], calculated using Arrhenius and Eyring-Polanyi equations, established that TBA (2%, w/w) accelerated GHCl crystallization by reducing its ΔH(‡) (53.9 cf. 96.5 kJ/mol⁻¹) and ΔG(‡) (68.5 cf. 74.9 kJ/mol⁻¹). Further, to explore insights into the effect of TBA on nucleation and crystal growth of GHCl, crystallization kinetics data were deconvolved using Finke-Watzky model. This revealed that addition of TBA decreased ΔH(‡) of nucleation and increased ΔS(‡) of crystal growth, thereby reducing ΔG(‡) of nucleation and crystal growth by 11.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Finkey-Watzky model also predicted a reduction in the crystal size upon TBA addition, which was confirmed by comparing particle size of GHCl lyophilized in the presence and absence of TBA. In conclusion, TBA reduces ΔG(‡) of nucleation and crystal growth in a differential manner, thereby enhancing the crystallization kinetics of GHCl and affecting its morphological features. PMID:25393155

  10. Biomarker responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to soils contaminated with di-n-butyl phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the impact of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to DBP for 28 days. DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. We found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly inhibited in the 100 mg kg(-1) treatment group on day 28. After 21 days of treatment, GST activity in 10-50 mg kg(-1) treatment groups was markedly stimulated compared to the control group. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cells. GSH content increased in the treatment group that received 50 mg kg(-1) DBP from 7 days of exposure to 28 days. These results suggest that DBP induces serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. However, DBP concentration in current agricultural soil in China will not constitute any threat to the earthworm or other animals in the soil. PMID:25328097

  11. Encapsulation in lipospheres of the complex between butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Santo; Tursilli, Rosanna; Sala, Nicoletta; Iannuccelli, Valentina

    2006-08-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incorporation into lipospheres of the complex between hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) and the sunscreen agent, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) and to examine the influence of this system on the sunscreen photostability. The formation of the inclusion complex was confirmed by thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. Lipid microparticles loaded with free BMDBM or its complex with HP-beta-CD were prepared using tristearin as the lipid material and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine as the emulsifier. The obtained lipospheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The microparticle size (15-40 microm) was not affected by the presence of the complex. Release of BMDBM from the lipospheres was lower when it was incorporated as inclusion complex rather than as free molecule. Unencapsulated BMDBM, its complex with HP-beta-CD, the sunscreen-loaded lipospheres or the lipoparticles containing the BMDBM/HP-beta-CD complex, were introduced into a model cream (oil-in-water emulsion) and irradiated with a solar simulator. The photodegradation studies showed that all the examined systems achieved a significant reduction of the light-induced decomposition of the free sunscreen agent (the BMDBM loss decreased from 28.9 to 17.3-15.2%). However, photolysis experiments performed during 3 months storage of the formulations, demonstrated that the photoprotective properties of the HP-beta-CD complex and of BMDBM alone-loaded lipospheres decreased over time, whereas the microencapsulated HP-beta-CD/BMDBM complex retained its photostabilization efficacy. Therefore, incorporation in lipid microparticles of BMDBM in the cyclodextrin complex form is more effective in enhancing the sunscreen photostability than the complex alone or the liposphere-entrapped free BMDBM. PMID:16713145

  12. Microencapsulation of a cyclodextrin complex of the UV filter, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vivo skin penetration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Santo; Coppi, Gilberto; Iannuccelli, Valentina

    2011-01-25

    Lipid microparticles loaded with the complex between hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and the sunscreen agent, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) were evaluated for their effect on the UV filter percutaneous penetration. The microparticles were prepared by the melt emulsification technique using tristearin as lipidic material and hydrogenate phosphatidylcholine as the surfactant. Human skin penetration was investigated in vivo by the tape stripping technique, a minimal invasive procedure based on the progressive removal of the upper cutaneous layers (stratum corneum) with adhesive tape strips. The amount of sunscreen fixed to each strip was determined by HPLC after solvent extraction. The recovery of the UV filter from spiked adhesive tapes was >94.4% and the precision of the method was better than 7.6% relative standard deviation. Non-encapsulated BMDBM, its complex with HP-β-CD, the lipid microparticles loaded with the sunscreen alone or the BMDBM/HP-β-CD complex were introduced into oil-in-water emulsions and applied to human volunteers. Compared to the cream with the non-encapsulated sunscreen agent (percentage of the applied dose penetrated, 9.7%±2.5), the amount of BMDBM diffusing into the stratum corneum was increased by the formulations containing the BMDBM/HP-β-CD complex (17.1%±3.2 of the applied dose) or the microparticles loaded with BMDBM only (15.1%±2.7 of the applied dose). On the contrary, a significant decrease in the level of UV filter penetrated into the stratum corneum was achieved by the cream containing the microencapsulated BMDBM/HP-β-CD complex (percentage of the applied dose penetrated, 6.0%±1.5). The reduced BMDBM percutaneous penetration attained by the latter system should enhance the UV filter efficacy and limit potential toxicological risks. PMID:20934293

  13. Chemical equilibrium constants of rare earth nitrates and tri-n-butyl phosphate complex formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalaya Changkrueng; Deacha Chatsiriwech

    2011-01-01

    Mixed rare earth nitrates (REi(NO3)3) in the aqueous solution was mixed with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP,(n-C4H9O)3PO) dissolved in kerosene for the formation of their corresponding complexes (REi(NO3)3·n1(n-C4H9O)3PO) at 303 K.The effects of initial concentrations of both TBP and mixed rare earth nitrates on the equilibrium constants of their complex formations were investigated.The complexes were formed almost immediately after mixing.The simultaneous formations reached their chemical equilibria within a few minutes by shaking the mixture at 200 r/min.The chemical equilibrium constants of the complex formations were independent of the initial TBP concentrations.However,they were decreased by reducing the concentration of REi(NO3)3.All equilibrium constants of the simultaneous complex formations were less than 0.7,while the average molar ratio of TBP to REi(NO3)3 of the complexes varied between 1.0 and 1.6.The chemical equilibrium constant for the formation of La(NO3)3·(n-C4HgO)3PO was 0.09,while that of Dy(NO3)3·(n-CaH9O)3PO was 0.68.The ascending sequence of chemical equilibrium constants for the simultaneous formations was La,Ce,Pr,Nd,Eu,Y,Srn,Gd,and Dy.

  14. Ethyl[tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methylpyrazol-1-yl)hydridoborato]zinc(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Papish, Elizabeth T; Zeller, Matthias

    2010-08-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of the title compound, [Zn(C(2)H(5))(C(24)H(40)BN(6))], or Tp(tBu,Me)ZnEt [Tp(tBu,Me) is tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methylpyrazolyl)hydridoborate], reveals a distorted tetrahedral geometry around the Zn atom. The Zn center is coordinated by three N atoms of the borate ligand and by one C atom of the ethyl group. The present structure and other tetrahedral Tp zinc alkyl complexes are compared with similar Ttz ligands (Ttz is 1,2,4-triazolylborate), but no major differences in the structures are noted, and it can be assumed that variation of the substitution pattern of Tp or Ttz ligands has little or no influence on the geometry of alkylzinc complexes. Refinement of the structure is complicated by a combination of metric pseudosymmetry and twinning. The metrics of the structure could also be represented in a double-volume C-centered orthorhombic unit cell, and the structure is twinned by one of the orthorhombic symmetry operators not present in the actual structure. The twinning lies on the borderline between pseudomerohedral and nonmerohedral. The data were refined as being nonmerohedrally twinned, pseudomerohedrally twinned and untwinned. None of the approaches yielded results that were unambiguously better than any of the others: the best fit between structural model and data was observed using the nonmerohedral approach which also yielded the best structure quality indicators, but the data set is less than 80% complete due to rejected data. The pseudomerohedral and the untwinned structures are complete, but relatively large residual electron densities that are not close to the metal center are found with values up to three times higher than in the nonmerohedral approach. PMID:20679703

  15. Systematic approach for trace level quantification of 2-n-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazole-5-one genotoxic impurity in irbesartan using lc-ms/ms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one has been highlighted as a potential genotoxic impurity in irbesartan. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one in irbesartan. Good separation between 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one and irbesartan was achieved with Symmetry C18 (100×4.6 mm, 3.5 μm column using 65:35 v/v mixture of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min. The proposed method was specific, linear, accurate, and precise. The calibration curve shows good linearity over the concentration range of 0.1-2.0 μg/ml, which matches the range of limit of quantitation-20×limit of quantitation of estimated permitted level (1.0 μg/ml of 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and was able to quantitate 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one impurity at 1.0 μg/ml with respect to 2 mg/ml of irbesartan. 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one was not present in the three studied pure and formulation batches of irbesartan and the developed method was a good quality control tool for quantitation of 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazole-5-one at very low levels in irbesartan.

