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Sample records for butyl benzyl phthalate

  1. Embryolethality of butyl benzyl phthalate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, N.; Itami, T.; Kawasaki, H. (National Inst. Hyg. Science, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-03-15

    The developmental toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) was studied in Wistar rats. Pregnant rats were given BBP at a dosage of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% in the diet from day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy. Morphological examinations of the fetuses revealed no evidence of teratogenesis. In the 2.0% group, all dams exhibited complete resorption of all the implanted embryos, and their food consumption, body weight gain and adjusted weight gain during pregnancy were markedly lowered. To determine whether the embryolethality was the result of reduced food consumption during pregnancy, a pair-feeding study was performed in which the pregnant rats received the same amount of diet consumed by the 2.0% BBP-treated pregnant rats. The pair-fed and 2.0 % BBP-treated pregnant rats showed significant and comparable reductions in the adjusted weight gain. The number of live fetuses was lowered in the pair-fed group. However, the complete resorption of all the implanted embryos was not found in any of the pair-fed pregnant rats. The data suggest that the embryolethality observed in the 2.0 % BBP-treated pregnant rats is attributable to the effects o dietary BBP.

  2. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  3. n-Butyl benzyl phthalate promotes breast cancer progression by inducing expression of lymphoid enhancer factor 1.

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    Tsung-Hua Hsieh

    Full Text Available Environmental hormones play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, drug resistance, and breast cancer risk; however, their precise role in human breast cancer cells during cancer progression remains unclear. To elucidate the effect of the most widely used industrial phthalate, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, on cancer progression, we evaluated the results of BBP treatment using a whole human genome cDNA microarray and MetaCore software and selected candidate genes whose expression was changed by more than ten-fold by BBP compared with controls to analyze the signaling pathways in human breast cancer initiating cells (R2d. A total of 473 genes were upregulated, and 468 were downregulated. Most of these genes are involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis signaling. BBP induced the viability, invasion and migration, and tube formation in vitro, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis in vivo of R2d and MCF-7. Furthermore, the viability and invasion and migration of these cell lines following BBP treatment was reduced by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting the mRNA for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1; notably, the altered expression of this gene consistently differentiated tumors expressing genes involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the environmental hormone BBP and suggest possible strategies for preventing and treating human breast cancer.

  4. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamartiniere Coral A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20 to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days. Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days, becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland.

  5. Benzyl butyl phthalate promotes adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes: A High Content Cellomics and metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lei; Yu, Kevin Shengyang; Lu, Kun; Yu, Xiaozhong

    2016-04-01

    Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) has been known to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. However, its association with dysregulation of adipogenesis has been poorly investigated. The present study aimed to examine the effect of BBP on the adipogenesis, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms using the 3T3-L1 cells. The capacity of BBP to promote adipogenesis was evaluated by multiple staining approaches combined with a High Content Cellomics analysis. The dynamic changes of adipogenic regulatory genes and proteins were examined, and the metabolite profile was identified using GC/MC based metabolomic analysis. The High Content analysis showed BBP in contrast with Bisphenol A (BPA), a known environmental obesogen, increased lipid droplet accumulation in a similar dose-dependent manner. However, the size of the lipid droplets in BBP-treated cells was significantly larger than those in cells treated with BPA. BBP significantly induced mRNA expression of transcriptional factors C/EBPα and PPARγ, their downstream genes, and numerous adipogenic proteins in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, GC/MC metabolomic analysis revealed that BBP exposure perturbed the metabolic profiles that are associated with glyceroneogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Altogether, our current study clearly demonstrates that BBP promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 through the activation of the adipogenic pathway and metabolic disturbance.

  6. Benzyl butyl phthalate promotes breast cancer stem cell expansion via SPHK1/S1P/S1PR3 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chang, Yi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Lee, Jau-Nan; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory mechanisms unique to breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is required to control breast cancer metastasis. We found that phthalates promote BCSCs in human breast cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. A toxic phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor in breast cancer cells to stimulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) signaling and enhance formation of metastasis-initiating BCSCs. BBP induced histone modifications in S1PR3 in side population (SP) cells, but not in non-SP cells. SPHK1 or S1PR3 knockdown in breast cancer cells effectively reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest S1PR3 is a determinant of phthalate-driven breast cancer metastasis and a possible therapeutic target for regulating BCSC populations. Furthermore, the association between breast carcinogenesis and environmental pollutants has important implications for public health. PMID:27129165

  7. Comparative effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius based on gene expression assays related to the endocrine system, the stress response and ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelló, Rosario; Herrero, Oscar; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two of the most extensively used phthalates, were studied in Chironomus riparius under acute short-term treatments, to compare their relative toxicities and identify genes sensitive to exposure. The ecotoxicity of these phthalates was assessed by analysis of the alterations in gene expression profiles of selected inducible and constitutive genes related to the endocrine system, the cellular stress response and the ribosomal machinery. Fourth instar larvae, a model system in aquatic toxicology, were experimentally exposed to five increasing concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100mg/L) of DEHP and BBP for 24h. Gene expression was analysed by the changes in levels of transcripts, using RT-PCR techniques with specific gene probes. The exposures to DEHP or BBP were able to rapidly induce the hsp70 gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the cognate form hsc70 was not altered by either of these chemicals. Transcription of ribosomal RNA as a measure of cell viability, quantified by the levels of ITS2, was not affected by DEHP, but was slightly, yet significantly, downregulated by BBP at the highest concentrations tested. Finally, as these phthalates are classified as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), their potential effect on the ecdysone endocrine system was studied by analysing the two genes, EcR and usp, of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor complex. It was found that BBP provoked the overexpression of the EcR gene, with significant increases from exposures of 0.1mg/L and above, while DEHP significantly decreased the activity of this gene at the highest concentration. These data are relevant as they show for the first time the ability of phthalates to interfere with endocrine marker genes in invertebrates, demonstrating their potential capacity to alter the ecdysone signalling pathway. Overall, the study clearly shows a differential gene-toxin interaction

  8. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... banned for use in toys in the EU mainly due to their reproductive toxicity. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) has similar structural and application properties as DBP. and is being used as a substitute for DBR However, knowledge on male reproductive effects of DiBP in experimental animals is lacking, Methods...

  9. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of butyl cyclohexyl phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Çinel; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karabay Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü

    2016-03-01

    Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate (BCP) is frequently used in personal care products, medical and household applications. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate possible cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of BCP using in vitro and in vivo assays. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of BCP was investigated on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929 cells) by MTT assay. The result showed that BCP inhibits cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value = 0.29 µg/mL). For genotoxicity assessment, tested concentrations of BCP demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of S9 mix with the Salmonella strain TA100 in the Ames test. Results showed that BCP is a secondary mutagenic substance even in low concentrations. The data obtained from 28-days repeated toxicity tests on mice revealed that BCP caused abnormalities of chromosome number, in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA damage, particularly DNA strand breaks, was assessed by Comet assay. The test result shows that BCP seemed to have genotoxic potential at a high level of exposure.

  10. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  11. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from air: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake...... of phthalate esters. Objectives: This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods: In a series of experiments, six human participants were exposed for 6 hr in a chamber containing deliberately elevated air...... concentrations of DEP and DnBP. The participants either wore a hood and breathed air with phthalate concentrations substantially below those in the chamber or did not wear a hood and breathed chamber air. All urinations were collected from initiation of exposure until 54 hr later. Metabolites of DEP and Dn...

  12. A summary of the acute toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to representative aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.J. [ABC Labs. (United States), Inc., Columbia, MO (United States); Biddinger, G.R. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences Inc., Benecia, CA (United States); Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W. [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Acute aquatic toxicity studies were performed with 14 commercial phthalate esters and representative freshwater and marine species. The 14 esters were dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; butyl benzyl phthalate; dihexyl phthalate; butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate; di-(n-hexy, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate; di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; diisooctyl phthalate; diisononyl phthalate; di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate; diisodecyl phthalate; diundecyl phthalate; and ditridecyl phthalate. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of four carbon atoms or fewer were determined to be actually toxic at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 377 mg/L depending on the ester and the solubility of the test chemical in water. Three was a general trend for the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters (C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl chain lengths: dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; and butyl benzyl phthalate) to become more toxic with decreasing water solubility for all species tested. There were only minor differences in species sensitivity to each of the phthalate esters. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of six carbon atoms or more were not acutely toxic at concentrations approaching their respective aqueous solubilities. Insufficient mortality occurred to calculate either LC50 or EC50 values or acute no-observed-effect concentrations for these higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters. The lack of toxicity observed for the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters resulted from their limited water solubility ({le}1.1 mg/L).

  13. The estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, CA; Henttu, P; Parker, MG; Sumpter, JP

    1997-01-01

    A large number of phthalate esters were screened for estrogenic activity using a recombinant yeast screen. a selection of these was also tested for mitogenic effect on estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. A small number of the commercially available phthalates tested showed extremely weak estrogenic activity. The relative potencies of these descended in the order butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) > dibutyl phthalate (DBP) > diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) > diethyl phthalate (DEP) > diisiono...

  14. Effects of Phthalates on the Human Corneal Endothelial Cell Line B4G12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Cao, Yi; Kjærgaard, Søren K.;

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates are industrial chemicals used in many cosmetics. We evaluated an in vitro model for eye irritancy testing using the human corneal endothelial cell line B4G12. Cell proliferation and toxicity were assessed after exposing to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-2...

  15. Thyroid disruption by Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP in Xenopus laevis.

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    Ouxi Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP, a chemical widely used in many consumer products, is estrogenic and capable of producing seriously reproductive and developmental effects in laboratory animals. However, recent in vitro studies have shown that DBP and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP, the major metabolite of DBP, possessed thyroid hormone receptor (TR antagonist activity. It is therefore important to consider DBP and MBP that may interfere with thyroid hormone system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 51 Xenopus laevis were exposed to DBP and MBP (2, 10 or 15 mg/L separately for 21 days. The two test chemicals decelerated spontaneous metamorphosis in X. laevis at concentrations of 10 and 15 mg/L. Moreover, MBP seemed to possess stronger activity. The effects of DBP and MBP on inducing changes of expression of selected thyroid hormone response genes: thyroid hormone receptor-beta (TRβ, retinoid X receptor gamma (RXRγ, alpha and beta subunits of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHα and TSHβ were detected by qPCR at all concentrations of the compounds. Using mammalian two-hybrid assay in vitro, we found that DBP and MBP enhanced the interactions between co-repressor SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors and TR in a dose-dependent manner, and MBP displayed more markedly. In addition, MBP at low concentrations (2 and 10 mg/L caused aberrant methylation of TRβ in head tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings highlight potential disruption of thyroid signalling by DBP and MBP and provide data for human risk assessment.

  16. The association between phthalates in dust and allergic diseases among Bulgarian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev; Larsson, Martin;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified associations between the concentration of phthalates in indoor dust and allergic symptoms in the airways, nose, and skin. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate the associations between allergic symptoms in children and the concentration of phthalate...... (controls). The dust samples were analyzed for their content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). RESULTS: A higher concentration of DEHP was found in homes...

  17. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mortensen, Gerda Krogh; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies have reported endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals used commonly as additives in cosmetics and skin care products. We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous...

  18. Phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and correlations with phthalates in dust samples from their homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2013-01-01

    Around the world humans use products that contain phthalates, and human exposure to certain of these phthalates has been associated with various adverse health effects. The aim of the present study has been to determine the concentrations of the metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di......(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(iso-butyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in urine samples from 441 Danish children (3–6 years old). These children were subjects in the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health study. As part of each child's medical...... examination, a sample from his or her first morning urination was collected. These samples were subsequently analyzed for metabolites of the targeted phthalates. The measured concentrations of each metabolite were approximately log-normally distributed, and the metabolite concentrations significantly...

  19. Vapor Pressures of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate and Di-iso-Butyl Hexahydrophthalate at Reduced Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐欣; 徐立勇; 高正红; 刘志华

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the measured values of the vapor pressures by ebulliometer method of two important maleic anhydride recovery solvents, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-iso-butyl hexahydrophthalate (DIBE), between 0.63-17.79 kPa and 0.49-30.95 kPa,are reported respectively.A comparison of the data of DBP with the published data has been made, which shows good consistency. For the convenient use of these vapor pressures, Cragoe equation, Antoine equation and Kirchhoff equation are selected to correlate them. The correlating results show that Antoine equation is the best one of the three equations to fit for the vapor pressures of the two solvents. According to Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the linear relationship between natural logarithm of pressure and reciprocal of temperature is used to calculate the molar latent heats of evaporation of the two organic solvents. The molar latent heats of evaporation of DBP and DIBE are 75.1 kJ/mol and 67.7 kJ/mol, respectively.

  20. [Test method for 6 phthalates in polyvinyl chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    A test method for 6 phthalates, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and di-n-octyl phthalate, in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was developed. GC/MS was used in the SIM mode for the separation and detection of phthalates. For preparation of the test solution, the extraction method with acetone-hexane mixture (3 : 7) and the dissolution method with tetrahydrofuran and ethanol were compared and it was confirmed that each method gave good recoveries. Dilution of the test solution was effective to reduce the influence of PVC. In a collaborative study with nine laboratories, the intra-laboratory variations showed good repeatability, but the measurements at some laboratories deviated widely. It appears that this method is unsuitable for the judgment of acceptability, but it may be suitable for the determination of phthalate content in PVC products.

  1. Di-iso-Butyl Phthalate MATERNAL AND FETAL DATA FROM THE LE GRAY RESEARCH TEAM FOR NCEA June 15 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    this file contains the raw data on the effects of in utero administration of di-iso-butyl phthalate on maternal weight gain during dosing and the numbers of fetuses and fetal resorptions. The data have all been previously published, as described on the file metadata sheet.

  2. Distribution Equilibrium of o-Phthalic Acid and trans-Butenedioic in Water and Di-n-butyl Phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhenghong; YANG Xiaorui; HU Chaoquan; LI Jiang

    2006-01-01

    The organic dissolvent(di-n-butyl phthalate)needs to be washed by water to recycle itself in the process of recovering maleic anhydride by organic dissolvent. The design and optimization of the extraction process require the distribution coefficients of the organic solutes, o-phthalic acid and trans-butenedioic in water and di-n-butyl phthalate, on which the extraction efficiency depends. In this study, the distribution coefficients of o-phthalic acid and trans-butenedioic in water and di-n-bu-tyl phthalate(DBP)at 298.15 K, 318.15 K and 333.15 K were determined respectively by acid-alkali titration. The dissociation constants of o-phthalic acid and trans-butenedioic at those temperatures were obtained by fitting the measured hydrogen-ion concentrations and the known solute concentrations in the aqueous solution containing the two organic solutes. Then the distribution constants were calculated. Both the distribution coefficients and the distribution constants increase along with the temperature increasing. And the distribution coefficients at 333.15 K are large enough to ensure the efficiency of extraction process. In addition, the mutual solubility of water and di-n-butyl phthalate at 298.15 K, 318.15 K and 333.15 K was also measured respectively by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Karl Fischer Watertitration, which was not more than 0.5%(mass fraction).

  3. Carboxylesterase-involved metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Chen, Siyuan; Chao, Yuanqing; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and accumulation by plants is a significant pathway in the migration and transformation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment. However, limited information is available on the mechanisms of PAE metabolism in plants. Here, we investigated the metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently detected PAEs, in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings via a series of hydroponic experiments with an initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1). DnBP hydrolysis occurred primarily in the root, and two of its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and phthalic acid (PA), were detected in all plant tissues. The MnBP concentration was an order of magnitude higher than that of PA in shoots, which indicated MnBP was more readily transported to the shoot than was PA because of the former's dual hydrophilic and lipophilic characteristics. More than 80% of MnBP and PA were located in the cell water-soluble component except that 96% of MnBP was distributed into the two solid cellular fractions (i.e., cell wall and organelles) at 96 h. A 13-20% and 29-54% increase of carboxylesterase (CXE) activity shown in time-dependent and concentration-dependent experiments, respectively, indicated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. The level of CXE activity in root subcellular fractions was in the order: the cell water-soluble component (88-94%) > cell wall (3-7%) > cell organelles (3-4%), suggesting that the cell water-soluble component is the dominant locus of CXE activity and also the domain of CXE-catalyzed hydrolysis of DnBP. The addition of triphenyl phosphate, a CXE inhibitor, led to 43-56% inhibition of CXE activity and 16-25% increase of DnBP content, which demonstrated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. This study contributes to our understanding of enzymitic mechanisms of PAE transformation in plants.

  4. Analysis of phthalates in detergents and cleaning products using two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sevilla Bernabeu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some phthalates are classified in the hazard class reproductive toxicity category 1B and they are subject to authorisation or they have restrictions according to the REACH Regulation. The presence of six phthalates in detergents and cleaning products was determined using two different methods. The phthalates determined were dimethyl phthalate (DMP, diethyl phthalate (DEP, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP. Method 1 consisted of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and method 2 consisted of reverse-phase liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Using method 1 phthalates were determined in 14 out of the 27 samples, and 4 out of the 6 analysed phthalates were found. Using method 2 phthalates were determined in all samples, and all analysed phthalates were detected. Liquid chromatography detected greater number of phthalates than gas chromatography. All the concentrations obtained were less than the critical allowed phthalates concentration according to the REACH Regulation.

  5. Gene expression profiling of di-n-butyl phthalate in normal human mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Whipkey, Diana L; Tennant, Lora B; Weston, Ainsley

    2007-01-01

    Studies show that female workers in the personal-care industry have an increased risk of developing cancer believed to be the result of increased exposure to toxic and/or carcinogenic chemicals found in cosmetics, hair dyes, and nail polish. One chemical found in multiple personal-care products, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), is a known endocrine disruptor and has been found in increased levels in women of childbearing age. The goal of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of phthalate toxicity in normal human cells to provide information concerning interindividual variation and gene-environment interactions. Normal human mammary epithelial cell strains were obtained from discarded tissues following reduction mammoplasty [Cooperative Human Tissue Network (sponsors: NCI/NDRI)]. Gene transcription in each cell strain was analyzed using high-density oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (U133A, Affymetrix) and changes in the expression of selected genes were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (ABI). DNA microarrays were hybridized with total RNA that was collected after DBP treatment for 5 hr and 10 hr. RNA was harvested from the vehicle control (acetone) at 10 hr. Data Mining Tool software (Affymetrix) was used to separate genes in clusters based on their expression patterns over time. Only 57 genes were found to be altered in all four cell strains following exposure to DBP. These included genes involved in fertility (inhibin, placental growth factor), immune response (tumor necrosis factor induced protein), and antioxidant status (glutathione peroxidase). Data from this study will help clarify the role of DBP in reproductive toxicity, and yield biomarkers of exposure for future epidemiology studies.

  6. Biodegradation Characteristics of Environmental Endocrine Disruptor Di-n-butyl Phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN WANG; QI-FANG LUO

    2005-01-01

    Objective The biodegradation characteristics of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, were studied by the method of dominant bacteria and immobilized microorganisms. Methods Taking DBP as the only carbon source to acclimatize the collected activated sludge, the concentration of DBP increased progressively in the process of acclimatization. Plate streaking was used to separate 1 strain of the degradation dominant bacteria after acclimatization. Better conditions to degrade DBP by the bacterium could be obtained through orthogonal experiments and the bacterium was identified. Then the acclimated activated sludge was made to immobilize the microorganism using polyvinyl alcohol as entrapment agent. The immobilized microorganism degraded DBP at different conditions. Results The appropriate conditions to degrade DBP by the dominant bacteria were: degradation time, 32 h; DBP concentration, 200 mg/L; rate of shaking incubator, 100 r/min; pH, 7 and temperature, 30℃. DBP could be degraded by more than 95% under such conditions. The bacteria were identified as pseudomonas. The proliferated immobilized microorganisms degraded DBP more effectively and more adapted to temperature and pH than the free acclimated activated sludge. Conclusion One strain of DBP degradation dominant bacteria was separated from the acclimatized activated sludge. It could grow with DBP as the only carbon source and energy, and degraded DBP effectively. After having been immobilized and proliferated, the dominant bacteria could keep a higher biological activity and degrade DBP more effectively than activated sludge.

  7. Removal of a type of endocrine disruptors-di-n-butyl phthalate from water by ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-yan; QU Jiu-hui; LIU Hui-juan

    2006-01-01

    Ozonation of synthetic water containing a type of endocrine disruptor-di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was examined. Key impact factors such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, ozone dosage and initial DBP concentration were investigated. In addition, the activities of radicals on uncatalysed and catalysed ozonation were studied. The degradation intermediate products were followed and the kinetic of the ozonation were assessed as well. Results revealed that ozonation of DBP followed two mechanisms. Firstly, the reaction rate of direct ozonation was slower at lower pH, temperature, and ionic strength. Secondly, when these factors were increased for indirect radical reaction, higher percentage of DBP was removed with the increase of the initial ozone dosage and the decrease of the initial DBP concentration. In addition, tert-butanol, humic substances and Fe(Ⅱ) affected DBP ozonation through the radical pathway. It was determined that ozonation was restrained by adding tert-butanol for its radical inhibition effect. Furthermore, humic substances enhanced the reaction to some extent, but a slight negative effect would be encountered if the optimum dosage was exceeded. As a matter of fact, Mn(Ⅱ) affected the ozonation by "active sites" mechanism. In the experiment, three different kinds of intermediate products were produced during ozonation, but the amount of products for each one of them decreased as pH, temperature,ionic strength and initial ozone dosage increased. A kinetic equation of the reaction between ozone and DBP was obtained.

  8. Phthalates in indoor dust in Kuwait: implications for non-dietary human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevao, B; Al-Ghadban, A N; Bahloul, M; Uddin, S; Zafar, J

    2013-04-01

    Phthalates are semivolatile organic compounds with a ubiquitous environmental distribution. Their presence in indoor environments is linked to their use in a variety of consumer products such as children's toys, cosmetics, food packaging, flexible PVC flooring among others. The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence and concentration of phthalates in dust from homes in Kuwait and to assess non-dietary human exposure to these phthalates. Dust samples were randomly collected from 21 homes and analyzed for eight phthalates. The concentrations of total phthalates were log normally distributed and ranged from 470 to 7800 μg/g. Five phthalates [Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DcHP)] were routinely detected. The major phthalate compound was DEHP at a geometric mean concentration of 1704 μg/g (median, 2256 μg/g) accounting for 92% of the total phthalates measured. Using the measured concentrations and estimates of dust ingestion rates for children and adults, estimated human non-dietary exposure based on median phthalate concentrations ranged from 938 ng/kg-bd/day for adults to 13362 ng/kg-bd/day for toddlers. The difference in exposure estimates between children and adults in this study supports previous reports that children are at greater risk from pollutants that accumulate indoors.

  9. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  10. Toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of phthalates and their mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueping; Xu, Shisan; Tan, Tianfeng; Lee, Sin Ting; Cheng, Shuk Han; Lee, Fred Wang Fat; Xu, Steven Jing Liang; Ho, Kin Chung

    2014-03-14

    Phthalates, widely used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have become ubiquitous contaminants worldwide. This study evaluated the acute toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and their mixtures. Using a 72 h zebrafish embryo toxicity test, the LC50 values of BBP, DBP and a mixture of the six phthalates were found to be 0.72, 0.63 and 0.50 ppm, respectively. The other four phthalates did not cause more than 50% exposed embryo mortality even at their highest soluble concentrations. The typical toxicity symptoms caused by phthalates were death, tail curvature, necrosis, cardio edema and no touch response. Using an estrogen-responsive ChgH-EGFP transgenic medaka (Oryzias melastigma) eleutheroembryos based 24 h test, BBP demonstrated estrogenic activity, DBP, DEHP, DINP and the mixture of the six phthalates exhibited enhanced-estrogenic activity and DIDP and DNOP showed no enhanced- or anti-estrogenic activity. These findings highlighted the developmental toxicity of BBP and DBP, and the estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of BBP, DBP, DEHP and DINP on intact organisms, indicating that the widespread use of these phthalates may cause potential health risks to human beings.

  11. Toxicity and Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Activity of Phthalates and Their Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates, widely used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have become ubiquitous contaminants worldwide. This study evaluated the acute toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP, bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP, diisononyl phthalate (DINP, di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP and their mixtures. Using a 72 h zebrafish embryo toxicity test, the LC50 values of BBP, DBP and a mixture of the six phthalates were found to be 0.72, 0.63 and 0.50 ppm, respectively. The other four phthalates did not cause more than 50% exposed embryo mortality even at their highest soluble concentrations. The typical toxicity symptoms caused by phthalates were death, tail curvature, necrosis, cardio edema and no touch response. Using an estrogen-responsive ChgH-EGFP transgenic medaka (Oryzias melastigma eleutheroembryos based 24 h test, BBP demonstrated estrogenic activity, DBP, DEHP, DINP and the mixture of the six phthalates exhibited enhanced-estrogenic activity and DIDP and DNOP showed no enhanced- or anti-estrogenic activity. These findings highlighted the developmental toxicity of BBP and DBP, and the estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of BBP, DBP, DEHP and DINP on intact organisms, indicating that the widespread use of these phthalates may cause potential health risks to human beings.

  12. Di-n-butyl phthalate causes estrogenic effects in adult male Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama; Ogino, Yukiko; Gregg, Adrienne; Chapman, John; McLaughlin, Mike J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a class of synthetic industrial chemicals commonly found in the aquatic environment worldwide. PAEs have been recognised as anti-androgens in male mammals but little is known about their endocrine disrupting effects in fish. This study investigated the effects of 7-day exposures to nominal (measured) concentrations of 125 (62), 250 (140), 500 (230) and 1,000 (383) μg/L of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) on the biomarkers of reproduction in adult male Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) using molecular, biochemical and histological endpoints. None of the tested concentrations of DnBP had any effect on survival or the vital body indices of the fish. The sizes of spermatogonia, Type A and B spermatocytes and spermatids were significantly smaller relative to the controls after treatment with DnBP. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in fish treated with 250-1,000 μg/L of DnBP in comparison to the unexposed fish. At the end of the exposure period, the expressions of the transcripts for the androgen receptors α and β were significantly elevated in the livers of the fish treated with 500 and 1,000 μg/L of DnBP. In addition, there was also an increase in the circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in the plasma in the higher treatment groups. An induction in the activity of aromatase was noted in the brains of 1,000 μg/L DnBP-treated fish. This was accompanied by an increase in the hepatic expression of the genes (here and later, whenever the phrase gene expression is used as a synonym for gene transcription although it is acknowledged that it is also regulated, e.g., by translation, mRNA stability and protein stability) encoding for the oestrogen receptors α and β and choriogenin L. Collectively, an increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in the testes, the upregulation of the genes for the oestrogen receptors and choriogenin in the liver, an induction in the brain

  13. Preparation of Seeding Type Immobilized Microorganisms and Their Degradation Characteristics on Di-n-Butyl Phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the preparation of seeding type immobilized microorganisms and their degradation characteristics on di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Methods Diatomite, clinoptilolite, silk zeolite, and coal fly ash were chosen as reserved materials and modified. Their adsorption capacity and intensity in the bacteria were determined and the best carrier was picked out. The seeding type immobilized microorganisms were prepared by the best carrier and then it degraded DBP under different primary concentration, vibration rate, pH, temperature in the presence of metal compounds. Results The adsorption capacity of the modified coal fly ash, silk zeolite, clinoptilolite and zeolite was 44.2%, 71.6%, 84.0%, and 94.4%, respectively, which was 1.66, 1.49, 1.37, and 1.16 times as high as that of their natural state. Their adsorption intensity was 72.1%, 90.5%, 90.1%,and 91.1% in turn. The modified diatomite was selected to prepare the seeding type immobilized microorganisms. When the primary DBP concentration was 100 to 500 mg/L, the DBP-degraded rate of the immobilized microorganisms could be above 80%. The degradation activity of both the dissociative and immobilized microorganisms was higher in vibration than in stillness.When pH was 6.0 to 9.0, the DBP-degraded rate of the immobilized microorganisms was above 82%, which was higher than the dissociative microorganisms. When the temperature was between 20℃ and 40℃, the DBP-degraded rate could reach 84.5% in 24 h. The metal compounds could inhibit the degradation activity of both the dissociative and immobilized microorganisms. The degradation process of the immobilized microorganisms could be described by the first-order model.Conclusion The adsorption capacity of the diatomite, clinoptilolite, silk zeolite and coal fly ash on DBP-degrading bacteria can be improved obviously after they are modified. The modified diatomite is best in terms of its adsorption capacity and intensity. Its seeding type immobilized microorganisms could

  14. Kinetics of adsorption of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by four different granule-activated carbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Po keung TSANG; Zhanqiang FANG; Hui LIU; Xiaolei CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics of the adsorption of an endocrine disruptor,di,n,butyl phthalate (DBP),by four different granulated,activated carbons (GACs) is presented in this paper. Results showed that adsorption of DBP by the four GACs followed first,order kinetics and the adsorption constant of the four GAC was found to follow the order:nut shell>coconut shell>Coaly carbon 1.0>Coaly carbon 1.5. Batch adsorption studies were also conducted to investigate the effect of pH on the adsorption process. The optimum pH for the removal of DBP from aqueous solutions under the experimental conditions used in this work was found to be 5.0. The characterization of the carbon surfaces was conducted by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore,results from infrared spectroscopic (IR) studies showed that physical adsorption plays an important role in the adsorption of DBP by the four selected GACs.

  15. The estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C A; Henttu, P; Parker, M G; Sumpter, J P

    1997-08-01

    A large number of phthalate esters were screened for estrogenic activity using a recombinant yeast screen. a selection of these was also tested for mitogenic effect on estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. A small number of the commercially available phthalates tested showed extremely weak estrogenic activity. The relative potencies of these descended in the order butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) > dibutyl phthalate (DBP) > diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) > diethyl phthalate (DEP) > diisiononyl phthalate (DINP). Potencies ranged from approximately 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(7) times less than 17beta-estradiol. The phthalates that were estrogenic in the yeast screen were also mitogenic on the human breast cancer cells. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) showed no estrogenic activity in these in vitro assays. A number of metabolites were tested, including mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, mon-n-octyl phthalate; all were wound to be inactive. One of the phthalates, ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP), produced inconsistent results; one sample was weakly estrogenic, whereas another, obtained from a different source, was inactive. analysis by gel chromatography-mass spectometry showed that the preparation exhibiting estrogenic activity contained 0.5% of the ortho-isomer of bisphenol A. It is likely that the presence of this antioxidant in the phthalate standard was responsible for the generation of a dose-response curve--which was not observed with an alternative sample that had not been supplemented with o,p'-bisphenol A--in the yeast screen; hence, DTDP is probably not weakly estrogenic. The activities of simple mixtures of BBP, DBP, and 17beta-estradiol were assessed in the yeast screen. No synergism was observed, although the activities of the mixtures were approximately additive. In summary, a small number of phthalates are weakly estrogenic in vitro. No data has yet been published on whether these are also estrogenic in vitro. No data has

  16. Individual or synchronous biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate and phenol by Rhodococcus ruber strain DP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhixing; Niu, Chengzhen; Lu, Zhenmei, E-mail: lzhenmei@zju.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A Rhodococcus ruber strain degraded DBP and phenol. • Degradation kinetics of DBP or phenol fit modified first-order models. • Degradation interaction between DBP and phenol was studied by strain DP-2. • The degradation genes transcriptional were quantified by RT-qPCR. - Abstract: The bacterial strain DP-2, identified as Rhodococcus ruber, is able to effectively degrade di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and phenol. Degradation kinetics of DBP and phenol at different initial concentrations revealed DBP and phenol degradation to fit modified first-order models. The half-life of DBP degradation ranged from 15.81 to 27.75 h and phenol degradation from 14.52 to 45.52 h under the initial concentrations of 600–1200 mg/L. When strain DP-2 was cultured with a mixture of DBP (800 mg/L) and phenol (700 mg/L), DBP degradation rate was found to be only slightly influenced; however, phthalic acid (PA) accumulated, and phenol degradation was clearly inhibited during synchronous degradation. Transcriptional levels of degradation genes, phenol hydroxylase (pheu) and phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase (pht), decreased significantly more during synchronous degradation than during individual degradation. Quantitative estimation of individual or synchronous degradation kinetics is essential to manage mixed hazardous compounds through biodegradation in industrial waste disposal.

  17. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  18. Effects of Di-butyl Phthalate (DBP) on Developing Medaka Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers are chemical additives that enhance plastic flexibility. They are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and are commonly found in river and lake waters (Fromme et al 2002). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a water-soluble plasticizer, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on developing Medaka ("Oryzias latipes") embryos. Three…

  19. Phthalates inhibit tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Young; Han, Soon Young; Moon, Aree

    2004-12-01

    Environmental estrogens represent a class of compounds that can mimic the function or activity of the endogenous estrogen 17 -estradiol (E2). Phthalates including butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are used as plasticizers, and also widely used in food wraps and cosmetic formulations. Phthalates have been shown to mimic estrogen and are capable of binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). It has been demonstrated that estrogen promotes drug resistance to tamoxifen (TAM) in breast cancer. In order to further evaluate the potential role of the phthalates as environmental estrogens, the effect of phthalates was investigated on TAM-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Our results show that phthalates, BBP (100 M), DBP (10 M), and DEHP (10 M), significantly increased cell proliferation in MCF-7, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, BBP, DBP, and DEHP mimicked estrogen in the inhibition of TAM-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of phthalates on TAM-induced apoptosis involves an increase in intracellular Bcl-2 to Bax ratio. Given that the phthalates are widely used in cosmetics mainly for women, our findings that revealed the promoting effect of BBP, DBP, and DEHP on chemotherapeutic drug resistance to TAM in breast cancer may be of biological relevance.

  20. Determination of phthalates in polymer materials - comparison of GC/MS and GC/ECD methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jaworek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two methods for determination of phthalates in polymer materials. The methods compared were gas chromatography combined with the mass spectrometry (GC/MS and gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC/ECD. The GC/ECD technique was chosen for this comparison, because the ECD detector was one of few capable of detecting phthalates. In both cases the same procedure of sample preparation with ultrasonic extraction was applied. Overall recoveries were 76-100 % with relative of standard deviation (R.S.D. values in the range 0.6-19 %. The values of limit of detection (LOD for GC/MS method ranged from 3.46 µg mL- 1 to 10.10 µg mL- 1, depending on the determined phthalate, while in case of the GC/ECD method they were in the range from 2.97 µg mL- 1 to 4.29 µg mL- 1. The methods were applied for determination of: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisoocyl phthalate in polymer material. The seventeen kinds of samples were analyzed. Most of the materials selected for the analyses were made from polyethylene (PE, polyvinyl chloride (PVC and polystyrene (PS.

  1. Photocatalytic Degradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by N-Doped Ti/13X/MCM-41 Molecular Sieve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hong; Nguyen, Nhat-Thien; Heil, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Xiao; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-07-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a type of phthalate ester, and has been classified as an environmental endocrine disruptor. It causes serious harm to the environment and humans and it is found widely in air, waste water, rivers and soil. In recent years, an increasing number of studies examined the removal of DBP. Photocatalytic degradation has been of particular interest because of its efficient and thorough advantages and is the focus of this study. Here we use a composite material of N-Ti/13X/MCM-41, synthesized, using 13X and tetraethyl orthosilicate as raw material, CTAB as structural template, tetrabutyl titanate and urea under hydrothermal conditions. The optimized experimental conditions, such as, Si/Al (molar ratio), pH value, crystallization time, calcination temperature and N/Ti (molar ratio), were tested using photodegradation experiments of DBP. The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, N2 adsorption-desorption. Experimental results reveal the surface area of the N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 to be 664 m2 g(-1) and the average pore sizes to be 2.79 nm. TEM micrographs showed the N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 consists of aggregates of spherical particles, similar to the shapes associated with standard MCM-41 synthesized under basic conditions. Photocatalytic degradation experimental results revealed that optimal synthesis of the composite material occurs when Si/Al = 15, pH = 9.0, crystallization time is 48 hours, calcination temperature is 350 °C and the N/Ti ratios is 2.0. Under such conditions, the degradation efficiency of DBP more was found to be more than 90%.

  2. Selective liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by tert-butyl hydroperoxide over γ-Al2O3 supported copper and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndolomingo, Matumuene Joe; Meijboom, Reinout

    2017-03-01

    Benzyl alcohol oxidation to benzaldehyde was performed by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) in the absence of any solvent using γ-Al2O3 supported copper and gold nanoparticles. Li2O and ionic liquids were used as additive and stabilizers for the synthesis of the catalysts. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), N2 absorption/desorption (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR), whereas, the oxidation reaction was followed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The as prepared catalysts exhibited good catalytic performance in terms of conversion and selectivity towards benzaldehyde. The performance of the Au-based catalysts is significantly higher than that of the Cu-based catalysts. For both Cu and Au catalysts, the conversion of benzyl alcohol increased as the reaction proceeds, while the selectivity for benzaldehyde decreased. Moreover, the catalysts can be easily recycled and reused with neither significant loss of activity nor selectivity. A kinetic study for the Cu and Au-catalyzed oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzyldehyde is reported. The rate at which the oxidation of benzyl alcohol is occurring as a function of catalyst and oxidant amounts was investigated, with the apparent rate constant, kapp being proportional to the amount of nano catalyst and oxygen present in the system.

  3. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of seven phthalates in total and migrated portions of paper cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Na; Choi, Min Sun; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Gye, Myung Chan; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Phthalate acid esters are widely used as plasticizers to impart plastic flexibility in various industrial applications. In this study, the content of seven phthalates, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) were determined in paper cups using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the potential migration of these seven phthalates from paper cups into various food stimulants under different conditions was evaluated. The levels of DBP, DEHA, DEHP, and DNOP were in the ranges of 0.07-3.14, 0.16-42.69, 0.45-58.56, and 0.3-2.4 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, BBP, DINP, and DIDP were not detected in most of the tested samples. In the migration test, DEHA was released to 50 % ethanol and n-heptane in a time-dependent manner and the maximum migration levels were 65.62 ± 3.61 and 95.56 ± 19.76 μg/L, respectively. The release of other phthalates was very low or negligible. These results demonstrated that paper cups are not a significant source of phthalate exposure; however, DEHA could be released from paper cups into alcoholic beverages or oily liquid beverages in the human diet.

  4. Enhanced ozonation degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by zero-valent zinc in aqueous solution: performance and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gang; Wang, Sheng-Jun; Ma, Jun; Huang, Ting-Lin; Liu, Zheng-Qian; Zhao, Lei; Su, Jun-Feng

    2014-01-30

    Enhanced ozonation degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by zero-valent zinc (ZVZ) has been investigated using a semi-continuous reactor in aqueous solution. The results indicated that the combination of ozone (O3) and ZVZ showed an obvious synergetic effect, i.e. an improvement of 54.8% on DBP degradation was obtained by the O3/ZVZ process after 10min reaction compared to the cumulative effect of O3 alone and O2/ZVZ. The degradation efficiency of DBP increased gradually with the increase of ZVZ dosage, enhanced as solution pH increasing from 2.0 to 10.0, and more amount of DBP was degraded with the initial concentration of DBP arising from 0.5 to 2.0mgL(-1). Recycling use of ZVZ resulted in the enhancement of DBP degradation, because the newly formed zinc oxide took part in the reaction. The mechanism investigation demonstrated that the enhancement effect was attributed to the introduction of ZVZ, which could promote the utilization of O3, enhance the formation of superoxide radical by reducing O2 via one-electron transfer, accelerate the production of hydrogen peroxide and the generation of hydroxyl radical. Additionally, the newly formed zinc oxide on ZVZ surface also contributed to the enhancement of DBP degradation in the recycling use of ZVZ. Most importantly, the O3/ZVZ process was also effective in enhanced ozonation degradation of DBP under the background of actual waters.

  5. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and 20 phthalates in composite food samples from the 2013 Canadian Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Dabeka, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and selective GC-MS method was developed and used for simultaneous analysis of di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 20 selected phthalates in the food samples from the 2013 Canadian Total Diet Study. At least one of the 21 target chemicals was detected in 141 of the 159 different food composite samples analysed. However, only seven of the 21 target chemicals were detected, with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and DEHA being detected most frequently, in 111 and 91 different food composite samples, respectively, followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) (n = 44), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) (32), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) (27), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) (3), and di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) (1). Levels of DEP (di-ethyl phthalate), DiBP, DBP, BBzP and DCHP were low, in general, with average concentrations of 9.63, 8.26, 23.2, 12.4 and 64.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Levels of DEHA and DEHP varied widely, ranging from 1.4 to 6010 ng g(-1) and from 14.4 to 714 ng g(-1), respectively. High levels of DEHA were found mainly in the composite samples where the individual food items used to prepare the composite were likely packaged in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrapping film, while the highest DEHP levels were found in the vegetable and fruit samples.

  6. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Gutleb, Arno C; Bergman, Ake; Eriksen, Gunnar S; Murk, AlberTinka J; Ropstad, Erik; Saunders, Margaret; Skaare, Janneche U

    2009-04-01

    The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. The adverse effects observed in rodent models raised concerns as to whether exposure to phthalates represents a potential health risk to humans. At present, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) have been demonstrated to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity; thus, this review focuses on these chemicals. For the general population, DEHP exposure is predominantly via food. The average concentrations of phthalates are highest in children and decrease with age. At present, DEHP exposures in the general population appear to be close to the tolerable daily intake (TDI), suggesting that at least some individuals exceed the TDI. In addition, specific high-risk groups exist with internal levels that are several orders of magnitude above average. Urinary metabolites used as biomarkers for the internal levels provide additional means to determine more specifically phthalate exposure levels in both general and high-risk populations. However, exposure data are not consistent and there are indications that secondary metabolites may be more accurate indicators of the internal exposure compared to primary metabolites. The present human toxicity data are not sufficient for evaluating the occurrence of reproductive effects following phthalate exposure in humans, based on existing relevant animal data. This is especially the case for data on female reproductive toxicity, which are

  7. Migration of BTEX and phthalates from natural rubber latex balloons obtained from the Sri Lankan market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Imanda; Godakumbura, Pahan I; Prashantha, M A B

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluates the migration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) and phthalates into artificial saliva from natural rubber latex (NRL) balloons available for sale in Sri Lanka. It was discovered that at least one BTEX compound migrated from almost all the brands. The migration of four phthalates; diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate were also observed. Migratory levels of BTEX and phthalates in most of the balloon brands were above the permissible levels set by the European Union. Assessment of factors affecting the migratory levels indicated migration under active mouthing conditions and migration from the neck region of the balloons were significantly higher. The migratory levels were observed to decrease with storage time, and in certain brands the BTEX levels decreased below the permissible level. One-way ANOVA indicated no significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) in migratory levels of each individual compound within the same brand for both BTEX and phthalates. When compared among different brands, BTEX levels indicated significant differences (p ≤ 0.05), while phthalate levels were observed to not be significantly different (p ≥ 0.05). A significant difference was also observed (p ≤ 0.05) among the migratory levels of compounds under each test condition evaluated as factors affecting the migratory level. Furthermore, the solvent based colorants added to color the latex were found to be the source of BTEX and phthalates in the NRL balloons.

  8. Di(n-butyl phthalate has no effect on the rat prepubertal testis despite its estrogenic activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Długoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP on the rat’s prepubertal testis. Male Wistar rats were given daily subcutaneous injections with DBP (20 or 200 μg or a vehicle from the 5th to the 15th postnatal day (pd. On the 16th pd, the rats were euthanized, and the testes were dissected, weighed, and paraffin embedded. The blood was collected to determine the serum levels of testosterone (T, estradiol (E and FSH. The following parameters were assessed in the testis sections: diameter and length of seminiferous tubules (st, numbers of spermatogonia A + intermediate + B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene + zygotene + pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. An estrogenicity in vitro test was performed by means of a transgenic yeast strain expressing human estrogen receptor alpha. At both doses, DBP had no influence on testis and seminal vesicle weight, st diameter and length, number of germ and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. DBP did not change E, T or FSH serum levels. The in vitro yeast screen showed that DBP was a weak estrogenic compound, approximately six to seven orders of magnitude less potent than 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, exposure of a rat to DBP in doses 100 or 1,000-fold higher than a Tolerable Daily Intake for humans had no effect on its testicular development. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 685–689

  9. Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Earthworm Eisenia fetida at Different Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ma

    Full Text Available Recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil, the environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs is of great concern recently. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, an extensively used PAE compound to Eisenia fetida have been investigated in spiked natural brown yellow soil (Alfisol for soil contact test. The toxicity of DnBP to E. fetida on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD, reactive oxygen species (ROS content, and the apoptosis of coelomocytes and DNA damage at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of the incubation have been paid close attention to. In general, SOD activity and ROS content were significantly induced, opposite to total protein content and POD activity, during the toxicity test of 28 days especially under concentrations higher than 2.5 mg kg-1. The reduction in neutral red retention (NRR time along with the increase of dead coelomocytes as the increasing of DnBP concentrations, indicating severe damage to cell viability under varying pollutant stress during cultivation, which could also be proved by comet assay results for exerting evident DNA damage in coelomocytes. DnBP in spiked natural soil could indeed cause damage to tissues, coelomocytes and the nucleus of E. fetida. The key point of the apparent change in different indices presented around 2.5 mg DnBP kg-1 soil, which could be recommended as the threshold of DnBP soil contamination, so that further investigation on threshold values to other soil animals or microorganisms could be discussed.

  10. Phthalate and PAH concentrations in dust collected from Danish homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Weschler, Charles J.; Fischer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    (diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and three PAHs (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)). The three PAHs and DEHP were detected in dust samples from all sites, while...... DEP. DnBP, DiBP and BBzP were detected in more than 75% of the bedrooms and more than 90% of the daycare centers. The dust mass-fractions of both phthalates and PAHs were log-normally distributed. With the exception of DEP, the mass-fractions of phthalates in dust were higher in daycare centers than...... homes: PAH mass-fractions in dust were similar in the two locations. There was no correlation among the different phthalates in either homes or daycare centers. In contrast, the PAH were correlated with one another more strongly so in homes (R-2 = 0.80-0.90) than in daycare centers (R-2 = 0...

  11. Growth and aggregation behavior of representative phytoplankton as affected by the environmental contaminant di-n-butyl phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acey, R.; Healy, P.; Unger, T.F.; Ford, C.E.; Hudson, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors' continuing efforts to characterize the molecular basis for the development-stage-dependent phthalate ester toxicity in the brine shrimp, Artemia, led them to consider a number of microorganisms as foraging species for Artemia. The sensitivity of these microorganisms to phthalate esters was surprising and suggests that the nature and distribution of fresh water phytoplankton may already have been significantly altered by phthalates. The purpose of our experiments was to demonstrate the extent to which present levels of oceanic contamination by phthalates may be approaching those necessary to affect the distribution and survival of phytoplankton in the biosphere.

  12. Living/controlled free radical copolymerization of chlorotrifluoroethene and butyl vinyl ether under 60Co γ-ray irradiation in the presence of S-benzyl O-ethyl dithiocarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Lu, Dan; Wang, Hu; Dong, Qibao; Wang, Pucheng; Bai, Ruke

    2011-07-21

    Living/controlled free radical copolymerization of chlorotrifluoroethene and butyl vinyl ether has been successfully achieved at room temperature under (60)Co γ-ray irradiation in the presence of S-benzyl O-ethyl dithiocarbonate. The alternating and block copolymers have been obtained with well-defined molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions.

  13. Solid-phase extraction based on chloromethylated polystyrene magnetic nanospheres followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to determine phthalate esters in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoji; Kong, Qiaoling; Cai, Ruonan; Zhu, Kundan; Ye, Xuemin; Chen, Jiaoyu; Mo, Weimin; Wang, Jianli

    2014-12-01

    An ultrasound-assisted magnetic solid-phase extraction procedure with chloromethylated polystyrene-coated Fe3 O4 nanospheres as magnetic adsorbents has been developed to determine eight phthalate esters (bis(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate, dipentyl phthalate, dihexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, and dinonyl phthalate) simultaneously in beverage samples, in combination with gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Several factors related to magnetic solid-phase extraction efficiencies, such as amount of adsorbent, extracting time, ionic strength, and desorption conditions were investigated. The enrichment factors of the method for the eight analytes were over 2482. A good linearity was observed in the range of 10-500 ng/L for bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate and 2-500 ng/L for the other phthalate esters with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9980 to 0.9998. The limits of detection and quantification for the eight phthalate esters were in the range of 0.20-2.90 and 0.67-9.67 ng/L, respectively. The mean recoveries at three spiked levels were 75.8-117.7%, the coefficients of variations were esters in beverage samples.

