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Sample records for butyl benzyl phthalate

  1. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  2. Benzyl butyl phthalate induces epigenetic stress to enhance adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkar, Ravi; Powell, Catherine A; Choudhury, Mahua

    2016-08-15

    Endocrine disruptors, phthalates, may have contributed to recent global obesity health crisis. Our study investigated the potential of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) to regulate the mesenchymal stem cell epigenome to drive adipogenesis. BBP exposure enhanced lipid accumulation and adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner compared to control (P BBP when compared to DMSO. BBP enhanced H3K9 acetylation while decreasing H3K9 dimethylation. Fifty μM BBP increased histone acetyltransferases, p300 (P BBP; P BBP) and histone methyltransferases, SETDB1 (P BBP exposure. BBP acts, in part, through PPARγ, as PPARγ knockdown led to decreased H3K9ac and rescued H3K9me2 during BBP exposure. In conclusion, BBP regulated MSCs towards adipogenesis by tipping the epigenomic balance. PMID:27164441

  3. n-Butyl benzyl phthalate promotes breast cancer progression by inducing expression of lymphoid enhancer factor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hua Hsieh

    Full Text Available Environmental hormones play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, drug resistance, and breast cancer risk; however, their precise role in human breast cancer cells during cancer progression remains unclear. To elucidate the effect of the most widely used industrial phthalate, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, on cancer progression, we evaluated the results of BBP treatment using a whole human genome cDNA microarray and MetaCore software and selected candidate genes whose expression was changed by more than ten-fold by BBP compared with controls to analyze the signaling pathways in human breast cancer initiating cells (R2d. A total of 473 genes were upregulated, and 468 were downregulated. Most of these genes are involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis signaling. BBP induced the viability, invasion and migration, and tube formation in vitro, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis in vivo of R2d and MCF-7. Furthermore, the viability and invasion and migration of these cell lines following BBP treatment was reduced by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting the mRNA for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1; notably, the altered expression of this gene consistently differentiated tumors expressing genes involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the environmental hormone BBP and suggest possible strategies for preventing and treating human breast cancer.

  4. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamartiniere Coral A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20 to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days. Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days, becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland.

  5. Effect of butyl benzyl phthalate on life table-demography of two successive generations of cladoceran Moina macrocopa Straus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xia; Xi, Yi-Long; Hu, Ke; Liu, Xiao-Bo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the acute toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) to freshwater cladoceran Moina macrocopa was tested, and its chronic effects on survival and reproduction of two successive generations of the cladoceran were studied using life-table demographic method. The results showed that the 48-hr LC50 of BBP for M. macrocopa was 3.69 mg l(-1). Compared to the blank controls, BBP at 125, 500, 1000 and 2000 microg l(-1) significantly shortened the life expectancy at birth, BBP at 125-2000 microg l(-1) decreased the net reproductive rate, and BBP at 500 and 1000 microg I(-1) shortened the generation time but increased the intrinsic rate of population increase of the parental M. macrocopa. BBP at 62.5,125, 500,1000 and 2000 microg l(-1) increased the intrinsic rate of population increase of the F1 generation. A significant dose-effect relationship existed between BBP concentration and life expectancy at birth, net reproductive rate as well as intrinsic rate of population increase of the parental M. macrocopa. The parental M. macrocopa were more sensitive in survival, development and reproduction to BBP than the F1 generation, but the reverse was also true in the population growth. Extending chronic toxicity tests to the second generation of M. macrocopa increased the cost-effectiveness of the assays. PMID:21888226

  6. Benzyl butyl phthalate promotes adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes: A High Content Cellomics and metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lei; Yu, Kevin Shengyang; Lu, Kun; Yu, Xiaozhong

    2016-04-01

    Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) has been known to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. However, its association with dysregulation of adipogenesis has been poorly investigated. The present study aimed to examine the effect of BBP on the adipogenesis, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms using the 3T3-L1 cells. The capacity of BBP to promote adipogenesis was evaluated by multiple staining approaches combined with a High Content Cellomics analysis. The dynamic changes of adipogenic regulatory genes and proteins were examined, and the metabolite profile was identified using GC/MC based metabolomic analysis. The High Content analysis showed BBP in contrast with Bisphenol A (BPA), a known environmental obesogen, increased lipid droplet accumulation in a similar dose-dependent manner. However, the size of the lipid droplets in BBP-treated cells was significantly larger than those in cells treated with BPA. BBP significantly induced mRNA expression of transcriptional factors C/EBPα and PPARγ, their downstream genes, and numerous adipogenic proteins in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, GC/MC metabolomic analysis revealed that BBP exposure perturbed the metabolic profiles that are associated with glyceroneogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Altogether, our current study clearly demonstrates that BBP promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 through the activation of the adipogenic pathway and metabolic disturbance. PMID:26820058

  7. The ribosome biogenesis pathway as an early target of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Óscar; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is a ubiquitous contaminant whose presence in the environment is expected for decades, since it has been extensively used worldwide as a plasticizer in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry and the manufacturing of many other products. In the present study, the interaction of BBP with the ribosome biogenesis pathway and the general transcriptional profile of Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae were investigated by means of changes in the rDNA activity (through the study of the internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and variations in the expression profile of ribosomal protein genes (rpL4, rpL11, and rpL13) after acute 24-h and 48-h exposures to a wide range of BBP doses. Furthermore, cytogenetic assays were conducted to evaluate the transcriptional activity of polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells, with special attention to the nucleolus and the Balbiani rings (BRs) of chromosome IV. BBP caused a dose and time-dependent toxicity in most of the selected biomarkers, with a general depletion in the gene expression levels and the activity of BR2 after 48-h treatments. At the same time, decondensation and activation of some centromeres took place, while the activity of nucleolus remained unaltered. Withdrawal of the xenobiotic allowed the larvae to reach control levels in the case of rpL4 and rpL13 genes, which were previously slightly downregulated in 24-h tests. These data provide the first evidence on the interaction of BBP with the ribosome synthesis pathways, which results in a significant impairment of the functional activity of ribosomal protein genes. Thus, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of BBP-induced cellular damage. These findings may have important implications for understanding the adverse biological effects of BBP in C. riparius, since they provide new sensitive biomarkers of BBP exposure and highlight the suitability of this organism for ecotoxicological risk assessment, especially in aquatic

  8. Benzyl butyl phthalate promotes breast cancer stem cell expansion via SPHK1/S1P/S1PR3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chang, Yi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Lee, Jau-Nan; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-05-17

    Understanding the regulatory mechanisms unique to breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is required to control breast cancer metastasis. We found that phthalates promote BCSCs in human breast cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. A toxic phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor in breast cancer cells to stimulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) signaling and enhance formation of metastasis-initiating BCSCs. BBP induced histone modifications in S1PR3 in side population (SP) cells, but not in non-SP cells. SPHK1 or S1PR3 knockdown in breast cancer cells effectively reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest S1PR3 is a determinant of phthalate-driven breast cancer metastasis and a possible therapeutic target for regulating BCSC populations. Furthermore, the association between breast carcinogenesis and environmental pollutants has important implications for public health. PMID:27129165

  9. Benzyl butyl phthalate promotes breast cancer stem cell expansion via SPHK1/S1P/S1PR3 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chang, Yi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Lee, Jau-Nan; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory mechanisms unique to breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is required to control breast cancer metastasis. We found that phthalates promote BCSCs in human breast cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. A toxic phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor in breast cancer cells to stimulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) signaling and enhance formation of metastasis-initiating BCSCs. BBP induced histone modifications in S1PR3 in side population (SP) cells, but not in non-SP cells. SPHK1 or S1PR3 knockdown in breast cancer cells effectively reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest S1PR3 is a determinant of phthalate-driven breast cancer metastasis and a possible therapeutic target for regulating BCSC populations. Furthermore, the association between breast carcinogenesis and environmental pollutants has important implications for public health. PMID:27129165

  10. The plasticizer benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) alters the ecdysone hormone pathway, the cellular response to stress, the energy metabolism, and several detoxication mechanisms in Chironomus riparius larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Óscar; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2015-06-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) has been extensively used worldwide as a plasticizer in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry and the manufacturing of many other products, and its presence in the aquatic environment is expected for decades. In the present study, the toxicity of BBP was investigated in Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae. The effects of acute 24-h and 48-h exposures to a wide range of BBP doses were evaluated at the molecular level by analysing changes in genes related to the stress response, the endocrine system, the energy metabolism, and detoxication pathways, as well as in the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase. BBP caused a dose and time-dependent toxicity in most of the selected biomarkers. 24-h exposures to high doses affected larval survival and lead to a significant response of several heat-shock genes (hsp70, hsp40, and hsp27), and to a clear endocrine disrupting effect by upregulating the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR). Longer treatments with low doses triggered a general repression of transcription and GST activity. Furthermore, delayed toxicity studies were specially relevant, since they allowed us to detect unpredictable toxic effects, not immediately manifested after contact with the phthalate. This study provides novel and interesting results on the toxic effects of BBP in C. riparius and highlights the suitability of this organism for ecotoxicological risk assessment, especially in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25725395

  11. Perinatal exposure to benzyl butyl phthalate induces alterations in neuronal development/maturation protein expression, estrogen responses, and fear conditioning in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBartolo, Danielle; Jayatilaka, Sahani; Yan Siu, Nga; Rose, Melissa; Ramos, Raddy L; Betz, Adrienne J

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate exposure has recently been associated with behavioral actions that are linked to its endocrine-disrupting properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular, anatomical, and behavioral effects of indirect perinatal benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) exposure in offspring of BBP-treated pregnant dams. In two separate experiments, we administered BBP (10.0 μg/ml) on food pellets to pregnant dams and examined the offspring. The first experiment revealed reproductive anatomical abnormalities linked to BBP's endocrine-disrupting properties, whereas histological analysis revealed preserved hippocampal neuronal migration. The second experiment demonstrated learning and memory impairments accompanied by molecular abnormalities in multiple brain regions. Offspring from BBP-treated dams had altered levels of several proteins important for neuronal circuitry formation, tissue development, and maturation. We suggest that BBP administration disrupts normal learning and that these effects could be related to alterations in brain development and result in a phenotype similar to that observed in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26376073

  12. Comparative effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius based on gene expression assays related to the endocrine system, the stress response and ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelló, Rosario; Herrero, Oscar; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two of the most extensively used phthalates, were studied in Chironomus riparius under acute short-term treatments, to compare their relative toxicities and identify genes sensitive to exposure. The ecotoxicity of these phthalates was assessed by analysis of the alterations in gene expression profiles of selected inducible and constitutive genes related to the endocrine system, the cellular stress response and the ribosomal machinery. Fourth instar larvae, a model system in aquatic toxicology, were experimentally exposed to five increasing concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100mg/L) of DEHP and BBP for 24h. Gene expression was analysed by the changes in levels of transcripts, using RT-PCR techniques with specific gene probes. The exposures to DEHP or BBP were able to rapidly induce the hsp70 gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the cognate form hsc70 was not altered by either of these chemicals. Transcription of ribosomal RNA as a measure of cell viability, quantified by the levels of ITS2, was not affected by DEHP, but was slightly, yet significantly, downregulated by BBP at the highest concentrations tested. Finally, as these phthalates are classified as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), their potential effect on the ecdysone endocrine system was studied by analysing the two genes, EcR and usp, of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor complex. It was found that BBP provoked the overexpression of the EcR gene, with significant increases from exposures of 0.1mg/L and above, while DEHP significantly decreased the activity of this gene at the highest concentration. These data are relevant as they show for the first time the ability of phthalates to interfere with endocrine marker genes in invertebrates, demonstrating their potential capacity to alter the ecdysone signalling pathway. Overall, the study clearly shows a differential gene-toxin interaction

  13. 相转移催化法合成增塑剂邻苯二甲酸丁苄酯%Synthesis of plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate by phase transfer catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞芬; 童兴龙

    2000-01-01

      Using phthalic anhydride, butyl alcohol and benzyl chloride as raw materials, plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is synthesized by different type phase transfer such as quaternary ammonium salt, tert-amine, triphase catalyst and so on, the optimum reaction conditions are studied.%  以邻苯二甲酸酐、丁醇和氯化苄为原料,采用不同类型的相转移催化剂,如季铵盐、叔胺及三相催化剂等合成增塑剂邻苯二甲酸丁苄酯,研究了最佳反应条件。

  14. In utero exposure to butyl benzyl phthalate induces modifications in the morphology and the gene expression profile of the mammary gland: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Irma H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental estrogens are exogenous estrogen-mimicking compounds that can interfere with endogenous endocrine systems. Several of these endocrine disruptors have been shown to alter normal development and influence tumorigenesis in experimental models. N-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, a widely used plasticizer, is a well-known endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to BBP on the morphology, proliferative index, and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages. Methods In utero exposure was performed by gavage of pregnant Sprague Dawley CD rats with 120mg or 500mg BBP/kg/day from day 10 post-conception to delivery. Female litters were euthanized at 21, 35, 50 and 100 days. The morphology and proliferative index of the mammary gland were studied from whole mount preparations and BrdU incorporation, respectively. Gene expression profile was assessed by microarrays. Several genes found differentially expressed and related to different functional categories were further validated by real time RT-PCR. Results Prenatal exposure of BBP induced delayed vaginal opening and changes in the post-natal mammary gland long after the end of the treatment, mainly by 35 days of age. Exposure to the high dose resulted in modifications in architecture and proliferative index of the mammary gland, mostly affecting the undifferentiated terminal end buds. Moreover, the expression profiles of this gland in the exposed rats were modified in a dose-dependent fashion. Analysis of functional categories showed that modified genes were related to immune function, cell signaling, proliferation and differentiation, or metabolism. Conclusions Our data suggest that in utero exposure to BBP induced a delayed pubertal onset and modified morphology of the mammary gland. These alterations were accompanied by modifications in gene expression previously associated with an increased susceptibility

  15. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... banned for use in toys in the EU mainly due to their reproductive toxicity. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) has similar structural and application properties as DBP. and is being used as a substitute for DBR However, knowledge on male reproductive effects of DiBP in experimental animals is lacking, Methods...

  16. Benzyl butyl phthalate increases the chemoresistance to doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide by increasing breast cancer-associated dendritic cell-derived CXCL1/GROα and S100A8/A9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Hung, Jen-Yu; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Ho, Ya-Wen; Jian, Shu-Fang; Yen, Meng-Chi; Chang, Wei-An; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Phthalates are used as plasticizers in the manufacture of flexible vinyl, which is used in food contact applications. Phthalates have been demonstrated to have an adverse impact on human health, particularly in terms of cancer development. In the present study, we showed for the first time that benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) potentiates the effect of tumor‑associated dendritic cells (TADCs) on the chemoresistance of breast cancer. Specific knockdown analysis revealed that S100A9 is the major factor responsible for the chemoresistance of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide induced by BBP-stimulated TADCs in breast cancer. BBP exposure also increased tumor infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) secretion of S100A8/A9, thereby exacerbating the resistance of breast cancer to doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide. In addition, BBP also stimulated the production of CXCL1/GROα by TADCs, which increased the angiogenesis of breast cancer in a mouse model. Inhibition of CXCL1/GROα by a neutralizing antibody, decreased the BBP-induced angiogenesis induced by BBP after chemotherapy in the mouse model. These results, for the first time, provide evidence that BBP influences the efficacy of chemotherapy by remodeling the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer. PMID:26397389

  17. Ant cuticular response to phthalate pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir, Alain; Axel, Touchard; Devers, Séverine; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Boulay, Raphaël; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are common atmospheric contaminantsused in the plastic industry. Ants have been shown to constitutegood bioindicators of phthalate pollution. Hence,phthalates remain trapped on ant cuticles which are mostlycoated with long-chain hydrocarbons. In this study, we artificiallycontaminated Lasius niger ants with four phthalates:dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and benzyl butyl phthalate(BBP). The first three have previously been fo...

  18. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka;

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of a...

  19. Phthalate and PAH concentrations in dust collected from Danish homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Weschler, Charles J.; Fischer, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    (diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and three PAHs (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)). The three PAHs and DEHP were detected in dust samples from all sites, while...

  20. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  1. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from air: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake...... of phthalate esters. Objectives: This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods: In a series of experiments, six human participants were exposed for 6 hr in a chamber containing deliberately elevated air...... concentrations of DEP and DnBP. The participants either wore a hood and breathed air with phthalate concentrations substantially below those in the chamber or did not wear a hood and breathed chamber air. All urinations were collected from initiation of exposure until 54 hr later. Metabolites of DEP and Dn...

  2. Oxidative DNA damage in male wistar rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellejus, A.; Dalgaard, Majken; Loft, S.

    2002-01-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters are used in the plastic industry and widely distributed in the environment, Previously, it has been shown that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) produces testicular atrophy and liver enlargement in rodents, and the mechanisms behind this could involve reactive oxygen species (ROS...... in the formation of testicular atrophy in phthalate-exposed rats, no apparent sign of oxidative DNA damage was found after phthalate exposure perinatally or during the preadult stage, With respect to phthalate-induced oxidative DNA damage in the liver, it appears that the developmental stage during exposure...

  3. Blootstelling aan xenobiotica in voeding. Voorbeeldstoffen: Butyl benzyl phtalate (BBP), Benzo(a)pyreen en Fluorantheen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heisterkamp SH; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Een tweetal 'ad-hoc' blootstellingsbeoordelingen van chemische stoffen in voedsel werden uitgevoerd om de algemene richtlijnen uit een eerder rapport te testen. De eerste beoordeling omvatte butyl benzyl phtalate (BBP), de tweede twee PAK's te weten benzo(a)pyreen en fluorantheen.

  4. The association between phthalates in dust and allergic diseases among Bulgarian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev; Larsson, Martin;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified associations between the concentration of phthalates in indoor dust and allergic symptoms in the airways, nose, and skin. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate the associations between allergic symptoms in children and the concentration of phthalate...... (controls). The dust samples were analyzed for their content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). RESULTS: A higher concentration of DEHP was found in homes...

  5. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate and bisphenol A through infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Teresa; Latini, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Maria Antonietta; Dipaola, Lucia; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Francesco, Fabio Di; Cobellis, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous contaminants identified as endocrine disruptors. Phthalates are worldwide used as plasticizers, in particular to improve the mechanical properties of polymers such as polyvinyl chloride. Because they are not chemically bound to the polymer, they tend to leach out with time and use. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the two most common phthalates. BPA is an estrogenic compound used to manufacture polycarbonate containers for food and drink, including baby bottles. It can migrate from container into foods, especially at elevated temperatures. Diet is a predominant source of exposure for phthalates and BPA, especially for infants. The aim of this study was to test the presence of DEHP, DnBP, and BPA in infant formulas. DEHP, DnBP, and BPA concentrations were measured in 22 liquid and 28 powder milks by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, respectively. DEHP concentrations in our samples were between 0.005 and 5.088 μg/g (median 0.906 μg/g), DnBP concentrations were between 0.008 and 1.297 μg/g (median 0.053 μg/g), and BPA concentrations were between 0.003 and 0.375 μg/g (median 0.015 μg/g). Concentrations of the investigated contaminants in liquid and powder milks were not significantly different, even though samples were packed in different types of containers. These data point out potential hazards for infants fed with baby formulas. Contamination seems more related to the production of formulas than to a release from containers. PMID:25730646

  6. Phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and correlations with phthalates in dust samples from their homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2013-01-01

    Around the world humans use products that contain phthalates, and human exposure to certain of these phthalates has been associated with various adverse health effects. The aim of the present study has been to determine the concentrations of the metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di......(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(iso-butyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in urine samples from 441 Danish children (3–6 years old). These children were subjects in the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health study. As part of each child's medical...... examination, a sample from his or her first morning urination was collected. These samples were subsequently analyzed for metabolites of the targeted phthalates. The measured concentrations of each metabolite were approximately log-normally distributed, and the metabolite concentrations significantly...

  7. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping

    2016-02-01

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP.

  8. Vapor Pressures of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate and Di-iso-Butyl Hexahydrophthalate at Reduced Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐欣; 徐立勇; 高正红; 刘志华

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the measured values of the vapor pressures by ebulliometer method of two important maleic anhydride recovery solvents, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-iso-butyl hexahydrophthalate (DIBE), between 0.63-17.79 kPa and 0.49-30.95 kPa,are reported respectively.A comparison of the data of DBP with the published data has been made, which shows good consistency. For the convenient use of these vapor pressures, Cragoe equation, Antoine equation and Kirchhoff equation are selected to correlate them. The correlating results show that Antoine equation is the best one of the three equations to fit for the vapor pressures of the two solvents. According to Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the linear relationship between natural logarithm of pressure and reciprocal of temperature is used to calculate the molar latent heats of evaporation of the two organic solvents. The molar latent heats of evaporation of DBP and DIBE are 75.1 kJ/mol and 67.7 kJ/mol, respectively.

  9. [Test method for 6 phthalates in polyvinyl chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    A test method for 6 phthalates, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and di-n-octyl phthalate, in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was developed. GC/MS was used in the SIM mode for the separation and detection of phthalates. For preparation of the test solution, the extraction method with acetone-hexane mixture (3 : 7) and the dissolution method with tetrahydrofuran and ethanol were compared and it was confirmed that each method gave good recoveries. Dilution of the test solution was effective to reduce the influence of PVC. In a collaborative study with nine laboratories, the intra-laboratory variations showed good repeatability, but the measurements at some laboratories deviated widely. It appears that this method is unsuitable for the judgment of acceptability, but it may be suitable for the determination of phthalate content in PVC products.

  10. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mortensen, Gerda Krogh; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies have reported endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals used commonly as additives in cosmetics and skin care products. We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous...... in serum before treatment. Minor differences in inhibin B, LH, estradiol, T4, FT4, and TSH were observed between the two weeks, but these were not related to exposure. We demonstrated for the first time that DEP, DBP, and BP could be systemically absorbed in man after topical application. The systemic...

  11. Effects of phthalates on the human corneal endothelial cell line B4G12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Cao, Yi; Kjærgaard, Søren K.;

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates are industrial chemicals used in many cosmetics. We evaluated an in vitro model for eye irritancy testing using the human corneal endothelial cell line B4G12. Cell proliferation and toxicity were assessed after exposing to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-2......-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP). Gene expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated after exposure to DBP. Decreased cell proliferation was observed for the phthalates DBP, BBP, and DEHP, and cell...... toxicity was observed for DBP and BBP. Upon DBP exposure at nontoxic concentrations, a significant increased gene expression and cytokine cell secretion were observed for interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and IL-8, and also an increased IL-6 secretion was observed. In conclusion, the human corneal endothelial cell...

  12. Distribution Equilibrium of o-Phthalic Acid and trans-Butenedioic in Water and Di-n-butyl Phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhenghong; YANG Xiaorui; HU Chaoquan; LI Jiang

    2006-01-01

    The organic dissolvent(di-n-butyl phthalate)needs to be washed by water to recycle itself in the process of recovering maleic anhydride by organic dissolvent. The design and optimization of the extraction process require the distribution coefficients of the organic solutes, o-phthalic acid and trans-butenedioic in water and di-n-butyl phthalate, on which the extraction efficiency depends. In this study, the distribution coefficients of o-phthalic acid and trans-butenedioic in water and di-n-bu-tyl phthalate(DBP)at 298.15 K, 318.15 K and 333.15 K were determined respectively by acid-alkali titration. The dissociation constants of o-phthalic acid and trans-butenedioic at those temperatures were obtained by fitting the measured hydrogen-ion concentrations and the known solute concentrations in the aqueous solution containing the two organic solutes. Then the distribution constants were calculated. Both the distribution coefficients and the distribution constants increase along with the temperature increasing. And the distribution coefficients at 333.15 K are large enough to ensure the efficiency of extraction process. In addition, the mutual solubility of water and di-n-butyl phthalate at 298.15 K, 318.15 K and 333.15 K was also measured respectively by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Karl Fischer Watertitration, which was not more than 0.5%(mass fraction).

  13. (1S,3S,4S-tert-Butyl N-[1-benzyl-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-4-(picolinamidopentyl]carbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Zheng

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C29H35N3O4, was obtained by the reaction of (2S,4S,5S-tert-butyl N-(4-amino-1-benzyl-3-hydroxy-5-phenylpentylcarbamate and picolinic acid using oxalyl chloride as a chlorinating reagent to activate the carboxyl group. In the crystal structure there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit, which are aligned edge-to-face. In one molecule, the pyridyl ring forms a dihedral angle of 22.0 (1° with the phenyl ring of the terminal benzyl group and 14.3 (1° with the other phenyl ring; in the other molecule, the corresponding angles are 12.1 (1 and 10.6 (1°, respectively. The packing is stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions.

  14. Analysis of phthalates in detergents and cleaning products using two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sevilla Bernabeu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some phthalates are classified in the hazard class reproductive toxicity category 1B and they are subject to authorisation or they have restrictions according to the REACH Regulation. The presence of six phthalates in detergents and cleaning products was determined using two different methods. The phthalates determined were dimethyl phthalate (DMP, diethyl phthalate (DEP, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP. Method 1 consisted of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and method 2 consisted of reverse-phase liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Using method 1 phthalates were determined in 14 out of the 27 samples, and 4 out of the 6 analysed phthalates were found. Using method 2 phthalates were determined in all samples, and all analysed phthalates were detected. Liquid chromatography detected greater number of phthalates than gas chromatography. All the concentrations obtained were less than the critical allowed phthalates concentration according to the REACH Regulation.

  15. Gene expression profiling of di-n-butyl phthalate in normal human mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Whipkey, Diana L; Tennant, Lora B; Weston, Ainsley

    2007-01-01

    Studies show that female workers in the personal-care industry have an increased risk of developing cancer believed to be the result of increased exposure to toxic and/or carcinogenic chemicals found in cosmetics, hair dyes, and nail polish. One chemical found in multiple personal-care products, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), is a known endocrine disruptor and has been found in increased levels in women of childbearing age. The goal of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of phthalate toxicity in normal human cells to provide information concerning interindividual variation and gene-environment interactions. Normal human mammary epithelial cell strains were obtained from discarded tissues following reduction mammoplasty [Cooperative Human Tissue Network (sponsors: NCI/NDRI)]. Gene transcription in each cell strain was analyzed using high-density oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (U133A, Affymetrix) and changes in the expression of selected genes were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (ABI). DNA microarrays were hybridized with total RNA that was collected after DBP treatment for 5 hr and 10 hr. RNA was harvested from the vehicle control (acetone) at 10 hr. Data Mining Tool software (Affymetrix) was used to separate genes in clusters based on their expression patterns over time. Only 57 genes were found to be altered in all four cell strains following exposure to DBP. These included genes involved in fertility (inhibin, placental growth factor), immune response (tumor necrosis factor induced protein), and antioxidant status (glutathione peroxidase). Data from this study will help clarify the role of DBP in reproductive toxicity, and yield biomarkers of exposure for future epidemiology studies.

  16. Toxicity of phthalate esters in fish and shellfish from virginia beach using matrix solid phase dispersion (mspd) and gc-ms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the outcome of an investigation on the occurrence of phthalates, in eight edible marine fish species from lower James River, Chesapeake Bay along the Virginia Coast of Atlantic ocean. These include shell fish like Crab(Callinectes sapidus), Clam( Merccnaria), Oyster(C.ariakensis), and white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) from aquaculture center of Virginia Tech. These were analyzed for their content of Dimethyl Phthalate, Diethyl Phthalate, Di-n-butyl Phthalate , butyl benzyl Phthalate , bis(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate ,and di-n-octyl Phthalate Mean concentrations (range) of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in fish samples were 1.1 (<0.01-1.5), 0.22 (<0.01-1.1) and 0.14 (<0.01-1.3) mu g g-1; those in shell fishery were 1.2 (<0.02-1.3), 0.13 (<0.01-0.27) and 0.09 (<0.02-0.22) mu g g-1, respectively. The highest concentration of bis (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in fish samples were found in Atlantic mackerel (Centropristis striate) (1.98+-0.92) mu g/g (wet weight) and Oyster (C.ariakensis) (2.30 mu g/g (wet weight), were higher than those in other fish species. (author)

  17. Phthalates in indoor dust in Kuwait: implications for non-dietary human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevao, B; Al-Ghadban, A N; Bahloul, M; Uddin, S; Zafar, J

    2013-04-01

    Phthalates are semivolatile organic compounds with a ubiquitous environmental distribution. Their presence in indoor environments is linked to their use in a variety of consumer products such as children's toys, cosmetics, food packaging, flexible PVC flooring among others. The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence and concentration of phthalates in dust from homes in Kuwait and to assess non-dietary human exposure to these phthalates. Dust samples were randomly collected from 21 homes and analyzed for eight phthalates. The concentrations of total phthalates were log normally distributed and ranged from 470 to 7800 μg/g. Five phthalates [Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DcHP)] were routinely detected. The major phthalate compound was DEHP at a geometric mean concentration of 1704 μg/g (median, 2256 μg/g) accounting for 92% of the total phthalates measured. Using the measured concentrations and estimates of dust ingestion rates for children and adults, estimated human non-dietary exposure based on median phthalate concentrations ranged from 938 ng/kg-bd/day for adults to 13362 ng/kg-bd/day for toddlers. The difference in exposure estimates between children and adults in this study supports previous reports that children are at greater risk from pollutants that accumulate indoors.

  18. Biodegradation Characteristics of Environmental Endocrine Disruptor Di-n-butyl Phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN WANG; QI-FANG LUO

    2005-01-01

    Objective The biodegradation characteristics of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, were studied by the method of dominant bacteria and immobilized microorganisms. Methods Taking DBP as the only carbon source to acclimatize the collected activated sludge, the concentration of DBP increased progressively in the process of acclimatization. Plate streaking was used to separate 1 strain of the degradation dominant bacteria after acclimatization. Better conditions to degrade DBP by the bacterium could be obtained through orthogonal experiments and the bacterium was identified. Then the acclimated activated sludge was made to immobilize the microorganism using polyvinyl alcohol as entrapment agent. The immobilized microorganism degraded DBP at different conditions. Results The appropriate conditions to degrade DBP by the dominant bacteria were: degradation time, 32 h; DBP concentration, 200 mg/L; rate of shaking incubator, 100 r/min; pH, 7 and temperature, 30℃. DBP could be degraded by more than 95% under such conditions. The bacteria were identified as pseudomonas. The proliferated immobilized microorganisms degraded DBP more effectively and more adapted to temperature and pH than the free acclimated activated sludge. Conclusion One strain of DBP degradation dominant bacteria was separated from the acclimatized activated sludge. It could grow with DBP as the only carbon source and energy, and degraded DBP effectively. After having been immobilized and proliferated, the dominant bacteria could keep a higher biological activity and degrade DBP more effectively than activated sludge.

  19. Genotoxicity of sub-lethal di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Aysel Çağlan Karasu; Erkmen, Belda; Erkoç, Figen

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess genotoxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) erythrocytes after exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of 10 mg L(-1) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for 24 and 96 h. The results showed that mean MN frequencies in both DBP and ethyl methane-sulfonate (EMS, positive control for MN bioassay) groups were significantly different (p<0.01) with respect to control and solvent control groups, in both exposure scenarios. When analysing nuclear abnormalities, the frequency of notched nuclei was significantly different (p<0.05) but the frequencies of other subtypes did not change. The 96-h exposure led to an increase in the mean frequencies of notched nuclei, and also caused significant differences between MN frequencies in all groups (p<0.01). Our findings indicate that sub-lethal DBP concentrations when tested in controlled laboratory conditions have genotoxic potential towards Nile tilapia. Further detailed studies should be done for the determination of the environmental risk assessment for aquatic life since DBP is a high risk contaminant of freshwater and marine ecosystems. PMID:27092636

  20. Removal of a type of endocrine disruptors-di-n-butyl phthalate from water by ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-yan; QU Jiu-hui; LIU Hui-juan

    2006-01-01

    Ozonation of synthetic water containing a type of endocrine disruptor-di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was examined. Key impact factors such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, ozone dosage and initial DBP concentration were investigated. In addition, the activities of radicals on uncatalysed and catalysed ozonation were studied. The degradation intermediate products were followed and the kinetic of the ozonation were assessed as well. Results revealed that ozonation of DBP followed two mechanisms. Firstly, the reaction rate of direct ozonation was slower at lower pH, temperature, and ionic strength. Secondly, when these factors were increased for indirect radical reaction, higher percentage of DBP was removed with the increase of the initial ozone dosage and the decrease of the initial DBP concentration. In addition, tert-butanol, humic substances and Fe(Ⅱ) affected DBP ozonation through the radical pathway. It was determined that ozonation was restrained by adding tert-butanol for its radical inhibition effect. Furthermore, humic substances enhanced the reaction to some extent, but a slight negative effect would be encountered if the optimum dosage was exceeded. As a matter of fact, Mn(Ⅱ) affected the ozonation by "active sites" mechanism. In the experiment, three different kinds of intermediate products were produced during ozonation, but the amount of products for each one of them decreased as pH, temperature,ionic strength and initial ozone dosage increased. A kinetic equation of the reaction between ozone and DBP was obtained.

  1. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  2. The concentrations of phthalates in settled dust in Bulgarian homes in relation to building characteristic and cleaning habits in the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev;

    2008-01-01

    Phthalate esters are chemical compounds with a broad range of applications. Recently, we have shown that significantly higher dust concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found in Bulgarian homes of children with asthma or allergies compared to healthy children. The concentration...... of DEHP was found to be significantly associated with wheezing in the last 12 months as reported by parents. The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between concentrations of phthalates in settled dust collected in Bulgarian homes and building characteristics and cleaning habits....... Dust samples from the child's bedroom were collected in 177 homes and analysed for the content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and DEHP. Information on building characteristics and family...

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Butyl Benzyl Phthalate (Bbp) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2014, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for BBP to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested i...

  4. Biomarker responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to soils contaminated with di-n-butyl phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the impact of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to DBP for 28 days. DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. We found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly inhibited in the 100 mg kg(-1) treatment group on day 28. After 21 days of treatment, GST activity in 10-50 mg kg(-1) treatment groups was markedly stimulated compared to the control group. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cells. GSH content increased in the treatment group that received 50 mg kg(-1) DBP from 7 days of exposure to 28 days. These results suggest that DBP induces serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. However, DBP concentration in current agricultural soil in China will not constitute any threat to the earthworm or other animals in the soil. PMID:25328097

  5. (1S,3S,4S)-tert-Butyl N-[1-benzyl-3-hydr­oxy-5-phenyl-4-(picolinamido)pent­yl]carbamate

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Feng Zheng; Su-Yu Huang; Jian-Nan Guo; Yu Zhang; Li-Ren Jin

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C29H35N3O4, was obtained by the reaction of (2S,4S,5S)-tert-butyl N-(4-amino-1-benzyl-3-hydroxy-5-phenylpentyl)carbamate and picolinic acid using oxalyl chloride as a chlorinating reagent to activate the carboxyl group. In the crystal structure there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit, which are aligned edge-to-face. In one molecule, the pyridyl ring forms a dihedral angle of 22.0 (1)° with the phenyl ring of the terminal benzyl group and 14.3 (1)...

  6. Toxicity and Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Activity of Phthalates and Their Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates, widely used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have become ubiquitous contaminants worldwide. This study evaluated the acute toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP, bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP, diisononyl phthalate (DINP, di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP and their mixtures. Using a 72 h zebrafish embryo toxicity test, the LC50 values of BBP, DBP and a mixture of the six phthalates were found to be 0.72, 0.63 and 0.50 ppm, respectively. The other four phthalates did not cause more than 50% exposed embryo mortality even at their highest soluble concentrations. The typical toxicity symptoms caused by phthalates were death, tail curvature, necrosis, cardio edema and no touch response. Using an estrogen-responsive ChgH-EGFP transgenic medaka (Oryzias melastigma eleutheroembryos based 24 h test, BBP demonstrated estrogenic activity, DBP, DEHP, DINP and the mixture of the six phthalates exhibited enhanced-estrogenic activity and DIDP and DNOP showed no enhanced- or anti-estrogenic activity. These findings highlighted the developmental toxicity of BBP and DBP, and the estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of BBP, DBP, DEHP and DINP on intact organisms, indicating that the widespread use of these phthalates may cause potential health risks to human beings.

  7. Toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of phthalates and their mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueping; Xu, Shisan; Tan, Tianfeng; Lee, Sin Ting; Cheng, Shuk Han; Lee, Fred Wang Fat; Xu, Steven Jing Liang; Ho, Kin Chung

    2014-03-14

    Phthalates, widely used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have become ubiquitous contaminants worldwide. This study evaluated the acute toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and their mixtures. Using a 72 h zebrafish embryo toxicity test, the LC50 values of BBP, DBP and a mixture of the six phthalates were found to be 0.72, 0.63 and 0.50 ppm, respectively. The other four phthalates did not cause more than 50% exposed embryo mortality even at their highest soluble concentrations. The typical toxicity symptoms caused by phthalates were death, tail curvature, necrosis, cardio edema and no touch response. Using an estrogen-responsive ChgH-EGFP transgenic medaka (Oryzias melastigma) eleutheroembryos based 24 h test, BBP demonstrated estrogenic activity, DBP, DEHP, DINP and the mixture of the six phthalates exhibited enhanced-estrogenic activity and DIDP and DNOP showed no enhanced- or anti-estrogenic activity. These findings highlighted the developmental toxicity of BBP and DBP, and the estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of BBP, DBP, DEHP and DINP on intact organisms, indicating that the widespread use of these phthalates may cause potential health risks to human beings.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates and Anogenital Distance in Male Infants from a Low-Exposed Danish Cohort (2010-2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette B;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates comprise a large class of chemicals used in a variety of consumer products. Several have anti-androgenic properties and in rodents prenatal exposure has been associated with reduced anogenital distance (AGD); the distance from the anus to the genitals in male offspring. Few...... human studies have been conducted but associations between the anti-androgenic phthalates and male AGD have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between phthalate exposure in late pregnancy in Danish women pregnant in 2010-2012 and AGD in their infants at 3 months of age (N=273). METHODS......: In the Odense child cohort urinary concentrations of 12 phthalate metabolites of di-ethyl, di-n-butyl-, di-iso-butyl-, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-, butyl-benzyl- and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DEP, DnBP, DiBP, DEHP, BBzP and DiNP, respectively) were measured among 245 mothers to boys at approximately gestational week 28...

  9. Preparation of Seeding Type Immobilized Microorganisms and Their Degradation Characteristics on Di-n-Butyl Phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the preparation of seeding type immobilized microorganisms and their degradation characteristics on di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Methods Diatomite, clinoptilolite, silk zeolite, and coal fly ash were chosen as reserved materials and modified. Their adsorption capacity and intensity in the bacteria were determined and the best carrier was picked out. The seeding type immobilized microorganisms were prepared by the best carrier and then it degraded DBP under different primary concentration, vibration rate, pH, temperature in the presence of metal compounds. Results The adsorption capacity of the modified coal fly ash, silk zeolite, clinoptilolite and zeolite was 44.2%, 71.6%, 84.0%, and 94.4%, respectively, which was 1.66, 1.49, 1.37, and 1.16 times as high as that of their natural state. Their adsorption intensity was 72.1%, 90.5%, 90.1%,and 91.1% in turn. The modified diatomite was selected to prepare the seeding type immobilized microorganisms. When the primary DBP concentration was 100 to 500 mg/L, the DBP-degraded rate of the immobilized microorganisms could be above 80%. The degradation activity of both the dissociative and immobilized microorganisms was higher in vibration than in stillness.When pH was 6.0 to 9.0, the DBP-degraded rate of the immobilized microorganisms was above 82%, which was higher than the dissociative microorganisms. When the temperature was between 20℃ and 40℃, the DBP-degraded rate could reach 84.5% in 24 h. The metal compounds could inhibit the degradation activity of both the dissociative and immobilized microorganisms. The degradation process of the immobilized microorganisms could be described by the first-order model.Conclusion The adsorption capacity of the diatomite, clinoptilolite, silk zeolite and coal fly ash on DBP-degrading bacteria can be improved obviously after they are modified. The modified diatomite is best in terms of its adsorption capacity and intensity. Its seeding type immobilized microorganisms could

  10. Kinetics of adsorption of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by four different granule-activated carbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Po keung TSANG; Zhanqiang FANG; Hui LIU; Xiaolei CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics of the adsorption of an endocrine disruptor,di,n,butyl phthalate (DBP),by four different granulated,activated carbons (GACs) is presented in this paper. Results showed that adsorption of DBP by the four GACs followed first,order kinetics and the adsorption constant of the four GAC was found to follow the order:nut shell>coconut shell>Coaly carbon 1.0>Coaly carbon 1.5. Batch adsorption studies were also conducted to investigate the effect of pH on the adsorption process. The optimum pH for the removal of DBP from aqueous solutions under the experimental conditions used in this work was found to be 5.0. The characterization of the carbon surfaces was conducted by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore,results from infrared spectroscopic (IR) studies showed that physical adsorption plays an important role in the adsorption of DBP by the four selected GACs.

  11. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  12. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins. PMID:26304812

  13. Individual or synchronous biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate and phenol by Rhodococcus ruber strain DP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhixing; Niu, Chengzhen; Lu, Zhenmei, E-mail: lzhenmei@zju.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A Rhodococcus ruber strain degraded DBP and phenol. • Degradation kinetics of DBP or phenol fit modified first-order models. • Degradation interaction between DBP and phenol was studied by strain DP-2. • The degradation genes transcriptional were quantified by RT-qPCR. - Abstract: The bacterial strain DP-2, identified as Rhodococcus ruber, is able to effectively degrade di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and phenol. Degradation kinetics of DBP and phenol at different initial concentrations revealed DBP and phenol degradation to fit modified first-order models. The half-life of DBP degradation ranged from 15.81 to 27.75 h and phenol degradation from 14.52 to 45.52 h under the initial concentrations of 600–1200 mg/L. When strain DP-2 was cultured with a mixture of DBP (800 mg/L) and phenol (700 mg/L), DBP degradation rate was found to be only slightly influenced; however, phthalic acid (PA) accumulated, and phenol degradation was clearly inhibited during synchronous degradation. Transcriptional levels of degradation genes, phenol hydroxylase (pheu) and phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase (pht), decreased significantly more during synchronous degradation than during individual degradation. Quantitative estimation of individual or synchronous degradation kinetics is essential to manage mixed hazardous compounds through biodegradation in industrial waste disposal.

  14. The influence of resource strategy on childhood phthalate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    and paper at European level, including the flow of phthalates, i.e. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and Benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), has been performed. The result for the year 2012 shows that 26% of plastic wastes and 60% of paper consumed in Europe were recycled....... This corresponds to the recycling of 6.3% of DEHP, 20.3% of DBP, and 5.1% of BBP in the percentage of total manufactured amount of these phthalates. To examine the potential influence of the phthalate exposure through recycling, a case study assessing the childhood exposures to phthalates from foods packed.......767 µg/kg bw/day for Denmark and Korea, respectively. Still, of the total childhood phthalate exposure, 58.5% of DBP and 77.5% of BBP exposure in Denmark and 31.6% of DBP and 65.2% of BBP in Korea remains to be identified. Finally, a conceptual framework is proposed for a circular economy based...

  15. Phthalates inhibit tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Young; Han, Soon Young; Moon, Aree

    2004-12-01

    Environmental estrogens represent a class of compounds that can mimic the function or activity of the endogenous estrogen 17 -estradiol (E2). Phthalates including butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are used as plasticizers, and also widely used in food wraps and cosmetic formulations. Phthalates have been shown to mimic estrogen and are capable of binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). It has been demonstrated that estrogen promotes drug resistance to tamoxifen (TAM) in breast cancer. In order to further evaluate the potential role of the phthalates as environmental estrogens, the effect of phthalates was investigated on TAM-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Our results show that phthalates, BBP (100 M), DBP (10 M), and DEHP (10 M), significantly increased cell proliferation in MCF-7, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, BBP, DBP, and DEHP mimicked estrogen in the inhibition of TAM-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of phthalates on TAM-induced apoptosis involves an increase in intracellular Bcl-2 to Bax ratio. Given that the phthalates are widely used in cosmetics mainly for women, our findings that revealed the promoting effect of BBP, DBP, and DEHP on chemotherapeutic drug resistance to TAM in breast cancer may be of biological relevance.

  16. Inhibitory mechanism of phthalate esters on Karenia brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wen, Fuling; Li, Fengmin; Zheng, Xiang; Liang, Zhi; Zheng, Hao

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of phthalate esters (PAEs), a class of widely used and environmentally prevalent chemicals, raises concern to environmental and human health globally. The PAEs have been demonstrated to inhibit algae growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this research, diethyl ortho-phthalate (DEP), diallyl phthalate (DAP), di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (DBP), di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, and benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (BBP) were screened from 11 species of PAEs to study their inhibitory effects on Karenia brevis and determine their target sites on algae. With increasing the alkyl chains of these five PAEs, the values of EC50,96h decreased. The content of malondialdehyde increased with the continuous accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the algae cells. Moreover, the superoxide dismutase and catalase contents were first activated and then inhibited. The ultrastructures of Karenia brevis cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and cells treated with PAEs exhibiting distorted shapes and large vacuoles. Thus, the algae were damaged by ROS accumulation, resulting in lipid oxidation and algal growth inhibition. The inhibitors of the electron transport chain showed that the sites of ROS production and accumulation in K. brevis cells under DEP and BBP were the mitochondria and chloroplast, respectively. Moreover, the target sites of DAP and DBP were both the chloroplast and mitochondria. These results are useful for controlling PAEs contamination in and revealing the fate of PAEs in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:27151426

  17. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE (DEHP) DELAYS PUBERTY AND REDUCES ANDROGEN-DEPENDENT TISSUE WEIGHTS IN THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEHP, dibutyl (DBP)-, and benzyl butyl (BBP)- phthalate are plasticizers that cause adverse developmental reproductive effects in laboratory animals. They alter sexual differentiation in the rat by reducing fetal Leydig cell testosterone synthesis and insl3 mRNA levels, which in ...

  18. Photocatalytic Degradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by N-Doped Ti/13X/MCM-41 Molecular Sieve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hong; Nguyen, Nhat-Thien; Heil, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Xiao; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-07-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a type of phthalate ester, and has been classified as an environmental endocrine disruptor. It causes serious harm to the environment and humans and it is found widely in air, waste water, rivers and soil. In recent years, an increasing number of studies examined the removal of DBP. Photocatalytic degradation has been of particular interest because of its efficient and thorough advantages and is the focus of this study. Here we use a composite material of N-Ti/13X/MCM-41, synthesized, using 13X and tetraethyl orthosilicate as raw material, CTAB as structural template, tetrabutyl titanate and urea under hydrothermal conditions. The optimized experimental conditions, such as, Si/Al (molar ratio), pH value, crystallization time, calcination temperature and N/Ti (molar ratio), were tested using photodegradation experiments of DBP. The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, N2 adsorption-desorption. Experimental results reveal the surface area of the N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 to be 664 m2 g(-1) and the average pore sizes to be 2.79 nm. TEM micrographs showed the N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 consists of aggregates of spherical particles, similar to the shapes associated with standard MCM-41 synthesized under basic conditions. Photocatalytic degradation experimental results revealed that optimal synthesis of the composite material occurs when Si/Al = 15, pH = 9.0, crystallization time is 48 hours, calcination temperature is 350 °C and the N/Ti ratios is 2.0. Under such conditions, the degradation efficiency of DBP more was found to be more than 90%. PMID:26373152

  19. Photocatalytic Degradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by N-Doped Ti/13X/MCM-41 Molecular Sieve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hong; Nguyen, Nhat-Thien; Heil, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Xiao; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-07-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a type of phthalate ester, and has been classified as an environmental endocrine disruptor. It causes serious harm to the environment and humans and it is found widely in air, waste water, rivers and soil. In recent years, an increasing number of studies examined the removal of DBP. Photocatalytic degradation has been of particular interest because of its efficient and thorough advantages and is the focus of this study. Here we use a composite material of N-Ti/13X/MCM-41, synthesized, using 13X and tetraethyl orthosilicate as raw material, CTAB as structural template, tetrabutyl titanate and urea under hydrothermal conditions. The optimized experimental conditions, such as, Si/Al (molar ratio), pH value, crystallization time, calcination temperature and N/Ti (molar ratio), were tested using photodegradation experiments of DBP. The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, N2 adsorption-desorption. Experimental results reveal the surface area of the N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 to be 664 m2 g(-1) and the average pore sizes to be 2.79 nm. TEM micrographs showed the N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 consists of aggregates of spherical particles, similar to the shapes associated with standard MCM-41 synthesized under basic conditions. Photocatalytic degradation experimental results revealed that optimal synthesis of the composite material occurs when Si/Al = 15, pH = 9.0, crystallization time is 48 hours, calcination temperature is 350 °C and the N/Ti ratios is 2.0. Under such conditions, the degradation efficiency of DBP more was found to be more than 90%.