  16. Detection of an Infected N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Plug by F-18 FDG PET/CT Scan in a Patient Who Received Endoscopic Intervention for Gastric Variceal Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Kowoon; Hyun, In Young; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Chung, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate has been used successfully for treatment of gastric variceal bleeding. Bacteremia after injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is well known, however, the method for diagnosis of infected endovascular injected material has remained uncertain. This is the first case reporting use of F-18 FDG PET/CT in detection of the source of infection after control of endoscopic bleeding with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.

  17. 2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-[1-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy­phen­yl)eth­yl]phenyl 4-methyl­benzene­sulfonate

    OpenAIRE

    Jincai Wu; Xiaobo Pan; Lei Wang; Lihui Yao

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C37H52O4S, was obtained by the reaction of 6,6′-(ethane-1,1-diyl)bis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenol) and 4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonyl chloride. The molecular conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond. Two of the tert-butyl groups are disordered over two sets of sites with occupancies 0.530 (15)/0.470 (15) and 0.615 (11)/0.385 (11).

  18. Solvent-free sample preparation by headspace solid-phase microextraction applied to the tracing of n-butyl nitrite abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, J; Daenens, P

    1996-01-01

    The most common alkyl nitrites encountered in forensic toxicology are iso-butyl, n-butyl and iso-pentyl(amyl) nitrites. All have become popular as an aphrodisiac, especially among the homosexual population. Alkyl nitrites are a volatile and unstable group of compounds, which hydrolyse in aqueous matrices to the alcohol and nitrite ion. Here we describe a fast, clean and sensitive procedure for the detection of hydrolysed n-butyl nitrite in whole human blood using a new, solvent-free sampling technique, the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HSPME), combined with GC/FID analysis. Sample preparation was investigated using two different stationary phases (100 microns polydimethylsiloxane and 85 microns polyacrylate), coating a fused silica fibre. The effect of different sampling times at fixed temperatures was also studied. Our results demonstrate that the HSPME/GC/FID procedure allows tracing of n-butyl nitrite abuse and detects hydrolysed n-butyl nitrite, i.e., released n-butanol, in whole blood at the 1 ng/mL level. PMID:8956991

  19. Synthesis, characterization and investigation of catalytic activity of Cu1−CoFe2O4 nanocatalysts in -butylation of -cresol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reza Fareghi Alamdari; Zahra Hosseinabadi; Masoud Farhadi Khouzani

    2012-07-01

    In this work, tertiary butylation of -cresol was carried out in the presence of Cu1−CoFe2O4 (x = 0 to 1) nanocatalysts by employing methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as alkylation agents. Effects of temperature, mole ratio, type and catalyst composition, time and solvent in reaction conditions were investigated. These nanocatalysts were synthesized using hydrothermal method. The characterization of these catalysts was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). These nanocatalysts can be recovered and recycled. A good correlation was found between the activity, in terms of -cresol conversion and various product selectivities for this reaction, and also the acid-base properties of the catalysts. Nano-sized Cu0.5Co0.5Fe2O4, in comparison to the other nanocatalysts discussed in this report is the most active nanocatalyst. The only product of this reaction is 2--butyl -cresol with selectivity of 100% and -cresol conversion is 70%. The possible mechanism for this reaction system was discussed based on the reaction results. The reaction mechanism proposed involves the interaction of phenoxide from phenol and the tert-butyl cation from isobutene on Cu1−CoFe2O4.

  20. When does the fluazifop-P-butyl degradate, TFMP, leach through an agricultural loamy soil to groundwater?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Norgaard, Trine; Olsen, Preben; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Rosenbom, Annette E.

    2016-01-01

    In intensely cultivated regions, it is crucial to have knowledge of the leaching potential related to pesticides in agricultural production. This is especially true in countries, like Denmark, that base its drinking water supply on untreated groundwater. Since fluazifop-P-butyl (FPB) is applied to...... the EU value for drinking water applies to them, having its leaching potential regulatory assessed based on high quality estimations of their persistence, and be exposed to an assessment of the risk to consumers of drinking contaminated groundwater....

  1. Contribution to the study of gamma radiolysis of 2-furyl butyl or substituted phenyl ketones in isopropanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following ketones: 2-furyl butyl ketone (I), 2 furyl phenyl ketone (II), 2-furyl p-methylphenyl ketone (III) and 2-furyl p-methoxyphenyl ketone (IV) were synthesised and characterised. The yields of hydrogen and methane obtained during radiolysis of the mixtures ketones (I to IV)-2-propanol were determined. These yields are always lower than with pure 2-propanol. Radiolysis products for ketones (I) and (II) are studied. Analysis of radiolitical products were conducted by gas chromatography. Effect of radiation dose and ketone concentration is determined. Reaction mechanisms are studied

  2. HYDROLYSIS TRANSFORMATION OF A POLYSTYRENE—b—POLY(tert—BUTYL ACRYLATE) COPOLYMER AND MICELLIZATION PROPERTIES OF THE HYDROLYZED COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIZhihuai; LIHexian; 等

    2001-01-01

    A very mild and extremely efficient hydrolysis method for transformation of polystyrene-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)(PS-b-PtBA)to polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid)(PS-b-PAA) was designed and carried out using more convenient and inexpensive chlorotrimethylsilane/sodium iodide as reagents.The hydrolysis product can self-assemble in aqueous media to give regular micelles with PS block forming the core and PAA block forming the corona,or in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to give reverse micelles with the hydrophilic block in the core.

  3. HYDROLYSIS TRANSFORMATION OF A POLYSTYRENE-b-POLY(tert-BUTYL ACRYLATE)COPOLYMER AND MICELLIZATION PROPERTIES OF THE HYDROLYZED COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A very mild and extremely efficient hydrolysis method for transformation of polystyrene-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PS-b-PtBA) to polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA)was designed and carried out using more convenient and inexpensive chlorotrimethylsilane/sodium iodide as reagents. The hydrolysis product can self-assemble in aqueous media to give regular micelles with PS block forming the core and PAL4 block forming the corona, or in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to give reverse micelles with the hydrophilic block in the core.

  4. Three-component system of uranyl monochloracetate - water - tri-n-butyl phosphate (IR-spectroscopic investigation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase equilibria in the three-component system of uranyl monochloracetate-water-TBP(tri-n-butyl phosphate) are analyzed from the standpoint of IR-spectroscopic data for equilibrium phases in different concentration regions obtained in the work. A number af assumptions in regard to the composition of a solvated complex of the studied salt in the organic phases is made as well as in regard to the relation of solvation and hydration processes with electron-donor properties of halogenacetate-ions

  5. ESR Approach to the Nature of Solvation by Using s-Butyl n-Heptafluorobutyryl Nitroxide Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Stable s-butyl n-heptafluorobutyryl nitroxide 3 has been generated in an electron- transfer reaction in F113 ( CFCl2CF2Cl ) solution at r.t. The aN values for 3 in 11 aprotic solvents show a linear correlation with cybotactic solvent parameters ET and Z. The physical significance for slopes, slope×ET or slope×Z, and the extrapolated intercepts on the aN axis are well established. The plots of aN versus noncybotactic solvent parameters, such as dipolar moment and dielectric constant, are badly behaved.

  6. Isolation and characterisation of 2-Tert-butyl-8-hydroxyquinoline as a crystalline solid and its blue fluorescent Li complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kathirgamanathan, Poopathy; Surendrakumar, Sivagnanasundram; Ravichandran, Seenivasagam; Blake, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    2-Tert-butyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (2-TB-8-hq) has been isolated as a crystalline solid and its X-ray structure elucidated, resolving three decades of controversy, since it was previously wrongly reported as yellow oil by some other workers. An improved synthetic method has been developed which increases the yield from 20% to 60%. The lithium complex of 2-TB-8-hq is blue emitting and the HOMO and LUMO levels are lowered by 0.86 eV and 0.74 eV, respectively, compared with the parent lithium 8-hyd...