  14. Simultaneous screening and determination eight phthalates in plastic products for food use by sonication-assisted extraction/GC-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao-Yu

    2005-04-30

    Studies on determination of eight kinds of phthalates, e.g. di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-propyl phthalate (DPP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP), in 25 kinds of plastic products for food use, including packaging bags, packaging film, containers, boxes for microwave oven use, sucking tubes, spoons, cups, plates, etc. by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in electronic ionisation mode (EI) with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition method (GC-MS (EI-SIM)) have been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. Extraction, clean-up and analysis procedure have been optimized. Determination of samples were performed after frozen in liquid nitrogen and sonication-assisted extraction with hexane, clean-up with LC-C18 SPE and analyzed by GC-MS methods. The base peak (m/z=149) of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions, 121, 177, 222 for DEP; 191, 209 for DPP; 57, 223 for DIBP; 104 for DBP; 91, 132, 206 for BBP; 55, 167 for DCHP; 113, 167, 279 for DEHP; 279 for DOP were chosen for quantitative studies. These techniques are possible to detect phthalates at the level of 10.0mug/kg. Overall recoveries were 82-106% with R.S.D. values at 3.8-10.2%. Only one of the 25 examined samples was free from phthalates. The rest 24 samples were found to contain at least three or more of these phthalates. The predominant phthalate detected in the studied samples was DEHP.

  15. Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

    2011-06-01

    We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach.

  16. [Occurrence and fate of phthalates in wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Qi; Liu, Yun-Xia

    2013-04-01

    Three waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing were selected as cases to study the occurrence and fate of phthalates. Contents of di-methyl phthalate (DMP), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and di-(2-ehtylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in influent, effluent of secondary setting tank and excess sludge in those WWTPs were determined. The mean concentration of DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP are 0.98, 0.21 x 10(2), 0.27 x 10(2) and 0.15 x 10(2) microg x L(-1) respectively. BBP and DOP were not found in those WWTPs. Only DBP and DEHP were detected in dewatered sludge with mean concentration of 0.37 microg x kg(-1) and 0.31 x 10(3) microg x kg(-1) DW. The removal efficiency of DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP varied from 68.3% -82.6%, 94.5% - 98.2%, 74.7% -95.0% and 90.5% -90.7% respectively. The main removal mechanism should be biodegradation and volatilization to the air. Higher concentration of DBP and DEHP in effluent and dewatered sludge should be concerned.

  17. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p3.00mgkg(-1) but were greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion.

  18. Occurrence and profiles of phthalates in foodstuffs from China and their implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zifeng; Liu, Liyan; Li, Yifan; Ren, Nanqi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-07-11

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDIdiet) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDIdiet values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDIdiet values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only phthalates.

  19. Antagonistic effects of a mixture of low-dose nonylphenol and di-n-butyl phthalate (monobutyl phthalate on the Sertoli cells and serum reproductive hormones in prepubertal male rats in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hu

    Full Text Available The estrogenic chemical nonylphenol (NP and the antiandrogenic agent di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP are regarded as widespread environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs which at high doses in some species of laboratory animals, such as mice and rats, have adverse effects on male reproduction and development. Given the ubiquitous coexistence of various classes of EDCs in the environment, their combined effects warrant clarification. In this study, we attempted to determine the mixture effects of NP and DBP on the testicular Sertoli cells and reproductive endocrine hormones in serum in male rats based on quantitative data analysis by a mathematical model. In the in vitro experiment, monobutyl phthalate (MBP, the active metabolite of DBP, was used instead of DBP. Sertoli cells were isolated from 9-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats followed by treatment with NP and MBP, singly or combined. Cell viability, apoptosis, necrosis, membrane integrity and inhibin-B concentration were tested. In the in vivo experiment, rats were gavaged on postnatal days 23-35 with a single or combined NP and DBP treatment. Serum reproductive hormone levels were recorded. Next, Bliss Independence model was employed to analyze the quantitative data obtained from the in vitro and in vivo investigation. Antagonism was identified as the mixture effects of NP and DBP (MBP. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of Bliss Independence model for the prediction of interactions between estrogenic and antiandrogenic agents.

  20. Evaluation of method for phthalate extraction from milk related to milk dilution ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković Danica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction techniques were compared coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, for the extraction and the determination of four phthalates: dimethyl phthalate (DMP, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in six different kinds of milk-based samples. Extraction factors: sample preparation, organic solvent type and volume, salt effect, agitation and the extraction time were optimized. The ion of base peaks (m/z 149 for DBP, BBP and DEHP and m/z 163 for DMP for investigated phthalates were selected for the screening studies. The acquisition was performed at the selected ion monitoring mode. The MSD response for GC-MS phthalate calibration standards was linear between 0.25 and 2.50 μg mL-1 with calculated LODs between 0.01 μg mL-1 to 0.04 μg mL-1 and LOQs of 0.05 μg mL-1 to 0.12 μg mL-1, while repeatability was between 1.7 % to 4.9 % RSD. The study demonstrated an increase of the recovery of less polar phthalates in matrix milk standards by matrix dilution. Recovery for hydrophilic phthalates, like DMP, was not changed by matrix dilution and it was continuously low for the investigated method. Two spiking levels were tested for influence of matrix dilution on phthalate recovery, showed the same trend. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31060

  1. Structural characterisation of degradation products formed upon di-n-butyl phthalate radiolysis by high-performance liquid chromatography electro-spray tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintaru, A.; Charles, L. [Univ Aix Marseille 1, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence Spectrometries Appl Chim Struct, UMR 6264, F-13397 Marseille (France); Univ Aix Marseille 2, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence Spectrometries Appl Chim Struct, UMR 6264, F-13397 Marseille (France); Labed, V. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE L2ED, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Structural characterisation of 15 degradation products, formed upon di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) radiolysis, has been achieved using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) coupling. The dissociation behaviour of protonated DBP was first established to be further used to characterise structural deviation in the degradation products. Based on accurate mass measurements, compounds shown by HPLC-MS analysis were all found to be DBP oxidation products, amongst which various sets of isomers could be distinguished. Collision-induced dissociation experiments performed on each electro-sprayed molecule first allowed unambiguous definition of the location of the additional oxygen atoms; that is, in the alkyl branch or on the aromatic ring. Although location of the oxygen atom in the alkyl branches could not always be precisely determined, relative abundances of some product ions allowed oxygenated functions to be identified

  2. miRNA-200c mediates mono-butyl phthalate-disrupted steroidogenesis by targeting vimentin in Leydig tumor cells and murine adrenocortical tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongchao; Zhang, Chang; Hu, Yanhui; Qin, Heng; Gu, Aihua; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Lulu; Li, Zhong; Wang, Yubang

    2016-01-22

    The reproductive toxicity of plasticizer di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and its active metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) has been demonstrated in rodents. The objective of this study was to explore roles of vimentin and miRNA-200c in steroidogenesis interfered by MBP. Mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1) and murine adrenocortical tumor cells (Y1) were employed and exposed to various levels of MBP (10(-7), 10(-6), 10(-5) and 10(-4)M). Steroid hormone production was increased significantly when MLTC-1 and Y1 cells were exposed to MBP at 10(-7)M. Additionally, vimentin and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expressions were upregulated at the same dose. It was found that MBP increased the steroidogenesis by facilitating the cholesterol transfer process by vimentin. In contrast, miRNA-200c expression was depressed at doses of MBP (10(-7)M) in both cells. Moreover, vimentin expression and progesterone production were increased in both MLTC-1 and Y1 cells after miRNA-200c expression was artificially inhibited. These results strongly suggested that MBP raised steroid hormone synthesis via upregulated vimentin by miRNA-200c.

  3. Dose-dependent short-term study of di-n-butyl phthalate on the testicular antioxidant system of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Neena

    2015-02-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a xenobiotic, is widely used in industries as a softener for polyvinyl chloride resins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether DBP induces oxidative stress in testes of Wistar rats. DBP at doses of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg b.wt. (doses below LD50) was given orally for 7 days. After 24 hrs from the last dose, the animals were killed under ether anesthesia. Nonsignificant increase in testicular weight was observed. Histological studies indicated a dose-related degeneration of germinal, Leydig and Sertoli cells along with loss of spermatozoa in the lumen. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, water-soluble antioxidant capacity, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and trace elements-zinc and copper increased while concentrations of total protein, lipid soluble antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, glutathione, total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu-ZnSOD, MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and metallothionein decreased at all the dose levels. The data suggests that the cellular functions were adversely affected due to impairment of spermatogenesis indicative of oxidative stress as evident by altered antioxidative defense system which appears to mediate through hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The spectrum of changes in testes reflects its susceptibility to phthalate even at low dose with the potential to interfere with critical reproductive function.

  4. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  5. Fate of phthalates and BPA in agricultural and non-agricultural soils of the Paris area (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This study (i) investigated the concentration levels of nine phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) in sludge samples originating from a French wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), (ii) studied the distribution of target compounds according to soil depth and calculated their half-lives, and (iii) compared the contamination level of the agricultural soil with those of soils with other land uses. The sludge contamination levels varied from a few hundred nanograms per gram dry weight (dw) for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) to a few micrograms per gram dw for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP). After sludge application, an 8-fold increase for DEHP level and a 3-fold increase for BPA level occurred in the surface horizon of the soil. The mean distribution of phthalates according to the depth showed a positive gradient for the low molecular weight compounds and inversely, a negative gradient for the highest ones. The half-lives in the 0-20-cm soil horizon were 64 days for DEHP and 36 days for BPA. A predictive environmental concentration (PEC) of 0.3 μg g(-1) dw was estimated for DEHP, while the experimental value was 0.16 μg g(-1) dw, suggesting degradation processes in soil and/or formation of non-extractable residues. Comparisons of contamination levels for soils from different origins (urban, rural, agricultural, and forest) showed that the urban soil remained the most contaminated one, prior to the agricultural soil after treatment.

  6. Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H.-H.; Kao, W.-Y.; Su, Y.-J

    2003-06-19

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been considered as environmental pollutants and have been subject to control in the United States of America and Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and toxicity of eight PAEs to hemocytes and the defense functions of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), including hemocytic adhesion, pseudopodia formation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) production, by means of in vitro exposure experiments. After hemocytes were treated separately with eight PAEs at concentrations of 100 {mu}g/ml, the results showed that two PAEs (dipropyl phthalate, DPrP and diethyl phthalate, DEP) increased cells with pseudopodia formation, but decreased adhesive cells; reduction in the percentages of both pseudopodia formation and adhesive cells were detected in the dihexyl phthalate (DHP) and diphenyl phthalate (DPP) experiment groups; and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased pseudopodia formation, but did not affect the adhesion. In addition, both PO activity and O{sub 2}{sup -} production were decreased after hemocytes were treated with five PAEs (benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), DEP, DHP and DPrP), respectively. At the same time, microscopy showed that both DPrP and DHP altered morphology of the cell nucleus and led to the presence of vacuoles in cytosol of hemocytes. Using the annexin assay, and after analysis of DNA fragmentation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it was found that hemocytes exposed to DHP and DPrP for more than 10 min would primarily die via apoptosis, the fatality correlates with increasing treatment time; and hemocytes treated with either BBP, dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCP), DEP or DPP would primarily die via necrosis. According to these results, we suggest that all eight PAEs examined could damage hemocytes and further influence the defense mechanism of prawns. This study reveals an important precaution for prawn cultivation.

  7. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used.

  8. Metabolism of phthalates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some...... phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate...

  9. Sex steroid hormone levels and reproductive development of eight-year-old children following in utero and environmental exposure to phthalates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen-Hua Su

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to phthalates may adversely affect reproductive development in children due to the anti-androgenic properties of the pthalates. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the effects of in utero and environmental phthalate exposure on the reproductive development of eight-year-old children. We recruited 180 children in central Taiwan during November 2001 and followed them until August 2009 when all children became eight years old. Birth outcomes were collected. Bone age, hormone concentrations, and reproductive developmental stages were determined. Phthalate metabolite levels, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MnBP], and mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP], were assessed. No significant gender differences were found in in utero phthalate exposure. Maternal urinary levels of phthalate metabolites did not correlate significantly with birth outcomes, physical characteristics, and reproductive hormones of the eight-year-old children. Regarding the urinary phthalate metabolite levels of the eight-year-old children, MEHP correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MEHP levels in girls correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MnBP correlated significantly with serum FSH in all children. In girls, MnBP correlated with serum FSH, and MBzP correlated with serum progesterone and FSH levels. Urinary phthalate metabolite levels did not correlate with female developmental stages or the development of female reproductive organs. Phthalate metabolites did not correlate with the physical characteristics and reproductive hormones in boys. Therefore, environmental exposure to phthalates, as determined by urinary phthalate metabolite levels of eight-year-old children, may affect reproductive hormone levels in children, indicating that further studies on the environmental health effects of phthalates are warranted.

  10. Indoor phthalate concentration in residential apartments in Chongqing, China: Implications for preschool children's exposure and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhongming; Zhang, Yinping; Mmereki, Daniel; Yu, Wei; Li, Baizhan

    2016-02-01

    Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) - in indoor gas-phase and dust samples were measured in thirty residential apartments for the first time in Chongqing, China. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate preschool children's exposure via inhalation, non-dietary ingestion and dermal absorption based on gas-phase and dust concentrations. Risk assessment was evaluated by comparing the modeled exposure doses with child-specific benchmarks specified in California's Proposition 65. The detection frequency for all the targeted phthalates was more than 80% except for BBzP. DMP was the most predominant compound in the gas-phase (median = 0.91 μg/m3 and 0.82 μg/m3 in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), and DEHP was the most predominant compound in the dust samples (median = 1543 μg/g and 1450 μg/g in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively). Correlation analysis suggests that indoor DiBP and DnBP might come from the same emission sources. The simulations showed that the median DEHP daily intake was 3.18-4.28 μg/day/kg-bw in all age groups, suggesting that it was the greatest of the targeted phthalates. The risk assessment indicated that the exposure doses of DnBP and DEHP exceeded the child-specific benchmarks in more than 90% of preschool children in Chongqing. Therefore, from a children's health perspective, efforts should focus on controlling indoor phthalate concentrations and exposures.

  11. Phthalates stimulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition through an HDAC6-dependent mechanism in human breast epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Hua; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Yi; Kuo, Po-Lin; Lee, Jau-Nan; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Long, Cheng-Yu; Ko, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Phthalates are environmental hormone-like molecules that are associated with breast cancer risk and are involved in metastasis, a process that requires the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of phthalates on stem cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that phthalates such as butyl benzyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate induce EMT in R2d cells, a stem cell-derived human breast epithelial cell line that is responsive to estradiol for tumor development. We observed that phthalates induced EMT as evidenced by morphological changes concomitant with increased expression of mesenchymal markers and decreased expression of epithelial markers. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is required for phthalate-induced cell migration and invasion during EMT in vitro and metastasis into the lungs of nude mice. We also constructed a series of mutant HDAC6 promoter fragments and found that the transcription factor AP-2a plays a novel role in regulating the HDAC6 promoter. Furthermore, phthalates stimulated estrogen receptors and triggered the downstream EGFR-PKA signaling cascade, leading to increased expression of AP-2a in the nucleus. We also observed that phthalates increased expression of the PP1/HDAC6 complex and caused Akt activation and GSK3β inactivation, leading to transcriptional activation of vimentin through the β-catenin-TCF-4/LEF1 pathway. Understanding the signaling cascades of phthalates that activate EMT through HDAC6 in breast epithelial stem cells provides the identification of novel therapeutic target for human breast cancer.

  12. Relationship of urinary phthalate metabolites with serum thyroid hormones in pregnant women and their newborns: a prospective birth cohort in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chen Kuo

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of phthalates exposure with thyroid function in pregnant women and their newborns.One hundred and forty-eight Taiwanese maternal and infant pairs were recruited from E-Da hospital in southern Taiwan between 2009 and 2010 for analysis. One-spot urine samples and blood samples in the third trimester of pregnant women and their cord blood samples at delivery were collected. Nine phthalate metabolites in urine were determined by triple quadrupole liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, whereas serum from pregnant women and their cord blood were used to measure thyroid profiles (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], thyroxine, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine by radioimmunoassay.Median levels of urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (μg/g creatinine were the three highest phthalate metabolites, which were 37.81, 34.51, and 21.73, respectively. Using Bonferroni correction at a significance of < 0.006, we found that urinary mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP levels were significantly and negatively associated with serum TSH in cord blood (β = -2.644, p = 0.003.Maternal urinary MBzP, of which the parental compound is butylbenzyl phthalate, may affect TSH activity in newborns. The alteration of thyroid homeostasis by certain phthalates in the early life, a critical period for neurodevelopment, is an urgent concern.

  13. Metabolism of phthalates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some......Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects...... phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate...

  14. Exposure in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate alters the vimentin cytoskeleton of fetal rat Sertoli cells and disrupts Sertoli cell-gonocyte contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleymenova, Elena; Swanson, Cynthia; Boekelheide, Kim; Gaido, Kevin W

    2005-09-01

    Di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) is commonly used in personal care products and as a plasticizer to soften consumer plastic products. Male rats exposed to DBP in utero have malformations of the male reproductive tract and testicular atrophy characterized by degeneration of seminiferous epithelium and decreased sperm production. In the fetal testis, in utero exposure to DBP reportedly resulted in reduced testosterone levels, Leydig cell aggregates, and multinucleated gonocytes (MNG). We investigated whether exposure in utero to DBP affects rat fetal Sertoli cells and compromises interactions between Sertoli and germ cells in the developing testis. Histological examination showed that MNG occurred at low frequency in the normal fetal rat testis. Exposure in utero at the dose level of DBP above estimated environmental or occupational human exposure levels significantly increased the number of these abnormal germ cells. Postnatally, MNG exhibited aberrant mitoses and were detected at the basal lamina. MNG were not apoptotic in the fetal and postnatal rat testes, as indicated by TUNEL. Sertoli cells in DBP-exposed fetal testis had retracted apical processes, altered organization of the vimentin cytoskeleton, and abnormal cell-cell contacts with gonocytes. The effect of DBP on Sertoli cell morphology at the level of light microscopy was reversed after birth and cessation of exposure. Our data indicate that fetal Sertoli cells are targeted by exposure in utero to DBP and suggest that abnormal interactions between Sertoli and germ cells during fetal life play a role in the development of MNG.

  15. Prenatal urinary phthalate metabolites levels and neurodevelopment in children at two and three years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.; Cantoral, Alejandra; Cantonwine, David E.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Peterson, Karen; Hu, Howard; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that prenatal phthalate exposure affects neurodevelopment and behavior during the first years of life. Objectives To evaluate the effect of maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites during pregnancy on mental and psychomotor development in children 24-36 months of age. Methods This analysis was conducted on the first three years of life among a subsample of 136 mother-child pairs from the ELEMENT cohort studies conducted in Mexico City. Maternal urine samples collected during the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed for 9 phthalate metabolites: Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), Mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), and four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites [mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP)]. Among the 136 children, 135 (99.3%) completed the study period. Child neurodevelopment was assessed using mental and psychomotor development indexes (MDI and PDI) from a Bayley (BSID II) test at 24, 30, and 36 months of age. The effect of prenatal phthalate exposure on neurodevelopment was estimated using linear regression models for longitudinal data clustered at the individual level. Results No significant associations were observed among all children combined, but differential effects by gender were found. Among girls, there was a negative association between MDI and DEHP metabolites MEHP (β = −2.11 [95% CI: −3.73, −0.49]), MEHHP (β = −1.89 [95% CI: −3.64, −0.15]), MEOHP (β = −1.80 [95% CI: −3.58, −0.03]) MECPP (β = −2.52 [95% CI: −4.44, −0.61]), and DEHP (β = −3.41 [95% CI: −5.26, −1.55]); there was no significant effect among boys. Male PDI was positively related to MBzP (β = 1.79 [95% CI: 0.14, 3.45]) and MCPP (β = 1.64 [95% CI: 0

  16. Ultrasound assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME)-a fast new approach to measure phthalate metabolites in nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    A new, fast, and environmentally friendly method based on ultrasound assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME) was developed and optimized for assessing the levels of seven phthalate metabolites (including the mono(ethyl hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5-oxo-MEHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP)) in human nails by UPLC-MS/MS. The optimization of the US-DLLME method was performed using a Taguchi combinatorial design (L9 array). Several parameters such as extraction solvent, solvent volume, extraction time, acid, acid concentration, and vortex time were studied. The optimal extraction conditions achieved were 180 μL of trichloroethylene (extraction solvent), 2 mL trifluoroacetic acid in methanol (2 M), 2 h extraction and 3 min vortex time. The optimized method had a good precision (6-17 %). The accuracy ranged from 79 to 108 % and the limit of method quantification (LOQm) was below 14 ng/g for all compounds. The developed US-DLLME method was applied to determine the target metabolites in 10 Belgian individuals. Levels of the analytes measured in nails ranged between Extraction and phase separation of the US-DLLME procedure.

  17. The effects on steroidogenesis and histopathology of adult male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) testis following pre-pubertal exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Umar M; Madekurozwa, Mary-Catherine; Groenewald, Herman B; Aire, Tom A; Arukwe, Augustine

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effects of 30-day dietary (pre-pubertal) exposure to different doses (0 (control), 1, 10, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight/day) of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) on Leydig cells of adult male Japanese quails by quantifying the transcript levels for P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc), P450c17 (CYP17), and 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd) using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, the plasma testosterone levels were analysed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and testis was examined for evidence of gross pathology and histopathology. Our data showed that pre-pubertal exposure to DBP produced alterations in testicular architecture as evident by poorly developed or mis-shaped testis, and altered spermatogenesis due to tubular degeneration and atrophy of seminiferous tubules especially in the high DBP dose (200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups. In addition, DBP altered several key enzymes involved in testicular steroidogenesis pathways in an apparent dose-dependent manner. For example, biphasic effects of DBP were observed for P450scc and 3β-hsd mRNA, that were generally increasing at low dose 10 mg/kg, and thereafter, an apparent dose-dependent decrease between 50 and 400mg/kg. The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein was at the lowest detectable limits and therefore not quantifiable. These effects did not parallel the non-significant changes observed for plasma testosterone levels. The present data is consistent with previous reports showing that DBP modulates Leydig cell steroidogenesis in several species, with a potential negative effect on reproduction in those avian species that are vulnerable to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  18. Induction of spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rat testes irrespective of testicular steroidogenesis: a possible estrogenic effect of di(n-butyl) phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Shah; Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Zhu, Xiao Bo; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Sone, Hideko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kurohmaru, Masamichi

    2010-02-01

    Although di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), a suspected endocrine disruptor, induces testicular atrophy in prepubertal male rats, whether it exerts estrogenic activity in vivo remains a matter of debate. In the present study, we explored the estrogenic potency of DBP using 3-week-old male rats, and then examined the relationship between estrogen-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis and testicular steroidogenesis. Daily exposure to DBP for 7 days caused testicular atrophy due to loss of spermatogenic cells, whereas testicular steroidogenesis was almost the same with the control values. A single exposure of DBP decreased testicular steroidogenesis in addition to decreasing the level of serum LH at 3 h after DBP treatment, with an extremely high incidence of apoptotic spermatogenic cells at 6 h after administration. To elucidate the estrogenic activity of DBP, we carried out an inhibition study using pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) in a model of spermatogenic cell apoptosis induced by DBP or estradial-3-benzoate (EB). Although both the DBP- and EB-treated groups showed a significant increase in spermatogenic cell apoptosis, ICI pretreatment significantly decreased the number of apoptotic spermatogenic cells in these two groups. In contrast, testicular steroidogenesis and serum FSH were significantly reduced in all the treated groups, even in the DBP+ICI and EB+ICI groups. Taken together, these findings led us to conclude that estrogenic compounds such as DBP and EB induce spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rats, probably by activating estrogen receptors in testis, and that reduction in testicular steroidogenic function induced by estrogenic compounds is not associated with spermatogenic cell apoptosis.

  19. Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Yong-Gang; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Ling; Zhao, Ren-Zheng; Zhang, Zheng-Dong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the levels and possible determinants of phthalate esters (PEs) in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children, dust was collected from 215 urban houses in Nanjing, China, and 145 outdoor settled dust samples were collected nearby. Six PEs were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All PEs were detected in the dust from approximately 90% of the houses, with the exception of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which had only a 59% detection rate. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the most abundant PEs, with geometric means of 110 and 16.4 μg g-1, respectively, and maximal concentrations 9950 and 2150 μg g-1. Factor analysis showed that DBP, DEHP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) might come from the same source and were significantly influenced by the use of solid-wood floor wax. High BBP, DEHP, DOP and total PE levels were associated with indices of dampness, and high DOP was associated with humidifier use. In conclusion, six PEs are ubiquitous in urban settled house dust in Nanjing, China, and both plastic materials and cosmetic and personal care products are important sources. Flooring material, dampness and humidifier use potentially influence house dust PE levels.

  20. Metabolism of phthalates in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-07-01

    Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP); and their monoester metabolites. Urine, however, contains relatively more of the secondary metabolites of DEHP and DiNP, as well as the monoester phthalates of the more short-branched phthalates. This differential distribution is of special concern as, in particular, the hydrophobic phthalates and their metabolites are shown to have adverse effects following in utero and lactational exposures in animal studies.

  1. Endocrine disruptor phthalates in bottled water: daily exposure and health risk assessment in pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, the consumption of water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has considerably increased, raising concerns over water quality and packaged materials. This study aims to investigate the levels of the anti-androgenic phthalates including bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), in bottled water and its corresponding health risks in pregnant and lactating women. The phthalate levels were measured in six different brands of bottled water exposed to temperatures ranging between -18 and 40 °C and sunlight for 45 days. The phthalate was quantified using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the non-carcinogenic effects were assessed using hazard quotient (HQ) approach, and cumulative health risk assessment was performed on the basis of hazard index (HI) calculation. In order to assess the carcinogenic risk due to the possible carcinogen DEHP (group 2B), the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was used. DEHP and DBP contaminants were detected at different storage conditions in all of the bottled water samples during the storage time. BBP was only detected at high temperature (≥25 °C) and outdoor conditions. The maximum concentrations of all phthalates were observed when water samples were kept at 40 °C. In contrast, storage at freezing conditions had no significant effect on the concentration level of all phthalates. The estimated intake by women was between 0.0021 μg/kg/day for BBP and 0.07 μg/kg/day for DEHP. The highest HQ for phthalate intake via bottled water consumption was much lower than 1 (HQ bottled water are not a health concern for pregnant and lactating women. Consequently, PET-bottled water is not a major contributor to phthalate intake for most individuals.

  2. An efficient oxidation of benzylic and alicylic compounds with water-soluble copper catalysts in t-butyl hydroperoxide at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ateeq Rahman; S. M. Al Zahrani; Abdel Aziz Nait Ajjou

    2011-01-01

    The water soluble catalytic system comprising of CuCl2 and 2,2-biquinoline-4,4-dicarboxylic acid dipotassium salt (BQC) is highly efficient organic metallic catalysts for selective oxidation of benzylic and alicyclic compounds to the corresponding ketones, ex: indan to indanone, ethyl benzene to acetophenone.

  3. Octa­butyl­bis{(E)-2-[4-(2-hydroxy­benzyl­ideneamino)phen­yl]acetato}di-μ2-methoxo-di-μ3-oxido-tetra­tin(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenkuan; Yin, Handong; Wen, Liyuan; Wang, Daqi; Fan, Weidong

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Sn4(C4H9)8(C15H12NO3)2(CH3O)2O2], is a centrosymmetric dimer and displays a ladder type structural motif. There are four SnIV centres which can be divided into two sorts, viz. two endocyclic and two exocyclic. The endo- and exocyclic SnIV centres are linked by bidentate deprotonated methanol and μ3-O atoms. Each exocyclic SnIV centre is also coordinated by a monodentate 2-[4-(2-hydroxy­benzyl­idene­amino)phen­yl]acetate ligand. Parts of the butyl groups were found to be d...

  4. Toxicologically relevant phthalates in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenstein, Oliver; Vieth, Bärbel; Luch, Andreas; Pfaff, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Various phthalates have been detected in a wide range of food products such as milk, dietary products, fat-enriched food, meat, fish, sea food, beverages, grains, and vegetables as well as in breast milk. Here we present an overview on toxicologically considerable phthalate levels in food reported in the literature. The most common phthalates detected are di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP). Milk analyses demonstrate that background levels in unprocessed milk are usually low. However, during processing the phthalate contents may significantly increase due to migration from plastic materials in contact with food. Among dietary products fat-enriched food such as cheese and cream were identified with highest levels of DEHP. Plasticized PVC from tubes, conveyor belts, or disposable gloves used in food processing is an important source for contamination of food, especially of fatty food. Paper and cardboard packaging made from recycled fibers are another important source of contamination. In addition, gaskets used in metal lids for glass jars have been identified as possible source for the contamination of foodstuffs with phthalates. The highest concentrations of DEHP reported (>900 mg kg(-1)) were detected in food of high fat content stored in such glass jars. Beyond classical food, DEHP and DnBP were identified in human breast milk samples as the main phthalate contaminants. Phthalate monoesters and some oxidative metabolites were also quantified in breast milk.

  5. Removal of Di-w-butyl Phthalate Using Immobilized Microbial Cells%固定化微生物细胞降解邻苯二甲酸二丁酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓然; 单忠键

    2007-01-01

    The biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBF) using immobilized microbial cells was carried out in an internal airlift loop reactor with ceramic honeycomb supports. A strain that is capable of degrading DBF was isolated from the activated sludge and identified as Bacillus sp. using 16S rDNA sequential analysis. Bacillus sp. could be rapidly attached onto the ceramic honeycomb supports. The immobilized cells could effectively degrade DBF in batch and continuous experiments. When the influent concentration of DBF was 50mg·L-1, the effluent DBF reached less than 1mg·L-1 with 6h hydraulic retention time (HRT) in continuous experiment. The immobilized microbial cells could grow and accumulate through the biodegradation of DBF, and the rate of degradation is accordingly increased. The possible pathway of DBF biodegradation using immobilized cells was tentatively proposed.

  6. A porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the extraction of phthalate esters from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weiqian; Wang, Juntao; Zang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier (C-NH2 -MIL-125) was prepared and coated onto a stainless-steel wire through sol-gel technique. The coated fiber was used for the solid-phase microextraction of trace levels of phthalate esters (diallyl phthalate, di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexy) ortho-phthalate) from tea beverage samples before gas chromatography with mass spectrometric analysis. Several experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, extraction temperature, sample pH, sample salinity, stirring rate, desorption temperature and desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linearity existed in the range of 0.05-30.00 μg/L for green jasmine tea beverage samples, and 0.10-30.00 μg/L for honey jasmine tea beverage samples, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9939 to 0.9981. The limits of detection of the analytes for the method were 2.0-3.0 ng/L for green jasmine tea beverage sample, and 4.0-5.0 ng/L for honey jasmine tea beverage sample, depending on the compounds. The recoveries of the analytes for the spiked samples were in the range of 82.0-106.0%, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviations, was less than 11.1%.

  7. Spatial-temporal distribution of phthalate esters from riverine outlets of Pearl River Delta in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Guifang; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Li, Huanyong; Duan, Shunshan

    2015-01-01

    The aquatic environments of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China have been contaminated by various industrial chemicals from local industries. In this study, the spatial-temporal distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in surface water and sediments from the PRD was investigated. The PAEs were detected with total concentrations (Σ6PAEs) ranging from 0.35 to 20.70 μg L⁻¹ in surface water and dry weight ranging from 0.88 to 5.69 μg g⁻¹ in sediments. The Σ6PAEs concentrations in surface water were higher in the wet season than those in the dry season, while the opposite pattern was observed in sediments. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant congener, which was higher than those reported in the literature. Risk quotients for relevant aquatic organisms were obtained and showed that most of these PAEs, in particular, butyl benzyl phthalate, DEHP and di-n-octyl phthalate, have significant potential health and ecological risks for the aquatic environment studied.

  8. Screening of phthalate esters in 47 branded perfumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the use of phthalates in perfumes has gained attention because these chemicals are sometimes added intentionally as a solvent and a fixative. Five phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were measured in 47 branded perfumes using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed considerable amounts of phthalate in all 47 brands with detection frequencies > limit of quantitation in the following order: DEP (47/47) > DMP (47/47) > BBP (47/47) > DEHP (46/47) > DBP (23/45). Of the 47 brands, 68.1, 72.3, 85.1, 36.2, and 6.7 % had DEP, DMP, BBP, DEHP, and DBP levels, respectively, above their reported threshold limits. Of these phthalates, DEP was found to have the highest mean value (1621.625 ppm) and a maximum of 23,649.247 ppm. The use of DEP in the perfume industry is not restricted because it does not pose any known health risks for humans. DMP had the second highest level detected in the perfumes, with a mean value of 30.202 ppm and a maximum of 405.235 ppm. Although DMP may have some uses in cosmetics, it is not as commonly used as DEP, and again, there are no restrictions on its use. The levels of BBP were also high, with a mean value of 8.446 ppm and a maximum of 186.770 ppm. Although the EU banned the use of BBP in cosmetics, 27 of the tested perfumes had BBP levels above the threshold limit of 0.1 ppm. The mean value of DEHP found in this study was 5.962 ppm, and a maximum was 147.536 ppm. In spite of its prohibition by the EU, 7/28 perfumes manufactured in European countries had DEHP levels above the threshold limit of 1 ppm. The DBP levels were generally low, with a mean value of 0.0305 ppm and a maximum value of 0.594 ppm. The EU banned the use of DBP in cosmetics; however, we found three brands that were above the

  9. Simple and rapid determination of phthalates using microextraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry quantification in cold drink and cosmetic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Heena; Kaur, Ripneel; Rani, Susheela; Malik, Ashok Kumar

    2016-03-01

    A simple and rapid method using microextraction by packed sorbent coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry has been developed for the analysis of five phthalates, namely, diethyl phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate, in cold drink and cosmetic samples. The various parameters that influence the microextraction by packed sorbent performance such as extraction cycle (extract-discard), type and amount of solvent, washing solvent, and pH have been studied. The optimal conditions of microextraction using C18 as the packed sorbent were 15 extraction cycles with water as washing solvent and 3 × 10 μL of ethyl acetate as the eluting solvent. Chromatographic separation was also optimized for injection temperature, flow rate, ion source, interface temperature, column temperature gradient and mass spectrometry was evaluated using the scan and selected ion monitoring data acquisition mode. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of linearity with R(2) >0.9992 within the established concentration range. The limit of detection was 0.003-0.015 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was 0.009-0.049 ng/mL. The recoveries were in the range of 92.35-98.90% for cold drink, 88.23-169.20% for perfume, and 88.90-184.40% for cream. Analysis by microextraction by packed sorbent promises to be a rapid method for the determination of these phthalates in cold drink and cosmetic samples, reducing the amount of sample, solvent, time and cost.

  10. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (5OH-MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (5oxo-MEHP, mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl phthalate (5cx-MEPP, and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  11. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  12. Contamination of wines and spirits by phthalates: types of contaminants present, contamination sources and means of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatonnet, P; Boutou, S; Plana, A

    2014-01-01

    This research determines the concentrations of various phthalates in French wines and grape spirits marketed in Europe or intended for export. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were the most frequently detected compounds in the wines analysed. While only 15% of the samples examined contained quantifiable concentrations (> 0.010 mg kg(-1)) of DEHP and BBP, 59% of the wines contained significant quantities of DBP, with a median value as high as 0.0587 mg kg(-1). Only 17% of the samples did not contain any detectable quantity of at least one of the phthalates and 19% contained only non-quantifiable traces. In the spirits analysed, DBP (median = 0.105 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (median = 0.353 mg kg(-1)) were the substances measured at the highest concentrations, as well as the most frequently detected (90% of samples). BBP was present in 40% of the samples at an average concentration of 0.026 mg kg(-1). Di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), which is not permitted in contact with food, was found in 25% of the spirits tested. According to the specific migration limits (SML) for materials in contact with food, slightly more than 11% of the wines analysed were non-compliant, as they exceeded the SML for DBP (0.3 mg kg(-1)); just under 4% were close to the SML for DEHP. Concerning spirits, 19% of the samples analysed were considered non-compliant to the SML for DBP and nearly 7% were close to the SML for DEHP. The aged grape spirits analysed were often excessively contaminated with DiBP, which is not permitted to be used in contact with food (> 0.01 mg kg(-1)). A study of various materials frequently present in wineries revealed that a relatively large number of polymers sometimes contained high concentrations of phthalates. However, the epoxy resin coatings used on vats represented the major source of contamination.

  13. Conflict of estrogenic activity by various phthalates between in vitro and in vivo models related to the expression of Calbindin-D9k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Ji, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Manabe, Noboru; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2005-04-01

    Phthalates are suspected to disrupt the endocrine system, especially through estrogenic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of various phthalates and compared them with those of estrogenic compounds that disrupt the female reproductive system. To assess the effects of these phthalates, alteration of the Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) gene was measured as a biomarker because rat CaBP-9k gene carries an estrogen response element (ERE) which is involved in estrogen responsiveness of the gene during the estrous cycle. In this study, phthalates were tested for estrogenic properties in in vitro and in vivo models. First, the E-Screen assay was used to measure the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, a human breast cancer cell line. Treatments with 17beta-estradiol (E2; 9-fold) and 17alpha-estradiol (EE; 9-fold) induced MCF-7 cell proliferation at concentrations of 10(-9) M. Phthalates induced an increase in MCF-7 proliferation at concentration of 10(-6) M up to 10(-4) M. Nbutyl benzyl phthalate (BBP; 6-fold vs. vehicle), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP; 8-fold), 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP; 6-fold) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 7-fold) at the concentration of 10(-4) M induced in an increase in MCF-7 proliferation after 6 d of treatment compared to vehicle. However, significant increase in MCF-7 proliferation was induced by diethyl phthalate (DEP). Second, we investigated the expression of CaBP-9k in the uterus of immature rats after oral treatment with BBP, DCHP, DEHP, DBP or DBP (600 mg/kg per day) in this in vivo model, because the immature rat model is highly sensitive to exposure to estrogenic chemicals. None of the phthalates induced the expression of CaBP-9k mRNA and its protein in the neonatal uterus as analysed by Northern and Western blot analyses, respectively. Although phthalates induced an increase in MCF-7 cell proliferation by an estrogenic effect, they could not induce CaBP-9k expression in the in vivo system, suggesting that the assays of

  14. Oxidative damage of testicle induced by mono-n-butyl phthalate among male mice%邻苯二甲酸单丁酯对雄性小鼠睾丸的氧化损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊棣; 李慧; 可尘娟; 毛琳; 杨旭; 袁均林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential oxidative damages of mono-n-butyl phthalate on testicle tissue of mice, Methods A total of 36 male Balb/c mice were divided into four MBP exposure groups , one blank control group and one solvent control group (edible oil). Four MBP exposure groups were exposed to MBP with different doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) through gavage for 14 consecutive days, then the histological change of the testis was examined and the contents of ROS, MDA and GSH in the testicle homogenate were measured. Results The number of germ cells decreased in 100 and 200 mg/kg MBP groups, it also showed that the contents of ROS and MDA increased gradually while GSH content decreased with the increase of exposure doses, the difference between 100, 200 mg/kg group and control group was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion MBP may increase the oxidative stress and cause oxidative damage in testicle of mice at relatively higher concentration.%目的 探讨邻苯二甲酸单丁酯(mono-n-butyl phthalate,MBP)对小鼠睾丸氧化损伤的影响.方法 36只性成熟的雄性Balb/c小鼠随机分为4个MBP染毒组(25、50、100、200 mg/kg)和1个空白对照组、1个溶剂对照组(食用油),每组6只,灌胃14d后观察睾丸的组织形态学损伤;检测睾丸组织的活性氧(ROS)、丙二醛(MDA)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)的含量.结果 100和200 mg/kg组小鼠睾丸组织不同发育时期生殖细胞的数量减少;随着MBP染毒剂量的升高,睾丸组织ROS含量与MDA含量逐渐上升,GSH含量逐渐降低;100和200 mg/kg组上述指标与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 较高剂量的MBP会引起小鼠睾丸细胞的氧化损伤.

  15. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jia; Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n=142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg(-1) in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg(-1) in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P<0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r(2)=0.944, P<0.01) and the industrialized area (r(2)=0.860, P<0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization.

  16. Estrogen agonist/antagonist properties of dibenzyl phthalate (DBzP) based on in vitro and in vivo assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Zhao, Liang; Li, Jun; Bai, Huicheng; Zhu, Desheng; Hu, Jianying

    2011-11-10

    The most commonly used phthalates have been banned or restricted for use as plasticizers in toys in some countries because of their endocrine-disrupting properties. Dibenzyl phthalate (DBzP) has been proposed as a possible alternative for the banned/restricted phthalates. In this study, the estrogen agonist/antagonist properties of DBzP were predicted by molecular docking and confirmed by yeast estrogen screen (YES) and immature mouse uterotrophic assays. The YES assay results showed a dose-dependent increase in DBzP estrogen agonist activity from 10⁻⁶ to 10⁻⁴ M, and at concentrations from 1.95×10⁻⁶ M to higher, DBzP significantly inhibited the agonist activity of 10⁻⁹ M 17β-estradiol (E₂), inhibiting 10⁻⁹ M E₂ by 74.5% at its maximum effectiveness. The in vivo estrogen agonist/antagonist activities of DBzP were demonstrated in immature mouse uterotrophic assays. The antagonist activity of DBzP inhibited E₂-induced uterine growth promoted at 40 and 400 μg/kg bw (body weight) (Pestrogen agonist/antagonist potentials of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) by YES, and found both were weaker than those of DBzP, suggesting DBzP would be more toxic than BBP and should not be used as an alternative plasticizer.

  17. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  18. Novel Functionalized Polythiophene-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of Phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nor Atika Baharin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(phenyl-(4-(6-thiophen-3-yl-hexyloxy-benzylidene-amine (P3TArH was successfully synthesized and coated on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs. The nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis, analyzer transmission electron microscopy (TEM and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. P3TArH-coated MNPs (MNP@P3TArH showed higher capabilities for the extraction of commonly-used phthalates and were optimized for the magnetic-solid phase extraction (MSPE of environmental samples. Separation and determination of the extracted phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP, diethyl phthalate (DEP, dipropyl phthalate (DPP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCP, di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP, were conducted by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The best working conditions were as follows; sample at pH 7, 30 min extraction time, ethyl acetate as the elution solvent, 500-µL elution solvent volumes, 10 min desorption time, 10-mg adsorbent dosage, 20-mL sample loading volume and 15 g·L−1 concentration of NaCl. Under the optimized conditions, the analytical performances were determined with a linear range of 0.1–50 µg·L−1 and a limit of detection at 0.08–0.468 µg·L−1 for all of the analytes studied. The intra-day (n = 7 and inter-day (n = 3 relative standard deviations (RSD% of three replicates were each demonstrated in the range of 3.7–4.9 and 3.0–5.0, respectively. The steadiness and reusability studies suggested that the MNP@P3TArH could be used up to five cycles. The proposed method was executed for the analysis of real water samples, namely commercial bottled mineral water and bottled fresh milk, whereby recoveries in the range of 68%–101% and RSD% lower than 7.7 were attained.

  19. Benzylic oxidation catalyzed by dirhodium(II,III) caprolactamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catino, Arthur J; Nichols, Jason M; Choi, Hojae; Gottipamula, Sidhartha; Doyle, Michael P

    2005-11-10

    [reaction: see text] Dirhodium caprolactamate [Rh2(cap)4] is an effective catalyst for benzylic oxidation with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) under mild conditions. Sodium bicarbonate is the optimal base additive for substrate conversion. Benzylic carbonyl compounds are readily obtained, and a formal synthesis of palmarumycin CP2 using this methodology is described.

  20. Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittassek, Matthias; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction.

  1. Chronic toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to Daphnia magna and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, J.E.; Adams, W.J. [ABC Labs., Inc., Columbia, MO (United States); Biddinger, G.R. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences Inc., Benecia, CA (United States); Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W. [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Chronic toxicity studies were performed with commercial phthalate esters and Daphnia magna (14 phthalates) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (six phthalates). For the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP)--the results of the studies indicated a general trend in which toxicity for both species increased as water solubility decreased. The geometric mean maximum acceptable toxicant concentration(GM-MATC) for D. magna ranged from 0.63 to 34.8 mg/L. For the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters--dihexyl phthalate (DHP), butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BOP), di-(n-hexyl, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate (610P), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate (711P), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diundecyl phthalate (DUP), and ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP)--the GM-MATC values ranged from 0.042 to 0.15 mg/L. Survival was equally sensitive and sometimes more sensitive than reproduction. The observed toxicity to daphnids with most of the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters appeared to be due to surface entrapment or a mode of toxicity that is not due to exposure to dissolved aqueous-phase chemical. Early life-stage toxicity studies with rainbow trout indicated that survival (DMP) and growth (DBP) were affected at 24 and 0.19 mg/L, respectively. This pattern of observed toxicity with the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters and not the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters is consistent with previously reported acute toxicity studies for several aquatic species.

  2. Urinary phthalate monoesters and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Phthalates may act as an estrogen and are a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as endometriosis. We assessed the association between phthalate exposure and endometriosis in 166 consecutive women who presented at a university hospital for consultation regarding infertility. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine specimen prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis. They were then categorized by the severity of endometriosis as controls (stages 0-I) and cases (stages II-IV). Urinary concentrations of the phthalate metabolites monoethyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate were measured in 57 cases and 80 controls using high-performance liquid chromatography isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Adjusted odds ratios for endometriosis in relation to dichotomized individual phthalate metabolites (standardized for creatinine) were calculated. No significant association between endometriosis and any urinary creatinine-adjusted phthalate monoester was seen. Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for higher dichotomized MEHP by endometriosis was 1.57 (0.74-3.30). No monotonic trend was seen in urinary creatinine-adjusted concentration of phthalate metabolites by endometriosis stage (p = 0.23-0.90). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites are associated with the risk of endometriosis in infertile Japanese women.

  3. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Tao, Jing, E-mail: jingtao1982@126.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yi-Kai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n = 142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg{sup −1} in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg{sup −1} in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P < 0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.944, P < 0.01) and the industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.860, P < 0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization. - Highlights: • A new method for determining phthalate esters in soil samples was developed. • Investigate six phthalates near an industry and a

  4. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods.

  5. Application of Benzyl Starch Ether and Alkyl Polysaccharide Glycoside as Mix-emulsifier in Preparation of Aqueous Cyhalofop-butyl Emulsion%苄基淀粉醚与烷基多糖苷复配制备氰氟草酯水乳剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商建; 杨凯凯; 刘峰

    2013-01-01

    .The mean droplet diameter of emulsions is about 1.02 μm and is increased by only 0.1 ~ 0.6 μm after storing at 25 ℃ for 6 months or at (54 ±2) ℃ for 14 days and the water separating proportion is only 2.7%.Cyhalofop-butyl oil-in-water emulsion prepared with benzyl starch ether,alkyl polyglycoside and methyl oleate has a better stability than the conventional emulsions.The results of this study show that benzyl starch compounding with alkyl polyglycosid and methyl oleate can be used as an alternative emulsifier and solvent for the environmentally friendly oil-in-water emulsion formulations.

  6. Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-05-29

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

  7. Are Medicinal Plants Polluted with Phthalates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phthalic acid esters (PAEs have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

  8. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    and adolescents and resulting estimated daily intakes of four different phthalates. These daily intake estimates are used for a cumulative risk assessment with anti-androgenic effects as the endpoint using Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values determined by the European Food Safety Authorities (EFSA) or Reference...... endpoint for the phthalates included in this article. Using the EFSA TDI values, 12 children exceeded the hazard quotient for the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-butyl phthalate (∑DBP((i+n)) ) and one child exceeded the hazard quotient for di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Nineteen children...... exceeded the cumulated hazard index for three phthalates. Using the RfD AA values, one child exceeded the hazard quotient for DEHP and the same child exceeded the cumulated hazard index for four phthalates. The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ∑DBP((i+n)) as the compound...

  9. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care...

  10. Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Servaes, K; Van Holderbeke, M; Geerts, L; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I; Vanermen, G

    2012-07-01

    Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market.

  11. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  12. Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Kristin; Ljung Björklund, Karin; Palm, Brita; Wennberg, Maria; Kaj, Lennart; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Berglund, Marika

    2014-12-01

    Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6-11 years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother-child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ΣDEHP 65.5 μg/L; ΣDiNP 37.8 μg/L; MBzP 19.9 μg/L; MnBP 76.9 μg/L) than the mothers (ΣDEHP 38.4 μg/L; ΣDiNP 33.8 μg/L; MBzP 12.8 μg/L; MnBP 63.0 μg/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8 μg/L; ProP 13.9 μg/L) and MEP (43.4 μg/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8 μg/L; ProP 2.1 μg/L) and MEP (28.8 μg/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p=0.003; ProP p=0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high

  13. Determination and Pharmacokinetics of Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate in Rats by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Hu Tsai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is used to increase the flexibility of plastics for industrial products. However, the illegal use of the plasticizer DEHP in food and drinks has been reported in Taiwan in 2011. In order to assess the exact extent of the absorption of DEHP via the oral route, the aim of this study is to develop a reliable and validated ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS method to evaluate the oral bioavailability of DEHP in rats. The optimal chromatographic separation of DEHP and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP; used as internal standard were achieved on a C18 column. The mobile phase was consisted of 5 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (11:89, v/v with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The monitoring ion transitions were m/z 391.4 → 149.0 for DEHP and m/z 313.3 → 149.0 for BBP. The mean matrix effects of DEHP at low, medium and high concentrations were 94.5 ± 5.7% and 100.1 ± 2.3% in plasma and feces homogenate samples, respectively. In conclusion, the validated UPLC-MS/MS method is suitable for analyzing the rat plasma sample of DEHP and the oral bioavailability of DEHP was about 7% in rats.