  20. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of seven phthalates in total and migrated portions of paper cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Na; Choi, Min Sun; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Gye, Myung Chan; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Phthalate acid esters are widely used as plasticizers to impart plastic flexibility in various industrial applications. In this study, the content of seven phthalates, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) were determined in paper cups using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the potential migration of these seven phthalates from paper cups into various food stimulants under different conditions was evaluated. The levels of DBP, DEHA, DEHP, and DNOP were in the ranges of 0.07-3.14, 0.16-42.69, 0.45-58.56, and 0.3-2.4 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, BBP, DINP, and DIDP were not detected in most of the tested samples. In the migration test, DEHA was released to 50 % ethanol and n-heptane in a time-dependent manner and the maximum migration levels were 65.62 ± 3.61 and 95.56 ± 19.76 μg/L, respectively. The release of other phthalates was very low or negligible. These results demonstrated that paper cups are not a significant source of phthalate exposure; however, DEHA could be released from paper cups into alcoholic beverages or oily liquid beverages in the human diet. PMID:27053047

  1. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of seven phthalates in total and migrated portions of paper cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Na; Choi, Min Sun; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Gye, Myung Chan; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Phthalate acid esters are widely used as plasticizers to impart plastic flexibility in various industrial applications. In this study, the content of seven phthalates, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) were determined in paper cups using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the potential migration of these seven phthalates from paper cups into various food stimulants under different conditions was evaluated. The levels of DBP, DEHA, DEHP, and DNOP were in the ranges of 0.07-3.14, 0.16-42.69, 0.45-58.56, and 0.3-2.4 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, BBP, DINP, and DIDP were not detected in most of the tested samples. In the migration test, DEHA was released to 50 % ethanol and n-heptane in a time-dependent manner and the maximum migration levels were 65.62 ± 3.61 and 95.56 ± 19.76 μg/L, respectively. The release of other phthalates was very low or negligible. These results demonstrated that paper cups are not a significant source of phthalate exposure; however, DEHA could be released from paper cups into alcoholic beverages or oily liquid beverages in the human diet.

  2. Enhanced ozonation degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by zero-valent zinc in aqueous solution: performance and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gang; Wang, Sheng-Jun; Ma, Jun; Huang, Ting-Lin; Liu, Zheng-Qian; Zhao, Lei; Su, Jun-Feng

    2014-01-30

    Enhanced ozonation degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by zero-valent zinc (ZVZ) has been investigated using a semi-continuous reactor in aqueous solution. The results indicated that the combination of ozone (O3) and ZVZ showed an obvious synergetic effect, i.e. an improvement of 54.8% on DBP degradation was obtained by the O3/ZVZ process after 10min reaction compared to the cumulative effect of O3 alone and O2/ZVZ. The degradation efficiency of DBP increased gradually with the increase of ZVZ dosage, enhanced as solution pH increasing from 2.0 to 10.0, and more amount of DBP was degraded with the initial concentration of DBP arising from 0.5 to 2.0mgL(-1). Recycling use of ZVZ resulted in the enhancement of DBP degradation, because the newly formed zinc oxide took part in the reaction. The mechanism investigation demonstrated that the enhancement effect was attributed to the introduction of ZVZ, which could promote the utilization of O3, enhance the formation of superoxide radical by reducing O2 via one-electron transfer, accelerate the production of hydrogen peroxide and the generation of hydroxyl radical. Additionally, the newly formed zinc oxide on ZVZ surface also contributed to the enhancement of DBP degradation in the recycling use of ZVZ. Most importantly, the O3/ZVZ process was also effective in enhanced ozonation degradation of DBP under the background of actual waters.

  3. Prenatal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) differentially alters androgen cascade in undeformed versus hypospadiac male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun-Tao; Zhong, Chen; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Xu, Dong-Liang; Wood, Kristofer; Sun, Wen-Lan; Li, En-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Yuan; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2016-06-01

    This study was to compare the alterations of androgen cascades in di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)-exposed male offspring without hypospadias (undeformed) versus those with hypospadias. To induce hypospadias in male offspring, pregnant rats received DBP via oral gavage at a dose of 750mg/kg BW/day during gestational days 14-18. The mRNA expression levels of genes downstream of the androgen signaling pathway, such as androgen receptor (AR) and Srd5a2, in testes of undeformed rat pups were similar to those in controls; in hypospadiac rat pups these levels were significantly lower than those of control pups. In contrast, both undeformed and hypospadiac rats had decreased serum testosterone levels, reduced mRNA expression of key enzymes in the androgen synthetic pathway in the testes, and ablated genes of developmental pathways, such as Shh, Bmp4, Fgf8, Fgf10 and Fgfr2, in the genital tubercle (GT) as compared to those in DBP-unexposed controls, albeit hypospadiac rats had a more severe decrement than those of undeformed rats. Although other possibilities cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that the relatively normal levels of testosterone-AR-Srd5a2 may contribute to the resistance to DBP toxicity in undeformed rats. In conclusion, our results showed a potential correlation between decreased testosterone levels, reduced mRNA expression of AR and Srd5a2 and the occurrence of hypospadias in male rat offspring prenatally exposed to DBP. PMID:26948521

  4. Determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in the aquatic environment using hollow fibre supported liquid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtibe, A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Phthalates are known to be carcinogenic, teratogenic as well as endocrine disruptors. The potential risk to human and animals health generated from them has drawn great attention all over the world. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) online with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater. Toluene, di-n-hexyl ether and undecane were used as liquid barriers separating both donor (sample) and acceptor phase. Toluene performed much better than undecane and was used in sample preparation. The presence of toluene showed the potential for the enrichment and removal of phthalates to the concentrations ranges from 0 to 1.7 mg L-1.

  5. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and 20 phthalates in composite food samples from the 2013 Canadian Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Dabeka, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and selective GC-MS method was developed and used for simultaneous analysis of di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 20 selected phthalates in the food samples from the 2013 Canadian Total Diet Study. At least one of the 21 target chemicals was detected in 141 of the 159 different food composite samples analysed. However, only seven of the 21 target chemicals were detected, with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and DEHA being detected most frequently, in 111 and 91 different food composite samples, respectively, followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) (n = 44), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) (32), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) (27), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) (3), and di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) (1). Levels of DEP (di-ethyl phthalate), DiBP, DBP, BBzP and DCHP were low, in general, with average concentrations of 9.63, 8.26, 23.2, 12.4 and 64.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Levels of DEHA and DEHP varied widely, ranging from 1.4 to 6010 ng g(-1) and from 14.4 to 714 ng g(-1), respectively. High levels of DEHA were found mainly in the composite samples where the individual food items used to prepare the composite were likely packaged in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrapping film, while the highest DEHP levels were found in the vegetable and fruit samples.

  6. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Gutleb, Arno C; Bergman, Ake; Eriksen, Gunnar S; Murk, AlberTinka J; Ropstad, Erik; Saunders, Margaret; Skaare, Janneche U

    2009-04-01

    The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. The adverse effects observed in rodent models raised concerns as to whether exposure to phthalates represents a potential health risk to humans. At present, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) have been demonstrated to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity; thus, this review focuses on these chemicals. For the general population, DEHP exposure is predominantly via food. The average concentrations of phthalates are highest in children and decrease with age. At present, DEHP exposures in the general population appear to be close to the tolerable daily intake (TDI), suggesting that at least some individuals exceed the TDI. In addition, specific high-risk groups exist with internal levels that are several orders of magnitude above average. Urinary metabolites used as biomarkers for the internal levels provide additional means to determine more specifically phthalate exposure levels in both general and high-risk populations. However, exposure data are not consistent and there are indications that secondary metabolites may be more accurate indicators of the internal exposure compared to primary metabolites. The present human toxicity data are not sufficient for evaluating the occurrence of reproductive effects following phthalate exposure in humans, based on existing relevant animal data. This is especially the case for data on female reproductive toxicity, which are

  7. Migration of BTEX and phthalates from natural rubber latex balloons obtained from the Sri Lankan market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Imanda; Godakumbura, Pahan I; Prashantha, M A B

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluates the migration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) and phthalates into artificial saliva from natural rubber latex (NRL) balloons available for sale in Sri Lanka. It was discovered that at least one BTEX compound migrated from almost all the brands. The migration of four phthalates; diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate were also observed. Migratory levels of BTEX and phthalates in most of the balloon brands were above the permissible levels set by the European Union. Assessment of factors affecting the migratory levels indicated migration under active mouthing conditions and migration from the neck region of the balloons were significantly higher. The migratory levels were observed to decrease with storage time, and in certain brands the BTEX levels decreased below the permissible level. One-way ANOVA indicated no significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) in migratory levels of each individual compound within the same brand for both BTEX and phthalates. When compared among different brands, BTEX levels indicated significant differences (p ≤ 0.05), while phthalate levels were observed to not be significantly different (p ≥ 0.05). A significant difference was also observed (p ≤ 0.05) among the migratory levels of compounds under each test condition evaluated as factors affecting the migratory level. Furthermore, the solvent based colorants added to color the latex were found to be the source of BTEX and phthalates in the NRL balloons.

  8. Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Earthworm Eisenia fetida at Different Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ma

    Full Text Available Recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil, the environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs is of great concern recently. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, an extensively used PAE compound to Eisenia fetida have been investigated in spiked natural brown yellow soil (Alfisol for soil contact test. The toxicity of DnBP to E. fetida on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD, reactive oxygen species (ROS content, and the apoptosis of coelomocytes and DNA damage at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of the incubation have been paid close attention to. In general, SOD activity and ROS content were significantly induced, opposite to total protein content and POD activity, during the toxicity test of 28 days especially under concentrations higher than 2.5 mg kg-1. The reduction in neutral red retention (NRR time along with the increase of dead coelomocytes as the increasing of DnBP concentrations, indicating severe damage to cell viability under varying pollutant stress during cultivation, which could also be proved by comet assay results for exerting evident DNA damage in coelomocytes. DnBP in spiked natural soil could indeed cause damage to tissues, coelomocytes and the nucleus of E. fetida. The key point of the apparent change in different indices presented around 2.5 mg DnBP kg-1 soil, which could be recommended as the threshold of DnBP soil contamination, so that further investigation on threshold values to other soil animals or microorganisms could be discussed.

  9. Sublethal concentrations of di-n-butyl phthalate promote biochemical changes and DNA damage in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Abd Elhakim, Yasser; El-Murr, Abd Elhakeem

    2016-02-01

    Increase in consumption of consumer items such as plasticizers have resulted in a sharp rise in the presence of xenobiotics like phthalic acid esters (PEs) in freshwater and marine environments due to contaminated runoff and improper release of effluents. The sublethal toxicity of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was investigated in juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in an attempt to determine the biological effect of exposure to 1/2 and 1/3 median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) which, in our study was experimentally determined to be 11.8 mg/l. Following four days of exposure, indices of the oxidative potential [Malondialdehyde content (MDA)], antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and reduced glutathione level (GSH)] and DNA damage were evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay). Hepato-renal markers [alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), creatinine and urea level] and cortisol levels were also quantified in serum. Additionally, histopathological investigations of liver, kidney and gill tissues were conducted. Comparative results between the 1/2 96-h LC50 group and the 1/3 96-h LC50 group clearly showed that there was a significant elevation in MDA levels and a marked increase in DNA damage in addition to inhibition of antioxidant barriers as represented by attenuation of SOD activity and GSH level in the group that was exposed to higher concentration of DBP (1/2 96-h LC50). The hepatorenal markers and cortisol levels were also observed to be elevated. Histopathological examination of the liver, kidney and gills showed pathological alterations that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of the exposed fish. Additionally, anomalous clinical signs were noted. Based on these findings, we conclude from our study that exposure of juvenile O. niloticus to DBP has the potential to induce biochemical as well as tissue morphological alterations associated with oxidative injury and DNA damage. PMID:27348890

  10. Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Phthalate Diesters and Cognitive Function in Children Up to 12 Years of Age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Bin Huang

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between environmental phthalate exposure and children's neurocognitive development. This longitudinal study examined cognitive function in relation to pre-and postnatal phthalate exposure in children 2-12 years old. We recruited 430 pregnant women in their third trimester in Taichung, Taiwan from 2001-2002. A total of 110, 79, 76, and 73 children were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, and 11, respectively. We evaluated the children's cognitive function at four different time points using the Bayley and Wechsler tests for assessing neurocognitive functions and intelligence (IQ. Urine samples were collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at each follow-up visit. They were analyzed for seven metabolite concentrations of widely used phthalate esters. These esters included monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, namely, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate. We constructed a linear mixed model to examine the relationships between the phthalate metabolite concentrations and the Bayley and IQ scores. We found significant inverse associations between the children's levels of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate and the sum of the three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and their IQ scores (β = -1.818; 95% CI: -3.061, -0.574, p = 0.004 for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate; β = -1.575; 95% CI: -3.037, -0.113, p = 0.035 for the sum of the three metabolites after controlling for maternal phthalate levels and potential confounders. We did not observe significant associations between maternal phthalate exposure and the children's IQ scores. Children's but not prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with decreased cognitive development in the young children. Large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these

  11. Simultaneous screening and determination eight phthalates in plastic products for food use by sonication-assisted extraction/GC-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao-Yu

    2005-04-30

    Studies on determination of eight kinds of phthalates, e.g. di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-propyl phthalate (DPP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP), in 25 kinds of plastic products for food use, including packaging bags, packaging film, containers, boxes for microwave oven use, sucking tubes, spoons, cups, plates, etc. by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in electronic ionisation mode (EI) with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition method (GC-MS (EI-SIM)) have been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. Extraction, clean-up and analysis procedure have been optimized. Determination of samples were performed after frozen in liquid nitrogen and sonication-assisted extraction with hexane, clean-up with LC-C18 SPE and analyzed by GC-MS methods. The base peak (m/z=149) of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions, 121, 177, 222 for DEP; 191, 209 for DPP; 57, 223 for DIBP; 104 for DBP; 91, 132, 206 for BBP; 55, 167 for DCHP; 113, 167, 279 for DEHP; 279 for DOP were chosen for quantitative studies. These techniques are possible to detect phthalates at the level of 10.0mug/kg. Overall recoveries were 82-106% with R.S.D. values at 3.8-10.2%. Only one of the 25 examined samples was free from phthalates. The rest 24 samples were found to contain at least three or more of these phthalates. The predominant phthalate detected in the studied samples was DEHP.

  12. Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

    2011-06-01

    We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach.

  13. [Occurrence and fate of phthalates in wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Qi; Liu, Yun-Xia

    2013-04-01

    Three waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing were selected as cases to study the occurrence and fate of phthalates. Contents of di-methyl phthalate (DMP), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and di-(2-ehtylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in influent, effluent of secondary setting tank and excess sludge in those WWTPs were determined. The mean concentration of DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP are 0.98, 0.21 x 10(2), 0.27 x 10(2) and 0.15 x 10(2) microg x L(-1) respectively. BBP and DOP were not found in those WWTPs. Only DBP and DEHP were detected in dewatered sludge with mean concentration of 0.37 microg x kg(-1) and 0.31 x 10(3) microg x kg(-1) DW. The removal efficiency of DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP varied from 68.3% -82.6%, 94.5% - 98.2%, 74.7% -95.0% and 90.5% -90.7% respectively. The main removal mechanism should be biodegradation and volatilization to the air. Higher concentration of DBP and DEHP in effluent and dewatered sludge should be concerned.

  14. Occurrence and profiles of phthalates in foodstuffs from China and their implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zifeng; Liu, Liyan; Li, Yifan; Ren, Nanqi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-07-11

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDIdiet) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDIdiet values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDIdiet values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only phthalates.

  15. Di(n)butyl phthalate reduces testicular weight, testosterone and associated gene expression in fetal Harlan Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain phthalate esters (PE) cause reproductive malformations in male rats when exposure occurs during sexual differentiation in utero. Reductions in fetal testosterone levels are causally linked to the induction of these malformations. While reproductive development studies on ...

  16. STUDY ON ENZYMATIC DEGRADABILITY OF DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE%邻苯二甲酸二丁酯的酶促降解性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾锋; 傅家谟; 盛国英; 杨惠芳; 张展霞

    2000-01-01

    测定了Pseudomonas fluorescens FS1的邻苯二甲酸酯降解酶对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯的降解特性;提出了邻苯二甲酸二丁酯酶促降解的途径. Pseudo monas fluorescens FS1细胞中的颗粒部分、溶液部分对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯都具有降解作用,Pseudomonas fluorescens FS1的邻苯二甲酸酯降解酶属胞内酶;Pseudomonas f luorescens FS1的邻苯二甲酸酯降解酶对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯的的最适酸度为pH 6.5~8.0 ,θ=25~35℃,米氏常数Km为215.05 nmol/mL.在好氧条件下,邻苯二甲酸二丁酯与Pseudomonas fluorescens FS1的邻苯二甲酸酯降解酯酶作用,形成邻苯二甲酸单酯和邻苯二甲酸后,可进一步降解成苯甲酸、对羟基苯甲酸和酚,最终转化为CO2和H 2O. 图9 表1 参8%Degra dative characteristics and the metabolic pathway of di-n-butyl phthalate wer e determined by the enzyme extracted from Pseadomonas fluorescens FS1 isol ated from the activated sludge at a petrochemical factory . The results showed th at the PAEs-degrading enzyme, mainly located in soluble part of cytoplasm, was an intracllular enzyme. The optium temperature and pH of the PAEs-degrading enz yme activity to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were 20~35℃ and 6.5~8.0, respecti vely .The Michaelis-mentn's contant (Km) of Di(2-ethyl hexyl)Phthalate enzymatic degradation was about 215.05 nmol/mL at 30℃. The enzymatic metabolis m of di-n-butyl phthalate under aerobic conditions starts by PAEs-degrading enzyme to monoester, further enzymatic degradation of monoester proceeds via p hthalic acid by benzoate, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid and phenol, and then to CO2 and H2O. Fig 9, Tab 1, Ref 8

  17. Evaluation of method for phthalate extraction from milk related to milk dilution ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković Danica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction techniques were compared coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, for the extraction and the determination of four phthalates: dimethyl phthalate (DMP, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in six different kinds of milk-based samples. Extraction factors: sample preparation, organic solvent type and volume, salt effect, agitation and the extraction time were optimized. The ion of base peaks (m/z 149 for DBP, BBP and DEHP and m/z 163 for DMP for investigated phthalates were selected for the screening studies. The acquisition was performed at the selected ion monitoring mode. The MSD response for GC-MS phthalate calibration standards was linear between 0.25 and 2.50 μg mL-1 with calculated LODs between 0.01 μg mL-1 to 0.04 μg mL-1 and LOQs of 0.05 μg mL-1 to 0.12 μg mL-1, while repeatability was between 1.7 % to 4.9 % RSD. The study demonstrated an increase of the recovery of less polar phthalates in matrix milk standards by matrix dilution. Recovery for hydrophilic phthalates, like DMP, was not changed by matrix dilution and it was continuously low for the investigated method. Two spiking levels were tested for influence of matrix dilution on phthalate recovery, showed the same trend. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31060

  18. Antagonistic effects of a mixture of low-dose nonylphenol and di-n-butyl phthalate (monobutyl phthalate on the Sertoli cells and serum reproductive hormones in prepubertal male rats in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hu

    Full Text Available The estrogenic chemical nonylphenol (NP and the antiandrogenic agent di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP are regarded as widespread environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs which at high doses in some species of laboratory animals, such as mice and rats, have adverse effects on male reproduction and development. Given the ubiquitous coexistence of various classes of EDCs in the environment, their combined effects warrant clarification. In this study, we attempted to determine the mixture effects of NP and DBP on the testicular Sertoli cells and reproductive endocrine hormones in serum in male rats based on quantitative data analysis by a mathematical model. In the in vitro experiment, monobutyl phthalate (MBP, the active metabolite of DBP, was used instead of DBP. Sertoli cells were isolated from 9-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats followed by treatment with NP and MBP, singly or combined. Cell viability, apoptosis, necrosis, membrane integrity and inhibin-B concentration were tested. In the in vivo experiment, rats were gavaged on postnatal days 23-35 with a single or combined NP and DBP treatment. Serum reproductive hormone levels were recorded. Next, Bliss Independence model was employed to analyze the quantitative data obtained from the in vitro and in vivo investigation. Antagonism was identified as the mixture effects of NP and DBP (MBP. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of Bliss Independence model for the prediction of interactions between estrogenic and antiandrogenic agents.

  19. Phthalates determination in pharmaceutical formulae for parenteral nutrition by LC-ES-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Phthalates (PAEs) are a group of chemical compounds widely use in industry and commerce due to their large variety of uses. Due to the ability to improve softness and flexibility to plastics, they are used mainly as plastizers in a wide variety of products including medical devices, children's toys and all types of packaging. The main drawback of the use of PAEs is that they can migrate from the material to the environment and pollute water, soil and food products. Furthermore, certain phthalate esters and or their metabolites are suspected to be human carcinogenic agents and endocrine disruptors, which make their trace determination of special importance. A method for determining a group of phthalate esters in pharmaceutical formulae for parenteral nutrition samples (with vitamins and without vitamins) was developed. The PAEs studied were Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP),dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). This group of phthalates were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS), working in positive mode. The phthalates analysed were extracted from the sample using hexane and sodium hydroxide. Then, the hexane was evaporated and the compounds were redissolved in acetonitrile. The compounds were separated in the HPLC system working in a gradient mode with acetonitrile-ultrapure water starting from 5% to 75% acetonitrile in 5 minutes followed by isocratic elution during 5 minutes. Standard calibration curves were linear for all the analytes over the concentration range 10-250 ng mL-1. The method was precise (with RSD from 3.3 to 10.7%), sensitive and accurate (recovery percentage around 100% for all studied compounds). The proposed analytical method has been applied to the analysis of these compounds in different pharmaceutical formulae (with different composition

  20. Structural characterisation of degradation products formed upon di-n-butyl phthalate radiolysis by high-performance liquid chromatography electro-spray tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintaru, A.; Charles, L. [Univ Aix Marseille 1, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence Spectrometries Appl Chim Struct, UMR 6264, F-13397 Marseille (France); Univ Aix Marseille 2, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence Spectrometries Appl Chim Struct, UMR 6264, F-13397 Marseille (France); Labed, V. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE L2ED, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Structural characterisation of 15 degradation products, formed upon di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) radiolysis, has been achieved using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) coupling. The dissociation behaviour of protonated DBP was first established to be further used to characterise structural deviation in the degradation products. Based on accurate mass measurements, compounds shown by HPLC-MS analysis were all found to be DBP oxidation products, amongst which various sets of isomers could be distinguished. Collision-induced dissociation experiments performed on each electro-sprayed molecule first allowed unambiguous definition of the location of the additional oxygen atoms; that is, in the alkyl branch or on the aromatic ring. Although location of the oxygen atom in the alkyl branches could not always be precisely determined, relative abundances of some product ions allowed oxygenated functions to be identified

  1. Fate of phthalates and BPA in agricultural and non-agricultural soils of the Paris area (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This study (i) investigated the concentration levels of nine phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) in sludge samples originating from a French wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), (ii) studied the distribution of target compounds according to soil depth and calculated their half-lives, and (iii) compared the contamination level of the agricultural soil with those of soils with other land uses. The sludge contamination levels varied from a few hundred nanograms per gram dry weight (dw) for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) to a few micrograms per gram dw for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP). After sludge application, an 8-fold increase for DEHP level and a 3-fold increase for BPA level occurred in the surface horizon of the soil. The mean distribution of phthalates according to the depth showed a positive gradient for the low molecular weight compounds and inversely, a negative gradient for the highest ones. The half-lives in the 0-20-cm soil horizon were 64 days for DEHP and 36 days for BPA. A predictive environmental concentration (PEC) of 0.3 μg g(-1) dw was estimated for DEHP, while the experimental value was 0.16 μg g(-1) dw, suggesting degradation processes in soil and/or formation of non-extractable residues. Comparisons of contamination levels for soils from different origins (urban, rural, agricultural, and forest) showed that the urban soil remained the most contaminated one, prior to the agricultural soil after treatment.

  2. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  3. Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H.-H.; Kao, W.-Y.; Su, Y.-J

    2003-06-19

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been considered as environmental pollutants and have been subject to control in the United States of America and Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and toxicity of eight PAEs to hemocytes and the defense functions of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), including hemocytic adhesion, pseudopodia formation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) production, by means of in vitro exposure experiments. After hemocytes were treated separately with eight PAEs at concentrations of 100 {mu}g/ml, the results showed that two PAEs (dipropyl phthalate, DPrP and diethyl phthalate, DEP) increased cells with pseudopodia formation, but decreased adhesive cells; reduction in the percentages of both pseudopodia formation and adhesive cells were detected in the dihexyl phthalate (DHP) and diphenyl phthalate (DPP) experiment groups; and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased pseudopodia formation, but did not affect the adhesion. In addition, both PO activity and O{sub 2}{sup -} production were decreased after hemocytes were treated with five PAEs (benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), DEP, DHP and DPrP), respectively. At the same time, microscopy showed that both DPrP and DHP altered morphology of the cell nucleus and led to the presence of vacuoles in cytosol of hemocytes. Using the annexin assay, and after analysis of DNA fragmentation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it was found that hemocytes exposed to DHP and DPrP for more than 10 min would primarily die via apoptosis, the fatality correlates with increasing treatment time; and hemocytes treated with either BBP, dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCP), DEP or DPP would primarily die via necrosis. According to these results, we suggest that all eight PAEs examined could damage hemocytes and further influence the defense mechanism of prawns. This study reveals an important precaution for prawn cultivation.

  4. Sex steroid hormone levels and reproductive development of eight-year-old children following in utero and environmental exposure to phthalates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen-Hua Su

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to phthalates may adversely affect reproductive development in children due to the anti-androgenic properties of the pthalates. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the effects of in utero and environmental phthalate exposure on the reproductive development of eight-year-old children. We recruited 180 children in central Taiwan during November 2001 and followed them until August 2009 when all children became eight years old. Birth outcomes were collected. Bone age, hormone concentrations, and reproductive developmental stages were determined. Phthalate metabolite levels, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MnBP], and mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP], were assessed. No significant gender differences were found in in utero phthalate exposure. Maternal urinary levels of phthalate metabolites did not correlate significantly with birth outcomes, physical characteristics, and reproductive hormones of the eight-year-old children. Regarding the urinary phthalate metabolite levels of the eight-year-old children, MEHP correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MEHP levels in girls correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MnBP correlated significantly with serum FSH in all children. In girls, MnBP correlated with serum FSH, and MBzP correlated with serum progesterone and FSH levels. Urinary phthalate metabolite levels did not correlate with female developmental stages or the development of female reproductive organs. Phthalate metabolites did not correlate with the physical characteristics and reproductive hormones in boys. Therefore, environmental exposure to phthalates, as determined by urinary phthalate metabolite levels of eight-year-old children, may affect reproductive hormone levels in children, indicating that further studies on the environmental health effects of phthalates are warranted.

  5. Determination of phthalates in fruit jellies by dispersive SPE coupled with HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuwei; Hashi, Yuki; Ji, Feng; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2010-02-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of five phthalates including dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate in fruit jellies by LC coupled with MS has been developed. Samples were pretreated by a dispersive SPE method, termed QuEChERS, which is an acronym for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe. The standard calibration curves were linear for all the analytes over the concentration range of 10-250 ng/mL, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9976 to 0.9991. The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.09-3.68 ng/mL and 0.28-11.25 ng/mL, respectively. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by measuring the recovery from spiked samples. The recoveries of all five phthalates from samples spiked at three different concentrations (0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 mg/kg), were in the ranges of 83.5-103.9%, 86.7-95.8%, and 87.1-95.2%, respectively. The RSD values for the samples spiked at 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 mg/kg ranged from 2.0-7.6%, 1.4-6.4%, and 1.2-3.8%, respectively. The method has been used for the analysis of real samples and BBP and DEP were found in real samples. PMID:19998379

  6. Indoor phthalate concentration in residential apartments in Chongqing, China: Implications for preschool children's exposure and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhongming; Zhang, Yinping; Mmereki, Daniel; Yu, Wei; Li, Baizhan

    2016-02-01

    Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) - in indoor gas-phase and dust samples were measured in thirty residential apartments for the first time in Chongqing, China. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate preschool children's exposure via inhalation, non-dietary ingestion and dermal absorption based on gas-phase and dust concentrations. Risk assessment was evaluated by comparing the modeled exposure doses with child-specific benchmarks specified in California's Proposition 65. The detection frequency for all the targeted phthalates was more than 80% except for BBzP. DMP was the most predominant compound in the gas-phase (median = 0.91 μg/m3 and 0.82 μg/m3 in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), and DEHP was the most predominant compound in the dust samples (median = 1543 μg/g and 1450 μg/g in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively). Correlation analysis suggests that indoor DiBP and DnBP might come from the same emission sources. The simulations showed that the median DEHP daily intake was 3.18-4.28 μg/day/kg-bw in all age groups, suggesting that it was the greatest of the targeted phthalates. The risk assessment indicated that the exposure doses of DnBP and DEHP exceeded the child-specific benchmarks in more than 90% of preschool children in Chongqing. Therefore, from a children's health perspective, efforts should focus on controlling indoor phthalate concentrations and exposures.

  7. Phthalates stimulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition through an HDAC6-dependent mechanism in human breast epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Hua; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Yi; Kuo, Po-Lin; Lee, Jau-Nan; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Long, Cheng-Yu; Ko, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Phthalates are environmental hormone-like molecules that are associated with breast cancer risk and are involved in metastasis, a process that requires the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of phthalates on stem cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that phthalates such as butyl benzyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate induce EMT in R2d cells, a stem cell-derived human breast epithelial cell line that is responsive to estradiol for tumor development. We observed that phthalates induced EMT as evidenced by morphological changes concomitant with increased expression of mesenchymal markers and decreased expression of epithelial markers. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is required for phthalate-induced cell migration and invasion during EMT in vitro and metastasis into the lungs of nude mice. We also constructed a series of mutant HDAC6 promoter fragments and found that the transcription factor AP-2a plays a novel role in regulating the HDAC6 promoter. Furthermore, phthalates stimulated estrogen receptors and triggered the downstream EGFR-PKA signaling cascade, leading to increased expression of AP-2a in the nucleus. We also observed that phthalates increased expression of the PP1/HDAC6 complex and caused Akt activation and GSK3β inactivation, leading to transcriptional activation of vimentin through the β-catenin-TCF-4/LEF1 pathway. Understanding the signaling cascades of phthalates that activate EMT through HDAC6 in breast epithelial stem cells provides the identification of novel therapeutic target for human breast cancer.

  8. Metabolism of phthalates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some...... phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate...

  9. Relationship of urinary phthalate metabolites with serum thyroid hormones in pregnant women and their newborns: a prospective birth cohort in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chen Kuo

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of phthalates exposure with thyroid function in pregnant women and their newborns.One hundred and forty-eight Taiwanese maternal and infant pairs were recruited from E-Da hospital in southern Taiwan between 2009 and 2010 for analysis. One-spot urine samples and blood samples in the third trimester of pregnant women and their cord blood samples at delivery were collected. Nine phthalate metabolites in urine were determined by triple quadrupole liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, whereas serum from pregnant women and their cord blood were used to measure thyroid profiles (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], thyroxine, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine by radioimmunoassay.Median levels of urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (μg/g creatinine were the three highest phthalate metabolites, which were 37.81, 34.51, and 21.73, respectively. Using Bonferroni correction at a significance of < 0.006, we found that urinary mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP levels were significantly and negatively associated with serum TSH in cord blood (β = -2.644, p = 0.003.Maternal urinary MBzP, of which the parental compound is butylbenzyl phthalate, may affect TSH activity in newborns. The alteration of thyroid homeostasis by certain phthalates in the early life, a critical period for neurodevelopment, is an urgent concern.

  10. Metabolism of phthalates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects...... on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some...... phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate...

  11. Migration of BTEX and phthalates from natural rubber latex balloons obtained from the Sri Lankan market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Imanda; Godakumbura, Pahan I; Prashantha, M A B

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluates the migration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) and phthalates into artificial saliva from natural rubber latex (NRL) balloons available for sale in Sri Lanka. It was discovered that at least one BTEX compound migrated from almost all the brands. The migration of four phthalates; diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate were also observed. Migratory levels of BTEX and phthalates in most of the balloon brands were above the permissible levels set by the European Union. Assessment of factors affecting the migratory levels indicated migration under active mouthing conditions and migration from the neck region of the balloons were significantly higher. The migratory levels were observed to decrease with storage time, and in certain brands the BTEX levels decreased below the permissible level. One-way ANOVA indicated no significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) in migratory levels of each individual compound within the same brand for both BTEX and phthalates. When compared among different brands, BTEX levels indicated significant differences (p ≤ 0.05), while phthalate levels were observed to not be significantly different (p ≥ 0.05). A significant difference was also observed (p ≤ 0.05) among the migratory levels of compounds under each test condition evaluated as factors affecting the migratory level. Furthermore, the solvent based colorants added to color the latex were found to be the source of BTEX and phthalates in the NRL balloons. PMID:26759759

  12. Dose Addition Models Based on Biologically Relevant Reductions in Fetal Testosterone Accurately Predict Postnatal Reproductive Tract Alterations by a Phthalate Mixture in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howdeshell, Kembra L; Rider, Cynthia V; Wilson, Vickie S; Furr, Johnathan R; Lambright, Christy R; Gray, L Earl

    2015-12-01

    Challenges in cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic phthalate mixtures include a lack of data on all the individual phthalates and difficulty determining the biological relevance of reduction in fetal testosterone (T) on postnatal development. The objectives of the current study were 2-fold: (1) to test whether a mixture model of dose addition based on the fetal T production data of individual phthalates would predict the effects of a 5 phthalate mixture on androgen-sensitive postnatal male reproductive tract development, and (2) to determine the biological relevance of the reductions in fetal T to induce abnormal postnatal reproductive tract development using data from the mixture study. We administered a dose range of the mixture (60, 40, 20, 10, and 5% of the top dose used in the previous fetal T production study consisting of 300 mg/kg per chemical of benzyl butyl (BBP), di(n)butyl (DBP), diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and 100 mg dipentyl (DPP) phthalate/kg; the individual phthalates were present in equipotent doses based on their ability to reduce fetal T production) via gavage to Sprague Dawley rat dams on GD8-postnatal day 3. We compared observed mixture responses to predictions of dose addition based on the previously published potencies of the individual phthalates to reduce fetal T production relative to a reference chemical and published postnatal data for the reference chemical (called DAref). In addition, we predicted DA (called DAall) and response addition (RA) based on logistic regression analysis of all 5 individual phthalates when complete data were available. DA ref and DA all accurately predicted the observed mixture effect for 11 of 14 endpoints. Furthermore, reproductive tract malformations were seen in 17-100% of F1 males when fetal T production was reduced by about 25-72%, respectively. PMID:26350170

  13. Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Yong-Gang; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Ling; Zhao, Ren-Zheng; Zhang, Zheng-Dong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the levels and possible determinants of phthalate esters (PEs) in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children, dust was collected from 215 urban houses in Nanjing, China, and 145 outdoor settled dust samples were collected nearby. Six PEs were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All PEs were detected in the dust from approximately 90% of the houses, with the exception of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which had only a 59% detection rate. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the most abundant PEs, with geometric means of 110 and 16.4 μg g-1, respectively, and maximal concentrations 9950 and 2150 μg g-1. Factor analysis showed that DBP, DEHP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) might come from the same source and were significantly influenced by the use of solid-wood floor wax. High BBP, DEHP, DOP and total PE levels were associated with indices of dampness, and high DOP was associated with humidifier use. In conclusion, six PEs are ubiquitous in urban settled house dust in Nanjing, China, and both plastic materials and cosmetic and personal care products are important sources. Flooring material, dampness and humidifier use potentially influence house dust PE levels.

  14. Metabolism of phthalates in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-07-01

    Phthalates are synthetic compounds widely used as plasticisers, solvents and additives in many consumer products. Several animal studies have shown that some phthalates possess endocrine disrupting effects. Some of the effects of phthalates seen in rats are due to testosterone lowering effects on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP); and their monoester metabolites. Urine, however, contains relatively more of the secondary metabolites of DEHP and DiNP, as well as the monoester phthalates of the more short-branched phthalates. This differential distribution is of special concern as, in particular, the hydrophobic phthalates and their metabolites are shown to have adverse effects following in utero and lactational exposures in animal studies.

  15. An efficient oxidation of benzylic and alicylic compounds with water-soluble copper catalysts in t-butyl hydroperoxide at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ateeq Rahman; S. M. Al Zahrani; Abdel Aziz Nait Ajjou

    2011-01-01

    The water soluble catalytic system comprising of CuCl2 and 2,2-biquinoline-4,4-dicarboxylic acid dipotassium salt (BQC) is highly efficient organic metallic catalysts for selective oxidation of benzylic and alicyclic compounds to the corresponding ketones, ex: indan to indanone, ethyl benzene to acetophenone.

  16. The concentrations of phthalates in settled dust in Bulgarian homes in relation to building characteristic and cleaning habits in the family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Naydenov, Kiril; Sundell, Jan; Stavova, Petra; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov

    Phthalate esters are chemical compounds with a broad range of applications. Recently, we have shown that significantly higher dust concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found in Bulgarian homes of children with asthma or allergies compared to healthy children. The concentration of DEHP was found to be significantly associated with wheezing in the last 12 months as reported by parents. The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between concentrations of phthalates in settled dust collected in Bulgarian homes and building characteristics and cleaning habits. Dust samples from the child's bedroom were collected in 177 homes and analysed for the content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di- n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and DEHP. Information on building characteristics and family habits were collected from parental reports in questionnaires and from inspectors' observations in the homes. Significantly higher concentrations of BBzP, DEHP and DnOP in indoor dust were found in homes where polishing agents were used, compared to homes where such products were not used. The highest concentrations of DEHP, BBzP and DnOP were found in homes with the combination of a low frequency of dusting and the use of polish. There was no difference in phthalate concentrations between inspector-observed balatum flooring (PVC or linoleum) and wood flooring as well as between PVC, as determined by Raman spectra, and wood flooring. However, in a sub-group of homes with no use of polish, the concentration of DEHP was higher in homes with inspector-observed balatum compared with wood flooring but the difference was not significant may be due to a too small sample size.

  17. Migration of phthalates on culture plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Boas, Malene; Møller Brorson, Marianne;

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors of the reproductive system and suspected to influence many other organ and hormone systems. They are also semi-volatile organic compounds present in the gas phase in the environment. Their mode of action has been investigated in numerous in vitro studies. Multi......-well culture plates are typically used to study phthalates in cell cultures. In a pilot study, we observed evidence of phthalate migration in 24-well culture plates. As this has not previously been described, we investigated the phenomenon in more detail. Primary human thyroid epithelial cell cultures (n = 8...... cultures) were exposed to either di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Measurement of phthalate metabolites by mass spectrometry demonstrated that the short-branched DEP was able to migrate to adjacent wells when added...

  18. A mixture of five phthalate esters inhibits fetal testicular testosterone production in a cummulative manner consistent with their predicted reproductive toxicity in the Sprague Dawley rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate diesters are plasticizers to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. Exposure to certain phthalates during sexual differentiation causes reproductive tract malformations in male rats. In the fetal rat, exposure to the phthalates benzylbutyl (BBP), di(n)butyl (DBP), and...

  19. A porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the extraction of phthalate esters from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weiqian; Wang, Juntao; Zang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier (C-NH2 -MIL-125) was prepared and coated onto a stainless-steel wire through sol-gel technique. The coated fiber was used for the solid-phase microextraction of trace levels of phthalate esters (diallyl phthalate, di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexy) ortho-phthalate) from tea beverage samples before gas chromatography with mass spectrometric analysis. Several experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, extraction temperature, sample pH, sample salinity, stirring rate, desorption temperature and desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linearity existed in the range of 0.05-30.00 μg/L for green jasmine tea beverage samples, and 0.10-30.00 μg/L for honey jasmine tea beverage samples, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9939 to 0.9981. The limits of detection of the analytes for the method were 2.0-3.0 ng/L for green jasmine tea beverage sample, and 4.0-5.0 ng/L for honey jasmine tea beverage sample, depending on the compounds. The recoveries of the analytes for the spiked samples were in the range of 82.0-106.0%, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviations, was less than 11.1%.

  20. Toxicologically relevant phthalates in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenstein, Oliver; Vieth, Bärbel; Luch, Andreas; Pfaff, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Various phthalates have been detected in a wide range of food products such as milk, dietary products, fat-enriched food, meat, fish, sea food, beverages, grains, and vegetables as well as in breast milk. Here we present an overview on toxicologically considerable phthalate levels in food reported in the literature. The most common phthalates detected are di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP). Milk analyses demonstrate that background levels in unprocessed milk are usually low. However, during processing the phthalate contents may significantly increase due to migration from plastic materials in contact with food. Among dietary products fat-enriched food such as cheese and cream were identified with highest levels of DEHP. Plasticized PVC from tubes, conveyor belts, or disposable gloves used in food processing is an important source for contamination of food, especially of fatty food. Paper and cardboard packaging made from recycled fibers are another important source of contamination. In addition, gaskets used in metal lids for glass jars have been identified as possible source for the contamination of foodstuffs with phthalates. The highest concentrations of DEHP reported (>900 mg kg(-1)) were detected in food of high fat content stored in such glass jars. Beyond classical food, DEHP and DnBP were identified in human breast milk samples as the main phthalate contaminants. Phthalate monoesters and some oxidative metabolites were also quantified in breast milk.

  1. Structural Basis for Small Molecule NDB (N-Benzyl-N-(3-(tert-butyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,6-dichloro-4-(dimethylamino) Benzamide) as a Selective Antagonist of Farnesoid X Receptor α (FXRα) in Stabilizing the Homodimerization of the Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Xu, Xin; Liu, Peng; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Chen, Jing; Fu, Hai-an; Chen, Li-li; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2015-08-01

    Farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα) as a bile acid sensor plays potent roles in multiple metabolic processes, and its antagonist has recently revealed special interests in the treatment of metabolic disorders, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Here, we identified that the small molecule N-benzyl-N-(3-(tert-butyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,6-dichloro-4-(dimethylamino) benzamide (NDB) functioned as a selective antagonist of human FXRα (hFXRα), and the crystal structure of hFXRα ligand binding domain (hFXRα-LBD) in complex with NDB was analyzed. It was unexpectedly discovered that NDB induced rearrangements of helix 11 (H11) and helix 12 (H12, AF-2) by forming a homodimer of hFXRα-LBD, totally different from the active conformation in monomer state, and the binding details were further supported by the mutation analysis. Moreover, functional studies demonstrated that NDB effectively antagonized the GW4064-stimulated FXR/RXR interaction and FXRα target gene expression in primary mouse hepatocytes, including the small heterodimer partner (SHP) and bile-salt export pump (BSEP); meanwhile, administration of NDB to db/db mice efficiently decreased the gene expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6-pase), small heterodimer partner, and BSEP. It is expected that our first analyzed crystal structure of hFXRα-LBD·NDB will help expound the antagonistic mechanism of the receptor, and NDB may find its potential as a lead compound in anti-diabetes research. PMID:26100621

  2. The influence of resource strategies on childhood phthalate exposure--the role of REACH in a zero waste society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate how resource strategies, which intend to reduce waste and increase recycling, influence on human exposure to hazardous chemicals from material recycling. In order to examine the flows of hazardous chemicals in recycled material, a mass flow analysis of plastics and paper at European level, including the flow of phthalates, i.e. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), has been performed. The result for the year 2012 shows that 26% of plastic wastes and 60% of paper consumed in Europe were recycled. This corresponds to the finding that approximately 4% of DEHP and BBP and 18% of DBP annual demands in Europe as raw material re-enter the product cycle with recycled plastics and paper. To examine the potential contribution of the phthalate exposure through recycled plastics and paper, a case study assessing the childhood exposures to phthalates from foods packed in recycled paper and plastics has been performed for 2-year-old children in Denmark. The result verifies that an increase in recycled paperboard and PET bottles in food packaging material causes a significant increase in childhood exposure to DBP corresponding to an additional exposure of 0.116-0.355 μg/kg bw/day; up to 18% of the total DBP exposure in Danish 2-year-olds. While most of the DEHP exposure can be explained, more than 50% of DBP and 70% of BBP exposure sources still remain to be identified. Finally, a conceptual framework for a circular economy based on sustainable and clean resource flows is proposed in order to increase material recycling without increasing adverse health effects. PMID:25212603

  3. Simple and rapid determination of phthalates using microextraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry quantification in cold drink and cosmetic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Heena; Kaur, Ripneel; Rani, Susheela; Malik, Ashok Kumar

    2016-03-01

    A simple and rapid method using microextraction by packed sorbent coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry has been developed for the analysis of five phthalates, namely, diethyl phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate, in cold drink and cosmetic samples. The various parameters that influence the microextraction by packed sorbent performance such as extraction cycle (extract-discard), type and amount of solvent, washing solvent, and pH have been studied. The optimal conditions of microextraction using C18 as the packed sorbent were 15 extraction cycles with water as washing solvent and 3 × 10 μL of ethyl acetate as the eluting solvent. Chromatographic separation was also optimized for injection temperature, flow rate, ion source, interface temperature, column temperature gradient and mass spectrometry was evaluated using the scan and selected ion monitoring data acquisition mode. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of linearity with R(2) >0.9992 within the established concentration range. The limit of detection was 0.003-0.015 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was 0.009-0.049 ng/mL. The recoveries were in the range of 92.35-98.90% for cold drink, 88.23-169.20% for perfume, and 88.90-184.40% for cream. Analysis by microextraction by packed sorbent promises to be a rapid method for the determination of these phthalates in cold drink and cosmetic samples, reducing the amount of sample, solvent, time and cost.