  7. Isolation and characterisation of 2-Tert-butyl-8-hydroxyquinoline as a crystalline solid and its blue fluorescent Li complex

    OpenAIRE

    Poopathy Kathirgamanathan; Sivagnanasundram Surendrakumar; Seenivasagam Ravichandran; Blake, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    2-Tert-butyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (2-TB-8-hq) has been isolated as a crystalline solid and its X-ray structure elucidated, resolving three decades of controversy, since it was previously wrongly reported as yellow oil by some other workers. An improved synthetic method has been developed which increases the yield from 20% to 60%. The lithium complex of 2-TB-8-hq is blue emitting and the HOMO and LUMO levels are lowered by 0.86 eV and 0.74 eV, respectively, compared with the parent lithium 8-hyd...

  8. Isolation and Characterisation of 2-Tert-butyl-8-hydroxyquinoline as a Crystalline Solid and Its Blue Fluorescent Li Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kathirgamanathan, Poopathy; Surendrakumar, Sivagnanasundram; Ravichandran, Seenivasagam; Blake, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    2-Tert-butyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (2-TB-8-hq) has been isolated as a crystalline solid and its X-ray structure elucidated, resolving three decades of controversy, since it was previously wrongly reported as yellow oil by some other workers. An improved synthetic method has been developed which increases the yield from 20% to 60%. The lithium complex of 2-TB-8-hq is blue emitting and the HOMO and LUMO levels are lowered by 0.86 eV and 0.74 eV, respectively, compared with the parent lithium 8-hyd...

  9. tert-Butyl hydroperoxide, an organic peroxide, causes temporary delay in hair growth in a neonatal rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Wikramanayake, T. C.; Simon, J.; Mauro, L. M.; Perez, C. I.; Roberts, B.; Elgart, G.; Alvarez-Connelly, E.; Schachner, L. A.; Jimenez, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP), an organic peroxide, has been shown to cause irreversible damage to keratinocytes in vitro with prolonged administration at high concentrations, and reversible damage with short-term administration at low concentrations. To investigate the effects of tBHP on keratinocytes in vivo, we analysed hair growth in tBHP-treated neonatal rats. Sprague–Dawley and Long–Evans rat pups were injected subcutaneously with tBHP or vehicle once daily for 6 days, and hair growth...

  10. Synthesis and chemical behaviour of 17a-butyl-3b,17b-dihydroxy-16-oximino-5-androstene (NOTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARINA PENOV GASI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from 3b-hydroxy-16-oximino-5-androsten-17-one (1, the recently synthesized 16-oximino-17b-hydroxy-17a-butyl derivative 2 gave by the Beckmann fragmentation reaction with titanium(III chloride or p-toluenesulphonyl chloride the corresponding D-seco derivative 3. However, using acetic anhydride, in addition to the 3b-acetoxy D-seco derivative 4, the 17-aza D-homo derivative 5 was obtained. The structure of compound was proposed on the basis of NMR-spectroscopy.

  11. Carbamoylcholine analogs as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists--structural modifications of 3-(dimethylamino)butyl dimethylcarbamate (DMABC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Balle, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    Compounds based on the 3-(dimethylamino)butyl dimethylcarbamate (DMABC) scaffold were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized at the alpha(4)beta(2), alpha(3)beta(4,) alpha(4)beta(4) and alpha(7) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The carbamate functionality and a small...... hydrophobic substituent in the C-3 position were found to be vital for the binding affinity to the nAChRs, whereas the carbamate nitrogen substituents were important for nAChR subtype selectivity. Finally, the compounds were found to be agonists at the alpha(3)beta(4) nAChR....

  12. tert-Butyl N-[6-(N,N-dipropylcarbamoyl-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl]carbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Fang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound C19H27N3O3S, crystallizes with two unique molecules in the asymmetric unit. The benzene ring of each benzothiazole unit carries a dipropylcarbamoyl substituent in the 6-position and a tert-butyl carbamate unit on each thiazole ring. In the crystal structure, intermolecular N—H...N and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds form centrosymmetric dimers. Additional C—H...O contacts construct a three-dimensional network. A very weak C—H...π contact is also present.

  13. Reactions of Stable N-Heterocyclic Silylenes with Ketones and 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone

    OpenAIRE

    Azhakar, Ramachandran; Ghadwal, Rajendra S.; Roesky, Herbert W.; Hey, Jakob; Stalke, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    The reactions of L [PhC(NtBu)2SiCl] and L0 [CH{(Cd CH2)(CMe)(2,6-iPr2C6H3N)2}Si] with monoketones and quinone have been examined. The reaction of L with 2-adamantanone furnishes a [1 + 2] cycloaddition product 1, whereas with 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone leads to the [1 + 4] cycloaddition product 2. The treatment of L0 with 3,5-di-tertbutyl- o-benzoquinone gives [1 + 4] cycloaddition product 3, and the reaction with acylferrocene yields compound 4. Compounds 1 4 were ch...

  14. Successful treatment of anastomotic jejunal varices with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl): single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, C; Glenck, M; Pfammatter, T; Bauerfeind, P

    2012-08-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding can lead to extensive diagnostic work-up, as well as repeated episodes of hospitalizations with significant morbidity. Patients with a previous small-bowel anastomosis seem to be prone to varices at this site, even in the absence of portal hypertension. We report here five cases with varices of this type. All the anastomoses in these patients were reached using overtube-assisted single- or double-balloon enteroscopy. The bleeding varices were treated by injecting N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl). Bleeding was stopped in all five patients without any adverse events, requiring one session in four patients and a second session in one patient. PMID:22833023

  15. Role of intravenously administered hyoscine butyl bromide in retrograde terminal ileoscopy: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SP Misra; M Dwivedi

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluated the role of hyoscine butyl bromide in facilitating retrograde ileoscopy.METHODS:Retrograde terminal ileoscopy was attempted in 200 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. After intubation of the cecum and visualization of the ileocecal valve,butyl bromide injection or normal saline was given intravenously to the patients in a double blind random fashion. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were measured continuously. After completion of the procedure,endoscopists were then asked to score the ease of intubation and the ease of visualization of the terminal ileum on a visual scale of 1 to 10. The patients were also asked to score the pain after receiving hyoscine butyl bromide injection on a score of 1 to 10.RESULTS:Terminal ileoscopy could be performed in 188 patients. The mean (SD) visual analogue score for the ease of intubation of the cecum was 7.4 (0.65) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.8) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) length of ileum visualized in the injection group was 14.4 (3.3) cm and 10.4 (2.7) cm in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) visual analogue score for ease of visualization of the terminal ileum was 7.5 (0.69) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.7) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The pain score experienced by the patients was 6.5 (0.7) in the injection group and 6.7 (0.69) in the placebo group (P<0.008). Although the pulse rate increased significantly in patients receiving the drug,no statistically significant difference was noted in the oxygen saturation between the two groups either before or after administration of the drug. No complications were observed in either of the groups.CONCLUSION:Hyoscine butyl bromide injection is a useful adjunct in helping the intubation and visualizationof terminal ileum during colonoscopy.