  14. Phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in Swedish preschool dust in relation to children's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Kristin; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo Ag; Giovanoulis, Georgios; Bibi, Momina; Bottai, Matteo; Bergström, Anna; Berglund, Marika

    2017-03-05

    Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. In this study, we evaluated the levels of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in dust from 100 Swedish preschools and identified important exposure factors in the indoor environment. In addition, children's total exposure to these chemicals was determined by urine analysis to investigate their relation with dust exposure, and to explore the time trends by comparing with children who provided urine fifteen years earlier. The most abundant plasticizers in preschool dust were the phthalates di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with geometric mean levels of 450 and 266μg/g dust, respectively, and the non-phthalate plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) and diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH) found at 105 and 73μg/g dust, respectively. The levels of several substitute plasticizers were higher in newer preschools, whereas the levels of the strictly regulated phthalate di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were higher in older preschools. The presence of foam mattresses and PVC flooring in the sampling room were associated with higher levels of DiNP in dust. Children's exposure from preschool dust ingestion was below established health based reference values and the estimated exposure to different phthalates and BPA via preschool dust ingestion accounted for 2-27% of the total exposure. We found significantly lower urinary levels of BPA and metabolites of strictly regulated phthalates, but higher levels of DiNP metabolites, in urine from the children in this study compared to the children who provided urine samples fifteen years earlier.

  15. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Boas, Malene;

    2016-01-01

    in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP......)) on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg) secretion from...... the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor) by any of the investigated...

  16. [Toxicity effects of phthalate substitute plasticizers used in toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Takahashi, Mika; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kawamura, Tomoko; Ono, Atsushi; Hirose, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widely used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride products. Because of human health concerns, regulatory authorities in Japan, US, Europe and other countries control the use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and di-n-octyl phthalate for the toys that can be put directly in infants' mouths. While these regulatory actions will likely reduce the usage of phthalate esters, there is concern that other plasticizers that have not been sufficiently evaluated for safety will be used more frequently. We therefore collected and evaluated the toxicological information on di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH), diisononyl adipate (DINA), 2,2,4-trimetyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) and acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC) which were detected at a relatively high frequency in toys. The collected data have shown that chronic exposure to DEHT affects the eye and nasal turbinate, and DINCH exerts effects on the thyroid and kidney in rats. DINA and TXIB have been reported to have hepatic and renal effects in dogs or rats, and ATBC slightly affected the liver in rats. The NOAELs for repeated dose toxicity are relatively low for DINCH (40 mg/kg bw/day) and TXIB (30 mg/kg bw/day) compared with DEHT, DINA and ATBC. DEHT, TXIB and ATBC have been reported to have reproductive/developmental effects at relatively high doses in rats. For DINA and TBC, available data are insufficient for assessing the hazards, and therefore, adequate toxicity studies should be conducted. In the present review, the toxicity information on 6 alternatives to phthalate plasticizers is summarized, focusing on the effects after oral exposure, which is the route of most concern.

  17. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...

  18. Oxidative Stress on Liver and Kidney of Mice Induced by Mono-n-butyl Phthalate%邻苯二甲酸单丁酯致小鼠肝脏和肾脏组织的氧化损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志敏; 熊棣; 曹凤华; 梅宇飞; 吴卓; 杨旭; 袁均林

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential oxidative stress of mono-n-butyl phthalate(MBP)on liver and kidney of mice,42 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 7 groups,with 6 mice in each group,4 groups were ex-posed to MBP by gavage for 14 d at gradient doses of 25 mg·kg-1 ,50 mg·kg-1 ,100 mg·kg-1 and 200 mg· kg-1 ,one group was exposed to DBP by gavage for 14 d at a dose of 100 mg·kg-1 ,a control group,a vehicle control group.The infected mice signs were observed during the research.The liver and kidney slices were pre-pared to observe the histological changes after 14 d.The contents of ROS,GSH and MDA in the liver and kid-ney homogenate were measured to indicate the oxidative stress.The results showed that,the liver and kidney histological changes were observed in MBP groups,light microscope observation showed hepatocytes and renal tubular cells were karyopyknosis,swelling,ballooned changing and fatty droplets clustering.It also showed that the contents of ROS and MDA increased gradually while GSH content decreased with the increase of exposure dose,and all the studied biomarkers changed in dose-response manners.Under the same concentration,the con-tents of ROS and MDA in MBP exposed groups were all higher than those of DBP infected groups,but the con-tent of GSH decreased.It was demonstrated that MBP could increase the oxidative stress and cause oxidative stress to liver and kidney of mice at relatively high dose.Together,there is a possible relationship between MBP exposure and oxidative stress on liver and kidney of mice.%为了探究邻苯二甲酸单丁酯(MBP)对小鼠肝脏和肾脏的氧化损伤,将42只 BALB/c 小鼠随机分为7组,每组6只,分别为25 mg·kg-1、50 mg·kg-1、100 mg·kg-1、200 mg·kg-1的4个 MBP 染毒组、1个100 mg·kg-1的邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)染毒组、1个空白对照组、1个溶剂对照组。染毒期间对小鼠的体征进行观察;14 d 后取其肝脏和肾脏组织,制作小鼠肝脏和肾脏组

  19. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Martha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP, mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP, mono-n-butyl (MBP, and mono-benzyl (MBzP phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP phthalate (2001–2002. Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002, and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03, and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02 and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02. There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different

  20. Pollution of Municipal Water Supply System by Phthalates and Evaluation on Purification Effects of Current Water Treatment Process%邻苯二甲酸脂对城镇供水的污染及现行水处理工艺净化效果的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩关根; 吴平谷; 王惠华; 方跃强; 马冰洁; 赵莹

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand the pollution of municipal water supply system by phthalates and the purification effects of current water treatment process on phthalates were carried out.Methods The water samples of source water and finished water were determined for phthalate by comparative method.5 kinds of isomers of phthalate in water samples were detected by gas chromatography technique.Results In treated water samples the detectable rate and maximum contents in water samples were 100% and 76μg/L for di-n-butyl phthalate,50% and 17 μg/L for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate respectively.Di-methyl phthalate,di-ethyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate were not found in water samples.There was no significant difference in geometric means of the contents of phthalates between source water (19.74μg/L) and finished water (18.35 μg/L),P>0.05.Conclusion The main pollutants of phthalates were di-nbulyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in municipal water supply system.The effectiveness of removing phthalates from drinking water by current water treatment process in city and town was not satisfied.The water treatment process special for removing phthatates from drinking water should be studied and explored in further.%目的了解邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物对城镇供水的污染情况以及现行水处理工艺对该类物质的净化效果。方法采用处理前、后对照的方法,对源水和出厂水进行检测。色谱分析测试邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物五只异构体。结果出厂水中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯检出率100%,最高含量达76 μg/L。邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯检出率50%,最高含量17μg/L;邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和邻苯二甲酸丁基苄酯三只异构体均未测出。源水中邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物的平均含量(G)为19.74 μ/L,出厂水18.35μ/L,两者差别无显著意义(P>0.05)。结论城镇供水中的邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物污染以邻苯

  1. Phthalate Exposure and Human Semen Quality in Shanghai A Cross-sectional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN-HUI ZHANG; LI-XING ZHENG; BING-HENG CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To monitor the level of phthalates in human semen samples and to analyze the relationship between phthalate levels and semen parameters. Methods Concentrations of three kinds of commonly used phthalates (di-ethyl phthalate, DEP; di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP; di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP) were measured using reversed-phase HPLC. Semen parameters were measured by computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Results The three phthalates were detected in most of the biological samples, With median levels of 0.30 mg/L (0.08-1.32 mg/L) in semen specimens. There was a significant positive association between liquefied time of semen and phthalate concentrations of semen. The correlation coefficient was 0.456 for DEP, 0.475 for DBP, and 0.457 for DEHP, respectively. There was no significant difference between phthalate concentrations of semen and sperm density or livability, though the correlation coefficients were negative. Conclusion These results suggest that people who reside in Shanghai are exposed to phthalates, especially to DBP and DEHP. Although the level of phthalates is relatively mild, an association of phthalate levels and reduced quality of human semen has been shown in the present study.

  2. Effect of cooking at home on the levels of eight phthalates in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Vanermen, G; Van Holderbeke, M; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I

    2012-12-01

    Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food contamination is that toxicants are generated in foods or that chemicals migrate from food contact materials into foods during processing. In this study, the effect of cooking at home on the levels of phthalates - world's most used group of plasticisers - in various food types (starchy products, vegetables and meat and fish) was examined. Eight compounds were considered, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Food products were analysed before as well as after cooking (boiling, steaming, (deep-)frying or grilling). In general, phthalate concentrations in foods declined after cooking, except in vegetables, where almost no effect was seen. Several factors influenced the degree of this decline (e.g. weight difference, fat uptake, etc.). Of all phthalates, DEHP, DiBP and BBP were affected the most. In conclusion, cooking at home definitely affected phthalate concentrations in foods and thus needs to be considered in order to correctly assess humans' dietary exposure to these contaminants.

  3. 孕妇尿中3种邻苯二甲酸酯类代谢物的含量及影响因素%Levels of Phthalate Metabolites in Pregnant Women and Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 陈曦; 陈叙; 常颖; 马静; 王伟; 闻福; 孙增荣; 汤乃军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze exposure levels of phthalate esters including di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate(BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) in the urine of pregnant women. Methods Fifty pregnant women admitted in a municipal hospital were chosen during May to July 2010 to complete the questionnaires, ruled out occupational exposure to PAEs. The content included basic information (such as age, height, smoking and drinking history, etc.) and exposure of PAEs during pregnancy, etc. The concentration of three kinds of phthalate metabolites ( mono-n-butyl phthalate, MBP; mono-benzyl phthalate,MBzP; mono-2-ethylhexyl phthatate, MEHP) in urine samples were measured by using SPE reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. With collection of information on pregnant women's living environment by finishing questionnaires, major ways of exposure were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Results The levels of MBP in the urine of pregnant women ranged from undetected level to 6 673.061 μg/g Cr, and median of MBP was 19.487 μg/g Ct, the rate of detection was 52%. The levels of MBzP ranged from undetected level to 6 227.937 μg/g Cr, and median of MBzP was undetected,the rate of detection was 48%. The levels of MEHP ranged from undetected level to 2 139.802 μg/g Ct, and median of MEHP was 161.990 μg/g Cr, the rate of detection was 78%. Hair perm, using cosmetics and plastic products in diet significantly affected the detection of MBP (P<0.05), and their partial regression coefficients were 1.622, 2.034 and 1.755 respectively. Meanwhile, hair perm and habit of using perfume significantly affected the detection of MBZP (P<0.05), and their partial regression coefficients were 1.921 and 1.771. New furniture or house decoration and using drugs were the risk factors for pregnant women exposed to high level of MEHP (P<0.05), their partial regression coefficients were 1.754 and 1.632. Conclusion Pregnant women have been exposed to

  4. Personal care product use and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Michelle; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Calafat, Antonia M; Cebrián, Mariano E; Needham, Larry L; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-07-01

    Sources of phthalates other than Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) related products are scarcely documented in Mexico. The objective of our study was to explore the association between urinary levels of nine phthalate metabolites and the use of personal care products. Subjects included 108 women who participated as controls in an ongoing population-based case-control study of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in northern Mexico. Direct interviews were performed to inquire about sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, use of personal care products, and diet. Phthalate metabolites measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry were monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) as well as mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP) that are metabolites of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Detectable urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites varied from 75% (MEHP) to 100% (MEP, MBP, MEOHP, MEHHP and MECPP). Medians of urinary concentrations of some phthalate metabolites were significantly higher among users of the following personal care products compared to nonusers: body lotion (MEHHP, MECPP and sum of DEHP metabolites (ΣDEHP)), deodorant (MEHP and ΣDEHP), perfume (MiBP), anti-aging facial cream (MEP, MBP and MCPP) and bottled water (MCPP, MEHHP and MEOHP). Urinary concentrations of MEP showed a positive relationship with the number of personal care products used. Our results suggest that the use of some personal care products contributes to phthalate body burden that deserves attention due to its potential health impact.

  5. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro.

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    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells.

  6. Single Pot Benzylation of O-Xylene with Benzyl Chloride and Benzyl Alcohol Over Pillared Montmorillonites

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    Kurian Manju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of product selectivity is a major concern of the day. Presence of a coreactant can alter the rate as well as product selectivity of many key reactions like Friedel-Crafts benzylation. Single pot benzylation of o-xylene with benzyl chloride and benzyl alcohol was studied over transition metal exchanged pillared clay catalysts. Complete conversion of benzyl alcohol occured within one hour with 100% monoalkylated product selectivity. The reaction of o-xylene with benzyl alcohol was found to proceed fast in presence of benzyl chloride in single pot, than when present alone as the benzylating species. This enhancement occurs at the expense of no reaction of benzyl chloride, which when present alone reacts faster than benzyl alcohol. Existence of a second transition metal exchanged between the pillars increased the rate of the reaction. A detailed investigation of the reaction variables suggested preferential adsorption of benzyl alcohol to catalyst active sites as the reason.

  7. Occupational exposure to phthalates in relation to gender, consumer practices and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovičová, Ida; Kolena, Branislav; Šidlovská, Miroslava; Pilka, Tomáš; Wimmerová, Soňa; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our work was to find associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and occupation, consumer practices and body composition. We divided our cohort (n = 129) into occupationally exposed subjects, community service workers (group A; n = 45) and workers from plastic industry (group B; n = 35) and group of general population (control group C, n = 49). To estimate levels of five phthalate metabolites, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We found in plastic industry workers compared to community service workers and subjects of the control group significantly higher urinary concentration mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono (2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), sum di-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). We identified by multivariate analysis of covariance inverse relationship between MEHP and body parameters as waist-to-height ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference and waist circumference among females, whereas in males, no significant association was found. Results of our study show, despite of variability in terms of occupational exposure to phthalates, that plastic manufactory represents a higher occupational risk in comparison with waste management. The differences in anthropometric parameters between the two occupationally exposed groups and the general population are suggesting a detrimental effect of occupational exposure on body weight homeostasis.

  8. Semen phthalate metabolites, semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones: A cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Pan; Wang, Peng; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; You, Ling; Huang, Yue-Hui; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function in animals. However, the findings from human studies are inconsistent. Here we examined the associations of phthalate exposure with semen quality and reproductive hormones in a Chinese population using phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in semen as biomarkers. Semen (n = 687) and blood samples (n = 342) were collected from the male partners of sub-fertile couples who presented to the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels were determined. Semen concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of the semen phthalate metabolites with semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones were assessed using confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Semen phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with decreases in semen volume [mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)], sperm curvilinear velocity [monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, the percentage of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP)], and straight-line velocity (MBzP, MEHP, %MEHP), and also associated with an increased percentage of abnormal heads and tails (MBzP) (all p for trend hormones. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to phthalates may impair human semen quality.

  9. Phthalates dietary exposure and food sources for Belgian preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Fierens, Tine; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Servaes, Kelly; Vanermen, Guido; Boon, Polly E; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that for phthalates, the intake of contaminated foods is the most important exposure pathway for the general population. Up to now, data on dietary phthalate intake are scarce and - to the authors' knowledge - not available for the Belgian population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: (1) to assess the long-term intake of the Belgian population for eight phthalates considering different exposure scenarios (benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP); dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diethyl phthalate (DEP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)); (2) to evaluate the intake of BBP, DnBP, DEP and DEHP against tolerable daily intake (TDI) values; and (3) to assess the contribution of the different food groups to the phthalate intake. The intake assessment was performed using two Belgian food consumption databases, one with consumption data of preschool children (2.5 to 6.5 years old) and another of adults (≥15 years old), combined with a database of phthalate concentrations measured in over 550 food products sold on the Belgian market. Phthalate intake was calculated using the 'Monte Carlo Risk Assessment' programme (MCRA 7.0). The intake of DEHP was the highest, followed by DiBP. The intake of BBP, DnBP and DEP was far below the TDI for both children and adults. However, for DEHP, the 99th percentile of the intake distribution of preschoolers in the worst case exposure scenario was equal to 80% of the TDI, respectively. This is not negligible, since other exposure routes of DEHP exist for children as well (e.g. mouthing of toys). Bread was the most important contributor to the DEHP intake and this may deserve further exploration, since the origin of this phthalate in bread remains unclear.

  10. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Phthalates in PM2.5 airborne particles in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic

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    Jana Růžičková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial area of the Moravian-Silesian Region (the Czech Republic is highly polluted by air contaminants, especially emissions of particulate matter. Samples of PM2.5 particles were analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of phthalates were determined for the winter season, transitional period and the summer season. The relative concentrations of phthalates in PM2.5 particles have the same proportion in both heating and non-heating season: di(2ethylexyl phthalate > di-n-butyl phthalate > diisononyl phthalate > diethyl phthalate. The most common increase in concentration in the winter season is from 5 to 10 times higher; the maximum of average concentration was 44 times higher than in the non-heating season.

  12. Effects of Gender on the Association of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites with Thyroid Hormones in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Te-I; Chen, Mei-Huei; Lien, Guang-Wen; Chen, Pai-Shan; Lin, Jasper Chia-Cheng; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Phthalates are considered endocrine disruptors. Our study assessed the gender-specific effects of phthalate exposure on thyroid function in children. In total, 189 Taiwanese children were enrolled in the study. One-spot urine and blood samples were collected for analyzing 12 phthalate metabolites in urine and thyroid hormones. The association between urinary phthalate metabolites and serum thyroid hormones was determined using a generalized linear model with a log link function; the children were categorized into groups for analysis according to the 33rd and 66th percentiles. The data were stratified according to gender and adjusted for a priori defined covariates. In girls, a positive association existed between urinary di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate) and free thyroxine (T4). In boys, urinary dibutyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites (mono-i-butyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate) were positively associated with free triiodothyronine (T3). After categorizing each exposure into three groups, urinary DEHP metabolites were positively associated with free T3 levels in boys. Our results suggested that DEHP is associated with free T4 in girls and that DBP is associated with free T3 in boys. Higher DEHP metabolite concentrations exerted larger effects on free T3 in boys. These results reveal the gender-specific relationships between phthalate metabolites and thyroid hormones. PMID:28146055

  13. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natsheh, Mais; Alawi, Mahmoud; Fayyad, Manar; Tarawneh, Ibrahim

    2015-03-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for

  14. Association between phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of reproductive function in 1066 Chinese men of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yitao; Jing, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Yao, Qi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hongxia; Yao, Bing; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-12-30

    Phthalates are suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals that impair male reproductive function in animal and epidemiological studies. We investigated associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and acrosin activity, along with that between insulin like-factor 3 (INSL3), a Leydig cell function marker, in Chinese adult men and assessed the association between the metabolites and male reproductive function. Serum levels of INSL3 and other hormones, semen parameters, and urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites in 1066 men were measured. The unadjusted concentrations of phthalates were included as independent variables and urinary creatinine as a separate covariate. INSL3 was negatively associated with mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and %MEHP [percentage of MEHP to all di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites]. Acrosin activity was negatively associated with mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), MEHP and %MEHP. MBP and MiBP were also negatively associated with total testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH) and sperm morphology and positively associated with DNA fragmentation index (DFI). A negative association between %MEHP and sperm motility was observed. Several other metabolites were also associated with reproductive function. This is the first report on the inverse associations of phthalate metabolites with acrosin activity and INSL3. Phthalates may cause multiple adverse results on reproductive function at environmental levels.

  15. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

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    Huijing Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives: To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November. Methods: We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%, and parental education. Results: In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions: Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%.

  16. 邻苯二甲酸二丁酯高效降解菌H-2的分离鉴定及其降解特性%Isolation and Identification of a Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)-Degrading Strain H-2 and Its Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雷; 陈瑜; 严忠雍; 郭远明; 祝银; 龙举; 顾蓓乔

    2014-01-01

    为了获得高效广谱的邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(di-n-butyl phthalate,DBP)降解菌,本研究从长期受食品塑料垃圾污染的土壤中通过富集培养和分离纯化,获得一株DBP高效降解菌,命名为H-2.根据菌株的形态、生理生化特征和16S rRNA序列分析,将其鉴定为类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus sp.).运用高效液相色谱法分析了菌株H-2对DBP的降解特性及对邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物的广谱性降解情况.结果表明:菌株H-2降解DBP的最适温度为30℃,最适pH值为7.0;在此最适条件下,菌株H-2在3d内对100 mg/L DBP的降解率高达87.6%.菌株H-2能高效降解短链邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和DBP,而对长链邻苯二甲酸二辛酯的降解效果较差.

  17. Phthalates - widespread occurrence and the effect on male gametes. Part 1. General characteristics, sources and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are widely present in human environment. Widespead exposure to those agents, which are compounds of numerous daily use products, is unavoidable. In the current paper following phthalates benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di- n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) are described. Phthalates mainly enter to the composition of plastic goods, like boxes and containers for storage of foods, toys, medical devices, and also cosmetics, personal care products, as well as paints, vanishes, printing inks. This paper describes the occurence of individual phthalates in the environment (water, air) and in different products. During production, transportation, manufacturing of goods and improper disposal, phthalates released into soil, water and air. For example indoor air included 13 mg/m3 phthalates, where 72 % of all constitutes DEP (2.29 mg/m(3)), BBP (3.97 mg/m(3)) and DEHP (2.43 mg/m(3)). Exposure to phthalates take place mainly by ingestion or inhalation air or through the skin. Presence of phthalates were observed in numerous food products and is connected with migration of those compounds from food storage containers to preserved food. They could mirgate to salivia during sucking and chewing of toys and this way increased exposure to of children. The results of studies regarding to concentration of phthalates in human tissues and excretions are also described. The level of phthalates were measured in numerous of human biological samples. For example, DEHP, DEP and DBP were detected at levels of 5.71 mg/L in blood serum, of 0.30 mg/L in semen and of 0.72 mg/kg in fat samples.

  18. Joint Toxicity of Two Phthalates with Waterborne Copper to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boyang; Li, Dinglong; Yang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) are two widely used phthalates, while Cu(II) is a common valence state of copper. They have been ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, but information on their joint toxicity to aquatic organisms is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of copper and these two phthalates to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum by quantifying the acute toxicity expressed by the EC50 (the concentration causing 50 % of maximal effect) value. The toxicity order was DEHP + Cu(II) > DBP + Cu(II) > Cu(II) > DEHP > DBP for both test species. Antagonism effects were found in the joint toxicity of Cu(II) combined with DBP or DEHP using the toxic unit method. These findings have important implications in environmental risk assessment for phthalates in the aquatic environment in the presence of heavy metals.

  19. Distribution of phthalate esters in the groundwater of Jianghan plain, Hubei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan ZHANG; Hui LIU; Ying LIANG; Cheng WANG; Hecheng LIANG; Hesheng CAI

    2009-01-01

    Samples of groundwater were collected from 17 sites in the Jianghan plain in July 2007. Sixteen phthalate esters (PAEs) were detected in samples collected by using solid-phase extraction (SPE)-gas chromatography (GC). The results show that there were one or several PAEs in all the samples, and the concentrations of total PAEs ranged from 80.12 to 1882.18 ng/L. Four PAEs, i.e. di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), bis (2-ethoxyethyl) phthalate (BEEP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate DEHP) were the dominant species. Among these, DIBP, DBP and DEHP concentrations were closely related to the water supply from the Yangtze River, Hanjiang River and Honghu Lake. However, the distribution of BEEP was irregular, which may be due to the application of some kind of products containing BEEP in the related areas. PAE distribution was irrelevant to the electrical conductivity and sample depth.

  20. Simultaneous determination of some phthalate metabolites, parabens and benzophenone-3 in urine by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewalque, Lucas; Pirard, Catherine; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne

    2014-02-15

    Phthalates, parabens and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone or benzophone-3 are thought to act as endocrine disrupting chemicals, being able to disrupt the endocrine balance and therefore able to lead to some hormonal diseases. Numerous large-scale biomonitoring studies have detected the biomarkers of these compounds in more than 75% of the general population. To assess the exposure to these chemicals, we developed an analytical method based on a Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) prior to ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous measurement of seven phthalate metabolites (monobenzyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-iso-butyl phthalate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate), four parabens (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, n-propyl paraben, n-butyl parabens) and benzophenone-3 in human urine. The distinction between unconjugated, glucuro- and sulfoconjugated forms was achieved using different enzymatic hydrolyses. The whole procedure was validated according to the total error approach, and was demonstrated to be linear (regression coefficient ranging from 0.987 to 0.998) and accurate (inter and intra assay precision parabens and benzophenone-3 were positively detected in almost all urine samples, with detection rates ranging from 40 to 100%. Levels measured ranged from parabens and benzophenone-3 were detected as glucuro- and sulfoconjugated species in variable proportions according to the target compound.

  1. Influence of phthalates on in vitro innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion from both monocytes/macrophages and T cells in a similar pattern: the secretion of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10 and the chemokine CXCL8 by monocytes/macrophages was enhanced, while tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α secretion by monocytes/macrophages was impaired, as was the secretion of IL-2 and IL-4, TNF-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did not seem to be a result of cell death. Thus, results indicate that both human innate and adaptive immunity is influenced in vitro by phthalates, and that phthalates therefore may affect cell differentiation and regenerative and inflammatory processes in vivo.

  2. Influence of phthalates on in vitro innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Frederiksen, Hanne; Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Bendtzen, Klaus; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion from both monocytes/macrophages and T cells in a similar pattern: the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and the chemokine CXCL8 by monocytes/macrophages was enhanced, while tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by monocytes/macrophages was impaired, as was the secretion of IL-2 and IL-4, TNF-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did not seem to be a result of cell death. Thus, results indicate that both human innate and adaptive immunity is influenced in vitro by phthalates, and that phthalates therefore may affect cell differentiation and regenerative and inflammatory processes in vivo.

  3. Obstetrical outcomes and biomarkers to assess exposure to phthalates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Studies of the effects on pregnancy outcomes of in utero exposure to phthalates, contaminants that are widely present in the environment, have yielded conflicting results. In addition, the mode of assessment of exposure varies between studies. The aim of this review was therefore to establish a current state of knowledge of the phthalates and metabolites involved in unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. Extant data were analyzed to determine which biomarker is the best suited to assess the relation between in utero exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcomes. This review of the literature was conducted using the database of PubMed. A search was made of studies investigating exposure to phthalates and the following birth outcomes: preterm birth (gestational age phthalates. The principal metabolites detected and involved were primary metabolites of di-2(ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl-phthalate (DnBP). No clear conclusion could be drawn with regard to gestational age at birth, body size at birth and congenital malformations. In epidemiological studies, maternal urine is the most suitable matrix to assess the association between in utero exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcomes: in contrast to other matrices (cord blood, amniotic fluid, meconium and milk), sampling is easy, non-invasive and, can be repeated to assess exposure throughout pregnancy. Oxidative metabolites are the most relevant biomarkers since they are not prone to external contamination. Further epidemiological studies are required during pregnancy to i) determine the role of phthalates other than DEHP [currently replaced by various substitution products, in particular diisononyl-phthalate (DiNP)]; ii) establish the effect of phthalates on other outcomes (body size adjusted for gestational age, and congenital malformations); iii) determine the pathophysiological pathways; and iv) identify the most suitable time for biomarker determination of in utero exposure to phthalates.

  4. SPE-UPLC-MS/MS for the determination of phthalate monoesters in rats urine and its application to study the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of priority controlling PAEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R; Gao, H T; Zhu, F; Cao, W X; Yan, Y H M; Zhou, X; Xu, Q; Ji, W L

    2016-02-15

    This research was mainly focused on the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of six priority controlling phthalate acid esters (PAEs) for the further accurate assessment of their toxic effects, using the corresponding phthalate acid monoesters (PAMEs) in rats urine as biomarkers. Glycerin monostearate was chosen as typical food emulsifier. A method was established to determine PAMEs in urine from rats either in experimental group (integrated gavaged with glycerin monostearate and PAEs) or in control group (gavaged with PAEs only), by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS). Extraction recoveries were more than 75% for all the PAMEs; the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.0-1000.0ng/mL with R(2)>0.995; the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.30ng/mL-0.50ng/mL. In addition, by analysing quality control (QC) urine samples in 3 days, it showed that the method was precise and accurate, for the intra-day and inter-day RSD within 16%, and the accuracy more than 82%. Internal exposure amount of all PAEs in experimental group was significantly higher than that in control group with p values of less than 0.05 except for butyl benzyl phthalates (BBP) (P=0.07). The bioavailability of all PAEs ranged from 5.03% to 109.35% with the presence of food emulsifiers glycerin monostearate, observably higher than that without glycerin monostearate (1.12% to 54.39%). It indicated that food emulsifiers increased the bioavailability of PAEs and may lead to potential food safety risk, which should bring awareness and be further studied.

  5. Genotoxicity of phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkekoglu, Pınar; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma

    2014-12-01

    Many of the environmental, occupational and industrial chemicals are able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. ROS may lead to genotoxicity, which is suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of many human diseases, including inflammatory diseases and cancer. Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental chemicals and are well-known peroxisome proliferators (PPs) and endocrine disruptors. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted concerning the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of phthalates. Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and several other phthalates are shown to be hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. The underlying factor in the hepatocarcinogenesis is suggested to be their ability to generate ROS and cause genotoxicity. Several methods, including chromosomal aberration test, Ames test, micronucleus assay and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutation test and Comet assay, have been used to determine genotoxic properties of phthalates. Comet assay has been an important tool in the measurement of the genotoxic potential of many chemicals, including phthalates. In this review, we will mainly focus on the studies, which were conducted on the DNA damage caused by different phthalate esters and protection studies against the genotoxicity of these chemicals.

  6. 两种典型细菌的生长和氧化应激酶对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯的响应%Response of Bacterial Growth and the Activities of Oxidative Enzymes to Di-n-butyl Phthalate Contamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡影; 王志刚; 徐伟慧; 胡云龙; 刘帅; 由义敏; 赵晓松; 苏云鹏

    2016-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous organic pollutant in black soil. Because it is widely detected in China’s agricultural soil, DBP has been listed as an environmental priority pollutant by China State Environmental Protection Administration. The purpose of the study was to estimate the responses of the growth and activities of oxidative enzymes to DBP with various concentration inB. subtilis D13 (a typical gram-positive bacterium) and E. coliQ5 (a typical gram-negative bacterium) by liquid cultivation and spectrophotometry. The results showed that: (1) the growth of two strains were inhibited by DBP, the effect was more significant at the logarithmic phase. Along with the increase of time, the growth ofB. subtilis D13 had recovered, however,E. coli Q5 was not, it appeared more sensitive to DBP than theB. subtilis D13 did. (2) The activities of SOD in the two typical bacteria were increased along with the increase of DBP concentration, which meant that activities of SOD could be correlated to the impact of DBP inB. subtilis D13 andE. coliQ5. (3) Similarly, the trend on the activities of CAT and GST was basically consistent with that on SOD in the two bacteria, that is, the low concentration of DBP could promote enzyme activity, however, and the high concentration of DBP could reduce the activity. The result provides an important basis for further study on the toxicological effect of DBP on microorganisms.%邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(Di-n-butyl phthalate,DBP)是一种广泛存在于环境中的有机污染物,对环境构成严重威胁,现已被中国环境监测中心列入优先控制污染物名单。本研究从黑土中分离出两种典型细菌B. subtilis D13和E. coliQ5,以液体培养法接种于添加不同质量浓度(0、5、10、20、40、80 mg·L-1)DBP的LB培养基中,测定两种菌株的生长曲线;以分光光度法测定其氧化应激酶系对DBP胁迫的应答反应。结果表明,(1)DBP污染可抑制细菌

  7. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Huang, Han-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy. Method We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP), of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4), free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). Results Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%), MnBP (81%) and MECPP (86%). Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates) of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = –5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97) in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction. Conclusion We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations. PMID:27455052

  8. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chin Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy.We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP, of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4, free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG.Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%, MnBP (81% and MECPP (86%. Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = -5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97 in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction.We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations.

  9. Consumer exposure to phthalates from paper packaging: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poças, M F; Oliveira, J C; Pereira, J R; Hogg, T

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to estimate the exposure of the Portuguese population to phthalates as a contaminant originating from paperboard packaging. The approach combined data of migrant concentration in the foods resulting from a stochastic simulation with consumption data of food packaged in paperboard. The results from the exposure model were validated with experimental values actually found in the food. A short surveillance exercise was conducted with samples collection from market shelves to identify and quantify the phthalates present in both the packages and the food. The distribution of values for the di-butyl phthalate concentration in the packages was used as the input of the initial concentration in the Weibull model to estimate the concentration of this phthalate in the foods. This distribution of occurrence data was then combined with the packaging usage data in a probabilistic simulation with a Monte Carlo sampling method. Exposure values ranged between zero and 8.95 microg day(-1) kg(bw), a value close to the tolerable daily intake established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)--10 microg day(-1) kg(bw). However, the 97.5th percentile and the average were 1.82 and 0.44 day(-1) kg(bw), respectively, indicating that further refinement of the estimates is not necessary. Other phthalates were also detected in the packaging samples: di-isobutyl phthalate and di-ethylhexyl phthalate. The latter was present in all packaging samples collected and was detected in a few food samples at values requiring further investigation.

  10. 气相色谱/质谱联用法测定烟用水基型乳胶中的邻苯二甲酸酯%Determination of Phthalates in Water-based Emulsion Adhesives for Tobacco with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 陈超英; 吴达; 林华清; 陈星洁; 戴云辉

    2011-01-01

    为测定烟用水基型乳胶中的邻苯二甲酸酯,用加有内标物质的正己烷溶液对乳胶样品进行了超声萃取,并采用气相色谱/质谱/选择离子监测法(GC/MS/SIM)测定了144个样品中的7种邻苯二甲酸酯:邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMP)、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯(DEP)、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(DIBP)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己)酯(DEHP)、邻苯二甲酸二辛酯(DOP)和邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP).结果表明:①样品中加入2 mL水,超声30 min萃取效果较好;②在标准溶液浓度范围内,7种邻苯二甲酸酯的线性均较好,相关系数达到0.996以上;③低、中、高3种浓度的加标回收率在85% ~ 111%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)均小于5%;④当前国内烟用水基胶中使用的邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂主要集中在D1BP,DBP两种.%In order to determine the phthalates in water-based emulsion adhesives for tobacco, the adhesives were extracted with rc-hexane containing internal standard by ultrasonic instruments. Seven phthalates in 144 water-based emulsion adhesive samples, including dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) , diethyl phthalate ( DEP ) , diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) ,dibutyl phthalate ( DBP) , di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ( DEHP) , dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and benzyl butyl phthalate ( BBP) , were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results showed that;l) 30 minutes were preferable duration for extraction by adding 2 mL water into the sample ;2) the regression coefficients of the 7 phthalates were over 0. 996 within the range of their calibration ;3) the recoveries (the standard spiked at low,middle and high concentration levels) ranged from 85% to 111% ,and the relative standard deviation (USD) of the method was below 5% ;4) DIBP and DBP are the two phthalate plasticizers among the water-based adhesives most commonly used in the cigarette industry.

  11. Benzyl 2-((E-Tosyliminomethylphenylcarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Min Ko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl 2-((E-tosyliminomethylpenylcarbamate was prepared in good yield and characterized by the condensation reaction of benzyl 2-formylphenylcarbamate with p-toluenesulfonyl amine. The structure of the newly synthesized compound was determined using 1H, 13C-NMR, IR and mass spectral data.

  12. Phthalate esters in the environment: A critical review of their occurrence, biodegradation, and removal during wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan

    2016-01-15

    Phthalate esters are one of the most frequently detected persistent organic pollutants in the environment. A better understanding of their occurrence and degradation in the environment and during wastewater treatment processes will facilitate the development of strategies to reduce these pollutants and to bioremediate contaminated freshwater and soil. Phthalate esters occur at measurable levels in different environments worldwide. For example, the concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in atmospheric particulate matter, fresh water and sediments, soil, and landfills are N.D.-10.4 ng/m(3), N.D.-31.7 μg/L, N.D.-316 μg/kg dry weight, and N.D.-200 μg/kg dry weight, N.D.-43.27 μg/L, respectively. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are primary phthalate ester pollutants. Urbanization has increased the discharge of phthalate esters to atmospheric and aquatic environments, and the use of agricultural plastics has exacerbated soil contamination by phthalate esters in rural areas. Aerobic biodegradation is the primary manner of phthalate ester mineralization in the environment, and this process has been widely studied. Phthalate esters can be removed during wastewater treatment processes. The combination of different wastewater treatment technologies showed greater efficiency in the removal of phthalate esters than individual treatment steps, such as the combination of anaerobic wastewater treatment with a membrane bioreactor would increase the efficiency of phthalate ester removal from 65%-71% to 95%-97%. This review provides a useful framework to identify future research objectives to achieve the mineralization and elimination of phthalate esters in the environment.

  13. Maternal and early life exposure to phthalates: The Plastics and Personal-care Products use in Pregnancy (P4) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Tye E; Fisher, Mandy; MacPherson, Susan; Lang, Carly; Provencher, Gilles; LeBlanc, Alain; Hauser, Russ; Feeley, Mark; Ayotte, Pierre; Neisa, Angelica; Ramsay, Tim; Tawagi, George

    2016-05-01

    Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a number of consumer products; some of these phthalates have been shown to possess estrogenic activity and display anti-androgenic effects. While a number of biomonitoring studies of phthalates in pregnant women and infants have been published, there is a paucity of data based on both multiple sampling periods and in different matrices. Phthalate metabolites were measured in 80 pregnant women and their infants in Ottawa Canada (2009-2010) in urine, meconium and breast milk collected at various time periods pre- and post-parturition. At least 50% of the women had at least one urine sample greater than the limit of detection (LOD) for the various phthalate metabolites, with the exception of mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP) and mono(carboxy-isooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP). Four major clusters of maternal urinary metabolites were identified. Among infants (n=61), the following metabolites were rarely (< 10%) detected: mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), and mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP). While mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), MEHHP, and MEOHP were frequently detected in maternal urines at any time point, these metabolites were rarely detected in breast milk. Maternal urinary concentrations of MEP and the DEHP metabolites were higher in samples collected during pregnancy than postnatally. No statistically significant differences were observed in infant's urinary phthalate concentrations between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Significant correlations were observed between maternal urinary MEHHP (r=0.35), MEOHP (r=0.35) and MEP (r=0.37) collected at <20weeks gestation with levels in meconium and between MBzP (r=0.78) and MEP (r=0.56) in maternal and infant urine collected 2-3months after birth. These results suggest at least some maternal-fetal-infant transfer of phthalates and that meconium may be a

  14. Free and total urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women from the Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingshuang; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Cai, Zongwei; Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Chuncao; Huo, Wenqian; Huang, Kai; Hu, Jie; Cheng, Lu; Chang, Huailong; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Bing; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-03-01

    Total urinary phthalate metabolites (the free plus glucuronidated forms) have been frequently measured in the general population. However, data are limited on the free forms which may be more bioactive, especially for sensitive population such as pregnant women. Here the data gap was addressed by measuring concentrations of free and total forms of six phthalate metabolites in 293 urine samples from pregnant women at delivery, who were randomly selected from the prospective Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China. We observed detectable concentrations of the total amount of phthalate metabolites in all urine samples. The geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations of free and total mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) (5.20, 54.49ng/mL) were the highest, followed by mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) (4.52, 7.27ng/mL). For most of phthalate metabolites, urinary concentrations were significantly higher in women who were nulliparous. Significantly higher concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were found in women who had higher educational level. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the free and total forms of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women in China. The results suggest that exposure characteristics may be related to parity and education.

  15. A butyrylcholinesterase in the early development of the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: a target for phthalate ester embryotoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acey, Roger A; Bailey, Stacie; Healy, Patricia; Jo, Chang; Unger, Thomas F; Hudson, Richard A

    2002-12-13

    The phthalate ester insensitive blue-green algae (Synechococcus lividus) were used as a food source to extend the survival of synchronously hatched brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae allowing measurement of a reduced toxic response to phthalate esters at late post-hatching stages of development. The maximum acute toxicity due to di-n-butyl phthalate (DNBP) correlated with the expression of a phthalate ester-hydrolyzing enzyme. The purified enzyme was identified as a butyrylcholinesterase due to its rapid inactivation by low concentrations (10(-7)M) of diisopropyl fluorophosphate and inhibition by physostigmine (IC(50)=6 x 10(-7)M) and tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide (I-OMPA, IC(50)=x 10(-6)M) but not by BW284c5. Apparently competition of the phthalates with the endogenous substrates of the enzyme led to development-dependent toxicity.

  16. Thermal and enzymatic pretreatment of sludge containing phthalate esters prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Yenal, U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of thermal pretreatment of sludge at 70degreesC on the anaerobic degradation of three commonly found phthalic acid esters (PAE): di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Also, the enzymatic treatment....../biological activity. Therefore, thermal pretreatment of sludge containing PAE should be either avoided or combined with a treatment step focusing on PAE reduction. On the other hand, enzymatic treatment was very efficient in the removal of PAE. The enzymatic degradation of DBP, DEP, and DEHP could be one to two...... at 28degreesC with a commercial lipase was studied as a way to enhance PAE removal. Pretreatment at 70degreesC of the sludge containing PAE negatively influenced the anaerobic biodegradability of phthalate esters at 37degreesC. The observed reduction of PAE biodegradation rates after the thermal...

  17. Application of magnetic graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposites for the solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Yang, Xiaodi; Bi, Wentao

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposites were successfully prepared in situ and used to develop a highly sensitive magnetic solid-phase extraction method for the preconcentration of phthalate esters such as di-n-butyl phthalate, butyl phthalate, dihexyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate from water. The adsorption and desorption of the phthalate esters on magnetic graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposites were investigated and the parameters affecting the partition of the phthalate esters, such as adsorption, desorption, recovery, were assessed. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed excellent sensitivity with limits of detection (S/N = 3) in the range of 0.05-0.1 μg/L and precision in the range of 1.1-2.6% (n = 5). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of real water samples, and good spiked recoveries over the range of 79.4-99.4% were obtained. This research provides a possibility to apply this nanocomposite for adsorption, preconcentration, or even removal of various carbon-based ring or hydrophobic pollutants.

  18. Ink-Jet Printing: A Versatile Method for Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Fabrication (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    for the cathode current collector layer. a-Terpineol was used as the sol- vent for the ink slurries. Polyvinyl butyral (PVB), butyl benzyl phthalate...doped lanthanum manganate; PAG, polyalkalyne glycol; BBP, butyl benzyl phthalate; PVB, polyvinyl butyral . December 2009 Ink-Jet Printing of SOFC 2915

  19. An assessment of the toxicity of phthalate esters to freshwater benthos. 1. Aqueous exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, D J; Markee, T P; Geiger, D L; Brooke, L T; VandeVenter, F A; Cox, D A; Genisot, K I; Robillard, K A; Gorsuch, J W; Parkerton, T F; Reiley, M C; Ankley, G T; Mount, D R

    2001-08-01

    Tests were performed with the freshwater invertebrates Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, and Lumbriculus variegatus to determine the acute toxicity of six phthalate esters, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). It was possible to derive 10-d LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of the population) values only for the four lower molecular weight esters (DMP, DEP, DBP, and BBP), for which toxicity increased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and decreasing water solubility. The LC50 values for DMP, DEP, DBP, and BBP were 28.1, 4.21, 0.63, and 0.46 mg/L for H. azteca; 68.2, 31.0, 2.64, and > 1.76 mg/L for C. tentans; and 246, 102, 2.48, and 1.23 mg/L for L. variegatus, respectively. No significant survival reductions were observed when the three species were exposed to either DHP or DEHP at concentrations approximating their water solubilities.

  20. An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosobent assay for dibutyl phthalate in human urinary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lifang [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Yajing [Hangzhou EPIE Bio-detection Technology Limited, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Zhang, Dai; Ahmed, Shabbir [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chen, Shuqing, E-mail: chenshuqing@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been extensively used as a plasticizer in many daily products, which is highly toxic to human, notably affecting the reproductive and developmental function. As the previous method is expensive, time-consuming, low sensitivity and just focused on the environment. Present study was aimed to establish an ultra-sensitive and simple method based on good quality monoclonal antibody, applying to evaluate excretion level of DBP in urine samples of Chinese population directly. A monoclonal antibody was generated and characterized after fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from BALB/c mouse. The mouse was previously immunized using a specially designed amino derivative of DBP conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as immunogen. Cross-reactivity values of the monoclonal antibody against DBP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were observed 100% and 1.25%, while for dimethyl phthalate (DMP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) the values were < 0.06%. The standard curve was constructed at 0–50 ng mL{sup −1} and good linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.994) was achieved. The observed IC{sub 50} (7.34 ng mL{sup −1}) and LOD (0.06 ng mL{sup −1}) values was improved 1000-fold to polyclonal antibody and 5-fold to other monoclonal antibodies. A total 1246 urine samples were analyzed and the detection frequency of DBP was observed 72.87% by ic-ELISA. The 95th percentile and mean concentration of DBP were 12.07 and 3.00 ng mL{sup −1}. Acceptable recovery rates of DBP were 97.8–114.3% and coefficients variation 5.93–11.09%. The concentrations of DBP in females were found significantly higher (p < 0.05) than males. Similarly, the DBP in middle aged and low educated individuals was found higher (p < 0.001) than the others. Considering the adverse health effects, DBP internal exposure in the Chinese population should be reduced. The ic-ELISA method has been proved as a cost effective, specific, and highly sensitive screening

  1. 76 FR 57024 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used...

  2. 76 FR 38116 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys...

  3. 75 FR 67692 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used...

  4. 76 FR 13988 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys...

  5. 76 FR 63610 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys...

  6. Synthesis of some novel fluoro isoxazolidine and isoxazoline derivatives using -benzyl fluoro nitrone via cycloaddition reaction in ionic liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhaskar Chakraborty; Govinda Prasad Luitel

    2013-09-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids are found to accelerate significantly the intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of -benzyl-fluoro nitrone derived in situ from 2,6-difluoro benzaldehyde and -benzylhydroxylamine, with activated alkenes and electron deficient alkynes to afford enhanced rates and improved yields of novel isoxazolidines and isoxazolines.

  7. 邻苯二甲酸二丁酯对红鳍笛鲷幼鱼的胁迫效应%Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on activity of enzyms in different tissues of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦洁芳; 陈海刚; 蔡文贵; 杨涛; 贾晓平

    2011-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a member of the phthalate acid ester (PAE) family, is thought to have an endocrine disrupting effect on vertebrates and humans and has been identified as priority controlled hazardous substance in the United States and China. In order to evaluate the effect of DPB, we examined liver and gill levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and brain levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus). Groups offish were exposed to 0,0.125, 0.5, or 2.0 mg/LDBP for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, or 96 h. The 24, 48 and 96h LC50 values were 7.13, 7.02, and 6.75 mg/L, respectively. The safe concentration (SC) of DBP was 2.04 mg·L-1. Gill superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly as the concentration of DBP increased. In contrast, there was no clear pattern of induction or inhibition for liver SOD activity, though levels in the groups exposed to 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L were significantly different from the control (P0.05). Brain levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were 32.07%, 62.07%, and 61.60% higher in fish exposed to 0.125, 0.5 or 2.0 mg/L, respectively, after 48 h. However, AChE activity was lower in the treatment groups than in the control group after 96 h exposure (28.87%, 20.12%, and 21.14% lower, respectively). Our results suggest that the effects of DBP on enzyme activity is related to the time of exposure. It could be concluded that DBP causes oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in aquatic organisms. Thus, attention should be given to the potential ecological risk posed by this contaminant.%为了探讨邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)对红鳍笛鲷(Lutjanus erythropterus)幼鱼的胁迫效应,于DBP暴露后0、6、12、24、48和96 h时检测红鳍笛鲷鳃、肝和脑组织中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)和乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)活性.结果表明,DBP对红鳍笛鲷的24 h、48 h和96 h LC50分别为7.10 mg/L、6.98 mg/L和6.66 mg/L,安全质量浓度为2.04 mg/L.