  4. Screening of phthalate esters in 47 branded perfumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the use of phthalates in perfumes has gained attention because these chemicals are sometimes added intentionally as a solvent and a fixative. Five phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were measured in 47 branded perfumes using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed considerable amounts of phthalate in all 47 brands with detection frequencies > limit of quantitation in the following order: DEP (47/47) > DMP (47/47) > BBP (47/47) > DEHP (46/47) > DBP (23/45). Of the 47 brands, 68.1, 72.3, 85.1, 36.2, and 6.7 % had DEP, DMP, BBP, DEHP, and DBP levels, respectively, above their reported threshold limits. Of these phthalates, DEP was found to have the highest mean value (1621.625 ppm) and a maximum of 23,649.247 ppm. The use of DEP in the perfume industry is not restricted because it does not pose any known health risks for humans. DMP had the second highest level detected in the perfumes, with a mean value of 30.202 ppm and a maximum of 405.235 ppm. Although DMP may have some uses in cosmetics, it is not as commonly used as DEP, and again, there are no restrictions on its use. The levels of BBP were also high, with a mean value of 8.446 ppm and a maximum of 186.770 ppm. Although the EU banned the use of BBP in cosmetics, 27 of the tested perfumes had BBP levels above the threshold limit of 0.1 ppm. The mean value of DEHP found in this study was 5.962 ppm, and a maximum was 147.536 ppm. In spite of its prohibition by the EU, 7/28 perfumes manufactured in European countries had DEHP levels above the threshold limit of 1 ppm. The DBP levels were generally low, with a mean value of 0.0305 ppm and a maximum value of 0.594 ppm. The EU banned the use of DBP in cosmetics; however, we found three brands that were above the

  5. Screening of phthalate esters in 47 branded perfumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the use of phthalates in perfumes has gained attention because these chemicals are sometimes added intentionally as a solvent and a fixative. Five phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were measured in 47 branded perfumes using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed considerable amounts of phthalate in all 47 brands with detection frequencies > limit of quantitation in the following order: DEP (47/47) > DMP (47/47) > BBP (47/47) > DEHP (46/47) > DBP (23/45). Of the 47 brands, 68.1, 72.3, 85.1, 36.2, and 6.7 % had DEP, DMP, BBP, DEHP, and DBP levels, respectively, above their reported threshold limits. Of these phthalates, DEP was found to have the highest mean value (1621.625 ppm) and a maximum of 23,649.247 ppm. The use of DEP in the perfume industry is not restricted because it does not pose any known health risks for humans. DMP had the second highest level detected in the perfumes, with a mean value of 30.202 ppm and a maximum of 405.235 ppm. Although DMP may have some uses in cosmetics, it is not as commonly used as DEP, and again, there are no restrictions on its use. The levels of BBP were also high, with a mean value of 8.446 ppm and a maximum of 186.770 ppm. Although the EU banned the use of BBP in cosmetics, 27 of the tested perfumes had BBP levels above the threshold limit of 0.1 ppm. The mean value of DEHP found in this study was 5.962 ppm, and a maximum was 147.536 ppm. In spite of its prohibition by the EU, 7/28 perfumes manufactured in European countries had DEHP levels above the threshold limit of 1 ppm. The DBP levels were generally low, with a mean value of 0.0305 ppm and a maximum value of 0.594 ppm. The EU banned the use of DBP in cosmetics; however, we found three brands that were above the

  6. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE ON MALE RAT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT: ALTERED FETAL STEROID HORMONES AND GENES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to the plasticizers diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) during sexual differentiation causes male reproductive tract malformations in rats and rabbits. In the fetal male rat, these two phthalate esters decrease testosterone (T) production and i...

  7. Endocrine disruptor phthalates in bottled water: daily exposure and health risk assessment in pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, the consumption of water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has considerably increased, raising concerns over water quality and packaged materials. This study aims to investigate the levels of the anti-androgenic phthalates including bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), in bottled water and its corresponding health risks in pregnant and lactating women. The phthalate levels were measured in six different brands of bottled water exposed to temperatures ranging between -18 and 40 °C and sunlight for 45 days. The phthalate was quantified using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the non-carcinogenic effects were assessed using hazard quotient (HQ) approach, and cumulative health risk assessment was performed on the basis of hazard index (HI) calculation. In order to assess the carcinogenic risk due to the possible carcinogen DEHP (group 2B), the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was used. DEHP and DBP contaminants were detected at different storage conditions in all of the bottled water samples during the storage time. BBP was only detected at high temperature (≥25 °C) and outdoor conditions. The maximum concentrations of all phthalates were observed when water samples were kept at 40 °C. In contrast, storage at freezing conditions had no significant effect on the concentration level of all phthalates. The estimated intake by women was between 0.0021 μg/kg/day for BBP and 0.07 μg/kg/day for DEHP. The highest HQ for phthalate intake via bottled water consumption was much lower than 1 (HQ phthalate exposure demonstrated that the HIs for anti-androgenic effect were lower than 1 in all of the conditions. Furthermore, ELCR for DEHP based on the highest detected level was found to be less than 10(-6), which is considered acceptable. Our results prove that the levels of phthalates in bottled water are not a health concern for pregnant and

  8. Endocrine disruptor phthalates in bottled water: daily exposure and health risk assessment in pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, the consumption of water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has considerably increased, raising concerns over water quality and packaged materials. This study aims to investigate the levels of the anti-androgenic phthalates including bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), in bottled water and its corresponding health risks in pregnant and lactating women. The phthalate levels were measured in six different brands of bottled water exposed to temperatures ranging between -18 and 40 °C and sunlight for 45 days. The phthalate was quantified using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the non-carcinogenic effects were assessed using hazard quotient (HQ) approach, and cumulative health risk assessment was performed on the basis of hazard index (HI) calculation. In order to assess the carcinogenic risk due to the possible carcinogen DEHP (group 2B), the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was used. DEHP and DBP contaminants were detected at different storage conditions in all of the bottled water samples during the storage time. BBP was only detected at high temperature (≥25 °C) and outdoor conditions. The maximum concentrations of all phthalates were observed when water samples were kept at 40 °C. In contrast, storage at freezing conditions had no significant effect on the concentration level of all phthalates. The estimated intake by women was between 0.0021 μg/kg/day for BBP and 0.07 μg/kg/day for DEHP. The highest HQ for phthalate intake via bottled water consumption was much lower than 1 (HQ < 0.004), which implies that adverse effects are very unlikely to occur. The execution of a cumulative risk assessment for combined phthalate exposure demonstrated that the HIs for anti-androgenic effect were lower than 1 in all of the conditions. Furthermore, ELCR for DEHP based on the highest detected level was found to be less than 10(-6), which is

  9. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (5OH-MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (5oxo-MEHP, mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl phthalate (5cx-MEPP, and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  10. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  11. Using water plug-assisted analyte focusing by micelle collapse in combination with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for analyzing phthalate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsi-Chun; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Phthalate plasticizers are widely used in the plastics industry, but they have been detected in soft drinks, pharmaceuticals and food products. This study developed a method that uses water plug-assisted analyte focusing by micelle collapse and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (WPA-AFMC-MEEKC) for quantifying benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) in pediatric pharmaceuticals. The AFMC strategy was applied to improve the detection sensitivity, and a short water plug was introduced to assist micelle collapse in the micelle dilution zone for sample stacking. To carry neutral phthalates into the capillary through electrokinetic injection, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was added to the sample solution, and 8mM SDS was selected as the optimal concentration. The optimized background solution (BGS) contained 16.13mM phosphate buffer (pH=2.5), 150mM SDS, 0.75% n-octane (v/v), 5% 1-butanol (BuOH), 22.5% acetonitrile (ACN), and 15% isopropanol (IPA). Under the optimal separation conditions, four phthalates could be quantified within 20min with enhancement factors of 58, 200, 86 and 90 for DIDP, DEHP, BBP, and DBP, respectively, compared to the conventional MEEKC mode. The limits of detection were within the range of 0.047-0.010μgmL(-1). The accuracy of the method was within the range of 96-117%. The WPA-AFMC-MEEKC method was applied for the analysis of six pediatric pharmaceuticals, and the results demonstrated that the developed method is sensitive and accurate, allowing it to be used for quality control of pediatric pharmaceuticals. PMID:27063370

  12. Contamination of wines and spirits by phthalates: types of contaminants present, contamination sources and means of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatonnet, P; Boutou, S; Plana, A

    2014-01-01

    This research determines the concentrations of various phthalates in French wines and grape spirits marketed in Europe or intended for export. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were the most frequently detected compounds in the wines analysed. While only 15% of the samples examined contained quantifiable concentrations (> 0.010 mg kg(-1)) of DEHP and BBP, 59% of the wines contained significant quantities of DBP, with a median value as high as 0.0587 mg kg(-1). Only 17% of the samples did not contain any detectable quantity of at least one of the phthalates and 19% contained only non-quantifiable traces. In the spirits analysed, DBP (median = 0.105 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (median = 0.353 mg kg(-1)) were the substances measured at the highest concentrations, as well as the most frequently detected (90% of samples). BBP was present in 40% of the samples at an average concentration of 0.026 mg kg(-1). Di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), which is not permitted in contact with food, was found in 25% of the spirits tested. According to the specific migration limits (SML) for materials in contact with food, slightly more than 11% of the wines analysed were non-compliant, as they exceeded the SML for DBP (0.3 mg kg(-1)); just under 4% were close to the SML for DEHP. Concerning spirits, 19% of the samples analysed were considered non-compliant to the SML for DBP and nearly 7% were close to the SML for DEHP. The aged grape spirits analysed were often excessively contaminated with DiBP, which is not permitted to be used in contact with food (> 0.01 mg kg(-1)). A study of various materials frequently present in wineries revealed that a relatively large number of polymers sometimes contained high concentrations of phthalates. However, the epoxy resin coatings used on vats represented the major source of contamination.

  13. Conflict of estrogenic activity by various phthalates between in vitro and in vivo models related to the expression of Calbindin-D9k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Ji, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Manabe, Noboru; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2005-04-01

    Phthalates are suspected to disrupt the endocrine system, especially through estrogenic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of various phthalates and compared them with those of estrogenic compounds that disrupt the female reproductive system. To assess the effects of these phthalates, alteration of the Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) gene was measured as a biomarker because rat CaBP-9k gene carries an estrogen response element (ERE) which is involved in estrogen responsiveness of the gene during the estrous cycle. In this study, phthalates were tested for estrogenic properties in in vitro and in vivo models. First, the E-Screen assay was used to measure the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, a human breast cancer cell line. Treatments with 17beta-estradiol (E2; 9-fold) and 17alpha-estradiol (EE; 9-fold) induced MCF-7 cell proliferation at concentrations of 10(-9) M. Phthalates induced an increase in MCF-7 proliferation at concentration of 10(-6) M up to 10(-4) M. Nbutyl benzyl phthalate (BBP; 6-fold vs. vehicle), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP; 8-fold), 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP; 6-fold) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 7-fold) at the concentration of 10(-4) M induced in an increase in MCF-7 proliferation after 6 d of treatment compared to vehicle. However, significant increase in MCF-7 proliferation was induced by diethyl phthalate (DEP). Second, we investigated the expression of CaBP-9k in the uterus of immature rats after oral treatment with BBP, DCHP, DEHP, DBP or DBP (600 mg/kg per day) in this in vivo model, because the immature rat model is highly sensitive to exposure to estrogenic chemicals. None of the phthalates induced the expression of CaBP-9k mRNA and its protein in the neonatal uterus as analysed by Northern and Western blot analyses, respectively. Although phthalates induced an increase in MCF-7 cell proliferation by an estrogenic effect, they could not induce CaBP-9k expression in the in vivo system, suggesting that the assays of

  14. Ultrasound assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME)-a fast new approach to measure phthalate metabolites in nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    A new, fast, and environmentally friendly method based on ultrasound assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME) was developed and optimized for assessing the levels of seven phthalate metabolites (including the mono(ethyl hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5-oxo-MEHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP)) in human nails by UPLC-MS/MS. The optimization of the US-DLLME method was performed using a Taguchi combinatorial design (L9 array). Several parameters such as extraction solvent, solvent volume, extraction time, acid, acid concentration, and vortex time were studied. The optimal extraction conditions achieved were 180 μL of trichloroethylene (extraction solvent), 2 mL trifluoroacetic acid in methanol (2 M), 2 h extraction and 3 min vortex time. The optimized method had a good precision (6-17 %). The accuracy ranged from 79 to 108 % and the limit of method quantification (LOQm) was below 14 ng/g for all compounds. The developed US-DLLME method was applied to determine the target metabolites in 10 Belgian individuals. Levels of the analytes measured in nails ranged between solvents used), low costs, speed, and simplicity are the main advantages of this US-DLLME based method. Graphical Abstract Extraction and phase separation of the US-DLLME procedure. PMID:27372718

  15. Effect of Naphthalene, Butylated Hydroxytoluene, Dioctyl Phthalate, and Adipic Dioctyl Ester, Chemicals Found in the Nests of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on a Saprophytic Mucor sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are commonly found associated with termites and their nests. Four chemicals that have been isolated from the nests of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated to determine their effect on a common nest fungus, a saprophytic Mucor sp. Butylated hydroxyto...

  16. Oxidative damage of testicle induced by mono-n-butyl phthalate among male mice%邻苯二甲酸单丁酯对雄性小鼠睾丸的氧化损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊棣; 李慧; 可尘娟; 毛琳; 杨旭; 袁均林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential oxidative damages of mono-n-butyl phthalate on testicle tissue of mice, Methods A total of 36 male Balb/c mice were divided into four MBP exposure groups , one blank control group and one solvent control group (edible oil). Four MBP exposure groups were exposed to MBP with different doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) through gavage for 14 consecutive days, then the histological change of the testis was examined and the contents of ROS, MDA and GSH in the testicle homogenate were measured. Results The number of germ cells decreased in 100 and 200 mg/kg MBP groups, it also showed that the contents of ROS and MDA increased gradually while GSH content decreased with the increase of exposure doses, the difference between 100, 200 mg/kg group and control group was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion MBP may increase the oxidative stress and cause oxidative damage in testicle of mice at relatively higher concentration.%目的 探讨邻苯二甲酸单丁酯(mono-n-butyl phthalate,MBP)对小鼠睾丸氧化损伤的影响.方法 36只性成熟的雄性Balb/c小鼠随机分为4个MBP染毒组(25、50、100、200 mg/kg)和1个空白对照组、1个溶剂对照组(食用油),每组6只,灌胃14d后观察睾丸的组织形态学损伤;检测睾丸组织的活性氧(ROS)、丙二醛(MDA)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)的含量.结果 100和200 mg/kg组小鼠睾丸组织不同发育时期生殖细胞的数量减少;随着MBP染毒剂量的升高,睾丸组织ROS含量与MDA含量逐渐上升,GSH含量逐渐降低;100和200 mg/kg组上述指标与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 较高剂量的MBP会引起小鼠睾丸细胞的氧化损伤.

  17. Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Kristin; Ljung Björklund, Karin; Palm, Brita; Wennberg, Maria; Kaj, Lennart; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Berglund, Marika

    2014-12-01

    Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6-11 years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother-child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ΣDEHP 65.5 μg/L; ΣDiNP 37.8 μg/L; MBzP 19.9 μg/L; MnBP 76.9 μg/L) than the mothers (ΣDEHP 38.4 μg/L; ΣDiNP 33.8 μg/L; MBzP 12.8 μg/L; MnBP 63.0 μg/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8 μg/L; ProP 13.9 μg/L) and MEP (43.4 μg/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8 μg/L; ProP 2.1 μg/L) and MEP (28.8 μg/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were

  18. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  19. Identification of Phthalates in Medications and Dietary Supplement Formulations in the United States and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Katherine E.; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Chaplin, Erica L.; Hauser, Russ B.; Mitchell, Allen Avrom

    2011-01-01

    Background: In animal studies, some :ortho-phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), have been shown to be reproductive and developmental toxicants. Human studies show widespread population exposure to background levels of phthalates. Limited evidence suggests that particularly high exposure levels may result from orally ingested medicinal products containing phthalates as excipients (inactive ingredients). Objective: In this study we aimed to ide...

  20. Novel Functionalized Polythiophene-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of Phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nor Atika Baharin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(phenyl-(4-(6-thiophen-3-yl-hexyloxy-benzylidene-amine (P3TArH was successfully synthesized and coated on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs. The nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis, analyzer transmission electron microscopy (TEM and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. P3TArH-coated MNPs (MNP@P3TArH showed higher capabilities for the extraction of commonly-used phthalates and were optimized for the magnetic-solid phase extraction (MSPE of environmental samples. Separation and determination of the extracted phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP, diethyl phthalate (DEP, dipropyl phthalate (DPP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCP, di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP, were conducted by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The best working conditions were as follows; sample at pH 7, 30 min extraction time, ethyl acetate as the elution solvent, 500-µL elution solvent volumes, 10 min desorption time, 10-mg adsorbent dosage, 20-mL sample loading volume and 15 g·L−1 concentration of NaCl. Under the optimized conditions, the analytical performances were determined with a linear range of 0.1–50 µg·L−1 and a limit of detection at 0.08–0.468 µg·L−1 for all of the analytes studied. The intra-day (n = 7 and inter-day (n = 3 relative standard deviations (RSD% of three replicates were each demonstrated in the range of 3.7–4.9 and 3.0–5.0, respectively. The steadiness and reusability studies suggested that the MNP@P3TArH could be used up to five cycles. The proposed method was executed for the analysis of real water samples, namely commercial bottled mineral water and bottled fresh milk, whereby recoveries in the range of 68%–101% and RSD% lower than 7.7 were attained.

  1. Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Kristin; Ljung Björklund, Karin; Palm, Brita; Wennberg, Maria; Kaj, Lennart; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Berglund, Marika

    2014-12-01

    Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6-11 years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother-child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ΣDEHP 65.5 μg/L; ΣDiNP 37.8 μg/L; MBzP 19.9 μg/L; MnBP 76.9 μg/L) than the mothers (ΣDEHP 38.4 μg/L; ΣDiNP 33.8 μg/L; MBzP 12.8 μg/L; MnBP 63.0 μg/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8 μg/L; ProP 13.9 μg/L) and MEP (43.4 μg/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8 μg/L; ProP 2.1 μg/L) and MEP (28.8 μg/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=personal care products. PMID:25216151

  2. Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittassek, Matthias; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction.

  3. Urinary phthalate monoesters and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Phthalates may act as an estrogen and are a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as endometriosis. We assessed the association between phthalate exposure and endometriosis in 166 consecutive women who presented at a university hospital for consultation regarding infertility. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine specimen prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis. They were then categorized by the severity of endometriosis as controls (stages 0-I) and cases (stages II-IV). Urinary concentrations of the phthalate metabolites monoethyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate were measured in 57 cases and 80 controls using high-performance liquid chromatography isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Adjusted odds ratios for endometriosis in relation to dichotomized individual phthalate metabolites (standardized for creatinine) were calculated. No significant association between endometriosis and any urinary creatinine-adjusted phthalate monoester was seen. Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for higher dichotomized MEHP by endometriosis was 1.57 (0.74-3.30). No monotonic trend was seen in urinary creatinine-adjusted concentration of phthalate metabolites by endometriosis stage (p = 0.23-0.90). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites are associated with the risk of endometriosis in infertile Japanese women.

  4. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n = 142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg−1 in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg−1 in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P < 0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r2 = 0.944, P < 0.01) and the industrialized area (r2 = 0.860, P < 0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization. - Highlights: • A new method for determining phthalate esters in soil samples was developed. • Investigate six phthalates near an industry and a non-industrialized area

  5. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Tao, Jing, E-mail: jingtao1982@126.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yi-Kai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n = 142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg{sup −1} in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg{sup −1} in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P < 0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.944, P < 0.01) and the industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.860, P < 0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization. - Highlights: • A new method for determining phthalate esters in soil samples was developed. • Investigate six phthalates near an industry and a

  6. Determination of phthalate esters at trace level from environmental water samples by magnetic solid-phase extraction with Fe@SiO2@polyethyleneimine magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbent prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Zheng, Zhenwen; Xiao, Junping; Fan, Huili; Yan, Xiuyi

    2016-07-01

    In this work, polyethyleneimine grafted silica-coated nanoscale zero valent iron (Fe@SiO2@PEI) has been successfully synthesized and was investigated to be an effective adsorbent for efficient enrichment of five phthalate esters such as diphenyl phthalate, dibenzyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, diphenyl isophthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DPP, DBP, BBP, DPIP, and DCHP) from environmental water samples. The structure and morphology of the materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction(XRD). The parameters that influenced the enrichment performance such as amount of sorbent, sample pH, type of eluent, volume of eluent, salting-out effect, adsorption time, and desorption time were investigated. Under optimal conditions, excellent linear relationships were found in the concentration range from 0.5 to 100 μg L(-1), the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were in the range of 0.26-0.45 μg L(-1), and the intra-day and inter-day precisions (n = 6) were in the range of 3.7-4.8 and 3.2-4.3 %, respectively. The developed method was evaluated with real water samples, and satisfied spiked recoveries in the range of 99-104 % were achieved. The experimental results proved that Fe@SiO2@PEI had good adsorption for phthalate esters, and would be a good adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of important pollutants from environmental water samples.ᅟ Graphical abstract A flowchart of the synthesis of polyethyleneimine grafted silica coated nanoscale zero valent iron (Fe@SiO2@PEI) and the process of the developed magnetic solid phase extraction of phthalate esters before the analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. PMID:27178558

  7. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods.

  8. Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-05-29

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

  9. Are Medicinal Plants Polluted with Phthalates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phthalic acid esters (PAEs have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

  10. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  11. Benzylation of aldonolactones with benzyl trichloroacetimidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Stampe; Pedersen, Christian; Limberg, Gerrit

    1997-01-01

    A number of aldono-1,4-lactones have been converted to their perbenzylated derivatives by treatment with benzyl trichloroacetimidate. 2,3,6-Trideoxy-D-erythro-hexono-1,4-lactone could be benzylated in dichloromethane, but lactones containing two or more hydroxy-groups were insoluble and could the...

  12. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    and adolescents and resulting estimated daily intakes of four different phthalates. These daily intake estimates are used for a cumulative risk assessment with anti-androgenic effects as the endpoint using Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values determined by the European Food Safety Authorities (EFSA) or Reference...... endpoint for the phthalates included in this article. Using the EFSA TDI values, 12 children exceeded the hazard quotient for the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-butyl phthalate (∑DBP((i+n)) ) and one child exceeded the hazard quotient for di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Nineteen children...... exceeded the cumulated hazard index for three phthalates. Using the RfD AA values, one child exceeded the hazard quotient for DEHP and the same child exceeded the cumulated hazard index for four phthalates. The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ∑DBP((i+n)) as the compound...

  13. Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Servaes, K; Van Holderbeke, M; Geerts, L; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I; Vanermen, G

    2012-07-01

    Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market.

  14. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Boas, Malene;

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few...... in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP......)) on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg) secretion from...

  15. Determination and Pharmacokinetics of Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate in Rats by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Hu Tsai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is used to increase the flexibility of plastics for industrial products. However, the illegal use of the plasticizer DEHP in food and drinks has been reported in Taiwan in 2011. In order to assess the exact extent of the absorption of DEHP via the oral route, the aim of this study is to develop a reliable and validated ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS method to evaluate the oral bioavailability of DEHP in rats. The optimal chromatographic separation of DEHP and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP; used as internal standard were achieved on a C18 column. The mobile phase was consisted of 5 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (11:89, v/v with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The monitoring ion transitions were m/z 391.4 → 149.0 for DEHP and m/z 313.3 → 149.0 for BBP. The mean matrix effects of DEHP at low, medium and high concentrations were 94.5 ± 5.7% and 100.1 ± 2.3% in plasma and feces homogenate samples, respectively. In conclusion, the validated UPLC-MS/MS method is suitable for analyzing the rat plasma sample of DEHP and the oral bioavailability of DEHP was about 7% in rats.

  16. Toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Bureau of Sanitation's Hyperion Treatment Plant. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most common persistent PAE found in wastewater, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a common PAE with short ester chains, were sorbed into the sludge fed to a bench-scale digester for a period of 12 weeks. DEHP...

  17. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Martha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP, mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP, mono-n-butyl (MBP, and mono-benzyl (MBzP phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP phthalate (2001–2002. Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002, and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03, and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02 and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02. There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different

  18. Oxidative Stress on Liver and Kidney of Mice Induced by Mono-n-butyl Phthalate%邻苯二甲酸单丁酯致小鼠肝脏和肾脏组织的氧化损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志敏; 熊棣; 曹凤华; 梅宇飞; 吴卓; 杨旭; 袁均林

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential oxidative stress of mono-n-butyl phthalate(MBP)on liver and kidney of mice,42 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 7 groups,with 6 mice in each group,4 groups were ex-posed to MBP by gavage for 14 d at gradient doses of 25 mg·kg-1 ,50 mg·kg-1 ,100 mg·kg-1 and 200 mg· kg-1 ,one group was exposed to DBP by gavage for 14 d at a dose of 100 mg·kg-1 ,a control group,a vehicle control group.The infected mice signs were observed during the research.The liver and kidney slices were pre-pared to observe the histological changes after 14 d.The contents of ROS,GSH and MDA in the liver and kid-ney homogenate were measured to indicate the oxidative stress.The results showed that,the liver and kidney histological changes were observed in MBP groups,light microscope observation showed hepatocytes and renal tubular cells were karyopyknosis,swelling,ballooned changing and fatty droplets clustering.It also showed that the contents of ROS and MDA increased gradually while GSH content decreased with the increase of exposure dose,and all the studied biomarkers changed in dose-response manners.Under the same concentration,the con-tents of ROS and MDA in MBP exposed groups were all higher than those of DBP infected groups,but the con-tent of GSH decreased.It was demonstrated that MBP could increase the oxidative stress and cause oxidative stress to liver and kidney of mice at relatively high dose.Together,there is a possible relationship between MBP exposure and oxidative stress on liver and kidney of mice.%为了探究邻苯二甲酸单丁酯(MBP)对小鼠肝脏和肾脏的氧化损伤,将42只 BALB/c 小鼠随机分为7组,每组6只,分别为25 mg·kg-1、50 mg·kg-1、100 mg·kg-1、200 mg·kg-1的4个 MBP 染毒组、1个100 mg·kg-1的邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)染毒组、1个空白对照组、1个溶剂对照组。染毒期间对小鼠的体征进行观察;14 d 后取其肝脏和肾脏组织,制作小鼠肝脏和肾脏组

  19. Single Pot Benzylation of O-Xylene with Benzyl Chloride and Benzyl Alcohol Over Pillared Montmorillonites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian Manju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of product selectivity is a major concern of the day. Presence of a coreactant can alter the rate as well as product selectivity of many key reactions like Friedel-Crafts benzylation. Single pot benzylation of o-xylene with benzyl chloride and benzyl alcohol was studied over transition metal exchanged pillared clay catalysts. Complete conversion of benzyl alcohol occured within one hour with 100% monoalkylated product selectivity. The reaction of o-xylene with benzyl alcohol was found to proceed fast in presence of benzyl chloride in single pot, than when present alone as the benzylating species. This enhancement occurs at the expense of no reaction of benzyl chloride, which when present alone reacts faster than benzyl alcohol. Existence of a second transition metal exchanged between the pillars increased the rate of the reaction. A detailed investigation of the reaction variables suggested preferential adsorption of benzyl alcohol to catalyst active sites as the reason.

  20. Pollution of Municipal Water Supply System by Phthalates and Evaluation on Purification Effects of Current Water Treatment Process%邻苯二甲酸脂对城镇供水的污染及现行水处理工艺净化效果的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩关根; 吴平谷; 王惠华; 方跃强; 马冰洁; 赵莹

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand the pollution of municipal water supply system by phthalates and the purification effects of current water treatment process on phthalates were carried out.Methods The water samples of source water and finished water were determined for phthalate by comparative method.5 kinds of isomers of phthalate in water samples were detected by gas chromatography technique.Results In treated water samples the detectable rate and maximum contents in water samples were 100% and 76μg/L for di-n-butyl phthalate,50% and 17 μg/L for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate respectively.Di-methyl phthalate,di-ethyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate were not found in water samples.There was no significant difference in geometric means of the contents of phthalates between source water (19.74μg/L) and finished water (18.35 μg/L),P>0.05.Conclusion The main pollutants of phthalates were di-nbulyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in municipal water supply system.The effectiveness of removing phthalates from drinking water by current water treatment process in city and town was not satisfied.The water treatment process special for removing phthatates from drinking water should be studied and explored in further.%目的了解邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物对城镇供水的污染情况以及现行水处理工艺对该类物质的净化效果。方法采用处理前、后对照的方法,对源水和出厂水进行检测。色谱分析测试邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物五只异构体。结果出厂水中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯检出率100%,最高含量达76 μg/L。邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯检出率50%,最高含量17μg/L;邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和邻苯二甲酸丁基苄酯三只异构体均未测出。源水中邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物的平均含量(G)为19.74 μ/L,出厂水18.35μ/L,两者差别无显著意义(P>0.05)。结论城镇供水中的邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物污染以邻苯

  1. 孕妇尿中3种邻苯二甲酸酯类代谢物的含量及影响因素%Levels of Phthalate Metabolites in Pregnant Women and Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 陈曦; 陈叙; 常颖; 马静; 王伟; 闻福; 孙增荣; 汤乃军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze exposure levels of phthalate esters including di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate(BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) in the urine of pregnant women. Methods Fifty pregnant women admitted in a municipal hospital were chosen during May to July 2010 to complete the questionnaires, ruled out occupational exposure to PAEs. The content included basic information (such as age, height, smoking and drinking history, etc.) and exposure of PAEs during pregnancy, etc. The concentration of three kinds of phthalate metabolites ( mono-n-butyl phthalate, MBP; mono-benzyl phthalate,MBzP; mono-2-ethylhexyl phthatate, MEHP) in urine samples were measured by using SPE reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. With collection of information on pregnant women's living environment by finishing questionnaires, major ways of exposure were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Results The levels of MBP in the urine of pregnant women ranged from undetected level to 6 673.061 μg/g Cr, and median of MBP was 19.487 μg/g Ct, the rate of detection was 52%. The levels of MBzP ranged from undetected level to 6 227.937 μg/g Cr, and median of MBzP was undetected,the rate of detection was 48%. The levels of MEHP ranged from undetected level to 2 139.802 μg/g Ct, and median of MEHP was 161.990 μg/g Cr, the rate of detection was 78%. Hair perm, using cosmetics and plastic products in diet significantly affected the detection of MBP (P<0.05), and their partial regression coefficients were 1.622, 2.034 and 1.755 respectively. Meanwhile, hair perm and habit of using perfume significantly affected the detection of MBZP (P<0.05), and their partial regression coefficients were 1.921 and 1.771. New furniture or house decoration and using drugs were the risk factors for pregnant women exposed to high level of MEHP (P<0.05), their partial regression coefficients were 1.754 and 1.632. Conclusion Pregnant women have been exposed to

  2. Phthalate Exposure and Human Semen Quality in Shanghai A Cross-sectional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN-HUI ZHANG; LI-XING ZHENG; BING-HENG CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To monitor the level of phthalates in human semen samples and to analyze the relationship between phthalate levels and semen parameters. Methods Concentrations of three kinds of commonly used phthalates (di-ethyl phthalate, DEP; di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP; di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP) were measured using reversed-phase HPLC. Semen parameters were measured by computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Results The three phthalates were detected in most of the biological samples, With median levels of 0.30 mg/L (0.08-1.32 mg/L) in semen specimens. There was a significant positive association between liquefied time of semen and phthalate concentrations of semen. The correlation coefficient was 0.456 for DEP, 0.475 for DBP, and 0.457 for DEHP, respectively. There was no significant difference between phthalate concentrations of semen and sperm density or livability, though the correlation coefficients were negative. Conclusion These results suggest that people who reside in Shanghai are exposed to phthalates, especially to DBP and DEHP. Although the level of phthalates is relatively mild, an association of phthalate levels and reduced quality of human semen has been shown in the present study.

  3. Effect of cooking at home on the levels of eight phthalates in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Vanermen, G; Van Holderbeke, M; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I

    2012-12-01

    Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food contamination is that toxicants are generated in foods or that chemicals migrate from food contact materials into foods during processing. In this study, the effect of cooking at home on the levels of phthalates - world's most used group of plasticisers - in various food types (starchy products, vegetables and meat and fish) was examined. Eight compounds were considered, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Food products were analysed before as well as after cooking (boiling, steaming, (deep-)frying or grilling). In general, phthalate concentrations in foods declined after cooking, except in vegetables, where almost no effect was seen. Several factors influenced the degree of this decline (e.g. weight difference, fat uptake, etc.). Of all phthalates, DEHP, DiBP and BBP were affected the most. In conclusion, cooking at home definitely affected phthalate concentrations in foods and thus needs to be considered in order to correctly assess humans' dietary exposure to these contaminants.

  4. An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosobent assay for dibutyl phthalate in human urinary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifang; Lei, Yajing; Zhang, Dai; Ahmed, Shabbir; Chen, Shuqing

    2016-01-15

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been extensively used as a plasticizer in many daily products, which is highly toxic to human, notably affecting the reproductive and developmental function. As the previous method is expensive, time-consuming, low sensitivity and just focused on the environment. Present study was aimed to establish an ultra-sensitive and simple method based on good quality monoclonal antibody, applying to evaluate excretion level of DBP in urine samples of Chinese population directly. A monoclonal antibody was generated and characterized after fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from BALB/c mouse. The mouse was previously immunized using a specially designed amino derivative of DBP conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as immunogen. Cross-reactivity values of the monoclonal antibody against DBP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were observed 100% and 1.25%, while for dimethyl phthalate (DMP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) the values were <0.06%. The standard curve was constructed at 0-50 ng mL(-1) and good linearity (R(2)=0.994) was achieved. The observed IC50 (7.34 ng mL(-1)) and LOD (0.06 ng mL(-1)) values was improved 1000-fold to polyclonal antibody and 5-fold to other monoclonal antibodies. A total 1246 urine samples were analyzed and the detection frequency of DBP was observed 72.87% by ic-ELISA. The 95th percentile and mean concentration of DBP were 12.07 and 3.00 ng mL(-1). Acceptable recovery rates of DBP were 97.8-114.3% and coefficients variation 5.93-11.09%. The concentrations of DBP in females were found significantly higher (p<0.05) than males. Similarly, the DBP in middle aged and low educated individuals was found higher (p<0.001) than the others. Considering the adverse health effects, DBP internal exposure in the Chinese population should be reduced. The ic-ELISA method has been proved as a cost effective, specific, and highly sensitive screening tool to detect DBP in urinary samples. PMID

  5. Influence of Phthalates on in vitro Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Brorson, Marianne Møller;

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin......-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion......-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did...

  6. Personal care product use and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Michelle; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Calafat, Antonia M; Cebrián, Mariano E; Needham, Larry L; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-07-01

    Sources of phthalates other than Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) related products are scarcely documented in Mexico. The objective of our study was to explore the association between urinary levels of nine phthalate metabolites and the use of personal care products. Subjects included 108 women who participated as controls in an ongoing population-based case-control study of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in northern Mexico. Direct interviews were performed to inquire about sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, use of personal care products, and diet. Phthalate metabolites measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry were monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) as well as mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP) that are metabolites of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Detectable urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites varied from 75% (MEHP) to 100% (MEP, MBP, MEOHP, MEHHP and MECPP). Medians of urinary concentrations of some phthalate metabolites were significantly higher among users of the following personal care products compared to nonusers: body lotion (MEHHP, MECPP and sum of DEHP metabolites (ΣDEHP)), deodorant (MEHP and ΣDEHP), perfume (MiBP), anti-aging facial cream (MEP, MBP and MCPP) and bottled water (MCPP, MEHHP and MEOHP). Urinary concentrations of MEP showed a positive relationship with the number of personal care products used. Our results suggest that the use of some personal care products contributes to phthalate body burden that deserves attention due to its potential health impact.

  7. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E;

    2008-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...... were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate...

  8. Maternal and early life exposure to phthalates: The Plastics and Personal-care Products use in Pregnancy (P4) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Tye E; Fisher, Mandy; MacPherson, Susan; Lang, Carly; Provencher, Gilles; LeBlanc, Alain; Hauser, Russ; Feeley, Mark; Ayotte, Pierre; Neisa, Angelica; Ramsay, Tim; Tawagi, George

    2016-05-01

    Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a number of consumer products; some of these phthalates have been shown to possess estrogenic activity and display anti-androgenic effects. While a number of biomonitoring studies of phthalates in pregnant women and infants have been published, there is a paucity of data based on both multiple sampling periods and in different matrices. Phthalate metabolites were measured in 80 pregnant women and their infants in Ottawa Canada (2009-2010) in urine, meconium and breast milk collected at various time periods pre- and post-parturition. At least 50% of the women had at least one urine sample greater than the limit of detection (LOD) for the various phthalate metabolites, with the exception of mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP) and mono(carboxy-isooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP). Four major clusters of maternal urinary metabolites were identified. Among infants (n=61), the following metabolites were rarely (phthalate (MCHP), mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), and mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP). While mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), MEHHP, and MEOHP were frequently detected in maternal urines at any time point, these metabolites were rarely detected in breast milk. Maternal urinary concentrations of MEP and the DEHP metabolites were higher in samples collected during pregnancy than postnatally. No statistically significant differences were observed in infant's urinary phthalate concentrations between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Significant correlations were observed between maternal urinary MEHHP (r=0.35), MEOHP (r=0.35) and MEP (r=0.37) collected at infant urine collected 2-3months after birth. These results suggest at least some maternal-fetal-infant transfer of phthalates and that meconium may be a useful matrix for measuring in utero exposure to phthalates. PMID:26878646

  9. Maternal and early life exposure to phthalates: The Plastics and Personal-care Products use in Pregnancy (P4) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Tye E; Fisher, Mandy; MacPherson, Susan; Lang, Carly; Provencher, Gilles; LeBlanc, Alain; Hauser, Russ; Feeley, Mark; Ayotte, Pierre; Neisa, Angelica; Ramsay, Tim; Tawagi, George

    2016-05-01

    Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a number of consumer products; some of these phthalates have been shown to possess estrogenic activity and display anti-androgenic effects. While a number of biomonitoring studies of phthalates in pregnant women and infants have been published, there is a paucity of data based on both multiple sampling periods and in different matrices. Phthalate metabolites were measured in 80 pregnant women and their infants in Ottawa Canada (2009-2010) in urine, meconium and breast milk collected at various time periods pre- and post-parturition. At least 50% of the women had at least one urine sample greater than the limit of detection (LOD) for the various phthalate metabolites, with the exception of mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP) and mono(carboxy-isooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP). Four major clusters of maternal urinary metabolites were identified. Among infants (n=61), the following metabolites were rarely (phthalate (MCHP), mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), and mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP). While mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), MEHHP, and MEOHP were frequently detected in maternal urines at any time point, these metabolites were rarely detected in breast milk. Maternal urinary concentrations of MEP and the DEHP metabolites were higher in samples collected during pregnancy than postnatally. No statistically significant differences were observed in infant's urinary phthalate concentrations between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Significant correlations were observed between maternal urinary MEHHP (r=0.35), MEOHP (r=0.35) and MEP (r=0.37) collected at phthalates and that meconium may be a useful matrix for measuring in utero exposure to phthalates.

  10. Uptake and Metabolism of Phthalate Esters by Edible Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianqiang; Wu, Xiaoqin; Gan, Jay

    2015-07-21

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are large-volume chemicals and are found ubiquitously in soil as a result of widespread plasticulture and waste disposal. Food plants such as vegetables may take up and accumulate PAEs from soil, potentially imposing human health risks through dietary intake. In this study, we carried out a cultivation study using lettuce, strawberry, and carrot plants to determine the potential of plant uptake, translocation, and metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and their primary metabolites mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). All four compounds were detected in the plant tissues, with the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 0.16 ± 0.01 to 4.78 ± 0.59. However, the test compounds were poorly translocated from roots to leaves, with a translocation factor below 1. Further, PAEs were readily transformed to their monoesters following uptake. Incubation of PAEs and monoalkyl phthalate esters (MPEs) in carrot cell culture showed that DnBP was hydrolyzed more rapidly than DEHP, while the monoesters were transformed more quickly than their parent precursors. Given the extensive metabolism of PAEs to monoesters in both whole plants and plant cells, metabolism intermediates such as MPEs should be considered when assessing human exposure via dietary intake of food produced from PAE-contaminated soils. PMID:26090545

  11. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells.

  12. BIODEGRADATION KINETICS OF DI-n-BUTYL PHTHALATE BY PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS ZF11%荧光假单胞菌ZF11对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯生物降解的动力学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会茹; 崔昆燕; 李慧敏; 邹小勇; 曾锋

    2003-01-01

    @@ 生物降解是邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物分解的主要途径.从各种微生物栖息地分离的菌种,对邻苯二甲酸酯类有机污染物及其中间产物均具有一定的降懈作用,并均遵循一级动力学模型.本文通过驯化富集培养,从处理焦化厂废水的活性污泥中分离出1株邻苯二甲酸酯降解菌(荧光假单胞菌ZF11,Pseudomonas fluorescens ZF11),研究了P.fluorescens ZF11对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(Di-n-butyl Phthalate,DnBP)的降解过程;探讨了P.fluorescens ZF11对DnBP的降解动力学模型.

  13. Phthalates dietary exposure and food sources for Belgian preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Fierens, Tine; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Servaes, Kelly; Vanermen, Guido; Boon, Polly E; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that for phthalates, the intake of contaminated foods is the most important exposure pathway for the general population. Up to now, data on dietary phthalate intake are scarce and - to the authors' knowledge - not available for the Belgian population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: (1) to assess the long-term intake of the Belgian population for eight phthalates considering different exposure scenarios (benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP); dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diethyl phthalate (DEP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)); (2) to evaluate the intake of BBP, DnBP, DEP and DEHP against tolerable daily intake (TDI) values; and (3) to assess the contribution of the different food groups to the phthalate intake. The intake assessment was performed using two Belgian food consumption databases, one with consumption data of preschool children (2.5 to 6.5 years old) and another of adults (≥15 years old), combined with a database of phthalate concentrations measured in over 550 food products sold on the Belgian market. Phthalate intake was calculated using the 'Monte Carlo Risk Assessment' programme (MCRA 7.0). The intake of DEHP was the highest, followed by DiBP. The intake of BBP, DnBP and DEP was far below the TDI for both children and adults. However, for DEHP, the 99th percentile of the intake distribution of preschoolers in the worst case exposure scenario was equal to 80% of the TDI, respectively. This is not negligible, since other exposure routes of DEHP exist for children as well (e.g. mouthing of toys). Bread was the most important contributor to the DEHP intake and this may deserve further exploration, since the origin of this phthalate in bread remains unclear.

  14. Phthalates in PM2.5 airborne particles in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Růžičková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial area of the Moravian-Silesian Region (the Czech Republic is highly polluted by air contaminants, especially emissions of particulate matter. Samples of PM2.5 particles were analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of phthalates were determined for the winter season, transitional period and the summer season. The relative concentrations of phthalates in PM2.5 particles have the same proportion in both heating and non-heating season: di(2ethylexyl phthalate > di-n-butyl phthalate > diisononyl phthalate > diethyl phthalate. The most common increase in concentration in the winter season is from 5 to 10 times higher; the maximum of average concentration was 44 times higher than in the non-heating season.

  15. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S H; Liu, F; Hines, M; Kruse, R L; Wang, C; Redmon, J B; Sparks, A; Weiss, B

    2010-04-01

    Foetal exposure to antiandrogens alters androgen-sensitive development in male rodents, resulting in less male-typical behaviour. Foetal phthalate exposure is also associated with male reproductive development in humans, but neurodevelopmental outcomes have seldom been examined in relation to phthalate exposure. To assess play behaviour in relation to phthalate metabolite concentration in prenatal urine samples, we recontacted participants in the Study for Future Families whose phthalate metabolites had been measured in mid-pregnancy urine samples. Mothers completed a questionnaire including the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a validated instrument used to assess sexually dimorphic play behaviour. We examined play behaviour scores (masculine, feminine and composite) in relationship to (log(10)) phthalate metabolite concentrations in mother's urine separately for boys (N = 74) and girls (N = 71). Covariates (child's age, mother's age and education and parental attitude towards atypical play choices) were controlled using multivariate regression models. Concentrations of dibutyl phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and their sum, were associated with a decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys (regression coefficients -4.53,-3.61 and -4.20, p = 0.01, 0.07 and 0.04 for MnBP, MiBP and their sum respectively). Concentrations of two urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and the sum of these DEHP metabolites plus mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were associated with a decreased masculine score (regression coefficients -3.29,-2.94 and -3.18, p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.04) for MEHHP, MEOHP and the sum respectively. No strong associations were seen between behaviour and urinary concentrations of any other phthalate metabolites in boys, or between girls' scores and any metabolites. These data, although based on

  16. Risk assessments of human exposure to bioaccessible phthalate esters through market fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-07-01

    The bioaccessibility of phthalate esters in 20 fish species collected from Hong Kong market was evaluated using an in vitro gastrointestinal model. The ∑phthalate ester concentration detected in fresh water fish ranged from 1.66 to 3.14μg/g wet weight (ww) and in marine fish ranged from 1.57 to 7.10μg/g ww, respectively. di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the predominant compounds in both freshwater fish and marine fish. The digestible concentrations of phthalate esters ranged from 0.20 to 1.23μg/g ww (mean 0.35μg/g ww), and account for 2.44 to 45.5% (mean 16.8%) for raw concentrations of phthalate esters. In the present study, the accumulation ratio Rnn value of all phthalate esters was greater than 1 except for diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), DBP and di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP), suggesting that these phthalate esters could be accumulated during gastrointestinal digestion. Based on this health risk assessment, most of fish species were considered safe for consumption, however Hong Kong residents should take caution when consuming Mud carp and Bighead carp. PMID:23688402

  17. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives: To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November. Methods: We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%, and parental education. Results: In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions: Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%.

  18. Allylic and benzylic sp3 C-H oxidation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Wei Jie; Lam, Yulin

    2015-01-28

    A copper-catalyzed method for the oxidation of allylic and benzylic sp(3) C-H by aqueous tert-butyl hydroperoxide (T-Hydro) in water using a recyclable fluorous ligand has been developed. The reaction procedure is tolerant to additional functional groups and the fluorous ligand could be reused with little loss of catalytic activity. PMID:25412371

  19. 邻苯二甲酸二丁酯高效降解菌H-2的分离鉴定及其降解特性%Isolation and Identification of a Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)-Degrading Strain H-2 and Its Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雷; 陈瑜; 严忠雍; 郭远明; 祝银; 龙举; 顾蓓乔

    2014-01-01

    为了获得高效广谱的邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(di-n-butyl phthalate,DBP)降解菌,本研究从长期受食品塑料垃圾污染的土壤中通过富集培养和分离纯化,获得一株DBP高效降解菌,命名为H-2.根据菌株的形态、生理生化特征和16S rRNA序列分析,将其鉴定为类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus sp.).运用高效液相色谱法分析了菌株H-2对DBP的降解特性及对邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物的广谱性降解情况.结果表明:菌株H-2降解DBP的最适温度为30℃,最适pH值为7.0;在此最适条件下,菌株H-2在3d内对100 mg/L DBP的降解率高达87.6%.菌株H-2能高效降解短链邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和DBP,而对长链邻苯二甲酸二辛酯的降解效果较差.