  16. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in urban and rural precipitation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, C.; Kolb, A.; Puettmann, W. [J.W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Institut fuer Mineralogie-Umweltanalytik

    2001-07-01

    The use of the oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline has led to detectable concentrations in urban and rural air up to 160ppbV. Results from MTBE measurement in precipitation have not been reported so far. In the present study, 120 samples of precipitation collected at 17 sampling locations all over Germany have been analyzed for their MTBE content. Analysis is performed by a combination of headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A 75{mu}m poly(dimethylsiloxane)/Carboxene fiber and a cryostat is used for SPME. The detection limit is 10ng/l. In precipitation samples, MTBE was detected in wintertimes only with a maximum concentration of 85ng/l. Measurement at Frankfurt/M City from 6 September 2000 to 12 March 2001 provided for 49% of the data concentrations in the range of 30-85ng/1 (n=17). Sampling in winter 2000/2001 at several German cities and rural locations showed that MTBE is more often detectable in urban (86%, n=78) than in rural (18%,n=42) precipitation. By comparing the results with corresponding temperatures and amounts of precipitation it can be concluded that the detection of MTBE in urban precipitation is observed at ambient temperatures lower than about 10-15{sup o}C. Moreover, the first precipitation after a dry period accumulates more MTBE than precipitation during or at the end of a wet period (wash-out effect). Highest concentrations occurred in snow samples. Corresponding mean air equilibrium concentrations of 0.04ppbV (urban samples) and 0.0lppbV (rural samples) are calculated. This is about one magnitude lower than year round and summertime measurements in the US and in Switzerland. Urban runoff (n=12) and corresponding precipitation sampling indicate that urban runoff might be composed of about 20% MTBE that is already transported by air and precipitation, whereas about 80% may be attributed to direct uptake of vehicle emissions and leakage near the road during

  17. [Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in atmosphere of the Pearl River Delta, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-guang; Shao, Min; Zhang, Yuan-hang; Lü, Wan-Ming; Zhou, Yan

    2007-07-01

    The concentration of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and its spatio-temporal distribution were researched in atmosphere of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) by sampling with air sampling canisters and analyzing with pre-concentrator and gas chromatograph-mass spectrum instrument. The results showed that 1) MTBE could be prevalently checked in atmosphere of traffic area, industrial area, residential area and commercial area of the PRD, and its range of hourly average concentration in the long-term observation was from 0 - 1.250 microg m(-3), the summer had more serious pollution than the spring, and urban was the central area of high MTBE concentration, and suburban in the downwind was obviously polluted by the urban air. 2) During the enhanced observation in summertime, the diurnal average concentration of Guangzhou urban site was (1.520 +/- 0.370) microg m(-3), which was about 7 times of Huadou site in the downwind of Guangzhou and over 100 times of Conghua site in the background of Guangzhou. In urban, 2 peak values appeared in the period of 10:00 - 12:00 and 16:00 - 18:00 respectively, and the nighttime had the lowest average concentration, but the suburban in the downwind had the peak value in the nighttime. 3) During the enhanced observation in wintertime, the diurnal average concentration of Guangzhou urban site was (0.950 +/- 0.240) microg m(-3), which was 3.6 times of Xinken site in the downwind of Guangzhou. Several peak values appeared on the diurnal variation, the high concentration period of urban was in 18:00 - 22:00, and that of suburban was in 04:00 - 10:00 of the next day. 4) When it was weak sunshine, the concentration of MTBE beside the urban traffic roadside was decreasing with the height increasing, but when it was strong sunshine, it was increasing with the height increasing. So, except the original emission from the automobiles, MTBE still had the secondary pollution sources formed by air photochemical reaction. PMID:17891978

  18. (1-Butyl-4-methyl-pyridinium)[Cu(SCN)2]: a coordination polymer and ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Eike T; Edengeiser, Eugen; Mallick, Bert; Havenith, Martina; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2014-04-25

    The compound (C4C1py)[Cu(SCN)2], (C4C1py = 1-Butyl-4-methyl-pyridinium), which can be obtained from CuSCN and the ionic liquid (C4C1py)(SCN), turns out to be a new organic-inorganic hybrid material as it qualifies both, as a coordination polymer and an ionic liquid. It features linked [Cu(SCN)2](-) units, in which the thiocyanates bridge the copper ions in a μ1,3-fashion. The resulting one-dimensional chains run along the a axis, separated by the C4C1py counterions. Powder X-ray diffraction not only confirms the single-crystal X-ray structure solution but proves the reformation of the coordination polymer from an isotropic melt. However, the materials shows a complex thermal behavior often encountered for ionic liquids such as a strong tendency to form a supercooled melt. At a relatively high cooling rate, glass formation is observed. When heating this melt in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-dependent polarizing optical microscopy (POM), investigations reveal the existence of a less thermodynamically stable crystalline polymorph. Raman measurements conducted at 10 and 100 °C point towards the formation of polyanionic chain fragments in the melt. Solid-state UV/Vis spectroscopy shows a broad absorption band around 18,870 cm(-1) (530 nm) and another strong one below 20,000 cm(-1) (<500 nm). The latter is attributed to the d(Cu(I))→π*(SCN)-MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) transition within the coordination polymer yielding an energy gap of 2.4 eV. At room temperature and upon irradiation with UV light, the material shows a weak fluorescence band at 15,870 cm(-1) (630 nm) with a quantum efficiency of 0.90(2) % and a lifetime of 131(2) ns. Upon lowering the temperature, the luminescence intensity strongly increases. Simultaneously, the band around 450 nm in the excitation spectrum decreases. PMID:24644064

  19. Preparation of Seeding Type Immobilized Microorganisms and Their Degradation Characteristics on Di-n-Butyl Phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the preparation of seeding type immobilized microorganisms and their degradation characteristics on di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Methods Diatomite, clinoptilolite, silk zeolite, and coal fly ash were chosen as reserved materials and modified. Their adsorption capacity and intensity in the bacteria were determined and the best carrier was picked out. The seeding type immobilized microorganisms were prepared by the best carrier and then it degraded DBP under different primary concentration, vibration rate, pH, temperature in the presence of metal compounds. Results The adsorption capacity of the modified coal fly ash, silk zeolite, clinoptilolite and zeolite was 44.2%, 71.6%, 84.0%, and 94.4%, respectively, which was 1.66, 1.49, 1.37, and 1.16 times as high as that of their natural state. Their adsorption intensity was 72.1%, 90.5%, 90.1%,and 91.1% in turn. The modified diatomite was selected to prepare the seeding type immobilized microorganisms. When the primary DBP concentration was 100 to 500 mg/L, the DBP-degraded rate of the immobilized microorganisms could be above 80%. The degradation activity of both the dissociative and immobilized microorganisms was higher in vibration than in stillness.When pH was 6.0 to 9.0, the DBP-degraded rate of the immobilized microorganisms was above 82%, which was higher than the dissociative microorganisms. When the temperature was between 20℃ and 40℃, the DBP-degraded rate could reach 84.5% in 24 h. The metal compounds could inhibit the degradation activity of both the dissociative and immobilized microorganisms. The degradation process of the immobilized microorganisms could be described by the first-order model.Conclusion The adsorption capacity of the diatomite, clinoptilolite, silk zeolite and coal fly ash on DBP-degrading bacteria can be improved obviously after they are modified. The modified diatomite is best in terms of its adsorption capacity and intensity. Its seeding type immobilized microorganisms could

  20. Determination of low level methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether and methyl tert-amyl ether in human urine by HS-SPME gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are oxygenated compounds added to gasoline to enhance octane rating and to improve combustion. They may be found as pollutants of living and working environments. In this work a robotized method for the quantification of low level MTBE, ETBE and TAME in human urine was developed and validated. The analytes were sampled in the headspace of urine by SPME in the presence of MTBE-d12 as internal standard. Different fibers were compared for their linearity and extraction efficiency: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene, and polydimethylsiloxane. The first, although highly efficient, was discarded due to deviation of linearity for competitive displacement, and the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fiber was chosen instead. The analysis was performed by GC/MS operating in the electron impact mode. The method is very specific, with range of linearity 30-4600 ng L-1, within- and between-run precision, as coefficient of variation, -1 for all the analytes. The influence of the matrix on the quantification of these ethers was evaluated analysing the specimens of seven traffic policemen exposed to autovehicular emissions: using the calibration curve and the method of standard additions comparable levels of MTBE (68-528 ng L-1), ETBE (-1), and TAME (-1) were obtained

  1. The Emulsion Polymerization of Each of Vinyl Acetate and Butyl Acrylate Monomers Using bis (2-ethylhexyl Maleate for Improving the Physicomechanical Properties of Paints and Adhesive Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Shaffei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the water sensitivity of polyvinyl acetate PVAc films as well as pressure sensitivity, adhesion and washability of polybutyl acrylate were achieved by using bis (2-ethylhexyl maleate (BEHM. The emulsion polymerization kinetics of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate in presence of BEHM was studied. The order of the polymerization reaction with respect to the BEHM in presence of each of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate was studied. The physicomechanical properties of the polyvinyl acetate films and vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate copolymer films were studied in presence of BEHM and the obtained results were matched with those prepared in the presence of pluronic F 108 and showed superior values. The obtained mean average molecular weights were found to be smaller in presence of BEHM assuring the presence of chain transfer reaction.