  8. Phthalate metabolites in obese individuals undergoing weight loss: Urinary levels and estimation of the phthalates daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirtu, Alin C; Geens, Tinne; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Neels, Hugo; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-09-01

    Human exposure to chemicals commonly encountered in our environment, like phthalates, is routinely assessed through urinary measurement of their metabolites. A particular attention is given to the specific population groups, such as obese, for which the dietary intake of environmental chemicals is higher. To evaluate the exposure to phthalates, nine phthalate metabolites (PMs) were analyzed in urine collected from obese individuals and a control population. Obese individuals lost weight through either bariatric surgery or a conservative weight loss program with dietary and lifestyle counseling. Urine samples were also collected from the obese individuals after 3, 6 and 12months of weight loss. Individual daily intakes of the corresponding phthalate diesters were estimated based on the urinary PM concentrations. A high variability was recorded for the levels of each PM in both obese and control urine samples showing the exposure to high levels of PMs in specific subgroups. The most important PM metabolite as percentage contribution to the total PM levels was mono-ethyl phthalate followed by the metabolites of di-butyl phthalate and di 2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP). No differences in the PM levels and profiles between obese entering the program and controls were observed. Although paralleled by a significant decrease of their weight, an increase in the urinary PM levels after 3 to 6months loss was seen. Constant figures for the estimated phthalates daily intake were observed over the studied period, suggesting that besides food consumption, other human exposure sources to phthalates (e.g. air, dust) might be also important. The weight loss treatment method followed by obese individuals influenced the correlations between PM levels, suggesting a change of the intake sources with time. Except for few gender differences recorded between the urinary DEHP metabolites correlations, no other differences were observed for the urinary PM levels as a function of age, body

  9. 黑土微生物丰度和多样性对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯污染的响应%Response of the Abundance and Diversity of Microbes in Black Soil to Di-n-butyl Phthalate Contamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 由义敏; 徐伟慧; 苏云鹏; 胡影; 刘帅; 胡云龙; 赵晓松

    2015-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(Di-n-butyl phthalate,DBP)是一种在环境中广泛存在的有机污染物,已被中国环境检测中心和美国环保署列为优先控制污染物。该研究探讨了黑土微生物丰度和多样性对不同浓度DBP(0、5、10、20和40 mg·kg-1)污染的响应。研究结果基本表明,黑土中的细菌、真菌和放线菌的生长(数量)对DBP污染均表现为被抑制效应,且在污染初期抑制效应与DBP浓度呈正相关,随着培养时间的增加有减缓的趋势,但在短期(25 d)内并未完全消除。为了确证这一结果,选择了4种有代表性的微生物,做了进一步的研究。结果同样表明自生固氮菌、亚硝酸氧化菌和磷细菌的生长均受到DBP污染的抑制,且抑制效应与DBP污染浓度呈显著性正相关(P=0.05);但是铁细菌的生长(数量)却受到了 DBP 污染的促进,且增幅与 DBP 污染浓度呈现正相关。采用 RAPD 方法研究表明,黑土微生物的丰富度和Shannon-Weanier多样性受到DBP污染的抑制,且10、20和40 mg·kg-1的污染浓度处理的抑制效应在25 d内并未完全消除。因此,可以得出结论:DBP 污染改变了黑土微生物区系结构和功能代谢菌群数量,降低了黑土微生物的多样性与丰度,从而有可能影响黑土的生态系统功能,威胁黑土的可持续利用。%Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), belonging to the family of phthalic acid esters, is a plasticizer and widely used in the world for many years. Nowadays, it has become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and listed as an environmental priority pollutant by China's Environmental Monitoring Center and United States Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of this study is to estimate the responses of the bacterial community, typical functional bacteria and bacterial biodiversity in black soil to DBP (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg·kg-1) contamination. The results showed that the

  10. Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Norwegian foods and beverages and estimated dietary exposure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit K; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; Voorspoels, Stefan; Carlsen, Monica H; Løken, Elin B; Brantsæter, Anne L; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2014-12-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous in our environment. These chemicals have been characterized as endocrine disruptors that can cause functional impairment of development and reproduction. Processed and packaged foods are among the major sources of human exposure to these chemicals. No previous report showing the levels of these chemicals in food items purchased in Norway is available. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of ten different phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages purchased on the Norwegian market and estimate the daily dietary exposure in the Norwegian adult population. Commonly consumed foods and beverages in Norway were purchased in a grocery store and analysed using gas- and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Daily dietary exposures to these chemicals in the Norwegian adult population were estimated using the latest National dietary survey, Norkost 3 (2010-2011). This study showed that phthalates and BPA are found in all foods and beverages that are common to consume in Norway. The detection frequency of phthalates in the food items varied from 11% for dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) to 84% for di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), one of the substitutes for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). BPA was found in 54% of the food items analysed. Among the different phthalates, the highest concentrations were found for DEHP and DiNP in the food items. Estimated dietary exposures were also equally high and dominated by DEHP and DiNP (400-500 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day), followed by di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP) (30-40 ng/kg bw/day). Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP) and DCHP had the lowest concentrations and the exposures were around 10-20 ng/kg bw/day. Estimated dietary exposure to BPA was 5 ng/kg bw/day. In general, levels of phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages from the Norwegian market

  11. Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chin Huang

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use.We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors.The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, DBP (DnBP and DiBP, including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP, and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011, MECPP (P=0.01, MnBP (P=0.001 and MEP (P<0.001 than men (≧18 years, whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001, especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001, MECPP (P=0.002 and MnBP (P=0.044 in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese.Our findings indicated that DEHP and DBP exposure in a sample of the

  12. Sensitization and quenching in the conversion of light energy into chemical energy. Progress report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980. [Benzylic chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, S.J.

    1979-09-01

    Data have been accumulated on the rates of excitation transfer from acetone or acetophenone sensitizers to several benzylic chlorides in acetonitrile-t-butyl alcohol or acetone-t-butyl alcohol and on the lifetimes of the excited triplet intermediates leading to solvolysis products (arylmethyl t-butyl ethers and arylmethanols). Lifetimes were found to be in the 0-2 nsec range. In direct irradiation, in t-butyl alcohol or acetonitrile-t-butyl alcohol, t-butyl ethers are formed from intermediates which are either singlets or are triplets of short lifetimes (0-2 nsec). Long-lived triplets, which do not lead to t-butyl ethers or to other products, but which decay to starting materials, and which arise by intersystem crossing from excited singlet states, were discovered by their ability to isomerize cis-piperylene (Hammond-Lamola quenching). These hidden triplets were shown to be produced as well by excitation transfer from benzophenone. They represent a large fraction of the energy wastage in this system. Work has begun on the preparation of materials for study of optically active benzylic chloride solvolyses, for study of optically active benzylic chloride solvolyses, for study of intramolecular (2 + 2) cycloadditions and for di-..pi..-methane studies, in our attempts to understand the mechanistic details of these important photochemical reactions.

  13. 反相液相色谱法测定膏状香精中邻苯二甲酸酯类%Determination of phthalate plasticizers in cream essence by reverse phase liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兴海; 陈湘来

    2012-01-01

    Four phthalate acid esters in cream essence,such as dimethyl phthalate(DMP),diethyl phthalate (DEP),dibutyl phthalate(DBP) and benzyl butyl phthalate(BBP),were determined by reverse phase liquid chromatography. The conditions for extraction were researched. Orthogonal design experiment was carried out to optimize the 3 dominant factors (hexane volume, ultrasonic time,water temperature) affecting extraction recovery. The optimum conditions for solid phase extraction were determined as follows hexane volume 10mL, ultrasonic time 25min,water temperature 15~C. Results showed that the recoveries of the four phthalates were 90%N94%.There was a good linear relationship between peak area and concentration of 4 phthalate esters in range of 0.5-20mg/L.%采用反相液相色谱法研究了膏状香精中邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMP)、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯(DEP)、邻苯二甲酸二正丁基酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP)4种邻苯二甲酸酯的萃取条件。利用正交实验对影响萃取总量的3个主要因素(正己烷用量、超声时间、水浴温度)进行了优化,确定了萃取的最佳条件:正己烷用量10mL,超声时间25min,水浴温度15℃。结果表明,该分析条件下,样品猪骨膏、牛肉膏的加标回收率为90%~94%。用乙腈-水等梯度洗脱(75∶25),4种PAEs分离较好,在0.5-20mg/L之间,色谱峰面积与4种邻苯二甲酸酯的浓度呈现良好的线性关系。

  14. [Analysis of phthalates in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Ruohua

    2006-01-01

    The method for simultaneous determination of four phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The plastic food-packaging bags were extracted with ethanol by ultrasonication, then the mixture was filtrated through membrane (0.45 microm). The mixture of ethyl acetate-anhydrous ether-isooctane (1 : 4 : 15, v/v) was used as developing agent on the TLC silica gel plate for development. The filtered liquid was spotted on the TLC plate dealt by acetone, and detected with scanning wavelength of 275 nm and reference wavelength of 340 nm. The qualitative analysis of the phthalates was performed using the R(f) values of the chromatogram. The quantitative analysis was performed with external standard method. Good linearities were obtained for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP. The detection limits were 2.1 ng for DMP, 2.4 ng for DEP, 3.4 ng for DBP and 4.0 ng for DEHP. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the four phthalates were 2.8% - 3.5%. The recoveries of the four phthalate standards in real sample were 78.58% - 111.04%. The method presented has the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment . The method was used to detect the four phthalates in the food-packaging bags. The contents in real samples were close to the results by gas chromatography.

  15. A semi-probabilistic modelling approach for the estimation of dietary exposure to phthalates in the Belgian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Standaert, A; Cornelis, C; Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Willems, H; Bellemans, M; De Maeyer, M; Van Holderbeke, M

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a semi-probabilistic modelling approach was applied for the estimation of the long-term human dietary exposure to phthalates--one of world's most used families of plasticisers. Four phthalate compounds were considered: diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Intake estimates were calculated for the Belgian adult population and several subgroups of this population for two considered scenarios using an extended version of the EN-forc model. The highest intake rates were found for DEHP, followed by DnBP, BBP and DEP. In the Belgian adult population, men and young adults generally had the highest dietary phthalate intake estimates. Nevertheless, predicted dietary intake rates for all four investigated phthalates were far below the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) values (i.e. P99 intake values were 6.4% of the TDI at most), which is reassuring because adults are also exposed to phthalates via other contamination pathways (e.g. dust ingestion and inhalation). The food groups contributing most to the dietary exposure were grains and grain-based products for DEP, milk and dairy products for DnBP, meat and meat products or grains and grain-based products (depending on the scenario) for BBP and meat and meat products for DEHP. Comparison of the predicted intake results based on modelled phthalate concentrations in food products with intake estimates from other surveys (mostly based on measured concentrations) showed that the extended version of the EN-forc model is a suitable semi-probabilistic tool for the estimation and evaluation of the long-term dietary intake of phthalates in humans.

  16. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg;

    2012-01-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function....

  17. Phthalates in toys available in Indian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sapna; Saikia, Nirmali; Sahu, Ramakant

    2011-06-01

    Twenty four children's toys and child care articles available in the local market of India were analyzed for eight phthalates as children toys are plasticized with phthalates. All toy samples showed the presence of one or more phthalates including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (96% of the samples), di-iso-nonyl phthalate and di-iso-decyl phthalate (42% of the samples) at a concentration ranging from 0.1% to 16.2%. Soft toys contain higher levels of phthalates as compared to hard toys as primary function of phthalates is softening of hard plastic materiel.

  18. A Novel Strategy Towards the Asymmetric Synthesis of Orthogonally Funtionalised 2-N-Benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamino- 5-carboxymethyl-cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio G. Urones

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric synthesis of the orthogonally funtionalised compounds tert-butyl 2-N-benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamino-5-methoxycarbonylmethylcyclopentane- 1-carboxylate and methyl 2-N-benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamino-5–carboxymethylcyclo- pentane-1-carboxylate by a domino reaction of tert-butyl methyl (E,E-octa-2,6- diendioate with lithium N-α-methylbenzyl-N-benzylamide initiated by a Michael addition, subsequent 5-exo-trig intramolecular cyclisation and posterior selective hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid is reported.

  19. Phthalate exposure and health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are used in commercial products as softners of plastics, solvents in perfumes and additives to hair sprays, lubricants and insect repellents. The wide spread use of phthalate results in multiple human exposure routes i.e., ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure. In the present review, a detailed account of respiratory toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, endocrine disruptors and genotoxicity of human exposure to phthalate is mentioned in detail.

  20. Determination of six phthalate plasticizers in coatings on toys by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry%气相色谱-质谱法测定玩具涂层中6种邻苯二甲酸酯增塑剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 沈培康; 蒋小良

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining six kinds of phthalate plasticizers including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP) in coatings on toys by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was established. The conditions of microwave assisted extraction were optimized as follows:dichloromethane as extractant, extraction temperature 60 °C, and extraction time 25 min. Under the selected experimental conditions, six phthalate plasticizers in coatings on toys were determined by the method, and the linear regression between peak area and mass concentration of individual plasticizer was made. The linear range is 0.5-50 mg/L, correlation coefficient higher than 0.999, detection limit 0.5-1.0 mg/L, recovery of standard addition 83.5%-105.6%, and relative standard deviation less than 5.8%. The method is easy and rapid to operate with good accuracy and sensitivity, suitable for simultaneous determination of the concentrations of six phthalate plasticizers in coatings on toys.%建立了气相色谱–质谱法测定玩具涂层中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸丁苄酯(BBP)、邻苯二甲酸二(2−乙基己基)酯(DEHP)、邻苯二甲酸二正辛酯(DNOP)、邻苯二甲酸二异壬酯(DINP)、邻苯二甲酸二异癸酯(DIDP)等6种邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂的分析方法,确定了适宜的微波辅助萃取条件为:以二氯甲烷为萃取剂,萃取温度60°C,萃取时间25 min。在试验选定的条件下,以该方法测定玩具涂层中6种邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂,以峰面积对质量浓度线性回归,线性范围在0.5~50 mg/L,则相关系数大于0.999,最低检出限为0.5~1.0 mg/L,加标回收率在83.5%~105.6%之间,相对标准偏差小于5.8%。该方法操作简便快速,准确度和灵敏度高,适合于玩具涂层中6种邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂含量的同时测定。

  1. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy.

  2. Direct determination of rate constants for coupling between aromatic radical anions and alkyl and benzyl radicals by laser-flash photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.; Christensen, P.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    2003-01-01

    Coupling rates between the radicals methyl, n-, sec-, tert-butyl and benzyl (R-.) and the aromatic radical anions of 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene, 9,10-dicyanoanthracene and fluorenone (A(-.)) have been obtained using a new laser-flash photolysis method. The radicals R-. and the radical anions A(-.) were...... generated by a photoinduced electron transfer reaction between the aromatic compound A and the alkyl or benzyl triphenylborate anion RB(Ph)(3)(-). For the first time the rate constants of the coupling reaction between methyl and benzyl radicals with aromatic radical anions have been obtained. For all...... of the radicals and the structure and standard potentials of the aromatic radical anions....

  3. 76 FR 75537 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and...

  4. 75 FR 73048 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and...

  5. Investigation of the amount of transdermal exposure of newborn babies to phthalates in paper diapers and certification of the safety of paper diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Satoko; Katagiri, Ritsuko; Minobe, Yasushi; Kuribara, Isamu; Wada, Takeharu; Wada, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Shigeo

    2015-10-01

    A risk assessment study of seven phthalates in paper diapers for newborn babies produced in Japan was performed. The diapers were purchased and the contents of the seven phthalates were determined and estimated amounts of exposure were calculated based on the eluted rate into artificial medium of urine or sweat, average weight of infants, and frequency of use. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were detected in the topsheets and determined to be 0.6 μg/g and 0.2 μg/g, respectively. The daily estimated exposure volume was calculated to be in the range of 1.86 × 10(-10)-2.98 × 10(-6) mg/kg/day as follows: content of seven phthalates in the topsheet (0.1-1 μg/g) × eluted rate of phthalates into artificial sweat (0.0006-2.4%) × weight of the topsheet of a diaper (1.5 g) × the number of diapers used per day (12 sheets) × skin absorption rate (0.005-0.1)/average body weight (2.9 kg). For hazard assessment, we used 0.2-300 mg/kg/day for the seven phthalates based on the data available at international agencies. The margin of exposure to the seven phthalates was 6.71 × 10(4)-1.99 × 10(11), indicating that the risk of exposure to phthalates from the diapers produced in Japan was negligible.

  6. Benzylation of Aromatic Compounds with Benzyl Chloride Catalyzed by Nafion/SiO2 Nanocomposite Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Guo YANG; Rui Mao HUA; Hai WANG; Bo Qing XU1

    2005-01-01

    In the presence of Nafion/SiO2 nanocomposite catalyst, the benzylation of aromatic compounds with benzyl chloride proceeded to afford diphenylmethane derivatives in high yields.The catalyst showed high catalytic activity not only for electron-rich aromatic compounds, but also for electron-poor aromatic compounds. Under identical conditions, the self-benzylation of benzyl chloride, and dibenzylation and/or multi-benzylation of aromatic compounds were negligible.

  7. Covalently linked plasticizers: triazole analogues of phthalate plasticizers prepared by mild copper-free “click” reactions with azide-functionalized PVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earla, Aruna; Braslau, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Copper-free azide-alkyne click chemistry is utilized to covalently modify polyvinyl chloride(PVC). Phthalate plasticizer mimics di(2-ethylhexyl)-1H-triazole-4,5 dicarboxylate (DEHT), di(nbutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate (DBT), and dimethyl-1H-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate(DMT) are covalently attached to PVC. DEHT, DBT, and DMT have similar chemical structures to traditional plasticizers di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP), but pose no danger of leaching from the polymer matrix and forming small endocrine disrupting chemicals. The synthesis of these covalent plasticizers is expected to be scalable, providing a viable alternative to the use of phthalates, thus mitigating dangers to human health and the environment.

  8. Comparison of organic component and di-n-butyl phthalate between human milk and cow milk products%人乳和牛乳中有机物种类及邻苯二甲酸二丁酯水平的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧杰; 曹佳; 舒为群

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较人乳和牛乳中有机物种类及邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)的污染水平.方法 选取40名健康产妇,年龄(27.44±3.43)岁.分别采集每名产妇乳汁5 ml.采用简单随机抽样的方法选取市售常见4种不同品牌鲜牛奶和1种品牌的奶粉,每种品牌的牛奶制品分别抽取3个样品,共取样15份(其中鲜牛奶12份,奶粉3份).应用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法分别对样品中有机物种类进行定性分析及DBP的定量测定.结果 在40份人乳中共检出有机物176种,平均(10.58±4.16)种;12份鲜牛奶中共检出有机物37种,平均为(8.67±1.61)种;3份奶粉中共检出有机物31种,平均(12.67±0.58)种.奶粉中的有机物检出种类数高于人乳和鲜牛奶(t值分别为2.09、4.00,P值均<0.05).在人乳与牛乳中检出率均较高的有机物主要是9-十八烯酸,人乳中检出率为45.00%(18/40),牛乳中检出率为53.33%(8/15).人乳中DBP的含量为(57.78±35.42)μg/L,鲜牛奶中DBP的含量为(20.76±6.60)μg/L,奶粉中DBP的含量为(0.45±0.05)mg/kg[相当于浓度值为(66.78±7.60)μg/L].鲜牛奶中DBP含量低于人乳和奶粉(t值分别为37.02、46.02,P值均<0.05).结论 人乳与牛乳中均含有多种环境有机污染物,部分污染物具有生殖和发育毒性.%Objective To explore types of organic components and pollution level of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) between human milk and cow milk products. Methods Forty healthy postpartum women with an average age of (27.44 ± 3.43) years old were selected, and a 5 ml sample of breast milk were collected. Four different brands of fresh cow milk and 1 brand of milk powder were randomly selected in the market. A total of 15 samples were collected with 3 from each brand,and the qualitative analysis of types of organic components and quantitative analysis of DBP were conducted by gas-chromatography and massspectrometry(GC/MS) method. Results A total of 176 different types of organic components were detected

  9. Molecular Interaction Studies of Benzyl Alcohols with Methacrylates in Carbon Tetrachloride using Frequency Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric relaxation of benzyl alcohol substitutents (benzyl alcohol, m-methylbenzyl alcohol and m-nitrobenzyl alcohol with methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate in dilute solution of carbon tetrachloride is measured at 9.37 GHz using Frequency domain (X-band technique. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant (ε׳, dielectric loss factor (ε״ at Microwave frequency, static dielectric constant (ε0 and dielectric constant at infinite dilution (ε∞ at optical frequency have been determined. From the measured dielectric data, the relaxation time (t calculated using Higasi method and activation energies (∆Ft and ∆Fη have been determined. All the dielectric parameters that are vary with the substitutent change in benzyl alcohol andchain length of acrylic esters. Suggests that, the proton donating ability is varying with the substitution of benzyl alcohol and proton accepting ability is varying with the chain length of acrylic esters. The relaxation time and molar free energy activation of 1:1 molar ratio is greater than other higher molar ratios (i.e. 3:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:3 confirm that the existence of most likely 1:1 complex formation between the studied systems and also complex formation formed between free hydroxyl group of substituted benzyl alcohols and carbonyl group of acrylic esters (MMA and EMA.

  10. Urinary phthalate metabolites among elementary school children of Korea: sources, risks, and their association with oxidative stress marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmi; Kang, Sungeun; Lee, Gowoon; Lee, Saeram; Jo, Areum; Kwak, Kyunghee; Kim, Dohyung; Koh, Dohyun; Kho, Young Lim; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2014-02-15

    Phthalates have been used in a variety of consumer products and hence frequently been detected in humans. Children are susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as phthalates, but only limited information is available on the sources of exposure and potential adverse health effects among children. In this study, elementary school students (n=39, aged 9-12 years) were recruited in Seoul, and first void urine samples were collected twice in three-day intervals. Then six phthalate metabolites were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress marker was measured. A questionnaire was conducted and information on food consumption and the use of plastic packaging or storage materials was gathered. The concentrations of phthalate metabolites varied substantially by sampling time even within the same subject, but all target metabolites were detected in 100% of the samples with the highest geometric mean of 107 μg/g-creatinine for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). Urinary levels of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), and MnBP among Korean children were 8 and 3 times greater than those reported for US children, but those of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) were about 5 times lower than those of US children. Estimated phthalate intakes were generally in safe range, but in 3-8% of the participating children, the hazard quotients greater than one were noted. Urinary MDA concentrations were significantly associated with several metabolite levels after adjusting covariates in regression model. Consumption of dairy products or meat, and use of a plastic material were significantly associated with the DEHP metabolites or MnBP levels in multivariate model. The results of this study provide evidence of the association between phthalate exposure and oxidative stress especially among the early teenagers, and identified major sources that can be applied to development of management

  11. Comparison of in vitro hormone activities of selected phthalates using reporter gene assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ouxi; Du, Guizhen; Sun, Hong; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Yi; Song, Ling; Wang, Xinru

    2009-12-01

    Phthalates are widely used in the plastic industry and food packaging, imparting softness and flexibility to normally rigid plastic medical devices and children's toys. Even though phthalates display low general toxicity, there is increasing concern on the effects of endocrine system induced by some of phthalate compounds. The hormone activity of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were assessed using the luciferase reporter gene assays. The results showed that DBP, MBP and DEHP, not only exhibited potent antiandrogenic activity, with IC(50) value of 1.05x10(-6), 1.22x10(-7)M and exceeding 1x10(-4)M respectively, but also showed the androgenic activity with EC(50) value of 6.17x10(-6), 1.13x10(-5)M and exceeding 1x10(-4)M. We also found that all the three related chemicals possessed thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity with IC(50) of 1.31x10(-5), 2.77x10(-6)M and exceeding 1x10(-4)M respectively, and none showed TR agonist activity. These results indicate that TR might be the targets of industrial chemicals. In the ER mediate reporter gene assay, three chemicals showed no agonistic activity except for DBP, which appeared weakly estrogenic at the concentration of 1.0x10(-4)M. Together, the findings demonstrate that the three phthalates could simultaneously disrupt the function of two or more hormonal receptors. Therefore, these phthalates should be considered in risk assessments for human health.

  12. Estimated Daily Intake and Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates in the General Taiwanese after the 2011 DEHP Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Lee, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chou, Wei-Chun; Huang, Han-Bin; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, Po-Chin

    2017-03-01

    A food scandal occurred in Taiwan in 2011 because the DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) had been intentionally used in food products. We assessed the daily intakes (DIs) and cumulative risk of phthalates in Taiwan’s general population after the scandal. The DIs of 6 phthalates, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and DEHP, were evaluated using urinary phthalate metabolites. Hazard quotients of phthalates classified as affecting the reproductive (HQrep) and hepatic (HQhep) systems were assessed using cumulative approach. The creatinine-based model showed that the highest DI values in children 7-to 12- years-old were for DEHP (males: median: 4.79 μg/kg bw/d; females: median: 2.62 μg/kg bw/d). The 95th percentile (P95) of HQrep values were all >1 in the 7- to 12-year-old and 18- to 40-year-old male groups. The P95 of HQhep values were all >1 in the 7- to 18- year-old male groups. Most of the HQrep was attributable to the HQs of DnBP and DiBP (53.9–84.7%), and DEHP contributed most to HQhep (83.1–98.6%), which reveals that DnBP, DiBP and DEHP were the main risk of phthalate exposure for Taiwanese. Taiwan’s general population is widely exposed to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP, especially for young children.

  13. 固相萃取-气相色谱法测定食品包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯类物质%Determination of Phthalate Esters in Plastic Food Packing Materials by Solid Phase Extraction-Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小妹; 吴晓燕; 李挥; 张敬轩; 高文惠

    2012-01-01

    建立采用固相萃取-气相色谱法同时分析检测邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二环己酯(DCHP)、邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP)和邻苯二甲酸二-2-乙基己酯(DEHP)4种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质的方法。研究塑料包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯类在水、65%乙醇、4%乙酸、正己烷4种模拟液中的溶出及利用固相萃取技术对浸出液进行富集的情况,考察气相色谱操作条件对4种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质分离的影响。结果表明,该方法具有良好的线性相关性,线性相关系数在0.9986~0.9994之间;回收率在80.63%~95.50%之间;DBP、BBP、DCHP和DEHP的检测限分别是0.050、0.010、0.055μg/mL和0.012μg/mL。该方法样品预处理简便,测定方法灵敏、可靠,可用于食品包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯类的监测。%A method was developed by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography for the simultaneous determination of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food packing materials. The dissolution of phthalate esters from plastic packing materials into water, 65% alcohol, 4% acetic acid and n-hexane was studied. The enrichment of phthalate esters in extraction solution was conducted by solid phase extraction. The effect of gas chromatographic conditions on the separation of four phthalate esters was investigated. The results showed that the method had an excellent linear relationship with the correlation coefficient of 0.9986--0.9994. The recovery rates and detection limits of this method for DBP, BBP, DCHP and DEHP were 80.63% - 95.50%, and 0.050, 0.010, 0.055 and 0.012 μg/mL, respectively. This developed method is easy, sensitive and reliable, which can be used to analyze phthalate esters in plastic food packing materials.

  14. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Diabetes among Women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlhut, Richard; Meeker, John D.; Powell, Sheena-Gail; Hauser, Russ; Huang, Tianyi; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that women have higher urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites than do men, possibly because of a higher use of personal care products. Few studies have evaluated the association between phthalate metabolites, diabetes, and diabetes-related risk factors among women. Objective: We explored the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and diabetes among women who participated in a cross-sectional study. Methods: We used urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and self-reported diabetes of 2,350 women between 20 and 79 years of age who participated in the NHANES (2001–2008). We used multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and adjusted for urinary creatinine, sociodemographic characteristics, dietary factors, and body size. A secondary analysis was conducted for women who did not have diabetes to evaluate the association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment–estimated insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, women with higher levels of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP) had an increased odds of diabetes compared with women with the lowest levels of these phthalates. Women in the highest quartile for MBzP and MiBP had almost twice the odds of diabetes [OR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.47) and OR = 1.95 (95% CI: 0.99, 3.85), respectively] compared with women in the lowest quartile. Nonmonotonic, positive associations were found for MnBP and ΣDEHP, whereas MCPP appeared to have a threshold effect. Certain phthalate metabolites were positively associated with FBG and insulin resistance

  15. Biodegradation of phthalate esters in compost-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B V; Lu, Y S; Yuan, S Y; Tsao, T M; Wang, M K

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the biodegradation of the phthalate acid esters (PAEs) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in compost and compost-amended soil. DBP (50 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (50 mg kg(-1)) were added to the two types of compost (straw and animal manure) and subsequently added to the soil; they were tested as a single compound and in combination. Optimal PAE degradation in soil was at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. The degradation of PAE was enhanced when DBP and DEHP were simultaneously present in the soil. The addition of either of the two types of compost individually also improved the rate of PAE degradation. Compost samples were separated into fractions with various particle size ranges, which spanned from 0.1-0.45 to 500-2000 microm. We observed that the compost fractions with smaller particle sizes demonstrated higher PAE degradation rates. When the different compost fractions were added to soil, however, compost particle size had no significant effect on the rate of PAE degradation.

  16. Adsorption of diethyl phthalate ester to clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanhua; Si, Youbin; Zhou, Dongmei; Gao, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters are a group of plasticizers, which have been widely detected in China's agricultural and industrial soils. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the environmental effects on the adsorption of diethyl phthalate ester (DEP) to clay minerals. The results showed that DEP adsorption isotherms were well fitted with the Freundlich model; the interlayer spacing of K(+) saturated montmorillonite (K-mont) was the most important adsorption area for DEP, and di-n-butyl ester (DnBP) was limited to intercalate into the interlayer of K-mont due to the bigger molecular size; there was no significant effect of pH and ionic strength on DEP adsorption to K-mont/Ca-mont, but to Na-mont clay. The adsorption to kaolinite was very limited. Data of X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectra further proved that DEP molecules could intercalate into K-/Ca-mont interlayer, and might interact with clay through H-bonding between carbonyl groups and clay adsorbed water. Coated humic acid on clay surface would enhance DEP adsorption at low concentration, but not at high concentration (eg. Ce>0.26 mM). The calculated adsorption enthalpy (ΔHobs) and adsorption isotherms at varied temperatures showed that DEP could be adsorbed easier as more adsorbed. This study implied that clay type, compound structure, exchangeable cation, soil organic matter and temperature played important roles in phthalate ester's transport in soil.

  17. An integrated exposure assessment of phthalates for the general population in China based on both exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jie; Hao, Xuewen

    2016-02-01

    The representativeness of available studies on integrated exposure assessment of phthalates for the general population in China is lacking. Based on an exhaustive review of the extensive monitoring data available for China, this study presents a large-scale estimation of exposure levels to three typical phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), by applying both exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches. The respective median exposure levels from the exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches were 3.80, 3.02 and 1.00 μg/kg bw/day and 3.38, 3.21 and 3.32 μg/kg bw/day for DEHP, DBP and DiBP, which are acceptable levels of exposure with respect to current international guidelines. Evaluation results from the two approaches showed both similarities and differences among the different phthalates, making the exposure assessment comparable and more comprehensive. In terms of sources of exposure, food intake was the largest contributor, while indoor air exposure had greater contribution to the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DiBP than that of the other phthalates. Moreover, more attention should be paid to the higher exposure levels of phthalates in several intensively industrialized and urbanized areas, and the causes of the different exposure levels in the different regions need to be further explored.

  18. Radiation effects on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate in aqueous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Ling; Yue Zhiying; Wang Min [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: mlzhai@pku.edu.cn; Yoshii, Fumio; Seko, Noriaki [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Peng Jing; Wei Genshuan; Li Jiuqiang [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2007-12-15

    A water-insoluble cellulose derivative, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) hydrogels, was converted to Na type to form hydrogel in paste-like status by radiation crosslinking. Mechanism for radiation crosslinking of cellulose-derivatives in paste-like status was discussed. Crosslinkers, i.e. methyl N,N-bis-acrylamide (MBA) or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) has been used to decrease gelation dose (Dg) of synthesis HPMCP hydrogels and improve its mechanical properties. HPMCP-MBA hydrogels were found to be more rigid and HPMCP-EGDMA hydrogels were more flexible. Swelling degree of HPMCP hydrogel in many kinds of salt solutions followed Hofmeister series, which is ubiquitous in polyelectrolyte hydrogel. Specific reswelling was observed in concentrated KF solution, implying a very strong F{sup -} binding ability of benzyl group. The comprehensive results obtained in this study will be utilized on the design of HPMCP-based controlled release system.

  19. Radiation effects on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate in aqueous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Yue, Zhiying; Wang, Min; Zhai, Maolin; Yoshii, Fumio; Seko, Noriaki; Peng, Jing; Wei, Genshuan; Li, Jiuqiang

    2007-12-01

    A water-insoluble cellulose derivative, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) hydrogels, was converted to Na type to form hydrogel in paste-like status by radiation crosslinking. Mechanism for radiation crosslinking of cellulose-derivatives in paste-like status was discussed. Crosslinkers, i.e. methyl N, N-bis-acrylamide (MBA) or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) has been used to decrease gelation dose (Dg) of synthesis HPMCP hydrogels and improve its mechanical properties. HPMCP-MBA hydrogels were found to be more rigid and HPMCP-EGDMA hydrogels were more flexible. Swelling degree of HPMCP hydrogel in many kinds of salt solutions followed Hofmeister series, which is ubiquitous in polyelectrolyte hydrogel. Specific reswelling was observed in concentrated KF solution, implying a very strong F - binding ability of benzyl group. The comprehensive results obtained in this study will be utilized on the design of HPMCP-based controlled release system.

  20. A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-12-17

    Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ∼40% of rinse-off products and ∼60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 μg per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 μg/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 μg/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP.

  1. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  2. 77 FR 19005 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all...

  3. 77 FR 34028 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (``CHAP'') on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all...

  4. Butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockler, Jutta; Robertson, Sherryl; Oelgemöller, Michael; Davies, Murray; Bowden, Bruce; Brittain, Harry G; Glass, Beverley D

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive profile on Butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane, one of the most commonly used ultraviolet (UV) filters in topical sunscreen products, is prepared. This UV filter, often referred to as Avobenzone, has its main absorbance in the UVA I region of the spectrum and is susceptible to photodegradation. The profile contains the following sections: general information, use and mechanism of action, method of preparation, physical characteristics, methods of analysis, stability, and toxicity. The physical characteristics section includes the melting range, differential scanning calorimetry, partition coefficient, ionization constant, solubility, and UV, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The method of analysis section in addition to compendial identification and purity and assay methods includes thin-layer gas and high-performance liquid chromatography. The photostability and photostabilization of Butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane, in addition to its toxicity, are also documented.

  5. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  6. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for analysis of phthalates in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sung-Yu; Wang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2013-12-15

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is proposed for analysis of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft drinks. However, the instability of microemulsion is a critical issue. In this research, a novel material, Pluronic® F-127, which has the properties of polymer and surfactant, was added for stabilizing the microemulsion in the MEEKC system. Our data demonstrate that the presence of Pluronic® F-127 (0.05-0.30%) also helps enhance resolution of highly hydrophobic compounds, DBP and DEHP. The electrokinetic injection of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) including sample (-10 kV, 20 s) was introduced in this MEEKC system and this yielded about 25-fold sensitivity enhancement compared with hydrodynamic injection (1 psi, 10 s). During method validation, calibration curves were linear (r≥0.99), within a range of 75-500 ng/mL for DBP and 150-1000 ng/mL for DEHP. As the precision and accuracy assays, absolute values of relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error (RE) in intraday (n=3) and interday (n=5) observations were less than 4.93%. This method was further applied for analyzing six commercial soft drinks and one was found containing 453.67 ng/mL of DEHP. This method is considered feasible for serving as a tool for analysis of highly hydrophobic molecules.

  7. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  8. Toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    are considered recalcitrant. Moreover, they inhibit methanogenesis. However, studies have not been made on the effect of feeding a combination of recalcitrant and biodegradable PAEs into anaerobic digesters treating wastewater sludge. The present study was conducted with wastewater sludge from the Los Angeles...... Bureau of Sanitation's Hyperion Treatment Plant. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most common persistent PAE found in wastewater, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a common PAE with short ester chains, were sorbed into the sludge fed to a bench-scale digester for a period of 12 weeks. DEHP...... populations in the anaerobic bioreactor. Our results imply that high levels of DEHP or other recalcitrant PAEs in wastewater sludge are likely to compromise methanogenesis and removal of biodegradable PAEs in sludge digesters....

  9. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-07-05

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  10. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Jo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP. Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  11. The effects of phthalates on the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Patrick R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure.

  12. The effects of phthalates on the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eHannon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic

  13. 75 FR 31426 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Commission has previously investigated potential risks posed to children from phthalate plasticizers... children's teethers, rattles, and toys made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Phthalates can leach from...

  14. Human monitoring of phthalates and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byung Mu

    2005-08-27

    Some phthalates, such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and their metabolites are suspected of producing teratogenic and endocrino-disrupting effects. In this study, urinary levels of phthalates (DEHP, DBP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate BBP), and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, a major metabolite of DEHP) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in human populations (women [hospital visitors], n = 150, and children, n = 150). Daily exposure level of DEHP in children was estimated to be 12.4 microg/kg body weight/d (male 9.9 microg/kg body weight/d, female 17.8 microg/kg body weight/d), but, in women was estimated to be 41.7 microg/kg body weight/d, which exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI, 37 microg/kg body weight/day) level established by the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Toxicity, Ecotoxicity, and the Environment (SCTEE) based on reproductive toxicity. Based on these data, hazard indices (HIs) were calculated to be 1.12 (41.7/37 TDI) for women and 0.33 (12.4/37 TDI) for children, respectively. These data suggest that Koreans (women and children) were exposed to significant levels of phthalates, which should be reduced to as low a level as technologically feasible to protect Koreans from the exposure to toxic phthalates.

  15. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  16. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Phthalates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyche, J.L.; Gutleb, A.C.; Bergman, A.; Eriksen, G.S.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Saunders, M.; Skaare, J.U.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubi

  17. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature is to examine the association of phthalate exposure with development. Phthalates are chemical compounds used in poly-vinyl chloride, PVC; vinyl flooring, cosmetics, shampoo, air fresheners, soft plastic items, intravenous tubing, food packaging and wraps, textiles, paints, cleaning products and detergents.…

  18. Analysis of trace contamination of phthalate esters in ultrapure water using a modified solid-phase extraction procedure and automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsu-Chuan; Den, Walter; Chan, Shu-Fei; Kin, Kuan Tzu

    2008-04-25

    The present study was aimed to develop a procedure modified from the conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the analysis of trace concentration of phthalate esters in industrial ultrapure water (UPW). The proposed procedure allows UPW sample to be drawn through a sampling tube containing hydrophobic sorbent (Tenax TA) to concentrate the aqueous phthalate esters. The solid trap was then demoisturized by two-stage gas drying before subjecting to thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This process removes the solvent extraction procedure necessary for the conventional SPE method, and permits automation of the analytical procedure for high-volume analyses. Several important parameters, including desorption temperature and duration, packing quantity and demoisturizing procedure, were optimized in this study based on the analytical sensitivity for a standard mixture containing five different phthalate esters. The method detection limits for the five phthalate esters were between 36 ng l(-1) and 95 ng l(-1) and recovery rates between 15% and 101%. Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) was not recovered adequately because the compound was both poorly adsorbed and desorbed on and off Tenax TA sorbents. Furthermore, analyses of material leaching from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) tubes as well as the actual water samples showed that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the common contaminants detected from PVC contaminated UPW and the actual UPW, as well as in tap water. The reduction of DEHP in the production processes of actual UPW was clearly observed, however a DEHP concentration of 0.20 microg l(-1) at the point of use was still being quantified, suggesting that the contamination of phthalate esters could present a barrier to the future cleanliness requirement of UPW. The work demonstrated that the proposed modified SPE procedure provided an effective method for rapid analysis and contamination

  19. Beyond phthalates: Gas phase concentrations and modeled gas/particle distribution of modern plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossler, Patricia [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schripp, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.schripp@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Bahadir, Muefit [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    microchamber as is shown for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate(DEHA), tri(octyl) trimellitate (TOTM) and DEHP. - Highlights: {yields} Since the decreasing market-share of DEHP the applied classes of plasticizers have extended. {yields} Alternative plasticizers mostly feature lower vapor pressures than the commonly used compounds which increases the analytical effort. {yields} DINCH and DINP from PVC needed about 50 days to reach steady-state concentrations during emission cell measurements. {yields} In comparison between estimation algorithms of the vapor pressure by EPI Suite and SPARC the predictions by EPI Suite show better correlation to measured data.

  20. 75 FR 36639 - Change in Times for Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31426), the Consumer Product Safety Commission published a notice announcing the... COMMISSION Change in Times for Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on...

  1. 40 CFR 721.329 - Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.329 Halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... halogenated benzyl ester acrylate (PMN P-90-1527) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. Reducing Phthalate, Paraben, and Phenol Exposure from Personal Care Products in Adolescent Girls: Findings from the HERMOSA Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Madrigal, Daniel S.; Cardenas, Maritza; Vera, Irene A.; Meza-Alfaro, Gonzalo; She, Jianwen; Gavin, Qi; Zahedi, Rana; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Parra, Kimberly L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personal care products are a source of exposure to potentially endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) for adolescent girls. Methods: We enrolled 100 Latina girls in a youth-led, community-based participatory research intervention study to determine whether using personal care products whose labels stated they did not contain these chemicals for 3 days could lower urinary concentrations. Pre- and postintervention urine samples were analyzed for phthalate metabolites, parabens, triclosan, and BP-3 using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Urinary concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) decreased by 27.4% (95% CI: –39.3, –13.2) on average over the 3-day intervention; no significant changes were seen in urinary concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP). Methyl and propyl paraben concentrations decreased by 43.9% (95% CI: –61.3, –18.8) and 45.4% (95% CI: –63.7, –17.9), respectively. Unexpectedly, concentrations of ethyl and butyl paraben concentrations increased, although concentrations were low overall and not detected in almost half the samples. Triclosan concentrations decreased by 35.7% (95% CI: –53.3, –11.6), and BP-3 concentrations decreased by 36.0% (95% CI: –51.0, –16.4). Discussion: This study demonstrates that techniques available to consumers, such as choosing personal care products that are labeled to be free of phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and BP-3, can reduce personal exposure to possible endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Involving youth in the design and implementation of the study was key to recruitment, retention, compliance, and acceptability of the intervention. Citation: Harley KG, Kogut K, Madrigal DS, Cardenas M, Vera IA, Meza-Alfaro G, She J, Gavin Q, Zahedi R, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Parra KL. 2016. Reducing phthalate, paraben, and phenol exposure from personal care

  3. Removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Tang, Pei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this work graphene was used for evaluation of its adsorption behavior and performance in removing phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), acetaminophen (ACE), caffeine (CAF), cephalexin (CLX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were emerging contaminants (ECs) with detection frequencies over 92% in a one-year monitoring of the occurrence of ECs in influent samples of a sewage treatment plant in Taiwan. Thus, these ECs were selected as the target contaminants for removal by graphene adsorption process. Experimental results showed that the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir model equation. It was also found that the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. A graphene dosage of 0.1 g/L and adsorption time of 12 h were found to be the optimal operating conditions for the ECs of concern in model solutions in a preliminary study. By using the determined optimal operating conditions for removal of such ECs in actual municipal wastewater, removal efficiencies for various ECs were obtained and given as follows: (1) DnBP, 89%, (2) DEHP, 86%, (3) ACE, 43%, (4) CAF, 84%, (5) CLX, 81%, and (6) SMX, 34%.

  4. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation.

  5. MEMS based impedimetric sensing of phthalates

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2013-05-01

    Phthalate esters are known ubiquitous teratogenic and carcinogenic environmental and food pollutants. Their detection and quantification is strictly laboratory based, time consuming, expensive and professionally handled procedure. Presented research work describes a real time non-invasive detection technique for phthalates detection in ethanol, water and drinks. The new type of inter-digital sensor design incorporating multiple sensing gold electrodes were fabricated on silicon substrate based on thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) using semiconductor device fabrication technology. A passivation layer of Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) was used to functionalize the sensor. Various concentrations (0.1 to 20ppm) of DINP (di-isononyl phthalates) in ethanol and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in deionized MilliQ water were subjected to the testing system by dip testing method. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to obtain impedance spectra in order to determine sample conductance for evaluation of its dielectric properties. The impedance spectra so obtained showed that the sensor was able to detect the presence of phthalates in the samples distinctively. Electrochemical Spectrum Analyser was used to model the experimentally obtained impedance spectra by curve fitting technique to figure out Constant Phase Element (CPE) equivalent circuit. Locally available energy drink and juice was added with phthalates in concentrations of 2, 6 and 10ppm to observe the performance of the sensor in such products. Experimental results showed that the new sensor was able to detect different concentrations of phthalates in energy drinks. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone.

  7. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film.

  8. Phthalate Esters in Indoor Window Films in a Northeastern Chinese Urban Center: Film Growth and Implications for Human Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Wen-Long; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Wu, Yong-Kai; Han, Ya-Meng; Peng, Zhi-Xiang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-07-19

    Indoor window film samples were collected in buildings during 2014-2015 for the determination of six phthalate diesters (PAEs). Linear regression analysis suggested that the film mass was positively and significantly correlated with the duration of film growth (from 7 to 77 days). PAEs were detected in all window film samples (n = 64). For all the samples with growth days ranged from 7 to 77 days, the median concentrations of total six PAEs (∑6PAEs) in winter and summer window film samples were 9900 ng/m(2) film (2000 μg/g film) and 4700 ng/m(2) film (650 μg/g film), respectively. Among PAEs analyzed, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the major compound (71 ± 9.7%), followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 20 ± 7.4%) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP; 5.1 ± 2.2%). Positive correlations among PAEs suggested their common sources in the window film samples. Room temperature and relative humidity were negatively and significantly correlated with PAEs concentations (in ng/m(2)). Poor ventilation in cold winter in Noreastern China significantly influenced the concentrations of PAEs in window film which suggested higher inhalation exposure dose in winter. The median hazard quotient (HQ) values from PAEs exposure were below 1, suggesting that the intake of PAEs via three exposure pathways was considered as acceptable.

  9. Origin of the SN2 benzylic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galabov, Boris; Nikolova, Valia; Wilke, Jeremiah J; Schaefer, Henry F; Allen, Wesley D

    2008-07-30

    The S N2 identity exchange reactions of the fluoride ion with benzyl fluoride and 10 para-substituted derivatives (RC6H 4CH 2F, R = CH3, OH, OCH 3, NH2, F, Cl, CCH, CN, COF, and NO2) have been investigated by both rigorous ab initio methods and carefully calibrated density functional theory. Groundbreaking focal-point computations were executed for the C6H5CH 2F + F (-) and C 6H 5CH2Cl + Cl (-) SN2 reactions at the highest possible levels of electronic structure theory, employing complete basis set (CBS) extrapolations of aug-cc-pV XZ (X = 2-5) Hartree-Fock and MP2 energies, and including higher-order electron correlation via CCSD/aug-cc-pVQZ and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ coupled cluster wave functions. Strong linear dependences are found between the computed electrostatic potential at the reaction-center carbon atom and the effective SN2 activation energies within the series of para-substituted benzyl fluorides. An activation strain energy decomposition indicates that the SN2 reactivity of these benzylic compounds is governed by the intrinsic electrostatic interaction between the reacting fragments. The delocalization of nucleophilic charge into the aromatic ring in the SN2 transition states is quite limited and should not be considered the origin of benzylic acceleration of SN2 reactions. Our rigorous focal-point computations validate the benzylic effect by establishing SN2 barriers for (F (-), Cl (-)) identity exchange in (C6H5CH2F, C6H 5CH2Cl) that are lower than those of (CH3F, CH3Cl) by (3.8, 1.6) kcal mol (-1), in order.

  10. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 1-alkyl-N-[2-ethyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)butyl]piperidine-4-carboxamide derivatives as novel antihypertensive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Susumu; Matsuura, Keisuke; Tomura, Yuichi; Okada, Minoru; Okazaki, Toshio; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Tsukamoto, Shin-Ichi

    2011-09-15

    We synthesized and evaluated inhibitory activity against T-type Ca(2+) channels for a series of 1-alkyl-N-[2-ethyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)butyl]piperidine-4-carboxamide derivatives. Structure-activity relationship studies have revealed that dialkyl substituents at the benzylic position play an important role in increasing inhibitory activity. Oral administration of N-[2-ethyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)butyl]-1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidine-4-carboxamide (20d) lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without inducing reflex tachycardia, which is often caused by traditional L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers.