  20. Phthalate intake by infants calculated from biomonitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Wolfgang; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Schuster, Ralph; Fromme, Hermann

    2014-03-01

    Urine samples (n=207) of 47 infants between 1- and 5-month of age were quantitated for 12 metabolites of 7 phthalates and compared with samples collected from the mothers of the infants at different time points. Median and 95-percentile were lower for all metabolites in urine samples of infants compared to mothers. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) the 95-percentile daily intake was 23.3μg/kg b.w. for mothers and 5.4μg/kg b.w. for infants and for di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) 10.1μg/kg b.w. and 8.5μg/kg b.w. Some values exceeded the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DiBP for infants and mothers and for DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) only for mothers. Both, infants and mothers are able to efficiently form phase II metabolites but infants with a slightly lower degree. Therefore, a distinguished risk assessment with respect to the formed toxic metabolites of phthalates would be necessary in combination with a reduction of the most toxic phthalates. PMID:24374175

  1. Phthalates - widespread occurrence and the effect on male gametes. Part 1. General characteristics, sources and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are widely present in human environment. Widespead exposure to those agents, which are compounds of numerous daily use products, is unavoidable. In the current paper following phthalates benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di- n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) are described. Phthalates mainly enter to the composition of plastic goods, like boxes and containers for storage of foods, toys, medical devices, and also cosmetics, personal care products, as well as paints, vanishes, printing inks. This paper describes the occurence of individual phthalates in the environment (water, air) and in different products. During production, transportation, manufacturing of goods and improper disposal, phthalates released into soil, water and air. For example indoor air included 13 mg/m3 phthalates, where 72 % of all constitutes DEP (2.29 mg/m(3)), BBP (3.97 mg/m(3)) and DEHP (2.43 mg/m(3)). Exposure to phthalates take place mainly by ingestion or inhalation air or through the skin. Presence of phthalates were observed in numerous food products and is connected with migration of those compounds from food storage containers to preserved food. They could mirgate to salivia during sucking and chewing of toys and this way increased exposure to of children. The results of studies regarding to concentration of phthalates in human tissues and excretions are also described. The level of phthalates were measured in numerous of human biological samples. For example, DEHP, DEP and DBP were detected at levels of 5.71 mg/L in blood serum, of 0.30 mg/L in semen and of 0.72 mg/kg in fat samples. PMID:27289504

  2. Phthalates - widespread occurrence and the effect on male gametes. Part 1. General characteristics, sources and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are widely present in human environment. Widespead exposure to those agents, which are compounds of numerous daily use products, is unavoidable. In the current paper following phthalates benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di- n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) are described. Phthalates mainly enter to the composition of plastic goods, like boxes and containers for storage of foods, toys, medical devices, and also cosmetics, personal care products, as well as paints, vanishes, printing inks. This paper describes the occurence of individual phthalates in the environment (water, air) and in different products. During production, transportation, manufacturing of goods and improper disposal, phthalates released into soil, water and air. For example indoor air included 13 mg/m3 phthalates, where 72 % of all constitutes DEP (2.29 mg/m(3)), BBP (3.97 mg/m(3)) and DEHP (2.43 mg/m(3)). Exposure to phthalates take place mainly by ingestion or inhalation air or through the skin. Presence of phthalates were observed in numerous food products and is connected with migration of those compounds from food storage containers to preserved food. They could mirgate to salivia during sucking and chewing of toys and this way increased exposure to of children. The results of studies regarding to concentration of phthalates in human tissues and excretions are also described. The level of phthalates were measured in numerous of human biological samples. For example, DEHP, DEP and DBP were detected at levels of 5.71 mg/L in blood serum, of 0.30 mg/L in semen and of 0.72 mg/kg in fat samples.

  3. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Jangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Cho, Geumjoon; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Suh, Eunsook; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Seunghyo; Eom, Soyong; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-03-01

    Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37 μg/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 μg/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 μg/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 μg/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of

  4. Joint Toxicity of Two Phthalates with Waterborne Copper to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boyang; Li, Dinglong; Yang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) are two widely used phthalates, while Cu(II) is a common valence state of copper. They have been ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, but information on their joint toxicity to aquatic organisms is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of copper and these two phthalates to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum by quantifying the acute toxicity expressed by the EC50 (the concentration causing 50 % of maximal effect) value. The toxicity order was DEHP + Cu(II) > DBP + Cu(II) > Cu(II) > DEHP > DBP for both test species. Antagonism effects were found in the joint toxicity of Cu(II) combined with DBP or DEHP using the toxic unit method. These findings have important implications in environmental risk assessment for phthalates in the aquatic environment in the presence of heavy metals. PMID:27385371

  5. Joint Toxicity of Two Phthalates with Waterborne Copper to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boyang; Li, Dinglong; Yang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) are two widely used phthalates, while Cu(II) is a common valence state of copper. They have been ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, but information on their joint toxicity to aquatic organisms is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of copper and these two phthalates to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum by quantifying the acute toxicity expressed by the EC50 (the concentration causing 50 % of maximal effect) value. The toxicity order was DEHP + Cu(II) > DBP + Cu(II) > Cu(II) > DEHP > DBP for both test species. Antagonism effects were found in the joint toxicity of Cu(II) combined with DBP or DEHP using the toxic unit method. These findings have important implications in environmental risk assessment for phthalates in the aquatic environment in the presence of heavy metals.

  6. Distribution of phthalate esters in the groundwater of Jianghan plain, Hubei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan ZHANG; Hui LIU; Ying LIANG; Cheng WANG; Hecheng LIANG; Hesheng CAI

    2009-01-01

    Samples of groundwater were collected from 17 sites in the Jianghan plain in July 2007. Sixteen phthalate esters (PAEs) were detected in samples collected by using solid-phase extraction (SPE)-gas chromatography (GC). The results show that there were one or several PAEs in all the samples, and the concentrations of total PAEs ranged from 80.12 to 1882.18 ng/L. Four PAEs, i.e. di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), bis (2-ethoxyethyl) phthalate (BEEP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate DEHP) were the dominant species. Among these, DIBP, DBP and DEHP concentrations were closely related to the water supply from the Yangtze River, Hanjiang River and Honghu Lake. However, the distribution of BEEP was irregular, which may be due to the application of some kind of products containing BEEP in the related areas. PAE distribution was irrelevant to the electrical conductivity and sample depth.

  7. Influence of phthalates on in vitro innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion from both monocytes/macrophages and T cells in a similar pattern: the secretion of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10 and the chemokine CXCL8 by monocytes/macrophages was enhanced, while tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α secretion by monocytes/macrophages was impaired, as was the secretion of IL-2 and IL-4, TNF-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did not seem to be a result of cell death. Thus, results indicate that both human innate and adaptive immunity is influenced in vitro by phthalates, and that phthalates therefore may affect cell differentiation and regenerative and inflammatory processes in vivo.

  8. Influence of phthalates on in vitro innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Frederiksen, Hanne; Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Bendtzen, Klaus; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion from both monocytes/macrophages and T cells in a similar pattern: the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and the chemokine CXCL8 by monocytes/macrophages was enhanced, while tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by monocytes/macrophages was impaired, as was the secretion of IL-2 and IL-4, TNF-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did not seem to be a result of cell death. Thus, results indicate that both human innate and adaptive immunity is influenced in vitro by phthalates, and that phthalates therefore may affect cell differentiation and regenerative and inflammatory processes in vivo.

  9. Evaluation of the Phthalate Esters in South Indian Women with Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    with Endometriosis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the possible association between phthalate esters (PEs and the occurrenceof endometriosis. Blood samples were collected from 99 infertile women with endometriosis (studygroup; 135 age-matched women without endometriosis (control group but with infertility relatedto tubal defects, fibroids, polycystic ovaries, idiopathic infertility and pelvic inflammatory diseasesdiagnosed by laparoscopy with no evidence of endometriosis or other gynecological disordersduring laparoscopic sterilization.Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case-control study, which recruited womenundergoing infertility treatment at three collaborating centers (BMMHRC: Bhagwan MahavirMedical Hospital and Research Centre, MHRT: Maternal Health and Research Trust, and OwaisiHospital and Research Center of Reproductive Medicine Hyderabad, which receives cases fromall over the region of Andhra Pradesh, India. The concentrations of Phthalate Esters were measuredby using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC.Evaluation of Phthalate Esters concentrations in women with endometriosis compared with womenwho are free from the disease.Results: Women with endometriosis showed significantly higher concentrations of Phthalate esters(Dimethyl phthalate (DMP, Diethyl phthalate (DEP, Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, Butyl benzylphthalate (BBP and Bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BEHP compared with control group. Wefound that (38% of the cases with endometriosis and (21% of the control group. The correlationbetween the concentrations of Phthalate esters and different severity of endometriosis was strongand statistically significant at p<0.05 for all five compounds (DMP: r=+0.57, p<0.0001; DnBPr=+0.39, p<0.0001; BBP: r=+0.89, p<0.0001; DnOP: r=+0.66, p<0.0001 and BEHP: r=+0.33,p<0.0014.Conclusion: This study for the first time from Indian subcontinent demonstrates that possiblyPhthalate Esters might have a role in etiology of endometriosis.

  10. Benzyl 2-((E-Tosyliminomethylphenylcarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Min Ko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl 2-((E-tosyliminomethylpenylcarbamate was prepared in good yield and characterized by the condensation reaction of benzyl 2-formylphenylcarbamate with p-toluenesulfonyl amine. The structure of the newly synthesized compound was determined using 1H, 13C-NMR, IR and mass spectral data.

  11. SPE-UPLC-MS/MS for the determination of phthalate monoesters in rats urine and its application to study the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of priority controlling PAEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R; Gao, H T; Zhu, F; Cao, W X; Yan, Y H M; Zhou, X; Xu, Q; Ji, W L

    2016-02-15

    This research was mainly focused on the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of six priority controlling phthalate acid esters (PAEs) for the further accurate assessment of their toxic effects, using the corresponding phthalate acid monoesters (PAMEs) in rats urine as biomarkers. Glycerin monostearate was chosen as typical food emulsifier. A method was established to determine PAMEs in urine from rats either in experimental group (integrated gavaged with glycerin monostearate and PAEs) or in control group (gavaged with PAEs only), by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS). Extraction recoveries were more than 75% for all the PAMEs; the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.0-1000.0ng/mL with R(2)>0.995; the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.30ng/mL-0.50ng/mL. In addition, by analysing quality control (QC) urine samples in 3 days, it showed that the method was precise and accurate, for the intra-day and inter-day RSD within 16%, and the accuracy more than 82%. Internal exposure amount of all PAEs in experimental group was significantly higher than that in control group with p values of less than 0.05 except for butyl benzyl phthalates (BBP) (P=0.07). The bioavailability of all PAEs ranged from 5.03% to 109.35% with the presence of food emulsifiers glycerin monostearate, observably higher than that without glycerin monostearate (1.12% to 54.39%). It indicated that food emulsifiers increased the bioavailability of PAEs and may lead to potential food safety risk, which should bring awareness and be further studied. PMID:26815919

  12. Obstetrical outcomes and biomarkers to assess exposure to phthalates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Studies of the effects on pregnancy outcomes of in utero exposure to phthalates, contaminants that are widely present in the environment, have yielded conflicting results. In addition, the mode of assessment of exposure varies between studies. The aim of this review was therefore to establish a current state of knowledge of the phthalates and metabolites involved in unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. Extant data were analyzed to determine which biomarker is the best suited to assess the relation between in utero exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcomes. This review of the literature was conducted using the database of PubMed. A search was made of studies investigating exposure to phthalates and the following birth outcomes: preterm birth (gestational age phthalates. The principal metabolites detected and involved were primary metabolites of di-2(ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl-phthalate (DnBP). No clear conclusion could be drawn with regard to gestational age at birth, body size at birth and congenital malformations. In epidemiological studies, maternal urine is the most suitable matrix to assess the association between in utero exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcomes: in contrast to other matrices (cord blood, amniotic fluid, meconium and milk), sampling is easy, non-invasive and, can be repeated to assess exposure throughout pregnancy. Oxidative metabolites are the most relevant biomarkers since they are not prone to external contamination. Further epidemiological studies are required during pregnancy to i) determine the role of phthalates other than DEHP [currently replaced by various substitution products, in particular diisononyl-phthalate (DiNP)]; ii) establish the effect of phthalates on other outcomes (body size adjusted for gestational age, and congenital malformations); iii) determine the pathophysiological pathways; and iv) identify the most suitable time for biomarker determination of in utero exposure to phthalates.

  13. Genotoxicity of phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkekoglu, Pınar; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma

    2014-12-01

    Many of the environmental, occupational and industrial chemicals are able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. ROS may lead to genotoxicity, which is suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of many human diseases, including inflammatory diseases and cancer. Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental chemicals and are well-known peroxisome proliferators (PPs) and endocrine disruptors. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted concerning the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of phthalates. Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and several other phthalates are shown to be hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. The underlying factor in the hepatocarcinogenesis is suggested to be their ability to generate ROS and cause genotoxicity. Several methods, including chromosomal aberration test, Ames test, micronucleus assay and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutation test and Comet assay, have been used to determine genotoxic properties of phthalates. Comet assay has been an important tool in the measurement of the genotoxic potential of many chemicals, including phthalates. In this review, we will mainly focus on the studies, which were conducted on the DNA damage caused by different phthalate esters and protection studies against the genotoxicity of these chemicals.

  14. The First Example of Cation Radical Induced Ether Cleavage of Benzyl Phenyl Ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermally stable benzyl phenyl ether has been shown to cleavage under mild conditions. The new reaction described herein further expands the chemistry of the ether cleavage by cation radicals. Over the last several years, our lab has discovered cation radical-induced oxidative C-O bond cleavages such as carbonates (eq 1), carbamates (eq 2), peroxides (eq 3), and alcohols (eq 4), where R is either tert-butyl or benzyl. It was recognized from those reactions that carbocationic chemistry with C-O bond cleavages was predominant, with a 2:1 stoichiometry of Th+·:oxidized molecules

  15. 气相色谱/质谱联用法测定烟用水基型乳胶中的邻苯二甲酸酯%Determination of Phthalates in Water-based Emulsion Adhesives for Tobacco with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 陈超英; 吴达; 林华清; 陈星洁; 戴云辉

    2011-01-01

    为测定烟用水基型乳胶中的邻苯二甲酸酯,用加有内标物质的正己烷溶液对乳胶样品进行了超声萃取,并采用气相色谱/质谱/选择离子监测法(GC/MS/SIM)测定了144个样品中的7种邻苯二甲酸酯:邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMP)、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯(DEP)、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(DIBP)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己)酯(DEHP)、邻苯二甲酸二辛酯(DOP)和邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP).结果表明:①样品中加入2 mL水,超声30 min萃取效果较好;②在标准溶液浓度范围内,7种邻苯二甲酸酯的线性均较好,相关系数达到0.996以上;③低、中、高3种浓度的加标回收率在85% ~ 111%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)均小于5%;④当前国内烟用水基胶中使用的邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂主要集中在D1BP,DBP两种.%In order to determine the phthalates in water-based emulsion adhesives for tobacco, the adhesives were extracted with rc-hexane containing internal standard by ultrasonic instruments. Seven phthalates in 144 water-based emulsion adhesive samples, including dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) , diethyl phthalate ( DEP ) , diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) ,dibutyl phthalate ( DBP) , di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ( DEHP) , dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and benzyl butyl phthalate ( BBP) , were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results showed that;l) 30 minutes were preferable duration for extraction by adding 2 mL water into the sample ;2) the regression coefficients of the 7 phthalates were over 0. 996 within the range of their calibration ;3) the recoveries (the standard spiked at low,middle and high concentration levels) ranged from 85% to 111% ,and the relative standard deviation (USD) of the method was below 5% ;4) DIBP and DBP are the two phthalate plasticizers among the water-based adhesives most commonly used in the cigarette industry.

  16. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chin Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy.We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP, of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4, free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG.Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%, MnBP (81% and MECPP (86%. Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = -5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97 in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction.We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations.

  17. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Huang, Han-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy. Method We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP), of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4), free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). Results Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%), MnBP (81%) and MECPP (86%). Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates) of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = –5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97) in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction. Conclusion We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations. PMID:27455052

  18. Consumer exposure to phthalates from paper packaging: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poças, M F; Oliveira, J C; Pereira, J R; Hogg, T

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to estimate the exposure of the Portuguese population to phthalates as a contaminant originating from paperboard packaging. The approach combined data of migrant concentration in the foods resulting from a stochastic simulation with consumption data of food packaged in paperboard. The results from the exposure model were validated with experimental values actually found in the food. A short surveillance exercise was conducted with samples collection from market shelves to identify and quantify the phthalates present in both the packages and the food. The distribution of values for the di-butyl phthalate concentration in the packages was used as the input of the initial concentration in the Weibull model to estimate the concentration of this phthalate in the foods. This distribution of occurrence data was then combined with the packaging usage data in a probabilistic simulation with a Monte Carlo sampling method. Exposure values ranged between zero and 8.95 microg day(-1) kg(bw), a value close to the tolerable daily intake established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)--10 microg day(-1) kg(bw). However, the 97.5th percentile and the average were 1.82 and 0.44 day(-1) kg(bw), respectively, indicating that further refinement of the estimates is not necessary. Other phthalates were also detected in the packaging samples: di-isobutyl phthalate and di-ethylhexyl phthalate. The latter was present in all packaging samples collected and was detected in a few food samples at values requiring further investigation.

  19. Synthesis of some novel fluoro isoxazolidine and isoxazoline derivatives using -benzyl fluoro nitrone via cycloaddition reaction in ionic liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhaskar Chakraborty; Govinda Prasad Luitel

    2013-09-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids are found to accelerate significantly the intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of -benzyl-fluoro nitrone derived in situ from 2,6-difluoro benzaldehyde and -benzylhydroxylamine, with activated alkenes and electron deficient alkynes to afford enhanced rates and improved yields of novel isoxazolidines and isoxazolines.

  20. Sensitization and quenching in the conversion of light energy into chemical energy. Progress report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980. [Benzylic chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, S.J.

    1979-09-01

    Data have been accumulated on the rates of excitation transfer from acetone or acetophenone sensitizers to several benzylic chlorides in acetonitrile-t-butyl alcohol or acetone-t-butyl alcohol and on the lifetimes of the excited triplet intermediates leading to solvolysis products (arylmethyl t-butyl ethers and arylmethanols). Lifetimes were found to be in the 0-2 nsec range. In direct irradiation, in t-butyl alcohol or acetonitrile-t-butyl alcohol, t-butyl ethers are formed from intermediates which are either singlets or are triplets of short lifetimes (0-2 nsec). Long-lived triplets, which do not lead to t-butyl ethers or to other products, but which decay to starting materials, and which arise by intersystem crossing from excited singlet states, were discovered by their ability to isomerize cis-piperylene (Hammond-Lamola quenching). These hidden triplets were shown to be produced as well by excitation transfer from benzophenone. They represent a large fraction of the energy wastage in this system. Work has begun on the preparation of materials for study of optically active benzylic chloride solvolyses, for study of optically active benzylic chloride solvolyses, for study of intramolecular (2 + 2) cycloadditions and for di-..pi..-methane studies, in our attempts to understand the mechanistic details of these important photochemical reactions.

  1. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-10-01

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μgg(-1), 0.19-1.65 (median 0.86) μgg(-1) and 0.24-3.05 (median 0.59) μgg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8μgkg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. PMID:27372065

  2. Differential expression of X chromosome open reading frame 6 in hypospadiac male rats induced by Di-n-butyl phthalate%X染色体开放读码框架6在邻苯二甲酸二丁酯致雄性大鼠尿道下裂发生中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俊峰; 周耀军; 王勇; 张力峰; 张炜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To verify the differential expression of X chromosome open reading frame 6 (CXorf6) in the testes of hypospadiac rats induced by maternal exposure to Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and normal control rats in order to further explore the mechanism of hypospadias.Methods Twenty pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into two groups which were given DBP and soybean oil gavage at the dose of 800 mg/(kg·day) and 2 ml/day separately during the 14-18th day of pregnancy.Hypospadias incidence was calculated at GD19.The expression of CXorf6 was analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.Results The incidence of hypospadias was 40.7%.There were statistically significant difference in the expression of CXorf6 between experiment group (0.323 ± 0.014) and control group (0.706 ±0.016,P <0.05).CXorf6 was mainly located in sertoli and leydig cells,and staining intensity in control group was stronger than in experimental group.Conclusion DBP could affect the occurrence of hypospadias by regnlating the expression of CXorf6 in fetal male rats.%目的 观察X染色体开放读码框架6(CXorf6)在邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)致大鼠尿道下裂发生中的作用.方法 于妊娠14~18 d(GD14~18)实验和对照组各10只孕鼠分别给予DBP 800 mg/(kg·d)和豆油2 ml/d灌胃,GD19剖宫产统计尿道下裂发生率,免疫印迹法和免疫组织化学法分析两组子鼠睾丸中CXorf6的表达.结果 尿道下裂仅实验组发生,发生率为40.7%;CXorf6在尿道下裂组的相对表达量为0.323±0.014(n=10),对照组为0.706±0.016(n=10),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);CXorf6主要定位于睾丸间质和支持细胞,尿道下裂组CXorf6着色细胞数量减少,染色强度弱于对照组.结论 DBP通过干预CXorf6的表达以影响睾丸的发育及雄激素的产生而导致尿道下裂的发生.

  3. 邻苯二甲酸二丁酯对红鳍笛鲷幼鱼的胁迫效应%Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on activity of enzyms in different tissues of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦洁芳; 陈海刚; 蔡文贵; 杨涛; 贾晓平

    2011-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a member of the phthalate acid ester (PAE) family, is thought to have an endocrine disrupting effect on vertebrates and humans and has been identified as priority controlled hazardous substance in the United States and China. In order to evaluate the effect of DPB, we examined liver and gill levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and brain levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus). Groups offish were exposed to 0,0.125, 0.5, or 2.0 mg/LDBP for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, or 96 h. The 24, 48 and 96h LC50 values were 7.13, 7.02, and 6.75 mg/L, respectively. The safe concentration (SC) of DBP was 2.04 mg·L-1. Gill superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly as the concentration of DBP increased. In contrast, there was no clear pattern of induction or inhibition for liver SOD activity, though levels in the groups exposed to 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L were significantly different from the control (P0.05). Brain levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were 32.07%, 62.07%, and 61.60% higher in fish exposed to 0.125, 0.5 or 2.0 mg/L, respectively, after 48 h. However, AChE activity was lower in the treatment groups than in the control group after 96 h exposure (28.87%, 20.12%, and 21.14% lower, respectively). Our results suggest that the effects of DBP on enzyme activity is related to the time of exposure. It could be concluded that DBP causes oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in aquatic organisms. Thus, attention should be given to the potential ecological risk posed by this contaminant.%为了探讨邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)对红鳍笛鲷(Lutjanus erythropterus)幼鱼的胁迫效应,于DBP暴露后0、6、12、24、48和96 h时检测红鳍笛鲷鳃、肝和脑组织中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)和乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)活性.结果表明,DBP对红鳍笛鲷的24 h、48 h和96 h LC50分别为7.10 mg/L、6.98 mg/L和6.66 mg/L,安全质量浓度为2.04 mg/L.

  4. 76 FR 57024 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used...

  5. 76 FR 38116 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys...

  6. 75 FR 67692 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used...

  7. 76 FR 13988 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys...

  8. 76 FR 63610 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys...

  9. Phthalate metabolites in obese individuals undergoing weight loss: Urinary levels and estimation of the phthalates daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirtu, Alin C; Geens, Tinne; Dirinck, Eveline; Malarvannan, Govindan; Neels, Hugo; Van Gaal, Luc; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-09-01

    Human exposure to chemicals commonly encountered in our environment, like phthalates, is routinely assessed through urinary measurement of their metabolites. A particular attention is given to the specific population groups, such as obese, for which the dietary intake of environmental chemicals is higher. To evaluate the exposure to phthalates, nine phthalate metabolites (PMs) were analyzed in urine collected from obese individuals and a control population. Obese individuals lost weight through either bariatric surgery or a conservative weight loss program with dietary and lifestyle counseling. Urine samples were also collected from the obese individuals after 3, 6 and 12months of weight loss. Individual daily intakes of the corresponding phthalate diesters were estimated based on the urinary PM concentrations. A high variability was recorded for the levels of each PM in both obese and control urine samples showing the exposure to high levels of PMs in specific subgroups. The most important PM metabolite as percentage contribution to the total PM levels was mono-ethyl phthalate followed by the metabolites of di-butyl phthalate and di 2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP). No differences in the PM levels and profiles between obese entering the program and controls were observed. Although paralleled by a significant decrease of their weight, an increase in the urinary PM levels after 3 to 6months loss was seen. Constant figures for the estimated phthalates daily intake were observed over the studied period, suggesting that besides food consumption, other human exposure sources to phthalates (e.g. air, dust) might be also important. The weight loss treatment method followed by obese individuals influenced the correlations between PM levels, suggesting a change of the intake sources with time. Except for few gender differences recorded between the urinary DEHP metabolites correlations, no other differences were observed for the urinary PM levels as a function of age, body

  10. 黑土微生物丰度和多样性对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯污染的响应%Response of the Abundance and Diversity of Microbes in Black Soil to Di-n-butyl Phthalate Contamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 由义敏; 徐伟慧; 苏云鹏; 胡影; 刘帅; 胡云龙; 赵晓松

    2015-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(Di-n-butyl phthalate,DBP)是一种在环境中广泛存在的有机污染物,已被中国环境检测中心和美国环保署列为优先控制污染物。该研究探讨了黑土微生物丰度和多样性对不同浓度DBP(0、5、10、20和40 mg·kg-1)污染的响应。研究结果基本表明,黑土中的细菌、真菌和放线菌的生长(数量)对DBP污染均表现为被抑制效应,且在污染初期抑制效应与DBP浓度呈正相关,随着培养时间的增加有减缓的趋势,但在短期(25 d)内并未完全消除。为了确证这一结果,选择了4种有代表性的微生物,做了进一步的研究。结果同样表明自生固氮菌、亚硝酸氧化菌和磷细菌的生长均受到DBP污染的抑制,且抑制效应与DBP污染浓度呈显著性正相关(P=0.05);但是铁细菌的生长(数量)却受到了 DBP 污染的促进,且增幅与 DBP 污染浓度呈现正相关。采用 RAPD 方法研究表明,黑土微生物的丰富度和Shannon-Weanier多样性受到DBP污染的抑制,且10、20和40 mg·kg-1的污染浓度处理的抑制效应在25 d内并未完全消除。因此,可以得出结论:DBP 污染改变了黑土微生物区系结构和功能代谢菌群数量,降低了黑土微生物的多样性与丰度,从而有可能影响黑土的生态系统功能,威胁黑土的可持续利用。%Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), belonging to the family of phthalic acid esters, is a plasticizer and widely used in the world for many years. Nowadays, it has become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and listed as an environmental priority pollutant by China's Environmental Monitoring Center and United States Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of this study is to estimate the responses of the bacterial community, typical functional bacteria and bacterial biodiversity in black soil to DBP (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg·kg-1) contamination. The results showed that the

  11. 反相液相色谱法测定膏状香精中邻苯二甲酸酯类%Determination of phthalate plasticizers in cream essence by reverse phase liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兴海; 陈湘来

    2012-01-01

    Four phthalate acid esters in cream essence,such as dimethyl phthalate(DMP),diethyl phthalate (DEP),dibutyl phthalate(DBP) and benzyl butyl phthalate(BBP),were determined by reverse phase liquid chromatography. The conditions for extraction were researched. Orthogonal design experiment was carried out to optimize the 3 dominant factors (hexane volume, ultrasonic time,water temperature) affecting extraction recovery. The optimum conditions for solid phase extraction were determined as follows hexane volume 10mL, ultrasonic time 25min,water temperature 15~C. Results showed that the recoveries of the four phthalates were 90%N94%.There was a good linear relationship between peak area and concentration of 4 phthalate esters in range of 0.5-20mg/L.%采用反相液相色谱法研究了膏状香精中邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMP)、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯(DEP)、邻苯二甲酸二正丁基酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP)4种邻苯二甲酸酯的萃取条件。利用正交实验对影响萃取总量的3个主要因素(正己烷用量、超声时间、水浴温度)进行了优化,确定了萃取的最佳条件:正己烷用量10mL,超声时间25min,水浴温度15℃。结果表明,该分析条件下,样品猪骨膏、牛肉膏的加标回收率为90%~94%。用乙腈-水等梯度洗脱(75∶25),4种PAEs分离较好,在0.5-20mg/L之间,色谱峰面积与4种邻苯二甲酸酯的浓度呈现良好的线性关系。

  12. Benzylation of Aromatic Compounds with Benzyl Chloride Catalyzed by Nafion/SiO2 Nanocomposite Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Guo YANG; Rui Mao HUA; Hai WANG; Bo Qing XU1

    2005-01-01

    In the presence of Nafion/SiO2 nanocomposite catalyst, the benzylation of aromatic compounds with benzyl chloride proceeded to afford diphenylmethane derivatives in high yields.The catalyst showed high catalytic activity not only for electron-rich aromatic compounds, but also for electron-poor aromatic compounds. Under identical conditions, the self-benzylation of benzyl chloride, and dibenzylation and/or multi-benzylation of aromatic compounds were negligible.

  13. Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Norwegian foods and beverages and estimated dietary exposure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit K; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; Voorspoels, Stefan; Carlsen, Monica H; Løken, Elin B; Brantsæter, Anne L; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2014-12-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous in our environment. These chemicals have been characterized as endocrine disruptors that can cause functional impairment of development and reproduction. Processed and packaged foods are among the major sources of human exposure to these chemicals. No previous report showing the levels of these chemicals in food items purchased in Norway is available. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of ten different phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages purchased on the Norwegian market and estimate the daily dietary exposure in the Norwegian adult population. Commonly consumed foods and beverages in Norway were purchased in a grocery store and analysed using gas- and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Daily dietary exposures to these chemicals in the Norwegian adult population were estimated using the latest National dietary survey, Norkost 3 (2010-2011). This study showed that phthalates and BPA are found in all foods and beverages that are common to consume in Norway. The detection frequency of phthalates in the food items varied from 11% for dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) to 84% for di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), one of the substitutes for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). BPA was found in 54% of the food items analysed. Among the different phthalates, the highest concentrations were found for DEHP and DiNP in the food items. Estimated dietary exposures were also equally high and dominated by DEHP and DiNP (400-500 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day), followed by di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP) (30-40 ng/kg bw/day). Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP) and DCHP had the lowest concentrations and the exposures were around 10-20 ng/kg bw/day. Estimated dietary exposure to BPA was 5 ng/kg bw/day. In general, levels of phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages from the Norwegian market

  14. Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chin Huang

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use.We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors.The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, DBP (DnBP and DiBP, including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP, and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011, MECPP (P=0.01, MnBP (P=0.001 and MEP (P<0.001 than men (≧18 years, whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001, especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001, MECPP (P=0.002 and MnBP (P=0.044 in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese.Our findings indicated that DEHP and DBP exposure in a sample of the

  15. Assessment of fetal testis function and postnatal development of the male rat following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, dipentyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters are a large class of plasticizer compounds widely used in many consumer product applications. Some phthalates induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and reproductive malformations through disruption of hormone production during sexual differentiation. Regulatory ag...

  16. Molecular Interaction Studies of Benzyl Alcohols with Methacrylates in Carbon Tetrachloride using Frequency Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric relaxation of benzyl alcohol substitutents (benzyl alcohol, m-methylbenzyl alcohol and m-nitrobenzyl alcohol with methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate in dilute solution of carbon tetrachloride is measured at 9.37 GHz using Frequency domain (X-band technique. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant (ε׳, dielectric loss factor (ε״ at Microwave frequency, static dielectric constant (ε0 and dielectric constant at infinite dilution (ε∞ at optical frequency have been determined. From the measured dielectric data, the relaxation time (t calculated using Higasi method and activation energies (∆Ft and ∆Fη have been determined. All the dielectric parameters that are vary with the substitutent change in benzyl alcohol andchain length of acrylic esters. Suggests that, the proton donating ability is varying with the substitution of benzyl alcohol and proton accepting ability is varying with the chain length of acrylic esters. The relaxation time and molar free energy activation of 1:1 molar ratio is greater than other higher molar ratios (i.e. 3:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:3 confirm that the existence of most likely 1:1 complex formation between the studied systems and also complex formation formed between free hydroxyl group of substituted benzyl alcohols and carbonyl group of acrylic esters (MMA and EMA.

  17. [Analysis of phthalates in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Ruohua

    2006-01-01

    The method for simultaneous determination of four phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The plastic food-packaging bags were extracted with ethanol by ultrasonication, then the mixture was filtrated through membrane (0.45 microm). The mixture of ethyl acetate-anhydrous ether-isooctane (1 : 4 : 15, v/v) was used as developing agent on the TLC silica gel plate for development. The filtered liquid was spotted on the TLC plate dealt by acetone, and detected with scanning wavelength of 275 nm and reference wavelength of 340 nm. The qualitative analysis of the phthalates was performed using the R(f) values of the chromatogram. The quantitative analysis was performed with external standard method. Good linearities were obtained for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP. The detection limits were 2.1 ng for DMP, 2.4 ng for DEP, 3.4 ng for DBP and 4.0 ng for DEHP. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the four phthalates were 2.8% - 3.5%. The recoveries of the four phthalate standards in real sample were 78.58% - 111.04%. The method presented has the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment . The method was used to detect the four phthalates in the food-packaging bags. The contents in real samples were close to the results by gas chromatography.

  18. Determination of six phthalate plasticizers in coatings on toys by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry%气相色谱-质谱法测定玩具涂层中6种邻苯二甲酸酯增塑剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 沈培康; 蒋小良

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining six kinds of phthalate plasticizers including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP) in coatings on toys by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was established. The conditions of microwave assisted extraction were optimized as follows:dichloromethane as extractant, extraction temperature 60 °C, and extraction time 25 min. Under the selected experimental conditions, six phthalate plasticizers in coatings on toys were determined by the method, and the linear regression between peak area and mass concentration of individual plasticizer was made. The linear range is 0.5-50 mg/L, correlation coefficient higher than 0.999, detection limit 0.5-1.0 mg/L, recovery of standard addition 83.5%-105.6%, and relative standard deviation less than 5.8%. The method is easy and rapid to operate with good accuracy and sensitivity, suitable for simultaneous determination of the concentrations of six phthalate plasticizers in coatings on toys.%建立了气相色谱–质谱法测定玩具涂层中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸丁苄酯(BBP)、邻苯二甲酸二(2−乙基己基)酯(DEHP)、邻苯二甲酸二正辛酯(DNOP)、邻苯二甲酸二异壬酯(DINP)、邻苯二甲酸二异癸酯(DIDP)等6种邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂的分析方法,确定了适宜的微波辅助萃取条件为:以二氯甲烷为萃取剂,萃取温度60°C,萃取时间25 min。在试验选定的条件下,以该方法测定玩具涂层中6种邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂,以峰面积对质量浓度线性回归,线性范围在0.5~50 mg/L,则相关系数大于0.999,最低检出限为0.5~1.0 mg/L,加标回收率在83.5%~105.6%之间,相对标准偏差小于5.8%。该方法操作简便快速,准确度和灵敏度高,适合于玩具涂层中6种邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂含量的同时测定。

  19. A semi-probabilistic modelling approach for the estimation of dietary exposure to phthalates in the Belgian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Standaert, A; Cornelis, C; Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Willems, H; Bellemans, M; De Maeyer, M; Van Holderbeke, M

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a semi-probabilistic modelling approach was applied for the estimation of the long-term human dietary exposure to phthalates--one of world's most used families of plasticisers. Four phthalate compounds were considered: diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Intake estimates were calculated for the Belgian adult population and several subgroups of this population for two considered scenarios using an extended version of the EN-forc model. The highest intake rates were found for DEHP, followed by DnBP, BBP and DEP. In the Belgian adult population, men and young adults generally had the highest dietary phthalate intake estimates. Nevertheless, predicted dietary intake rates for all four investigated phthalates were far below the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) values (i.e. P99 intake values were 6.4% of the TDI at most), which is reassuring because adults are also exposed to phthalates via other contamination pathways (e.g. dust ingestion and inhalation). The food groups contributing most to the dietary exposure were grains and grain-based products for DEP, milk and dairy products for DnBP, meat and meat products or grains and grain-based products (depending on the scenario) for BBP and meat and meat products for DEHP. Comparison of the predicted intake results based on modelled phthalate concentrations in food products with intake estimates from other surveys (mostly based on measured concentrations) showed that the extended version of the EN-forc model is a suitable semi-probabilistic tool for the estimation and evaluation of the long-term dietary intake of phthalates in humans.

  20. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

  1. Phthalate exposure and health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are used in commercial products as softners of plastics, solvents in perfumes and additives to hair sprays, lubricants and insect repellents. The wide spread use of phthalate results in multiple human exposure routes i.e., ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure. In the present review, a detailed account of respiratory toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, endocrine disruptors and genotoxicity of human exposure to phthalate is mentioned in detail.

  2. Investigation of the amount of transdermal exposure of newborn babies to phthalates in paper diapers and certification of the safety of paper diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Satoko; Katagiri, Ritsuko; Minobe, Yasushi; Kuribara, Isamu; Wada, Takeharu; Wada, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Shigeo

    2015-10-01

    A risk assessment study of seven phthalates in paper diapers for newborn babies produced in Japan was performed. The diapers were purchased and the contents of the seven phthalates were determined and estimated amounts of exposure were calculated based on the eluted rate into artificial medium of urine or sweat, average weight of infants, and frequency of use. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were detected in the topsheets and determined to be 0.6 μg/g and 0.2 μg/g, respectively. The daily estimated exposure volume was calculated to be in the range of 1.86 × 10(-10)-2.98 × 10(-6) mg/kg/day as follows: content of seven phthalates in the topsheet (0.1-1 μg/g) × eluted rate of phthalates into artificial sweat (0.0006-2.4%) × weight of the topsheet of a diaper (1.5 g) × the number of diapers used per day (12 sheets) × skin absorption rate (0.005-0.1)/average body weight (2.9 kg). For hazard assessment, we used 0.2-300 mg/kg/day for the seven phthalates based on the data available at international agencies. The margin of exposure to the seven phthalates was 6.71 × 10(4)-1.99 × 10(11), indicating that the risk of exposure to phthalates from the diapers produced in Japan was negligible. PMID:26123074

  3. Comparison of organic component and di-n-butyl phthalate between human milk and cow milk products%人乳和牛乳中有机物种类及邻苯二甲酸二丁酯水平的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧杰; 曹佳; 舒为群

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较人乳和牛乳中有机物种类及邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)的污染水平.方法 选取40名健康产妇,年龄(27.44±3.43)岁.分别采集每名产妇乳汁5 ml.采用简单随机抽样的方法选取市售常见4种不同品牌鲜牛奶和1种品牌的奶粉,每种品牌的牛奶制品分别抽取3个样品,共取样15份(其中鲜牛奶12份,奶粉3份).应用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法分别对样品中有机物种类进行定性分析及DBP的定量测定.结果 在40份人乳中共检出有机物176种,平均(10.58±4.16)种;12份鲜牛奶中共检出有机物37种,平均为(8.67±1.61)种;3份奶粉中共检出有机物31种,平均(12.67±0.58)种.奶粉中的有机物检出种类数高于人乳和鲜牛奶(t值分别为2.09、4.00,P值均<0.05).在人乳与牛乳中检出率均较高的有机物主要是9-十八烯酸,人乳中检出率为45.00%(18/40),牛乳中检出率为53.33%(8/15).人乳中DBP的含量为(57.78±35.42)μg/L,鲜牛奶中DBP的含量为(20.76±6.60)μg/L,奶粉中DBP的含量为(0.45±0.05)mg/kg[相当于浓度值为(66.78±7.60)μg/L].鲜牛奶中DBP含量低于人乳和奶粉(t值分别为37.02、46.02,P值均<0.05).结论 人乳与牛乳中均含有多种环境有机污染物,部分污染物具有生殖和发育毒性.%Objective To explore types of organic components and pollution level of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) between human milk and cow milk products. Methods Forty healthy postpartum women with an average age of (27.44 ± 3.43) years old were selected, and a 5 ml sample of breast milk were collected. Four different brands of fresh cow milk and 1 brand of milk powder were randomly selected in the market. A total of 15 samples were collected with 3 from each brand,and the qualitative analysis of types of organic components and quantitative analysis of DBP were conducted by gas-chromatography and massspectrometry(GC/MS) method. Results A total of 176 different types of organic components were detected

  4. 半乳糖凝集素-3在邻苯二甲酸二丁酯致大鼠尿道下裂发生中的表达%Differential expression of galectin-3 in the hypospadiac male rats induced by Di-n-butyl phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常俊锴; 魏云飞; 冯宁翰; 张炜

    2010-01-01

    目的 利用邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)胚胎期暴露导致SD大鼠尿道下裂发生的动物模型,观察半乳糖凝集素-3(galectin-3)在尿道下裂与正常大鼠生殖结节中的差异表达,探讨其在DBP致大鼠尿道下裂发生中的作用.方法 SD孕鼠20只,随机分为2组,妊娠14~18 d(GD14~18)实验组和对照组分别给予DBP 800 mg/(kg·d)和大豆油2 ml/d灌胃,GD19剖宫产后统计子鼠数、雄性子鼠出生体质量(BW)及肛门生殖器距离(AGD)、尿道下裂发生率,取两组雄性子鼠生殖结节,运用免疫印迹法和免疫组织化学方法分析galectin-3的表达.结果 尿道下裂仅实验组发生,发生率为40%,每窝子鼠数、雄性子鼠BW及AGD/BW在实验组分别为(8.90±1.25)只、(5.12±0.24)g、(0.57±0.03)mm/g,在对照组分别为(13.20±1.46)只、(6.72±0.42)g、(0.66±0.07)mm/g,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);galectin-3在尿道下裂组的相对表达量为0.603±0.014(n=10),正常对照组为0.851±0.015(n=10),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);galectin-3主要定位于生殖结节上皮细胞,尿道下裂组染色强度明显弱于对照组.结论 染毒期间DBP对雄性子鼠有明显毒性作用,改变了生殖结节中galectin-3的表达,影响了上皮细胞增殖、凋亡及尿生殖褶的融合.%Objective To verify the differential expression of galectin-3 in the genital tubercle (GT) of hypospadiac rats induced by maternal exposure to Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and normal control rats in order to further explore the mechanism of hypospadias. Methods Twenty pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into two groups which were given DBP and soybean oil gavage at the dose of 800 mg/(kg·d) and 2 ml/d separately during the 14-18th day of pregnancy. Fetal rats per fossa, birth weight ( BW) , ano-genital distance (AGD), hapospadias incidence, and harvested GT of fetal rats at GD19.The expression of galectin-3 was analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results The

  5. 76 FR 75537 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and...

  6. 75 FR 73048 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and...

  7. Tissue Phthalate Levels Correlate With Changes in Immune Gene Expression in a Population of Juvenile Wild Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Kelly; Hagedorn, Birgit; Ali, Shareen; Kennish, John; Applegate, Ben; Leu, Matthias; Epp, Lidia; Pallister, Chris; Zwollo, Patty

    2016-07-01

    Phthalates have detrimental effects on health and have been shown to dysregulate the immune system of mammals, birds, and fish. We recently reported that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure reduces the abundance and inhibits the proliferation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) IgM(+) B lymphocytes and expression of secreted immunoglobulin heavy-chain mu transcripts in an in vitro culture system. We proposed that phthalates act as immunomodulators by modifying the normal B cell-activation pathways by accelerating B cell differentiation while suppressing plasmablast expansion, thus resulting in fewer IgM-secreting plasma cells. This hypothesis was tested here in an in vivo field study of juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) from a plastic-polluted lake in the Gulf of Alaska. Fish tissues were analyzed for both phthalate levels using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry and for changes in immune gene expression using reverse transcriptase-real time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that fish with higher tissue levels of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di(n-butyl) phthalate, and/or dimethyl phthalate expressed significantly fewer secreted and membrane-bound immunoglobulin heavy-chain mu and Blimp1 transcripts in their hematopoietic tissue. This suggests that in vivo uptake of phthalates in fish changes the expression of B cell-specific genes. Chronic exposure to phthalates likely dysregulates normal B-lymphoid development and antibody responses in salmonids and may increase susceptibility to infection. Given the conserved nature of B-lineage cells in vertebrate animals, other marine species may be similarly affected by chronic phthalate exposure. PMID:27177745

  8. Comparison of in vitro hormone activities of selected phthalates using reporter gene assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ouxi; Du, Guizhen; Sun, Hong; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Yi; Song, Ling; Wang, Xinru

    2009-12-01

    Phthalates are widely used in the plastic industry and food packaging, imparting softness and flexibility to normally rigid plastic medical devices and children's toys. Even though phthalates display low general toxicity, there is increasing concern on the effects of endocrine system induced by some of phthalate compounds. The hormone activity of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were assessed using the luciferase reporter gene assays. The results showed that DBP, MBP and DEHP, not only exhibited potent antiandrogenic activity, with IC(50) value of 1.05x10(-6), 1.22x10(-7)M and exceeding 1x10(-4)M respectively, but also showed the androgenic activity with EC(50) value of 6.17x10(-6), 1.13x10(-5)M and exceeding 1x10(-4)M. We also found that all the three related chemicals possessed thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity with IC(50) of 1.31x10(-5), 2.77x10(-6)M and exceeding 1x10(-4)M respectively, and none showed TR agonist activity. These results indicate that TR might be the targets of industrial chemicals. In the ER mediate reporter gene assay, three chemicals showed no agonistic activity except for DBP, which appeared weakly estrogenic at the concentration of 1.0x10(-4)M. Together, the findings demonstrate that the three phthalates could simultaneously disrupt the function of two or more hormonal receptors. Therefore, these phthalates should be considered in risk assessments for human health.

  9. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg;

    2012-01-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function.......In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function....

  10. Biodegradation of phthalate esters during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.;

    2003-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAE) are commonly found in the sludge generated in the wastewater treatment plants. Anaerobic digestion followed by land application is a common treatment and disposal practice of sludge. To date, many studies exist on the anaerobic biodegradation rates of PAE, especially...... of the easily biodegradable ones, whereas the higher molecular weight PAE have reported to be non-biodegradable under methanogenic conditions. Furthermore, there is no information on the effect of the PAE on the performance of the anaerobic digesters treating sludge. In this study, the anaerobic biodegradation...... of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was investigated and their relative rates of anaerobic degradation were calculated. Also, the biological removal of PAE during the anaerobic digestion of sludge in bench-scale digesters was investigated using DBP...

  11. Thermal and enzymatic pretreatment of sludge containing phthalate esters prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Yenal, U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    /biological activity. Therefore, thermal pretreatment of sludge containing PAE should be either avoided or combined with a treatment step focusing on PAE reduction. On the other hand, enzymatic treatment was very efficient in the removal of PAE. The enzymatic degradation of DBP, DEP, and DEHP could be one to two......The present study aimed at investigating the effect of thermal pretreatment of sludge at 70degreesC on the anaerobic degradation of three commonly found phthalic acid esters (PAE): di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Also, the enzymatic treatment...... orders of magnitude faster than under normal mesophilic anaerobic conditions. Moreover, the enzymatic treatment resulted in the shortest half-life of DEHP in sludge reported so far. Our study further showed that enzymatic treatment with lipases can be applied to raw sludge and its efficiency does...

  12. 固相萃取-气相色谱法测定食品包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯类物质%Determination of Phthalate Esters in Plastic Food Packing Materials by Solid Phase Extraction-Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小妹; 吴晓燕; 李挥; 张敬轩; 高文惠

    2012-01-01

    建立采用固相萃取-气相色谱法同时分析检测邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二环己酯(DCHP)、邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP)和邻苯二甲酸二-2-乙基己酯(DEHP)4种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质的方法。研究塑料包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯类在水、65%乙醇、4%乙酸、正己烷4种模拟液中的溶出及利用固相萃取技术对浸出液进行富集的情况,考察气相色谱操作条件对4种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质分离的影响。结果表明,该方法具有良好的线性相关性,线性相关系数在0.9986~0.9994之间;回收率在80.63%~95.50%之间;DBP、BBP、DCHP和DEHP的检测限分别是0.050、0.010、0.055μg/mL和0.012μg/mL。该方法样品预处理简便,测定方法灵敏、可靠,可用于食品包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯类的监测。%A method was developed by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography for the simultaneous determination of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food packing materials. The dissolution of phthalate esters from plastic packing materials into water, 65% alcohol, 4% acetic acid and n-hexane was studied. The enrichment of phthalate esters in extraction solution was conducted by solid phase extraction. The effect of gas chromatographic conditions on the separation of four phthalate esters was investigated. The results showed that the method had an excellent linear relationship with the correlation coefficient of 0.9986--0.9994. The recovery rates and detection limits of this method for DBP, BBP, DCHP and DEHP were 80.63% - 95.50%, and 0.050, 0.010, 0.055 and 0.012 μg/mL, respectively. This developed method is easy, sensitive and reliable, which can be used to analyze phthalate esters in plastic food packing materials.