  2. Preparation of a 125I labelled [1,3H]imidazole: 2-n-butyl-4(5)-125I-iodo-5(4)-hydroxymethylene imidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the introduction of 125I in a substituted imidazole has been devised. 2-n-Butyl-4(5)-hydroxymethylene imidazole undergoes rapid and selective electrophilic substitution on the ring when treated with a halogenating agent such as, i.a., N-chlorosuccinimide. This reaction has been adapted to the preparation of 2-n-butyl-4(5)-125I-iodo-5(4)-hydroxymethylene imidazole by treatment of 2-n-butyl-4(5)-hydroxymethylene imidazole by chloramine-T in the presence of sodium iodide. The radiolabelled product purified and isolated by HPLC is obtained at a high specific activity (2200Ci/mmol) with good chemical and radiochemical yields (∼70%). (author)

  3. Ureteric Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Fistulae: Use of Two Amplatzer Vascular Plugs and N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Employing the 'Sandwich' Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: ws6r@virginia.edu; Kalagher, S.; Turba, U. C.; Sabri, S. S.; Park, A.-W.; Stone, J.; Angle, J. F.; Matsumoto, A. H. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Division of Vascular Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study describes and evaluated the effectiveness of occluding distal ureters in the clinical setting of urinary vaginal (vesicovaginal or enterovesicovaginal) fistulae utilizing a new technique which combines Amplatzer vascular plugs and N-butyl cyanoacrylate.MaterialsThis is a retrospective study (January 2007-December 2010) of patients with urinary-vaginal fistulae undergoing distal ureter embolization utilizing an Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique. An 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plug was delivered using the sheath and deployed in the ureter distal to the pelvic brim. Instillation of 0.8-1.5 cc of N-butyl cyanoacrylate into ureter proximal to the Amplatzer plug was performed. This was followed by another set of 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plugs in a technique referred to as the 'sandwich technique.'ResultsFive ureters in three patients were occluded utilizing the above-described technique during the 4-year study period. Mean maximum size Amplatzer used per ureter was 10.8 mm (range, 8-12). One ureter required three Amplatzer plugs and the rest required two. Two patients (3 ureters) were clinically successful with complete resolution of symptoms in 36-48 h. The third patient (2 ureters) was partly successful and required a second Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate sandwich technique embolization. The mean clinical follow-up was 11.3 months (range, 1.7-29.2).ConclusionsThe Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique for occluding the distal ureter is safe and effective with a quick (probably due to the N-butyl cyanoacrylate) and durable (probably due to the Amplatzer plugs) clinical response.

  4. Ureteric Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Fistulae: Use of Two Amplatzer Vascular Plugs and N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Employing the “Sandwich” Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeThis study describes and evaluated the effectiveness of occluding distal ureters in the clinical setting of urinary vaginal (vesicovaginal or enterovesicovaginal) fistulae utilizing a new technique which combines Amplatzer vascular plugs and N-butyl cyanoacrylate.MaterialsThis is a retrospective study (January 2007–December 2010) of patients with urinary-vaginal fistulae undergoing distal ureter embolization utilizing an Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique. An 8–12–mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plug was delivered using the sheath and deployed in the ureter distal to the pelvic brim. Instillation of 0.8–1.5 cc of N-butyl cyanoacrylate into ureter proximal to the Amplatzer plug was performed. This was followed by another set of 8–12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plugs in a technique referred to as the “sandwich technique.”ResultsFive ureters in three patients were occluded utilizing the above-described technique during the 4-year study period. Mean maximum size Amplatzer used per ureter was 10.8 mm (range, 8–12). One ureter required three Amplatzer plugs and the rest required two. Two patients (3 ureters) were clinically successful with complete resolution of symptoms in 36–48 h. The third patient (2 ureters) was partly successful and required a second Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate sandwich technique embolization. The mean clinical follow-up was 11.3 months (range, 1.7–29.2).ConclusionsThe Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique for occluding the distal ureter is safe and effective with a quick (probably due to the N-butyl cyanoacrylate) and durable (probably due to the Amplatzer plugs) clinical response

  5. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80+ macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206+ TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer

  6. Study of interaction of butyl p-hydroxybenzoate with human serum albumin by molecular modeling and multi-spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qin, E-mail: wqing07@lzu.c [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Yaheng, E-mail: zhangyah04@lzu.c [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Sun Huijun, E-mail: sun.hui.jun-04@163.co [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen Hongli, E-mail: hlchen@lzu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen Xingguo, E-mail: chenxg@lzu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Study of the interaction between butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (butoben) and human serum albumin (HSA) has been performed by molecular modeling and multi-spectroscopic method. The interaction mechanism was predicted through molecular modeling first, then the binding parameters were confirmed using a series of spectroscopic methods, including fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The thermodynamic parameters of the reaction, standard enthalpy {Delta}H{sup 0} and entropy {Delta}S{sup 0}, have been calculated to be -29.52 kJ mol{sup -1} and -24.23 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively, according to the Van't Hoff equation, which suggests the van der Waals force and hydrogen bonds are the predominant intermolecular forces in stabilizing the butoben-HSA complex. Results obtained by spectroscopic methods are consistent with that of the molecular modeling study. In addition, alteration of secondary structure of HSA in the presence of butoben was evaluated using the data obtained from UV-visible absorbance, CD and FT-IR spectroscopies. - Research highlights: The interaction between butyl p-hydroxybenzoate with HSA has been investigated for the first time. Molecular modeling study can provide theoretical direction for experimental design. Multi-spectroscopic method can provide the binding parameters and thermodynamic parameters. These results are important for food safety and human health when using parabens as a preservative.

  7. Laboratory Method for Analysis of Small Concentrations of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Other Ether Gasoline Oxygenates in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donna L.; Connor, Brooke F.; Abney, Sonja R.; Raese, Jon W.

    1998-01-01

    This Fact Sheet presents data for analysis of nanogram-per-liter concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and three other ether gasoline oxygenates, including methyl tert-pentyl ether (TAME), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), by purge- and-trap capillary-column gas chromatography. Long-term method detection levels (LT-MDLs) for MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE ranged from 15 to 83 nanograms per liter (0.015 to 0.083 microgram per liter). Nanogram-per-liter-concentration detections are reported if all of the identification criteria are met, whereas previous methods censored detections at a pre-determined method reporting level. The reporting level for this method is defined as two times the LT-MDL, does not censor detections at less than this concentration, and is referred to as the nondetection value (NDV). Bias and variability data from multiple analyses, analysts, and instruments over a 60-day period show the oxygenate recoveries ranging from 100 to 109 percent, with 6 to 8 percent relative standard deviation. MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE were not detected in the analysis of 225 laboratory reagent blanks from January to December 1997. A preservation study in ground water and surface water indicates that all the oxygenates are stable at pH 2 for up to 216 days, with recoveries ranging from 94 to 115 percent on day 216, and relative standard deviations ranging from 5 to 9 percent for the duration of the study.

  8. Preparation of l-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dodecatungstophosphate and its. catalytic performance for esterification of ethanol and acetic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiehua SHI; Gao PAN

    2009-01-01

    l-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium dodecatungstophosphate catalyst ([bmim]3PW12040) with high water tolerance was prepared from l-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br) and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40). The catalyst was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravi-metry-differential scanning calorimetry, n-BuNH2 poten-tiometric titration, elemental analysis and so on. Its catalytic activity for esterification of ethanol and acetic acid to ethyl acetate was measured. The results show that there were three crystal-water molecules in the [bmim]3PW12040 catalyst, and it preserved the primary Keggin structure and acid strength of H3PW12O40. The acid amount of [bmim]3PW12O40 catalyst was less than that of H3PW12O40. The [bmim]3PW12O40 catalyst exhibited higher catalytic activity and reusability in the esterification of ethanol and acetic acid to ethyl acetate.

  9. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Choksi, Swati; Liu, Zheng-Gang, E-mail: zgliu@helix.nih.gov [Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80{sup +} macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206{sup +} TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer.

  10. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80+ macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206+ TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer.