  11. An assessment of the toxicity of phthalate esters to freshwater benthos. 2. Sediment exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, D J; Cox, D A; Geiger, D L; Genisot, K I; Markee, T P; Brooke, L T; Polkinghorne, C N; VandeVenter, F A; Gorsuch, J W; Robillard, K A; Parkerton, T F; Reiley, M C; Ankley, G T; Mount, D R

    2001-08-01

    Seven phthalate esters were evaluated for their 10-d toxicity to the freshwater invertebrates Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans in sediment. The esters were diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), and a commercial mixture of C7, C9, and C11 isophthalate esters (711P). All seven esters were tested in a sediment containing 4.80% total organic carbon (TOC), and DBP alone was tested in two additional sediments with 2.45 and 14.1% TOC. Sediment spiking concentrations for DEP and DBP were based on LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of the population) values from water-only toxicity tests, sediment organic carbon concentration, and equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory. The five higher molecular weight phthalate esters (DHP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, 711P), two of which were tested and found to be nontoxic in water-only tests (i.e., DHP and DEHP), were tested at single concentrations between 2,100 and 3,200 mg/kg dry weight. Preliminary spiking studies were performed to assess phthalate ester stability under test conditions. The five higher molecular weight phthalate esters in sediment had no effect on survival or growth of either C. tentans or H. azteca, consistent with predictions based on water-only tests and EqP theory. The 10-d LC50 values for DBP and H. azteca were >17,400, >29,500, and >71,900 mg/kg dry weight for the low, medium, and high TOC sediments, respectively. These values are more than 30x greater than predicted by EqP theory and may reflect the fact that H. azteca is an epibenthic species and not an obligative burrower. The 10-d LC50 values for DBP and C. tentans were 826, 1,664, and 4.730 mg/kg dry weight for the low, medium, and high TOC sediments, respectively. These values are within a factor of two of the values predicted by EqP theory. Pore-water 10-d LC50 values for DBP (dissolved fraction) and C. tentans in the three

  12. Disruption of Retinol (Vitamin A) Signaling by Phthalate Esters: SAR and Mechanism Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanling; Reese, David H

    2016-01-01

    A spectrum of reproductive system anomalies (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, dysgenesis of Wolffian duct-derived tissues and prostate, and reduced sperm production) in male rats exposed in utero to phthalate esters (PEs) are thought to be caused by PE inhibition of fetal testosterone production. Recently, dibutyl and dipentyl phthalate (DBuP, DPnP) were shown to disrupt the retinol signaling pathway (RSP) in mouse pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. The RSP regulates the synthesis and cellular levels of retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of retinol (vitamin A). In this new study, a total of 26 di- and mono-esters were screened to identify additional phthalate structures that disrupt the RSP and explore their mechanisms of action. The most potent PEs, those causing > 50% inhibition, contained aryl and cycloalkane groups or C4-C6 alkyl ester chains and were the same PEs reported to cause malformations in utero. They shared similar lipid solubility; logP values were between 4 and 6 and, except for PEs with butyl and phenyl groups, were stable for prolonged periods in culture. Mono- and cognate di-esters varied in ability to disrupt the RSP; e.g., DEHP was inactive but its monoester was active while DBuP was active yet its monoester was inactive. DBuP and dibenzyl phthalate both disrupted the synthesis of RA from retinol but not the ability of RA to activate gene transcription. Both PEs also disrupted the RSP in C3H10T1/2 multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this in vitro study showing that some PEs disrupt retinol signaling and previous in vivo studies that vitamin A/RA deficiency and PEs both cause strikingly similar anomalies in the male rat reproductive system, we propose that PE-mediated inhibition of testosterone and RA synthesis in utero are both causes of malformations in male rat offspring.

  13. Levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A in pooled urine specimens from pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H; Angerer, Jürgen; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Hoppin, Jane A; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2009-09-01

    Concerns about reproductive and developmental health risks of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA) among the general population are increasing. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites were measured in 10 pooled urine samples representing 110 pregnant women who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) study in 2004. Daily intakes were estimated from urinary data and compared with reference doses (RfDs) and daily tolerable intakes (TDIs). The MoBa women had a higher mean BPA concentration (4.50 microg/L) than the pregnant women in the Generation R Study (Generation R) in the Netherlands and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States. The mean concentration of total DAP metabolites (24.20 microg/L) in MoBa women was higher than that in NHANES women but lower than that in Generation R women. The diethyl phthalate metabolite mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was the dominant phthalate metabolite in all three studies, with the mean concentrations of greater than 300 microg/L. The MoBa and Generation R women had higher mean concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) than the NHANES women. The estimated average daily intakes of BPA, chlorpyrifos/chlorpyrifos-methyl and phthalates in MoBa (and the other two studies) were below the RfDs and TDIs. The higher levels of metabolites in the MoBa participants may have been from intake via pesticide residues in food (organophosphates), consumption of canned food, especially fish/seafood (BPA), and use of personal care products (selected phthalates).

  14. 17O NMR parameters of some substituted benzyl ethers components: Ab initio study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rezaei Sameti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 17O NMR chemical shielding tensors and chemical shift for a set of substituted benzyl ethers derivatives containing (methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, t-butyl, brome and lithium have been calculated. The molecular structures were fully optimized using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p. The calculation of the 17O shielding tensors employed the GAUSSIAN 98 implementation of the gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO and continuous set of gauge transformations (CSGT by using 6-31G (d,p, 6-31++G(d,p and 6-311++G(d,p basis set methods at density functional levels of theories (DFT. The values determined using the GIAO and CSGT were found to give a good agreement with the experimental chemical shielding.

  15. Oxidation of N-benzyl groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU, Wen-Ge; CHEN, Shu-Sen; YU, Yong-Zhong

    2000-01-01

    The oxidative reactivity of 2,6,8, 12-tetraacetyl-4, 10- dibenzyl-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,9. 03,11] dodecane (3) in several conditions was studied. It was found that the N-benzyl groups in compound 3 could be oxidized to benzoyl groups byCr(Ⅳ) reagents, and could be removed by cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN), meanwhile nttroamine prooducts were given.

  16. Methods for the Determination of Endocrine-Disrupting Phthalate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Munawar Saeed; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim bin Mohd; Wirzal, Mohd Dzul Hakim; Sirajuddin; Barek, Jiri; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Üstündag, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in the general and industrial environment and in many industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic, and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates in the list of priority substances with potential endocrine-disrupting action. They are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever-increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring different phthalates in various environmental, biological, and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play a useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation, and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs, which makes them suitable for large-scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine-disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices, including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods.

  17. 牛脏器中邻苯二甲酸酯类环境激素分析方法的研究%Determination of Phthalate Acid Esters Plasticizers in Cow Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建立; 路平; 杨凯; 于同泉; 杨柳

    2011-01-01

    对气相色谱/质谱联用仪检测牛脏器中邻苯二甲酸酯类环境激素(PAEs)的方法进行系统研究和方法检验.结果表明:选用二氯甲烷超声提取20 min,氧化铝-硅胶复合柱净化,用乙酸乙酯洗脱,洗脱速率1.0 mL/min,回收率在85.09%~110.48%之间,标准偏差(RSD)在2.5%~5.0%之间.表明该方法回收率高,RSD变异小,准确可靠.牛心、肝、脾、肺4种脏器中PAEs检测结果表明,所有样品均检测出6种PAEs,其中DnBP和BBP含量较高,说明此类污染物由外环境通过各种途径进入动物体后易蓄积于发生代谢作用的内脏器官中.为了提高食品卫生质量,避免PAEs物质在食用者体内慢性蓄积而对健康造成潜在危害,建议人们不要经常食用这些可能遭受环境激素污染的动物内脏食品.%The GC/MS detection was used to investigate the environmental hormone (PAEs) contents of phthalate esters in cow organs. The cow organs samples were extracted with dichloromethane using ultrasonic extraction 20min, and the extract were purificated by Alumina-Silica Gel Column, eluted by Ethyl Acetate at 1. OmL/min. The recovery rate of each PAEs were between 85. 09% and 110. 48% , standard deviation (RSD) values were between 2. 5% and 5. 0%. These results indicated that the method had high recoverity. Low variation of RSD and effective and accurate to detect of PAEs in cow organsThe contents of dibutyl phthalate (DnBP) and Butyl benzyl Phthalate(BBP) were relatively high in the cow organs samples. It concluded that pollutants from the outside environment, through various channels into the animal body, was easy to accumulate in the metabolism occurring heart, liver, spleen, lungs and other organs. In order to improve the quality of food hygiene and avoid eating those PAEs substances in the body caused by chronic accumulation of the potential hazard on health, it is recommended that people do not often eat these animal offal food products exposed to

  18. Removal of dimethyl phthalate from water by ozone microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabesa, Abdisa; Ghosh, Pallab

    2016-10-27

    This work investigates the removal of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) from water using ozone microbubbles in a pilot plant of 20 dm(3) capacity. Experiments were performed under various reaction conditions to examine the effects of the initial concentration of DMP, pH of the medium, ozone generation rate, and the role of H2O2 on the removal of DMP. The DMP present in water was effectively removed by the ozone microbubbles. The removal was effective in neutral and alkaline media. Increase in the initial concentration of the target pollutant negatively affected its removal efficiency. The removal efficiency dramatically increased from 1% to 99% when the ozone generation rate was increased from 0.28 to 1.94 mg s(-1) at pH 7. The total organic carbon measurements revealed that a complete mineralization of DMP was achieved within 1.8 ks at the high ozone feed rate. The use of t-butyl alcohol as the hydroxyl radical scavenger confirmed that the reaction between the target organic compound and ·OH radical dominated over its direct reaction with ozone. The reaction between DMP and ozone followed an overall second-order kinetics. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient of ozone in the reacting system and the enhancement factor increased with increasing initial concentration of DMP. Very low values of Hatta number were obtained at all initial concentrations of DMP and pH, which show that the mass transfer resistance was small.

  19. Synthesis of benzyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-Hao; Chen, Na; Zhi, Gao-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, lipase catalysis was successfully applied in synthesis of benzyl cinnamate through esterification of cinnamic acid with benzyl alcohol. Lipozyme TLIM was found to be more efficient for catalyzing this reaction than Novozym 435. In order to increase the yield of benzyl cinnamate, several media, including acetone, trichloromethane, methylbenzene, and isooctane, were used in this reaction. The reaction showed a high yield using isooctane as medium. Furthermore, the effects of several parameters such as water activity, reaction temperature, etc, on this reaction were analyzed. It was pointed out that too much benzyl alcohol would inhibit lipase activity. Under the optimum conditions, lipase-catalyzed synthesis of benzyl cinnamate gave a maximum yield of 97.3%. Besides, reusable experiment of enzyme demonstrated that Lipozyme TLIM retained 63% of its initial activity after three cycles. These results were of general interest for developing industrial processes for the preparation of benzyl cinnamate.

  20. High urinary phthalate concentration associated with delayed pubarche in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K; Mouritsen, A;

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of chemicals present in numerous consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties in experimental studies and are suspected to be involved in human male reproductive health problems. A few studies have shown associations between phthalate exposure and changes...... and controls. We demonstrated that delayed pubarche, but not thelarche, was associated with high phthalate excretion in urine samples from 725 healthy school girls, which may suggest anti-androgenic actions of phthalates in our study group of girls....

  1. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  2. Oxidative DNA damage in male wistar rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellejus, A.; Dalgaard, Majken; Loft, S.

    2002-01-01

    .5 g DBP/kg/d by gavage from d 7 after conception to d 17 after delivery and organs from male offspring were analyzed. In a second experiment, 25-d-old rats were administered 0, 0.5, of 2 g DBP/kg/d by gavage for 10 d. After perinatal exposure, body and organ weights were unchanged. The 8-oxodG/10(6) d...

  3. Associations of Filaggrin Gene Loss-of-Function Variants with Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Testicular Function in Young Danish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Niels; Meldgaard, Michael; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; De Meyts, Ewa Rajpert; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Filaggrin is an epidermal protein that is crucial for skin barrier function. Up to 10% of Europeans and 5% of Asians carry at least one null allele in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Reduced expression of filaggrin in carriers of the null allele is associated with facilitated transfer of allergens across the epidermis. We hypothesized that these individuals may have increased transdermal uptake of endocrine disruptors, including phthalates. Objectives: We investigated urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites and testicular function in young men with and without FLG loss-of-function variants in a cross-sectional study of 861 young men from the general Danish population. Methods: All men were genotyped for FLG R501X, 2282del4, and R2447X loss-of-function variants. We measured urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites and serum levels of reproductive hormones. We also evaluated semen quality. Results: Sixty-five men (7.5%) carried at least one FLG-null allele. FLG-null carriers had significantly higher urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites, including a 33% higher concentration of MnBP (mono-n-butyl phthalate; 95% CI: 16, 51%). FLG-null variants were not significantly associated with reproductive hormones or semen quality parameters. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that carriers of FLG loss-of-function alleles may have higher internal exposure to phthalates, possibly due to increased transepidermal absorption. FLG loss-of-function variants may indicate susceptible populations for which special attention to transepidermal absorption of chemicals and medication may be warranted. Citation: Joensen UN, Jørgensen N, Meldgaard M, Frederiksen H, Andersson AM, Menné T, Johansen JD, Carlsen BC, Stender S, Szecsi PB, Skakkebæk NE, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Thyssen JP. 2014. Associations of filaggrin gene loss-of-function variants with urinary phthalate metabolites and testicular function in young Danish men. Environ Health Perspect 122

  4. Whole cells in enantioselective reduction of benzyl acetoacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Benzaquem Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The β-ketoester benzyl acetoacetate was enantioselectively reduced to benzyl (S-3-hydroxybutanoate by seven microorganism species. The best result using free cells was obtained with the yeast Hansenula sp., which furnished 97% ee and 85% of conversion within 24 h. After immobilization in calcium alginate spheres, K.marxianus showed to be more stable after 2 cycles of reaction.

  5. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate esters and asthma: a 9-year follow-up study of a taiwanese birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu Ying Ku

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that phthalate exposure in childhood is associated with the development of respiratory problems. However, few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalates on the development of asthma later in childhood. Therefore, we assessed the impact of prenatal and postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of asthma and wheezing using a Taiwanese birth cohort. A total of 430 pregnant women were recruited, and 171 (39.8% of them had their children followed when they were aged 2, 5, and 8 years. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to assess asthma and wheezing symptoms and serum total immunoglobulin E levels were measured at 8 years of age. Urine samples were obtained from 136 women during their third trimester of pregnancy, 99 children at 2 years of age, and 110 children at 5 years. Four common phthalate monoester metabolites in maternal and children's urine were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal urinary mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP] concentrations were associated with an increased occurrence of wheezing in boys at 8 years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 4.95 (95% CI 1.08-22.63, for upper quintile compared to the others after controlling for parental allergies and family members' smoking status. Urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP] levels over the quintile at 2-year-old were associated with increased asthma occurrence (adjusted OR = 6.14 (1.17-32.13 in boys. Similarly, the sum of di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate [DEHP] metabolites at 5 years was associated with asthma in boys (adjusted OR = 4.36 (1.01-18.86. Urinary MEHP in maternal and 5-year-old children urine were significantly associated with increased IgE in allergic children at 8 years. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate was associated with the occurrence of asthma in children, particularly for boys.

  6. Vimentin-Mediated Steroidogenesis Induced by Phthalate Esters: Involvement of DNA Demethylation and Nuclear Factor κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Hu, Yanhui; Dong, Congcong; Lu, Hongchao; Zhang, Chang; Hu, Qi; Li, Shifeng; Qin, Heng; Li, Zhong; Wang, Yubang

    2016-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and its active metabolite, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) are the most common endocrine disrupting chemicals. Many studies indicate that high-doses of DBP and/or MBP exhibit toxicity on testicular function, however, little attention have been paid to the effects of low levels of DBP/MBP on steroidogenesis. As we all know, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is a key regulator involved in the steroidogenesis. Here we found that, in addition to StAR, MBP/DBP increased the steroidogenesis by a cytoskeletal protein, vimentin. Briefly, in murine adrenocortical tumor (Y1) and the mouse Leydig tumor (MLTC-1) cells, vimentin regulated the secretion of progesterone. When these two cells were exposure to MBP, the DNA demethylation in the vimentin promoter was observed. In addition, MBP also induced the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, a transcriptional regulator of vimentin). These two processes improved the transcriptional elevation of vimentin. Knockdown of NF-κB/vimentin signaling blocked the DBP/MBP-induced steroidogenesis. These in vitro results were also confirmed via an in vivo model. By identifying a mechanism whereby DBP/MBP regulates vimentin, our results expand the understanding of the endocrine disrupting potential of phthalate esters.

  7. Mono-2-ethyhexyl phthalate advancing the progression of prostate cancer through activating the hedgehog pathway in LNCaP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Wang; Jiao, Chen; Jianhui, Wu; Yan, Zhao; Qi, Pan; Xiu, Wang; Zuyue, Sun; Yunhui, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays a critical role in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in male adults. Studies showed that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) could interference with the Hh pathway. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), the congener of DBP, is the major plasticizer used in plastic materials that are inevitably exposed by patients with PCa. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate whether mono-2-ethyhexyl phthalate (MEHP, the active metabolite of DEHP) could activate the Hh pathway of LNCaP cells. Results showed that the expression of the critical gene of Hh pathway PTCH and androgen-regulated gene KLK3 was significantly decreased on 3, 6 and 9 days with Hh pathway inhibitor cyclopamine's treatment. MEHP notably up-regulated the expression of PTCH with a dose-response relationship in the presence of cyclopamine, which indicate that MEHP might target on the downstream components of Hh pathway and advance the progression of PCa through activating the Hh pathway.

  8. Study of moving bed biofilm reactor in diethyl phthalate and diallyl phthalate removal from synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Gholami, Mitra; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Azari, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Phthalic acid esters have received significant attention over the last few years since they are considered as priority pollutants. In this study, effects of different operation conditions including hydraulic retention time, phthalates loading rates and aeration rate on process performance of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removing diethyl phthalate (DEP) and diallyl phthalate (DAP) from synthetic wastewater was evaluated. In optimum conditions, 94.96% and 93.85% removal efficiency were achieved for DEP and DAP, respectively. Moreover, MBBR achieved to remove more than 92% of COD for both phthalates. The results showed that DEP had a higher biodegradation rate compared to DAP, according to the selected parameters such as half saturation constant, overall reaction rate and maximum specific growth rate. The Grau second order model found as the best model for predicting MBBR performance due to its high correlation coefficients and more conformity of its kinetic coefficients to the results.

  9. Migration of phthalates on culture plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Boas, Malene; Møller Brorson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors of the reproductive system and suspected to influence many other organ and hormone systems. They are also semi-volatile organic compounds present in the gas phase in the environment. Their mode of action has been investigated in numerous in vitro studies. Multi...

  10. Phthalates and Nonylphenols in Roskilde Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Fauser, P.; Sørensen, P. B.;

    The aim of the study has been to investigate the occurrence, sources, transport and fate of nonylphenols and phthalates in the aquatic environment of Roskilde Fjord. It was further intended to find the temporal as well as the spatial variation of these xenobiotics in the fjord and stream water. F...

  11. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Jensen, G. H.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 35 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  12. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 20 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  13. The Inhibition Effect of Tert-Butyl Alcohol on the TiO2 Nano Assays Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Different Organics and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejin Li; Jinhua Li; Jing Bai; Yifan Dong; Linsen Li; Baoxue Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The inhibition effect of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), identified as the •OH radical inhibitor, on the TiO2 nano assays (TNA) photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of different organics such as glucose and phthalate was reported. The adsorption performance of these organics on the TNA photoelectrode was investigated by using the instantaneous pho-tocurrent value, and the degradation property was examined by using the exhausted reaction. The results showed that glucose exhibited the poor adsorption and easy degradation performance, phthalate showed the strong adsorption and hard-degradation, but TBA showed the weak adsorption and was the most difficult to be degraded. The degradation of both glucose and phthalate could be inhibited evidently by TBA. But the effect on glucose was more obvious. The different inhibition effects of TBA on different organics could be attributed to the differences in the adsorption and the degradation property. For instance, phthalate of the strong adsorption property could avoid from the capture of •OH radicals by TBA in TNA photoelectrocatalytic process.

  14. Highly Selective Liquid-Phase Benzylation of Anisole with Solid-Acid Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites were evaluated as solid acid catalysts for the liquid-phase benzylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol, benzyl bromide, and benzyl chloride at 80 °C. Among the examined zeolites, H-mordenite-10 (H-MOR-10) demonstrated particular high activity (>99 %) and excellent selectivity (>96...

  15. Enhanced catalytic properties of mesoporous mordenite for benzylation of benzene with benzyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sandeep K.; Viswanadham, Nagabhatla

    2017-01-01

    Zeolite mordenite has been treated with nitric acid at different severities so as to facilitate the framework dealumination and optimization of the textural properties such as acidity and porosity. The samples obtained have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, SEM, TEM, surface area, porosity by N2 adsorption and ammonia TPD. The resultant samples have been evaluated towards the bulky alkylation reaction of benzylation of benzene with benzyl alcohol. The studies indicated the improvement in the textural properties such as surface area, pore volume and acidity of the samples after the acid treatment. While, the phenomenon of enhancement in properties was exhibited by all the acid treated mordenite samples, the highest improvement in properties was observed at a particular condition of acid treatment (SM-2 sample). This particular sample also exhibited highest acidity and the presence of ∼10 nm size pores that resulted in the effective catalytic activity towards the bulky alkylation reaction of benzene with benzyl alcohol to produce high yields of di-phenyl methane.

  16. Benzyl (E-3-(2-methylbenzylidenedithiocarbazate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Shan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H16N2S2, was obtained from the condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and 2-methylbenzaldehyde. The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules. In both molecules, the methylphenyl ring and the dithiocarbazate fragment are located on opposite sides of the C=N bond, showing an E conformation. In each molecule, the dithiocarbazate fragment is approximately planar, the r.m.s deviations being 0.018 and 0.025 Å. The mean plane of dithiocarbazate group is oriented at dihedral angles of 7.9 (3 and 68.24 (12°, respectively, to the methylphenyl and phenyl rings in one molecule, while the corresponding angles in the other molecule are 10.9 (3 and 69.76 (16°. Intermolecular N—H...S hydrogen bonding occurs in the crystal structure to generate inversion dimers for both molecules.

  17. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  18. Occurrence and distribution of phthalate esters in riverine sediments from the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Cui, Kunyan; Zeng, Feng; Chen, Lixuan; Cheng, Yating; Li, Huiru; Li, Shuocong; Zhou, Xi; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng; Luan, Tiangang; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2014-06-15

    Sixty-eight sediment samples collected from Dongjiang River, Xijiang River, Beijiang River and Zhujiang River in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, Southern China, were analyzed for 16 phthalate esters (PAEs). PAEs were detected in all riverine sediments analyzed, which indicate that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The Σ16PAEs concentrations in riverine sediments in the PRD region ranged from 0.567 to 47.3 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw), with the mean and median concentrations of 5.34 μg g(-1) dw and 2.15 μg g(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated PAEs concentrations in riverine sediments in the PRD region were found in the highly urbanized and industrialized areas. Of the 16 PAEs, diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAEs, with the mean and median concentrations of 1.12 μg g(-1)dw, 0.420 μg g(-1) dw and 3.72 μg g(-1) dw, and 0.429 μg g(-1) dw, 0.152 μg g(-1) dw and 1.55 μg g(-1) dw, respectively, and accounted for 94.2-99.7% of the Σ16PAEs concentrations. Influenced by local sources and the properties of PAEs, a gradient trend of concentrations and a fractionation of composition from more to less industrialized and urbanized areas were discovered. As compared to the results from other studies, the riverine sediments in the PRD region were severely contaminated with PAEs. Information about PAEs contamination status and its effect on the aquatic organisms in the PRD region may deserve further attention.

  19. 75 FR 18165 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Commission has previously investigated potential risks posed to children from phthalate plasticizers... children's teethers, rattles, and toys made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Phthalates can leach from...

  20. Possible impact of phthalates on infant reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Grete Lottrup; Andersson, A-M; Leffers, H;

    2006-01-01

    discusses two recent studies on perinatal phthalate exposure, which indicated that human testicular development might be susceptible to phthalates. One study analysed phthalate monoesters in breast milk and reproductive hormone levels in infants. Five of six phthalates [monoethyl-(MEP), monobutyl- (MBP......), monomethyl- (MMP), mono-2-ethylhexyl- (MEHP) and mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP)] showed correlation with hormone levels in healthy boys, which were indicative of lower androgen activity and reduced Leydig cell function. MEP and MBP were positively correlated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG...... be due to differences in exposure routes (inhalation and dermal absorption which circumvents liver detoxification in addition to oral) and metabolism, or this association could be spurious. As phthalates are produced as bulk chemicals worldwide, these new findings raise concern about the safety...

  1. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  2. Phthalate migration from packaging materials into food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Bogdanovičová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of dibutylphthalate (DBP and di- (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in samples of packages used for packaging meat productsand the phthalate migration from packaging materials to meat products were studied. Five samples of textile packaging intended for cooked meat production were analysed as well asthe final product which was filled into packages. Subsequently an analysis was carried out (after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage of the finished meat products stored over the course of their intended shelf life at ambient temperature of 4 °C. Determination of phthalates was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method with UV detection at a wavelength of 224 nm on the Zorbax Eclipse C8 column. The content of phthalates in the final product was below the limit of quantification. According to the Regulation of the Commission (EU No. 10/2011, the specific migration limit of products intended for food contact is 1.5 mg.kg-1of food simulant for DEHP and 0.3 mg.kg-1 for DBP. After filling and the first day of storage of the meat product, four package samples release the said phthalates to an extent that it exceeded the limits of the Commission Regulation (EU No. 10/2011. Already after the seventh day of storage, all samples (with the exception of sample 2 for DBP exceeded SMLs. Monitoring of each phthalate migration in individual samples during storage (for 28 days produced a rising tendency.  In sample 1, DBP increased from 0.40 to 3.37 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 0.58 to 14.66 mg.kg-1. In sample 2, DBP increased from ≤0.2 mg.kg-1 to 4.34 mg.kg-1, whileDEHP from 1.46 to 28.20 mg.kg-1. In sample 3, DBP increased from ≤0.2 mg.kg-1 to  8.27 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 1.67 to 14.84 mg.kg-1. In sample 4, DBP increased from 0.27 to 6.12 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 2.37 to 13.22 mg.kg-1. In sample 5, DBP increased from 0.32 to 11.11 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 1.91 to 15.42 mg.kg-1.

  3. [Occurrence and relevance to health of persistent organic substances and phthalates in breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Raab, U; Fürst, P; Vieth, B; Völkel, W; Albrecht, M; Schwegler, U

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants like the polychlorinated dibenzo- P-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), perfluorinated compounds (PFC) and of phthalates in breast milk. On the basis of median and 95 (th) percentile values an "average" and a "high" intake were calculated for a 3-month-old infant exclusively breast-fed. Moreover, the actual daily intake was compared with tolerable daily intakes (TDI) recommended by scientific institutions. On this basis, we found an "average" ("high") daily intake of 70 (140) pg TEQ/kg body weight (b. w.) for PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB), 10 (20) ng/kg b. w. for PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate), 20 (50) ng/kg b. w. for PFOA (perfluorooctanoate), 1.7 (7.5) ng/kg b. w. for BDE 47, and 0.6 (2.1) ng/kg b. w. for BDE 99. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di- N-butyl phthalate (DnBP) an "average" and "high" intake of 400 ng/kg b. w. and 2,000 ng/kg b. w. and of 100 and 500 ng/kg b.w. were assumed, respectively. For all of these substances we found a daily intake via breast milk below the TDI, established on a livelong basis. On contrary, the daily intake for the sum of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB considerably exceeded the recommended TDI value. Even with regard to the "high" daily intake values the share of PBDE, PFC, and phthalates on the TDI was only in the lower percentage. Scientific organisations assume that an exceeding of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB intake in relation to the TDI value is acceptable only on the basis of the still declining levels in breast milk and the fact that this high exposure only occurs during some months of the entire life when breast milk is consumed. On the basis of the recent exposure situation mothers can exclusively breast-feed their infants for 6 months without any hesitation. The well established health benefits for mothers and infants when

  4. Palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of benzylic phosphine oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montel, Sonia; Jia, Tiezheng; Walsh, Patrick J

    2014-01-03

    A novel approach to prepare diarylmethyl phosphine oxides from benzyl phosphine oxides via deprotonative cross-coupling processes (DCCP) is reported. The optimization of the reaction was guided by High-Throughput Experimentation (HTE) techniques. The Pd(OAc)2/Xantphos-based catalyst enabled the reaction between benzyl diphenyl or dicyclohexyl phosphine oxide derivatives and aryl bromides in good to excellent yields (51-91%).

  5. First Magnesium-mediated Carbonyl Benzylation in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Wei(邓维); TAN,Xiang-Hui(谭翔辉); LIU,Lei(刘磊); GUO,Qing-Xiang(郭庆祥)

    2004-01-01

    Catalyzed by AgNO3, Mg was found for the first time to be able to mediate the coupling reaction between aromatic aldehydes and benzyl bromide or chloride in water. The yields were slightly higher than the recent results for Mg-mediated allylation despite the fact that aqueous benzylation is intrinsically much harder than allylation. It was also found that the coupling reaction was chemoselective for aromatic aldehydes over aliphatic aldehydes, and chemoselective for aromatic aldehydes over aromatic ketones.

  6. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo Ag;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns......) phthalate]. However, the AGDas reduction was small (4%) in relation to more than an interquartile range increase in DiNP exposure. CONCLUSIONS: These findings call into question the safety of substituting DiNP for DEHP in soft PVC, particularly because a shorter male AGD has been shown to relate to male...

  7. A monograph on the remediation of hazardous phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sailas; Pradeep, Selvanesan; Josh, Moolakkariyil Sarath; Kumar, Sunil; Masai, Eiji

    2015-11-15

    Phthalates or phthalic acid esters are a group of xenobiotic and hazardous compounds blended in plastics to enhance their plasticity and versatility. Enormous quantities of phthalates are produced globally for the production of plastic goods, whose disposal and leaching out into the surroundings cause serious concerns to the environment, biota and human health. Though in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, pre-clinical animal and clinical human studies showed endocrine disruption, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties, usage of phthalates continues due to their cuteness, attractive chemical properties, low production cost and lack of suitable alternatives. Studies revealed that microbes isolated from phthalate-contaminated environmental niches efficiently bioremediate various phthalates. Based upon this background, this review addresses the enumeration of major phthalates used in industry, routes of environmental contamination, evidences for health hazards, routes for in situ and ex situ microbial degradation, bacterial pathways involved in the degradation, major enzymes involved in the degradation process, half-lives of phthalates in environments, etc. Briefly, this handy module would enable the readers, environmentalists and policy makers to understand the impact of phthalates on the environment and the biota, coupled with the concerted microbial efforts to alleviate the burden of ever increasing load posed by phthalates.

  8. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  9. Benzylation of Toluene over Iron Modified Mesoporous Ceria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Rose Philo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry has been looked upon as a sustainable science which accomplishes both economical and environmental goals, simultaneously.With this objective, we developed an alternative process to obtain the industrially important benzyl aromatics by benzylation of aromatics using benzyl chloride, catalysed by mesoporous solid acid catalysts. In this work mesoporous ceria is prepared using neutral surfactant which helped the calcination possible at a lower temperature enabling a higher surface area. Mesoporous ceria modified with Fe can be successfully utilized for the selective benzylation of toluene to more desirable product methyl diphenyl methane with 100% conversion and selectivity in 2 hours using only 50mg of the catalyst under milder condition. The reusability, regenerability, high selectivity, 100% conversion, moderate reaction temperature and absence of solvent, etc. make these catalysts to be used in a truly heterogeneous manner and make the benzylation reaction an environment friendly one. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 30th June 2012; Revised: 7th November 2012; Accepted: 10th November 2012[How to Cite: K.J. Rose Philo, S. Sugunan. (2012. Benzylation of Toluene over Iron Modified Mesoporouxs Ceria. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 158-164. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3759.158-164][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3759.158-164 ] | View in 

  10. The Benzyl Ester Group of Amino Acid Monomers Enhances Substrate Affinity and Broadens the Substrate Specificity of the Enzyme Catalyst in Chemoenzymatic Copolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Yazawa, Kenjiro; Tateishi, Ayaka; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-11

    The chemoenzymatic polymerization of amino acid monomers by proteases involves a two-step reaction: the formation of a covalent acyl-intermediate complex between the protease and the carboxyl ester group of the monomer and the subsequent deacylation of the complex by aminolysis to form a peptide bond. Although the initiation with the ester group of the monomer is an important step, the influence of the ester group on the polymerization has not been studied in detail. Herein, we studied the effect of the ester groups (methyl, ethyl, benzyl, and tert-butyl esters) of alanine and glycine on the synthesis of peptides using papain as the catalyst. Alanine and glycine were selected as monomers because of their substantially different affinities toward papain. The efficiency of the polymerization of alanine and glycine benzyl esters was much greater than that of the other esters. The benzyl ester group therefore allowed papain to equally polymerize alanine and glycine, even though the affinity of alanine toward papain is substantially higher. The characterization of the copolymers of alanine and glycine in terms of the secondary structure and thermal properties revealed that the thermal stability of the peptides depends on the amino acid composition and resultant secondary structure. The current results indicate that the nature of the ester group drastically affects the polymerization efficiency and broadens the substrate specificity of the protease.

  11. 75 FR 69662 - Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information on...: Notice of Peer Consultation Workshop on the Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates; Request... phthalates as set forth in the National Academies of Science (NAS) report ``Phthalates and Cumulative...

  12. 77 FR 2276 - Teleconference and Public Meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... COMMISSION Teleconference and Public Meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene phthalate polymers. 177.1630 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as... polymers. Polyethylene phthalate polymers identified in this section may be safely used as, or...

  14. Amniotic fluid phthalate levels and male fetal gonad function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to phthalates may pose a threat to human male reproduction. However, additional knowledge about the in vivo effect in humans is needed, and reported associations with genital abnormalities are inconclusive. We aimed to study prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)...

  15. Phthalates and neurotoxic effects on hippocampal network plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Matthew R; Smith, Catherine A

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are synthetically derived chemicals used as plasticizers in a variety of common household products. They are not chemically bound to plastic polymers and over time, easily migrate out of these products and into the environment. Experimental investigations evaluating the biological impact of phthalate exposure on developing organisms are critical given that estimates of phthalate exposure are considerably higher in infants and children compared to adults. Extensive growth and re-organization of neurocircuitry occurs during development leaving the brain highly susceptible to environmental insults. This review summarizes the effects of phthalate exposure on brain structure and function with particular emphasis on developmental aspects of hippocampal structural and functional plasticity. In general, it appears that widespread disruptions in hippocampal functional and structural plasticity occur following developmental (pre-, peri- and post-natal) exposure to phthalates. Whether these changes occur as a direct neurotoxic effect of phthalates or an indirect effect through disruption of endogenous endocrine functions is not fully understood. Comprehensive investigations that simultaneously assess the neurodevelopmental, neurotoxic, neuroendocrine and behavioral correlates of phthalate exposure are needed to provide an opportunity to thoroughly evaluate the neurotoxic potential of phthalates throughout the lifespan.

  16. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters on Fetal Rodent Testosterone Production and Gene Expression Following In Utero Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters(PE) are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of common products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables, and wall/floor coverings. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that in utero treatment with PE such as di-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) du...

  17. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents: Estimation of daily phthalate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2011-01-01

    from 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents (range 6–21 yrs). The concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites of 5 different phthalate diesters were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results The analyzed metabolites were detectable in almost all 24 h urine samples...

  18. Estimated exposure to phthalates in cosmetics and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byung Mu

    2004-12-01

    Some phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and their metabolites are suspected of producing teratogenic or endocrine-disrupting effects. To predict possible human exposure to phthalates in cosmetics, the levels of DEHP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), DBP, and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 102 branded hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, and nail polishes. DBP was detected in 19 of the 21 nail polishes and in 11 of the 42 perfumes, and DEP was detected in 24 of the 42 perfumes and 2 of the 8 deodorants. Median exposure levels to phthalates in cosmetics by dermal absorption were estimated to be 0.0006 g/kg body weight (bw)/d for DEHP, 0.6 g/kg bw/d for DEP, and 0.103 g/kg bw/d for DBP. Furthermore, if phthalates in cosmetics were assumed to be absorbed exclusively via 100% inhalation, the median daily exposure levels to phthalates in cosmetics were estimated to be 0.026 g/kg bw/d for DEHP, 81.471 g/kg bw/d for DEP, and 22.917 g/kg bw/d for DBP, which are far lower than the regulation levels set buy the Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity, and the Environment (CSTEE) (37 g/kg bw/d, DEHP), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (7000 g/kg bw/d, DEP), and International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (66 g/kg bw/d, DBP), respectively. Based on these data, hazard indices (HI, daily exposure level/regulation level) were calculated to be 0.0007 for DEHP, 0.012 for DEP, and 0.347 for DBP. These data suggest that estimated exposure to-phthalates in the cosmetics mentioned are relatively small. However, total exposure levels from several sources may be greater and require further investigation.

  19. Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Lotion by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Based on Solidification of Floating Organic Droplets Combined with Gas Chromatography%漂浮固化分散液液微萃取/气相色谱法测定化妆水中4种增塑剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕欢; 郑鑫; 伦小文; 马晓薇; 侯晓虹

    2013-01-01

    建立了漂浮固化分散液液微萃取(DLLME-SFO)-气相色谱法(GC)同时测定化妆水中4种邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂 (PAEs)的分析方法,并对萃取剂体积、分散剂种类、分散剂体积、萃取时间、水相pH值、盐浓度等参数进行优化.向样品溶液(化妆水和水的体积比为1∶10,pH 3.0)中快速加入15μL1-十二醇(萃取剂)和1 300 μL乙醇(分散剂),涡旋1 min,4 000 r·min-1离心5 min后,于冰浴中浸泡,待1-十二醇凝固后转移,融化后进行气相色谱分析.结果表明,该方法对4种目标化合物的线性范围为5.0~500.0 μg·L-1,检出限为0.001~1.0 μg ·L-1,回收率为88%~108%,相对标准偏差为1.6%~3.3%.4种目标化合物的富集倍数为800 ~1 578倍.将该方法与其它测定邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂的前处理方法进行对比.该方法操作简单快速、灵敏度高,可满足化妆水中邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂的分析要求.%A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplets(DLLME-SFO) combined with gas chromatography(GC) was developed,and validated in the pretreatment and determination of four phthalate esters (PAEs),including dibutyl phthalate,benzyl butyl phthalate,2-ethylhexyl phthalate,and di-n-octyl phthalate in lotion.The experimental conditions affecting extraction efficiencies for the analytes,such as extraction solvent volume,kind of dispersive solvent,dispersive solvent volume,extraction time,pH value and salt concentration were investigated.In the optimal DLLME-SFO method,the sample solution adjusted to pH 3.0 was prepared as a mixed solution of lotion-pure water (1 ∶ 10).15 μL 1-dodecanol (extraction solvent)and 1 300 μL ethanol(dispersive solvent) were rapidly injected into the sample solution.After vortexed for 1 min and centrifugated at 4 000 r · min-1 for 5 min,the sample was cooled down in an ice bath till 1-dodecanol became solid and formed a small ball.Then the

  20. 孕妇邻苯二甲酸酯内暴露水平及影响因素研究%Levels of phthalate internal exposure levels in pregnant women and influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨月; 施明明; 陈碧钦; 林剑锋; 杨松静; 朱宝平; 庄宝玲; 贾玉殊; 黄桢翔

    2015-01-01

    CI)值为0.597 (0.372~0.959);孕期服用药物使尿液中MEHP的含量增加,OR(95%CI)值为4.853(1.084~21.732).结论 孕妇(孕周≤16周)普遍暴露于邻苯二甲酸酯,孕期邻苯二甲酸酯内暴露水平与多种因素存在关联性,且不同邻苯二甲酸酯内暴露水平的影响因素不尽相同.%Objective To investigate the levels and influencing factors of phthalate internal exposure in pregnant women(gestation age ≤16 weeks).Methods During April to June in 2013, 1 020 pregnant women(gestation age ≤16 weeks) who had established the maternal care manual were recruited in maternal and child health hospital of Siming District, Xiamen city.Participators were asked to complete a questionnaire to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, and antenatal examination and to provide a urine sample.Finally, 998 pregnant women who provided a urine sample and completed the questionnaire were enrolled.Adopting systematic sampling method, 100 ones were selected randomly among 998 pregnant women.High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandern mass was used to determine the concentration of five phthalate monoesters in each urine, including mono-n-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP),mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP).Based on the measurements and questionnaire data, multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the phthalate monoester levels and potential influential factors.Results The detection rates of MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP and MEHP in 100 pregnant urine samples were 94%, 93%, 87%, 83%, 99%, respectively.And the urinary median uncorrected concentrations of MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP and MEHP in 100 urine samples were 20.56, 17.62, 10.15, 2.03, and 5.12 ng/ml, respectively.Specific gravity-corrected concentration were 20.81, 20.36, 12.88, 2.58, 5.00 ng/ml, respectively.The results of multivariate

  1. Chemical behavior of phthalates under abiotic conditions in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip N; Li, Yi; Appiah-Sefah, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The phthalates comprise a family of phthalic acid esters that are used primarily as plasticizers in polymeric materials to impart flexibility during the manufacturing process and to the end product. It is estimated that the annual worldwide production of phthalate esters exceeds five million tons. Plasticizers are one of the most prominent classes of chemicals, but unfortunately, they possess endocrine-disrupting chemical properties. As endocrine-disrupting chemicals, plasticizers have produced adverse developmental and reproductive effects in mammalian animal models.Phthalates are easily transported into the environment during manufacture, disposal,and leaching from plastic materials, because they are not covalently bound to the plastics of which they are a component. Because of their fugitive nature and widespread use, the phthalates are commonly detected in air, water, sediment/soil, and biota, including human tissue. Large amounts of phthalic acid esters are often leached from the plastics that are dumped at municipal landfills.Phthalate esters undergo chemical changes when released into the environment.The primary processes by which they are transformed include hydrolysis, photolysis,and biodegradation. It is noteworthy that all of these degradation processes are greatly influenced by the local physical and chemical conditions. Hence, in the present review, we have sought to ascertain from the literature how the phthalate esters undergo transformation when they are released into lower landfill layers.Within the upper landfill layers, biodegradation prevails as the major degradation mechanism by which the phthalates are dissipated. Generally, biodegradation pathways for the phthalates consist of primary biodegradation from phthalate diesters to phthalate monoesters, then to phthalic acid, and ultimately biodegradation of phthalic acid to form C02 and/or CH4• We have noted that the phthalate esters are also degraded through abiotic means,which proceeds via

  2. Human Biological Monitoring of Diisononyl Phthalate and Diisodecyl Phthalate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusankar Saravanabhavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP, and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP, are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of polymers and consumer products. Human biological monitoring studies have employed the metabolites of DINP and DIDP as biomarkers to assess human exposure. In this review, we summarize and analyze publicly available scientific data on chemistry, metabolism, and excretion kinetics, of DINP and DIDP, to identify specific and sensitive metabolites. Human biological monitoring data on DINP and DIDP are scrutinised to assess the suitability of these metabolites as biomarkers of exposure. Results from studies carried out in animals and humans indicate that phthalates are metabolised rapidly and do not bioaccmulate. During Phase-I metabolism, ester hydrolysis of DINP and DIDP leads to the formation of hydrolytic monoesters. These primary metabolites undergo further oxidation reactions to produce secondary metabolites. Hence, the levels of secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine are found to be always higher than the primary metabolites. Results from human biological monitoring studies have shown that the secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine were detected in almost all tested samples, while the primary metabolites were detected in only about 10% of the samples. This indicates that the secondary metabolites are very sensitive biomarkers of DINP/DIDP exposure while primary metabolites are not. The NHANES data indicate that the median concentrations of MCIOP and MCINP (secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP, resp. at a population level are about 5.1 μg/L and 2.7 μg/L, respectively. Moreover, the available biological monitoring data suggest that infants/children are exposed to higher levels of phthalates than adults.

  3. Direct quantitative analysis of phthalate esters as micro-contaminants in cleanroom air and wafer surfaces by auto-thermal desorption--gas chromatography--mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuhao; Den, Walter; Bai, Hsunling; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2005-04-01

    This study established an analytical method for the trace analyses of two phthalate esters, including diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), known as the major constituents of cleanroom micro-contamination detrimental to the reliability of semiconductor devices. Using thermal desorption coupled with a GC-MS system, standard tubes were prepared by delivering liquid standards pre-vaporized by a quasi-vaporizer into Tenax GR tubes for calibration. This method was capable of achieving detection limits of 0.05 microg m(-3) for 0.1 m3 air samples and 0.03 ng cm(-2) for 150-mm wafer surface density. Actual samples collected from a semiconductor cleanroom showed that the concentration of DBP in a polypropylene wafer box (0.45 microg m(-3)) was nearly four times higher than that in the cleanroom environment (0.12 microg m(-3)). The surface contamination of DBP was 0.67 ng cm(-2) for a wafer stored in the wafer box for 24 h. Furthermore, among the three types of heat-resistant O-ring materials tested, Kalrez was found to be particularly suitable for high-temperature processes in semiconductor cleanrooms due to their low emissions of organic vapors. This analytical procedure should serve as an effective monitoring method for the organic micro-contamination in cleanroom environments.

  4. Benzyl-chloridobis(quinolin-8-olato)tin(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qibao

    2009-07-11

    In the title compound, [Sn(C(7)H(7))(C(9)H(6)NO)(2)Cl], the Sn(IV) ion is in a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment formed by the O and N atoms of two bis-chelating quinolin-8-olate ligands, a Cl atom and a C atom from a benzyl ligand. The axial sites are occupied by an N atom of a quinolinate ligand and the C atom of the benzyl ligand. The axial Sn-N bond is slightly shorter than the equatorial Sn-N bond.

  5. Benzyl­chloridobis(quinolin-8-olato)tin(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qibao

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Sn(C7H7)(C9H6NO)2Cl], the SnIV ion is in a distorted octa­hedral coordination environment formed by the O and N atoms of two bis-chelating quinolin-8-olate ligands, a Cl atom and a C atom from a benzyl ligand. The axial sites are occupied by an N atom of a quinolinate ligand and the C atom of the benzyl ligand. The axial Sn—N bond is slightly shorter than the equatorial Sn—N bond.

  6. Prenatal plus postnatal exposures to phthalates and child health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a class of chemicals predominantly used as plasticizers in many plastics since the 1930's, in a wide variety of manufacturing applications and consumer products. Given their extensive use and their leakage from plastics, they are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with potential detrimental health effects. Di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP is the most commonly used phthalate plasticizer. There is widespread exposure to phthalates in the general population and therefore it is importat to investigate the toxic potential of these compounds. In particular, phthalate exposure has been shown to cause developmental and reproductive anomalies in animal models, and there is concern that these compounds may be causing adverse effects on human reproductive health. Phthalate effects are suspected to be much more severe after in uterus exposure. Phthalate esters are considered endocrine balance and development of the mammalian testis, thus exerting harmful effects on mammalian reproduction and fertility. Health risk assessments for the phthalate exposure of the general population should be performed and current PVC plasticizers, especially the ones used for infants should be replaces with high quality materials.

  7. Structure-activity relationship of immunostimulatory effects of phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Gunnar D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, have been shown to have an adjuvant effect in mice. However, an adjuvant effect, defined as an inherent ability to stimulate the humoral immune response, was only observed after exposure to a limited number of the phthalates. An adjuvant effect may be due to the structure or physicochemical characteristics of the molecule. The scope of this study was to investigate which molecular characteristics that determine the observed adjuvant effect of the most widely used phthalate plasticizer, the di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, which is documented as having a strong adjuvant effect. To do so, a series of nine lipophilic compounds with structural and physicochemical relations to DEHP were investigated. Results Adjuvant effect of phthalates and related compounds were restricted to the IgG1 antibody formation. No effect was seen on IgE. It appears that lipophilicity plays a crucial role, but lipophilicity does not per se cause an adjuvant effect. In addition to lipophilicity, a phthalate must also possess specific stereochemical characteristics in order for it to have adjuvant effect. Conclusion The adjuvant effect of phthalates are highly influenced by both stereochemical and physico-chemical properties. This knowledge may be used in the rational development of plasticizers without adjuvant effect as well as in the design of new immunological adjuvants.

  8. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers from alcohols and phenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Surya Prakash Rao; S P Senthilkumar

    2001-06-01

    Allyl and benzyl ethers of alcohols can be prepared conveniently and in high yield with allyl and benzyl bromide in the presence of solid potassium hydroxide without use of any solvent. Phenols can be converted to allyl ethers but are inert to benzylation under above conditions.

  9. Approach to a Facile and Selective Benzyl-Protection of Carbohydrates Based on Silyl Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Wei; LI,Xiao-Liu; ZHANG,Ping-Zhu; CHEN,Hua

    2008-01-01

    A convenient and selective benzyl protection of carbohydrates has been investigated on the basis of the silyl migration under the conventional benzylation conditions, developing a facile and short synthesis of methyl 2,3,6-tri-O-benzyl-a-D-glucopyranoside.