  13. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg−1 with a median value of 1.70 mg kg−1, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. -- Highlights: •Phthalate esters in soils from suburban intensive vegetable production systems were investigated. •Phthalate levels and risks of the vegetable soils with different plastic film use modes were examined. •Sources of phthalate esters in vegetable production soils were analyzed. -- PAE contamination of intensively managed vegetable soils varied widely depending on the mode of use of plastic film in different production systems

  14. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Diabetes among Women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlhut, Richard; Meeker, John D.; Powell, Sheena-Gail; Hauser, Russ; Huang, Tianyi; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that women have higher urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites than do men, possibly because of a higher use of personal care products. Few studies have evaluated the association between phthalate metabolites, diabetes, and diabetes-related risk factors among women. Objective: We explored the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and diabetes among women who participated in a cross-sectional study. Methods: We used urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and self-reported diabetes of 2,350 women between 20 and 79 years of age who participated in the NHANES (2001–2008). We used multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and adjusted for urinary creatinine, sociodemographic characteristics, dietary factors, and body size. A secondary analysis was conducted for women who did not have diabetes to evaluate the association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment–estimated insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, women with higher levels of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP) had an increased odds of diabetes compared with women with the lowest levels of these phthalates. Women in the highest quartile for MBzP and MiBP had almost twice the odds of diabetes [OR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.47) and OR = 1.95 (95% CI: 0.99, 3.85), respectively] compared with women in the lowest quartile. Nonmonotonic, positive associations were found for MnBP and ΣDEHP, whereas MCPP appeared to have a threshold effect. Certain phthalate metabolites were positively associated with FBG and insulin resistance

  15. Adsorption of diethyl phthalate ester to clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanhua; Si, Youbin; Zhou, Dongmei; Gao, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters are a group of plasticizers, which have been widely detected in China's agricultural and industrial soils. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the environmental effects on the adsorption of diethyl phthalate ester (DEP) to clay minerals. The results showed that DEP adsorption isotherms were well fitted with the Freundlich model; the interlayer spacing of K(+) saturated montmorillonite (K-mont) was the most important adsorption area for DEP, and di-n-butyl ester (DnBP) was limited to intercalate into the interlayer of K-mont due to the bigger molecular size; there was no significant effect of pH and ionic strength on DEP adsorption to K-mont/Ca-mont, but to Na-mont clay. The adsorption to kaolinite was very limited. Data of X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectra further proved that DEP molecules could intercalate into K-/Ca-mont interlayer, and might interact with clay through H-bonding between carbonyl groups and clay adsorbed water. Coated humic acid on clay surface would enhance DEP adsorption at low concentration, but not at high concentration (eg. Ce>0.26 mM). The calculated adsorption enthalpy (ΔHobs) and adsorption isotherms at varied temperatures showed that DEP could be adsorbed easier as more adsorbed. This study implied that clay type, compound structure, exchangeable cation, soil organic matter and temperature played important roles in phthalate ester's transport in soil.

  16. Occurrence of phthalate diesters in particulate and vapor phases in indoor air and implications for human exposure in Albany, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri Manh; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-04-01

    Phthalate diesters are used as plasticizers in a wide range of consumer products. Because phthalates have been shown in laboratory animal studies to be toxic, human exposure to these chemicals is a matter of concern. Nevertheless, little is known about inhalation exposure to phthalates in the United States. In this study, occurrence of nine phthalates was determined in 60 indoor air samples collected in 2014 in Albany, New York, USA. Airborne particulate and vapor phase samples were collected from various sampling locations by use of a low-volume air sampler. The median concentrations of nine phthalates in air samples collected from homes, offices, laboratories, schools, salons (hair and nail salons), and public places were 732, 143, 170, 371, 2600, and 354 ng/m(3), respectively. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was found at the highest concentrations, which ranged from 4.83 to 2250 ng/m(3) (median 152) followed by di-n-butyl phthalate, which ranged from 4.05 to 1170 ng/m(3) (median 63.3). The median inhalation exposure dose to phthalates was estimated at 0.845, 0.423, 0.203, 0.089, and 0.070 µg/kg-bw/d for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults, respectively. Inhalation is an important pathway of human exposure to DEP. PMID:25702083

  17. An integrated exposure assessment of phthalates for the general population in China based on both exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jie; Hao, Xuewen

    2016-02-01

    The representativeness of available studies on integrated exposure assessment of phthalates for the general population in China is lacking. Based on an exhaustive review of the extensive monitoring data available for China, this study presents a large-scale estimation of exposure levels to three typical phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), by applying both exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches. The respective median exposure levels from the exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches were 3.80, 3.02 and 1.00 μg/kg bw/day and 3.38, 3.21 and 3.32 μg/kg bw/day for DEHP, DBP and DiBP, which are acceptable levels of exposure with respect to current international guidelines. Evaluation results from the two approaches showed both similarities and differences among the different phthalates, making the exposure assessment comparable and more comprehensive. In terms of sources of exposure, food intake was the largest contributor, while indoor air exposure had greater contribution to the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DiBP than that of the other phthalates. Moreover, more attention should be paid to the higher exposure levels of phthalates in several intensively industrialized and urbanized areas, and the causes of the different exposure levels in the different regions need to be further explored.

  18. A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-12-17

    Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ∼40% of rinse-off products and ∼60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 μg per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 μg/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 μg/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP. PMID:24261694

  19. A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-12-17

    Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ∼40% of rinse-off products and ∼60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 μg per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 μg/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 μg/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP.

  20. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  1. 75 FR 31426 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes and... of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate...

  2. 77 FR 19005 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all...

  3. 77 FR 34028 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (``CHAP'') on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all...

  4. Resonance Raman study of benzyl radical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, F.W.; Bajdor, K.; Wilbrandt, R.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved resonance Raman spectra are obtained of benzyl radicals created by laser flash photolysis of benzylchloride and diphenylacetone in solution. The spectra are obtained in resonance with the intense 2 2A2-1 B-2(2) transition of benzyl. The strong Raman bands are assigned to totally...... symmetric a1 modes. The remaining observed bands are tentatively assigned to fundamental modes of b1, a2, and b2 symmetry, and to overtones and combinations. The resonance Raman spectra are found to be quite different from previous fluorescence spectra of benzyl, and the origins of these differences are...

  5. Ionic liquid-H2O Resulting in a Highly Chemoselective Oxidation of Benzylic Alcohols in the Presence of Aliphatic Analogues Catalyzed by Immobilized TEMPO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU,Ruijun; LEI,Ming; WEI,Hegeng; WANG,Yanguang

    2009-01-01

    In ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate([bmim][PF6])-H2O,a highly chemoselective oxidation of benzylic alcohols in the presence of aliphatic ones to the corresponding hydroxyl benzyl aldehydes and ketones was allowed in high yields using N-chlorosuccinimide(NCS)/NaBr/IL-TEMPO(ionic liquid immobilized 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)as a facile and effective catalytic oxidation system.The medium,[bmiml[PF6],together with the catalyst IL-TEMPO could be easily recycled for ten runs without any influence on the efficacy of the reaction in terms of yield and selectivity of the product.

  6. Inflammatory Effects Of Phthalates In Neonatal Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Vetrano, Anna M; Laskin, Debra L.; Archer, Faith; Syed, Kirin; Joshua P Gray; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Nwebube, Nkiru; Weinberger, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Hospitalized infants are exposed to numerous devices containing the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Urinary levels of the phthalate metabolite, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), are markedly elevated in premature infants. Phthalates inactivate PPAR-γ, a nuclear transcription factor that mediates the resolution of inflammation, a process impaired in neonates. We speculate that this increases their susceptibility to MEHP, and this was analyzed. MEHP inhibited neutrophil apoptosis; ...

  7. Simulated sunlight photodegradation of aqueous phthalate esters catalyzed by the polyoxotungstate/titania nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Yang, Xia; Guo, Yihang; Ma, Fengyan; Guo, Yingna; Yuan, Xing; Huo, Mingxin

    2010-06-15

    A series of porous polyoxotungstate/titania nanocomposites (PW(12)/TiO(2)) with particle size lower than 10nm and BET surface area of ca. 200 m(2)g(-1) was prepared by sol-gel chemistry combined with solvothermal treatment. The composites were successfully applied to the degradation of aqueous phthalate esters (PAEs) including di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) under the simulated sunlight irradiation (lambda=320-680 nm) for the first time, and the conversion of DBP, DEP, and DMP reached to 98%, 84%, and 80%, respectively, after the simulated sunlight irradiation the suspension including PAE (5 mg L(-1), 100 mL) and PW(12)/TiO(2)-19.8 (100 mg) for 90 min. In addition, nearly total mineralization of DBP and DEP was realized by further increasing light irradiation time to 12h. Based on the intermediates identified in the reaction system, the photocatalytic degradation pathway of PAEs was put forward. PMID:20236760

  8. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  9. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Jo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP. Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  10. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-07-05

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  11. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  12. Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Allan C.; Adibi, Jennifer J; Rundle, Andrew G.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Camann, David E.; Hauser, Russ; Silva, Manori J.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2010-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are used extensively in personal care products, including fragrances (DEP) and nail polish (DnBP). Between May 2003 and July 2006, we gathered questionnaire data on use of 7 product categories (deodorant, perfume, hair spray, hair gel, nail polish/polish remover, liquid soap/body wash, lotion/mist) over 48 hours during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy from 186 inner-city women. A 48-hour personal air sample was collected and analyzed for D...

  13. Synthesis and structures of scandium and lutetium benzyl complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, N.; Roesky, Peter W.; Bambirra, Sergio; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart; Saliu, Kuburat; Takats, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Scandium and lutetium benzyl complexes were prepared. Reaction of [ScCl3(THF)(3)] with potassium benzyl afforded [Sc(CH2Ph)(3)(THF)(3)] (1). In the solid state the coordination polyhedron is a distorted octahedron, in which the benzyl groups are located in a facial arrangement on one side of the mol

  14. The effects of phthalates on the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Patrick R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure.

  15. The effects of phthalates on the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eHannon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic

  16. tert-Butyl N-benzyl-N-[4-(4-fluorobenzoylmethyl-2-pyridyl]carbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Koch

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C25H25FN2O3, the pyridine ring makes dihedral angles of 75.1 (3, 39.4 (3 and 74.6 (3° with the phenyl ring, the carbamate plane and the 4-fluorophenyl ring, respectively. The phenyl ring makes dihedral angles of 77.2 (3 and 23.6 (3° with the carbamate plane and the 4-fluorophenyl ring, respectively. The 4-fluorophenyl ring is perpendicular to the carbamate plane, the dihedral angle between them being 89.5 (3°.

  17. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  18. Impact of three phthalate esters on the sexual reproduction of the Monogonont rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, V; Iovine, C; Thomé, J-P; Joaquim-Justo, C

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widespread contaminants that can cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. Studies showed that molecules with hormonal activities in vertebrates and invertebrates can affect asexual and sexual reproduction in rotifers. We investigated the impact of di-hexylethyl phthalate (DEHP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), on the asexual and sexual reproduction of the freshwater monogonont rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus in order to determine a potential environmental risk for sexual reproduction. We observed that DEHP has no significant impact on both asexual and sexual reproduction up to 2 mg/L. DBP has a positive effect on asexual reproduction at concentrations from 0.05 to 1 mg/L, but depresses it at 2 mg/L. Sexual reproduction is only affected at 2 mg/L and the impact observed is negative. BBP displayed a negative impact on both asexual and sexual reproduction at 1 and 2 mg/L. However we showed that the impacts of BBP on mixis and fertilization rates observed are due to the decrease in population growth rates at these concentrations and not to a direct impact of BBP on the mixis and the fertilization processes. Our results show that sexual reproduction in B. calyciflorus is not more sensitive than asexual reproduction to any of the substances tested which indicates the mode of action of these molecules is related to general toxicity and not to an interference with potential endocrine regulation of sexual reproduction. Comparison of effect concentrations and surface water contamination by phthalate esters suggests these compounds do not constitute a risk for primary consumers in these environments. PMID:26666431

  19. Beyond phthalates: Gas phase concentrations and modeled gas/particle distribution of modern plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossler, Patricia [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schripp, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.schripp@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Bahadir, Muefit [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    microchamber as is shown for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate(DEHA), tri(octyl) trimellitate (TOTM) and DEHP. - Highlights: {yields} Since the decreasing market-share of DEHP the applied classes of plasticizers have extended. {yields} Alternative plasticizers mostly feature lower vapor pressures than the commonly used compounds which increases the analytical effort. {yields} DINCH and DINP from PVC needed about 50 days to reach steady-state concentrations during emission cell measurements. {yields} In comparison between estimation algorithms of the vapor pressure by EPI Suite and SPARC the predictions by EPI Suite show better correlation to measured data.

  20. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Phthalates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyche, J.L.; Gutleb, A.C.; Bergman, A.; Eriksen, G.S.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Saunders, M.; Skaare, J.U.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubi

  1. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature is to examine the association of phthalate exposure with development. Phthalates are chemical compounds used in poly-vinyl chloride, PVC; vinyl flooring, cosmetics, shampoo, air fresheners, soft plastic items, intravenous tubing, food packaging and wraps, textiles, paints, cleaning products and detergents.…

  2. 75 FR 36639 - Change in Times for Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31426), the Consumer Product Safety Commission published a notice announcing the... COMMISSION Change in Times for Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on...

  3. rac-N-Benzyl-isatincreatinine (unknown solvate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Crooks, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    The title compound, C(19)H(18)N(4)O(3) [systematic name: (RS)-1-benzyl-3-hy-droxy-3-(2-imino-3-methyl-5-oxoimidazolidin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one], was prepared as a racemate (RR and SS) by the aldol condensation of N-benzyl-isatin with creatinine in the presence of sodium acetate in acetic acid. The r.m.s. deviation of the isatin ring system is 0.033 Å. The benzyl group is disordered over two orientations, with refined occupancies of 0.847 (7) and 0.153 (7). The dihedral angles between the isatin ring system and the benzene ring (major disorder component) and the imidazole ring are 82.82 (7) and 51.31 (3)°, respectively, In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into (001) sheets by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, which incorporate R(2) (2)(9) ring motifs. The crystal was grown from mixed solvents (ethanol, methanol and possibly also ethyl acetate). These solvents are disordered in the crystal and the resulting electron density was found to be uninter-pretable. The solvent contribution to the scattering was removed with the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. The formula mass and density do not take account of the solvent. PMID:23424560

  4. Removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Tang, Pei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this work graphene was used for evaluation of its adsorption behavior and performance in removing phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), acetaminophen (ACE), caffeine (CAF), cephalexin (CLX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were emerging contaminants (ECs) with detection frequencies over 92% in a one-year monitoring of the occurrence of ECs in influent samples of a sewage treatment plant in Taiwan. Thus, these ECs were selected as the target contaminants for removal by graphene adsorption process. Experimental results showed that the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir model equation. It was also found that the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. A graphene dosage of 0.1 g/L and adsorption time of 12 h were found to be the optimal operating conditions for the ECs of concern in model solutions in a preliminary study. By using the determined optimal operating conditions for removal of such ECs in actual municipal wastewater, removal efficiencies for various ECs were obtained and given as follows: (1) DnBP, 89%, (2) DEHP, 86%, (3) ACE, 43%, (4) CAF, 84%, (5) CLX, 81%, and (6) SMX, 34%. PMID:27148730

  5. 21 CFR 582.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 582.3173 Section 582.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 582.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytol- uene. (b) Tolerance....

  6. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation. PMID:26841781

  7. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation.

  8. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Simcox, Nancy J; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and 'green' or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0-126), 2.69 (2.18-3.30), 6.93 (6.00-7.99), 8.79 (7.84-9.86) µg g(-1), respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few associations persisted

  9. Phthalate esters (PAEs): Emerging organic contaminants in agricultural soils in peri-urban areas around Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the first data on the concentrations and distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils from the peri-urban areas of Guangzhou city. Σ16PAEs concentrations ranged from 0.195 to 33.6 μg g-1-dry weight (dw). Elevated levels of PAEs were recorded in the vegetable fields located next to the urban districts, and a decreasing trend exists following the distance away from the urban center. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAEs in the agricultural soils. Significant relationship (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.85, p < 0.01, n = 40) was present between the accumulation of PAEs and total organic carbons in agricultural soils. In addition, both pH and texture of soils are found to be important factors affecting the level of PAEs. This study shows that the agricultural soils in the peri-urban area of Guangzhou city were moderately polluted by PAEs. - PAEs are determined in agricultural soils at high concentration levels, which imply a potential risk for the food chain

  10. Phthalate Esters in Indoor Window Films in a Northeastern Chinese Urban Center: Film Growth and Implications for Human Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Wen-Long; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Wu, Yong-Kai; Han, Ya-Meng; Peng, Zhi-Xiang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-07-19

    Indoor window film samples were collected in buildings during 2014-2015 for the determination of six phthalate diesters (PAEs). Linear regression analysis suggested that the film mass was positively and significantly correlated with the duration of film growth (from 7 to 77 days). PAEs were detected in all window film samples (n = 64). For all the samples with growth days ranged from 7 to 77 days, the median concentrations of total six PAEs (∑6PAEs) in winter and summer window film samples were 9900 ng/m(2) film (2000 μg/g film) and 4700 ng/m(2) film (650 μg/g film), respectively. Among PAEs analyzed, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the major compound (71 ± 9.7%), followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 20 ± 7.4%) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP; 5.1 ± 2.2%). Positive correlations among PAEs suggested their common sources in the window film samples. Room temperature and relative humidity were negatively and significantly correlated with PAEs concentations (in ng/m(2)). Poor ventilation in cold winter in Noreastern China significantly influenced the concentrations of PAEs in window film which suggested higher inhalation exposure dose in winter. The median hazard quotient (HQ) values from PAEs exposure were below 1, suggesting that the intake of PAEs via three exposure pathways was considered as acceptable.

  11. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone. PMID:27372101

  12. MEMS based impedimetric sensing of phthalates

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2013-05-01

    Phthalate esters are known ubiquitous teratogenic and carcinogenic environmental and food pollutants. Their detection and quantification is strictly laboratory based, time consuming, expensive and professionally handled procedure. Presented research work describes a real time non-invasive detection technique for phthalates detection in ethanol, water and drinks. The new type of inter-digital sensor design incorporating multiple sensing gold electrodes were fabricated on silicon substrate based on thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) using semiconductor device fabrication technology. A passivation layer of Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) was used to functionalize the sensor. Various concentrations (0.1 to 20ppm) of DINP (di-isononyl phthalates) in ethanol and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in deionized MilliQ water were subjected to the testing system by dip testing method. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to obtain impedance spectra in order to determine sample conductance for evaluation of its dielectric properties. The impedance spectra so obtained showed that the sensor was able to detect the presence of phthalates in the samples distinctively. Electrochemical Spectrum Analyser was used to model the experimentally obtained impedance spectra by curve fitting technique to figure out Constant Phase Element (CPE) equivalent circuit. Locally available energy drink and juice was added with phthalates in concentrations of 2, 6 and 10ppm to observe the performance of the sensor in such products. Experimental results showed that the new sensor was able to detect different concentrations of phthalates in energy drinks. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Human Biological Monitoring of Diisononyl Phthalate and Diisodecyl Phthalate: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gurusankar Saravanabhavan; Janine Murray

    2012-01-01

    High molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of polymers and consumer products. Human biological monitoring studies have employed the metabolites of DINP and DIDP as biomarkers to assess human exposure. In this review, we summarize and analyze publicly available scientific data on chemistry, metabolism, and excretion kinetics, of DINP and DIDP, to identify specific and sensitive met...

  14. Levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A in pooled urine specimens from pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H; Angerer, Jürgen; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Hoppin, Jane A; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2009-09-01

    Concerns about reproductive and developmental health risks of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA) among the general population are increasing. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites were measured in 10 pooled urine samples representing 110 pregnant women who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) study in 2004. Daily intakes were estimated from urinary data and compared with reference doses (RfDs) and daily tolerable intakes (TDIs). The MoBa women had a higher mean BPA concentration (4.50 microg/L) than the pregnant women in the Generation R Study (Generation R) in the Netherlands and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States. The mean concentration of total DAP metabolites (24.20 microg/L) in MoBa women was higher than that in NHANES women but lower than that in Generation R women. The diethyl phthalate metabolite mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was the dominant phthalate metabolite in all three studies, with the mean concentrations of greater than 300 microg/L. The MoBa and Generation R women had higher mean concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) than the NHANES women. The estimated average daily intakes of BPA, chlorpyrifos/chlorpyrifos-methyl and phthalates in MoBa (and the other two studies) were below the RfDs and TDIs. The higher levels of metabolites in the MoBa participants may have been from intake via pesticide residues in food (organophosphates), consumption of canned food, especially fish/seafood (BPA), and use of personal care products (selected phthalates).

  15. Conformational Studies on γ - Benzyl- L- Glutamate and L- Valine Containing Block Copolypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Conformational studies on γ - benzyl-L- glutamate and L- valine containing block copolypeptides are reported using IR and CD spectra. The block copolypeptides contain valine block in the center and on both sides of the valine are γ - benzyl- L- glutamate blocks. The changes in conformation with increase in chain length of γ - benzyl- L- glutamate blocks are observed. When the chain length of γ - benzyl-L- glutamate block is 13, the block copolypeptide crystallized into beta conformation. With...

  16. 牛脏器中邻苯二甲酸酯类环境激素分析方法的研究%Determination of Phthalate Acid Esters Plasticizers in Cow Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建立; 路平; 杨凯; 于同泉; 杨柳

    2011-01-01

    对气相色谱/质谱联用仪检测牛脏器中邻苯二甲酸酯类环境激素(PAEs)的方法进行系统研究和方法检验.结果表明:选用二氯甲烷超声提取20 min,氧化铝-硅胶复合柱净化,用乙酸乙酯洗脱,洗脱速率1.0 mL/min,回收率在85.09%~110.48%之间,标准偏差(RSD)在2.5%~5.0%之间.表明该方法回收率高,RSD变异小,准确可靠.牛心、肝、脾、肺4种脏器中PAEs检测结果表明,所有样品均检测出6种PAEs,其中DnBP和BBP含量较高,说明此类污染物由外环境通过各种途径进入动物体后易蓄积于发生代谢作用的内脏器官中.为了提高食品卫生质量,避免PAEs物质在食用者体内慢性蓄积而对健康造成潜在危害,建议人们不要经常食用这些可能遭受环境激素污染的动物内脏食品.%The GC/MS detection was used to investigate the environmental hormone (PAEs) contents of phthalate esters in cow organs. The cow organs samples were extracted with dichloromethane using ultrasonic extraction 20min, and the extract were purificated by Alumina-Silica Gel Column, eluted by Ethyl Acetate at 1. OmL/min. The recovery rate of each PAEs were between 85. 09% and 110. 48% , standard deviation (RSD) values were between 2. 5% and 5. 0%. These results indicated that the method had high recoverity. Low variation of RSD and effective and accurate to detect of PAEs in cow organsThe contents of dibutyl phthalate (DnBP) and Butyl benzyl Phthalate(BBP) were relatively high in the cow organs samples. It concluded that pollutants from the outside environment, through various channels into the animal body, was easy to accumulate in the metabolism occurring heart, liver, spleen, lungs and other organs. In order to improve the quality of food hygiene and avoid eating those PAEs substances in the body caused by chronic accumulation of the potential hazard on health, it is recommended that people do not often eat these animal offal food products exposed to

  17. Methods for the Determination of Endocrine-Disrupting Phthalate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Munawar Saeed; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim bin Mohd; Wirzal, Mohd Dzul Hakim; Sirajuddin; Barek, Jiri; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Üstündag, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in the general and industrial environment and in many industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic, and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates in the list of priority substances with potential endocrine-disrupting action. They are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever-increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring different phthalates in various environmental, biological, and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play a useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation, and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs, which makes them suitable for large-scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine-disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices, including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods. PMID:25831046

  18. Methods for the Determination of Endocrine-Disrupting Phthalate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Munawar Saeed; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim bin Mohd; Wirzal, Mohd Dzul Hakim; Sirajuddin; Barek, Jiri; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Üstündag, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in the general and industrial environment and in many industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic, and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates in the list of priority substances with potential endocrine-disrupting action. They are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever-increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring different phthalates in various environmental, biological, and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play a useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation, and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs, which makes them suitable for large-scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine-disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices, including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods.

  19. Prenatal plus postnatal exposures to phthalates and child health risks

    OpenAIRE

    Latini, G; Massaro, M.; A. Mandich

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of chemicals predominantly used as plasticizers in many plastics since the 1930's, in a wide variety of manufacturing applications and consumer products. Given their extensive use and their leakage from plastics, they are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with potential detrimental health effects. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is the most commonly used phthalate plasticizer. There is widespread exposure to phthalates in the general population and therefore it is ...

  20. Phthalates, Nonylphenols and LAS in Roskilde Wastewater Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, P.; Sørensen, P. B.; Carlsen, L.;

    sludge and secondary sludge samples were taken and analysed for phthalates, nonylphenols and LAS. Generally the modelled half-lives for the phthalates were low and the removal efficiencies of the nonylphenols and phthalates were high compared to literature values. The results from the modelling work...

  1. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo Ag;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns...

  2. Chronic effects of vapour phase di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on six plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueck, Th A; Van Dijk, C J; David, F; Scholz, N; Vanwalleghem, F

    2003-12-01

    A fumigation experiment was performed in which six plant species representing the European flora were exposed to a range of DBP concentrations. Controlled amounts of DBP-saturated air were injected into the ingoing air-streams of plant fumigation chambers, maintaining constant concentrations there for a period of up to 76 days. The target concentrations were a control, 0.8, 1.5, 3.5, and 10.0 microg m(-3). The variation in sensitivity between plant species to atmospheric DBP was quantified on the basis of whole plant biomass in order to derive no-observed-effect-concentrations (NOECs). Significant dose-response relationships, based on realised concentrations, were thus derived using non-linear regression, resulting in NOECs of 0.51 microg m(-3) for Trifolium repens, 0.96 microg m(-3) for Brassica campestris, 1.87 microg m(-3) for Phaseolus vulgaris and 2.21 microg m(-3) for Plantago major. A significant effect was also observed for Holcus lanatus at 12.4 microg m(-3) DBP, but due to the variation at lower levels of DBP exposure, no dose-response relationship could be derived. No significant effect on growth of current year needles in Picea abies was observed, even at the highest level of DBP, 13.7 microg m(-3). Based on statistical extrapolation according to Aldenberg and Slob [Ecotox. Environ. Safety, 25 (1993) 48], an overall predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for the plant-atmosphere compartment of 0.33 microg m(-3) DBP was calculated. The PNEC was calculated using the mean and standard deviation of the NOEC for four of the tested species and an extrapolation factor. In addition to changes in leaf colour, leaf crinkling and growth reduction, a number of not quantified observations are described, indicating that DBP affects the physiology as well as the morphology of these species. PMID:14505713

  3. Chronic effects of vapour phase di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, T.A.; Dijk, van C.J.; David, F.; Scholz, N.; Vanwalleghem, F.

    2003-01-01

    A fumigation experiment was performed in which six plant species representing the European flora were exposed to a range of DBP concentrations. Controlled amounts of DBP-saturated air were injected into the ingoing air-streams of plant fumigation chambers, maintaining constant concentrations there f

  4. Highly Selective Liquid-Phase Benzylation of Anisole with Solid-Acid Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites were evaluated as solid acid catalysts for the liquid-phase benzylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol, benzyl bromide, and benzyl chloride at 80 °C. Among the examined zeolites, H-mordenite-10 (H-MOR-10) demonstrated particular high activity (>99 %) and excellent selectivity (>96...

  5. Synthesis and structures of scandium and lutetium benzyl complexes

    OpenAIRE

    De Meyer, N.; Roesky, Peter W.; Bambirra, Sergio; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart; Saliu, Kuburat; Takats, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Scandium and lutetium benzyl complexes were prepared. Reaction of [ScCl3(THF)(3)] with potassium benzyl afforded [Sc(CH2Ph)(3)(THF)(3)] (1). In the solid state the coordination polyhedron is a distorted octahedron, in which the benzyl groups are located in a facial arrangement on one side of the molecule. One of the coordinated THF molecules could be removed by trituration with toluene and recrystallization of I from toluene to give [Sc(CH2Ph)(3)(THF)(2)] (2). A significantly different compou...

  6. Degradation kinetics of benzyl nicotinate in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of benzyl nicotinate in aqueous solution over a pH range of 2.0-10.0 at 50±0.2 o was studied. The degradation was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The degradation was observed to follow apparent first-order rate kinetics and the rate constant for the decomposition at 25 o was estimated by extrapolation. The reaction was shown to be hydroxide ion catalyzed and the Arrhenius plots showed the temperature dependence of benzyl nicotinate degradation. A significant increase in the stability of benzyl nicotinate was observed when glycerol or polyethylene glycol 400 was incorporated into the aqueous solution.

  7. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate esters and asthma: a 9-year follow-up study of a taiwanese birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu Ying Ku

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that phthalate exposure in childhood is associated with the development of respiratory problems. However, few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalates on the development of asthma later in childhood. Therefore, we assessed the impact of prenatal and postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of asthma and wheezing using a Taiwanese birth cohort. A total of 430 pregnant women were recruited, and 171 (39.8% of them had their children followed when they were aged 2, 5, and 8 years. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to assess asthma and wheezing symptoms and serum total immunoglobulin E levels were measured at 8 years of age. Urine samples were obtained from 136 women during their third trimester of pregnancy, 99 children at 2 years of age, and 110 children at 5 years. Four common phthalate monoester metabolites in maternal and children's urine were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal urinary mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP] concentrations were associated with an increased occurrence of wheezing in boys at 8 years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 4.95 (95% CI 1.08-22.63, for upper quintile compared to the others after controlling for parental allergies and family members' smoking status. Urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP] levels over the quintile at 2-year-old were associated with increased asthma occurrence (adjusted OR = 6.14 (1.17-32.13 in boys. Similarly, the sum of di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate [DEHP] metabolites at 5 years was associated with asthma in boys (adjusted OR = 4.36 (1.01-18.86. Urinary MEHP in maternal and 5-year-old children urine were significantly associated with increased IgE in allergic children at 8 years. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate was associated with the occurrence of asthma in children, particularly for boys.

  8. [Relationship between phthalates and testicular dysgenesis syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Rong; Dong, Lei; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hardy, Matthew P

    2007-03-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrates that boys born to women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer and spermatogenic dysfunction, which are collectively referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS may be attributed to the dysfunction of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during their differentiation after exposure to phthalates in utero. Fox example, Leydig cell functions are significantly affected by phthalates, leading to the decrease of two Leydig cell products--insulin-like growth factor 3 (INSL3) and testosterone, which are critical factors for testis descent. The disorientation of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells in the adult testis may be the cause of spermatogenic dysfunction. PMID:17393778

  9. First Magnesium-mediated Carbonyl Benzylation in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Wei(邓维); TAN,Xiang-Hui(谭翔辉); LIU,Lei(刘磊); GUO,Qing-Xiang(郭庆祥)

    2004-01-01

    Catalyzed by AgNO3, Mg was found for the first time to be able to mediate the coupling reaction between aromatic aldehydes and benzyl bromide or chloride in water. The yields were slightly higher than the recent results for Mg-mediated allylation despite the fact that aqueous benzylation is intrinsically much harder than allylation. It was also found that the coupling reaction was chemoselective for aromatic aldehydes over aliphatic aldehydes, and chemoselective for aromatic aldehydes over aromatic ketones.

  10. Phthalates and Nonylphenols in Roskilde Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Fauser, P.; Sørensen, P. B.;

    The aim of the study has been to investigate the occurrence, sources, transport and fate of nonylphenols and phthalates in the aquatic environment of Roskilde Fjord. It was further intended to find the temporal as well as the spatial variation of these xenobiotics in the fjord and stream water....... Further, to investigate nonylphenols and phthalates in sediment in the fjord including a sediment core in the southern part, expected to yield clues regarding the historical variation of the concentration of xenobiotics, as well as some streams and lakes. Finally, an important aim was to make a mass...

  11. Benzylation of Toluene over Iron Modified Mesoporous Ceria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Rose Philo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry has been looked upon as a sustainable science which accomplishes both economical and environmental goals, simultaneously.With this objective, we developed an alternative process to obtain the industrially important benzyl aromatics by benzylation of aromatics using benzyl chloride, catalysed by mesoporous solid acid catalysts. In this work mesoporous ceria is prepared using neutral surfactant which helped the calcination possible at a lower temperature enabling a higher surface area. Mesoporous ceria modified with Fe can be successfully utilized for the selective benzylation of toluene to more desirable product methyl diphenyl methane with 100% conversion and selectivity in 2 hours using only 50mg of the catalyst under milder condition. The reusability, regenerability, high selectivity, 100% conversion, moderate reaction temperature and absence of solvent, etc. make these catalysts to be used in a truly heterogeneous manner and make the benzylation reaction an environment friendly one. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 30th June 2012; Revised: 7th November 2012; Accepted: 10th November 2012[How to Cite: K.J. Rose Philo, S. Sugunan. (2012. Benzylation of Toluene over Iron Modified Mesoporouxs Ceria. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 158-164. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3759.158-164][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3759.158-164 ] | View in 

  12. The Inhibition Effect of Tert-Butyl Alcohol on the TiO2 Nano Assays Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Different Organics and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejin Li; Jinhua Li; Jing Bai; Yifan Dong; Linsen Li; Baoxue Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The inhibition effect of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), identified as the •OH radical inhibitor, on the TiO2 nano assays (TNA) photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of different organics such as glucose and phthalate was reported. The adsorption performance of these organics on the TNA photoelectrode was investigated by using the instantaneous pho-tocurrent value, and the degradation property was examined by using the exhausted reaction. The results showed that glucose exhibited the poor adsorption and easy degradation performance, phthalate showed the strong adsorption and hard-degradation, but TBA showed the weak adsorption and was the most difficult to be degraded. The degradation of both glucose and phthalate could be inhibited evidently by TBA. But the effect on glucose was more obvious. The different inhibition effects of TBA on different organics could be attributed to the differences in the adsorption and the degradation property. For instance, phthalate of the strong adsorption property could avoid from the capture of •OH radicals by TBA in TNA photoelectrocatalytic process.

  13. Study of moving bed biofilm reactor in diethyl phthalate and diallyl phthalate removal from synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Gholami, Mitra; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Azari, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Phthalic acid esters have received significant attention over the last few years since they are considered as priority pollutants. In this study, effects of different operation conditions including hydraulic retention time, phthalates loading rates and aeration rate on process performance of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removing diethyl phthalate (DEP) and diallyl phthalate (DAP) from synthetic wastewater was evaluated. In optimum conditions, 94.96% and 93.85% removal efficiency were achieved for DEP and DAP, respectively. Moreover, MBBR achieved to remove more than 92% of COD for both phthalates. The results showed that DEP had a higher biodegradation rate compared to DAP, according to the selected parameters such as half saturation constant, overall reaction rate and maximum specific growth rate. The Grau second order model found as the best model for predicting MBBR performance due to its high correlation coefficients and more conformity of its kinetic coefficients to the results.

  14. Diversities of phthalate esters in suburban agricultural soils and wasteland soil appeared with urbanization in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in suburban farmland, vegetable, orchard and wasteland soils of Tianjin were obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis in 2009. Results showed that total PAEs varied from 0.05 to 10.4 μg g−1, with the median value as 0.32 μg g−1. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate are most abundant species. PAEs concentrations for the four types of soils exhibited decreasing order as vegetable soil > wasteland soil > farmland soil > orchard soil. PAEs exhibited elevated levels in more developed regions when compared with other studies. The agricultural plastic film could elevate the PAEs contents in soils. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products and plasticizers were important sources for PAEs in suburban soils in Tianjin. The higher PAEs contents in wasteland soils from suburban area should be paid more attention owing to large amounts of solid wastes appeared with the ongoing urbanization. - Highlights: ► PAEs levels in four types of soils in suburban area of Tianjin were studied. ► Vegetable soil and wasteland soil exhibited higher PAEs concentrations. ► PAEs in wasteland soils from suburban area of cities in China should be paid attention. - (1) Vegetable soil and wasteland soil exhibited higher PAEs concentrations; (2) PAEs in wasteland soils from suburban area of cities in China should be paid attention.

  15. Benzyl (E)-3-(4-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)dithio­carbazate

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Fan; Yan-Lan Huang; Zhao Wang; Han-Qi Guo; Shang Shan

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C16H16N2OS2, was obtained from a condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. In the molecule, the methoxyphenyl ring and dithiocarbazate fragment are located on opposite sides of the C=N double bond, showing an E configuration. The dithiocarbazate fragment is approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0052 Å); its mean plane is oriented at dihedral angles of 8.19 (15) and 85.70 (13)°, respective...

  16. Benzyl 3-[(E)-2-nitro­benzyl­idene]dithio­carbazate

    OpenAIRE

    Shang Shan; Yan-Lan Huang; Han-Qi Guo; Deng-Feng Li; Jian Sun

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C15H13N3O2S2, was obtained from a condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. In the molecule, the nearly planar dithiocarbazate fragment [r.m.s deviation = 0.0264 Å] is oriented at dihedral angles of 7.25 (17) and 74.09 (9)°with respect to the two benzene rings. The nitro group is twisted by a dihedral angle of 22.4 (7)° to the attached benzene ring. The nitrobenzene ring and d...

  17. Benzyl (E)-3-(2-methyl­benzyl­idene)dithio­carbazate

    OpenAIRE

    Shang Shan; Zhao Wang; Yan-Lan Huang; Han-Qi Guo; Deng-Feng Li

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C16H16N2S2, was obtained from the condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and 2-methylbenzaldehyde. The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules. In both molecules, the methylphenyl ring and the dithiocarbazate fragment are located on opposite sides of the C=N bond, showing an E conformation. In each molecule, the dithiocarbazate fragment is approximately planar, the r.m.s deviations being 0.018 and 0.025 Å. The mean plane of dithiocarb...

  18. The toxic effects of benzyl glucosinolate and its hydrolysis product, the biofumigant benzyl isothiocyanate, to Folsomia fimetaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John; Styrishave, Bjarne; Gimsing, Anne Louise; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2010-02-01

    Natural isothiocyanates (ITCs) are toxic to a range of pathogenic soil-living species, including nematodes and fungi, and can thus be used as natural fumigants called biofumigants. Natural isothiocyanates are hydrolysis products of glucosinolates (GSLs) released from plants after cell rupture. The study investigated the toxic effects of benzyl-GSL and its hydrolysis product benzyl-ITC on the springtail Folsomia fimetaria, a beneficial nontarget soil-dwelling micro-arthropod. The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil. Half-lives for benzyl-ITC in the soil depended on the initial soil concentration, ranging from 0.2 h for 67 nmol/g to 13.2 h for 3,351 nmol/g. For benzyl-ITC, the concentration resulting in 50% lethality (LC50) value for F. fimetaria adult mortality was 110 nmol/g (16.4 mg/kg) and the concentration resulting in 50% effect (EC50) value for juvenile production was 65 nmol/g (9.7 mg/kg). Benzyl-GSL proved to be less toxic and consequently an LC50 value for mortality could not be estimated for springtails exposed to benzyl-GSL. For reproduction, an EC50 value was estimated to approximately 690 nmol/g. The study indicates that natural soil concentrations of ITCs may be toxic to beneficial nontarget soil-dwelling arthropods such as springtails. PMID:20821454

  19. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Jensen, G. H.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 35 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  20. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 20 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  1. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  2. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  3. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP in Denmark and Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Chan-Kook;

    Since early 20th century, phthalates have been used as plasticizers and among these, Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) have been widely used. However, as adverse health effects such as endocrine disrupting effects were reported......, these compounds have been restricted for use in children’s products and they are also listed in Annex XIV of the EU REACH. However, these chemicals are still produced and used in many products. In 2002, approximately 10% of the world’s phthalates demand was produced in South Korea, while Denmark has no phthalate...... production. In order to protect human health equally, risk management systems need to include territorial varying background environmental qualities when modeling aggregate exposure. This study presents probabilistic assessments of multiple sources and routes to childhood phthalate exposure in Denmark...

  4. Possible impact of phthalates on infant reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Grete Lottrup; Andersson, A-M; Leffers, H;

    2006-01-01

    discusses two recent studies on perinatal phthalate exposure, which indicated that human testicular development might be susceptible to phthalates. One study analysed phthalate monoesters in breast milk and reproductive hormone levels in infants. Five of six phthalates [monoethyl-(MEP), monobutyl- (MBP......) levels. MMP, MEP, MBP, MEHP and MiNP were positively correlated with the LH/testosterone ratio. Another study found a reduction of the anogenital index (AGI) in infant boys with increasing levels of MBP, MEP, monobenzyl- and mono-isobutyl phthalate in maternal urine samples during late-pregnancy. Boys...... with small AGI showed a high prevalence of cryptorchidism and small genital size. Taken together these studies suggest an antivirilizing effect of phthalates in infants. Most of these findings are in line with animal observations. However, the possible effects of MEP appear to be limited to humans. This may...

  5. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which......://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236). In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four...... different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters) and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor...

  6. Prenatal Phenol and Phthalate Exposures and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Mary S.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J.; Zhu, Chenbo; Wetmur, James; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many phthalates and phenols are hormonally active and are suspected to alter the course of development. Objective We investigated prenatal exposures to phthalate and phenol metabolites and their associations with body size measures of the infants at birth. Methods We measured 5 phenol and 10 phthalate urinary metabolites in a multiethnic cohort of 404 women in New York City during their third trimester of pregnancy and recorded size of infants at birth. Results Median urinary conce...

  7. Phthalates: European regulation, chemistry, pharmacokinetic and related toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrice, Pasquale; Ventrice, Domenica; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-07-01

    Phthalates are chemicals widely used in industry and the consequences for human health caused by exposure to these agents are of significant current interest. Phthalate toxicity targets the reproductive and respiratory systems primarily, but they also may be involved in the processes of carcinogenesis and even in autism spectrum disorders. This article discusses the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in organ toxicity of phthalates; furthermore, pharmacokinetic, chemistry and the European regulation are summarized. PMID:23603460

  8. [Occurrence and relevance to health of persistent organic substances and phthalates in breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Raab, U; Fürst, P; Vieth, B; Völkel, W; Albrecht, M; Schwegler, U

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants like the polychlorinated dibenzo- P-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), perfluorinated compounds (PFC) and of phthalates in breast milk. On the basis of median and 95 (th) percentile values an "average" and a "high" intake were calculated for a 3-month-old infant exclusively breast-fed. Moreover, the actual daily intake was compared with tolerable daily intakes (TDI) recommended by scientific institutions. On this basis, we found an "average" ("high") daily intake of 70 (140) pg TEQ/kg body weight (b. w.) for PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB), 10 (20) ng/kg b. w. for PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate), 20 (50) ng/kg b. w. for PFOA (perfluorooctanoate), 1.7 (7.5) ng/kg b. w. for BDE 47, and 0.6 (2.1) ng/kg b. w. for BDE 99. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di- N-butyl phthalate (DnBP) an "average" and "high" intake of 400 ng/kg b. w. and 2,000 ng/kg b. w. and of 100 and 500 ng/kg b.w. were assumed, respectively. For all of these substances we found a daily intake via breast milk below the TDI, established on a livelong basis. On contrary, the daily intake for the sum of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB considerably exceeded the recommended TDI value. Even with regard to the "high" daily intake values the share of PBDE, PFC, and phthalates on the TDI was only in the lower percentage. Scientific organisations assume that an exceeding of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB intake in relation to the TDI value is acceptable only on the basis of the still declining levels in breast milk and the fact that this high exposure only occurs during some months of the entire life when breast milk is consumed. On the basis of the recent exposure situation mothers can exclusively breast-feed their infants for 6 months without any hesitation. The well established health benefits for mothers and infants when

  9. A monograph on the remediation of hazardous phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sailas; Pradeep, Selvanesan; Josh, Moolakkariyil Sarath; Kumar, Sunil; Masai, Eiji

    2015-11-15

    Phthalates or phthalic acid esters are a group of xenobiotic and hazardous compounds blended in plastics to enhance their plasticity and versatility. Enormous quantities of phthalates are produced globally for the production of plastic goods, whose disposal and leaching out into the surroundings cause serious concerns to the environment, biota and human health. Though in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, pre-clinical animal and clinical human studies showed endocrine disruption, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties, usage of phthalates continues due to their cuteness, attractive chemical properties, low production cost and lack of suitable alternatives. Studies revealed that microbes isolated from phthalate-contaminated environmental niches efficiently bioremediate various phthalates. Based upon this background, this review addresses the enumeration of major phthalates used in industry, routes of environmental contamination, evidences for health hazards, routes for in situ and ex situ microbial degradation, bacterial pathways involved in the degradation, major enzymes involved in the degradation process, half-lives of phthalates in environments, etc. Briefly, this handy module would enable the readers, environmentalists and policy makers to understand the impact of phthalates on the environment and the biota, coupled with the concerted microbial efforts to alleviate the burden of ever increasing load posed by phthalates. PMID:26004054

  10. A monograph on the remediation of hazardous phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sailas; Pradeep, Selvanesan; Josh, Moolakkariyil Sarath; Kumar, Sunil; Masai, Eiji

    2015-11-15

    Phthalates or phthalic acid esters are a group of xenobiotic and hazardous compounds blended in plastics to enhance their plasticity and versatility. Enormous quantities of phthalates are produced globally for the production of plastic goods, whose disposal and leaching out into the surroundings cause serious concerns to the environment, biota and human health. Though in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, pre-clinical animal and clinical human studies showed endocrine disruption, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties, usage of phthalates continues due to their cuteness, attractive chemical properties, low production cost and lack of suitable alternatives. Studies revealed that microbes isolated from phthalate-contaminated environmental niches efficiently bioremediate various phthalates. Based upon this background, this review addresses the enumeration of major phthalates used in industry, routes of environmental contamination, evidences for health hazards, routes for in situ and ex situ microbial degradation, bacterial pathways involved in the degradation, major enzymes involved in the degradation process, half-lives of phthalates in environments, etc. Briefly, this handy module would enable the readers, environmentalists and policy makers to understand the impact of phthalates on the environment and the biota, coupled with the concerted microbial efforts to alleviate the burden of ever increasing load posed by phthalates.

  11. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  12. Phthalate migration from packaging materials into food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Bogdanovičová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of dibutylphthalate (DBP and di- (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in samples of packages used for packaging meat productsand the phthalate migration from packaging materials to meat products were studied. Five samples of textile packaging intended for cooked meat production were analysed as well asthe final product which was filled into packages. Subsequently an analysis was carried out (after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage of the finished meat products stored over the course of their intended shelf life at ambient temperature of 4 °C. Determination of phthalates was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method with UV detection at a wavelength of 224 nm on the Zorbax Eclipse C8 column. The content of phthalates in the final product was below the limit of quantification. According to the Regulation of the Commission (EU No. 10/2011, the specific migration limit of products intended for food contact is 1.5 mg.kg-1of food simulant for DEHP and 0.3 mg.kg-1 for DBP. After filling and the first day of storage of the meat product, four package samples release the said phthalates to an extent that it exceeded the limits of the Commission Regulation (EU No. 10/2011. Already after the seventh day of storage, all samples (with the exception of sample 2 for DBP exceeded SMLs. Monitoring of each phthalate migration in individual samples during storage (for 28 days produced a rising tendency.  In sample 1, DBP increased from 0.40 to 3.37 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 0.58 to 14.66 mg.kg-1. In sample 2, DBP increased from ≤0.2 mg.kg-1 to 4.34 mg.kg-1, whileDEHP from 1.46 to 28.20 mg.kg-1. In sample 3, DBP increased from ≤0.2 mg.kg-1 to  8.27 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 1.67 to 14.84 mg.kg-1. In sample 4, DBP increased from 0.27 to 6.12 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 2.37 to 13.22 mg.kg-1. In sample 5, DBP increased from 0.32 to 11.11 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 1.91 to 15.42 mg.kg-1.