  11. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of 99mTcN-tertiary butyl xanthate as a potential myocardial agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-tertiary butyl isonitrile (TBI), a complex structurally similar to 99mTc-sestamibi, has been reported to be taken up in the myocardium, albeit with significant retention in liver and lungs, thereby leading to obscure heart images when used for in vivo imaging. In the present study, tert-butyl xanthate, which is similar to TBI, but possesses two sulphur donors, has been synthesized in excellent yield by reacting tert-butanol with carbon disulphide and sodium hydroxide in dry ether. The prepared ligand was then labeled with [99mTcN]2+ core and the resultant complex was characterized by paper electrophoresis and HPLC. The complex was obtained in more than 95% yield and was found to be neutral. The preparation was evaluated in Swiss mice for its myocardial perfusion characteristics. The maximum heart uptake observed was 2.34%ID/g at 5 min p.i., which was cleared rapidly, with retention of 0.50%ID/g of the activity at 60 min p.i. However, owing to slow clearance from blood, liver and lungs, the heart/blood, heart/liver and heart/lung ratios at all the time points of study were not significantly high

  12. SYNTHESIS OF POLYACRYLAMIDE WITH PENDANT POLY(BUTYL ACRYLATE) CHAINS USING THE MACROMER TECHNIQUE AND STUDIES ON THEIR PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-quan Xie; Gui-ying Liao; Yu Gao

    2004-01-01

    An amphiphilic graft polymer, (PAM-g-PBA), polyacrylamide (PAM) having poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) side chains, was obtained by radical copolymerization of acrylamide with PBA macromer in solution. The macromer was synthesized by free radical polymerization of butyl acrylate in the presence of different amounts of thioglycolic acid as the chain transfer agent, followed by termination with glycidyl methacrylate. The reactivity ratio and effects of copolymerization conditions on the conversion of macromer or grafting efficiency were studied. The crude products were purified by extraction with toluene and water successively. Thc purified graft copolymer was characterized by IR, DSC and TEM. PAM-g-PBA can bring about microphase separation and exhibits good emulsifying properties and water absorbency. PAM-g-PBA exhibits a very good compatibilizing effect on the acrylic rubber/poly(vinyl chloride) blends. 2%-3% of the graft copolymer is enough for enhancing the tensile strength of the blends. The tensile strength of the blends is more than twice that without the compatibilizer. DSC and SEM demonstrated the enhancement of compatibility in the presence of the graft copolymer.

  13. Computer-assisted automated synthesis. III. Synthesis of substituted N-(carboxyalkyl) amino-acid tert-butyl ester derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, N; Sugawara, T; Kato, S

    1991-01-01

    A versatile automated synthesis apparatus, equipped with a chemical artificial intelligence, was developed to prepare and isolate a wide variety of compounds. The apparatus was to the synthesis of substituted N-(carboxyalkyl)amino-acids. The apparatus [1,2] is composed of units for performing various tasks,for example reagent supply, reaction, purification and separation, each linked to a control system. All synthetic processes, including washing and drying of the apparatus after each synthetic run, were automatically performed from the mixing of the reactants to the isolation of the products as powders or crystals. The reaction of an amino-acid tertbutyl ester acetic acid salt with a 2-keto acid sodium salt produces an unstable intermediate, Schiff base, which is reduced with sodum cyanoborohydride to give a substituted N-(carboxyalkyl)aminoacid tert-butyl ester sodium salt. The equilibrium and the consecutive reactions were controlled by adding sodium cyanoborohydride using the artificial intelligence software, which contained novel kinetic equations [3] and substituent effects [4].Substitued N-(carboxyalkyl)amino-acid tert-butyl esters, 90 derivatives, were automatically synthesized using the computerassisted automated synthesis apparatus. The syntheses were performed unattended 24 hours a day, except for supplying the raw materials, reagents and solvents. The apparatus is extremely valuable for synthesizing many derivatives of a particular compound. The configurations of the products were determined by circular dichroism measurements. PMID:18924904

  14. Healing of periodontal flaps when closed with silk sutures and N-butyl cyanoacrylate: A clinical and histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Sudhindra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The closure of the periodontal flaps post-surgery is a necessity for attainment of a primary union between the flap margins and the establishment of a healthy dentogingival junction. N-butyl cyanoacrylate is a tissue adhesive, which can be used for the closure of the incised wounds to overcome the problems associated with conventional suture materials like silk. Objective: The present study was carried out to assess the healing of the periodontal flaps when closed with the conventional silk sutures and N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 24 patients who needed flap surgical procedure for pocket therapy. Results: It was found that healing with the cyanoacrylate is associated with less amount of inflammation during the first week when compared with silk. However, over a period of 21 days to 6 weeks, the sites treated with both the materials showed similar healing patterns. Conclusion: It can be concluded that cyanoacrylate aids in early initial healing.

  15. Cometabolism of Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether and Gaseous n-Alkanes by Pseudomonas mendocina KR-1 Grown on C5 to C8 n-Alkanes

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christy A.; O'Reilly, Kirk T.; Hyman, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas mendocina KR-1 grew well on toluene, n-alkanes (C5 to C8), and 1° alcohols (C2 to C8) but not on other aromatics, gaseous n-alkanes (C1 to C4), isoalkanes (C4 to C6), 2° alcohols (C3 to C8), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), or tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). Cells grown under carbon-limited conditions on n-alkanes in the presence of MTBE (42 μmol) oxidized up to 94% of the added MTBE to TBA. Less than 3% of the added MTBE was oxidized to TBA when cells were grown on either 1° alc...

  16. Organoboron compounds. Communication 417. Crystal and molecular structure of 4-acetoxy-4-butyl-2-methyl-3-phenyl1,4-dihydro-1-aza-3-azonia-4-boratanaphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to elucidate the structure of boronitrogen heterocycles, an x-ray diffraction structural analysis was carried out on the adduct of 4-butyl-2-methyl-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-4-boraquinazoline with acetic acid, namely, 4-acetoxy-4-butyl-2-methyl3-phenyl-1,4-dihydro-1-aza-3-azonia-4-boratanaphthalene (DAABN). The molecular structure of DAABN is given, and the atomic coordinates and bond lengths and angles are presented in tables. the boron atom has distorted tetrahedral configuration

  17. Effect of xenobiotics on the respiratory activity of rat heart mitochondria and the concomitant formation of superoxide radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolze, K.; Nohl, H. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

    1994-03-01

    The effects of the xenobiotics atrazine, benzene, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), lindane, toluene, and xylenol on the respiration of isolated rate heart mitochondria were studied. Bioenergetic parameters such as respiratory control (RC) and ATP/oxygen (P/O) values decreased considerably in the presence of these substances, and a concomitant increase of superoxide radical (O[sub 2][sup [minus

  18. Simultaneous determination of BHT and BHA in mineral and synthetic oils using linear scan voltammetry with a gold disc electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomášková, M.; Chýlková, J.; Jehlička, V.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Švancara, I.; Šelešovská, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 123, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 107-112. ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : gold disc electrode * BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) * BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.520, year: 2014

  19. Antioxidant activity of wild edible plants in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özen, Tevfik

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative activity of the 80% ethanol extract obtained from eleven commonly consumed wild edible plants was determined according to the phosphomolybdenum method, reducing power, metal chelating, superoxide anion and free radical scavenging activity and compared to standard compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and trolox. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in the extracts were also measured. Trachystemon orientalis, Vaccin...