  10. Compound list: butylated hydroxyanisole [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available butylated hydroxyanisole BHA 00156 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/...LATEST/Human/in_vitro/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/o...pen-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  11. A survey of phthalate esters in consumer cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubinger, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Certain phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in animal models. For this reason, the FDA has been monitoring the use of phthalate esters in cosmetics. In this study, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a limited survey of 84 adult-use and baby-care cosmetic products for the presence of five phthalate esters: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (Figure 1). The analytes were extracted from a cosmetic product/Celite mixture with hexane, and the extract was then analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance chromatography (HPLC) on an instrument equipped with an ultraviolet radiation (UV) detector set at 230 nm. The analytes were separated on a Partisil octadecylsilane (ODS)-3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 50% water, 34% acetonitrile, 13% 2-propanol, and 3% methanol that was changed linearly (35 minutes) to 15% water, 55% acetonitrile, 25% 2-propanol, and 5% methanol and held for an additional ten minutes. Spiked recoveries in antiperspirant and nail color ranged from 88% to 104%. Thirty-one of the 60 adult-use cosmetic products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester. Twenty products contained DEP and 11 nail products contained DBP. Concentrations of DBP ranged from 123 μg/g to 62,607 μg/g. Concentrations of DEP ranged from 80 μg/g to 36,006 μg/g. Five of the 24 baby-care products contained DEP at concentrations ranging from 10 μg/g to 274 μg/g.

  12. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  13. 21 CFR 182.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxyanisole. 182.3169 Section 182.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  14. 76 FR 59906 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... secondary residues of fluazifop-P-butyl in livestock commodities from consumption of fluazifop-P-butyl... Performance Liquid Chromatography/Ultra-Violet Spectrometry (HPLC/UV)) is available to enforce the tolerance... cover residues of the herbicide fluazifop-P-butyl, including its metabolites and degradates, but...

  15. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk : results from analyses in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kleinjans, J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    Both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The association between dietary intake of BHA and BHT and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)

  16. Levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, M; Read, W A; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and total phthalate ester plasticizer levels were determined in milk, cream, butter and cheese samples from a variety of sources from three European countries (UK, Norway and Spain). Samples of milk (from Norway) obtained at various stages during collection, transportation and packaging operations showed no apparent trends in phthalate contamination with total phthalate levels (expressed as DEHP equivalents) in the raw milk of between 0.12 and 0.28 mg/kg. On processing the DEHP was concentrated in the cream at levels up to 1.93 mg/kg, whereas low fat milk contained from cheese, butter and other fatty products varied considerably in their levels of contamination, the highest being cheese samples containing 17 mg/kg of DEHP and 114 mg/kg total phthalate. However, the majority of samples contained 0.6-3.0 mg/kg DEHP and 4-20 mg/kg total phthalate. UK cream samples contained levels of 0.2-2.7 mg/kg DEHP and 1.8-19.0 mg/kg total phthalate. The level found in these products was too high to have resulted solely from milk by concentration in the fat phase and must therefore have arisen in other ways.

  17. Presence of phthalates in gastrointestinal medications: is there a hidden danger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinger, Zane R; Nguyen, Geoffrey C

    2013-11-01

    Pharmaceutical companies that produce gastrointestinal (GI) medications often utilize phthalates for their ability to localize medication release. Commonly prescribed GI medications that may utilize phthalates are 5-Aminosalicylates, proton pump inhibitors, and pancreatic enzymes. Our understanding of the cumulative health effects of phthalates from medications remains unclear, and there is increasing evidence that phthalates are not harmless. Experimental studies in animals have shown that phthalates, specifically dibutyl phthalate and Di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, have the potential to alter and/or inhibit reproductive biology and in utero development. Despite the lack of definitive human data, many cohort and cross-sectional studies demonstrate concerning associations between phthalates and poor health status, specifically developmental problems. Longitudinal studies and studies with larger sample sizes are required to determine whether phthalates actually cause negative health consequences. It is also important that physicians regularly review and discuss with patients the medicinal ingredients in their medications and supplements, specifically in pregnant woman with inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  19. Engineering Escherichia coli for renewable benzyl alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Pugh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic hydrocarbon used as a solvent and an intermediate chemical in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and flavor/fragrance industries. The de novo biosynthesis of benzyl alcohol directly from renewable glucose was herein explored using a non-natural pathway engineered in Escherichia coli. Benzaldehyde was first produced from endogenous phenylpyruvate via three heterologous steps, including hydroxymandelate synthase (encoded by hmaS from Amycolatopsis orientalis, followed by (S-mandelate dehydrogenase (encoded by mdlB and phenylglyoxylate decarboxylase (encoded by mdlC from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The subsequent rapid and efficient reduction of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol occurred by the combined activity and native regulation of multiple endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and/or aldo-keto reductases. Through systematic deletion of competing aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways to promote endogenous phenylpyruvate availability, final benzyl alcohol titers as high as 114±1 mg/L were realized, representing a yield of 7.6±0.1 mg/g on glucose and a ~5-fold improvement over initial strains.

  20. Iron-catalysed Negishi coupling of benzyl halides and phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Robin B; Huwe, Michael; Wilkinson, Mark C

    2009-02-01

    Iron-based catalysts containing either 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene or 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane give excellent activity and good selectivity in the Negishi coupling of aryl zinc reagents with a range of benzyl halides and phosphates.

  1. Biocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde via hydrogen transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orbegozo, Thomas; Lavandera, Iván; Fabian, Walter M.F.; Mautner, Barbara; Vries, Johannes G. de; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Various types of biocatalysts like oxidases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and microbial cells were tested for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. Oxidases in combination with molecular oxygen led to low conversion. Alcohol dehydrogenases and microbial cells were tested in a hydrogen transfer reaction employ

  2. Phthalate monoesters in perfusate from a dual placenta perfusion system, the placenta tissue and umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Mortensen, Gerda K; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    Fetal exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse reproductive effects, including cryptorchidism and decreased semen quality. Information about human placental transfer is needed to qualify the hypotheses. A dual recirculating placenta perfusion system to monitor concentrations of eight...... phthalate monoesters in fetal and maternal perfusates was established. In addition to perfusate background measures of phthalate monoesters, the concentrations in umbilical cord plasma and placenta tissue were measured. Monomethyl phthalate (mMP), monoethyl phthalate (mEP), monobutyl phthalate (m...

  3. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices.

  4. Synthesis of benzyl chlorides and cycloveratrylene macrocycles using benzylic alcohols under homogeneous catalysis by HCl/dioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Marina Vargas-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of benzyl chlorides, cyclic derivatives cyclotriveratrylene and cyclotripiperotrylene were carried out in using the HCl/dioxane system as a catalyst. The reaction proceeded with high selectivity and is sensitive to the number of alkyl and methoxy substituent on the aromatic ring.

  5. Exposure to Phthalates and Breast Cancer Risk in Northern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Raúl U Hernández-Ramírez; Calafat, Antonia M.; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Galván-Portillo,Marcia; Needham, Larry L; Ruiz-Ramos, Rubén; Cebrián, Mariano E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Phthalates, ubiquitous environmental pollutants that may disturb the endocrine system, are used primarily as plasticizers of polyvinyl chloride and as additives in consumer and personal care products. Objectives In this study, we examined the association between urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and breast cancer (BC) in Mexican women. Methods We age-matched 233 BC cases to 221 women residing in northern Mexico. Sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics w...

  6. Current status and historical variations of phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in the sediments from a large Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Wang, Qing-Mei; He, Qi-Shuang; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2016-06-01

    The residual levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface and two core sediments from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The temporal-spatial distributions, compositions of PAEs, and their effecting factors were investigated. The results indicated that di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were three dominant PAE components in both the surface and core sediments. The residual level of total detected PAEs (∑PAEs) in the surface sediments (2.146 ± 2.255 μg/g dw) was lower than that in the western core sediments (10.615 ± 9.733 μg/g) and in the eastern core sediments (5.109 ± 4.741 μg/g). The average content of ∑PAEs in the surface sediments from the inflow rivers (4.128 ± 1.738 μg/g dw) was an order of magnitude higher than those from the lake (0.323 ± 0.093 μg/g dw), and there were similar PAE compositions between the lake and inflow rivers. This finding means that there were important effects of PAE input from the inflow rivers on the compositions and distributions of PAEs in the surface sediments. An increasing trend was found for the residual levels of ΣPAEs, DnBP, and DIBP from the bottom to the surface in both the western and eastern core sediments. Increasing PAE usage with the population growth, urbanization, and industrial and agricultural development in Lake Chaohu watershed would result in the increasing production of PAEs and their resulting presence in the sediments. The significant positive relationships were also found between the PAE contents and the percentage of sand particles, as well as TOC contents in the sediment cores.

  7. Phthalate Esters and Reproductive Toxicity** Presentation requested by State of Mass Use Reductions Committee-TURI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters and reproductive toxicity the presentation described the uses of phthalates, the toxicity to mammals with a focus on reproductive toxicity and the potency of these chemicals to disrupt mammalian reproductive development in utero

  8. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  9. Determination of NO chemical affinities of benzyl nitrite in acetonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LI; Xiaoqing ZHU; Jinpei CHENG

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the study of NO chemical affinities of organic nitrites, for the bio-logical and physiological effects of organic nitrites seem to be due to their ability to release NO. In this paper, NO chemical affinities of ten substituted benzyl nitrites were determined by titration calorimetry combined with a ther-modynamic cycle in acetonitrile solution. The results show that ΔHhet(O-NO)s of benzyl nitrites are substan-tially larger than the corresponding ΔHhomo(O-NO)s, suggesting that these O-nitroso compounds much more easily release NO radicals by the O-NO bond homolytic cleavage. It is believed that the structural and energetic information disclosed in this work should be useful in understanding chemical and biological functions of organic nitrites.

  10. 3-Benzyl-5-methyl-1,2-benzoxazole 2-oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anuradha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H13NO2, the isoxazole unit and the attached benzene ring are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 1.42 (8°. The benzyl ring is inclined to the isoxazole ring by 74.19 (8° and is in a +sc conformation with respect to the benzisoxazole unit. In the crystal, C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules, forming zigzag chains propagating along the b axis. There are also π–π interactions present involving the isoxazole and benzyl rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5209 (10 Å], and C—H...π interactions involving the benzene ring of the benzoisoxazole unit and the methylene bridging group.

  11. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  12. Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed allylic and benzylic oxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Kuang, Yi; Wang, Yuanhua

    2015-04-07

    The dirhodium(II) catalyst Rh2(esp)2 allows direct solvent-free allylic and benzylic oxidations by T-HYDRO with a remarkably low catalyst loading. This method is operationally simple and scalable at ambient temperature without the use of any additives. The high catalyst stability in these reactions may be attributed to a dirhodium(II,II) catalyst resting state, which is less prone to decomposition.

  13. Hyaluronan Benzyl Ester as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field focused on in vitro reconstruction of mammalian tissues. In order to allow a similar three-dimensional organization of in vitro cultured cells, biocompatible scaffolds are needed. This need has provided immense momentum for research on “smart scaffolds” for use in cell culture. One of the most promising materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is a hyaluronan derivative: a benzyl ester of hyaluronan (HYAFF®). HYAFF® can be proc...

  14. Tertiary amines nucleophilicity in quaternization reaction with benzyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia S. Yutilova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quaternization reaction of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride was investigated. Reaction orders with respect to the reactants were determined. Kinetic scheme of quaternization reaction was found to be corresponding to reversible process. An influence of amines basicity and steric factor of alkyl substituent bound to the nitrogen atom on tertiary amines reactivity as nucleophiles was studied. It was shown that the rate constants of direct reaction step may serve as a measure of nucleophilicity of amines.

  15. Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane Resins from Liquefied Benzylated Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ping WEI; Fa CHENG; Hou Ping LI; Jiu Gao YU

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, polyurethane resins were synthesized from liquefied benzylated wood and TDI (toluene diisocyanate)-TMP (trihydromethylene propane) prepolymer. And the relation between microphase structure and properties of PU samples were also studied. The results indicated that coatings obtained had good mechanical and thermal properties. The amount of the curing agent has great effect on the degree of phase segregation. In addition, with increased the curing agent amount, the thermal stabilities were also improved.

  16. Determination of parabens and benzophenone-type UV filters in human placenta. First description of the existence of benzyl paraben and benzophenone-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Sistac, Jennifer; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Díaz, Marta; Ibáñez, Lourdes; Barceló, Damià; Silvia Díaz-Cruz, M

    2016-03-01

    UV filters and parabens (PBs) are chemicals used in daily personal care and hygiene products to protect materials and humans from the adverse effects of UV radiation and to preserve the integrity of the formulation, respectively. Several studies highlight their widespread environmental occurrence and endocrine disrupting effects. However, little is known about human exposure to these compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the exposure of human embryos and foetuses to endocrine disrupting UV filters and PBs. Placentas from volunteer mothers in Barcelona were collected at delivery after informed, written consent by the pregnant women. UV filters and parabens were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The excellent performance of the method allowed measuring the target compounds in human placental tissue at low ng/g fresh weight level. The detection frequency of the selected compounds was in the range 17-100%. Benzophenone-1, methyl paraben, butyl paraben and benzyl paraben were detected in all samples. The highest measured concentration corresponded to methyl paraben, 11.77ng/g fresh weight. Reported concentrations of benzophenone-4 and benzyl paraben constitute the first evidence about their accumulation in placenta. The results obtained corroborate that foetuses are exposed to a wide diversity of UV filters and PBs via the placenta.

  17. 78 FR 10503 - Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Final Guidance on Inaccessible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... manufacturer to facilitate sleep or the feeding of children age 3 years and younger, or to help such children....C. 2077), to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as... CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and...

  18. Multichromic polymers of benzotriazole derivatives: Effect of benzyl substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigitsoy, Basak [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Abdul Karim, S.M. [Department of Arts and Sciences, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1208 (Bangladesh); Balan, Abidin; Baran, Derya [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Toppare, Levent, E-mail: toppare@metu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Biotechnology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Polymer Science and Technology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-02-01

    Two electroactive monomers 1-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTA) and 2-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTS) were synthesized with satisfactory yields. The effect of substitution site on electrochemical and optical properties was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical studies. Results showed that position of pendant group alters the electronic structure of the resulting polymer causing different optical and electrochemical behaviors. Symmetrically positioned benzyl unit on benzotriazole moiety resulted in a neutral state red polymer, PBBTS, having multi-colored property in its different oxidized and reduced states. Its analogue PBBTA exhibited maximum absorption at 390 nm in its neutral state and also revealed multicolored electrochromic property upon stepwise oxidation. Very different optical band gap values were calculated: 1.55 eV and 2.25 eV for PBBTS and PBBTA, respectively.

  19. Transplacental transfer of monomethyl phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a human placenta perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    and after perfusion were also analyzed. Placentas were obtained immediately after elective cesarean section and dually perfused in a recirculation system. mMP or mEHP was added to maternal perfusion medium to obtain concentrations at 10 and 25 microg/L, respectively. The placental transfer was followed...... plasma samples. mMP and possibly other short-chained phthalate monoesters in maternal blood can cross the placenta by slow transfer, whereas the results indicate no placental transfer of mEHP. Further studies are recommended....

  20. Di-(n-butyl)-phthalate-induced Oxidative Stress and Depression-like Behavior in Mice with or without Ovalbumin Immunization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Hao Xiao; LI Jin Quan; HAN Bing; KE Chen Juan; LIU Xu Dong; ZHANG Yu Chao; LI Li; YANG Xu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between atopic allergy and depression and the role of DBP in the development of depression. Methods BALB/c mice were randomly divided into eight groups:saline;ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized;saline+DBP (0.45 mg/kg·d); saline+DBP (45 mg/kg·d); DBP (0.45 mg/kg·d) OVA-immunized; DBP (45 mg/kg·d) OVA-immunized; saline+hydrocortisone (30 mg/kg·d); and hydrocortisone (30 mg/kg·d)-exposed OVA-immunized. Behavior (e.g. open-field, tail suspension, and forced swimming tests), viscera coefficients (brain and spleen), oxidative damage [e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH)], as well as levels of IgE and IL-4, were then analyzed. Results In the saline and OVA groups, the degree of depression symptoms in mice increased with increasing DBP concentration. Additionally, the OVA-immunity groups were associated with more serious depressive behavior compared with the same exposure concentration in the saline group. Oxidative damage was associated with a dose-dependent increase in DBP in the different groups. IL-4 and IgE levels were associated with low-dose DBP stimulation, which changed to high-dose inhibition with increasing DBP exposure, possibly due to spleen injury seen at high DBP concentrations. Conclusion Development of an atopic allergy has the potential to increase the risk of depression in mice, and it seems that DBP helps OVA to exert its effect in our present model. Moreover, the results of our study implicate a certain connection between brain oxidative stress and depression, which deserves a further exploration.

  1. Friction behavior of 304 stainless steel of varying hardness lubricated with benzene and some benzyl structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The lubricating properties of some benzyl and benzene structures were determined by using 304 stainless steel surfaces strained to various hardness. Friction coefficients and wear track widths were measured with a Bowden-Leben type friction apparatus by using a pin-on-disk specimen configuration. Results obtained indicate that benzyl monosulfide, dibenzyl disulfide, and benzyl alcohol resulted in the lowest friction coefficients for 304 stainless steel, while benzyl ether provided the least surface protection and gave the highest friction. Strainhardening of the 304 stainless steel prior to sliding resulted in reduced friction in dry sliding. With benzyl monosulfide, dibenzyl disulfide, and benzyl alcohol changes in 304 stainless steel hardness had no effect upon friction behavior.

  2. Synthesis of Pharmaceutical Intermediates by Toluene Benzylation over Heteropoly Acids on Different Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. V. Bokade; G.D. Yadav

    2007-01-01

    Selective formation of pharmaceutical intermediates like diphenylmethane, dimethyldiphenylmethane, benzyl toluene and benzoic acid by liquid phase, toluene benzylation with benzyl chloride as a benzylating agent, was systematically studied over plane clay (K-10, montmorillonite),plane H-Beta, plane MFI structured titanosilicate (TS-1) and heteropoly acids [HPA, namely dodecasupported on clay, H-beta and TS-1. The 20%TPA/Clay, 30%TPA/H-Beta and 30%TPA/TS-1, were observed to be the best catalyst samples over plane clay, plane H-Beta and plane TS-1. The catalyst samples are compared with respect to benzyl chloride conversion and selectivities for diphenylmethane,dimethyl-diphenylmethane, benzyl toluene and benzoic acid. The reaction follows the pseudo-first order rate power law model. The apparent rate constants are calculated and compared with the reported ones.

  3. Introducing molecular selectivity in rapid impedimetric sensing of phthalates

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2014-05-01

    This research article reports a real-time and non-invasive detection technique for phthalates in liquids by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), incorporating molecular imprinting technique to introduce selectivity for the phthalate molecule in the detection system. A functional polymer with Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) template was immobilized on the sensing surface of the inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor with sputtered gold sensing electrodes fabricated over a native layer of silicon dioxide on a single crystal silicon substrate. Various concentrations (10 to 200 ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were exposed to the sensor surface functionalized with molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) in order to capture the analyte molecule, hence introducing molecular selectivity to the testing system. Impedance spectra were obtained using EIS in order to determine sample conductance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the solution. Electrochemical Spectrum Analyzer algorithm was used to deduce equivalent circuit and equivalent component parameters from the experimentally obtained impedance spectra employing Randle\\'s cell model curve fitting technique. Experimental results confirmed that the immobilization of the functional polymer on sensing surface introduces selectivity for phthalates in the sensing system. The results were validated by testing the samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-DAD). © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Selective methylation of kaempferol via benzylation and deacetylation of kaempferol acetates

    OpenAIRE

    Qinggang Mei; Chun Wang; Weicheng Yuan; Guolin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A strategy for selective mono-, di- and tri-O-methylation of kaempferol, predominantly on the basis of selective benzylation and controllable deacetylation of kaempferol acetates, was developed. From the selective deacetylation and benzylation of kaempferol tetraacetate (1), 3,4′,5,-tri-O-acetylkaempferol (2) and 7-O-benzyl-3,4′5,-tri-O-acetylkaempferol (8) were obtained, respectively. By controllable deacetylation and followed selective or direct methylation of these two intermediates, eight...

  5. Aerobic dehydrogenative α-diarylation of benzyl ketones with aromatics through carbon-carbon bond cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Nagnath Yadav; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2014-02-01

    Substituted benzyl ketones reacted with aromatics in the presence of K2S2O8 in CF3COOH at room temperature, yielding α-diaryl benzyl ketones through a carbon-carbon bond cleavage. In the reaction, two new carbon-carbon bonds were formed and one carbon-carbon bond was cleaved. It is very interesting that two different nucleophiles such as benzyl ketones and aromatics were coupled together without metal, which is unusual in organic synthesis.

  6. 2-(tert-Butyl-4-phenyloxetane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Maria Perna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The two geometric isomers of 2-(tert-butyl-4-phenyloxetane have, for the first time, been prepared starting from the commercially available 4,4-dimethyl-1-phenylpentane-1,3-dione. The latter was reduced with NaBH4 to give a mixture of diastereomeric syn and anti diols which were then stereospecifically cyclized into the corresponding oxetanes with an overall yield for the two steps of 69.6%. The newly synthesized stereoisomeric four-membered oxygenated heterocycles were separated by column chromatography on silica gel and fully spectroscopically characterized.

  7. Photocatalytic benzylic C–H bond oxidation with a flavin scandium complex

    OpenAIRE

    Mühldorf, Bernd; Wolf, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The enhanced reduction potential of riboflavin tetraacetate coordinating to scandium triflate enables the challenging photocatalytic C–H oxidation of electron-deficient alkylbenzenes and benzyl alcohols.

  8. New preparation of benzylic aluminum and zinc organometallics by direct insertion of aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümke, Tobias D; Groll, Klaus; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Knochel, Paul

    2011-12-16

    The reaction of commercial Al-powder (3 equiv) and InCl(3) (1-5 mol %) with benzylic chlorides provides various functionalized benzylic aluminum sesquichlorides under mild conditions (THF, 20 °C, 3-24 h) without homocoupling (organometallics reacted smoothly with various electrophiles (Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings, or Cu-mediated acylations, allylations, or 1,4-addition reactions). Electron-poor benzylic chlorides or substrates prone to Wurtz coupling can be converted to benzylic zinc compounds by the reaction of Al-powder in the presence of ZnCl(2).

  9. Adsorption of Phthalates on Impervious Indoor Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaoxing; Eichler, Clara M A; Leng, Weinan; Cox, Steven S; Marr, Linsey C; Little, John C

    2017-02-13

    Sorption of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) onto interior surfaces, often referred to as the "sink effect", and their subsequent re-emission significantly affect the fate and transport of indoor SVOCs and the resulting human exposure. Unfortunately, experimental challenges and the large number of SVOC/surface combinations have impeded progress in understanding sorption of SVOCs on indoor surfaces. An experimental approach based on a diffusion model was thus developed to determine the surface/air partition coefficient K of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on typical impervious surfaces including aluminum, steel, glass, and acrylic. The results indicate that surface roughness plays an important role in the adsorption process. Although larger data sets are needed, the ability to predict K could be greatly improved by establishing the nature of the relationship between surface roughness and K for clean indoor surfaces. Furthermore, different surfaces exhibit nearly identical K values after being exposed to kitchen grime with values that are close to those reported for the octanol/air partition coefficient. This strongly supports the idea that interactions between gas-phase DEHP and soiled surfaces have been reduced to interactions with an organic film. Collectively, the results provide an improved understanding of equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs on impervious surfaces.

  10. Dermal toxicity elicited by phthalates: evaluation of skin absorption, immunohistology, and functional proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Yi-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-03-01

    The toxicity of phthalates is an important concern in the fields of environmental health and toxicology. Dermal exposure via skin care products, soil, and dust is a main route for phthalate delivery. We had explored the effect of topically-applied phthalates on skin absorption and toxicity. Immunohistology, functional proteomics, and Western blotting were employed as methodologies for validating phthalate toxicity. Among 5 phthalates tested, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) showed the highest skin reservoir. Only diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) could penetrate across skin. Strat-M(®) membrane could be used as permeation barrier for predicting phthalate penetration through skin. The accumulation of DEHP in hair follicles was ∼15nmol/cm(2), which was significantly greater than DBP and DEP. DBP induced apoptosis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via caspase-3 activation. This result was confirmed by downregulation of 14-3-3 and immunohistology of TUNEL. On the other hand, the HSP60 overexpression and immunostaining of COX-2 suggested inflammatory response induced by DEP and DEHP. The proteomic profiling verified the role of calcium homeostasis on skin inflammation. Some proteins investigated in this study can be sensitive biomarkers for dermal toxicity of phthalates. These included HSPs, 14-3-3, and cytokeratin. This work provided novel platforms for examining phthalate toxicity on skin.

  11. DESI MS based screening method for phthalates in consumer goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sabine; Wagner, Sebastian; Gerbig, Stefanie; Wächter, Herbert; Sielaff, Detlef; Bohn, Dieter; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-05-21

    Phthalates are used as plasticizes in many everyday items, but some of them are known as hormone disruptors, being especially harmful during childhood. The European Union therefore restricted their application in children's toys and certain food packaging to 0.1%w. Due to the ever increasing number of plastic-containing consumer goods, rapid screening methods are needed to ensure and improve consumer safety in the future. In this study we evaluated the performance of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) for rapid quantitative screening of phthalates in toys. DESI allowed for direct surface sampling of the toys under atmospheric conditions with minimal sample preparation, while the high performance mass spectrometer used provided a high sensitivity and reliable identification via accurate mass measurements, high mass resolving power and MS/MS capabilities. External calibration curves for six banned phthalates (DBP, BBP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP and DIDP) were obtained from matrix-matched reference materials. Coefficients of determination were greater than 0.985, LOQs ranged from 0.02%w (DIDP) to 2.26%w (DINP) and the relative standard deviation of the calibration curve slope was less than 7.8% for intraday and 11.4% for interday comparison. The phthalate contents of eleven authentic samples were determined in a proof-of-concept approach using DESI MS and results were compared to those from confirmatory methods. The phthalate content was correctly assigned with relative deviations ranging from -20% to +10% for the majority of samples. Given further optimization and automation, DESI MS is likely to become a useful tool for rapid and accurate phthalate screening in the future.

  12. Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira I; Sabra, Rayan; Jurdi, Mey; Taleb, Robin I

    2013-10-01

    Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10% of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5% of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83% of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9% of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60% of children's toys and 77% of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7%. The community survey indicated that 82% of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17% of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children.

  13. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert, Juliana; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which......-α secretion/production from monocytes or macrophages. A summary of cytokine measurements was not possible since few studies were comparable in study design and due to insufficient reporting of raw data for most of the included studies. CONCLUSION: Results from this review have suggested that at least one...

  14. Organic Semiconductors and Conductors with tert-Butyl Substituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Higashino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF, pentacene, and quarterthiophene with tert-butyl substituents are synthesized, and the crystal structures and the transistor properties are investigated. The tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ complex of tert-butyl TTF constructs highly one-dimensional segregated columns with tetragonal crystal symmetry.

  15. Observing phthalate leaching from plasticized polymer films at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Chen, Zhan

    2014-05-06

    Phthalates, the most widely used plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), have been extensively studied. In this paper, a highly sensitive, easy, and effective method was developed to examine short-term phthalate leaching from PVC/phthalate films at the molecular level using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG). Combining SFG and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface and bulk molecular structures of PVC/phthalate films were also comprehensively evaluated during the phthalate leaching process under various environments. The leaching processes of two phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), from the PVC/phthalate films with various weight ratios were studied. Oxygen plasma was applied to treat the PVC/phthalate film surfaces to verify its efficacy on preventing/reducing phthalate leaching from PVC. Our results show that DBP is more stable than DEP in PVC/phthalate films. Even so, DBP molecules were still found to very slowly leach to the environment from PVC at 30 °C, at a rate much slower than DEP. Also, the bulk DBP content substantially influences the DBP leaching. Higher DBP bulk concentration yields less stable DBP molecules in the PVC matrix, allowing molecules to leach from the polymer film more easily. Additionally, DBP leaching is very sensitive to temperature changes; higher temperature can strongly enhance the leaching process. For most cases, the oxygen plasma treatment can effectively prevent phthalate leaching from PVC films (e.g., for samples with low bulk concentrations of DBP-5 and 30 wt %). It is also capable of reducing phthalate leaching from high DBP bulk concentration PVC samples (e.g., 70 wt % DBP in PVC/DBP mixture). This research develops a highly sensitive method to detect chemicals at the molecular level as well as provides surface and bulk molecular structural changes. The method developed here is general and can be applied to detect small amounts of chemical

  16. L-苯丙氨酸苄酯盐酸盐的合成新工艺研究%Research on a New Techonology of Synthesis of L-Phenylalanine Benzyl Ester Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉琴

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a new technology line to synthesize L-Phenylalanine benzyl ester hydrochloride. L-Phenyl?alanine benzyl ester hydrochloride is synthesized from L-phenylalalanine via tert-butoxycarbonylation of amino with di-tert-butyl dicarbonate,condensation with benzyl chloride,and deprotection with hydrochloride solution in ethyl acetate. Through the experiments,the effects of such technology conditions as reaction temperatures,ingredients ratios,acid-binding agents and solvents on the synthesis are explored. The experimental results show that under the optimized techonological conditions , the overall yield of target product is 90.8%,and thus a new option is provided for the synthesis of L-Phenylalanine Benzyl Ester Hydrochloride.%提出了L-苯丙氨酸苄酯盐酸盐合成的新工艺路线,以L-苯丙氨酸为起始原料,先用二碳酸二叔丁酯保护氨基,再与氯化苄缩合得到N-叔丁氧羰基-L-苯丙氨酸苄酯,最后用氯化氢脱保护,得到L-苯丙氨酸苄酯盐酸盐.通过实验探索了反应温度、原料配比、缚酸剂以及溶剂种类等工艺条件对合成的影响.实验结果表明,在优化的工艺条件下,合成总收率为90.8%,为L-苯丙氨酸苄酯盐酸盐的合成提供了新选择.

  17. An efficient and highly selective ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether catalyzed by sulfonated ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamdari Reza Fareghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of sulfonic acid-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs was found to act as efficient catalysts for ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE as the tert-butylating agent without an added solvent. The mono o-tert-butylated product was obtained in up to 80.4% isolated yield and 95.2% selectivity under such green conditions. No O-tert-butylated byproducts were formed.

  18. [N-Benzyl-N-(diphenylphosphanylmethylpyridin-2-amine]chloridomethylplatinum(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Qing Wan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear title complex, [Pt(CH3Cl(C25H23N2P], the N-benzyl-N-(diphenylphosphanylmethylpyridin-2-amine functions as a bidentate ligand with the pyridyl N atom and the phosphine P atom chelating the PtII ion, forming a six-membered metallocycle. The PtII atom adopts a square-planar coordination geometry with one methyl group and one chloride ligand bonding to the metal center in a cis relationship. C—H...π and C—H...Cl interactions help to consolidate the packing.

  19. Multireference Calculation of the Photodissociation of Benzyl Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jun; LIU Ya-Jun; FANG Wei-Hai

    2007-01-01

    The photodissociation mechanism of benzyl chloride (BzCl) under 248 nm has been investigated by the complete active space SCF (CASSCF) method by calculating the geometries of the ground (S0) and lower excited states,the vertical (Tv) and adiabatic (T0) excitation energies of the lower states,and the dissociation reaction pathways on the potential energy surfaces (PES) of S1, T1 and T2 states.The calculated results clearly elucidated the photodissociation mechanism of BzCl,and indicated that the photodissociation on the PES of T1 state is the most favorable.

  20. Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, S; Faseela, P; Josh, M K Sarath; Balachandran, S; Devi, R Sudha; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-04-01

    This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes.

  1. Oxidative cleavage of benzylic C-N bonds under metal-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin-Long; Qi, Xinxin; Wei, Duo; Feng, Jian-Bo; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-10-14

    An interesting procedure for the oxidative cleavage of benzylic C-N bonds has been developed. Using TBAI as the catalyst and H2O2 as the oxidant, various benzylamines were transformed into their corresponding aromatic aldehydes in moderate to good yields. Notably, this is the first example of an oxidative cleavage of benzylic C-N bonds under metal-free conditions.

  2. Dealing with the ubiquity of phthalates in the laboratory when determining plasticizers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and PARAFAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oca, M L; Rubio, L; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

    2016-09-16

    Determining plasticizers and other additives migrated from plastic materials becomes a hard task when these substances are already present in the laboratory environment. This work dealt with this drawback in the multiresidue determination of four plasticizers (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol (BHT), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)) and a UV stabilizer (benzophenone (BP)) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using DiBP-d4 as internal standard. The ubiquity of DiBP by a non-constant leaching process in the laboratory was detected, which could not guarantee the achievement of a trustworthy quantification. To handle this, the assessment of the level of DiBP in solvent blanks having fixed the probabilities of false non-compliance (α) and false compliance (β) at 0.01 was performed. On the other hand, another special case was that of DiNP, in whose chromatogram finger peaks appear because of an array of possible C9 isomers. PARAFAC, used for the identification and quantification of all the substances, is a useful chemometric tool that enabled a more reliable determination of this analyte since no peak areas were considered but chromatographic and spectral loadings. Since phthalates may migrate from rubber latex items, an evaluation of the existence of matrix effects on the determination of the five analytes was conducted prior to an extraction with hexane from a dummy for infants. As matrix effects were present, the quantification of the compounds under study was performed following the standard addition method using PARAFAC sample loadings as response variable. As a result, the presence of BHT was confirmed, being its concentration equal to 37.87μgL(-1). Calibrations based on PARAFAC yielded the following values for the decision limit (CCα): 1.16μgL(-1) for BHT, 1.34μgL(-1) for BP, 1.84μgL(-1) for DEHA and 51.42μgL(-1) for DiNP(for α=0.05 and two replicates).

  3. FTIR study of hydrogen bonding between substituted benzyl alcohols and acrylic esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sivagurunathan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen bonding between substituted benzyl alcohols (benzyl alcohol, o-aminobenzyl alcohol, o-chlorobenzyl alcohol and o-nitrobenzyl alcohol and acrylic esters (methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate is studied in carbon tetrachloride by using the FTIR spectroscopic method. Utilizing the Nash method, the formation constant (K of the 1:1 complexes is calculated. Using the K value, the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG0 is also calculated. The calculated formation constant and Gibbs free energy change values vary with the substituent of benzyl alcohol and ester chain length, which suggests that the proton donating ability of substituted benzyl alcohols is in the order: o-aminobenzyl alcohol < benzyl alcohol < o-chlorobenzyl alcohol < o-nitrobenzyl alcohol, and proton accepting ability of acrylic esters is in the order: methyl methacrylate < ethyl methacrylate.

  4. Toxicological investigation of di(isodecyl)phthalate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ham WA; Jansen EHJM; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR

    1992-01-01

    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0, 20, 60, 200, 600 and 2000 mg di(isodecyl)phthalate (DIDP)kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzyme parameters (palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO), enoyl coenzyme-A hydratase (ECH), carnitine acetyl transferase (CAT)

  5. Toxicological investigation of di(cyclohexyl)phthalate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ham WA; Jansen EHJM; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR

    1992-01-01

    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0, 20, 60, 200, 600 and 2000 mg di(cyclohexyl)phthalate (DCHP)/kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzym parameters which are related with peroxisome proliferation palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO), enoyl coenzyme-A hy

  6. Toxicological investigation of di(isononyl]phthalate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Ham WA; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR

    1992-01-01

    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0,20, 60, 200, 600 and 2000 mg di(isononyl)phthalate (DINP)/kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzyme parameters (palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO), enoyl coenzyme-A hydratase (ECH), carnitine acetyl transferase (CAT)

  7. Diethyl Phthalate Causes Oxidative Stress: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Prajapati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are a group of multifunctional chemicals. Diethyl phthalate (DEP is one of the most frequently used phthalates in solvents and fixatives for numerous industrial products. Method: The present experiment was designed to assess oxidative stress, if any, caused by diethyl phthalate. For this the homogenates of liver and kidney were treated with different concentrations ( 10-40 µg/mL of DEP. 10% liver and kidney homogenates were prepared in phosphate buffered saline and used for estimation of lipid peroxidation.In final step lipid peroxidation and total protein content were analyzed. Results: The result revealed significant and dose - dependent increase in lipid peroxidation, whereas protein content reduced significantly. Maximum increase in LPO and decrease in protein content was observed at 40 µg/mL of DEP concentration. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that different concentrations of DEP leads to dose- dependent significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease protein content.So at the different concentration of DEP cause oxidative stress.

  8. Phthalate esters reduce predation efficiency of dragonfly larvae, Odonata; Aeshna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woin, P.; Larsson, P.

    1987-02-01

    Sublethal exposure to persistent organic chemicals cause effects different than levels resulting in acute toxicity. These effects may result in altered behavior, which may reduce the fitness of the organism. Behavior changes are difficult to study in vertebrates and in highly specialized invertebrates because of large natural variation in behavioral patterns. The behavior of insects, however, is strongly governed by genetic constraints (instincts). Phthalate esters are one of the most produced chemical groups in the world and are used mainly as plasticizers. Of the phthalates DEHP (di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) seems to exhibit properties typical of organic micropollutants. The compound reduces reproduction in Daphnia magna and bioaccumulation occurs in invertebrates. Since phthalate esters are lipophilic they tend to become attached to particles in the aquatic environments and consequently are found in high levels in the sediment of the lakes and rivers. Benthic organisms are, therefore, more exposed to this substance than those living in the water column. An aquatic laboratory system was constructed to study the behavior (predation efficiency) of dragonfly larvae (Aeshna) exposed to sediment-bound DEHP. Dragonfly larvae were chosen since the predation behavior of these animals is easily studied.

  9. Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2015-01-01

    than 70% of blood samples, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines. Twenty-two reproductive biomarkers were assessed, including serum levels of reproductive hormones, markers of semen quality, sperm chromatin...

  10. Exposure assessment of phthalates in non-occupational populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Zhao, Yan; Li, Luxi; Chen, Bingheng; Zhang, Yunhui

    2012-06-15

    Phthalates have been used worldwide and are ubiquitous in environmental media and human bodies. Based on existing data on phthalate concentrations, distributions of phthalates in the environment and their exposure assessment to non-occupational populations in China can be evaluated. Fifty-three studies, published from January 2000 to October 2010, were reviewed and their data were analyzed in this study. Geographic information system (GIS) was used in mapping the published data of phthalate concentrations and their distributions in environmental media, while scatter diagrams were applied to show the time trends for phthalate concentrations in various environmental media. Results showed that there was a time-dependent increase in ∑phthalates (total phthalates) and DEHP concentrations in air during the past 10 years; phthalate concentrations varied in different areas, among which Guangdong and northeast China were the most polluted. Using Clark's equations, daily intake of ∑phthalates and DEHP in the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta was estimated from consumption of contaminated food, water and air. Results showed that daily intake of ∑phthalates and DEHP was 128.63 and 61.29 μg/kg BW/d for adults in the Pearl River Delta, which is significantly higher than those residing in the Yangtze River Delta (33.87 and 24.68 μg/kg BW/d).

  11. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of New MKC-442 Analogues with an Alkynyl-Substituted 6-Benzyl Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Youssef L.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerreg.; La Colla, Paolo;

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis and antiviral activities are reported of a series of 6-(3-alkynyl benzyl)-substituted analogues of MKC-442 (6-benzyl-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-isopropyluracil), a highly potent agent against HIV. The 3-alkynyl group is assumed to give a better stacking of the substituted benzyl group to revers...

  12. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, C.; Kumar, P. Saravana; Arun, Y.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Sundaram, R. Lakshmi; Vijayakumar, A.; Balakrishna, K.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Perumal, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was obtained by acylation of benzylamine with trifluoroacetic anhydride using Friedel-Crafts acylation method. The synthesised compound was confirmed by spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques. N-Benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide was assessed for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties. It showed good antifungal activity against tested fungi and moderate antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of N-benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide against fungi were 15.62 μg/mL against A. flavus, 31.25 μg/mL against B. Cinerea and 62.5 μg/mL against T. mentagrophytes, Scopulariopsis sp., C. albicans and M. pachydermatis. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 78.97 ± 2.24 of antioxidant activity at 1,000 μg/mL. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was dependent on the concentration. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed (1.352 ± 0.04 mM Fe(II)/g) twofold higher value compared to the standard. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 75.3 % cytotoxic activity at the dose of 200 μg/mL with IC50 (54.7 %) value of 100 μg/mL. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition AmpC beta-lactamase, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase and lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes which are targets for antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Docking studies of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed low docking energy. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide can be evaluated further for drug development.

  13. Solubilization of meso-carbon microbeads by potassium- or dibutylzinc-promoted butylation and structural analysis of the butylated products; Mesocarbon microbeads no butyl ka ni yoru kayoka to erareta butyl kabutsu no kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, S.; Zhang, Y.; Kidena, K.; Nomura, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility and structure of the butylated products of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) were studied experimentally. In experiment, MCMB-A and MCMB-B obtained from two kinds of coal-tar pitch were used as specimens. MCMBs were butylated by BZ method using dibutylzinc-butyl iodide and KT method using K-butyl iodide-THF, and the butylated products were successfully obtained. The butylated products were investigated through THF solubility test, {sup 13}C-NMR measurement and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurement. As the experimental result, a BZ method produced the butylated products at a yield of nearly 170%, while a KT method produced them at a yield of nearly 130%. The THF solubility was estimated to be 89-97%. As the study result of molecular weight distributions by GPC measurement of solvent solubles, the molecular weight of raw material MCMB was estimated to be 590-770 in terms of polystyrene. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The association between phthalate exposure and atopic dermatitis with a discussion of phthalate induced secretion of interleukin-1β and thymic stromal lymphopoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Line E K; Bonefeld, Charlotte M.; Frederiksen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate diesters are widely used as emollients in plastic and cosmetics as well as in food packaging and perfumes, potentially leading to prolonged and repeated dermal, oral and airborne exposure. We here review published articles that have evaluated the putative role of phthalate diesters in t...

  15. Simultaneous Determination of 22 Phthalate Acid Esters in Edible Oils by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Gel Permeation Chromatography%凝胶渗透色谱-气相色谱/质谱法同时测定食用油中22种邻苯二甲酸酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永辉

    2012-01-01

    建立了凝胶渗透色谱-气相色谱/质谱法同时测定食用油中22种邻苯二甲酸酯的方法.方法具有良好线性,相关系数R均大于0.999,检测限在0.09~11.83 mg/kg之间,平均回收率在81.45%~113.90%范围内,相对标准偏差为1.55%~9.41%.采用该方法对国内食用油中邻苯二甲酸酯增塑剂进行检测,实际样品中检出邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯,可满足目前食用油中邻苯二甲酸酯的检测要求.%A method for the simultaneous determination of 22 phthalate acid esters in edible oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with gel permeation chromatography was developed. The correlation coefficients(i?) of 22 phthalate acid esters were over 0. 999 with detection limits from 0. 09~ 11. 83 mg/kg. The average recoveries of 22 phthalate acid esters in edible oils were ranged from 81. 45% ~113. 90%. In addition,the relative standard deviations(RSDs) were in the range of 1. 55%6~9.41%. The level of phthalate acid esters plasticizers in edible oils was investigated by this method .and di-iso-butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, bis (2-ethylhexy1) phthalate were found in some real samples. The simplicity,sensitivity and precision of the method made it be well suitable for the analysis of phthalate acid esters in edible oils.

  16. Identification and quantification of 14 phthalates and 5 non-phthalate plasticizers in PVC medical devices by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Thomas, Sébastien; Bousquet, Claudine; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2014-02-15

    A GC/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 phthalates: 8 phthalates classified H360 (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP and DiBP), 3 phthalates proposed to be forbidden in medical devices (DnOP, DiNP and DiDP) and 3 other phthalates none regulated (DMP, DCHP and DEP) which may interfere with hormone function. In order to identify and quantify other plasticizers that are commonly used in PVC medical devices such as DEHP substitute, 5 non-phthalate plasticizers (ATBC, DEHA, DEHT, TOTM, and DINCH) were included in this study. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of plasticizers is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30m×0.25mm (i.d.)×0.25μm film thickness using a gradient temperature. Compounds quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements on standard solutions were determined using the ISO 12787 standard approach. Plasticizers are extracted from PVC medical devices using THF for dissolving the PVC part of the sample followed by precipitation of the PVC by addition of ethanol. The supernatant is injected into a GC/MS system after dilution in ethanol. Different validation elements, including extraction recoveries for all compounds or for DEHP a cross-validation of the extraction process using the European pharmacopoeia monograph 3.1.14 as reference method, are discussed. Results obtained on 61 medical devices in PVC and 12 raw materials used as plasticizers are given.

  17. BENZYLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLD NAOH/UREA PRE-SWELLED BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fei Li,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo was pre-swelled with a cold aqueous solution of NaOH and urea, and then reacted directly with benzyl chloride to synthesize benzylated bamboo. The effects of the molar ratio of benzyl chloride to OH groups in the bamboo (1 to 4, the reaction temperature (70 to 110 °C, and the reaction time (2 to 8 h on both the product yield and the degree of substitution (DS were evaluated. Yields between 67.6 and 94.0% and DS between 0.31 and 0.74 of the benzylated bamboo were obtained under such conditions. The incorporation of benzyl groups was evidenced by FT-IR and CP/MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the crystalline structure of the native ball-milled bamboo was markedly damaged after modification. In addition, the benzylated bamboo was subjected to thermal degradation at a high temperature with an increase in substitution. It was suggested that the benzylated bamboo with a low crystallinity as well as large non-polar groups is promising as a filler for use in the composite material industry.

  18. Phenol Tert-Butylation Catalyzed by Zeolite H-Mordenite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Sen; LI Zhenhua; ZHANG Kui

    2005-01-01

    Para-tert-butyl phenol (p-TBP) and 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol (2,4-DTBP) are widely used for the preparation of antioxidants. Zeolite catalysts showed good performance for the synthesis of p-TBP and 2,4-DTBP. In this work, zeolite H-mordenite (HM) catalyst was prepared and the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol over zeolite HM catalyst was investigated at different reaction conditions. It is found that increasing temperature enhances the selectivity to p-TBP and the optimum reaction temperature for phenol conversion is 438 K. Increasing flow rate decreases phenol conversion apparently while the selectivity to p-TBP has a little increase. The suitable tert-butyl alcohol/phenol molar ratio is 2. Lower alcohol/phenol molar ratios are beneficial to p-TBP while higher ones are helpful for producing 2,4-DTBP.

  19. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba

    2007-11-01

    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and dipolarity/polarizability (*) of the solvent. The LSER derived from the statistical analysis indicates that the transition state is more solvated than the reactants due to hydrogen bond donation and polarizability of the solvent while the reactant is more solvated than the transition state due to electrophilicity of the solvent. Study of the reaction in methanol, dimethyl formamide mixtures suggests that the rate is maximum when dipolar interactions between the two solvents are maximum.

  20. 1-Benzyl-5-bromoindoline-2,3-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Kharbach

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H10BrNO2, the indoline ring system, the two ketone O atoms and the Br atom lie in a common plane, with the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.073 (1 Å for the Br atom. The fused-ring system is nearly perpendicular to the benzyl ring, as indicated by the dihedral angle between them of 74.58 (10°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds and by π–π interactions [inter-centroid distance = 3.625 (2 Å], forming a two-dimensional structure.

  1. 1-Benzyl-3-[(trimethylsilylmethyl]benzimidazolium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akkurt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H23N2Si+·Cl−·H2O, was synthesized from 1-[(trimethylsilylmethyl]benzimidazole and benzyl chloride in dimethylformamide. The benzimidazole ring system is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.022 (2 Å, and makes an angle of 74.80 (12° with the phenyl ring. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H...Cl, C—H...Cl, C—H...O and C—H...π interactions between symmetry-related molecules together with π–π stacking interactions between the imidazolium and benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5690 (15 Å] and between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7223 (14 Å].