  13. Growth and characterization of organic single crystal benzyl carbamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala Solanki, S. Siva; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana; Suthan, T.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2015-10-01

    Benzyl carbamate single crystal is grown by a solution and vertical Bridgman technique for the first time. The cell parameters and morphologies are assessed from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the crystalline perfection of the grown benzyl carbamate crystal. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy study has been applied to arrive at the different functional groups. Thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are used to study its thermal behavior. The microhardness test is carried out and the load dependent hardness is measured.

  14. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers from alcohols and phenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Surya Prakash Rao; S P Senthilkumar

    2001-06-01

    Allyl and benzyl ethers of alcohols can be prepared conveniently and in high yield with allyl and benzyl bromide in the presence of solid potassium hydroxide without use of any solvent. Phenols can be converted to allyl ethers but are inert to benzylation under above conditions.

  15. Approach to a Facile and Selective Benzyl-Protection of Carbohydrates Based on Silyl Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Wei; LI,Xiao-Liu; ZHANG,Ping-Zhu; CHEN,Hua

    2008-01-01

    A convenient and selective benzyl protection of carbohydrates has been investigated on the basis of the silyl migration under the conventional benzylation conditions, developing a facile and short synthesis of methyl 2,3,6-tri-O-benzyl-a-D-glucopyranoside.

  16. 4-[3-(Benzyl-amino)-2-hy-droxy-prop-yl]-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarova, Ayten R; Allahverdiyev, Mirze A; Khalilov, Ali N; Gurbanov, Atash V; Brito, Iván

    2011-08-01

    In the title compound, C(24)H(35)NO(2), the planes of the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 72.76 (4)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen-bond inter-actions, forming an extended two-dimensional framework parallel to the ab plane. PMID:22091054

  17. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  18. Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Lotion by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Based on Solidification of Floating Organic Droplets Combined with Gas Chromatography%漂浮固化分散液液微萃取/气相色谱法测定化妆水中4种增塑剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕欢; 郑鑫; 伦小文; 马晓薇; 侯晓虹

    2013-01-01

    建立了漂浮固化分散液液微萃取(DLLME-SFO)-气相色谱法(GC)同时测定化妆水中4种邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂 (PAEs)的分析方法,并对萃取剂体积、分散剂种类、分散剂体积、萃取时间、水相pH值、盐浓度等参数进行优化.向样品溶液(化妆水和水的体积比为1∶10,pH 3.0)中快速加入15μL1-十二醇(萃取剂)和1 300 μL乙醇(分散剂),涡旋1 min,4 000 r·min-1离心5 min后,于冰浴中浸泡,待1-十二醇凝固后转移,融化后进行气相色谱分析.结果表明,该方法对4种目标化合物的线性范围为5.0~500.0 μg·L-1,检出限为0.001~1.0 μg ·L-1,回收率为88%~108%,相对标准偏差为1.6%~3.3%.4种目标化合物的富集倍数为800 ~1 578倍.将该方法与其它测定邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂的前处理方法进行对比.该方法操作简单快速、灵敏度高,可满足化妆水中邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂的分析要求.%A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplets(DLLME-SFO) combined with gas chromatography(GC) was developed,and validated in the pretreatment and determination of four phthalate esters (PAEs),including dibutyl phthalate,benzyl butyl phthalate,2-ethylhexyl phthalate,and di-n-octyl phthalate in lotion.The experimental conditions affecting extraction efficiencies for the analytes,such as extraction solvent volume,kind of dispersive solvent,dispersive solvent volume,extraction time,pH value and salt concentration were investigated.In the optimal DLLME-SFO method,the sample solution adjusted to pH 3.0 was prepared as a mixed solution of lotion-pure water (1 ∶ 10).15 μL 1-dodecanol (extraction solvent)and 1 300 μL ethanol(dispersive solvent) were rapidly injected into the sample solution.After vortexed for 1 min and centrifugated at 4 000 r · min-1 for 5 min,the sample was cooled down in an ice bath till 1-dodecanol became solid and formed a small ball.Then the

  19. 75 FR 69662 - Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information on...: Notice of Peer Consultation Workshop on the Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates; Request... phthalates as set forth in the National Academies of Science (NAS) report ``Phthalates and Cumulative...

  20. 77 FR 2276 - Teleconference and Public Meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... COMMISSION Teleconference and Public Meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all...

  1. 75 FR 18165 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... the first meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on Phthalates. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives...

  2. Iron-catalysed Negishi coupling of benzyl halides and phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Robin B; Huwe, Michael; Wilkinson, Mark C

    2009-02-01

    Iron-based catalysts containing either 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene or 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane give excellent activity and good selectivity in the Negishi coupling of aryl zinc reagents with a range of benzyl halides and phosphates.

  3. Engineering Escherichia coli for renewable benzyl alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Pugh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic hydrocarbon used as a solvent and an intermediate chemical in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and flavor/fragrance industries. The de novo biosynthesis of benzyl alcohol directly from renewable glucose was herein explored using a non-natural pathway engineered in Escherichia coli. Benzaldehyde was first produced from endogenous phenylpyruvate via three heterologous steps, including hydroxymandelate synthase (encoded by hmaS from Amycolatopsis orientalis, followed by (S-mandelate dehydrogenase (encoded by mdlB and phenylglyoxylate decarboxylase (encoded by mdlC from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The subsequent rapid and efficient reduction of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol occurred by the combined activity and native regulation of multiple endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and/or aldo-keto reductases. Through systematic deletion of competing aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways to promote endogenous phenylpyruvate availability, final benzyl alcohol titers as high as 114±1 mg/L were realized, representing a yield of 7.6±0.1 mg/g on glucose and a ~5-fold improvement over initial strains.

  4. Biocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde via hydrogen transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orbegozo, Thomas; Lavandera, Iván; Fabian, Walter M.F.; Mautner, Barbara; Vries, Johannes G. de; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Various types of biocatalysts like oxidases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and microbial cells were tested for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. Oxidases in combination with molecular oxygen led to low conversion. Alcohol dehydrogenases and microbial cells were tested in a hydrogen transfer reaction employ

  5. 3-Benzyl-6-benzyl­amino-1-methyl-5-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­pyrimidine

    OpenAIRE

    Surya Prakash Rao, H.; Sathishkumar, R.; Sarathbabu, M.; Manivel, P.; Kannan, M; Krishna, R.

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H22N4O2, the tetra­hydro­pyrimidine ring adopts an envelope conformation (with the N atom connected to the benzyl group representing the flap). This benzyl group occupies a quasi-axial position. The two benzyl groups lie over the tetra­hydro­pyridimidine ring. The amino group is a hydrogen-bond donor to the nitro group.

  6. Phthalates and neurotoxic effects on hippocampal network plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Matthew R; Smith, Catherine A

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are synthetically derived chemicals used as plasticizers in a variety of common household products. They are not chemically bound to plastic polymers and over time, easily migrate out of these products and into the environment. Experimental investigations evaluating the biological impact of phthalate exposure on developing organisms are critical given that estimates of phthalate exposure are considerably higher in infants and children compared to adults. Extensive growth and re-organization of neurocircuitry occurs during development leaving the brain highly susceptible to environmental insults. This review summarizes the effects of phthalate exposure on brain structure and function with particular emphasis on developmental aspects of hippocampal structural and functional plasticity. In general, it appears that widespread disruptions in hippocampal functional and structural plasticity occur following developmental (pre-, peri- and post-natal) exposure to phthalates. Whether these changes occur as a direct neurotoxic effect of phthalates or an indirect effect through disruption of endogenous endocrine functions is not fully understood. Comprehensive investigations that simultaneously assess the neurodevelopmental, neurotoxic, neuroendocrine and behavioral correlates of phthalate exposure are needed to provide an opportunity to thoroughly evaluate the neurotoxic potential of phthalates throughout the lifespan. PMID:25749100

  7. Dose-response assessment of fetal testosterone production and gene expression levels in rat testes following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several phthalate esters have been linked to the Phthalate Syndrome, affecting male reproductive development when administered to pregnant rats during in utero sexual differentiation. The goal of the current study was to enhance understanding of this class of compounds in the Spr...

  8. Phthalates and neurotoxic effects on hippocampal network plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Matthew R; Smith, Catherine A

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are synthetically derived chemicals used as plasticizers in a variety of common household products. They are not chemically bound to plastic polymers and over time, easily migrate out of these products and into the environment. Experimental investigations evaluating the biological impact of phthalate exposure on developing organisms are critical given that estimates of phthalate exposure are considerably higher in infants and children compared to adults. Extensive growth and re-organization of neurocircuitry occurs during development leaving the brain highly susceptible to environmental insults. This review summarizes the effects of phthalate exposure on brain structure and function with particular emphasis on developmental aspects of hippocampal structural and functional plasticity. In general, it appears that widespread disruptions in hippocampal functional and structural plasticity occur following developmental (pre-, peri- and post-natal) exposure to phthalates. Whether these changes occur as a direct neurotoxic effect of phthalates or an indirect effect through disruption of endogenous endocrine functions is not fully understood. Comprehensive investigations that simultaneously assess the neurodevelopmental, neurotoxic, neuroendocrine and behavioral correlates of phthalate exposure are needed to provide an opportunity to thoroughly evaluate the neurotoxic potential of phthalates throughout the lifespan.

  9. Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Smit, Lidwien A M;

    2015-01-01

    than 70% of blood samples, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines. Twenty-two reproductive biomarkers were assessed, including serum levels of reproductive hormones, markers of semen quality, sperm chromatin...... provides further indications that some organochlorines and phthalates adversely affect some parameters of male reproductive health....

  10. High urinary phthalate concentration associated with delayed pubarche in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K; Mouritsen, A;

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of chemicals present in numerous consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties in experimental studies and are suspected to be involved in human male reproductive health problems. A few studies have shown associations between phthalate exposure and changes...... in pubertal timing among girls, although controversies exist. We determined the concentration of 12 phthalate metabolites in first morning urine samples from 725 healthy Danish girls (aged 5.6-19.1 years) in relation to age, pubertal development (breast and pubic hair stage) and reproductive hormone levels...... (luteinizing hormone, oestradiol and testosterone). Furthermore, urinary phthalates were determined in 25 girls with precocious puberty (PP). In general, the youngest girls with less advanced pubertal development had the highest first morning urinary concentration of the monobutyl phthalate isoforms (¿MBP...

  11. Synthesis of benzyl chlorides and cycloveratrylene macrocycles using benzylic alcohols under homogeneous catalysis by HCl/dioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Marina Vargas-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of benzyl chlorides, cyclic derivatives cyclotriveratrylene and cyclotripiperotrylene were carried out in using the HCl/dioxane system as a catalyst. The reaction proceeded with high selectivity and is sensitive to the number of alkyl and methoxy substituent on the aromatic ring.

  12. Estimated exposure to phthalates in cosmetics and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byung Mu

    2004-12-01

    Some phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and their metabolites are suspected of producing teratogenic or endocrine-disrupting effects. To predict possible human exposure to phthalates in cosmetics, the levels of DEHP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), DBP, and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 102 branded hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, and nail polishes. DBP was detected in 19 of the 21 nail polishes and in 11 of the 42 perfumes, and DEP was detected in 24 of the 42 perfumes and 2 of the 8 deodorants. Median exposure levels to phthalates in cosmetics by dermal absorption were estimated to be 0.0006 g/kg body weight (bw)/d for DEHP, 0.6 g/kg bw/d for DEP, and 0.103 g/kg bw/d for DBP. Furthermore, if phthalates in cosmetics were assumed to be absorbed exclusively via 100% inhalation, the median daily exposure levels to phthalates in cosmetics were estimated to be 0.026 g/kg bw/d for DEHP, 81.471 g/kg bw/d for DEP, and 22.917 g/kg bw/d for DBP, which are far lower than the regulation levels set buy the Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity, and the Environment (CSTEE) (37 g/kg bw/d, DEHP), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (7000 g/kg bw/d, DEP), and International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (66 g/kg bw/d, DBP), respectively. Based on these data, hazard indices (HI, daily exposure level/regulation level) were calculated to be 0.0007 for DEHP, 0.012 for DEP, and 0.347 for DBP. These data suggest that estimated exposure to-phthalates in the cosmetics mentioned are relatively small. However, total exposure levels from several sources may be greater and require further investigation.

  13. Compound list: butylated hydroxyanisole [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available butylated hydroxyanisole BHA 00156 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/...LATEST/Human/in_vitro/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/o...pen-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  14. Estimated Daily Phthalate Exposures in a Population of Mothers of Male Infants Exhibiting Reduced Anogenital Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Marsee, Kevin; Tracey J. Woodruff; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2006-01-01

    Phthalate diesters have been shown to be developmental and reproductive toxicants in animal studies. A recent epidemiologic study showed certain phthalates to be significantly associated with reduced anogenital distance in human male infants, the first evidence of subtle developmental effects in human male infants exposed prenatally to phthalates. We used two previously published methods to estimate the daily phthalate exposures for the four phthalates whose urinary metabolites were statistic...

  15. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents: Estimation of daily phthalate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar;

    2011-01-01

    Background Phthalates are a group of chemicals with widespread use in the industrial production of numerous consumer products. They are suspected to be involved in male reproductive health problems and have also been associated with several other health problems in children including obesity...... and asthma. Objectives To study the urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in Danish children recruited from the general population, and to estimate the daily intake of phthalates in this segment of the population. Method One 24 h urine sample and to consecutive first morning urine samples were collected...... from 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents (range 6–21 yrs). The concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites of 5 different phthalate diesters were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results The analyzed metabolites were detectable in almost all 24 h urine samples...

  16. Direct quantitative analysis of phthalate esters as micro-contaminants in cleanroom air and wafer surfaces by auto-thermal desorption--gas chromatography--mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuhao; Den, Walter; Bai, Hsunling; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2005-04-01

    This study established an analytical method for the trace analyses of two phthalate esters, including diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), known as the major constituents of cleanroom micro-contamination detrimental to the reliability of semiconductor devices. Using thermal desorption coupled with a GC-MS system, standard tubes were prepared by delivering liquid standards pre-vaporized by a quasi-vaporizer into Tenax GR tubes for calibration. This method was capable of achieving detection limits of 0.05 microg m(-3) for 0.1 m3 air samples and 0.03 ng cm(-2) for 150-mm wafer surface density. Actual samples collected from a semiconductor cleanroom showed that the concentration of DBP in a polypropylene wafer box (0.45 microg m(-3)) was nearly four times higher than that in the cleanroom environment (0.12 microg m(-3)). The surface contamination of DBP was 0.67 ng cm(-2) for a wafer stored in the wafer box for 24 h. Furthermore, among the three types of heat-resistant O-ring materials tested, Kalrez was found to be particularly suitable for high-temperature processes in semiconductor cleanrooms due to their low emissions of organic vapors. This analytical procedure should serve as an effective monitoring method for the organic micro-contamination in cleanroom environments.

  17. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk : results from analyses in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kleinjans, J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    Both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The association between dietary intake of BHA and BHT and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)

  18. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxyanisole. 182.3169 Section 182.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  20. Chemical behavior of phthalates under abiotic conditions in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip N; Li, Yi; Appiah-Sefah, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The phthalates comprise a family of phthalic acid esters that are used primarily as plasticizers in polymeric materials to impart flexibility during the manufacturing process and to the end product. It is estimated that the annual worldwide production of phthalate esters exceeds five million tons. Plasticizers are one of the most prominent classes of chemicals, but unfortunately, they possess endocrine-disrupting chemical properties. As endocrine-disrupting chemicals, plasticizers have produced adverse developmental and reproductive effects in mammalian animal models.Phthalates are easily transported into the environment during manufacture, disposal,and leaching from plastic materials, because they are not covalently bound to the plastics of which they are a component. Because of their fugitive nature and widespread use, the phthalates are commonly detected in air, water, sediment/soil, and biota, including human tissue. Large amounts of phthalic acid esters are often leached from the plastics that are dumped at municipal landfills.Phthalate esters undergo chemical changes when released into the environment.The primary processes by which they are transformed include hydrolysis, photolysis,and biodegradation. It is noteworthy that all of these degradation processes are greatly influenced by the local physical and chemical conditions. Hence, in the present review, we have sought to ascertain from the literature how the phthalate esters undergo transformation when they are released into lower landfill layers.Within the upper landfill layers, biodegradation prevails as the major degradation mechanism by which the phthalates are dissipated. Generally, biodegradation pathways for the phthalates consist of primary biodegradation from phthalate diesters to phthalate monoesters, then to phthalic acid, and ultimately biodegradation of phthalic acid to form C02 and/or CH4• We have noted that the phthalate esters are also degraded through abiotic means,which proceeds via

  1. Human Biological Monitoring of Diisononyl Phthalate and Diisodecyl Phthalate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusankar Saravanabhavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP, and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP, are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of polymers and consumer products. Human biological monitoring studies have employed the metabolites of DINP and DIDP as biomarkers to assess human exposure. In this review, we summarize and analyze publicly available scientific data on chemistry, metabolism, and excretion kinetics, of DINP and DIDP, to identify specific and sensitive metabolites. Human biological monitoring data on DINP and DIDP are scrutinised to assess the suitability of these metabolites as biomarkers of exposure. Results from studies carried out in animals and humans indicate that phthalates are metabolised rapidly and do not bioaccmulate. During Phase-I metabolism, ester hydrolysis of DINP and DIDP leads to the formation of hydrolytic monoesters. These primary metabolites undergo further oxidation reactions to produce secondary metabolites. Hence, the levels of secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine are found to be always higher than the primary metabolites. Results from human biological monitoring studies have shown that the secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine were detected in almost all tested samples, while the primary metabolites were detected in only about 10% of the samples. This indicates that the secondary metabolites are very sensitive biomarkers of DINP/DIDP exposure while primary metabolites are not. The NHANES data indicate that the median concentrations of MCIOP and MCINP (secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP, resp. at a population level are about 5.1 μg/L and 2.7 μg/L, respectively. Moreover, the available biological monitoring data suggest that infants/children are exposed to higher levels of phthalates than adults.

  2. Recovering/recycling of butyl and halogenated butyl rubber via ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) attain a continuous and raising proportion of urban and industrial scraps discarded in landfills; their impact on environment are more and more concerning. The implementation of new technologies in order to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment, at an effective cost, proved to be a great problem, due to inherent complexity for polymers re-using. Ionizing radiation is capable to modify structure and properties of polymeric material. Butyl and halobutyl rubbers have been used within a comprehensive scale, applications such as tires spare parts and diverse artifacts. The major high energy photon effect, as gamma-rays in butyl and halo butyl rubbers consists in free-radicals generation along changes in mechanical properties.This work aims to the development of controlled degradation processes (devulcanization) of butyl and halo butyl (chlorine and bromine) rubbers, in order to characterize their availability for transformation and modification of properties. Experimental results obtained showed that butyl and halobutyl rubbers,irradiated at 25 kGy and further sheared, are able to be used as an initial point for mixtures with pristine. (author)

  3. Prenatal plus postnatal exposures to phthalates and child health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a class of chemicals predominantly used as plasticizers in many plastics since the 1930's, in a wide variety of manufacturing applications and consumer products. Given their extensive use and their leakage from plastics, they are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with potential detrimental health effects. Di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP is the most commonly used phthalate plasticizer. There is widespread exposure to phthalates in the general population and therefore it is importat to investigate the toxic potential of these compounds. In particular, phthalate exposure has been shown to cause developmental and reproductive anomalies in animal models, and there is concern that these compounds may be causing adverse effects on human reproductive health. Phthalate effects are suspected to be much more severe after in uterus exposure. Phthalate esters are considered endocrine balance and development of the mammalian testis, thus exerting harmful effects on mammalian reproduction and fertility. Health risk assessments for the phthalate exposure of the general population should be performed and current PVC plasticizers, especially the ones used for infants should be replaces with high quality materials.

  4. Structure-activity relationship of immunostimulatory effects of phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Gunnar D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, have been shown to have an adjuvant effect in mice. However, an adjuvant effect, defined as an inherent ability to stimulate the humoral immune response, was only observed after exposure to a limited number of the phthalates. An adjuvant effect may be due to the structure or physicochemical characteristics of the molecule. The scope of this study was to investigate which molecular characteristics that determine the observed adjuvant effect of the most widely used phthalate plasticizer, the di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, which is documented as having a strong adjuvant effect. To do so, a series of nine lipophilic compounds with structural and physicochemical relations to DEHP were investigated. Results Adjuvant effect of phthalates and related compounds were restricted to the IgG1 antibody formation. No effect was seen on IgE. It appears that lipophilicity plays a crucial role, but lipophilicity does not per se cause an adjuvant effect. In addition to lipophilicity, a phthalate must also possess specific stereochemical characteristics in order for it to have adjuvant effect. Conclusion The adjuvant effect of phthalates are highly influenced by both stereochemical and physico-chemical properties. This knowledge may be used in the rational development of plasticizers without adjuvant effect as well as in the design of new immunological adjuvants.

  5. A survey of phthalate esters in consumer cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubinger, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Certain phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in animal models. For this reason, the FDA has been monitoring the use of phthalate esters in cosmetics. In this study, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a limited survey of 84 adult-use and baby-care cosmetic products for the presence of five phthalate esters: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (Figure 1). The analytes were extracted from a cosmetic product/Celite mixture with hexane, and the extract was then analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance chromatography (HPLC) on an instrument equipped with an ultraviolet radiation (UV) detector set at 230 nm. The analytes were separated on a Partisil octadecylsilane (ODS)-3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 50% water, 34% acetonitrile, 13% 2-propanol, and 3% methanol that was changed linearly (35 minutes) to 15% water, 55% acetonitrile, 25% 2-propanol, and 5% methanol and held for an additional ten minutes. Spiked recoveries in antiperspirant and nail color ranged from 88% to 104%. Thirty-one of the 60 adult-use cosmetic products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester. Twenty products contained DEP and 11 nail products contained DBP. Concentrations of DBP ranged from 123 μg/g to 62,607 μg/g. Concentrations of DEP ranged from 80 μg/g to 36,006 μg/g. Five of the 24 baby-care products contained DEP at concentrations ranging from 10 μg/g to 274 μg/g.

  6. Determination of NO chemical affinities of benzyl nitrite in acetonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LI; Xiaoqing ZHU; Jinpei CHENG

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the study of NO chemical affinities of organic nitrites, for the bio-logical and physiological effects of organic nitrites seem to be due to their ability to release NO. In this paper, NO chemical affinities of ten substituted benzyl nitrites were determined by titration calorimetry combined with a ther-modynamic cycle in acetonitrile solution. The results show that ΔHhet(O-NO)s of benzyl nitrites are substan-tially larger than the corresponding ΔHhomo(O-NO)s, suggesting that these O-nitroso compounds much more easily release NO radicals by the O-NO bond homolytic cleavage. It is believed that the structural and energetic information disclosed in this work should be useful in understanding chemical and biological functions of organic nitrites.

  7. 3-Benzyl-5-methyl-1,2-benzoxazole 2-oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anuradha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H13NO2, the isoxazole unit and the attached benzene ring are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 1.42 (8°. The benzyl ring is inclined to the isoxazole ring by 74.19 (8° and is in a +sc conformation with respect to the benzisoxazole unit. In the crystal, C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules, forming zigzag chains propagating along the b axis. There are also π–π interactions present involving the isoxazole and benzyl rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5209 (10 Å], and C—H...π interactions involving the benzene ring of the benzoisoxazole unit and the methylene bridging group.

  8. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Anogenital Distance in Swedish Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo A; Lindh, Christian; Jensen, Tina K.; Bodin, Anna; Jonsson, Carin; Janson, Staffan; Swan, Shanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)—the distance from the anus to the genitals—has been used to assess repro...

  9. Presence of phthalates in gastrointestinal medications: is there a hidden danger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinger, Zane R; Nguyen, Geoffrey C

    2013-11-01

    Pharmaceutical companies that produce gastrointestinal (GI) medications often utilize phthalates for their ability to localize medication release. Commonly prescribed GI medications that may utilize phthalates are 5-Aminosalicylates, proton pump inhibitors, and pancreatic enzymes. Our understanding of the cumulative health effects of phthalates from medications remains unclear, and there is increasing evidence that phthalates are not harmless. Experimental studies in animals have shown that phthalates, specifically dibutyl phthalate and Di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, have the potential to alter and/or inhibit reproductive biology and in utero development. Despite the lack of definitive human data, many cohort and cross-sectional studies demonstrate concerning associations between phthalates and poor health status, specifically developmental problems. Longitudinal studies and studies with larger sample sizes are required to determine whether phthalates actually cause negative health consequences. It is also important that physicians regularly review and discuss with patients the medicinal ingredients in their medications and supplements, specifically in pregnant woman with inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Green Synthesis of Benzylated Aromatics Using Iron Loaded Mesoporous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Preethi, Muthuraj Esther Leena; Revathi, Shanmugam; Sivakumar, Thiripuranthagan

    2008-01-01

    Syntheses of benzylated aromatics like diphenylmethane and its derivatives by the condensation of benzene or toluene or o-xylene with benzylchloride or 4-methylbenzylchloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of various iron loaded mesoporous solid acid catalysts such as Fe/Al-MCM-41 (Si/Al=25), Fe/Al-MCM-41 (Si/Al=50) and Fe/Al-MCM-41 (Si/Al=100) are reported.

  11. Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane Resins from Liquefied Benzylated Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ping WEI; Fa CHENG; Hou Ping LI; Jiu Gao YU

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, polyurethane resins were synthesized from liquefied benzylated wood and TDI (toluene diisocyanate)-TMP (trihydromethylene propane) prepolymer. And the relation between microphase structure and properties of PU samples were also studied. The results indicated that coatings obtained had good mechanical and thermal properties. The amount of the curing agent has great effect on the degree of phase segregation. In addition, with increased the curing agent amount, the thermal stabilities were also improved.

  12. Levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, M; Read, W A; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and total phthalate ester plasticizer levels were determined in milk, cream, butter and cheese samples from a variety of sources from three European countries (UK, Norway and Spain). Samples of milk (from Norway) obtained at various stages during collection, transportation and packaging operations showed no apparent trends in phthalate contamination with total phthalate levels (expressed as DEHP equivalents) in the raw milk of between 0.12 and 0.28 mg/kg. On processing the DEHP was concentrated in the cream at levels up to 1.93 mg/kg, whereas low fat milk contained from cheese, butter and other fatty products varied considerably in their levels of contamination, the highest being cheese samples containing 17 mg/kg of DEHP and 114 mg/kg total phthalate. However, the majority of samples contained 0.6-3.0 mg/kg DEHP and 4-20 mg/kg total phthalate. UK cream samples contained levels of 0.2-2.7 mg/kg DEHP and 1.8-19.0 mg/kg total phthalate. The level found in these products was too high to have resulted solely from milk by concentration in the fat phase and must therefore have arisen in other ways.

  13. Multichromic polymers of benzotriazole derivatives: Effect of benzyl substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigitsoy, Basak [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Abdul Karim, S.M. [Department of Arts and Sciences, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1208 (Bangladesh); Balan, Abidin; Baran, Derya [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Toppare, Levent, E-mail: toppare@metu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Biotechnology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Polymer Science and Technology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-02-01

    Two electroactive monomers 1-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTA) and 2-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTS) were synthesized with satisfactory yields. The effect of substitution site on electrochemical and optical properties was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical studies. Results showed that position of pendant group alters the electronic structure of the resulting polymer causing different optical and electrochemical behaviors. Symmetrically positioned benzyl unit on benzotriazole moiety resulted in a neutral state red polymer, PBBTS, having multi-colored property in its different oxidized and reduced states. Its analogue PBBTA exhibited maximum absorption at 390 nm in its neutral state and also revealed multicolored electrochromic property upon stepwise oxidation. Very different optical band gap values were calculated: 1.55 eV and 2.25 eV for PBBTS and PBBTA, respectively.

  14. Multichromic polymers of benzotriazole derivatives: Effect of benzyl substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two electroactive monomers 1-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTA) and 2-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTS) were synthesized with satisfactory yields. The effect of substitution site on electrochemical and optical properties was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical studies. Results showed that position of pendant group alters the electronic structure of the resulting polymer causing different optical and electrochemical behaviors. Symmetrically positioned benzyl unit on benzotriazole moiety resulted in a neutral state red polymer, PBBTS, having multi-colored property in its different oxidized and reduced states. Its analogue PBBTA exhibited maximum absorption at 390 nm in its neutral state and also revealed multicolored electrochromic property upon stepwise oxidation. Very different optical band gap values were calculated: 1.55 eV and 2.25 eV for PBBTS and PBBTA, respectively.

  15. Phthalate monoesters in perfusate from a dual placenta perfusion system, the placenta tissue and umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Mortensen, Gerda K; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    Fetal exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse reproductive effects, including cryptorchidism and decreased semen quality. Information about human placental transfer is needed to qualify the hypotheses. A dual recirculating placenta perfusion system to monitor concentrations of eight...... phthalate monoesters in fetal and maternal perfusates was established. In addition to perfusate background measures of phthalate monoesters, the concentrations in umbilical cord plasma and placenta tissue were measured. Monomethyl phthalate (mMP), monoethyl phthalate (mEP), monobutyl phthalate (m...

  16. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices.

  17. Synthesis of Pharmaceutical Intermediates by Toluene Benzylation over Heteropoly Acids on Different Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. V. Bokade; G.D. Yadav

    2007-01-01

    Selective formation of pharmaceutical intermediates like diphenylmethane, dimethyldiphenylmethane, benzyl toluene and benzoic acid by liquid phase, toluene benzylation with benzyl chloride as a benzylating agent, was systematically studied over plane clay (K-10, montmorillonite),plane H-Beta, plane MFI structured titanosilicate (TS-1) and heteropoly acids [HPA, namely dodecasupported on clay, H-beta and TS-1. The 20%TPA/Clay, 30%TPA/H-Beta and 30%TPA/TS-1, were observed to be the best catalyst samples over plane clay, plane H-Beta and plane TS-1. The catalyst samples are compared with respect to benzyl chloride conversion and selectivities for diphenylmethane,dimethyl-diphenylmethane, benzyl toluene and benzoic acid. The reaction follows the pseudo-first order rate power law model. The apparent rate constants are calculated and compared with the reported ones.

  18. 21 CFR 176.180 - Components of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “Standard Method of Test for Melting Point of Petrolatum and Microcrystalline Wax” (Revised 1960) is... alcohol. Butyl benzyl phthalate. Candelilla wax. Carbon tetrachloride. Castor oil, polyoxyethylated (42... content of wax-polymer blend coatings. Petroleum hydrocarbon resins (produced by the...

  19. In situ spectroscopic investigation of oxidative dehydrogenation and disproportionation of benzyl alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, E.; HOFMANN, J.P.; Parker, S. F.; Sankar, M.; Lari, G.M.; Kondrat, S.A.; Knight, D. W.; Bethell, D; Weckhuysen, B.M.; G. J. Hutchings

    2013-01-01

    In the solvent free oxidation of benzyl alcohol, using supported gold–palladium nanoalloys, toluene is often one of major by-products and it is formed by the disproportionation of benzyl alcohol. Gold–palladium catalysts on acidic supports promote both the disproportionation of benzyl alcohol and oxidative dehydrogenation to form benzaldehyde. Basic supports completely switch off disproportionation and the gold–palladium nanoparticles catalyse the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction exclusivel...

  20. Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Gregory S. Y.; Somerville, Colin P.; Jones, Timothy W; Walsh, John P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of an anaphylactic reaction to Reandron 1000 (depot testosterone undecanoate with a castor oil and benzyl benzoate vehicle). While considered to have a favourable safety profile, serious complications such as oil embolism and anaphylaxis can occur. In our patient, skin testing identified benzyl benzoate to be the trigger, with no reaction to castor oil or testosterone undecanoate components. As benzyl benzoate exists in multiple pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics, ...

  1. 3-Benzyl-6-benzylamino-1-methyl-5-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Surya Prakash Rao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H22N4O2, the tetrahydropyrimidine ring adopts an envelope conformation (with the N atom connected to the benzyl group representing the flap. This benzyl group occupies a quasi-axial position. The two benzyl groups lie over the tetrahydropyridimidine ring. The amino group is a hydrogen-bond donor to the nitro group.

  2. Aerobic dehydrogenative α-diarylation of benzyl ketones with aromatics through carbon-carbon bond cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Nagnath Yadav; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2014-02-01

    Substituted benzyl ketones reacted with aromatics in the presence of K2S2O8 in CF3COOH at room temperature, yielding α-diaryl benzyl ketones through a carbon-carbon bond cleavage. In the reaction, two new carbon-carbon bonds were formed and one carbon-carbon bond was cleaved. It is very interesting that two different nucleophiles such as benzyl ketones and aromatics were coupled together without metal, which is unusual in organic synthesis.

  3. Amniotic fluid phthalate levels and male fetal gonad function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to phthalates may pose a threat to human male reproduction. However, additional knowledge about the in vivo effect in humans is needed, and reported associations with genital abnormalities are inconclusive. We aimed to study prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP......) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) exposure in relation to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and human fetal Leydig cell function. METHODS: We studied 270 cryptorchidism cases, 75 hypospadias cases, and 300 controls. Second-trimester amniotic fluid samples were available from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank (n = 25......,105) covering 1980-1996. We assayed metabolites of DEHP and DiNP (n = 645) and steroid hormones (n = 545) by mass spectrometry. We assayed insulin-like factor 3 by immunoassay (n = 475) and analyzed data using linear or logistic regression. RESULTS: Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP, DEHP...

  4. Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2009-04-01

    Phthalates, the most abundantly produced plasticizers, leach out from polyvinyl chloride plastics and disrupt androgen action. Male rats that are exposed to phthalates in utero develop symptoms characteristic of the human condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Environmental influences have been suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of TDS in humans (i.e. cryptorchidism and hypospadias in newborn boys and testicular cancer and reduced sperm quality in adult males). In this review, we discuss the recent findings that prenatal exposure to phthalates affects Leydig cell function in the postnatal testis. This review also focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of how Leydig cell factors contribute to phthalate-mediated TDS. PMID:19278865

  5. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Huijing Shi; Yang Cao; Qing Shen; Yan Zhao; Zhe Zhang; Yunhui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives: To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November). Method...

  6. Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Guo-xin; Lian, Qing-quan; GE, REN-SHAN; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2009-01-01

    Phthalates, the most abundantly produced plasticizers, leach out from polyvinyl chloride plastics and disrupt androgen action. Male rats that are exposed to phthalates in utero develop symptoms characteristic of the human condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Environmental influences have been suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of TDS in humans (i.e. cryptorchidism and hypospadias in newborn boys and testicular cancer and reduced sperm quality in adul...

  7. A category approach for reproductive effects of phthalates.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabjan, Evelin; Hulzebos, Etje; Mennes, W.; Piersma, Aldert H

    2006-01-01

    In regulatory toxicology, the experimental assessment of reproductive toxicity is one of the most costly endpoints to perform. Categorizing chemicals is an approach that can be used to reduce animal tests in risk assessments of chemicals, for example, via REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals). The category approach was tested for reproductive toxicity with a group of 10 ortho-phthalate esters, with different side chain lengths. Three ortho-phthalates were used for t...

  8. Phthalate-induced toxicity: Identifying the vulnerable pathways during sexual differentiation in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposures to phthalate ester plasticizer compounds are widespread. Studies in rodents have demonstrated that in utero exposure to various phthalates throughout sexual differentiation (GD14-18) results in decreased fetal testicular androgen production, and ultimately leads t...

  9. Research on a New Techonology of Synthesis of L-Phenylalanine Benzyl Ester Hydrochloride%L-苯丙氨酸苄酯盐酸盐的合成新工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉琴

    2015-01-01

    提出了L-苯丙氨酸苄酯盐酸盐合成的新工艺路线,以L-苯丙氨酸为起始原料,先用二碳酸二叔丁酯保护氨基,再与氯化苄缩合得到N-叔丁氧羰基-L-苯丙氨酸苄酯,最后用氯化氢脱保护,得到L-苯丙氨酸苄酯盐酸盐.通过实验探索了反应温度、原料配比、缚酸剂以及溶剂种类等工艺条件对合成的影响.实验结果表明,在优化的工艺条件下,合成总收率为90.8%,为L-苯丙氨酸苄酯盐酸盐的合成提供了新选择.%The paper proposes a new technology line to synthesize L-Phenylalanine benzyl ester hydrochloride. L-Phenyl?alanine benzyl ester hydrochloride is synthesized from L-phenylalalanine via tert-butoxycarbonylation of amino with di-tert-butyl dicarbonate,condensation with benzyl chloride,and deprotection with hydrochloride solution in ethyl acetate. Through the experiments,the effects of such technology conditions as reaction temperatures,ingredients ratios,acid-binding agents and solvents on the synthesis are explored. The experimental results show that under the optimized techonological conditions , the overall yield of target product is 90.8%,and thus a new option is provided for the synthesis of L-Phenylalanine Benzyl Ester Hydrochloride.

  10. Benzyl 3-[(E)-1-(pyrazin-2-yl)ethylidene]dithiocarbazate

    OpenAIRE

    Shang Shan; Yan-Lan Huang; Han-Qi Guo; Deng-Feng Li; Jian Sun

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C14H14N4S2, was obtained from a condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and acetylpyrazine. The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules, in each of which the pyrazine ring and dithiocarbazate unit are approximately co-planar, the r.m.s. deviations being 0.0304 and 0.0418 Å. The mean plane is oriented with respect to the benzene ring at 49.22 (4)° in one molecule and at 69.76 (7)° in the other. In t...

  11. Selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol in dense CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic reactions in pressurized CO2 are often strongly affected by the phase behavior. Knowledge on phase behavior is therefore desirable for optimizing the reaction conditions but often requires considerable experimental effort. Here, a previously established thermodynamic model for complex...... systems, based on the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state, is utilized in order to gain insight into the phase behavior during the palladium-catalyzed selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The catalytic reaction was studied in a tubular continuous reactor both under biphasic...

  12. Multireference Calculation of the Photodissociation of Benzyl Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jun; LIU Ya-Jun; FANG Wei-Hai

    2007-01-01

    The photodissociation mechanism of benzyl chloride (BzCl) under 248 nm has been investigated by the complete active space SCF (CASSCF) method by calculating the geometries of the ground (S0) and lower excited states,the vertical (Tv) and adiabatic (T0) excitation energies of the lower states,and the dissociation reaction pathways on the potential energy surfaces (PES) of S1, T1 and T2 states.The calculated results clearly elucidated the photodissociation mechanism of BzCl,and indicated that the photodissociation on the PES of T1 state is the most favorable.

  13. Consumer product exposures associated with urinary phthalate levels in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Jessie P.; Palmieri, Rachel T; Matuszewski, Jeanine M.; Herring, Amy H.; Baird, Donna D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Hoppin, Jane A

    2012-01-01

    Human phthalate exposure is ubiquitous, but little is known regarding predictors of urinary phthalate levels. To explore this, 50 pregnant women aged 18–38 years completed two questionnaires on potential phthalate exposures and provided a first morning void. Urine samples were analyzed for 12 phthalate metabolites. Associations with questionnaire items were evaluated via Wilcoxon tests and t-tests, and r-squared values were calculated in multiple linear regression models. Few measured factors...

  14. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under the existing chemical management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook;

    -butyl phthalate (BBP) have been gradually under regulations. Despite the similar adverse health effects, no harmonized regulations exist for these substances. Varying regulations are focused on single/multiple substances in separate product categories, e.g. toys, childcare articles, cosmetics and food packaging......Since early 20th century, phthalates have been widely used as plasticizers. Due to the potential for adverse health effects - particularly reproductive effects - for vulnerable population such as children, phthalates like Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Benzyl...... materials. Cumulative risks of DEHP, DBP and BBP to children in Korea and Denmark were estimated based on exposure via the environment and food. While the estimated risk was higher in Korea with a median RCR of 0.32 (KR) vs. 0.16 (DK), the back calculated risk from urinary metabolites was higher in Denmark...

  15. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  16. Benzylation of arenes and heteroarenes catalyzed by HfCl4/HfO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yi Zhang; Xin Qin Gao; Jiang Hua Zhang; Xiao Jun Peng

    2009-01-01

    A highly efficient benzylation of arenes and heteroarenes catalyzed by HfC14/HfO2 has been developed. Broad scope of benzylation reagents have been used in this process with high yields under mild condition. Additionally, the HfO2 can be re-used after the reaction.

  17. Di-(n-butyl)-phthalate-induced Oxidative Stress and Depression-like Behavior in Mice with or without Ovalbumin Immunization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Hao Xiao; LI Jin Quan; HAN Bing; KE Chen Juan; LIU Xu Dong; ZHANG Yu Chao; LI Li; YANG Xu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between atopic allergy and depression and the role of DBP in the development of depression. Methods BALB/c mice were randomly divided into eight groups:saline;ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized;saline+DBP (0.45 mg/kg·d); saline+DBP (45 mg/kg·d); DBP (0.45 mg/kg·d) OVA-immunized; DBP (45 mg/kg·d) OVA-immunized; saline+hydrocortisone (30 mg/kg·d); and hydrocortisone (30 mg/kg·d)-exposed OVA-immunized. Behavior (e.g. open-field, tail suspension, and forced swimming tests), viscera coefficients (brain and spleen), oxidative damage [e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH)], as well as levels of IgE and IL-4, were then analyzed. Results In the saline and OVA groups, the degree of depression symptoms in mice increased with increasing DBP concentration. Additionally, the OVA-immunity groups were associated with more serious depressive behavior compared with the same exposure concentration in the saline group. Oxidative damage was associated with a dose-dependent increase in DBP in the different groups. IL-4 and IgE levels were associated with low-dose DBP stimulation, which changed to high-dose inhibition with increasing DBP exposure, possibly due to spleen injury seen at high DBP concentrations. Conclusion Development of an atopic allergy has the potential to increase the risk of depression in mice, and it seems that DBP helps OVA to exert its effect in our present model. Moreover, the results of our study implicate a certain connection between brain oxidative stress and depression, which deserves a further exploration.

  18. Benzyl (E)-3-(2-bromo-5-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)dithio­carbazate

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Fan; Yan-Lan Huang; Zhao Wang; Han-Qi Guo; Shang Shan

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C16H15BrN2OS2, was obtained from the condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and 2-bromo-5-methoxylbenzaldehyde. In the molecule, the bromomethoxyphenyl ring and dithiocarbazate fragment are located on the opposite sides of the C=N double bond, showing the E conformation. The dithiocarbazate fragment is approximately planar (r.m.s deviation 0.0187 Å); its mean plane is oriented with respect to the bromomethoxyphenyl and phenyl rings at 7.60&#...

  19. Depolymerization of lignin by microwave-assisted methylation of benzylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guodian; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhao, Ying; Qian, Yong; Pang, Yuxia; Ouyang, Xinping

    2016-10-01

    A new two-step lignin depolymerization strategy was developed, in which the benzylic alcohols in lignin was methylated under microwave irradiation, followed by a hydrogenolysis for the cleavage of βO4 bond with Pd/C as the catalyst. The results showed that an efficient and selective catalytic methylation of benzylic alcohols was achieved with various lignin model compounds, and the acidic environment promoted the methylation of benzylic alcohol. Methylation of benzylic alcohol increased the βO4 bond cleavage rate by 55.9%, and improved products selectivity. Preliminary study of lignin depolymerization illustrated that methylation pretreatment of benzylic alcohols facilitated lignin depolymerization to produce aromatic monomers and reduced the oxygen content of aromatic monomers. PMID:27420159

  20. A new approach to synthesis of benzyl cinnamate: Optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Hao; Zhang, Jiang-Yan; Che, Wen-Cai; Wang, Yun

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new approach to synthesis of benzyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid with benzyl alcohol is optimized by response surface methodology. The effects of various reaction conditions, including temperature, enzyme loading, substrate molar ratio of benzyl alcohol to cinnamic acid, and reaction time, are investigated. A 5-level-4-factor central composite design is employed to search for the optimal yield of benzyl cinnamate. A quadratic polynomial regression model is used to analyze the experimental data at a 95% confidence level (Ptrials are performed for validating the optimum points. Under the optimum conditions (40°C, 31mg/mL enzyme loading, 2.6:1 molar ratio, 27h), the yield reaches 97.7%, which provides an efficient processes for industrial production of benzyl cinnamate. PMID:27041296

  1. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of New MKC-442 Analogues with an Alkynyl-Substituted 6-Benzyl Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Youssef L.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerreg.; La Colla, Paolo;

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis and antiviral activities are reported of a series of 6-(3-alkynyl benzyl)-substituted analogues of MKC-442 (6-benzyl-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-isopropyluracil), a highly potent agent against HIV. The 3-alkynyl group is assumed to give a better stacking of the substituted benzyl group to revers...

  2. Transplacental transfer of monomethyl phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a human placenta perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    and after perfusion were also analyzed. Placentas were obtained immediately after elective cesarean section and dually perfused in a recirculation system. mMP or mEHP was added to maternal perfusion medium to obtain concentrations at 10 and 25 microg/L, respectively. The placental transfer was followed...... plasma samples. mMP and possibly other short-chained phthalate monoesters in maternal blood can cross the placenta by slow transfer, whereas the results indicate no placental transfer of mEHP. Further studies are recommended....

  3. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, C.; Kumar, P. Saravana; Arun, Y.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Sundaram, R. Lakshmi; Vijayakumar, A.; Balakrishna, K.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Perumal, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was obtained by acylation of benzylamine with trifluoroacetic anhydride using Friedel-Crafts acylation method. The synthesised compound was confirmed by spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques. N-Benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide was assessed for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties. It showed good antifungal activity against tested fungi and moderate antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of N-benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide against fungi were 15.62 μg/mL against A. flavus, 31.25 μg/mL against B. Cinerea and 62.5 μg/mL against T. mentagrophytes, Scopulariopsis sp., C. albicans and M. pachydermatis. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 78.97 ± 2.24 of antioxidant activity at 1,000 μg/mL. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was dependent on the concentration. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed (1.352 ± 0.04 mM Fe(II)/g) twofold higher value compared to the standard. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 75.3 % cytotoxic activity at the dose of 200 μg/mL with IC50 (54.7 %) value of 100 μg/mL. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition AmpC beta-lactamase, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase and lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes which are targets for antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Docking studies of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed low docking energy. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide can be evaluated further for drug development.

  4. Introducing molecular selectivity in rapid impedimetric sensing of phthalates

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2014-05-01

    This research article reports a real-time and non-invasive detection technique for phthalates in liquids by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), incorporating molecular imprinting technique to introduce selectivity for the phthalate molecule in the detection system. A functional polymer with Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) template was immobilized on the sensing surface of the inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor with sputtered gold sensing electrodes fabricated over a native layer of silicon dioxide on a single crystal silicon substrate. Various concentrations (10 to 200 ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were exposed to the sensor surface functionalized with molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) in order to capture the analyte molecule, hence introducing molecular selectivity to the testing system. Impedance spectra were obtained using EIS in order to determine sample conductance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the solution. Electrochemical Spectrum Analyzer algorithm was used to deduce equivalent circuit and equivalent component parameters from the experimentally obtained impedance spectra employing Randle\\'s cell model curve fitting technique. Experimental results confirmed that the immobilization of the functional polymer on sensing surface introduces selectivity for phthalates in the sensing system. The results were validated by testing the samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-DAD). © 2014 IEEE.