  20. Amended final report of the safety assessment of t-Butyl Alcohol as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Melody

    2005-01-01

    t-Butyl Alcohol (t-BuOH) is a tertiary aliphatic alcohol that is used as a solvent or an alcohol denaturant and as a perfume carrier in cosmetics. t-BuOH was reported as an ingredient in 32 formulations of eye makeup, fragrance, and shaving preparations, at concentrations ranging from 0.00001% and 0.3%. There is little acute oral toxicity in animals; e.g., the acute oral LD(50) in rats was 3.0 to 3.7 g/kg. In short-term oral studies in rats, t-BuOH at 2% (w/v) or less in drinking water did not cause gross organ or tissue damage in mice, although weight loss was reported and microscopic damage to livers and kidney and alterations such as centrilobular necrosis, vacuolation in hepatocytes, and loss of hepatic architecture were noted. Subchronic oral dosing with t-BuOH increased the mineralization of the kidney, nephropathy, and urinary bladder transitional cell epithelial hyperplasia in rats; and liver damage, chronic inflammation, hyperplasia of transitional cell epithelium urinary, and proliferative changes including hyperplasia and neoplasia in the thyroid in mice. Male rats exposed to t-BuOH were susceptible to alpha 2mu-globulin nephropathy. t-BuOH (99.9%) was a moderate to severe ocular irritant to rabbits and caused mild to moderate dermal irritation to rabbits. It was not considered to be a primary dermal irritant to rabbits. In animal studies, fetotoxicity generally increased with concentration, and fetal weights were slightly depressed at concentrations of 0.5% to 1% t-BuOH. t-BuOH produced a significant increase in the number of resorptions per litter. There was also a significant decrease in the number of live fetuses per litter. t-BuOH reduced maternal weight gain, litter sizes, birth weights, and weights at weaning, and increased perinatal and postnatal mortality. t-BuOH was not mutagenic in several bacterial and mammalian test systems. The principal effects from 2 years of exposure to t-BuOH in drinking water (up to 10 mg/ml for rats and 20 mg/ml for

  1. Dosimetric measurements of an n-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization material for arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labby, Zacariah E., E-mail: zelabby@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Chaudhary, Neeraj [Division of Neurointerventional Radiology, Departments of Radiology and Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Gemmete, Joseph J. [Division of Neurointerventional Radiology, Departments of Radiology, Neurosurgery, and Otolaryngology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Pandey, Aditya S. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Roberts, Donald A. [Radiation Physics Division, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic regimen for cranial arteriovenous malformations often involves both stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolization. Embolization agents may contain tantalum or other contrast agents to assist the neurointerventionalists, leading to concerns regarding the dosimetric effects of these agents. This study investigated dosimetric properties of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) plus lipiodol with and without tantalum powder. Methods: The embolization agents were provided cured from the manufacturer with and without added tantalum. Attenuation measurements were made for the samples and compared to the attenuation of a solid water substitute using a 6 MV photon beam. Effective linear attenuation coefficients (ELAC) were derived from attenuation measurements made using a portal imager and derived sample thickness maps projected in an identical geometry. Probable dosimetric errors for calculations in which the embolized regions are overridden with the properties of water were calculated using the ELAC values. Interface effects were investigated using a parallel plate ion chamber placed at set distances below fixed samples. Finally, Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using a stereotactic radiosurgery CT protocol, and more appropriate HU values were derived from the ELAC results and the CT scanner’s HU calibration curve. Results: The ELAC was 0.0516 ± 0.0063 cm{sup −1} and 0.0580 ± 0.0091 cm{sup −1} for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively, compared to 0.0487 ± 0.0009 cm{sup −1} for the water substitute. Dose calculations with the embolized region set to be water equivalent in the treatment planning system would result in errors of −0.29% and −0.93% per cm thickness of n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively. Interface effects compared to water were small in magnitude and limited in distance for both embolization materials. CT values at 120 kVp were 2082 and 2358 HU for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively

  2. Structure and Vibrational Spectra of Tert-butyl N-(2- bromocyclohex-2-enyl)-N-(2-furylmethyl)carbamate%Tert-butyl(N-(2-bromocyclohex-2-enyl)-N-(2-furylmethyl)carbamate的结构和振动光谱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The molecular structure, conformational stability, and vibrational frequencies of tert-butyl N-(2-bromocyclohex-2-enyl)-N-(2-furylmethyl)carbamate (TBBFC) were investigated by utilizing the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) ab initio calculations with 6-31G* and 6-31G* * basis sets. The optimized bond length and angle values obtained by HF method showed the best agreement with the experimental values. Comparison of the observed and calculated fundamental vibrational frequencies indicated that B3LYP was superior to the scaled HF approach for molecular problems. Optimal uniform scaling factors calculated for the title compound are 0.899/0.904,0.958/0.961, and 0.988/0.989 for HF, B3LYP, and BLYP (6-31G */6-31G* *), respectively.

  3. Alkylation of 2'-deoxynucleosides and DNA by quinone methides derived from 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M A; Yoerg, D G; Bolton, J L; Thompson, J A

    1996-12-01

    4-Alkylphenols, such as the antioxidant 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), exhibit toxicities that appear to be mediated by their oxidative metabolism to electrophilic quinone methides. Reactions of these Michael acceptors with simple nucleophiles and proteins have been reported, but little information is available on quinone methide binding to the competing nucleophilic sites in DNA. In the present investigation, 2'-deoxynucleoside adducts generated in vitro with two BHT-derived quinone methides, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylenecyclohexa-2,5-dienone and 6-tert-butyl-2- (2'-hydroxy-1',1'-dimethylethyl)-4-methylenecyclohexa-2,5-dieno ne (BHTOH-QM) were isolated and identified. Both quinone methides produced adducts at the 1- and N2-positions of deoxyguanosine (dG) and the N6-position of deoxyadenosine (dA). In addition, a labile adduct formed at the 7-position of dG, which degraded to the corresponding 7-alkylguanine derivative. Additional work was conducted with BHTOH-QM, the more reactive of the two quinone methides. This species also formed stable adducts at the N4-position of deoxycytosine (dC) and the 3-position of thymidine and formed a labile adduct at the 3-position of dC that underwent hydrolytic cleavage to regenerate dC. In mixtures of deoxynucleosides treated with [14C]BHTOH-QM, alkylation occurred primarily at the N2- and 7-positions of dG and the N6-position of dA and occurred secondarily at the 1-position of dG. Treatment of calf thymus DNA with this quinone methide yielded N6-dA and N2-dG adducts with the former predominating. The unstable 7-dG adduct was detected by analysis of the 7-alkylguanine product from depurination. These results demonstrate that quinone methides are most likely to damage DNA through alkylation of the exocyclic amino groups of purine residues and possibly also by attack at the 7-position of dG followed by depurination. PMID:8951242

  4. Determination of low level methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether and methyl tert-amyl ether in human urine by HS-SPME gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibetta, Licia [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Milano and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Via S. Barnaba, 8-20122 Milan (Italy); Campo, Laura [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Milano and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Via S. Barnaba, 8-20122 Milan (Italy); Mercadante, Rosa [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Milano and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Via S. Barnaba, 8-20122 Milan (Italy); Foa, Vito [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Milano and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Via S. Barnaba, 8-20122 Milan (Italy); Fustinoni, Silvia [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Milano and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Via S. Barnaba, 8-20122 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: silvia.fustinoni@unimi.it

    2007-01-02

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are oxygenated compounds added to gasoline to enhance octane rating and to improve combustion. They may be found as pollutants of living and working environments. In this work a robotized method for the quantification of low level MTBE, ETBE and TAME in human urine was developed and validated. The analytes were sampled in the headspace of urine by SPME in the presence of MTBE-d12 as internal standard. Different fibers were compared for their linearity and extraction efficiency: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene, and polydimethylsiloxane. The first, although highly efficient, was discarded due to deviation of linearity for competitive displacement, and the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fiber was chosen instead. The analysis was performed by GC/MS operating in the electron impact mode. The method is very specific, with range of linearity 30-4600 ng L{sup -1}, within- and between-run precision, as coefficient of variation, <22 and <16%, accuracy within 20% the theoretical level, and limit of detection of 6 ng L{sup -1} for all the analytes. The influence of the matrix on the quantification of these ethers was evaluated analysing the specimens of seven traffic policemen exposed to autovehicular emissions: using the calibration curve and the method of standard additions comparable levels of MTBE (68-528 ng L{sup -1}), ETBE (<6 ng L{sup -1}), and TAME (<6 ng L{sup -1}) were obtained.

  5. SENSORY, SYMPTOMATIC, INFLAMMATORY, AND OCULAR RESPONSES TO AND THE METABOLISM OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER IN A CONTROLLED HUMAN EXPOSURE EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to elevated ambient carbon monoxide (CO) due to incomplete combustion of automotive fuels, the Clear Air Act mandates that CO reduction be obtained by adding oxygenates to the fuel (oxyfuel) in areas of non-attainment. In 1992 the addition of methyl tertiary butyl eth...