  2. Technique for rapid detection of phthalates in water and beverages

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2013-05-01

    The teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of phthalate esters on living beings are proven in toxicology studies. These ubiquitous food and environmental pollutants pose a great danger to the human race due to their extraordinary use as a plasticizer in the consumer product industry. Contemporary detection techniques used for phthalates require a high level of skills, expensive equipment and longer analysis time than the presented technique. Presented research work introduces a real time non-invasive detection technique using a new type of silicon substrate based planar interdigital (ID) sensor fabricated on basis of thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) semiconductor device fabrication technology. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used in conjunction with the fabricated sensor to detect phthalates in deionized water. Various concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as low as 2 ppb to a higher level of 2 ppm in deionized water were detected distinctively using new planar ID sensor based EIS sensing system. Dip testing method was used to obtain the conductance and dielectric properties of the bulk samples. Parylene C polymer coating was used as a passivation layer on the surface of the fabricated sensor to reduce the influence of Faradaic currents. In addition, inherent dielectric properties of the coating enhanced the sensitivity of the capacitive type sensor. Electrochemical spectrum analysis algorithm was used to model experimentally observed impedance spectrum to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit to analyse the kinetic processes taking place inside the electrochemical cell. Curve fitting technique was used to extract the values of the circuit components and explain experimental results on theoretical grounds. The sensor performance was tested by adding DEHP to an energy drink at concentrations above and below the minimal risk level (MRL) limit set by the ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry

  3. N-正丁基-1-脱氧野尻霉素合成方法的改进%An improved strategy to synthesize N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳; 张振兴; 李铁海; 郭利娜; 刘艳坤; 赵炜

    2011-01-01

    As an amino sugar derivative,N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin has promising therapeutics in treatment of diabetes, viral infections, metastatic cancers and Gancher's diseases. Low yield is the main obstacle for chemical synthetic of N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin. To improve the synthetic procedure,butyryl group was introduced to the nitrogen atom of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-D-gluconolactam (5) using butyryl chloride or buty-ric anhydride, respectively. The resulting compound N-butyryl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-D-gluconolac-tam(6) was treated with aluminium hydride to afford N-butyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-deoxynojirimycin(7) in a satisfying yield. Compared with the previously reported synthetic strategy (yield of 23.4% ) ,the developed method can significantly increase the yield(54% ) from compound 5 to 7. In summary,we have successfully optimised the synthetic procedures of N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin. Besides, instead of methanolic ammonia,n-butylamine was used for ammonolysis,expected product and possible mechanism of forming the byproduct were discussed in the ring-close step.%目的 改进N-正丁基-1-脱氧野尻霉素的合成.方法:该文通过酰化反应分别用丁酰氯和丁酸酐将丁酰基引入到2,3,4,6-四苄基葡萄糖内酰胺的氮原子上,然后用氢化铝锂将两个羰基还原,得到N-正丁基-2,3,4,6-四苄基-1-脱氧野尻霉素.结果与结论该.方法:在改进部分将收率提高为相关文献的2~3倍,在氨解开环这一步,尝试用正丁基胺代替饱和氨气的甲醇溶液,并对其关环产物以及副产物的生成机制进行了探讨.

  4. 白酒酿造过程中塑化剂来源分析%Source Analysis of Phthalate Acid Esters during Liquor Manufacturing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马荣山; 韩营; 王凤兰; 颜廷才; 张旋; 蒋玲

    2015-01-01

    为探明白酒在酿造过程中的塑化剂来源,采用气相色谱-质谱联用方法测定白酒酿造的主要原料及各个阶段产物的16种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质的含量.结果表明,16种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质的平均回收率和精密度分别为84.5%~107.3%、2.9%~7.3%,方法检出限在0.06~1.3 μg/kg.3个批次的样品只检出了邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(dimethyl phthalate,DMP)、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯 (diethyl phthalate,DEP)、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(diisobutyl phthalate,DIBP)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(di-n-butyl phthalate,DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二-2-乙基己酯(dioctyl pathalate,DEHP)5种塑化剂.DMP、DBP在大渣酒头、大渣原酒、小渣酒头、渣原酒、回糟原酒中含量明显多于 其他阶段.大渣酿酒阶段产生微量的DMP、DBP,小渣酿酒阶段产生微量的DEHP,产生量均未超过0.09 mg/kg,可见白酒酿造过程中产生极微量的塑化剂,在不接触塑料制品的前提下白酒酿造过程中的塑化剂主要来源于原料.

  5. Phthalate Exposure and Allergy in the U.S. Population: Results from NHANES 2005–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Renee; London, Stephanie J.; Bertelsen, Randi J.; Salo, Päivi M.; Sandler, Dale P.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental exposures to phthalates, particularly high-molecular-weight (HMW) phthalates, are suspected to contribute to allergy. Objective: We assessed whether phthalate metabolites are associated with allergic symptoms and sensitization in a large nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data on urinary phthalate metabolites and allergic symptoms (hay fever, rhinitis, allergy, wheeze, asthma) and sensitization from participants ≥ 6 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006. Allergen sensitization was defined as a positive response to at least one of 19 specific IgE antigens (≥ 0.35 kU/L). Odds ratios (ORs) per one log10 unit change in phthalate concentration were estimated using logistic regression adjusting for age, race, body mass index, gender, creatinine, and cotinine. Separate analyses were conducted for children (6–17 years of age) and adults. Results: The HMW phthalate metabolite monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) was the only metabolite positively associated with current allergic symptoms in adults (wheeze, asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis). Mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate and the sum of diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (both representing HMW phthalate exposures) were positively associated with allergic sensitization in adults. Conversely, in children, HMW phthalate metabolites were inversely associated with asthma and hay fever. Of the low-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites, monoethyl phthalate was inversely associated with allergic sensitization in adults (OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.90). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample, HMW phthalate metabolites, particularly MBzP, were positively associated with allergic symptoms and sensitization in adults, but there was no strong evidence for associations between phthalates and allergy in children 6–17 years of age. Citation: Hoppin JA, Jaramillo R, London SJ, Bertelsen RJ, Salo PM

  6. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Selected Florida Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John W; Bell, Jane Margaret; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Phthalates have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in laboratory animals and are associated with altered development of the reproductive system in humans. Further, human have significant exposure to phthalates. However, little is known concerning the exposure of wildlife to phthalates. We report urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations from fifty juvenile alligators from three Florida lakes and a site in the Everglades. Urinary phthalate monoester concentrations varied widely among alligators from the different sites but also among alligators from the same site. Mono-2-ethylhexy phthalate and monobutyl phthalate were found in most samples of alligator urine with maximums of 35,700 ng/mL and 193 ng/mL, respectively. Monobenzyl phthalate was found in 5 alligators with a maximum of 66.7 ng/mL. Other monoesters were found in only one or two alligator urine samples. The wide variation within and among sites, in addition to the high levels of mEHP, mBP and mBzP, is consistent with exposure arising from the intermittent spraying of herbicide formulations to control invasive aquatic plants in Florida freshwater sites. Phthalate diesters are used as adjuvants in many of these formulations.

  7. Predicted risk of childhood allergy, asthma, and reported symptoms using measured phthalate exposure in dust and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, N.-Y.; Lee, C.-C.; Wang, J.-Y.;

    2012-01-01

    The associated risk of phthalate exposure, both parent compounds in the home and their metabolites in urine, to childhood allergic and respiratory morbidity, after adjusting for exposures of indoor pollutants, especially bioaerosols, was comprehensively assessed. Levels of five phthalates...

  8. Phthalate exposure through different pathways and allergic sensitization in preschool children with asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Callesen, Michael; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2015-01-01

    Studies in rodents indicate that phthalates can function as adjuvants, increasing the potency of allergens. Meanwhile, epidemiological studies have produced inconsistent findings regarding relationships between phthalate exposures and allergic disease in humans. The present study examined phthala...

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE PHTHALATE CONTENT LEVELS IN WINE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duca Gheorghe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of studies conducted in the laboratory of National Center for Quality Testing of the Alcoholic Beverages (Republic of Moldova were included more than 1300 samples of the bottled wine and base-wine for the presence of most widespread and toxic phthalate – dibutylphthalate using modern method of analysis like GC-MS. Results display presences DBP in 85 % of studied samples of wines, i.e. a content of DBP more than LOQ (0.01mg/dm3. Has been determined that contamination of phthalates has a technogenic character, and it is the result of contact with polymeric materials. Optimum conditions of extraction DBP from liquid samples were obtained.

  10. Occurrence of phthalate diesters (phthalates), p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and their derivatives in indoor dust from Vietnam: Implications for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri Manh; Minh, Tu Binh; Kumosani, Taha A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate diesters (phthalates), esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are used in personal care products, food packages, household products, or pharmaceuticals. These compounds possess endocrine-disrupting potentials and have been reported to occur in the environment. Nevertheless, no previous studies have reported the occurrence of these compounds in indoor dust from Vietnam. In this study, nine phthalates, six parabens, and four BADGEs were determined in indoor dust samples collected from Hanoi, Hatinh, Hungyen, and Thaibinh, in Vietnam. Total concentrations of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust ranged from 3440 to 106,000 ng/g (median: 22,600 ng/g), 40-840 ng/g (median: 123 ng/g), and 23 to 1750 ng/g (median: 184 ng/g), respectively. Based on the measured median concentration of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust, we estimated human exposure doses to these compounds through indoor dust ingestion for various age groups. The exposure doses to phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs decreased with age and ranged from 19.4 to 90.4 ng/kg-bw/d, 0.113-0.528 ng/kg-bw/d, and 0.158-0.736 ng/kg-bw/d, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust from Vietnam.

  11. PHTHALATE ESTERS AND THEIR STATUS IN SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Yerlikaya, Pınar

    2017-01-01

    Many organic and inorganic pollutants and chemicalcontaminants, which are increasingly used together with the development oftechnology, are threatening both biological system and human health. Phthalatesare man-made compounds which are used for imparting durability and flexibilityto plastic materials. Considering the use of many inland plastic materials suchas food packages, toys, cosmetics, household materials, medical equipment, itis obvious that human are exposed to high levels of phthalat...

  12. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Kaleva, Marko M

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis.......Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis....

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of structurally diverse phthalic acid esters by porcine and bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takao; Hong, Peng; Tanabe, Rima; Nagai, Kazuo; Kato, Katsuya

    2010-12-01

    A weak hydrolyzing activity against bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was discovered in a commercial crude lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) preparation from porcine pancreas. DEHP was hydrolyzed to mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) not by a pancreatic lipase but by a cholesterol esterase (CEase, EC 3.1.1.13), a trace contaminant in the crude lipase preparation. Enzymatic hydrolysis of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), suspected to be endocrine-disrupting chemicals, was investigated using CEases from two species of mammals and a microorganism. Eight structurally diverse PAEs, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-propyl phthalate (DPrP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPeP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP), DEHP, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), were hydrolyzed to their corresponding monoesters by both porcine and bovine pancreatic CEases, while a microbial CEase from Pseudomonas sp. had no hydrolyzing activity against these PAEs. The hydrolysis experiments with bovine pancreatic CEase (50 U) indicated complete hydrolysis of every PAE (5 μmole) except for BBP and DCHP within 15 min; BBP and DCHP were hydrolyzed within 30 min and 6h, respectively. The rates of PAE hydrolysis could be affected by the bulkiness of alkyl side chains in the PAEs. This study provides important evidence that mammalian pancreatic CEases, such as those from porcine and bovine sources, are potential enzymes for nonspecific degradation of structurally diverse PAEs.

  14. Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Jia; Huo, Chun-Yan; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Liu, Li-Yan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-09-15

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals in household products, which severely affect human health. However, there were limited studies emphasized on young adults' exposure to phthalates in dormitories. In this study, seven phthalates were extracted from indoor dust that collected in university dormitories in Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in the north of China. Dust samples were also collected in houses in Harbin for comparison. The total concentrations of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin and Shenyang samples were significantly higher than those in Baoding samples. The total geometric mean concentration of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin was lower than in house dust. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant phthalate in both dormitory and house dust. The daily intakes of the total phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, hazard index (HI) of di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were estimated, the median values for all students in dormitories were lower than adults who live in the houses. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of phthalates. HI of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP was predicted according to the reference doses (RfD) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the reference doses for anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) developed by Kortenkamp and Faust. The results indicated that the risks of some students had exceeded the limitation, however, the measured results were not exceeded the limitation. Risk quotients (RQ) of DEHP were predicted based on China specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) and Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL). The predicted results of CR and RQ of DEHP suggested that DEHP could pose a health risk through intake of indoor dust.

  15. Toxic effects of the easily avoidable phthalates and parabens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-09-01

    Some environmental toxins like DDT and other chlorinated compounds accumulate in the body because of their fat-soluble nature. Other compounds do not stay long in the body, but still cause toxic effects during the time they are present. For serious health problems to arise, exposure to these rapidly-clearing compounds must occur on a daily basis. Two such classes of compounds are the phthalate plasticizers and parabens, both of which are used in many personal care products, some medications, and even foods and food preservation. The phthalates are commonly found in foods and household dust. Even though they have relatively short half-lives in humans, phthalates have been associated with a number of serious health problems, including infertility, testicular dysgenesis, obesity, asthma, and allergies, as well as leiomyomas and breast cancer. Parabens, which can be dermally absorbed, are present in many cosmetic products, including antiperspirants. Their estrogenicity and tissue presence are a cause for concern regarding breast cancer. Fortunately, these compounds are relatively easy to avoid and such steps can result in dramatic reductions of urinary levels of these compounds.

  16. Photocatalytic oxidation of primary and secondary benzyl alcohol catalyzed by two coenzyme NAD+ models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation of primary and secondary benzyl alcohol to corresponding benzaldehyde or acetophenone using Acr+ClO4- or PhAcr+ClO4- as photocatalysts under visible light irradiation at room temperature.

  17. Polystyrene-supported Benzyl Selenide: An Efficient Reagent for Highly Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Substituted Olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Polystyrene-supported benzyl selenide has been prepared. This novel reagent was treated with LDA to produce a selenium stabilized carbanion, which reacted with alkyl halide, followed by selenoxide syn-elimination, to give substituted olefins stereospecificly.

  18. A Direct Transformation of Aryl Aldehydes to Benzyl Iodides Via Reductive Iodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruso, Jayaraman Sembian; Rajendiran, Nagappan; Kumaran, Rajendran Senthil [Univ. of Madras, Chennai (India)

    2014-02-15

    A facile transformation of aryl aldehydes to benzyl iodides through one-pot reductive iodination is reported. This protocol displays remarkable functional group tolerance and the title compound was obtained in good to excellent yield.

  19. Photostimulated SRN 1 Reactions of Benzyl Chloride with Carbazolyl Nitrogen Anion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The photostimulated reactions of benzyl chloride with carbazolyl nitrogen anion in dimethyl sulfoxide gave 9-benzylcarbazole and 3-benzylcarbazole.The reactions are suggested in term of SRN1 mechanism of nucleophilic substitution.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed Cascade Cyclization-Coupling Reaction of Benzyl Halides with N,N-Diallylbenzoylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Min HU; Yu ZHANG; Jian Lin HAN; Cheng Jian ZHU; Yi PAN

    2003-01-01

    A novel type of palladium-catalyzed cascade cyclization-coupling reaction has been found. Reaction of N, N-diallylbenzoylamide 1 with benzyl halides 2 afforded the corresponding dihydropyrroles 3 in moderate to excellent yields.

  1. Selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols using copper-manganese mixed oxide nanoparticles as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roushown Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of copper-manganese (CuMn2 mixed oxide nanoparticles (Cu/Mn = 1:2 has been studied for the selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes using molecular oxygen as an oxidizing agent. The CuMn2 mixed oxide showed excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes with high selectivity (>99%. The complete conversion (100% of all the benzylic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes is achieved within a short reaction period at 102 °C. The catalytic performance is obtained to be dependent on the electronic and steric effects of the substituents present on the phenyl ring. Electron withdrawing and bulky groups attached to the phenyl ring required longer reaction time for a complete conversion of the benzylic alcohols.

  2. Wheat bran valorisation: Towards photocatalytic nanomaterials for benzyl alcohol photo-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Weiyi; Reina, Jose M; Kuna, Ewelina; Yepez, Alfonso; Balu, Alina M; Romero, Antonio A; Colmenares, Juan Carlos; Luque, Rafael

    2016-07-13

    In this work, we have successfully synthesized a set of titania photocatalytic nanocomposites by the incorporation of different TiO2 content on wheat bran residues. The obtained catalysts were characterized by different techniques including UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) while their photocatalytic activity was investigated in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol under UV light irradiation. Benzaldehyde yields were ca. 20%, with conversion in the systems of ca. 33% of benzyl alcohol by using 10%Ti-Bran catalyst, as compared to 33% yield to the target product (quantitative conversion of benzyl alcohol) using commercial pure TiO2 (P-25). The photocatalytic activity results indicate that designed waste-derived nanomaterials with low TiO2 content can efficiently photocatalyze the conversion of benzyl alcohol with relative high selectivity towards benzaldehyde.

  3. SIDE CHAIN LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYSILOXANES CONTAINING CROWN ETHER AND BENZYL ETHER MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Two kinds of side chain liquid crystalline polysiloxanes containing crown ether and benzyl ether were synthesized and characterized by optical polarization microscopy. Both the monomeric liquid crystals and polymeric liquid crystals show smectic phases.

  4. Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Assessment of Phthalates Exposure Through Consumption of Bottled Water During the Storage Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare Jeddi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The research showed that the concentration of phthalates in PET-bottled water was extremely low. Consequently, based on the risk assessment results, bottled waters regarding existence of safe for consumers and they phthalates are not considered as public health issue for consumers as phthalates does not have any risk exposure for the consumers.

  5. Exposure to phthalates among premenstrual girls from rural and urban Gharbiah, Egypt: A pilot exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hablas Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalates have been identified as endocrine active compounds associated with developmental and reproductive toxicity. The exposure to phthalates in premenstrual Egyptian females remains unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize phthalate exposure of a potentially vulnerable population of premenstrual girls from urban and rural Egypt. Materials and methods We collected one spot urine sample from 60 10-13 year old females, 30 from rural Egypt, and 30 from urban Egypt from July to October 2009. Samples were analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites. Additionally, we collected anthropometrics as well as questionnaire data concerning food storage behaviors, cooking practices, and cosmetic use. Phthalate metabolite concentrations were compared between urban and rural Egyptians as well as to age and gender matched Americans. Results Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, was detected at the highest concentration in urine of Egyptian girls (median: 43.2 ng/mL in rural, 98.8 ng/mL in urban. Concentrations of urinary metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were comparable between Egyptians and age matched US girls. Storage of food in plastic containers was a statistically significant predictor of urinary mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP concentrations when comparing covariate adjusted means. Conclusions Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites were similar in Egyptian and US populations, suggesting that phthalate exposure also occurs in developing nations. Dietary intake is likely an important route of exposure to phthalates in both urban and rural populations.

  6. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a... phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a petition by the Joint Inserts Task Force,...

  7. Study of selected benzyl azides by UV photoelectron spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, R. M.; Olariu, R. I.; Lameiras, J.; Martins, F. T.; Dias, A. A.; Langley, G. J.; Rodrigues, P.; Maycock, C. D.; Santos, J. P.; Duarte, M. F.; Fernandez, M. T.; Costa, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    Benzyl azide and the three methylbenzyl azides were synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UVPES). The electron ionization fragmentation mechanisms for benzyl azide and their methyl derivatives were studied by accurate mass measurements and linked scans at constant B/ E. For benzyl azide, in order to clarify the fragmentation mechanism, labelling experiments were performed. From the mass analysis of methylbenzyl azides isomers it was possible to differentiate the isomers ortho, meta and para. The abundance and nature of the ions resulting from the molecular ion fragmentation, for the three distinct isomers of substituted benzyl azides, were rationalized in terms of the electronic properties of the substituent. Concerning the para-isomer, IRC calculations were performed at UHF/6-31G(d) level. The photoionization study of benzyl azide, with He(I) radiation, revealed five bands in the 8-21 eV ionization energies region. From every photoelectron spectrum of methylbenzyl azides isomers it has been identified seven bands, on the same range as the benzyl azide. Interpretation of the photoelectron spectra was accomplished applying Koopmans' theorem to the SCF orbital energies obtained at HF/6-311++G(d, p) level.

  8. Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Chemicals Bisphenol A and Phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shoei-Lung Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic effects on DNA methylation, histone modification, and expression of non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs of environmental chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates have expanded our understanding of the etiology of human complex diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Multiple lines of evidence from in vitro and in vivo models have established that epigenetic modifications caused by in utero exposure to environmental toxicants can induce alterations in gene expression that may persist throughout life. Epigenetics is an important mechanism in the ability of environmental chemicals to influence health and disease, and BPA and phthalates are epigenetically toxic. The epigenetic effect of BPA was clearly demonstrated in viable yellow mice by decreasing CpG methylation upstream of the Agouti gene, and the hypomethylating effect of BPA was prevented by maternal dietary supplementation with a methyl donor like folic acid or the phytoestrogen genistein. Histone H3 was found to be trimethylated at lysine 27 by BPA effect on EZH2 in a human breast cancer cell line and mice. BPA exposure of human placental cell lines has been shown to alter microRNA expression levels, and specifically, miR-146a was strongly induced by BPA treatment. In human breast cancer MCF7 cells, treatment with the phthalate BBP led to demethylation of estrogen receptor (ESR1 promoter-associated CpG islands, indicating that altered ESR1 mRNA expression by BBP is due to aberrant DNA methylation. Maternal exposure to phthalate DEHP was also shown to increase DNA methylation and expression levels of DNA methyltransferases in mouse testis. Further, some epigenetic effects of BPA and phthalates in female rats were found to be transgenerational. Finally, the available new technologies for global analysis of epigenetic alterations will provide insight into the extent and patterns of alterations between human normal and diseased tissues.

  9. Microbial degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Torsten C.; Schirmer, Mario; Weiß, Holger; Haderlein, Stefan B.

    2004-06-01

    The fate of fuel oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the subsurface is governed by their degradability under various redox conditions. The key intermediate in degradation of MTBE and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) which was often found as accumulating intermediate or dead-end product in lab studies using microcosms or isolated cell suspensions. This review discusses in detail the thermodynamics of the degradation processes utilizing various terminal electron acceptors, and the aerobic degradation pathways of MTBE and TBA. It summarizes the present knowledge on MTBE and TBA degradation gained from either microcosm or pure culture studies and emphasizes the potential of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) for identification and quantification of degradation processes of slowly biodegradable pollutants such as MTBE and TBA. Microcosm studies demonstrated that MTBE and TBA may be biodegradable under oxic and nearly all anoxic conditions, although results of various studies are often contradictory, which suggests that site-specific conditions are important parameters. So far, TBA degradation has not been shown under methanogenic conditions and it is currently widely accepted that TBA is a recalcitrant dead-end product of MTBE under these conditions. Reliable in situ degradation rates for MTBE and TBA under various geochemical conditions are not yet available. Furthermore, degradation pathways under anoxic conditions have not yet been elucidated. All pure cultures capable of MTBE or TBA degradation isolated so far use oxygen as terminal electron acceptor. In general, compared with hydrocarbons present in gasoline, fuel oxygenates biodegrade much slower, if at all. The presence of MTBE and related compounds in groundwater therefore frequently limits the use of in situ biodegradation as remediation option at gasoline-contaminated sites. Though degradation of MTBE and TBA in field studies has been reported under oxic

  10. Phthalate Exposure and Health-Related Outcomes in Specific Types of Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kolena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many toxic substances in the workplace can modify human health and quality of life and there is still insufficient data on respiratory outcomes in adults exposed to phthalates. The aim of this work was to assess in waste management workers from the Nitra region of Slovakia (n = 30 the extent of exposure to phthalates and health-related outcomes. Four urinary phthalate metabolites mono(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, monobutyl phthalate (MnBP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. Urinary concentration of MEHP was positively associated with ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity % (FEV1/FVC (r = 0.431; p = 0.018 and MiNP with fat free mass index (FFMI (r = 0.439; p = 0.015. The strongest predictor of pulmonary function was the pack/year index as smoking history that predicted a decrease of pulmonary parameters, the FEV1/FVC, % of predicted values of peak expiratory flow (PEF % of PV and FEV1 % of PV. Unexpectedly, urinary MEHP and MINP were positively associated with pulmonary function expressed as PEF % of PV and FEV1/FVC. We hypothesize that occupational exposure to phthalates estimated from urinary metabolites (MEHP, MiNP can modify pulmonary function on top of lifestyle factors.

  11. Effects of early exposure to phthalates and bisphenols on cardiometabolic outcomes in pregnancy and childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, E.M. (Elise M.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Trasande, L. (Leonardo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPregnant women are exposed to various chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates and bisphenols. Increasing evidence suggests that early life exposures to phthalates and bisphenols may contribute to cardiometabolic risks. The aim of this narrative revie

  12. Serum phthalate levels and time to pregnancy in couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that have been associated with altered reproductive function in rodents. Several human studies have reported an inverse association between male testosterone and phthalate levels. Our aim was to investigate time to pregnancy (TTP) according to serum ...

  13. New insights into the risk of phthalates: Inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Cao, Yun-Feng; Ran, Rui-Xue; Dong, Pei-Pei; Gonzalez, Frank J; Wu, Xue; Huang, Ting; Chen, Jian-Xin; Fu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Rong-Shan; Liu, Yong-Zhe; Sun, Hong-Zhi; Fang, Zhong-Ze

    2016-02-01

    Wide utilization of phthalates-containing products results in the significant exposure of humans to these compounds. Many adverse effects of phthalates have been documented in rodent models, but their effects in humans exposed to these chemicals remain unclear until more mechanistic studies on phthalate toxicities can be carried out. To provide new insights to predict the potential adverse effects of phthalates in humans, the recent study investigated the inhibition of representative phthalates di-n-octyl ortho-phthalate (DNOP) and diphenyl phthalate (DPhP) towards the important xenobiotic and endobiotic-metabolizing UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). An in vitro UGTs incubation system was employed to study the inhibition of DNOP and DPhP towards UGT isoforms. DPhP and DNOP weakly inhibited the activities of UGT1A1, UGT1A7, and UGT1A8. 100 µM of DNOP inhibited the activities of UGT1A3, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 by 41.8% (p [I]/Ki > 0.1, medium possibility; [I]/Ki > 1, high possibility), these studies predicted in vivo drug-drug interaction might occur when the plasma concentration of DPhP was above 0.089 µM. Taken together, this study reveales the potential for adverse effects of phthalates DNOP and DPhP as a result of UGT inhibition.

  14. The acute effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) on testes of prepubertal Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lam, Henrik Rye;

    2001-01-01

    A single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), the testis toxic metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. was given to 28-day-old male Wistar rats and the testis toxic effects were investigated 3, 6. and 12 h after exposure. Detachment and sloughing of germ cell...

  15. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHTHALATE CATABOLISM REGION OF PRE1 OF ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B

    Science.gov (United States)

    o-Phthalate (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a central intermediate in the bacterial degradation of phthalate ester plasticizers as well as of a number of fused-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. In Arthrobacter keyseri 12B, the genes encoding catabolism o...

  16. Intake of Phthalate-tainted Foods and Serum Thyroid Hormones in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Ju; Wu, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Huang, Po-Chin; Chen, Mei-Lien; Wang, Shu-Li; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Wen-Chiu; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2016-07-01

    On April-May, 2011, phthalates, mainly Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were deliberately added to a variety of foodstuff as a substitute emulsifier in Taiwan. This study investigated the relationship between DEHP-tainted foodstuffs exposure and thyroid function in possibly affected children and adolescents. Two hundred fifty participants adolescents.

  17. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Katherine [Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (Puerto Rico); National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Claudio, Luz [Division of International Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used

  18. Structure and dynamics of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate phases on silica and laponite clay: from liquid to solid behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M Rosa; Fraile, José M; Mayoral, José A

    2012-08-07

    Solid-state NMR experiments show that the behavior of supported 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid phases depends on the type of support and the phase thickness. A mobile nearly liquid phase is obtained on silica, on the basis of the line widths of the bands in (1)H, (31)P, and (13)C spectra. However, the mobility is somehow restricted, as shown by the possibility of using the cross-polarization technique, although with slow dynamics. On laponite clay, a layered material with a negatively charged surface, a truly solid phase is obtained at low coverage, whereas the increase in ionic liquid loading leads to a second liquid phase, as shown by the presence of two contributions with very different line widths. These two phases seem to coexist without exchange in the NMR time frame. Heteronuclear correlation experiments evidence different relative dispositions of the imidazolium-surface-PF(6) system, with only aromatic protons involved in all the interactions on silica but participation of the benzylic groups (N-CH(3) and/or N-CH(2)) in the case of laponite clay.

  19. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  20. Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine; Frederiksen, Hanne; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

    2014-01-01

    Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals is of particular concern for pregnant women....... We therefore studied current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in 200 healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between weeks 8-30 of pregnancy and analysed for 10 phenols, 7 parabens and 16 phthalate metabolites by LC...... daily intake (TDI) and with Hazard Quotients (HQ) below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the individual estimated DI of phthalates and BPA was below TDI, our results...

  1. Analysis of phthalate ester content in poly(vinyl chloride) plastics by means of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy is applied to a range of phthalate ester plasticizers in pure form as well as in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples. It is found that phthalate esters as a group can be identified by a set of six characteristic Raman bands. FT-Raman spectra of 22 phthalate...... esters are given. It is demonstrated that the presence of phthalate esters in PVC products is readily detectable by FT-Raman spectroscopy. By use of proper ref. samples quant. detn. of the phthalate ester content becomes possible as well....

  2. Pentanol and Benzyl Alcohol Attack Bacterial Surface Structures Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Takehisa; Miyahara, Yoshiko; Morii, Noriyuki; Okano, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium tolerates hygiene agents like benzalkonium chloride (BAC), and infection with this organism is an important public health issue. Here, we found that the combination of BAC with particular alcohols at nonlethal concentrations in terms of their solitary uses significantly reduced bacterial viability after only 5 min of exposure. Among the alcohols, Raman spectroscopic analyses showed that pentanol (pentyl alcohol [PeA]) and benzyl alcohol (BzA) accelerated the cellular accumulation of BAC. Fluorescence spectroscopic assays and morphological assays with giant vesicles indicated that PeA rarely attacked membrane structures, while BzA increased the membrane fluidity and destabilized the structures. Other fluorescent spectroscopic assays indicated that PeA and BzA inactivate bacterial membrane proteins, including an efflux pump for BAC transportation. These findings suggested that the inactivation of membrane proteins by PeA and BzA led to the cellular accumulation but that only BzA also enhanced BAC penetration by membrane fluidization at nonlethal concentrations. PMID:26519389

  3. Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. A review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-06-01

    Phthalates are a family of industrial chemicals that have been used for a variety of purposes. As the potential consequences of human exposure to phthalates have raised concerns in the general population, they have been studied in susceptible subjects such as pregnant women, infants and children. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to phthalates on reproductive outcomes and children health by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcome, genital development, semen quality, precocious puberty, thyroid function, respiratory symptoms and neurodevelopment in children for the last ten years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola and Toxnet literature bases. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that phthalates increase the risk of allergy and asthma and have an adverse impact on children's neurodevelopment reflected by quality of alertness among girls, decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results of few studies demonstrate negative associations between phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (concentration, morphology, motility). Phthalates negatively impact also on gestational age and head circumference; however, the results of the studies were not consistent. In all the reviewed studies, exposure to phthalates adversely affected the level of reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin), anogenital distance and thyroid function. The urinary levels of phthalates were significantly higher in the pubertal gynecomastia group, in serum in girls with premature thelarche and in girls with precocious puberty. Epidemiological studies, in spite of their limitations, suggest that phthalates may affect reproductive outcome and children health

  4. Identification and characterization of a cold-active phthalate esters hydrolase by screening a metagenomic library derived from biofilms of a wastewater treatment plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiying Jiao

    Full Text Available A cold-active phthalate esters hydrolase gene (designated dphB was identified through functional screening of a metagenomic library derived from biofilms of a wastewater treatment plant. The enzyme specifically catalyzed the hydrolysis of dipropyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and dipentyl phthalate to the corresponding monoalkyl phthalate esters at low temperatures. The catalytic triad residues of DphB were proposed to be Ser159, Asp251, and His281.

  5. Identification and Characterization of a Cold-Active Phthalate Esters Hydrolase by Screening a Metagenomic Library Derived from Biofilms of a Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Yiying; CHEN Xu; Wang, Xin; Liao, Xuewei; Xiao, Lin; Miao, Aijun; Wu, Jun; Yang, Liuyan

    2013-01-01

    A cold-active phthalate esters hydrolase gene (designated dphB) was identified through functional screening of a metagenomic library derived from biofilms of a wastewater treatment plant. The enzyme specifically catalyzed the hydrolysis of dipropyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and dipentyl phthalate to the corresponding monoalkyl phthalate esters at low temperatures. The catalytic triad residues of DphB were proposed to be Ser159, Asp251, and His281.

  6. Toxicity of phthalates. January 1978-January 1988 (citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-January 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biological effects of phthalate exposure. Measurement of phthalate levels in fish, pork, and hens is discussed. The effects of phthalates on reproductive organs, skin, lungs, liver, and blood is examined. Toxicity, carcinogenesis, and mutagenicity caused by phthalates are described. The effect of phthalates on earthworms, coral, lichen, bacteria, and mussels is briefly discussed. (Contains 287 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  7. Determination of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Yang, Bofeng; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Fengmei; Xu, Hui; Cai, Xue

    2014-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

  8. Contamination level of four priority phthalates in North Indian wastewater treatment plants and their fate in sequencing batch reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Rajpal, Ankur; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The contamination level of four phthalates in untreated and treated wastewater of fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their fate in a full scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based WWTP was evaluated in this study. The four phthalates were diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). All compounds were present in untreated wastewater with DEHP being present in the highest mean concentration of 28.4 ± 5.3 μg L(-1). The concentration was in the range of 7.3 μg L(-1) (BBP) to 28.4 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in untreated wastewater and 1.3 μg L(-1) (DBP) to 2.6 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in treated wastewater. The nutrient removal process and advance tertiary treatment based WWTPs showed the highest phthalate removal efficiencies of 87% and 93%, respectively. The correlation between phthalate removal and conventional performance of WWTPs was positive. Fate analysis of these phthalates in a SBR based WWTP showed that total removal of the sum of phthalates in a primary settling tank and SBR was 84% out of which 55% is removed by biodegradation and 29% was removed by sorption to primary and secondary sludge. The percentage removal of four phthalates in primary settling tanks was 18%. Comparison of the diluted effluent DEHP concentration with its environmental quality standards showed that the dilution in an effluent receiving water body can reduce the DEHP emissions to acceptable values.

  9. Impact of low molecular weight phthalates in inducing reproductive malfunctions in male mice: Special emphasis on Sertoli cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Srivastava, Swati; Roy, Partha

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in a variety of products. Since they have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), effect of phthalates on human health is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated individual as well as combined mixture effects of three low molecular weight phthalates on the reproductive system of male mice, specifically on the Sertoli cell structure and function. In order to analyze the blood testes barrier (BTB) dynamics, primary culture of Sertoli cells from 3-weeks old male mice was used for mimicking typical tight junction structures. Male mice were exposed to long-term (45 days) and combined mixture of three phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and dimethyl isophthalate (DMIP) between pre-pubertal to adult stage. Our data showed significant decrease (p phthalates may affect male fertility by altering both structural and functional integrity of Sertoli cells in testes.

  10. Pressure-induced crystallization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemi, Machiko; Takekiyo, Takahiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2013-03-01

    We have investigated the pressure-induced crystallization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) associated with the conformational changes of [bmim]+ by Raman spectroscopy. [bmim]+ has trans-trans and gauche-trans (GT) conformers of the butyl side chain at ambient pressure. Our result revealed that liquid to solid-phase transition occurs at 0.2-0.4 GPa region, where the GT conformer becomes dominant. We found that the GT dominant state continues up to 4 GPa.

  11. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) was released for external peer review in April 2017. EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the ETBE assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is conducting an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). The outcome of this project is a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for ETBE that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  13. Phthalates in meat products in dependence on the fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of dibutylphthalate (DBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in samples of packages intended for thermally processed meat products and release of phthalates from packages into meat products in dependence on the fat content were observed. 80 samples of packages were analyzed, 5 of them wereselected due to exceeding the specific migration limit. The raw meat was prepared, one type with the fat content of 10% and second one with the fat content of 50%. The both types of raw meat were analyzed for the content of DBP and DEHP and packed into chosen packages.The samples of meat products were thermally processed (70 ℃, 10 min in the core, stored until the expiration date at 4 °C and gradually analyzed after 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of storage. Determination of phthalates was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC in the Zorbax Eclipse C8column and by UV detection at a wavelength of 224 mm. The phthalate content in the raw meat was under the limit of detection. According to the EU Commission Regulation no. 10/2011 the specific migration limit of products intended for the contact with food for DEHP (max. 1.5 mg.kg-1of food stimulant and DBP max. 0.3 mg.kg-1 of food stimulant, wasexceeded already after first day of storage, in case of DBP in two samples with 10% of fat and after 7th day of storage in one sample. In the samples with 50% of fat, SML was exceeded after first day of storage in four samples and in one sample after 14th day of storage. Regarding DEHP in the samples with 10% of fat SML was exceeded after 1st day of storage in one sample and after 7th day of storage also in one sample and after 21st day of storage similarly in one sample. Four samples with 50% of fat had SML exceeded in case of DEHP already after 1st day of storage. By comparison of PAE migration depending on the fat content we concluded that leaching of PAE from a package into food was 2 - 21 times higher in samples with 50% of

  14. Semi-volatile organic compounds in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning filter dust in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Liang, Y; Urquidi, J R; Siegel, J A

    2015-02-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Filters in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system collect particles from large volumes of air and thus potentially provide spatially and temporally integrated SVOC concentrations. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds in HVAC filter dust in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, United States. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the HVAC filter dust in retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor pollutants. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates and PBDEs was not strong, suggesting that their indoor sources are diverse. The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in HVAC filter dust are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of settled dust in residential buildings. Significant correlations between indoor air and filter dust concentrations were found for diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and benzyl butyl phthalate. Reasonable agreement between measurements and an equilibrium model to describe SVOC partitioning between dust and gas-phase is achieved.

  15. Effects of enrichment with phthalate on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, David R; Richardson, Stephen D; Aitken, Michael D

    2008-07-01

    The effect of enrichment with phthalate on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was tested with bioreactor-treated and untreated contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. Soil samples that had been treated in a bioreactor and enriched with phthalate mineralized (14)C-labeled phenanthrene and pyrene to a greater extent than unenriched samples over a 22.5-h incubation, but did not stimulate benzo[a]pyrene mineralization. In contrast to the positive effects on (14)C-labeled phenanthrene and pyrene, no significant differences were found in the extent of biodegradation of native PAH when untreated contaminated soil was incubated with and without phthalate amendment. Denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from unenriched and phthalate-enriched soil samples were substantially different, and clonal sequences matched to prominent DGGE bands revealed that beta-Proteobacteria related to Ralstonia were most highly enriched by phthalate addition. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses confirmed that, of previously determined PAH-degraders in the bioreactor, only Ralstonia-type organisms increased in response to enrichment, accounting for 89% of the additional bacterial 16S rRNA genes resulting from phthalate enrichment. These findings indicate that phthalate amendment of this particular PAH-contaminated soil did not significantly enrich for organisms associated with high molecular weight PAH degradation or have any significant effect on overall degradation of native PAH in the soil.

  16. Evaluating spatial distribution and seasonal variation of phthalates using passive air sampling in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Srimurali; Selvaraj, Krishna Kumar; Shanmugam, Govindaraj; Krishnamoorthy, Vimalkumar; Chakraborty, Paromita; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran

    2017-02-01

    Usage of phthalates as plasticizers has resulted in worldwide occurrence and is becoming a serious concern to human health and environment. However, studies on phthalates in Indian atmosphere are lacking. Therefore, we studied the spatio-temporal trends of six major phthalates in Tamil Nadu, southern India, using passive air samplers. Phthalates were ubiquitously detected in all the samples and the average total phthalates found in decreasing order is pre-monsoon (61 ng m(-3)) > summer (52 ng m(-3)) > monsoon (17 ng m(-3)). Largely used phthalates, dibutylphthalate (DBP) and diethylhexlphthalate (DEHP) were predominantly found in all the seasons with contribution of 11-31% and 59-68%, respectively. The highest total phthalates was observed in summer at an urban location (836 ng m(-3)). Furthermore, through principal component analysis, potential sources were identified as emissions from additives of plasticizers in the polymer industry and the productions of adhesives, building materials and vinyl flooring. Although inhalation exposure of infants was higher than other population segments (toddlers, children and adults), exposure levels were found to be safe for people belonging to all ages based on reference dose (RfD) and tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. This study first attempted to report seasonal trend based on atmospheric monitoring using passive air sampling technique and exposure risk together.

  17. The effects of phthalates in the cardiovascular and reproductive systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Melissa; Feiteiro, Joana; Verde, Ignacio; Cairrao, Elisa

    2016-09-01

    Every year millions of tons of plastic are produced around the world and humans are increasingly exposed to them. This constant exposure to plastics has raised some concerns against human health, particularly when it comes to phthalates. These compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties, as they have the ability to bind molecular targets in the body and interfere with hormonal function and quantity. The main use of phthalates is to give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers. Phthalates are found in a variety of industrial and consumer products, and as they are not covalently bound to the plastic, phthalates contaminate the environment from which human exposure occurs. Studies in human and animal populations suggest a correlation between phthalate exposure and adverse health outcomes, particularly at the reproductive and cardiovascular systems, however there is much less information about the phthalate toxicity of the later. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to present the studies relating the effects already stated of phthalates on the cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and also present the link between these two systems.

  18. Dietary Phthalate Exposure in Pregnant Women and the Impact of Consumer Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha E. Serrano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are contaminants in food and contribute to significant dietary exposures. We examined associations between reported consumption of specific foods and beverages and first trimester urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in 656 pregnant women within a multicenter cohort study, The Infant Development and Environment Study (TIDES, using multivariate regression analysis. We also examined whether reported use of ecofriendly and chemical-free products was associated with lower phthalate biomarker levels in comparison to not following such practices. Consumption of one additional serving of dairy per week was associated with decreases of 1% in the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolite levels (95% CI: −2.0, −0.2. Further, participants who reported sometimes eating homegrown food had monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP levels that were 16.6% lower (95% CI: −29.5, −1.3 in comparison to participants in the rarely/never category. In contrast to rarely/never eating frozen fruits and vegetables, participants who reported sometimes following this practice had monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP levels that were 21% higher (95% CI: 3.3, 41.7 than rarely/ever respondents. Future study on prenatal dietary phthalate exposure and the role of consumer product choices in reducing such exposure is needed.

  19. Analysis and migration of phthalates in infant food packed in recycled paperboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Sonja; Balski, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2009-11-25

    The contamination of infant food with substances from its packaging due to migration processes is still a problem. Most recently, great attention was paid to the migration of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates from twist-off closures into baby food packed in glass jars. Besides, packaging made of recycled fiber materials such as paper and paperboard were found to be the source of contaminants in dry and powdery foodstuffs such as sugar, rice, and maize flour. In this study 20 infant food samples packed in recycled paperboard containers were tested for phthalates and diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN), known incorporated substances in recycled paper. Furthermore, the barrier function of different secondary packaging materials (paper and aluminum-coated foil) was investigated. The highest contents of phthalates (mainly diisobutyl phthalate, DiBP) and DIPN in infant food samples were found for those foods packed in inner bags made of paper. Migration experiments were performed under authentic conditions to evaluate possible transfer mechanism (gas phase, direct contact) of phthalate esters into foodstuff. It is shown that paper does not provide an appropriate barrier against migration of semipolar compounds such as phthalates. The air space itself otherwise effectively prevents migration of the less volatile phthalates under the applied conditions.

  20. First Trimester Phthalate Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in the Infant Development and Environment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby; Redmon, Bruce; Haaland, Wren; Swan, Shanna H.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is widespread among pregnant women but whether it is related to fetal growth and birth weight remains to be determined. We examined whether first trimester prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with birth weight in a pregnancy cohort study. We recruited first trimester pregnant women from 2010–2012 from four centers and analyzed mother/infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth record data (N = 753). We conducted multiple linear regression to examine if prenatal log specific gravity adjusted urinary phthalate exposure was related to birthweight in term and preterm (≤37 weeks) infants, stratified by sex. We observed a significant association between mono carboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCOP) exposure and increased birthweight in term males, 0.13 kg (95% CI 0.03, 0.23). In preterm infants, we observed a 0.49 kg (95% CI 0.09, 0.89) increase in birthweight in relation to a one log unit change in the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations in females (N = 33). In summary, we observed few associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and birthweight. Positive associations may be attributable to unresolved confounding in term infants and limited sample size in preterm infants. PMID:27669283

  1. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

  2. A new approach to synthesis of benzyl cinnamate: Optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Hao; Zhang, Jiang-Yan; Che, Wen-Cai; Wang, Yun

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new approach to synthesis of benzyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid with benzyl alcohol is optimized by response surface methodology. The effects of various reaction conditions, including temperature, enzyme loading, substrate molar ratio of benzyl alcohol to cinnamic acid, and reaction time, are investigated. A 5-level-4-factor central composite design is employed to search for the optimal yield of benzyl cinnamate. A quadratic polynomial regression model is used to analyze the experimental data at a 95% confidence level (P<0.05). The coefficient of determination of this model is found to be 0.9851. Three sets of optimum reaction conditions are established, and the verified experimental trials are performed for validating the optimum points. Under the optimum conditions (40°C, 31mg/mL enzyme loading, 2.6:1 molar ratio, 27h), the yield reaches 97.7%, which provides an efficient processes for industrial production of benzyl cinnamate.

  3. Performance and mechanisms for the removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution by graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Chen, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hao-Xuan; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, commonly detected emerging contaminants (ECs) in water, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF), were selected as the target contaminants. A lab-prepared graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane (TGCCM) coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process (EC/EF) in crossflow filtration mode was used to remove target contaminants in model solution. Meanwhile, a comparison of the removal efficiency was made among various tubular composite membranes reported, including carbon fibers/carbon/alumina composite tubular membrane (TCCACM), titania/alumina composite tubular membrane (TTACM) and alumina tubular membrane (TAM). The results of this study showed that the removal efficiencies for DnBP and DEHP were 99%, whereas 32-97% for cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF). In this work the mechanisms involved in removing target ECs were proposed and their roles in removing various ECs were also discussed. Further, two actual municipal wastewaters were treated to evaluate the applicability of the aforementioned treatment technology (i.e., TGCCM coupled with EC/EF) to various aqueous solutions in the real world.

  4. A Study of the Teratogenicity of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst; Meyer, Otto A.

    1978-01-01

    A teratogenicity study on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was carried out in SPF New Zealand White rabbits. BHA was given by gavage from day 7–18 of the gestation period in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt./day. The fetuses were removed on day 28. No effect related to the treatment with BHA...

  5. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  6. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  7. Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol into Butyl Levulinate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carà, P.D..; Ciriminna, R.; Shiju, N.R.; Rothenberg, G.; Pagliaro, M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the catalytic condensation of furfuryl alcohol with 1-butanol to butyl levulinate. A screening of several commercial and as-synthesized solid acid catalysts shows that propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica outperforms the state-of-the-art phosphotungstate acid catalysts. The

  8. 76 FR 82152 - Cyhalofop-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... observed following subchronic or chronic exposure to cyhalofop-butyl included hyperplasia of the stomach... exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary exposure...://www.epa.gov/oppefed1/models/water/index.htm . Based on the Tier 1 Rice Model and...

  9. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages: a systematic review of experimental trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which could affect both pro- and anti-inflammatory abilities of these cells.A systematic search was performed in Medline, Embase and Toxline in June 2013, last updated 3rd of August 2014. Criteria used to select studies were described and published beforehand online on Prospero (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236. In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion/production from monocytes or macrophages. A summary of cytokine measurements was not possible since few studies were comparable in study design and due to insufficient reporting of raw data for most of the included studies.Results from this review have suggested that at least one phthalate (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate has the ability to enhance tumour necrosis factor-α production/secretion from monocytes/macrophages in vitro, but also observed ex vivo. Influence of other phthalates on other cytokines has only been investigated in few studies. Thus, in vitro studies on primary human monocytes/macrophages as well as more in vivo studies are needed to confirm or dispute these findings.

  10. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  11. Higher Urinary Heavy Metal, Phthalate, and Arsenic but Not Parabens Concentrations in People with High Blood Pressure, U.S. NHANES, 2011–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Shiue

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged but not been completely examined in risk factors. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and risk of high blood pressure (BP in a national, population-based study. Data were retrieved from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011–2012 including demographics, BP readings, and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment (adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index, urinary cesium (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11–2.20, P = 0.014, molybden (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.06–2.01, P = 0.023, manganese (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.09–1.86, P = 0.012, lead (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28–1.96, P < 0.001, tin (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.25–1.66, P < 0.001, antimony (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.10–1.77, P = 0.010, and tungsten (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.25–1.77, P < 0.001 concentrations were observed to be associated with high BP. People with higher urinary mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.00–1.62, P = 0.006, mono-n-butyl phthalate (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.13–1.62, P = 0.002, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.05–1.49, P = 0.014, mono-n-methyl phthalate (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.007, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.009, and monobenzyl phthalate (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.15–1.69, P = 0.002 tended to have high BP as well. However, there are no clear associations between environmental parabens and high BP, nor between pesticides and high BP. In addition, trimethylarsine oxide (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.27–4.81, P = 0.011 and dimethylarsonic acid concentrations (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.12–1.79, P = 0.006 were seen to be associated with high BP. In sum, urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic concentrations were associated with high BP, although the

  12. Associations between serum phthalates and biomarkers of reproductive function in 589 adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Toft, Gunnar; Hougaard, Karin S

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates which are widely used, are ubiquitous in the environment and in some human tissues. It is generally accepted that phthalates exert their toxic action by inhibiting Leydig cell synthesis of testosterone, but in vitro studies have also shown anti-androgenic effects at the receptor level...... and Ukraine were enrolled between 2002 and 2004. The men gave semen and blood samples and were interviewed. Six phthalate metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in serum. The metabolites were summed according to their molar weight. We observed significant...