  5. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq A Sheikh

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15-31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55-95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates.

  6. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Turki, Rola F; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Beg, Mohd A

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15-31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55-95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates. PMID:26963243

  7. An efficient and highly selective ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether catalyzed by sulfonated ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamdari Reza Fareghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of sulfonic acid-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs was found to act as efficient catalysts for ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE as the tert-butylating agent without an added solvent. The mono o-tert-butylated product was obtained in up to 80.4% isolated yield and 95.2% selectivity under such green conditions. No O-tert-butylated byproducts were formed.

  8. An efficient and highly selective ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether catalyzed by sulfonated ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Alamdari Reza Fareghi; Zamani Faezeh Ghorbani; Zekri Negar

    2014-01-01

    A novel series of sulfonic acid-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs) was found to act as efficient catalysts for ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as the tert-butylating agent without an added solvent. The mono o-tert-butylated product was obtained in up to 80.4% isolated yield and 95.2% selectivity under such green conditions. No O-tert-butylated byproducts were formed.

  9. The association between phthalate exposure and atopic dermatitis with a discussion of phthalate induced secretion of interleukin-1β and thymic stromal lymphopoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Line E K; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Frederiksen, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate diesters are widely used as emollients in plastic and cosmetics as well as in food packaging and perfumes, potentially leading to prolonged and repeated dermal, oral and airborne exposure. We here review published articles that have evaluated the putative role of phthalate diesters....... While no clear association has been shown between systemic phthalate levels and atopic dermatitis in human studies, animal data suggests that phthalates may worsen dermatitis and in vitro data suggests that interleukin-4 could be upregulated. Moreover, both loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin...... gene and atopic dermatitis have been associated with elevated systemic phthalate levels. There is a need for prospective studies to clarify the possible pathogenic role of phthalate diesters in atopic dermatitis and the associated health risk, especially with the general trend towards barrier...

  10. Dermal toxicity elicited by phthalates: evaluation of skin absorption, immunohistology, and functional proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Yi-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-03-01

    The toxicity of phthalates is an important concern in the fields of environmental health and toxicology. Dermal exposure via skin care products, soil, and dust is a main route for phthalate delivery. We had explored the effect of topically-applied phthalates on skin absorption and toxicity. Immunohistology, functional proteomics, and Western blotting were employed as methodologies for validating phthalate toxicity. Among 5 phthalates tested, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) showed the highest skin reservoir. Only diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) could penetrate across skin. Strat-M(®) membrane could be used as permeation barrier for predicting phthalate penetration through skin. The accumulation of DEHP in hair follicles was ∼15nmol/cm(2), which was significantly greater than DBP and DEP. DBP induced apoptosis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via caspase-3 activation. This result was confirmed by downregulation of 14-3-3 and immunohistology of TUNEL. On the other hand, the HSP60 overexpression and immunostaining of COX-2 suggested inflammatory response induced by DEP and DEHP. The proteomic profiling verified the role of calcium homeostasis on skin inflammation. Some proteins investigated in this study can be sensitive biomarkers for dermal toxicity of phthalates. These included HSPs, 14-3-3, and cytokeratin. This work provided novel platforms for examining phthalate toxicity on skin.

  11. DESI MS based screening method for phthalates in consumer goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sabine; Wagner, Sebastian; Gerbig, Stefanie; Wächter, Herbert; Sielaff, Detlef; Bohn, Dieter; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-05-21

    Phthalates are used as plasticizes in many everyday items, but some of them are known as hormone disruptors, being especially harmful during childhood. The European Union therefore restricted their application in children's toys and certain food packaging to 0.1%w. Due to the ever increasing number of plastic-containing consumer goods, rapid screening methods are needed to ensure and improve consumer safety in the future. In this study we evaluated the performance of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) for rapid quantitative screening of phthalates in toys. DESI allowed for direct surface sampling of the toys under atmospheric conditions with minimal sample preparation, while the high performance mass spectrometer used provided a high sensitivity and reliable identification via accurate mass measurements, high mass resolving power and MS/MS capabilities. External calibration curves for six banned phthalates (DBP, BBP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP and DIDP) were obtained from matrix-matched reference materials. Coefficients of determination were greater than 0.985, LOQs ranged from 0.02%w (DIDP) to 2.26%w (DINP) and the relative standard deviation of the calibration curve slope was less than 7.8% for intraday and 11.4% for interday comparison. The phthalate contents of eleven authentic samples were determined in a proof-of-concept approach using DESI MS and results were compared to those from confirmatory methods. The phthalate content was correctly assigned with relative deviations ranging from -20% to +10% for the majority of samples. Given further optimization and automation, DESI MS is likely to become a useful tool for rapid and accurate phthalate screening in the future.

  12. BENZYLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLD NAOH/UREA PRE-SWELLED BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fei Li,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo was pre-swelled with a cold aqueous solution of NaOH and urea, and then reacted directly with benzyl chloride to synthesize benzylated bamboo. The effects of the molar ratio of benzyl chloride to OH groups in the bamboo (1 to 4, the reaction temperature (70 to 110 °C, and the reaction time (2 to 8 h on both the product yield and the degree of substitution (DS were evaluated. Yields between 67.6 and 94.0% and DS between 0.31 and 0.74 of the benzylated bamboo were obtained under such conditions. The incorporation of benzyl groups was evidenced by FT-IR and CP/MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the crystalline structure of the native ball-milled bamboo was markedly damaged after modification. In addition, the benzylated bamboo was subjected to thermal degradation at a high temperature with an increase in substitution. It was suggested that the benzylated bamboo with a low crystallinity as well as large non-polar groups is promising as a filler for use in the composite material industry.

  13. Phthalates in meat products in dependence on the fat content

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Jarošová; Soňa Bogdanovičová

    2016-01-01

    The content of dibutylphthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in samples of packages intended for thermally processed meat products and release of phthalates from packages into meat products in dependence on the fat content were observed. 80 samples of packages were analyzed, 5 of them wereselected due to exceeding the specific migration limit. The raw meat was prepared, one type with the fat content of 10% and second one with the fat content of 50%. The both types of raw ...

  14. Origin of the chemical noise in ambient mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental background of ambient mass spectrometry, (API-MS) is analyzed and the possible potential origins of the background noise is identified. According to the mass spectra obtained using the API-MS instruments by different manufacturers, the characteristic fragment ions all indicated that the background noise are resulted from the phthalates such as diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and silicones such as decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). These chemicals are probably released from the polymeric materials used in the ionization sources, such as O-type sealing ring etc. In addition, the instrumental background has to be considered especially during the analysis of phthalate and peptide compounds. (authors)

  15. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba

    2007-11-01

    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and dipolarity/polarizability (*) of the solvent. The LSER derived from the statistical analysis indicates that the transition state is more solvated than the reactants due to hydrogen bond donation and polarizability of the solvent while the reactant is more solvated than the transition state due to electrophilicity of the solvent. Study of the reaction in methanol, dimethyl formamide mixtures suggests that the rate is maximum when dipolar interactions between the two solvents are maximum.

  16. Structure and dynamics at the liquid surface of benzyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietter, J.; Morgner, H. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet, Universitaet Witten/Herdecke, Stockumerstrasse 10, D-58453 Witten-Annen (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of a liquid layer of benzyl alcohol has been performed in order to compare the results with those obtained in experimental studies of our group. The main result of the experimental work was a strong orientational ordering of the benzyl alcohol molecules in the surface as well as an exceptionally large surface potential of ca. 0.6 V. According to the experiments the surface molecules orientate in such a way that the benzene ring points toward the vapor phase while the CH{sub 2} group and the OH group are directed towards the bulk of the liquid. The simulation confirms this orientation of the surface molecules. The surface potential resulting from the simulation is 350 mV. The simulation reveals that the rather large surface potential can be understood as a consequence of the mean orientation of the molecular dipole moment in the surface region. The mean orientation of the molecules themselves in the surface is due to the tendency of the system to maintain the hydrogen bonding structure of the bulk in the surface region as well. The preferential orientation of the surface molecules causes a change of the dynamics of the individual components of the molecules when switching from bulk to surface which depends on the separation of these components from the polar group. This becomes most obvious in case of the reorientation dynamics of the molecular axes, e.g. the reorientation of the benzene ring is faster than the reorientation of the OH group. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Solubilization of meso-carbon microbeads by potassium- or dibutylzinc-promoted butylation and structural analysis of the butylated products; Mesocarbon microbeads no butyl ka ni yoru kayoka to erareta butyl kabutsu no kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, S.; Zhang, Y.; Kidena, K.; Nomura, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility and structure of the butylated products of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) were studied experimentally. In experiment, MCMB-A and MCMB-B obtained from two kinds of coal-tar pitch were used as specimens. MCMBs were butylated by BZ method using dibutylzinc-butyl iodide and KT method using K-butyl iodide-THF, and the butylated products were successfully obtained. The butylated products were investigated through THF solubility test, {sup 13}C-NMR measurement and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurement. As the experimental result, a BZ method produced the butylated products at a yield of nearly 170%, while a KT method produced them at a yield of nearly 130%. The THF solubility was estimated to be 89-97%. As the study result of molecular weight distributions by GPC measurement of solvent solubles, the molecular weight of raw material MCMB was estimated to be 590-770 in terms of polystyrene. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Y. Ong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of an anaphylactic reaction to Reandron 1000 (depot testosterone undecanoate with a castor oil and benzyl benzoate vehicle. While considered to have a favourable safety profile, serious complications such as oil embolism and anaphylaxis can occur. In our patient, skin testing identified benzyl benzoate to be the trigger, with no reaction to castor oil or testosterone undecanoate components. As benzyl benzoate exists in multiple pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics, individual components of pharmaceuticals should be tested when investigating drug allergies. Doctors should be alert to the potential for serious reactions to any of the components of Reandron 1000.

  19. The reorientation of t-butyl groups in butylated hydroxytoluene: A deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectral and relaxation time study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, James M.; Fyfe, J. D. Dean; Jeffrey, Kenneth R.

    1991-03-01

    Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and spin-lattice relaxation times were determined in order to study the dynamics of t-butyl groups in butylated hydroxytoluene. The results are consistent with a model first proposed by Beckmann et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 36, 199 (1979)], where there is an inequivalence between the methyl groups within each t-butyl group. While two methyl groups reorient rapidly relative to the whole t-butyl rotation, the remaining methyl group is more restricted in its motion, reorienting at a rate comparable to that of the t-butyl group itself. The spin-lattice relaxation data show two T1 minima, the high temperature minimum (40 °C) corresponding to the combined t-butyl and ``slow'' methyl rotations, and the low temperature minimum corresponding to ``fast'' methyl group rotation. Using an explicitly defined T1 fitting function, the T1 data yield activation energies of 2.2 and 6.0 kcal/mol for the fast methyl and t-butyl rotations, respectively, both in agreement with Beckmann's values obtained from proton T1 experiments. It was also possible to simulate the low temperature deuterium NMR spectra from T=-160 °C to T=-80 °C using the aforementioned dynamical inequivalence between the t-butyl methyl groups. While the fast methyl group rotation was in the motional narrowing region for T>-160 °C, it was possible, from the simulations, to determine the t-butyl exchange rates to within 10%. The jump rates are remarkably close to the values predicted from the T1 results. Above -80 °C, the spectra could not be simulated, implying that a third motion must be present to further alter the high temperature line shapes. The effective axial asymmetry of the T>-20° spectra indicates that the additional motion involves a two site exchange.

  20. Exposure assessment of phthalates in non-occupational populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Zhao, Yan; Li, Luxi; Chen, Bingheng; Zhang, Yunhui

    2012-06-15

    Phthalates have been used worldwide and are ubiquitous in environmental media and human bodies. Based on existing data on phthalate concentrations, distributions of phthalates in the environment and their exposure assessment to non-occupational populations in China can be evaluated. Fifty-three studies, published from January 2000 to October 2010, were reviewed and their data were analyzed in this study. Geographic information system (GIS) was used in mapping the published data of phthalate concentrations and their distributions in environmental media, while scatter diagrams were applied to show the time trends for phthalate concentrations in various environmental media. Results showed that there was a time-dependent increase in ∑phthalates (total phthalates) and DEHP concentrations in air during the past 10 years; phthalate concentrations varied in different areas, among which Guangdong and northeast China were the most polluted. Using Clark's equations, daily intake of ∑phthalates and DEHP in the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta was estimated from consumption of contaminated food, water and air. Results showed that daily intake of ∑phthalates and DEHP was 128.63 and 61.29 μg/kg BW/d for adults in the Pearl River Delta, which is significantly higher than those residing in the Yangtze River Delta (33.87 and 24.68 μg/kg BW/d).

  1. Toxicological investigation of di(isononyl]phthalate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Ham WA; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR

    1992-01-01

    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0,20, 60, 200, 600 and 2000 mg di(isononyl)phthalate (DINP)/kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzyme parameters (palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO), enoyl coenzyme-A hydratase (ECH), carnitine acetyl transferase (CAT)

  2. Toxicological investigation of di(cyclohexyl)phthalate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ham WA; Jansen EHJM; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR

    1992-01-01

    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0, 20, 60, 200, 600 and 2000 mg di(cyclohexyl)phthalate (DCHP)/kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzym parameters which are related with peroxisome proliferation palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO), enoyl coenzyme-A hy

  3. Diethyl Phthalate Causes Oxidative Stress: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Prajapati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are a group of multifunctional chemicals. Diethyl phthalate (DEP is one of the most frequently used phthalates in solvents and fixatives for numerous industrial products. Method: The present experiment was designed to assess oxidative stress, if any, caused by diethyl phthalate. For this the homogenates of liver and kidney were treated with different concentrations ( 10-40 µg/mL of DEP. 10% liver and kidney homogenates were prepared in phosphate buffered saline and used for estimation of lipid peroxidation.In final step lipid peroxidation and total protein content were analyzed. Results: The result revealed significant and dose - dependent increase in lipid peroxidation, whereas protein content reduced significantly. Maximum increase in LPO and decrease in protein content was observed at 40 µg/mL of DEP concentration. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that different concentrations of DEP leads to dose- dependent significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease protein content.So at the different concentration of DEP cause oxidative stress.

  4. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene phthalate polymers. 177.1630 Section 177.1630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1630 Polyethylene...

  5. Reaction of selected carbohydrate aldehydes with benzylmagnesium halides: benzyl versus o-tolyl rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Bella

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Grignard reaction of 2,3-O-isopropylidene-α-D-lyxo-pentodialdo-1,4-furanoside and benzylmagnesium chloride (or bromide afforded a non-separable mixture of diastereomeric benzyl carbinols and diastereomeric o-tolyl carbinols. The latter resulted from an unexpected benzyl to o-tolyl rearrangement. The proportion of benzyl versus o-tolyl derivatives depended on the reaction conditions. Benzylmagnesium chloride afforded predominantly o-tolyl carbinols while the application of benzylmagnesium bromide led preferably to the o-tolyl carbinols only when used in excess or at higher temperatures. The structures of the benzyl and o-tolyl derivatives were confirmed unambiguously by NMR spectral data and X-ray crystallographic analysis of their 5-ketone analogues obtained by oxidation of the corresponding mixture of diastereomeric carbinols. A possible mechanism for the Grignard reaction leading to the benzyl→o-tolyl rearrangement is also proposed.

  6. Polystyrene-supported Benzyl Selenide: An Efficient Reagent for Highly Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Substituted Olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Polystyrene-supported benzyl selenide has been prepared. This novel reagent was treated with LDA to produce a selenium stabilized carbanion, which reacted with alkyl halide, followed by selenoxide syn-elimination, to give substituted olefins stereospecificly.

  7. SIDE CHAIN LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYSILOXANES CONTAINING CROWN ETHER AND BENZYL ETHER MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Two kinds of side chain liquid crystalline polysiloxanes containing crown ether and benzyl ether were synthesized and characterized by optical polarization microscopy. Both the monomeric liquid crystals and polymeric liquid crystals show smectic phases.

  8. Palladium-catalyzed Cascade Cyclization-Coupling Reaction of Benzyl Halides with N,N-Diallylbenzoylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Min HU; Yu ZHANG; Jian Lin HAN; Cheng Jian ZHU; Yi PAN

    2003-01-01

    A novel type of palladium-catalyzed cascade cyclization-coupling reaction has been found. Reaction of N, N-diallylbenzoylamide 1 with benzyl halides 2 afforded the corresponding dihydropyrroles 3 in moderate to excellent yields.

  9. Selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols using copper-manganese mixed oxide nanoparticles as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roushown Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of copper-manganese (CuMn2 mixed oxide nanoparticles (Cu/Mn = 1:2 has been studied for the selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes using molecular oxygen as an oxidizing agent. The CuMn2 mixed oxide showed excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes with high selectivity (>99%. The complete conversion (100% of all the benzylic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes is achieved within a short reaction period at 102 °C. The catalytic performance is obtained to be dependent on the electronic and steric effects of the substituents present on the phenyl ring. Electron withdrawing and bulky groups attached to the phenyl ring required longer reaction time for a complete conversion of the benzylic alcohols.

  10. A Direct Transformation of Aryl Aldehydes to Benzyl Iodides Via Reductive Iodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruso, Jayaraman Sembian; Rajendiran, Nagappan; Kumaran, Rajendran Senthil [Univ. of Madras, Chennai (India)

    2014-02-15

    A facile transformation of aryl aldehydes to benzyl iodides through one-pot reductive iodination is reported. This protocol displays remarkable functional group tolerance and the title compound was obtained in good to excellent yield.

  11. Phenol Tert-Butylation Catalyzed by Zeolite H-Mordenite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Sen; LI Zhenhua; ZHANG Kui

    2005-01-01

    Para-tert-butyl phenol (p-TBP) and 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol (2,4-DTBP) are widely used for the preparation of antioxidants. Zeolite catalysts showed good performance for the synthesis of p-TBP and 2,4-DTBP. In this work, zeolite H-mordenite (HM) catalyst was prepared and the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol over zeolite HM catalyst was investigated at different reaction conditions. It is found that increasing temperature enhances the selectivity to p-TBP and the optimum reaction temperature for phenol conversion is 438 K. Increasing flow rate decreases phenol conversion apparently while the selectivity to p-TBP has a little increase. The suitable tert-butyl alcohol/phenol molar ratio is 2. Lower alcohol/phenol molar ratios are beneficial to p-TBP while higher ones are helpful for producing 2,4-DTBP.

  12. Vibronic Emission Spectroscopy of Benzyl-Type Radicals Generated by Corona Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Eun Hye; Yoon, Young; Lee, Sang

    2014-06-01

    Benzyl radical is a prototypical aromatic free radical and has been the subject of numerous spectroscopic studies. On the other hand, ring-substituted benzyl radicals, benzyl-type radicals, have received less attention due to the difficulties associated with production in corona discharge and analysis of spectra. We report vibronic emission spectra of hetero halogen multi-substituted benzyl radicals generated by corona discharge of corresponding toluene derivatives using a pinhole-type glass nozzle, from which visible vibronic emission spectra were recorded using a long-path monochromator. The spectra show nice features of strongest origin band and a series of vibronic bands in the lower energies originating from the vibrationless D_1 state. From the analysis of the spectra observed, we determined the energies of the D_1 → D_0 electronic transition and vibrational mode frequencies in the ground electronic state. On the other hand, all substituted benzyl radicals show the origin bands shifted to red region with respect to the parental benzyl radical at 22002 cm-1. The shifts of multi-substituted benzyl radicals can be well estimated using the method developed from mono-substituted benzyl radicals as well as the positions of nodal point and mutual orientation of substituents, which could be useful for scientists to set a proper scanning range of their spectrometers for the spectroscopic observation of transient molecules. In this presentation, we will discuss the substituent effect on electronic transition energy and the experimental technique developed in this laboratory. Y. W. Yoon and S. K. Lee, J. Phys. Chem. A, 117, 2485 (2013). Y. W. Yoon, S. Y. Chae, and S. K. Lee, Chem. Phys. Lett., 584, 37 (2013). Y. W. Yoon and S. K. Lee, Chem. Phys. Lett., 570, 29 (2013).

  13. Simultaneous Determination of 22 Phthalate Acid Esters in Edible Oils by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Gel Permeation Chromatography%凝胶渗透色谱-气相色谱/质谱法同时测定食用油中22种邻苯二甲酸酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永辉

    2012-01-01

    建立了凝胶渗透色谱-气相色谱/质谱法同时测定食用油中22种邻苯二甲酸酯的方法.方法具有良好线性,相关系数R均大于0.999,检测限在0.09~11.83 mg/kg之间,平均回收率在81.45%~113.90%范围内,相对标准偏差为1.55%~9.41%.采用该方法对国内食用油中邻苯二甲酸酯增塑剂进行检测,实际样品中检出邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯,可满足目前食用油中邻苯二甲酸酯的检测要求.%A method for the simultaneous determination of 22 phthalate acid esters in edible oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with gel permeation chromatography was developed. The correlation coefficients(i?) of 22 phthalate acid esters were over 0. 999 with detection limits from 0. 09~ 11. 83 mg/kg. The average recoveries of 22 phthalate acid esters in edible oils were ranged from 81. 45% ~113. 90%. In addition,the relative standard deviations(RSDs) were in the range of 1. 55%6~9.41%. The level of phthalate acid esters plasticizers in edible oils was investigated by this method .and di-iso-butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, bis (2-ethylhexy1) phthalate were found in some real samples. The simplicity,sensitivity and precision of the method made it be well suitable for the analysis of phthalate acid esters in edible oils.

  14. Emission of phthalates and phthalate alternatives from vinyl flooring and crib mattress covers: the influence of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yirui; Xu, Ying

    2014-12-16

    Emissions of phthalates and phthalate alternatives from vinyl flooring and crib mattress covers were measured in a specially designed chamber. The gas-phase concentrations versus time were measured at four different temperatures, that is, 25, 36, 45, and 55 °C. The key parameter that controls the emissions (y0, gas-phase concentration in equilibrium with the material phase) was determined, and the emissions were found to increase significantly with increasing temperature. Both the material-phase concentration (C0) and the chemical vapor pressure (Vp) were found to have great influence on the value of y0. The measured ratios of C0 to y0 were exponentially proportional to the reciprocal of temperature, in agreement with the van't Hoff equation. A emission model was validated at different temperatures, with excellent agreement between model calculations and chamber observations. In residential homes, an increase in the temperature from 25 to 35 °C can elevate the gas-phase concentration of phthalates by more than a factor of 10, but the total airborne concentration may not increase that much for less volatile compounds. In infant sleep microenvironments, an increase in the temperature of mattress can cause a significant increase in emission of phthalates from the mattress cover and make the concentration in the infant's breathing zone about four times higher than that in the bulk room air, resulting in potentially high exposure. PMID:25419579

  15. Kinetic Studies on the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohols in Organic Medium under Phase Transfer Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bijudas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic studies on the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and substituted benzyl alcohols in benzene as the reaction medium have been studied by using potassium dichromate under phase transfer catalysis (PTC. The phase transfer catalysts (PT catalysts used were tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide (TBPB.  Benzyl alcohols were selectively oxidised to corresponding benzaldehydes in good yield (above 90%.  The order of reactivity among the studied benzyl alcohols is p - OCH3 > p - CH3 > - H > p - Cl.  Plots of log k2 versus Hammett's substituent constant (s has been found to be curve shaped and this suggests that there should be a continuous change in transition state with changes in substituent present in the substrate from electron donating to electron withdrawing. A suitable mechanism has been suggested in which the rate determining step involves both C - H bond cleavage and C - O bond formations in concerted manner. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 16th March 2014; Revised: 18th May 2014; Accepted: 18th May 2014[How to Cite: Bijudas, K., Bashpa, P., Nair, T.D.R. (2014. Kinetic Studies on the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol and Substituted Benzyl Alcohols in Organic Medium under Phase Transfer Catalysis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 142-147. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6476.142-147][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6476.142-147] 

  16. Radiation degradation of spent butyl rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telnov, A. V.; Zavyalov, N. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Sitnikov, N. P.; Smetanin, M. L.; Tarantasov, V. P.; Shadrin, D. N.; Shorikov, I. V.; Liakumovich, A. L.; Miryasova, F. K.

    2002-03-01

    Radiation methods of materials modification applied in technological chains can have significant economical and ecological advantages as compared to the established chemical, thermal and mechanical methods. Each year the problems of nature resources economy through the use of production and consumption wastes acquire a more significant value, as it allows to solve also ecological issues along with economical ones. This is mostly acute in relation to polymeric systems based on saturated rubbers, for example butyl rubber (BR) used in the tyre industry, as due to their high resistance to the action of oxygen, ozone, solar radiation and bacteria, they contaminate the environment for rather a long period. At VNIIEF and KSPU experiments were carried out on application of electron beams with energy from 6 to 10 MeV for radiation destruction of spent rubber based on BR. The radiation-degraded material was tested for re-use in the formulation of initial diaphragm mixture, rubber mixture for producing rubberized fabric and roofing.

  17. NQR in tert-butyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Aldo H.

    2004-03-01

    Tert-butyl chloride has been broadly studied experimentally through various techniques such as X-ray crystallography, DTA, and NMR. It was also studied experimentally through nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), but this study was limited and incomplete. In this paper, we present a more detailed study of TBC through the NQR of 35Cl. Our results show that near 120 K, the onset of the CH 3 groups semirotations around symmetry axis C3 takes place with an activation energy U=16.1 kJ mol -1. This intramolecular movement produces a T1 minimum near 148 K and is the dominant mechanism of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in phase III of this compound. In phase II of TBC, we show that there are not only methyl groups semirotations, but also semirotations of the whole molecule around a different axis from the symmetry axis C' 3 (C-Cl bond) with an activation energy of E=10.4 kJ mol -1.

  18. Urinary phthalates from 168 girls and boys measured twice a year during a 5-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the possible deleterious effects of phthalate exposure on endogenous sex steroid levels in children. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether urinary phthalate metabolite levels are associated with circulating adrenal androgen levels and age at puberty....... Methods: This was a longitudinal study of 168 healthy children (84 girls) examined every 6 months for 5 years. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEAS), Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone, and urinary morning excretion of 14 phthalate metabolites, corresponding to 7 different phthalate...... diesters were determined. A variation in urinary excretion of phthalates was evident in each child, which made a mean of repetitive samples more representative for long-term excretion than a single determination. Results: We found that girls with excretion of monobutyl phthalate isomers (MBP) and di(2...

  19. Associations between serum phthalates and biomarkers of reproductive function in 589 adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Toft, Gunnar; Hougaard, Karin S;

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates which are widely used, are ubiquitous in the environment and in some human tissues. It is generally accepted that phthalates exert their toxic action by inhibiting Leydig cell synthesis of testosterone, but in vitro studies have also shown anti-androgenic effects at the receptor level....... Some cross-sectional studies have shown inverse associations between urinary levels of phthalates and reproductive hormones, but results are conflicting and the evidence base is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate if levels of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (Di...... and Ukraine were enrolled between 2002 and 2004. The men gave semen and blood samples and were interviewed. Six phthalate metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in serum. The metabolites were summed according to their molar weight. We observed significant...

  20. Phthalates and parabens in personal care products from China: concentrations and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Wang, Lei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that populations in China are widely exposed to phthalates and parabens. Nevertheless, sources of Chinese exposure to phthalates and parabens are not well understood. In this study, we measured concentrations of nine phthalates and six parabens in five categories of personal care products (PCPs, N = 52) collected from Tianjin, China, and estimated human exposure doses to these compounds. The most frequently detected phthalates and parabens in PCPs were diethyl phthalate (DEP) (detection frequency 54 %), methyl paraben (MeP), and n-propyl paraben (PrP) (~75 %). The concentrations of DEP in PCPs ranged from not detected (ND; phthalates (45.5 μg/d). Hand and body lotions were the major contributors to exposures, and the daily exposure doses for DEP, MeP, and PrP from these products were 38.4, 10,200 and 4,890 μg, respectively.

  1. Identification and quantification of 14 phthalates and 5 non-phthalate plasticizers in PVC medical devices by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Thomas, Sébastien; Bousquet, Claudine; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2014-02-15

    A GC/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 phthalates: 8 phthalates classified H360 (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP and DiBP), 3 phthalates proposed to be forbidden in medical devices (DnOP, DiNP and DiDP) and 3 other phthalates none regulated (DMP, DCHP and DEP) which may interfere with hormone function. In order to identify and quantify other plasticizers that are commonly used in PVC medical devices such as DEHP substitute, 5 non-phthalate plasticizers (ATBC, DEHA, DEHT, TOTM, and DINCH) were included in this study. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of plasticizers is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30m×0.25mm (i.d.)×0.25μm film thickness using a gradient temperature. Compounds quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements on standard solutions were determined using the ISO 12787 standard approach. Plasticizers are extracted from PVC medical devices using THF for dissolving the PVC part of the sample followed by precipitation of the PVC by addition of ethanol. The supernatant is injected into a GC/MS system after dilution in ethanol. Different validation elements, including extraction recoveries for all compounds or for DEHP a cross-validation of the extraction process using the European pharmacopoeia monograph 3.1.14 as reference method, are discussed. Results obtained on 61 medical devices in PVC and 12 raw materials used as plasticizers are given.

  2. Effect of Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Some Properties of Kidney Fat and Tail Fat During Frozen Storage

    OpenAIRE

    ATAY, Ömür

    1998-01-01

    Some physical and chemical properties of kidney fat (obtained from cattle) and tail fat (obtained from sheep) were determined in this study. Effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and BHT+BHA on free fatty acids (FFA) contents, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and peroxide number were also examined during frozen storage at -18°C for 9 months. The following values were determined for kidney fat; melting point 47°C, saponification number 193, iodine number...

  3. Parental urinary biomarkers of preconception exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates in relation to birth outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Smarr, Melissa M.; Grantz, Katherine L.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, José M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2015-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are ubiquitous non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals whose relation with infant birth size is not clearly understood. Methods We examined associations between maternal and paternal preconception urinary concentrations of total BPA and 14 phthalate metabolites and birth size for 233 infants. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate parental quartiles of BPA and phthalates in relation to birth weight, length, head circumference,...

  4. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M. A.; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured u...

  5. 白酒酿造过程中塑化剂来源分析%Source Analysis of Phthalate Acid Esters during Liquor Manufacturing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马荣山; 韩营; 王凤兰; 颜廷才; 张旋; 蒋玲

    2015-01-01

    为探明白酒在酿造过程中的塑化剂来源,采用气相色谱-质谱联用方法测定白酒酿造的主要原料及各个阶段产物的16种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质的含量.结果表明,16种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质的平均回收率和精密度分别为84.5%~107.3%、2.9%~7.3%,方法检出限在0.06~1.3 μg/kg.3个批次的样品只检出了邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(dimethyl phthalate,DMP)、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯 (diethyl phthalate,DEP)、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(diisobutyl phthalate,DIBP)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(di-n-butyl phthalate,DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二-2-乙基己酯(dioctyl pathalate,DEHP)5种塑化剂.DMP、DBP在大渣酒头、大渣原酒、小渣酒头、渣原酒、回糟原酒中含量明显多于 其他阶段.大渣酿酒阶段产生微量的DMP、DBP,小渣酿酒阶段产生微量的DEHP,产生量均未超过0.09 mg/kg,可见白酒酿造过程中产生极微量的塑化剂,在不接触塑料制品的前提下白酒酿造过程中的塑化剂主要来源于原料.

  6. Instrumental laboratories based on the analysis of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiginton, John Franklin

    A semester-long series of instrumental analysis laboratory activities appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students is described. The activities incorporate five analytical instruments commonly found in post-secondary educational, industrial, and governmental laboratories: a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC), a gas chromatograph with a mass specific detector (GC/MS), a high-pressure liquid chromatograph with a UV-Visible detector (HPLC), a high-performance liquid chromatograph with a mass specific detector (LC/MS), and a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR). The series of activities utilizes two analytes, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), which are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, then structurally characterized. The protocol for each laboratory activity directs students to accomplish a specific analysis in the most efficient manner, but leaves the actual procedure vague enough to give the student a chance to experiment with the instrument. Student success is assessed by two means, having the student submit a detailed journal-style lab report and a class-wide discussion regarding the development of experimental protocols and individual instrument capabilities and limitations.

  7. Selective cytotoxicity of benzyl isothiocyanate in the proliferating fibroblastoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Uchida, Koji; Osawa, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    2007-02-01

    In the present study, experiments using presynchronization culture cells demonstrated that benzyl ITC (BITC), previously isolated from a tropical papaya fruit extract, induced the cytotoxic effect preferentially in the proliferating human colon CCD-18Co cells to the quiescent ones. Quiescent CCD-18Co cells were virtually unaffected by BITC and marginal cytotoxicity was observed at 15 microM. We observed that BITC dramatically induced the p53 phosphorylation and stabilization only in the quiescent (G(0)/G(1) phase-arrested) cells, but not significantly in the proliferating human colon CCD-18Co cells when compared with quiescent ones. We also observed ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) phosphorylation in the quiescent cells. The BITC-induced p53 phosphorylation was counteracted by caffeine treatment, implying the involvement of an ATM/ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase signaling pathway. Moreover, downregulation of p53 by a siRNA resulted in the enhancement of susceptibility to undergo apoptosis by BITC. We also showed here that depletion of p53 abrogated G(0)/G(1) arrest accompanied by the declined expression of p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1) in CCD-18Co cells. In conclusion, we identified p53 as a potential negative regulator of the apoptosis induction by BITC in the normal colon CCD-18Co cells through the inhibition of cell-cycle progression at the G(0)/G(1) phase. PMID:17096346

  8. 3 Benzyl-6-chloropyrone: a suicide inhibitor of cholesterol esterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesterol, absorbed from the intestine, appears in lymph as the ester. Cholesterol esterase is essential for this process, since depletion of the enzyme blocks and repletion restores, absorption. Selective inhibitors of cholesterol esterase may thus prove useful in reducing cholesterol uptake. A series of potential suicide substrates were synthesized which, following cleavage by the enzyme, would attack the putative nucleophile in the active site. One of these, 3-benzyl-6-chloropyrone (3BCP), inhibited both synthesis and hydrolysis of 14C-cholesteryl oleate with an I50 of approximately 150 μM. The inactivation was time-dependent and characteristic of a suicide mechanism. The α pyrone structure (lactone analog) is cleaved by a serine-hydroxyl in the active site. This generates an enoyl chloride which inactivates the imidazole believed to play a part in the catalytic function of the enzyme. Inhibition by 3BCP is selective for cholesterol esterase. The activity of pancreatic lipase as not affected by concentrations up to 1 mM

  9. Increased levels of phthalates in very low birth weight infants with septicemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømmen, Kenneth; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Blakstad, Elin Wahl; Moltu, Sissel Jennifer; Veierød, Marit Bragelien; Almaas, Astrid Nylander; Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Thomsen, Cathrine; Nakstad, Britt; Brække, Kristin; Rønnestad, Arild Erlend; Drevon, Christian André; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-01-01

    Very low birth weight infants (VLBW; birth weightphthalates from medical devices during their hospital stay. We measured urinary phthalate concentrations among hospitalized VLBW infants participating in a nutritional study. Possible associations between different phthalates and birth weight (BW), septicemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were evaluated. Forty-six VLBW infants were enrolled in this randomized controlled nutritional study. The intervention group (n=24) received increased quantities of energy, protein, fat, essential fatty acids and vitamin A, as compared to the control group (n=22). The concentrations of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites were measured, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, at 3 time points during the first 5weeks of life. During this study, the levels of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites decreased, whereas an increasing trend was seen regarding metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP). Significantly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were seen in infants with lower BW and those diagnosed with late onset septicemia or BPD. A significant positive correlation between the duration of respiratory support and DEHP metabolites was observed (p≤0.01) at 2.9weeks of age. Birth weight was negatively associated with urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. Infants with lower BW and those diagnosed with septicemia or BPD experienced prolonged exposure from medical equipment containing phthalates, with subsequent higher levels of phthalate metabolites detected. Clinical Trial Registration no.: NCT01103219. PMID:26922148

  10. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Selected Florida Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John W; Bell, Jane Margaret; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Phthalates have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in laboratory animals and are associated with altered development of the reproductive system in humans. Further, human have significant exposure to phthalates. However, little is known concerning the exposure of wildlife to phthalates. We report urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations from fifty juvenile alligators from three Florida lakes and a site in the Everglades. Urinary phthalate monoester concentrations varied widely among alligators from the different sites but also among alligators from the same site. Mono-2-ethylhexy phthalate and monobutyl phthalate were found in most samples of alligator urine with maximums of 35,700 ng/mL and 193 ng/mL, respectively. Monobenzyl phthalate was found in 5 alligators with a maximum of 66.7 ng/mL. Other monoesters were found in only one or two alligator urine samples. The wide variation within and among sites, in addition to the high levels of mEHP, mBP and mBzP, is consistent with exposure arising from the intermittent spraying of herbicide formulations to control invasive aquatic plants in Florida freshwater sites. Phthalate diesters are used as adjuvants in many of these formulations. PMID:26743198

  11. A novel and selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols with polymer-supported periodic acid under mild aprotic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Pourali; Mehrosadat Tabaean; S. Mohamad Reza Nazifi

    2012-01-01

    A new polymeric oxidizing reagent was prepared by supporting periodic acid on poly(1,4-phenylene-2,5-pyridine dicarboxyamide).This polymeric reagent was used for the selective oxidation of primary benzylic alcohols to the corresponding benzaldehydes in CH3CN at reflux conditions.Excellent selectivity was observed between primary benzyl alcohols and secondary ones as well as non-benzylic alcohols in the oxidation reactions.Allylic alcohols were also converted to the corresponding aldehydes with good yields.

  12. Benzyl acetates as attractants for the male oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, and the male melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Esther R.; Mitchell, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty compounds related to benzyl acetate were evaluated quantitatively as attractants to the male oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) and the male melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae). Thienylmethyl acetate was nearly as attractive as benzyl acetate to both species, but cyclohexylmethyl acetate was completely unattractive, emphasizing the role of the planar aromatic ring in receptor interaction. Although benzyl acetate was equally attractive to both species, para substituents invariably reduced attr...

  13. Technique for rapid detection of phthalates in water and beverages

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2013-05-01

    The teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of phthalate esters on living beings are proven in toxicology studies. These ubiquitous food and environmental pollutants pose a great danger to the human race due to their extraordinary use as a plasticizer in the consumer product industry. Contemporary detection techniques used for phthalates require a high level of skills, expensive equipment and longer analysis time than the presented technique. Presented research work introduces a real time non-invasive detection technique using a new type of silicon substrate based planar interdigital (ID) sensor fabricated on basis of thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) semiconductor device fabrication technology. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used in conjunction with the fabricated sensor to detect phthalates in deionized water. Various concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as low as 2 ppb to a higher level of 2 ppm in deionized water were detected distinctively using new planar ID sensor based EIS sensing system. Dip testing method was used to obtain the conductance and dielectric properties of the bulk samples. Parylene C polymer coating was used as a passivation layer on the surface of the fabricated sensor to reduce the influence of Faradaic currents. In addition, inherent dielectric properties of the coating enhanced the sensitivity of the capacitive type sensor. Electrochemical spectrum analysis algorithm was used to model experimentally observed impedance spectrum to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit to analyse the kinetic processes taking place inside the electrochemical cell. Curve fitting technique was used to extract the values of the circuit components and explain experimental results on theoretical grounds. The sensor performance was tested by adding DEHP to an energy drink at concentrations above and below the minimal risk level (MRL) limit set by the ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry

  14. Synthesis of Cycloveratrylene Macrocycles and Benzyl Oligomers Catalysed by Bentonite under Microwave/Infrared and Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Salmón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tonsil Actisil FF, which is a commercial bentonitic clay, promotes the formation of cycloveratrylene macrocycles and benzyl oligomers from the corresponding benzyl alcohols in good yields under microwave heating and infrared irradiation in the absence of solvent in both cases. The catalytic reaction is sensitive to the type of substituent on the aromatic ring. Thus, when benzyl alcohol was substituted with a methylenedioxy, two methoxy or three methoxy groups, a cyclooligomerisation process was induced. Unsubstituted, methyl and methoxy benzyl alcohols yielded linear oligomers. In addition, computational chemistry calculations were performed to establish a validated mechanistic pathway to explain the growth of the obtained linear oligomers.

  15. Occurrence of phthalate diesters (phthalates), p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and their derivatives in indoor dust from Vietnam: Implications for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri Manh; Minh, Tu Binh; Kumosani, Taha A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate diesters (phthalates), esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are used in personal care products, food packages, household products, or pharmaceuticals. These compounds possess endocrine-disrupting potentials and have been reported to occur in the environment. Nevertheless, no previous studies have reported the occurrence of these compounds in indoor dust from Vietnam. In this study, nine phthalates, six parabens, and four BADGEs were determined in indoor dust samples collected from Hanoi, Hatinh, Hungyen, and Thaibinh, in Vietnam. Total concentrations of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust ranged from 3440 to 106,000 ng/g (median: 22,600 ng/g), 40-840 ng/g (median: 123 ng/g), and 23 to 1750 ng/g (median: 184 ng/g), respectively. Based on the measured median concentration of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust, we estimated human exposure doses to these compounds through indoor dust ingestion for various age groups. The exposure doses to phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs decreased with age and ranged from 19.4 to 90.4 ng/kg-bw/d, 0.113-0.528 ng/kg-bw/d, and 0.158-0.736 ng/kg-bw/d, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust from Vietnam. PMID:26498104

  16. Occurrence of phthalate diesters (phthalates), p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and their derivatives in indoor dust from Vietnam: Implications for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri Manh; Minh, Tu Binh; Kumosani, Taha A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate diesters (phthalates), esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are used in personal care products, food packages, household products, or pharmaceuticals. These compounds possess endocrine-disrupting potentials and have been reported to occur in the environment. Nevertheless, no previous studies have reported the occurrence of these compounds in indoor dust from Vietnam. In this study, nine phthalates, six parabens, and four BADGEs were determined in indoor dust samples collected from Hanoi, Hatinh, Hungyen, and Thaibinh, in Vietnam. Total concentrations of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust ranged from 3440 to 106,000 ng/g (median: 22,600 ng/g), 40-840 ng/g (median: 123 ng/g), and 23 to 1750 ng/g (median: 184 ng/g), respectively. Based on the measured median concentration of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust, we estimated human exposure doses to these compounds through indoor dust ingestion for various age groups. The exposure doses to phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs decreased with age and ranged from 19.4 to 90.4 ng/kg-bw/d, 0.113-0.528 ng/kg-bw/d, and 0.158-0.736 ng/kg-bw/d, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust from Vietnam.

  17. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance......The overall aim of the present study is to identify and evaluate the importance of sources of nonylphenoles and phthalates in waste water in a local environment. The investigations were carried out in a Danish local community, Roskilde city and surroundings. Nonylphenoles and phthalates were...... analysed in the waste water from different institutions and industries thought to be potential sources. These were: car wash centers, a hospital, a kindergarten, an adhesive industry and a industrial laundry. Furthermore, analysis of the deposition in the area were carried out. This made it possible...

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE PHTHALATE CONTENT LEVELS IN WINE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duca Gheorghe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of studies conducted in the laboratory of National Center for Quality Testing of the Alcoholic Beverages (Republic of Moldova were included more than 1300 samples of the bottled wine and base-wine for the presence of most widespread and toxic phthalate – dibutylphthalate using modern method of analysis like GC-MS. Results display presences DBP in 85 % of studied samples of wines, i.e. a content of DBP more than LOQ (0.01mg/dm3. Has been determined that contamination of phthalates has a technogenic character, and it is the result of contact with polymeric materials. Optimum conditions of extraction DBP from liquid samples were obtained.

  19. The relationship between environmental exposures to phthalates and DNA damage in human sperm using the neutral comet assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Narendra P.; Silva, Manori J.; Barr, Dana B.; Brock, John W; Duty, Susan M; Ryan, Louise Marie; Herrick, Robert F.; Christiani, David C.; Hauser, Russ B.

    2003-01-01

    Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited from the Massachusetts General Hospital Andrology Laborato...

  20. Simultaneous determination of multiple phthalate metabolites and bisphenol-A in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei; Tao, Lin; Collins, Erin M.; Austin, Christine; Lu, Chensheng

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A are environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals used widely in common consumer products. There is increasing concern about human exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A due to the potential adverse effects related to the anti-androgenic activity of phthalates and estrogenic activity of bisphenol A. In assessing environmental exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A, it is essential to have a validated analytical method that can quantify trace concentrations of phthala...

  1. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Kaleva, Marko M;

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis.......Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis....

  2. Variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Deborah J; Eliot, Melissa; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Calafat, Antonia M; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P; Braun, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in preschool-aged children have not been thoroughly examined. Additionally, the impact of temporal changes in the use and restriction of phthalates in children's products has not been assessed. Our objective was to identify demographic, behavioral, and temporal predictors of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in young children. Between 2004 and 2011, we collected up to five urine samples from each of 296 children participating in a prospective birth cohort during annual study visits at ages 1-5 years. We used linear mixed models to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), a measure of within-individual reproducibility, and identify demographic predictors of urinary phthalate metabolites. We used multivariable linear regression to examine cross-sectional relationships between food packaging or personal care product use and phthalate metabolites measured at age 5 years. Across annual measurements, monoethyl phthalate exhibited the least variation (ICC = 0.38), while di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites exhibited the most variation (ICC = 0.09). Concentrations changed with age, suggesting age-related changes in phthalate exposure and perhaps metabolism. Our findings suggest that fast food consumption may be a source of butylbenzyl phthalate and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) exposure, and some personal care products may be sources of diethyl phthalate exposure. Concentrations of ΣDEHP metabolites decreased over the study period; however, concentrations of DiNP metabolites increased. This finding suggests that manufacturer practices and regulations, like the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, may decrease DEHP exposure, but additional work characterizing the nature and toxicity of replacements is critically needed. PMID:24977926

  3. Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Jia; Huo, Chun-Yan; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Liu, Li-Yan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-09-15

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals in household products, which severely affect human health. However, there were limited studies emphasized on young adults' exposure to phthalates in dormitories. In this study, seven phthalates were extracted from indoor dust that collected in university dormitories in Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in the north of China. Dust samples were also collected in houses in Harbin for comparison. The total concentrations of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin and Shenyang samples were significantly higher than those in Baoding samples. The total geometric mean concentration of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin was lower than in house dust. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant phthalate in both dormitory and house dust. The daily intakes of the total phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, hazard index (HI) of di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were estimated, the median values for all students in dormitories were lower than adults who live in the houses. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of phthalates. HI of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP was predicted according to the reference doses (RfD) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the reference doses for anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) developed by Kortenkamp and Faust. The results indicated that the risks of some students had exceeded the limitation, however, the measured results were not exceeded the limitation. Risk quotients (RQ) of DEHP were predicted based on China specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) and Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL). The predicted results of CR and RQ of DEHP suggested that DEHP could pose a health risk through intake of indoor dust. PMID:27186877

  4. Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Jia; Huo, Chun-Yan; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Liu, Li-Yan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-09-15

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals in household products, which severely affect human health. However, there were limited studies emphasized on young adults' exposure to phthalates in dormitories. In this study, seven phthalates were extracted from indoor dust that collected in university dormitories in Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in the north of China. Dust samples were also collected in houses in Harbin for comparison. The total concentrations of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin and Shenyang samples were significantly higher than those in Baoding samples. The total geometric mean concentration of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin was lower than in house dust. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant phthalate in both dormitory and house dust. The daily intakes of the total phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, hazard index (HI) of di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were estimated, the median values for all students in dormitories were lower than adults who live in the houses. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of phthalates. HI of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP was predicted according to the reference doses (RfD) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the reference doses for anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) developed by Kortenkamp and Faust. The results indicated that the risks of some students had exceeded the limitation, however, the measured results were not exceeded the limitation. Risk quotients (RQ) of DEHP were predicted based on China specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) and Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL). The predicted results of CR and RQ of DEHP suggested that DEHP could pose a health risk through intake of indoor dust.