  6. Reactivity of lithium n-butyl amidinates towards group 14 metal(II) chlorides providing series of hetero- and homoleptic tetrylenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlupatý, T.; Padělková, Z.; Lyčka, A.; Brus, Jiří; Růžička, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 16 (2012), s. 5010-5019. ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : lithium n-butyl amidinates * complexes * structure Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.806, year: 2012

  7. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  8. Successful Pregnancy with a Full-Term Vaginal Delivery One Year After n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Embolization of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) causes significant morbidity with vaginal bleeding. Traditional therapy is a hysterectomy with no potential for future pregnancy. We present a case of successful superselective embolization of uterine AVM using n-butyl cyanoacrylate with subsequent normal term pregnancy and uncomplicated vaginal delivery in 1 year

  9. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mortensen, Gerda Krogh; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies have reported endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals used commonly as additives in cosmetics and skin care products. We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous...

  10. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hydrogen Sulfate [bmim]HSO4: An Efficient Reusable Acidic Ionic Liquid for the Formylation of Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIKNAM Khodabakhsh; ZOLFIGOL Mohammad Ali; SABERI Dariush; KHONBAZI Mahdi

    2009-01-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [bmim]HSO4 as an acidic ionic liquid was prepared and used as a catalyst for the formylation of alcohols with ethyl formate at room temperature with good to excellent yields.A good selectivity was observed for the formylation of primary alcohols in the presence of tertiary alcohols.

  11. TERATOLOGY AND POSTNATAL STUDIES IN RATS OF THE PROPYLENE GLYCOL BUTYL ETHER AND ISOOCTYL ESTERS OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the teratogenic potential of the propylene glycol butyl ether (PGBE) and isooctyl (IO) esters of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Accordingly, groups of pregnant CD rats received daily oral doses of PGBE or IO equivalent to 0, 6.25...

  12. Pulse radiolysis study of reactions of alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals originating from methyl tert-butyl ether in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.; Ljungström, E.; Ellermann, T.;

    1995-01-01

    UV spectra and kinetics for the reactions of alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals from methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were studied in 1 atm of SF6 by the pulse radiolysis-UV absorption technique. UV spectra for the radical mixtures were quantified from 215 to 340 nm. At 240 nm, sigma(R) = (2.6 +/- 0.4) X...

  13. Pulse radiolysis study of reactions of alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals originating from methyl tert-butyl ether in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.; Ljungström, E.; Ellermann, T.; Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.

    UV spectra and kinetics for the reactions of alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals from methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were studied in 1 atm of SF6 by the pulse radiolysis-UV absorption technique. UV spectra for the radical mixtures were quantified from 215 to 340 nm. At 240 nm, sigma(R) = (2.6 +/- 0.4) X...

  14. Isomerization of 4-Amino-6-tert-butyl-3-methylthio-1, 2,4-triazin-5 (4H)-one with Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Isomerizaton of 4-amino-6-tert-butyl-3-methylthio-1, 2, 4-triazin-5 (4H)-one in the presence of base is described. Mechanism of this rearrangement reaction involving four-member ring intermediate formation has been proposed.

  15. X-Ray Structure of 8-Quinolinolato Lanthanide Complex:(8-Quinolinolato) bis (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenoxo) samarium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN,Fu-Gen(袁福根); LIU,Qing-Sheng(刘青生); WENG,Lin-Hong(翁林红)

    2002-01-01

    The heteroleptic (8-quinolinolato)bis(2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenoxo) samarium complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrun and X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex is a five-coordinate dimer. Each 8-quinolinolato oxygen atom links two samarium atoms as a bridge and the Sm-N bond is a typical donor bond.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of excess molar volumes and enthalpies for the ternary mixture butyl butyrate + 1-octanol + decane at 308.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Garabal, Sandra; Jimenez, Eulogio; Segade, Luisa; Casas, Herminio; Franjo, Carlos; Legido, Jose L.; Paz Andrade, M. Inmaculada

    2003-10-14

    This paper reports measurements on excess thermodynamic properties for the ternary system: butyl butyrate+1-octanol+decane at the temperature 308.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The binary and ternary experimental data were correlated using the Redlich-Kister and Cibulka equation, respectively. Experimental values were compared with the predictions obtained by several contribution models and several empirical equations.

  17. Ferric chloride-catalyzed reaction of [60]fullerene with tert-butyl N-substituted carbamates: synthesis of oxazolidino[4,5:1,2][60]fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xun; Wang, Guan-Wu

    2014-01-01

    The rare oxazolidinofullerenes have been prepared by the ferric chloride-catalyzed reaction of [60]fullerene with various tert-butyl N-substituted carbamates via t-Bu-O bond cleavage and heteroannulation under mild conditions. A possible mechanism for the formation of oxazolidinofullerenes is proposed. PMID:24328055

  18. Studies on non dispersive solvent extraction for removal of dissolved di-butyl phosphate (DBP) from aqueous medium using hollow fiber membrane contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PUREX process is based on the principle of mass transfer by liquid liquid dispersion. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is universal extractant for PUREX process which is employed for reprocessing the irradiated nuclear fuels for separation and recovery of fissile and fertile materials. The multi cycle solvent extraction processes encompass continuous extraction and stripping operations that are invariably carried out in pulsed columns. The continuous exposure of organic solvent (TBP) to high acidic and radioactive medium leads to decrease the solvent extraction efficiency as it degraded to different level producing di-butyl phosphate and mono-butyl phosphate in significant quantities. Efficiency of purex process decreases as di-butyl phosphate forms aqueous soluble complexes with uranium. Removal of such dissolved DBP from aqueous medium is of direct interest in reprocessing processes as this would enable to sustain the better efficiency of the process and also control the loss of fissile and fertile materials. The non-dispersive solvent extraction is a configuration of the conventional solvent-extraction process where a microporous membrane separates both the immiscible phases, one of which impregnates the membrane, thus bringing the liquid-liquid interface to one side of the membrane. This study is a preliminary evaluation of microporous hollow fiber membrane modules for the removal of dissolved DBP from acidic medium. The performance of the proposed system can be improved by optimizing controlling parameters of the process for quantitative transport of dissolved DBP from acidic medium in the purex process context

  19. Reaction products and mechanisms for the reaction of n-butyl vinyl ether with the oxidants OH and Cl: Atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenar, Inmaculada; Martín, Pilar; Cabañas, Beatriz; Salgado, Sagrario; Tapia, Araceli; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    A reaction product study for the degradation of butyl vinyl ether (CH3(CH2)3OCHdbnd CH2) by reaction with chlorine atoms (Cl) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) has been carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and/or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with a Time of Flight analyzer (GC-TOFMS). The rate coefficient for the reaction of butyl vinyl ether (BVE) with chlorine atoms has also been evaluated for the first time at room temperature (298 ± 2) K and atmospheric pressure (708 ± 8) Torr. The rate coefficient obtained was (9.9 ± 1.5) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and this indicates the high reactivity of butyl vinyl ether with Cl atoms. However, this value may be affected by the dark reaction of BVE with Cl2. The results of a qualitative study of the Cl reaction show that the main oxidation products are butyl formate (CH3(CH2)3OC(O)H), butyl chloroacetate (CH3(CH2)3OC(O)CH2Cl and formyl chloride (HCOCl). Individual yields in the ranges ∼16-40% and 30-70% in the absence and presence of NOx, respectively, have been estimated for these products. In the OH reaction, butyl formate and formic acid were identified as the main products, with yields of around 50 and 20%, respectively. Based on the results of this work and a literature survey, the addition of OH radicals and Cl atoms at the terminal C atom of the double bond in CH3(CH2)3OCHdbnd CH2 has been proposed as the first step in the reaction mechanism for both of the studied oxidants. The tropospheric lifetime of butyl vinyl ether is very short and, as a consequence, it will be rapidly degraded and will only be involved in tropospheric chemistry at a local level. The degradation products of these reactions should be considered when evaluating the atmospheric impact.

  20. CO2 capture from binary mixture via forming hydrate with the help of tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shifeng Li; Shuanshi Fan; Jingqu Wang; Xuemei Lang; Deqing Liang

    2009-01-01

    Hydrate formation rate and separation effect on the capture of CO2 from binary mixture v/a forming hydrate with 5 wt% tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) solution were studied.The results showed that the induction time was 5 min,and the hydrate formation process pressure of 7.30 MPa.The CO2 recovery was about 45% in the feed pressure range from 4.30 to 7.30 MPa.Under the feed pressure of 4.30 MPa,the maximum separation factor and CO2 concentration in hydrate phase were 7.3 and 38.2 tool%,respectively.The results demonstrated that TBAB accelerated hydrate formation and enriched CO2 in hydrate phase under the gentle condition.