  13. Partitioning of phthalates among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Salthammer, Tunga; Fromme, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    . The particle concentration, C-particle, of a given phthalate was calculated from its total airborne concentration and the concentration of airborne particles (PM4). This required knowledge of the particle-gas partition coefficient, K., which was estimated from either the saturation vapor pressure (p......(s)) or the octanol/air partition coefficient (K-OA). For each phthalate in each apartment, the ratio of its particle concentration to its dust concentration (C-particle/C-Dust) was calculated, The median values of this ratio were within an order of magnitude of one another for five of the phthalate esters despite...

  14. Synthesis, Anticancer and Antibacterial Activity of Salinomycin N-Benzyl Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Antoszczak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of 12 novel monosubstituted N-benzyl amides of salinomycin (SAL was synthesized for the first time and characterized by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of three salinomycin derivatives in the solid state were determined using single crystal X-ray method. All compounds obtained were screened for their antiproliferative activity against various human cancer cell lines as well as against the most problematic bacteria strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel salinomycin derivatives exhibited potent anticancer activity against drug-resistant cell lines. Additionally, two N-benzyl amides of salinomycin revealed interesting antibacterial activity. The most active were N-benzyl amides of SAL substituted at -ortho position and the least anticancer active derivatives were those substituted at the -para position.

  15. Synthesis, anticancer and antibacterial activity of salinomycin N-benzyl amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczak, Michał; Maj, Ewa; Napiórkowska, Agnieszka; Stefańska, Joanna; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Janczak, Jan; Brzezinski, Bogumil; Huczyński, Adam

    2014-11-25

    A series of 12 novel monosubstituted N-benzyl amides of salinomycin (SAL) was synthesized for the first time and characterized by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of three salinomycin derivatives in the solid state were determined using single crystal X-ray method. All compounds obtained were screened for their antiproliferative activity against various human cancer cell lines as well as against the most problematic bacteria strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel salinomycin derivatives exhibited potent anticancer activity against drug-resistant cell lines. Additionally, two N-benzyl amides of salinomycin revealed interesting antibacterial activity. The most active were N-benzyl amides of SAL substituted at -ortho position and the least anticancer active derivatives were those substituted at the -para position.

  16. Oxidation of benzyl alcohol by K2FeO4 to benzaldehyde over zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Hua; Song, Hua-Lin; Jin, Zai-Shun

    2016-10-01

    A novel and green procedure for benzaldehyde synthesis by potassium ferrate oxidation of benzyl alcohol employing zeolite catalysts was studied. The prepared oxidant was characterized by SEM and XRD. The catalytic activity of various solid catalysts was studied using benzyl alcohol as a model compound. USY was found to be a very efficient catalyst for this particular oxidation process. Benzaldehyde yields up to 96.0% could be obtained at the following optimal conditions: 0.2 mL of benzyl alcohol, 4 mmol of K2FeO4, 0.5 g of USY zeolite; 20 mL of cyclohexene, 0.3 mL of acetic acid (36 wt %), 30°C temperature, 4 h reaction time.

  17. Synthesis and tunability of highly electron-accepting, N-benzylated "phosphaviologens".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolar, Monika; Borau-Garcia, Javier; Toonen, Mark; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2015-03-11

    We report a structure-property study on phosphoryl-bridged viologen analogues with a remarkably low reduction threshold. Utilizing different benzyl groups for N-quaternization, we were able to confirm the p-benzyl substituent effect on the electronic tunability of the system while maintaining the characteristic chromic response of viologens with two fully reversible one-electron reductions. Due to the considerably increased electron-acceptor properties of the phosphoryl-bridged bipyridine precursor, N-benzylation was found to be very challenging and required the development of new synthetic strategies toward the target viologen species. This study also introduces a new and convenient way for the anion exchange of viologen systems by utilizing methyl triflate. Finally, the practical utility of the new species was verified in simplified proof-of-concept electrochromic devices.

  18. Structure-activity relationship of dopaminergic halogenated 1-benzyl-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aouad, Noureddine; Berenguer, Inmaculada; Romero, Vanessa; Marín, Paloma; Serrano, Angel; Andujar, Sebastián; Suvire, Fernando; Bermejo, Almudena; Ivorra, M Dolores; Enriz, Ricardo D; Cabedo, Nuria; Cortes, Diego

    2009-11-01

    Two series of halogenated 1-benzyl-7-chloro-6-hydroxy-tetrahydroisoquinolines were prepared to explore the influence of each series on the affinity for dopamine receptors. All the compounds displayed a high affinity for D(1)-like and/or D(2)-like dopamine receptors in striatal membranes, although they were unable to inhibit [(3)H]-dopamine uptake in striatal synaptosomes. The halogen placed on the benzylic ring in 1-benzyl-THIQs, compounds of the series 1, 2'-bromobenzyl derivatives with K(i) values into the nanomolar range, and the series 2, 2',4'-dichlorobenzyl-THIQ homologues, proves to be an important factor to modulate affinity at dopamine receptor.

  19. Solvent-free alkylation of dimethyl malonate using benzyl alcohols catalyzed by FeCl3/SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza Shushizadeh; Masumeh Kiany

    2009-01-01

    Activated methylene compound such as dimethyl malonate reacted readily with benzylic alcohols in the presence of ferric chloride/silica gel mixture(FeCl3/SiO2)under microwave irradiation to produce benzylic derivative of dimethyl malonate in high yields in solvent-free condition.

  20. Application of Magnetic Dicationic Ionic Liquid Phase Transfer Catalyst in Nuclophilic Substitution Reactions of Benzyl Halids in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Manouchehr Aghajeri; Ali Reza Kiasat; Bijan Mombeni Goodajdar

    2016-01-01

    magnetic dicationic ionic liquid (MDIL) was successfully prepared and evaluated as phase-transfer catalyst for nucleophilic substitution reactions. The reactions was occurred in water and furnished the corresponding benzyl derivatives in high yields. No evidence for the formation of by-product for example benzyl alcohol of the reaction was observed and the products were obtained in pure form without further purification.

  1. Experimental Determination and Modeling of the Phase Behavior for the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol in Supercritical CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Beier, Matthias Josef; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2011-01-01

    In this study the phase behavior of mixtures relevant to the selective catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by molecular oxygen in supercritical CO2 is investigated. Initially, the solubility of N2 in benzaldehyde as well as the dew points of CO2–benzyl alcohol–O2 and CO2...

  2. Therapeutic Agents in Acne Vulgaris: Part II. D-Alpha Amino Benzyl Penicillin, Erythromycin and Sulfadimethoxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W D; Maddin, S; Nelson, A J; Danto, J L

    1965-06-26

    A total of 379 patients with pustular and cystic acne vulgaris were selected for study in three groups. Each group was assigned one of the following medications: benzyl penicillin, erythromycin, sulfadimethoxine, or placebo; these were to be compared with tetracycline, a medication whose effectiveness was previously demonstrated in this type of acne. The study revealed a larger number of favourable responses to tetracycline and erythromycin than to sulfadimethoxine. Sulfadimethoxine, however, produced a greater number of favourable responses than did the benzyl penicillin or the placebo; the last-named had equivalent results.

  3. Efficient oxidation of benzyl alcohol with heteropolytungstate as reaction-controlled phase-transfer catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of heteropolytungstates has been synthesized and utilized as catalysts to catalyze oxidation of benzyl alcohol with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The results indicated that three of these catalysts showed the properties of reaction-controlled phasetransfer catalysis, and they had excellent catalytic ability to the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. No other by-products were detected by gas chromatography. Once the hydrogen peroxide was consumed completely, the catalyst precipitated from solvent, and the results of the catalyst recycle showed that the catalyst had high stability.

  4. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  5. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated.

  6. 1-n-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-carboxylate: a versatile precatalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and rac-lactide under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Hoppe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL and rac-lactide (rac-LA under solvent-free conditions and using 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-carboxylate (BMIM-2-CO2 as precatalyst is described. Linear and star-branched polyesters were synthesized by successive use of benzyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, glycerol and pentaerythritol as initiator alcohols, and the products were fully characterized by 1H and 13C{1H} NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. BMIM-2-CO2 acts as an N-heterocyclic carbene precursor, resulting from in situ decarboxylation, either by heating under vacuo (method A or by addition of NaBPh4 (method B. Possible catalytic and deactivation mechanisms are proposed.

  7. [Discrimination of plasticizers and screening of phthalates in polyvinyl chloride using DART-TOF/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro; Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    A technique using a direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source coupled with time of flight/mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) was developed to discriminate plasticizers and to screen phthalates in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In DART-TOF/MS analysis of 40 plasticizers, the protonated molecular ion, [M+H](+), was detected for most plasticizers, and the molecular weight could be easily predicted. In the analysis of PVC sheets and toys, mass spectra of plasticizers were successfully detected, and accordingly, plasticizers in PVC were easily discriminated. PVC with a phthalates content in excess of 0.1% could be screened accurately according to the DART-TOF/MS ion intensity of phthalates corresponding to the limit of detection or a suitable criterion value. DART-TOF/MS analysis is a simple and rapid technique that is suitable for the discrimination of plasticizers and for screening of phthalates in PVC.

  8. Phthalate-Induced Pathology in the Foetal Testis Involves More Than Decreased Testosterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foetal exposure to phthalates is known to adversely impact male reproductive development and function. Developmental anomalies of reproductive tract have been attributed to impaired testosterone synthesis. However, species differences in the ability to produce testosterone have...

  9. Phthalates and bisphenols migration in Mexican food cans and plastic food containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, M I; Olea-Serrano, M F; Rivas-Velasco, A M; Medina-Rivero, E; Ordoñez-Acevedo, Leandro G; De León-Rodríguez, A

    2011-06-01

    The presence of endocrine disruptors bisphenol-A, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, phthalic-acid, dibutyl-phthalate, diethyl-phthalate and dioctyl-phthalate was determined in vegetable cans, baby bottles and microwaveable containers from the Mexican market. Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry was used for the identification and High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatography with UV/Visible light and fluorescence detectors was used for the quantification. Endocrine disruptors were found in all samples. PA and DOP were the substances most commonly found, and maximum concentrations were 9.549 and 0.664 μg/kg, respectively from a jalapeno peppers can. Bisphenol A, phthalic-acid, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, dioctyl-phtalate and dibutyl-phthalate were found in baby bottles and microwaveable containers.

  10. Urinary phthalates from 168 girls and boys measured twice a year during a 5-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K;

    2013-01-01

    /kg) was associated with lower levels of DHEAS at 11 years of age but higher levels of testosterone at 13 years of age. The same trend was observed for MBP excretion, albeit not statistically significant. A lower age at pubarche was observed in boys with excretion of MBP above the geometric group mean (11.0 vs 12....... Methods: This was a longitudinal study of 168 healthy children (84 girls) examined every 6 months for 5 years. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEAS), Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone, and urinary morning excretion of 14 phthalate metabolites, corresponding to 7 different phthalate......-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites above the geometric group mean (795 and 730 ng/kg, respectively) had lower levels of DHEAS and Δ4-androstenedione, although statistically significant only at 13 years of age. In boys, we found that excretion of monobenzyl phthalate above the geometric group mean (346 ng...

  11. 77 FR 4544 - CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...(a)(2)) defines a ``children's product'' as a consumer product designed or intended primarily for... Children's Products-- Determination of Phthalate Plasticizers in Polyvinyl Chloride Plastic, issued on June... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  12. Crystal structure of benzyl (E)-2-(3,4-di-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)hydrazine-1-carbodi-thio-ate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yew-Fung; Break, Mohammed Khaled Bin; Tahir, M Ibrahim M; Khoo, Teng-Jin

    2015-02-01

    The title compound, C17H18N2O2S2, synthesized via a condensation reaction between S-benzyl di-thio-carbazate and 3,4-di-meth-oxy-benzaldehyde, crystallized with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. Both mol-ecules have an L-shape but differ in the orientation of the benzyl ring with respect to the 3,4-di-meth-oxy-benzyl-idine ring, this dihedral angle is 65.59 (8)° in mol-ecule A and 73.10 (8)° in mol-ecule B. In the crystal, the A and B mol-ecules are linked via pairs of N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming dimers with an R 2 (2)(8) ring motif. The dimers are linked via pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, giving inversion dimers of dimers. These units are linked by C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming ribbons propagating in the [100] direction.

  13. Third trimester phthalate exposure is associated with DNA methylation of growth-related genes in human placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Wang, Xiu; Song, Qi; Xu, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Yun-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence implicates maternal phthalate exposure during pregnancy in contributing to adverse birth outcomes. Recent research suggests these effects might be mediated through the improper regulation of DNA methylation in offspring tissue. In this study, we examined associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and DNA methylation in human placenta. We recruited 181 mother-newborn pairs (80 fetal growth restriction newborns, 101 normal newborns) in Wenzhou, China and measured third trimester urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and placental DNA methylation levels of IGF2 and AHRR. We found urinary concentrations of mono (2-ethyl-5- hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were significantly inversely associated with placental IGF2 DNA methylation. The associations were much more evident in fetal growth restriction (FGR) newborns than those in normal newborns. These findings suggest that changes in placental DNA methylation might be part of the underlying biological pathway between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse fetal growth. PMID:27653773

  14. Third trimester phthalate exposure is associated with DNA methylation of growth-related genes in human placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Wang, Xiu; Song, Qi; Xu, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Yun-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Strong evidence implicates maternal phthalate exposure during pregnancy in contributing to adverse birth outcomes. Recent research suggests these effects might be mediated through the improper regulation of DNA methylation in offspring tissue. In this study, we examined associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and DNA methylation in human placenta. We recruited 181 mother-newborn pairs (80 fetal growth restriction newborns, 101 normal newborns) in Wenzhou, China and measured third trimester urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and placental DNA methylation levels of IGF2 and AHRR. We found urinary concentrations of mono (2-ethyl-5- hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were significantly inversely associated with placental IGF2 DNA methylation. The associations were much more evident in fetal growth restriction (FGR) newborns than those in normal newborns. These findings suggest that changes in placental DNA methylation might be part of the underlying biological pathway between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse fetal growth.

  15. Temporal variability in urinary phthalate metabolite excretion based on spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples: Considerations for epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Kranich, Selma K.; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Urinary phthalate excretion is used as marker of phthalate exposure in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the reliability of urinary phthalate levels in exposure classification by comparing the inter- and intrasubject variation of urinary phthalate metabolite levels. Thirty-three young...... healthy men each collected two spot, three first-morning, and three 24-h urine samples during a 3-month period. Samples were analyzed for the content of 12 urinary metabolites of 7 different phthalates. Variability was assessed as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). For the metabolites of diethyl...... of exposures for these two phthalates in population studies and hence an attenuation of the power to detect possible exposure-outcome associations. The only slightly higher ICCs for 24-h pools compared to first-morning and spot urine samples does not seem to justify the extra effort needed to collect 24-h...

  16. Exposure to phthalates affects calcium handling and intercellular connectivity of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Gillum Posnack

    Full Text Available The pervasive nature of plastics has raised concerns about the impact of continuous exposure to plastic additives on human health. Of particular concern is the use of phthalates in the production of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC products. Di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP is a commonly used phthalate ester plasticizer that imparts flexibility and elasticity to PVC products. Recent epidemiological studies have reported correlations between urinary phthalate concentrations and cardiovascular disease, including an increased risk of high blood pressure and coronary risk. Yet, there is little direct evidence linking phthalate exposure to adverse effects in human cells, including cardiomyocytes.The effect of DEHP on calcium handling was examined using monolayers of gCAMP3 human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, which contain an endogenous calcium sensor. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to DEHP (5 - 50 μg/mL, and calcium transients were recorded using a Zeiss confocal imaging system. DEHP exposure (24 - 72 hr had a negative chronotropic and inotropic effect on cardiomyocytes, increased the minimum threshold voltage required for external pacing, and modified connexin-43 expression. Application of Wy-14,643 (100 μM, an agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, did not replicate DEHP's effects on calcium transient morphology or spontaneous beating rate.Phthalates can affect the normal physiology of human cardiomyocytes, including DEHP elicited perturbations in cardiac calcium handling and intercellular connectivity. Our findings call for additional studies to clarify the extent by which phthalate exposure can alter cardiac function, particularly in vulnerable patient populations who are at risk for high phthalate exposure.

  17. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Here, we hypothesized that oral exposure to a mixture of the endocrine disruptors BPA and phthalates, relevant for human exposure, would accelerate diabetes development compared to BPA alone. NOD mice were exposed to BPA (1 mg/l, a mixture of phthalates (DEHP 1 mg/l, DBP 0.2 mg/l, BBP 10 mg/l and DiBP 20 mg/l or a combination of BPA and the phthalate mixture through drinking water from conception and throughout life. Previous observations that BPA exposure increased the prevalence of diabetes and insulitis and decreased the number of tissue resident macrophages in pancreas were confirmed, and extended by demonstrating that BPA exposure also impaired the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. None of these effects were observed after phthalate exposure alone. The phthalate exposure in combination with BPA seemed to dampen the BPA effects on macrophage number and function as well as diabetes development, but not insulitis development. Exposure to BPA alone or in combination with phthalates decreased cytokine release (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4 from in vitro stimulated splenocytes and lymph node cells, indicating systemic changes in immune function. In conclusion, exposure to BPA, but not to phthalates or mixed exposure to BPA and phthalates, accelerated diabetes development in NOD mice, apparently in part via systemic immune alterations including decreased macrophage function.

  18. Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J H; Jensen, L K

    2010-11-01

    The migration of phthalates into foodstuffs from food-contact materials (FCM) is a well-known source of food contamination. In 2005, the European Food Safety Authority finalized its risk assessment for several of the classical phthalate plasticizers. In their risk management procedure the European Commission transformed the tolerable daily intakes established by the Authority into legislative limits for phthalates in both plastic and food simulants, while taking exposure from other sources into consideration. These limits have been into force since 1 July 2008. A detailed interpretation of the regulation of these substances was agreed upon in the European network of FCM reference laboratories. This paper reports results from a Danish control campaign of samples collected by official food inspectors and analysed by a newly validated analytical method run under accreditation. Samples were from FCM producers, FCM importers and importers of packed foodstuffs from third-party countries. Products containing phthalates above the current limits were found in several categories of FCM: conveyor belts (six of six), lids from packed foodstuffs in glasses (eight of 28), tubes for liquid foodstuffs (four of five) and gloves (five of 14). More than 20% of the samples analysed contained dibutylphthalate (DBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) above the compositional limits of 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. Analysis of residual phthalates in metal lid gaskets instead of analysis of phthalates in the food when controlling foodstuffs packed outside the European Union proved to be an efficient and simple control method. All findings of phthalates were associated with the use of plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC).

  19. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: comparison of model to human participant results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. It also demonstrates that upta...... the cotton-phthalate system will be challenging until data on partition coefficients are quantified for other combinations of SVOCs, fabric materials and environmental conditions....

  20. Di-(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Testa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ASDs (autism spectrum disorders are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders, still poorly understood, steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory. Extensive research has been so far unable to explain the aetiology of this condition, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of environmental factors. Phthalates, given their extensive use and their persistence, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are EDs (endocrine disruptors suspected to interfere with neurodevelopment. Therefore they represent interesting candidate risk factors for ASD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites of DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate] in children with ASD. A total of 48 children with ASD (male: 36, female: 12; mean age: 11 ± 5 years and age- and sex-comparable 45 HCs (healthy controls; male: 25, female: 20; mean age: 12 ± 5 years were enrolled. A diagnostic methodology, based on the determination of urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites by HPLC-ESI-MS (HPLC electrospray ionization MS, was applied to urine spot samples. MEHP [mono-(2-ethylhexenyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 6-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-6-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 5-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] and 5-oxo-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] were measured and compared with unequivocally characterized, pure synthetic compounds (>98% taken as standard. In ASD patients, significant increase in 5-OH-MEHP (52.1%, median 0.18 and 5-oxo-MEHP (46.0%, median 0.096 urinary concentrations were detected, with a significant positive correlation between 5-OH-MEHP and 5-oxo-MEHP (r s=0.668, P<0.0001. The fully oxidized form 5-oxo-MEHP showed 91.1% specificity in identifying patients with ASDs. Our findings demonstrate for the first time an association between phthalates exposure and ASDs, thus suggesting a previously unrecognized role for

  1. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Latini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ASDs (autism spectrum disorders are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders, still poorly understood, steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory. Extensive research has been so far unable to explain the aetiology of this condition, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of environmental factors. Phthalates, given their extensive use and their persistence, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are EDs (endocrine disruptors suspected to interfere with neurodevelopment. Therefore they represent interesting candidate risk factors for ASD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites of DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate] in children with ASD. A total of 48 children with ASD (male: 36, female: 12; mean age: 11±5 years and age- and sex-comparable 45 HCs (healthy controls; male: 25, female: 20; mean age: 12±5 years were enrolled. A diagnostic methodology, based on the determination of urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites by HPLC-ESI-MS (HPLC electrospray ionization MS, was applied to urine spot samples. MEHP [mono-(2-ethylhexenyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 6-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-6-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 5-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] and 5-oxo-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] were measured and compared with unequivocally characterized, pure synthetic compounds (>98% taken as standard. In ASD patients, significant increase in 5-OH-MEHP (52.1%, median 0.18 and 5-oxo-MEHP (46.0%, median 0.096 urinary concentrations were detected, with a significant positive correlation between 5-OH-MEHP and 5-oxo-MEHP (rs = 0.668, P<0.0001. The fully oxidized form 5-oxo-MEHP showed 91.1% specificity in identifying patients with ASDs. Our findings demonstrate for the first time an association between phthalates exposure and ASDs, thus suggesting a previously unrecognized role for

  2. Improved detection limits for phthalates by selective solid-phase micro-extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2016-03-30

    Presented research reports on an improved method and enhanced limits of detection for phthalates; a hazardous additive used in the production of plastics by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) polymer in comparison to molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) polymer. The polymers were functionalized on an interdigital capacitive sensor for selective binding of phthalate molecules from a complex mixture of chemicals. Both polymers owned predetermined selectivity by formation of valuable molecular recognition sites for Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Polymers were immobilized on planar electrochemical sensor fabricated on a single crystal silicon substrate with 500 nm sputtered gold electrodes fabricated using MEMS fabrication techniques. Impedance spectra were obtained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to determine sample conductance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the spiked sample solutions with various phthalate concentrations. Experimental results revealed that the ability of SPME polymer to adsorb target molecules on the sensing surface is better than that of MISPE polymer for phthalates in the sensing system. Testing the extracted samples using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detectors validated the results.

  3. Pollution levels and characteristics of phthalate esters in indoor air in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueqing; Song, Min; Guo, Min; Chi, Chenchen; Mo, Feifei; Shen, Xueyou

    2015-11-01

    The concentrations of phthalate esters (PAEs) in Chinese hospitals were investigated by simultaneously determining concentrations of gas- and particle-phase PAEs. PAEs were detected in two third-class first-grade hospitals, two second-class first-grade hospitals, and a community health service center. Hospital drugstores had the highest concentration (24.19μg/m(3)), which was 1.54 times that of newly decorated houses. The second highest concentration was found in the transfusion rooms, averaging 21.89μg/m(3); this was followed by the concentrations of PAEs in the nurse's workstations, the wards, and the doctor's offices, with mean concentrations of 20.66, 20.0, and 16.92μg/m(3), respectively. The lowest concentrations were found in the hallways (16.30μg/m(3)). Of the six different kinds of PAEs found, major pollutants included diethyl phthalates, dibutyl phthalates, butylbenzyl phthalates and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates, comprising more than 80% of all PAEs present. Meanwhile, a comparison between different wards showed that PAE concentrations in the maternity wards were 1.63 times higher than in the main wards. Based on known health hazards, our results suggest that the PAEs seriously influence the health of the pregnant women and babies; therefore, it is of great importance to take the phthalate concentrations in hospitals into consideration. In addition, hospital indoor air was more seriously contaminated than the air of newly decorated houses.

  4. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = −0.191 mm per 1 µg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = −0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = −0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = −0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract. PMID:24349678

  5. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = -0.191 mm per 1 μg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = -0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = -0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = -0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract.

  6. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures.

  7. From Clothing to Laundry Water: Investigating the Fate of Phthalates, Brominated Flame Retardants, and Organophosphate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Amandeep; Thaysen, Clara; Jantunen, Liisa; McQueen, Rachel H; Diamond, Miriam L

    2016-09-01

    The accumulation of phthalate esters, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) by clothing from indoor air and transfer via laundering to outdoors were investigated. Over 30 days cotton and polyester fabrics accumulated 3475 and 1950 ng/dm(2) ∑5phthalates, 65 and 78 ng/dm(2) ∑10BFRs, and 1200 and 310 ng/dm(2) ∑8OPEs, respectively. Planar surface area concentrations of OPEs and low molecular weight phthalates were significantly greater in cotton than polyester and similar for BFRs and high molecular weight phthalates. This difference was significantly and inversely correlated with KOW, suggesting greater sorption of polar compounds to polar cotton. Chemical release from cotton and polyester to laundry water was >80% of aliphatic OPEs (log KOW phthalates (log KOW 4-6), and phthalates (log KOW > 8) and BFRs (log KOW > 6). These results support the hypothesis that clothing acts an efficient conveyer of soluble semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from indoors to outdoors through accumulation from air and then release during laundering. Clothes drying could as well contribute to the release of chemicals emitted by electric dryers. The results also have implications for dermal exposure.

  8. Phthalates and parabens in personal care products from China: concentrations and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Wang, Lei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that populations in China are widely exposed to phthalates and parabens. Nevertheless, sources of Chinese exposure to phthalates and parabens are not well understood. In this study, we measured concentrations of nine phthalates and six parabens in five categories of personal care products (PCPs, N = 52) collected from Tianjin, China, and estimated human exposure doses to these compounds. The most frequently detected phthalates and parabens in PCPs were diethyl phthalate (DEP) (detection frequency 54 %), methyl paraben (MeP), and n-propyl paraben (PrP) (~75 %). The concentrations of DEP in PCPs ranged from not detected (ND; parabens through dermal application of PCPs in China was estimated at 18,700 μg/d, which was two orders of magnitude greater than that calculated for phthalates (45.5 μg/d). Hand and body lotions were the major contributors to exposures, and the daily exposure doses for DEP, MeP, and PrP from these products were 38.4, 10,200 and 4,890 μg, respectively.

  9. Development and validation of methods for the trace determination of phthalates in sludge and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Benanou, David; Patria, Lucie; Treilhou, Michel

    2005-04-29

    A routine method which is simple, quick and precise has been set up and validated for phthalate analysis in environmental samples (tomato plants and sewage sludges). Six phthalates have been studied simultaneously: dimethylphthalate, diethylphthalate, di-n-butylphthalate, n-butylbenzylphthalate, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octylphthalate. Optimization of sample, solvent extraction uses a Soxtec apparatus and extract purification with an a solid-phase extraction cartridge allows between 90 and 110% recovery of phthalates. Precise, sensitive and selective identification and quantifying of analytes is by GC-MS in the single ion monitoring mode. This protocol allows analytes with concentrations as low as 10 microg/kg dry matter (DM) to be determined from small (1-2 g DM) samples. This analytical method has been applied to the phthalate transfer study for agricultural recycling of sludges, where phthalate bioavailability has been studied in aquiculture using two types of experiments. Tomatoes have been grown in containers where the trace organics have been directly introduced as pure substances, and in a second experiment under the same growth conditions, sewage sludge has replaced the pure substances. Transfer of these trace organics has been followed into the various parts of the tomato plant and in general only the DEHP is worthy of note although its percentage transfer remains very low even in an experiment designed to maximize this.

  10. Electrical Properties of n-Butyl Acrylate-Grafted Polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.R.; Oh, W.J.; Suh, K.S. [Korea University (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The electrical properties of n-butyl acrylate-grafted polyethylene (PE-g-nBA) were investigated. In PE-g-nBA, hetero charge founded in LDPE slightly increased due to the nBA grafting. Conduction currents decreased with the increase of nBA graft ratio. AC breakdown strength increased and water treeing length decreased with the increase of graft ratio in PE-g-nBA. (author). 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Tris(tert-butyl isocyanide-κCcarbonylnickel(0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Imhof

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ni(C5H9N3(CO], was prepared from Ni(CO4 and a tenfold excess of tert-butyl isocyanide. It crystallizes with two symmetry-independent molecules per asymmetric unit. The central Ni atom of each independent molecule has a nearly perfect tetrahedral coordination environment, comprising one carbon monoxide and three isocyanide ligands. The title compound is the first structurally characterized Ni0 compound with a mixed CO/RNC coordination.

  12. POLYMERIZATION OF BUTYL METHACRYLATE BY IRON PYRIDINEBISIMINE COMPLEXES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-yu Liu; Yan-guo Li; Yi Zheng; Yue-sheng Li

    2005-01-01

    Fe(Ⅱ) pyridinebisimine complexes activated with trialkylaluminium or modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO) as catalysts were employed for the polymerization of butyl methacrylate (BMA). Polymer yields, catalytic activities and molecular weights as well as molecular weight distributions of BMA can be controlled over a wide range by varying the reaction parameters such as cocatalyst, A1/Fe molar ratio, monomer/catalyst molar ratio, monomer concentration and reaction yield could reach 99.1% under optimum condition.

  13. Effect of cotton pectin content and bioscouring on alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous research has shown both the rate and the total amount of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC) exhausted from a bulk solution of ADBAC are significantly greater for greige cotton nonwovens than cotton nonwovens that have been both scoured and bleached. The presence of pectin ...

  14. Adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride on differently pretreated nonwoven cotton substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations and liquor ratios using UV-vis absorption spec...

  15. Growing up Radical: Investigation of Benzyl-Like Radicals with Increasing Chain Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Joseph A.; Jawad, Khadija M.; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2015-06-01

    Combustion processes involve complex chemistry including pathways leading to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from small molecule precursors. Resonance stabilized radicals (RSRs) likely play an important role in the pathways to PAHs due to their unusual stability. Benzyl radical is a prototypical RSR that is stabilized by conjugation with the phenyl ring. Earlier work on α-methyl benzyl radical showed perturbations to the spectroscopy due to a hindered methyl rotor. If the alkyl chain is lengthened then multiple conformations become possible. This talk will discuss the jet-cooled spectroscopy of α-ethyl benzyl radical and α-propyl benzyl radical produced from the discharge of 1-phenyl propanol and 1-phenyl butanol respectively. Electronic spectra were obtained via resonant two-photon ionization, and IR spectra were obtained by resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy. Kidwell, N. M.; Reilly, N. J.; Nebgen, B.; Mehta-Hurt, D. N.; Hoehn, R. D.; Kokkin, D. L.; McCarthy, M. C.; Slipchenko, L. V.; Zwier, T. S. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2013, 117, 13465.

  16. Extraction of toluene, o-xylene from heptane and benzyl alcohol from toluene with aqueous cyclodextrins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Schoonhoven, van T.; Kuzmanovic, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The separation of aromatic compounds (toluene and o-xylene) from heptane and of benzyl alcohol from toluene with aqueous solutions of cyclodextrins has been experimentally investigated, because cyclodextrins and its derivatives can selectively incorporate several organic compounds, whereas the separ

  17. Support influences in the Pd-catalyzed racemization and dynamic kinetic resolution of chiral benzylic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvulescu, A.N.; Jacobs, P.A.; De Vos, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    The acid–base properties of the supports for Pd catalysts strongly affect their performance in racemization and dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of chiral benzylic amines. The need for a basic support was proven by comparing the racemization results obtained for Pd on silica, on LDH (layered double

  18. Temperature dependence of the lifetime of excited benzyl and other arymethyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miesel, D.; Das, P.K.; Hug, G.L.; Bhattacharyya, K.; Fessenden, R.W.

    1986-08-06

    The temperature dependence of the fluorescence lifetime of benzyl, benzyl-d/sub 7/, ..cap alpha..-methylbenzyl, and triphenylmethyl radicals has been studied in 2-methyltetrahydroduran from 77 to 300 K. Temperature independent and unusual temperature dependent relaxation pathways are observed for the excited states of all four radicals. Activation energies for the temperature-dependent relaxation process are approx.1400 cm/sup -1/ for all these radicals, and frequency factors are in the range of (2-20) x 10/sup 11/ s/sup -1/. For Ph/sub 3/C radicals, the temperature-dependent process leads to observable photochemistry. However, no photochemistry is observed to result from the thermally activated relaxation of benzyl radicals. Possible pathways of these nonradiative decay processes are discussed and contrasted with the weak temperature dependence for the relaxation of diphenylmethyl radicals. It is proposed that the temperature-dependent route for the radiationless decay of benzyl radicals results from differential vibronic mixing of the two excited states, the 1/sup 2/A/sub 2/ and 2/sup 2/B/sub 2/ states. Most efficient in that mixing seems to be C-C stretching vibrational modes.

  19. A Case of Abnormal Bishler-Napieralski Cyclization Reaction, Leading to Form Benzyl Oxazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A benzyl oxazole compound 3 was obtained with an excellent yield of 90% when N-acetyl-(2?methoxy-4?5?methylenedioxy)-phenylalanine methyl ester 1 was refluxed in POCl3 /benzene. However, the anticipated product 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester 2 could not be found. The mechanism was discussed in this article.

  20. Pharmacokinetics in Elderly Women of Benzyl Alcohol From an Oil Depot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalicharan, Raween; El Amrani, Mohsin; Schot, Peter; Vromans, Herman|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073088803

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical oil depots are meant to release active substances at a sustained rate. Most of these depots contain benzyl alcohol (BOH) to facilitate the production and administration. Because BOH changes the solubility of components in both the body fluid and the oil formulation, it is relevant to

  1. Study of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthetic benzyl bromides, ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K; Al-Smadi, Mousa L; Khabour, Omar F; Shuaibu, Fatima A; Hussein, Emad I; Alzoubi, Karem H

    2016-01-01

    Several applications of chalcones and their derivatives encouraged researchers to increase their synthesis as an alternative for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial and fungal infections. In the present study, chalcone derivatives were synthesized through cross aldol condensation reaction between 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and multiarm aromatic ketones. The multiarm aromatic ketones were synthesized through nucleophilic substitution reaction between 4-hydroxy acetophenone and benzyl bromides. The benzyl bromides, multiarm aromatic ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives were evaluated for their activities against eleven clinical pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and three pathogenic fungi by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microbroth dilution technique. The results of the present study demonstrated that benzyl bromide derivatives have strong antibacterial and antifungal properties as compared to synthetic chalcone derivatives and ketones. Benzyl bromides (1a and 1c) showed high ester activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi but moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, these compounds may be considered as good antibacterial and antifungal drug discovery. However, substituted ketones (2a–b) as well as chalcone derivatives (3a–c) showed no activity against all the tested strains except for ketone (2c), which showed moderate activity against Candida albicans. PMID:27877017

  2. Design, synthesis and biological activity of novel peptidyl benzyl ketone FVIIa inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten; Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Zaragoza, Florencio

    2011-01-01

    Herein is described the synthesis of a novel class of peptidyl FVIIa inhibitors having a C-terminal benzyl ketone group. This class is designed to be potentially suitable as stabilization agents of liquid formulations of rFVIIa, which is a serine protease used for the treatment of hemophilia A an...

  3. Homocoupling of benzyl halides catalyzed by POCOP-nickel pincer complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2012-08-01

    Two types of POCOP-nickel(II) pincer complexes were prepared by mixing POCOP pincer ligands and NiX 2 in toluene at reflux. The resulting nickel complexes efficiently catalyze the homocoupling reactions of benzyl halides in the presence of zinc. The coupled products were obtained in excellent to quantitative yields. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation from benzyl radicals: a reaction kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet

    2016-03-21

    The role of resonantly stabilized radicals such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl and benzyl in the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and naphthalene in the high temperature environments has been long known. In this work, the possibility of benzyl recombination to form three-ring aromatics, phenanthrene and anthracene, is explored. A reaction mechanism for it is developed, where reaction energetics are calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and CBS-QB3, while temperature-dependent reaction kinetics are evaluated using transition state theory. The mechanism begins with barrierless formation of bibenzyl from two benzyl radicals with the release of 283.2 kJ mol(-1) of reaction energy. The further reactions involve H-abstraction by a H atom, H-desorption, H-migration, and ring closure to gain aromaticity. Through mechanism and rate of production analyses, the important reactions leading to phenanthrene and anthracene formation are determined. Phenanthrene is found to be the major product at high temperatures. Premixed laminar flame simulations are carried out by including the proposed reactions for phenanthrene formation from benzyl radicals and compared to experimentally observed species profiles to understand their effects on species concentrations.

  5. The Synthesis and Methanolysis of Benzyl Tosylates: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garst, Michael E.; Gribble, Gordon W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments (requiring six hours/week for six to eight weeks) involving the synthesis and methanolysis of substituted benzyl tosylates. The experiments provide students with experiences in kinetic data manipulation and an introduction and firm basis for structure-activity relationships and solvent effects in organic…

  6. "Decarbonization" of an imino N-heterocyclic carbene via triple benzyl migration from hafnium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imino N-heterocyclic carbene underwent three sequential benzyl migrations upon reaction with tetrabenzylhafnium, resulting in complete removal of the carbene carbon from the ligand. The resulting eneamido-amidinato hafnium complex showed alkene polymerization activity comparable to that of a prec...

  7. Effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Glycine max and Capsicum annuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Capsicum annuum or Glycine max was suppressed when infective juveniles (J2) were exposed to 0.03 millimolar benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) for 2hr prior to inoculation of the host. Infectivity assessed by gall index was significantly reduced on both G. max (co...

  8. The retro Grignard addition reaction revisited: the reversible addition of benzyl reagents to ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stig Holden; Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Grignard addition reaction is known to be a reversible process with allylic reagents, but so far the reversibility has not been demonstrated with other alkylmagnesium halides. By using crossover experiments it has been established that the benzyl addition reaction is also a reversible transfo...

  9. Inhibition of a Gold-Based Catalyst in Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation: Understanding and Remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skupien, E.; Berger, R.J.; Santos, V.P.; Gascon, J.; Makkee, M.; Kreutzer, M.T.; Kooyman, P.J.; Moulijn, J.A.; Kapteijn, F.

    2014-01-01

    Benzyl alcohol oxidation was carried out in toluene as solvent, in the presence of the potentially inhibiting oxidation products benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. Benzoic acid, or a product of benzoic acid, is identified to be the inhibiting species. The presence of a basic potassium salt (K2CO3 or KF)

  10. Characteristics of diallyl phthalate resin as a fission track detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuruta, T

    1999-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) resin plates were irradiated with fission fragments, and then etched in aqueous solution of KOH. Etched tracks were observed and counted by using an optical microscope. The detection efficiency of fission fragments was about 100% for both perpendicular and random incidence. DAP plates were insensitive to alpha particles and fast neutrons. These characteristics are suitable for detecting selected fission fragments, which coexist with alpha particles or fast neutrons. DAP plates are valuable for quantitative analysis of fissionable materials and neutron dosimetry. DAP and allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) were formed into copolymers in various ratios. The copolymers showed intermediate characteristics between DAP and CR-39. The fabrication of the copolymers made it possible to control the discrimination level for detection of heavy charged particles.

  11. Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector

    CERN Document Server

    Koguchi, Y; Ashida, T; Tsuruta, T

    2003-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector is suitable for detecting heavy ions such as fission fragments, because it is insensitive to right ions such as alpha particles and protons. Detection efficiency of fission tracks is about 100%, which is unaffected under conditions below 240degC lasting for 1h or below 1 MGy of gamma-ray irradiation. Optimum etching condition for the DAP detector for detection of fission fragments is 2-4 h using 30% KOH aqueous solution at 90degC or 8-15 min using PEW-65 solution at 60degC. DAP detector is useful in detecting induced fission tracks for dating of geology or measuring intense heavy ions induced by ultra laser plasma. The fabrication of copolymers of DAP and CR-39 makes it possible to control the discrimination level for detection threshold of heavy ions. (author)

  12. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance...... for each source was calculated in relation to the total mass flow into the waste water plant, making it possible to evaluate the absolute and relative importance of each type of source. The sources investigated accounted for about 12% of the influx of DEHP, the predominating phthalate, to the waste water...... sample. The deposition concentrations were very low compared to the waste water. The deposition rates showed a seasonal variation with a minimum occurring two month after the winter temperature minimum. Surprisingly, no influence of the wind speed and direction was indicated. The concentration...

  13. Assessing human exposure to phthalic acid and phthalate esters from mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate and glass bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuori, P; Jover, E; Morgantini, M; Bayona, J M; Triassi, M

    2008-04-01

    Phthalic acid and phthalate esters are of growing interest due to their significant usage and potential toxicity. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass are both widely used materials for bottled drinking water. In this study, phthalic acid (PhA), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiisoBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were analysed in a large number of Italian bottled water samples. These samples showed different concentrations of phthalates are nearly 20 times higher in samples bottled in PET than those from glass bottles with total levels of phthalates of 3.52 and 0.19 microg l(-1), respectively. However, the observed levels do not represent a significant exposure pathway when considering the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) reference dose (an estimate of a daily oral exposure to the human population, including sensitive subgroups, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime). In addition, no significant correlation was found between the phthalate concentrations and the physicochemical properties of the different water samples, apart from the still/sparkling water parameter for the PET samples. In this instance, slightly higher concentrations were observed for the PET bottled still water samples than for the sparkling water samples, although no explanation has been found yet.

  14. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in a Mexican-American Cohort: Variability in Early and Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Holland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available People are exposed to phthalates through their wide use as plasticizers and in personal care products. Many phthalates are endocrine disruptors and have been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, knowledge gaps exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of exposure in early and late pregnancy. In this study, we examined the relationship of eleven urinary phthalate metabolites with isoprostane, an established marker of oxidative stress, among pregnant Mexican-American women from an agricultural cohort. Isoprostane levels were on average 20% higher at 26 weeks than at 13 weeks of pregnancy. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations suggested relatively consistent phthalate exposures over pregnancy. The relationship between phthalate metabolite concentrations and isoprostane levels was significant for the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and the sum of high molecular weight metabolites with the exception of monobenzyl phthalate, which was not associated with oxidative stress at either time point. In contrast, low molecular weight metabolite concentrations were not associated with isoprostane at 13 weeks, but this relationship became stronger later in pregnancy (p-value = 0.009 for the sum of low molecular weight metabolites. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may influence oxidative stress, which is consistent with their relationship with obesity and other adverse health outcomes.

  15. Accessing the molecular interactions of phthalates and their primary metabolites with the human pregnane X receptor using in silico profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath Josh, M K; Pradeep, S; Balan, Aparna K; Sreejith, M N; Benjamin, Sailas

    2016-12-01

    Phthalates are known to cause endocrine disruption in humans and animals. Being lipophilic xenobiotic chemicals, phthalates from the surrounding environments can easily be absorbed into the biological system, thereby causing various health dysfunctions. This molecular docking study evaluates a variety of molecular interactions of 12 commonly used diphthalates and respective monophthalates onto the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR), a xenosensor, which would be beneficial for further in vitro and in vivo studies on hazardous phthalates. Out of 12 diphthalates and their monophthalates tested, diisodecyl phthalate (-9.16 kcal mol(-1) ) showed more affinity toward hPXR whereas diisononyl phthalate (-8.77) and di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (-8.56), the predominant plasticizers found in a variety of plastics and allied products, showed comparable binding scores with that of the control ligands such as hyperforine (-9.99) and dexamethasone (-7.36). In addition to the above diphthalates, some of their monophthalates (monoisodecyl phthalate, mono-2-etheylhexyl phthalate, etc.) also established similar interactions with certain crucial amino acids in the LBD, which led to higher G scores. In fact, bisphenol A, a well-studied and proven endocrine disruptor, showed lesser G scores (-6.69) than certain phthalates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Formation of mono(ethylhexyl)phthalate from di(ethylhexyl)phthalate in human plasma stored in PVC bags and its presence in fractionated plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessman, J; Rietz, G

    1978-01-01

    The formation of mono(ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) from di(ethylhexyl)phthalate in human plasma stored in bags of polyvinylchloride has been studied. Substantial amounts were formed and in ten bags from 4 to 56microgram/ml were found. After 2 weeks at room temperature the concentration of MEHP had increased to values between 27 and 79 microgram/ml. However, MEHP was also disappearing as shown in a recovery experiment. Of the fractionated proteins albumin contained MEHP in amounts from less than 3 to 290 microgram/g.

  17. Synthetic scope, computational chemistry and mechanism of a base induced 5-endo cyclization of benzyl alkynyl sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motto, John M.; Castillo, Álvaro; Montemayer, Laura K.; Sheepwash, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental and computational study of the reaction of aryl substituted benzyl 1-alkynyl sulfides with potassium alkoxide in acetonitrile, which produces 2-aryl 2,3-dihydrothiophenes in poor to good yields. The cyclization is most efficient with electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring. Evidence indicates there is rapid exchange of protons and tautomerism of the alkynyl unit prior to cyclization. Theoretical calculations were also conducted to help rationalize the base induced 5-endo cyclization of benzyl 1-propynyl sulfide (1a). The potential energy surface was calculated for the formation of 2,3-dihydrothiophene in a reaction of benzyl 1-propynyl sulfide (1a) with potassium methoxide. Geometries were optimized with CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) in acetonitrile with the CPCM solvent model. It is significant that the benzyl propa-1,2-dien-1-yl sulfane (6) possessed a lower benzylic proton affinity than the benzyl prop-2-yn-1-yl sulfane (8) thus favoring the base induced reaction of the former. From benzyl(propa-1,2-dien-1-yl sulfane (6), 2,3-dihydrothiophene can be formed via a conjugate base that undergoes 5-endo-trig cyclization followed by a protonation step. PMID:21442022

  18. Investigation of comparative efficacy of eugenol and benzyl benzoate in therapy of sheep mange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezdimirović Milanka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerance and safety of eugenol (10 and 20 % in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in sheep have been investigated. The results were compared with those corresponding for benzyl benzoate (25 %, which was applied to sheep in the same way. The treatment was applied on sheep three times in one-week intervals. Skin scrapings were sampled seven days after each treatment, as well as twenty-eight days following the third one. The changes on the skin were quantified and the mean recovery response (MRR was calculated. The clinical efficacy was assessed according to the MRR and the number of mites in the samples. Following the first treatment 10%eugenol was not significantly less efficacious in comparison with the higher concentration. Having been applied twice 20% eugenol was significantly more efficacious when compared to the lower concentration, which remained the same seven and twenty-eight days after the third application. The efficacy of 10% eugenol in the therapy of mange was significantly higher in comparison with benzyl benzoate following one, two or three administrations. The efficacy of benzyl benzoate four weeks after the third treatment was still significantly lower in comparison with 10% eugenol. The efficacy of 20% eugenol was significantly higher in comparison with its lower concentration as well as that of benzyl benzoate, following the second, and seven and twenty-eight days after the third one. No signs of local or systemic intolerance were observed in sheep treated with either 10 or 20% eugenol, or 25 % benzyl benzoate. .

  19. Oxidative Stress-Related Genetic Variants May Modify Associations of Phthalate Exposures with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Jen; Karmaus, Wilfried J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Phthalate exposure may increase the risk of asthma. Little is known about whether oxidative-stress related genes may alter this association. First, this motivated us to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of the oxidative-stress related genes glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and EPHX1 in children are associated with phthalate urine concentrations. Second, we addressed the question whether these genes may affect the influence of phthalates on asthma. Methods: In a case-control study composed of 126 asthmatic children and 327 controls, urine phthalate metabolites (monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (MEHHP) were measured by UPLC-MS/MS at age 3. Genetic variants were analyzed by TaqMan assay. Information on asthma and environmental exposures was also collected. Analyses of variance and logistic regressions were performed. Results: Urine MEHHP levels were associated with asthma (adjusted OR 1.33, 95% CI (1.11–1.60). Children with the GSTP1 (rs1695) AA and SOD2 (rs5746136) TT genotypes had higher MEHHP levels as compared to GG and CC types, respectively. Since only SOD2 TT genotype was significantly associated with asthma (adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.78 (1.54–5.02)), we estimated whether SOD2 variants modify the association of MEHHP levels and asthma. As MEHHP concentrations were dependent on GSTP1 and SOD2, but the assessment of interaction requires independent variables, we estimated MEHHP residuals and assessed their interaction, showing that the OR for SOD2 TT was further elevated to 3.32 (1.75–6.32) when the residuals of MEHHP were high. Conclusions: Urine phthalate metabolite concentrations are associated with oxidative-stress related genetic variants. Genetic variants of SOD2, considered to be reflect oxidative stress metabolisms, might

  20. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.