  5. Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

    2013-11-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAE), commonly named phthalates, are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are primarily used as additives to improve the flexibility in polyvinyl chloride. Many studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrices; however, none of these studies has yet established a complete overview for those compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes PAE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrences of compounds have been evaluated for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, atmosphere, and the natural environment), we reviewed data in order to identify the fate of PAE in the environment and establish whether geographical and historical trends exist. Indeed, geographical and historical trends appear between Europe and other countries such as USA/Canada and China, however they remain location dependent. This study aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes influencing the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. In Europe, the concentrations measured in waterways today represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed for developing countries, especially for China. PMID:23917738

  6. Toxic effects of the easily avoidable phthalates and parabens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-09-01

    Some environmental toxins like DDT and other chlorinated compounds accumulate in the body because of their fat-soluble nature. Other compounds do not stay long in the body, but still cause toxic effects during the time they are present. For serious health problems to arise, exposure to these rapidly-clearing compounds must occur on a daily basis. Two such classes of compounds are the phthalate plasticizers and parabens, both of which are used in many personal care products, some medications, and even foods and food preservation. The phthalates are commonly found in foods and household dust. Even though they have relatively short half-lives in humans, phthalates have been associated with a number of serious health problems, including infertility, testicular dysgenesis, obesity, asthma, and allergies, as well as leiomyomas and breast cancer. Parabens, which can be dermally absorbed, are present in many cosmetic products, including antiperspirants. Their estrogenicity and tissue presence are a cause for concern regarding breast cancer. Fortunately, these compounds are relatively easy to avoid and such steps can result in dramatic reductions of urinary levels of these compounds.

  7. A new approach to synthesis of benzyl cinnamate: Optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Hao; Zhang, Jiang-Yan; Che, Wen-Cai; Wang, Yun

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new approach to synthesis of benzyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid with benzyl alcohol is optimized by response surface methodology. The effects of various reaction conditions, including temperature, enzyme loading, substrate molar ratio of benzyl alcohol to cinnamic acid, and reaction time, are investigated. A 5-level-4-factor central composite design is employed to search for the optimal yield of benzyl cinnamate. A quadratic polynomial regression model is used to analyze the experimental data at a 95% confidence level (P<0.05). The coefficient of determination of this model is found to be 0.9851. Three sets of optimum reaction conditions are established, and the verified experimental trials are performed for validating the optimum points. Under the optimum conditions (40°C, 31mg/mL enzyme loading, 2.6:1 molar ratio, 27h), the yield reaches 97.7%, which provides an efficient processes for industrial production of benzyl cinnamate.

  8. Phthalate Levels in Cord Blood Are Associated with Preterm Delivery and Fetal Growth Parameters in Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Yujing Huang; Junnan Li; Garcia, Jose M.; Hui Lin; Yanzhou Wang; Ping Yan; Lingqiao Wang; Yao Tan; Jiaohua Luo; Zhiqun Qiu; Ji-an Chen; Weiqun Shu

    2014-01-01

    Data concerning the effects of phthalate exposure on preterm delivery and fetal growth are limited in humans. In this paper, we assessed the relationship between 15 phthalate levels in cord blood and preterm delivery and fetal growth parameters in 207 Chinese women going into labor. Exposure to phthalates except DCHP was associated with gestational age reduction and preterm delivery (p

  9. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a... phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a petition by the Joint Inserts Task Force,...

  10. Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Assessment of Phthalates Exposure Through Consumption of Bottled Water During the Storage Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare Jeddi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The research showed that the concentration of phthalates in PET-bottled water was extremely low. Consequently, based on the risk assessment results, bottled waters regarding existence of safe for consumers and they phthalates are not considered as public health issue for consumers as phthalates does not have any risk exposure for the consumers.

  11. Exposure to phthalates among premenstrual girls from rural and urban Gharbiah, Egypt: A pilot exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hablas Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalates have been identified as endocrine active compounds associated with developmental and reproductive toxicity. The exposure to phthalates in premenstrual Egyptian females remains unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize phthalate exposure of a potentially vulnerable population of premenstrual girls from urban and rural Egypt. Materials and methods We collected one spot urine sample from 60 10-13 year old females, 30 from rural Egypt, and 30 from urban Egypt from July to October 2009. Samples were analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites. Additionally, we collected anthropometrics as well as questionnaire data concerning food storage behaviors, cooking practices, and cosmetic use. Phthalate metabolite concentrations were compared between urban and rural Egyptians as well as to age and gender matched Americans. Results Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, was detected at the highest concentration in urine of Egyptian girls (median: 43.2 ng/mL in rural, 98.8 ng/mL in urban. Concentrations of urinary metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were comparable between Egyptians and age matched US girls. Storage of food in plastic containers was a statistically significant predictor of urinary mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP concentrations when comparing covariate adjusted means. Conclusions Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites were similar in Egyptian and US populations, suggesting that phthalate exposure also occurs in developing nations. Dietary intake is likely an important route of exposure to phthalates in both urban and rural populations.

  12. Synthesis of tert-Butyl-4-Methyl-3-Oxopiperidine-1-Carboxylate%1-叔丁羰基-4-甲基-3-哌啶酮的合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宝玉; 张维汉; 耿秀丽; 赵倩; 陈新志

    2011-01-01

    1-叔丁羰基-4-甲基-3-哌啶酮是合成新型蛋白酪氨酸激酶Jak3抑制剂CP-690550的重要中间体,今以廉价易得的3-羟基-4-甲基吡啶和氯苄为原料,经过SN2取代反应,再经硼氢化还原生成N-苄基-3-羟基-4-甲基哌啶.过程中考察了溶剂对实验的影响,确定最佳溶剂为3.0 mol·L-1 NaOH水溶液,后经Jones氧化,Pd/C催化脱苄及酰基化反应,得到目标产物1-叔丁羰基-4-甲基-3-哌啶酮,总收率达80.2%.该工艺较现有工艺具有反应原料易得,工艺简单,收率高,较易工业化等优点.%tert-Butyl 4-methyl-3-oxopiperidine-l-carboxylate is an important intermediate in the synthesis of the novel protein tyrosine kinase Jak3 inhibitor-CP-690550. In this article, an efficient approach to the synthesis of this interesting compound was proposed. The proposed synthesis process consists of a series of steps: starting from the easy available reagent 4-methylpyridinium, going through the SN2 substitution with benzyl chloride to offer l-benzyl-3-hydroxy-4-methylpyridium chloride with high yield, and then defining the suitable solvent species and its reasonable concentration for the borohydride reduction with sodium borohydride to provide N-benzyl-3-hydroxy- 4- methylpiperidine, consequently, oxidation by Jones reagent under mild temperature to give N-benzyl-3-oxo-4-methylpiperdine, and at last, debenzylation with Pd/C catalyst and acylation to obtain the target product /erf-butyl 4-methyl-3-oxopiperidine-l-carboxylate. The total yield can reach 80.2% by using the proposed method. Compared with the existing process, the proposed method has the advantages of easily obtained raw materials, simple in operation and suitable for industrial scale-up.

  13. 4-[3-(Benzyl­amino)-2-hy­droxy­prop­yl]-2,6-di-tert-butyl­phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Ayten R. Asgarova; Allahverdiyev, Mirze A.; Ali N. Khalilov; Atash V. Gurbanov; Brito, Iván

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C24H35NO2, the planes of the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 72.76 (4)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen-bond inter­actions, forming an extended two-dimensional framework parallel to the ab plane.

  14. 4-[3-(Benzyl­amino)-2-hy­droxy­prop­yl]-2,6-di-tert-butyl­phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarova, Ayten R.; Allahverdiyev, Mirze A.; Khalilov, Ali. N.; Gurbanov, Atash V.; Brito, Iván

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C24H35NO2, the planes of the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 72.76 (4)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen-bond inter­actions, forming an extended two-dimensional framework parallel to the ab plane. PMID:22091054

  15. Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Chemicals Bisphenol A and Phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shoei-Lung Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic effects on DNA methylation, histone modification, and expression of non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs of environmental chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates have expanded our understanding of the etiology of human complex diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Multiple lines of evidence from in vitro and in vivo models have established that epigenetic modifications caused by in utero exposure to environmental toxicants can induce alterations in gene expression that may persist throughout life. Epigenetics is an important mechanism in the ability of environmental chemicals to influence health and disease, and BPA and phthalates are epigenetically toxic. The epigenetic effect of BPA was clearly demonstrated in viable yellow mice by decreasing CpG methylation upstream of the Agouti gene, and the hypomethylating effect of BPA was prevented by maternal dietary supplementation with a methyl donor like folic acid or the phytoestrogen genistein. Histone H3 was found to be trimethylated at lysine 27 by BPA effect on EZH2 in a human breast cancer cell line and mice. BPA exposure of human placental cell lines has been shown to alter microRNA expression levels, and specifically, miR-146a was strongly induced by BPA treatment. In human breast cancer MCF7 cells, treatment with the phthalate BBP led to demethylation of estrogen receptor (ESR1 promoter-associated CpG islands, indicating that altered ESR1 mRNA expression by BBP is due to aberrant DNA methylation. Maternal exposure to phthalate DEHP was also shown to increase DNA methylation and expression levels of DNA methyltransferases in mouse testis. Further, some epigenetic effects of BPA and phthalates in female rats were found to be transgenerational. Finally, the available new technologies for global analysis of epigenetic alterations will provide insight into the extent and patterns of alterations between human normal and diseased tissues.

  16. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.;

    2016-01-01

    recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...

  17. NOVEL ORGANIZATION OF THE GENES FOR PHTHALATE DEGRADATION FROM BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA DBO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholderia cepacia DBO1 is able to utilize phthalate as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Two overlapping cosmid clones containing the genes for phthalate degradation were isolated from this strain. Subcloning and activity analysis localized the genes for phthala...

  18. Phthalate metabolites in urine and asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Michael; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2014-01-01

    or rhinoconjunctivitis. These findings appear to contradict earlier studies. Differences may be due to higher exposures to certain phthalates (e.g., BBzP) via non-dietary pathways in earlier studies, phthalates serving as surrogates for an agent associated with asthma (e.g., PVC flooring) in previous studies...

  19. Predicting Residential Exposure to Phthalate Plasticizer Emitted from Vinyl Flooring - A Mechanistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-room model is developed to estimate the emission rate of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from vinyl flooring and the evolving gas-phase and adsorbed surface concentrations in a realistic indoor environment. Adsorption isotherms for phthalates and plasticizers on interior ...

  20. A study on emission of phthalate esters from plastic materials using a passive flux sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Shinohara, N.; Lim, A.; Otake, T.; Kumagai, K.; Yanagisawa, Y.

    Phthalate esters are used as plasticizer in many plastics, and several studies have shown their toxicity. Phthalate esters are gradually emitted over time, and so it is conceivable that they pose a significant health risk. This study aims to investigate the temperature dependence of the emissions of various phthalate esters and to estimate the health risks of these emissions at various temperatures. A passive-type sampler was developed to measure the flux of phthalate esters from the surface of plastic materials. With this sampler, we examined three widely used plastic materials: synthetic leather, wallpaper and vinyl flooring. The observed maximum emissions of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from these materials at 20°C were 0.89, 0.77, and 14 μg m -2 h -1, respectively. Emissions at 80°C were 2.8, 4.5×10 2, and 1.5×10 3 μg m -2 h -1, respectively. The results showed this temperature dependence is determined primarily by the type of phthalate ester and less so by the type of material. The estimation from the results of temperature dependence indicated the concentration of DEHP in a vehicle left out in the sunshine during the day can exceed the recommended levels of Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.

  1. Predicting Residential Exposure to Phthalate Plasticizer Emitted from Vinyl Flooring: Sensitivity, Uncertainty, and Implications for Biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the ubiquitous nature of phthalates in the environment and the potential for adverse human health impacts, there is a need to understand the potential human exposure. A three-compartment model is developed to estimate the emission rate of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) f...

  2. The acute effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) on testes of prepubertal Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lam, Henrik Rye;

    2001-01-01

    A single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), the testis toxic metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. was given to 28-day-old male Wistar rats and the testis toxic effects were investigated 3, 6. and 12 h after exposure. Detachment and sloughing of germ cell...

  3. Phthalate Exposure and Health-Related Outcomes in Specific Types of Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kolena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many toxic substances in the workplace can modify human health and quality of life and there is still insufficient data on respiratory outcomes in adults exposed to phthalates. The aim of this work was to assess in waste management workers from the Nitra region of Slovakia (n = 30 the extent of exposure to phthalates and health-related outcomes. Four urinary phthalate metabolites mono(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, monobutyl phthalate (MnBP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. Urinary concentration of MEHP was positively associated with ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity % (FEV1/FVC (r = 0.431; p = 0.018 and MiNP with fat free mass index (FFMI (r = 0.439; p = 0.015. The strongest predictor of pulmonary function was the pack/year index as smoking history that predicted a decrease of pulmonary parameters, the FEV1/FVC, % of predicted values of peak expiratory flow (PEF % of PV and FEV1 % of PV. Unexpectedly, urinary MEHP and MINP were positively associated with pulmonary function expressed as PEF % of PV and FEV1/FVC. We hypothesize that occupational exposure to phthalates estimated from urinary metabolites (MEHP, MiNP can modify pulmonary function on top of lifestyle factors.

  4. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK IN THE US EPA MAMA STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products including PVC, plastic toys, and medical devices. These products are widely used by the general population. Phthalates act as anti-androgens and in utero or perinatal exposure in laboratory animal models leads to ...

  5. 77 FR 4544 - CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 49286), we published a notice of requirements establishing the accreditation criteria for... COMMISSION CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... ``we'') is announcing its intent to hold a symposium on phthalates screening and testing methods....

  6. 77 FR 45297 - Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Proposed Guidance on Inaccessible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Register on August 7, 2009 (74 FR 39535) and codified at 16 CFR 1500.87 (Children's products containing... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1199 Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Proposed Guidance... prohibition on specified products containing phthalates does not apply to any component part of...

  7. New insights into the risk of phthalates: Inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Cao, Yun-Feng; Ran, Rui-Xue; Dong, Pei-Pei; Gonzalez, Frank J; Wu, Xue; Huang, Ting; Chen, Jian-Xin; Fu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Rong-Shan; Liu, Yong-Zhe; Sun, Hong-Zhi; Fang, Zhong-Ze

    2016-02-01

    Wide utilization of phthalates-containing products results in the significant exposure of humans to these compounds. Many adverse effects of phthalates have been documented in rodent models, but their effects in humans exposed to these chemicals remain unclear until more mechanistic studies on phthalate toxicities can be carried out. To provide new insights to predict the potential adverse effects of phthalates in humans, the recent study investigated the inhibition of representative phthalates di-n-octyl ortho-phthalate (DNOP) and diphenyl phthalate (DPhP) towards the important xenobiotic and endobiotic-metabolizing UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). An in vitro UGTs incubation system was employed to study the inhibition of DNOP and DPhP towards UGT isoforms. DPhP and DNOP weakly inhibited the activities of UGT1A1, UGT1A7, and UGT1A8. 100 µM of DNOP inhibited the activities of UGT1A3, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 by 41.8% (p [I]/Ki > 0.1, medium possibility; [I]/Ki > 1, high possibility), these studies predicted in vivo drug-drug interaction might occur when the plasma concentration of DPhP was above 0.089 µM. Taken together, this study reveales the potential for adverse effects of phthalates DNOP and DPhP as a result of UGT inhibition.

  8. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  9. Environmentally benign Friedel-Crafts benzylation over nano-TiO2/SO4 2-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kalathiparambil RPS; Sreeja, Puthenveetil B.; Sugunan, Sankaran

    2013-05-01

    During the past decade, much attention has been paid to the replacement of homogeneous catalysts by solid acid catalysts. Friedel-Crafts benzylation of toluene with benzyl chloride (BC) in liquid phase was carried out over highly active, nano-crystalline sulfated titania systems. These catalysts were prepared using the sol gel method. Modification was done by loading 3% of transition metal oxides over sulfated titania. Reaction parameters such as catalyst mass, molar ratio, temperature, and time have been studied. More than 80% conversion of benzyl chloride and 100% selectivity are shown by all the catalysts under optimum conditions. Catalytic activity is correlated with Lewis acidity obtained from perylene adsorption studies. The reaction appears to proceed by an electrophile, which involves the reaction of BC with the acidic titania catalyst. The catalyst was regenerated and reused up to four reaction cycles with equal efficiency as in the first run. The prepared systems are environmentally friendly and are easy to handle.

  10. Structure-activity relationship of dopaminergic halogenated 1-benzyl-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aouad, Noureddine; Berenguer, Inmaculada; Romero, Vanessa; Marín, Paloma; Serrano, Angel; Andujar, Sebastián; Suvire, Fernando; Bermejo, Almudena; Ivorra, M Dolores; Enriz, Ricardo D; Cabedo, Nuria; Cortes, Diego

    2009-11-01

    Two series of halogenated 1-benzyl-7-chloro-6-hydroxy-tetrahydroisoquinolines were prepared to explore the influence of each series on the affinity for dopamine receptors. All the compounds displayed a high affinity for D(1)-like and/or D(2)-like dopamine receptors in striatal membranes, although they were unable to inhibit [(3)H]-dopamine uptake in striatal synaptosomes. The halogen placed on the benzylic ring in 1-benzyl-THIQs, compounds of the series 1, 2'-bromobenzyl derivatives with K(i) values into the nanomolar range, and the series 2, 2',4'-dichlorobenzyl-THIQ homologues, proves to be an important factor to modulate affinity at dopamine receptor.

  11. Reactivity of H. formed in the radiolysis of benzyl alcohol containing tetracycline hydrochloride at 77 K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolysis of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in benzyl alcohol was studied at 77 K by ESR. The H. and e- which are formed in the radiolysis of benzyl alcohol at 77 K migrate over a distance corresponding to about 95 and 995 molecules of solvent, respectively, before they are captured by the tetracycline hydrochloride solute. The migration of H. in neopentane matrix is more favoured than in benzyl alcohol matrix. When the mole ratio between solute and solvent is 1:10000, the reactivity of H. observed by ESR is the following: a) 20% of H. reacts preferentially with solute; b) 80% of H. reacts exclusively with the solvent in the first collision. (author)

  12. Synthesis, Anticancer and Antibacterial Activity of Salinomycin N-Benzyl Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Antoszczak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of 12 novel monosubstituted N-benzyl amides of salinomycin (SAL was synthesized for the first time and characterized by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of three salinomycin derivatives in the solid state were determined using single crystal X-ray method. All compounds obtained were screened for their antiproliferative activity against various human cancer cell lines as well as against the most problematic bacteria strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel salinomycin derivatives exhibited potent anticancer activity against drug-resistant cell lines. Additionally, two N-benzyl amides of salinomycin revealed interesting antibacterial activity. The most active were N-benzyl amides of SAL substituted at -ortho position and the least anticancer active derivatives were those substituted at the -para position.

  13. Oxidation of benzyl alcohol by K2FeO4 to benzaldehyde over zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Hua; Song, Hua-Lin; Jin, Zai-Shun

    2016-10-01

    A novel and green procedure for benzaldehyde synthesis by potassium ferrate oxidation of benzyl alcohol employing zeolite catalysts was studied. The prepared oxidant was characterized by SEM and XRD. The catalytic activity of various solid catalysts was studied using benzyl alcohol as a model compound. USY was found to be a very efficient catalyst for this particular oxidation process. Benzaldehyde yields up to 96.0% could be obtained at the following optimal conditions: 0.2 mL of benzyl alcohol, 4 mmol of K2FeO4, 0.5 g of USY zeolite; 20 mL of cyclohexene, 0.3 mL of acetic acid (36 wt %), 30°C temperature, 4 h reaction time.

  14. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Katherine [Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (Puerto Rico); National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Claudio, Luz [Division of International Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used

  15. “On water” sp3–sp2 cross-couplings between benzylic and alkenyl halides†

    OpenAIRE

    Krasovskaya, Valeria; Krasovskiy, Arkady; Bhattacharjya, Anish; Lipshutz, Bruce H.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-solvent-free cross-couplings between benzylic and alkenyl halides have been developed. Various alkenyl halides can be effciently benzylated by combining the precursor halides in the presence of Zn dust and a Pd catalyst at room temperature, in water as the only medium.

  16. 1,3 Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of Substituted Benzyl Azides eith Tans-Dibenzoylethlene : Thermally Stable Trizoles Versus Unstable Triazolines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzyl and Several Substituted benzyl azides Ιa-q reacted with trans -dibenzoylethylene 2 to give the thermaly unstable trizolinrs 3 which lose nitrogen molecule to yield either enamines 4 or enolimines 5. (Author's) 13 refs., 2 tabs., 4 strus., 1 sche., 2 figs

  17. Application of Magnetic Dicationic Ionic Liquid Phase Transfer Catalyst in Nuclophilic Substitution Reactions of Benzyl Halids in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Manouchehr Aghajeri; Ali Reza Kiasat; Bijan Mombeni Goodajdar

    2016-01-01

    magnetic dicationic ionic liquid (MDIL) was successfully prepared and evaluated as phase-transfer catalyst for nucleophilic substitution reactions. The reactions was occurred in water and furnished the corresponding benzyl derivatives in high yields. No evidence for the formation of by-product for example benzyl alcohol of the reaction was observed and the products were obtained in pure form without further purification.

  18. Requirement of duplicated operons for maximal metabolism of phthalate by Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Kim, Dockyu; Chae, Jong-Chan; Zylstra, Gerben J; Kim, Eungbin

    2007-06-01

    The operons encoding the transformation of phthalate to protocatechuate are duplicated and present on two different megaplasmids [pDK2 (330 kb) and pDK3 (750 kb)] in Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17. RT-PCR experiments using gene-specific primers showed that both the pDK2- and the pDK3-encoded dihydroxyphthalate decarboxylase genes are simultaneously expressed during growth on phthalate. The doubling time of the pDK2-cured mutant strain DK176 in minimal liquid medium with 5mM phthalate is 52.5% of that of the wild-type strain DK17. The data indicate that both copies of the phthalate operon are equally functional in DK17, and gene dosage is the main reason for slower growth of DK176 on phthalate. PMID:17449009

  19. Partitioning of phthalates among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Salthammer, Tunga; Fromme, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    A critical evaluation of human exposure to phthalate esters in indoor environments requires the determination of their distribution among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust. If sorption from the gas phase is the dominant mechanism whereby a given phthalate is associated with both....... The particle concentration, C-particle, of a given phthalate was calculated from its total airborne concentration and the concentration of airborne particles (PM4). This required knowledge of the particle-gas partition coefficient, K., which was estimated from either the saturation vapor pressure (p...... concentrations, the gas-phase concentrations of phthalates can also be estimated and, subsequently, the contribution of each of these compartments to indoor phthalate exposures....

  20. The influence of antenatal exposure to phthalates on subsequent female reproductive development in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Roger; Doherty, Dorota A; Frederiksen, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that antenatal exposure to ubiquitous phthalates may lead to an earlier menarche and a lower prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCO) in adolescence. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study recruited 3000 women at 18......-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, androstenedione and DHEAS. 400 µL of the frozen maternal serum underwent isotope diluted liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with preceding enzymatic deconjugation followed by solid phase extraction to determine phthalate exposure. 244 girls...... attended assessment and most common phthalate metabolites were detectable in the majority of the 123 samples available. Several phthalates were negatively associated with maternal SHBG, associations with maternal androgens were less consistent. The sum of the metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate...

  1. Serum phthalate levels and time to pregnancy in couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar;

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that have been associated with altered reproductive function in rodents. Several human studies have reported an inverse association between male testosterone and phthalate levels. Our aim was to investigate time to pregnancy (TTP) according to serum...... levels of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites in both partners. In 2002-2004 we enrolled 938 pregnant women and 401 male spouses from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Six oxidized metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were summarized for each of the two parent compounds....... This study spanning large contrast in environmental exposure does not indicate adverse effects of phthalates on couple fecundity. The shorter TTP in women with high levels of DEHP metabolites is unexplained and needs further investigation....

  2. 75 FR 44184 - Aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al.; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ...-ethylphosphonate) and fenarimol; the herbicides butylate, clethodim, clomazone, fenoxaprop-ethyl, flumetsulam... fungicides aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate) and fenarimol; the herbicides butylate, clethodim, clomazone... stoichiometric equivalent of clofentezine, in or on the commodity. 6. Clomazone. In order to describe...

  3. Efficient oxidation of benzyl alcohol with heteropolytungstate as reaction-controlled phase-transfer catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of heteropolytungstates has been synthesized and utilized as catalysts to catalyze oxidation of benzyl alcohol with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The results indicated that three of these catalysts showed the properties of reaction-controlled phasetransfer catalysis, and they had excellent catalytic ability to the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. No other by-products were detected by gas chromatography. Once the hydrogen peroxide was consumed completely, the catalyst precipitated from solvent, and the results of the catalyst recycle showed that the catalyst had high stability.

  4. Benzylic Phosphates in Friedel-Crafts Reactions with Activated and Unactivated Arenes: Access to Polyarylated Alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikonda, Gangaram; Chakravartya, Manab

    2016-03-01

    Easily reachable electron-poor/rich primary and secondary benzylic phosphates are suitably used as substrates for Friedel-Crafts benzylation reactions with only 1.2 equiv activated/deactivated arenes (no additional solvent) to access structurally and electronically diverse polyarylated alkanes with excellent yields and selectivities at room temperature. Specifically, diversely substituted di/triarylmethanes are generated within 2-30 min using this approach. A wide number of electron-poor polyarylated alkanes are easily accomplished through this route by just tuning the phosphates. PMID:26835977

  5. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  6. Analysis of phthalate ester content in poly(vinyl chloride) plastics by means of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy is applied to a range of phthalate ester plasticizers in pure form as well as in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples. It is found that phthalate esters as a group can be identified by a set of six characteristic Raman bands. FT-Raman spectra of 22 phthalate...... esters are given. It is demonstrated that the presence of phthalate esters in PVC products is readily detectable by FT-Raman spectroscopy. By use of proper ref. samples quant. detn. of the phthalate ester content becomes possible as well....

  7. Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. A review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-06-01

    Phthalates are a family of industrial chemicals that have been used for a variety of purposes. As the potential consequences of human exposure to phthalates have raised concerns in the general population, they have been studied in susceptible subjects such as pregnant women, infants and children. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to phthalates on reproductive outcomes and children health by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcome, genital development, semen quality, precocious puberty, thyroid function, respiratory symptoms and neurodevelopment in children for the last ten years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola and Toxnet literature bases. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that phthalates increase the risk of allergy and asthma and have an adverse impact on children's neurodevelopment reflected by quality of alertness among girls, decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results of few studies demonstrate negative associations between phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (concentration, morphology, motility). Phthalates negatively impact also on gestational age and head circumference; however, the results of the studies were not consistent. In all the reviewed studies, exposure to phthalates adversely affected the level of reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin), anogenital distance and thyroid function. The urinary levels of phthalates were significantly higher in the pubertal gynecomastia group, in serum in girls with premature thelarche and in girls with precocious puberty. Epidemiological studies, in spite of their limitations, suggest that phthalates may affect reproductive outcome and children health

  8. Semi-volatile organic compounds in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning filter dust in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Liang, Y; Urquidi, J R; Siegel, J A

    2015-02-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Filters in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system collect particles from large volumes of air and thus potentially provide spatially and temporally integrated SVOC concentrations. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds in HVAC filter dust in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, United States. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the HVAC filter dust in retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor pollutants. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates and PBDEs was not strong, suggesting that their indoor sources are diverse. The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in HVAC filter dust are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of settled dust in residential buildings. Significant correlations between indoor air and filter dust concentrations were found for diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and benzyl butyl phthalate. Reasonable agreement between measurements and an equilibrium model to describe SVOC partitioning between dust and gas-phase is achieved.

  9. Comparison, association, and risk assessment of phthalates in floor dust at different indoor environments in Delaware, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolong; Yuan, Shoujun; Pan, Xiaojun; Winstead, Cherese; Wang, Qiquan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare and assess phthalate contamination in various indoor environments. In this study, 44 floor dust samples from different indoor environments in Delaware, USA were collected and analyzed for 14 phthalates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phthalates were detected in all dust samples with the total concentration ranging from 84 to 7117 mg kg(-1). DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), BzBP (benzylbutyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), and DiBP (di-isobutyl phthalate) were both the most frequently and abundantly detected phthalates. The average concentration of total phthalates in dust from offices, student dorms, gyms, stores, and daycare centers was found to be significantly or insignificantly (P = 0.05) higher than that in dust from houses and apartments. Plastic flooring materials and the application of floor care chemical products were positively associated with total phthalate concentration in floor dust. Toxicological risk assessment indicated that an investigated daycare center in this study was the only indoor environment that may cause the intake amount of DEHP of infants, toddlers, and children via dust ingestion to exceed the reference dose established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Regular monitoring on phthalate contamination in sensitive indoor environments is recommended. PMID:26327207

  10. Contamination level of four priority phthalates in North Indian wastewater treatment plants and their fate in sequencing batch reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Rajpal, Ankur; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The contamination level of four phthalates in untreated and treated wastewater of fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their fate in a full scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based WWTP was evaluated in this study. The four phthalates were diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). All compounds were present in untreated wastewater with DEHP being present in the highest mean concentration of 28.4 ± 5.3 μg L(-1). The concentration was in the range of 7.3 μg L(-1) (BBP) to 28.4 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in untreated wastewater and 1.3 μg L(-1) (DBP) to 2.6 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in treated wastewater. The nutrient removal process and advance tertiary treatment based WWTPs showed the highest phthalate removal efficiencies of 87% and 93%, respectively. The correlation between phthalate removal and conventional performance of WWTPs was positive. Fate analysis of these phthalates in a SBR based WWTP showed that total removal of the sum of phthalates in a primary settling tank and SBR was 84% out of which 55% is removed by biodegradation and 29% was removed by sorption to primary and secondary sludge. The percentage removal of four phthalates in primary settling tanks was 18%. Comparison of the diluted effluent DEHP concentration with its environmental quality standards showed that the dilution in an effluent receiving water body can reduce the DEHP emissions to acceptable values.

  11. Determination of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Yang, Bofeng; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Fengmei; Xu, Hui; Cai, Xue

    2014-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

  12. Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol into Butyl Levulinate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D.. Carà; R. Ciriminna; N.R. Shiju; G. Rothenberg; M. Pagliaro

    2014-01-01

    We study the catalytic condensation of furfuryl alcohol with 1-butanol to butyl levulinate. A screening of several commercial and as-synthesized solid acid catalysts shows that propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica outperforms the state-of-the-art phosphotungstate acid catalysts. The

  13. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  14. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  15. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  16. 76 FR 59906 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Performance Liquid Chromatography/Ultra-Violet Spectrometry (HPLC/UV)) is available to enforce the tolerance... of fluazifop-P-butyl in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, refined oil; and cotton, undelinted... Tolerance In the Federal Register of December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78240) (FRL- 8853-1), EPA issued a...

  17. A Study of the Teratogenicity of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst; Meyer, Otto A.

    1978-01-01

    A teratogenicity study on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was carried out in SPF New Zealand White rabbits. BHA was given by gavage from day 7–18 of the gestation period in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt./day. The fetuses were removed on day 28. No effect related to the treatment with BHA...

  18. The association between phthalate exposure and atopic dermatitis with a discussion of phthalate induced secretion of interleukin-1β and thymic stromal lymphopoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Line E K; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Frederiksen, Hanne; Main, Katharina M; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-06-01

    Phthalate diesters are widely used as emollients in plastic and cosmetics as well as in food packaging and perfumes, potentially leading to prolonged and repeated dermal, oral and airborne exposure. We here review published articles that have evaluated the putative role of phthalate diesters in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and discuss possible pathogenic pathways. A literature search resulted in 563 articles in Embase and 263 articles in Pubmed. After identification of relevant articles based on screening of titles, abstracts and reference lists, a total of 39 articles were selected and included. While no clear association has been shown between systemic phthalate levels and atopic dermatitis in human studies, animal data suggests that phthalates may worsen dermatitis and in vitro data suggests that interleukin-4 could be upregulated. Moreover, both loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene and atopic dermatitis have been associated with elevated systemic phthalate levels. There is a need for prospective studies to clarify the possible pathogenic role of phthalate diesters in atopic dermatitis and the associated health risk, especially with the general trend towards barrier restoration with emollients in infants at risk of developing atopic dermatitis. In summary, we conclude that the results from published studies are controversial and inconclusive. PMID:26894419

  19. Impact of low molecular weight phthalates in inducing reproductive malfunctions in male mice: Special emphasis on Sertoli cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Srivastava, Swati; Roy, Partha

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in a variety of products. Since they have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), effect of phthalates on human health is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated individual as well as combined mixture effects of three low molecular weight phthalates on the reproductive system of male mice, specifically on the Sertoli cell structure and function. In order to analyze the blood testes barrier (BTB) dynamics, primary culture of Sertoli cells from 3-weeks old male mice was used for mimicking typical tight junction structures. Male mice were exposed to long-term (45 days) and combined mixture of three phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and dimethyl isophthalate (DMIP) between pre-pubertal to adult stage. Our data showed significant decrease (p phthalates may affect male fertility by altering both structural and functional integrity of Sertoli cells in testes.

  20. 1-n-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-carboxylate: a versatile precatalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and rac-lactide under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Hoppe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL and rac-lactide (rac-LA under solvent-free conditions and using 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-carboxylate (BMIM-2-CO2 as precatalyst is described. Linear and star-branched polyesters were synthesized by successive use of benzyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, glycerol and pentaerythritol as initiator alcohols, and the products were fully characterized by 1H and 13C{1H} NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. BMIM-2-CO2 acts as an N-heterocyclic carbene precursor, resulting from in situ decarboxylation, either by heating under vacuo (method A or by addition of NaBPh4 (method B. Possible catalytic and deactivation mechanisms are proposed.

  1. 1,3-Alternate conformer 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetra-kis-(4-methyl-sulfanylbenz-yloxy)-2,8,14,20-tetra-thia-calix[4]arene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingsong; Xie, Dexun; An, Delie

    2013-01-01

    The title thia-calix[4]arene derivative, C72H80O4S8, adopts a 1,3-alternate conformation, where the four 4-methyl-sul-fan-yl-benzyl groups are located alternately at the two sides of a virtual plane defined by the four bridging S atoms. In the crystal, there are no significant inter-molecular inter-actions present. Some of the peripheral tert-butyl and methyl-sulfanyl groups are disordered over two positions. A region of disordered electron density, occupying voids of ca 700 Å(3) for an electron count of 124, was treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. PMID:24046595

  2. Performance and mechanisms for the removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution by graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Chen, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hao-Xuan; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, commonly detected emerging contaminants (ECs) in water, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF), were selected as the target contaminants. A lab-prepared graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane (TGCCM) coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process (EC/EF) in crossflow filtration mode was used to remove target contaminants in model solution. Meanwhile, a comparison of the removal efficiency was made among various tubular composite membranes reported, including carbon fibers/carbon/alumina composite tubular membrane (TCCACM), titania/alumina composite tubular membrane (TTACM) and alumina tubular membrane (TAM). The results of this study showed that the removal efficiencies for DnBP and DEHP were 99%, whereas 32-97% for cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF). In this work the mechanisms involved in removing target ECs were proposed and their roles in removing various ECs were also discussed. Further, two actual municipal wastewaters were treated to evaluate the applicability of the aforementioned treatment technology (i.e., TGCCM coupled with EC/EF) to various aqueous solutions in the real world.

  3. Performance and mechanisms for the removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution by graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Chen, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hao-Xuan; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, commonly detected emerging contaminants (ECs) in water, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF), were selected as the target contaminants. A lab-prepared graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane (TGCCM) coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process (EC/EF) in crossflow filtration mode was used to remove target contaminants in model solution. Meanwhile, a comparison of the removal efficiency was made among various tubular composite membranes reported, including carbon fibers/carbon/alumina composite tubular membrane (TCCACM), titania/alumina composite tubular membrane (TTACM) and alumina tubular membrane (TAM). The results of this study showed that the removal efficiencies for DnBP and DEHP were 99%, whereas 32-97% for cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF). In this work the mechanisms involved in removing target ECs were proposed and their roles in removing various ECs were also discussed. Further, two actual municipal wastewaters were treated to evaluate the applicability of the aforementioned treatment technology (i.e., TGCCM coupled with EC/EF) to various aqueous solutions in the real world. PMID:27131034

  4. (R)-N-{2-tert-Butyl-2-[(R)-tert-butyl­sulfonamido]ethylidene}-tert-butane­sulfonamide

    OpenAIRE

    Cong-Bin Fan; Xiao-Xia Sun; Yu Hu

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C14H30N2O2S2, is the product of the monoaddition reaction of tert-butyl magnesium chloride with bis-[(R)-N-tert-butanesulfinyl]ethanediimine. There are two almost identical molecules in the asymmetric unit, the molecular conformation of which is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond.

  5. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi; Mohammad Tehrani; Mohammad Bashashati

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B). Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission tim...

  6. "Decarbonization" of an imino N-heterocyclic carbene via triple benzyl migration from hafnium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imino N-heterocyclic carbene underwent three sequential benzyl migrations upon reaction with tetrabenzylhafnium, resulting in complete removal of the carbene carbon from the ligand. The resulting eneamido-amidinato hafnium complex showed alkene polymerization activity comparable to that of a prec...

  7. A Case of Abnormal Bishler-Napieralski Cyclization Reaction, Leading to Form Benzyl Oxazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A benzyl oxazole compound 3 was obtained with an excellent yield of 90% when N-acetyl-(2?methoxy-4?5?methylenedioxy)-phenylalanine methyl ester 1 was refluxed in POCl3 /benzene. However, the anticipated product 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester 2 could not be found. The mechanism was discussed in this article.

  8. Synthesis of (s)-(-)-Benzyl-2-tert-butoxycarbonyl amino-4-iodobutyrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A convenient method to synthesize (s)-(-)-benzyl-2-tert-butoxy carbonylamino-4-iodobutyrate from L-(±)methionine 1 was reported, the enantiomeric purity of the product was established by comparison of optical rotation data with literature values, indicating that the reaction process occurred without racemization.

  9. Inhibition of a Gold-Based Catalyst in Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation: Understanding and Remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skupien, E.; Berger, R.J.; Santos, V.P.; Gascon, J.; Makkee, M.; Kreutzer, M.T.; Kooyman, P.J.; Moulijn, J.A.; Kapteijn, F.

    2014-01-01

    Benzyl alcohol oxidation was carried out in toluene as solvent, in the presence of the potentially inhibiting oxidation products benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. Benzoic acid, or a product of benzoic acid, is identified to be the inhibiting species. The presence of a basic potassium salt (K2CO3 or KF)

  10. Extraction of toluene, o-xylene from heptane and benzyl alcohol from toluene with aqueous cyclodextrins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Schoonhoven, van T.; Kuzmanovic, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The separation of aromatic compounds (toluene and o-xylene) from heptane and of benzyl alcohol from toluene with aqueous solutions of cyclodextrins has been experimentally investigated, because cyclodextrins and its derivatives can selectively incorporate several organic compounds, whereas the separ

  11. Non-heme iron catalysts for the benzylic oxidation : a parallel ligand screening approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopstra, M; Hage, R; Kellogg, R.M.; Feringa, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Ethylbenzene and 4-ethylanisole were used as model substrates for benzylic oxidation with H2O2 or O-2 using a range of non-heme iron catalysts following a parallel ligand screening approach. Effective oxidation was found for Fe complexes based on tetra- and pentadentate nitrogen ligands affording th

  12. Homocoupling of benzyl halides catalyzed by POCOP-nickel pincer complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2012-08-01

    Two types of POCOP-nickel(II) pincer complexes were prepared by mixing POCOP pincer ligands and NiX 2 in toluene at reflux. The resulting nickel complexes efficiently catalyze the homocoupling reactions of benzyl halides in the presence of zinc. The coupled products were obtained in excellent to quantitative yields. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growing up Radical: Investigation of Benzyl-Like Radicals with Increasing Chain Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Joseph A.; Jawad, Khadija M.; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2015-06-01

    Combustion processes involve complex chemistry including pathways leading to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from small molecule precursors. Resonance stabilized radicals (RSRs) likely play an important role in the pathways to PAHs due to their unusual stability. Benzyl radical is a prototypical RSR that is stabilized by conjugation with the phenyl ring. Earlier work on α-methyl benzyl radical showed perturbations to the spectroscopy due to a hindered methyl rotor. If the alkyl chain is lengthened then multiple conformations become possible. This talk will discuss the jet-cooled spectroscopy of α-ethyl benzyl radical and α-propyl benzyl radical produced from the discharge of 1-phenyl propanol and 1-phenyl butanol respectively. Electronic spectra were obtained via resonant two-photon ionization, and IR spectra were obtained by resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy. Kidwell, N. M.; Reilly, N. J.; Nebgen, B.; Mehta-Hurt, D. N.; Hoehn, R. D.; Kokkin, D. L.; McCarthy, M. C.; Slipchenko, L. V.; Zwier, T. S. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2013, 117, 13465.

  14. Design, synthesis and biological activity of novel peptidyl benzyl ketone FVIIa inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten; Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Zaragoza, Florencio;

    2011-01-01

    Herein is described the synthesis of a novel class of peptidyl FVIIa inhibitors having a C-terminal benzyl ketone group. This class is designed to be potentially suitable as stabilization agents of liquid formulations of rFVIIa, which is a serine protease used for the treatment of hemophilia...

  15. The retro Grignard addition reaction revisited: the reversible addition of benzyl reagents to ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stig Holden; Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Grignard addition reaction is known to be a reversible process with allylic reagents, but so far the reversibility has not been demonstrated with other alkylmagnesium halides. By using crossover experiments it has been established that the benzyl addition reaction is also a reversible transfo...

  16. Phthalate Migration Study from PVC Grafted by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PVC is a useful polymer used for many applications, as packaging of food, blood and in contact with body fluids. The most widely-used plasticizer, to make it flexible, is the phthalate DEHP, and its toxicity is a problem. A special radiation grafting of PVC allows an important reduction of thrombogenic properties, and it could cause changes in the DEHP migration too. In this work it is presented the methodology using gas chromatography and numerical simulation for the measurement of DEHP migration from PVC grafted with monomer DMAEMA. The grafting could be an interesting way to reduce DEHP migration

  17. Phthalates in meat products in dependence on the fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of dibutylphthalate (DBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in samples of packages intended for thermally processed meat products and release of phthalates from packages into meat products in dependence on the fat content were observed. 80 samples of packages were analyzed, 5 of them wereselected due to exceeding the specific migration limit. The raw meat was prepared, one type with the fat content of 10% and second one with the fat content of 50%. The both types of raw meat were analyzed for the content of DBP and DEHP and packed into chosen packages.The samples of meat products were thermally processed (70 ℃, 10 min in the core, stored until the expiration date at 4 °C and gradually analyzed after 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of storage. Determination of phthalates was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC in the Zorbax Eclipse C8column and by UV detection at a wavelength of 224 mm. The phthalate content in the raw meat was under the limit of detection. According to the EU Commission Regulation no. 10/2011 the specific migration limit of products intended for the contact with food for DEHP (max. 1.5 mg.kg-1of food stimulant and DBP max. 0.3 mg.kg-1 of food stimulant, wasexceeded already after first day of storage, in case of DBP in two samples with 10% of fat and after 7th day of storage in one sample. In the samples with 50% of fat, SML was exceeded after first day of storage in four samples and in one sample after 14th day of storage. Regarding DEHP in the samples with 10% of fat SML was exceeded after 1st day of storage in one sample and after 7th day of storage also in one sample and after 21st day of storage similarly in one sample. Four samples with 50% of fat had SML exceeded in case of DEHP already after 1st day of storage. By comparison of PAE migration depending on the fat content we concluded that leaching of PAE from a package into food was 2 - 21 times higher in samples with 50% of

  18. Developmental neurotoxicity of ortho-phthalate diesters: review of human and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodovnik, Amir; Edwards, Andrea; Bellinger, David C; Hauser, Russ

    2014-03-01

    Ortho-phthalate diesters, or phthalates, are widely used synthetic chemicals found primarily in consumer products and polyvinyl chloride plastics. Experimental evidence suggests that several phthalates possess antiandrogenic properties and may disrupt endocrine pathways resulting in abnormal reproductive outcomes. Low-level exposure to phthalates has been well documented in humans, with higher levels found in children and women of childbearing age. Recent epidemiologic studies postulate that prenatal exposure to measurable urine phthalate concentrations may be associated with altered genital and pubertal development in infants and children. This review addresses the emerging evidence that some phthalates may have an adverse impact on the developing brain. The supporting animal studies and proposed mechanisms underlying the deleterious properties of phthalates in relation to neurodevelopmental outcomes are also discussed. While the observed associations are based on limited studies with a broad range of endpoints, the implications of such outcomes are of concern from a public health standpoint and merit further investigation given the widespread nature of the exposure. PMID:24486776

  19. Dietary phthalate exposure in pregnant women and the impact of consumer practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Samantha E; Karr, Catherine J; Seixas, Noah S; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Barrett, Emily S; Janssen, Sarah; Redmon, Bruce; Swan, Shanna H; Sathyanarayana, Sheela

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are contaminants in food and contribute to significant dietary exposures. We examined associations between reported consumption of specific foods and beverages and first trimester urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in 656 pregnant women within a multicenter cohort study, The Infant Development and Environment Study (TIDES), using multivariate regression analysis. We also examined whether reported use of ecofriendly and chemical-free products was associated with lower phthalate biomarker levels in comparison to not following such practices. Consumption of one additional serving of dairy per week was associated with decreases of 1% in the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite levels (95% CI: -2.0, -0.2). Further, participants who reported sometimes eating homegrown food had monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) levels that were 16.6% lower (95% CI: -29.5, -1.3) in comparison to participants in the rarely/never category. In contrast to rarely/never eating frozen fruits and vegetables, participants who reported sometimes following this practice had monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) levels that were 21% higher (95% CI: 3.3, 41.7) than rarely/ever respondents. Future study on prenatal dietary phthalate exposure and the role of consumer product choices in reducing such exposure is needed. PMID:24927036

  20. First Trimester Phthalate Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in the Infant Development and Environment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby; Redmon, Bruce; Haaland, Wren; Swan, Shanna H.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is widespread among pregnant women but whether it is related to fetal growth and birth weight remains to be determined. We examined whether first trimester prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with birth weight in a pregnancy cohort study. We recruited first trimester pregnant women from 2010–2012 from four centers and analyzed mother/infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth record data (N = 753). We conducted multiple linear regression to examine if prenatal log specific gravity adjusted urinary phthalate exposure was related to birthweight in term and preterm (≤37 weeks) infants, stratified by sex. We observed a significant association between mono carboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCOP) exposure and increased birthweight in term males, 0.13 kg (95% CI 0.03, 0.23). In preterm infants, we observed a 0.49 kg (95% CI 0.09, 0.89) increase in birthweight in relation to a one log unit change in the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations in females (N = 33). In summary, we observed few associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and birthweight. Positive associations may be attributable to unresolved confounding in term infants and limited sample size in preterm infants. PMID:27669283