Sample records for butyl alcohols

  1. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  2. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  3. Solvent effects on the magnetic shielding of tertiary butyl alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The magnetic shielding and its polarizabilities, have been calculated for tertiary butyl alcohol and tertiary butyl amine. These have been used to rationalise the solvent shifts of the proton spectra of the interesting cosolvent systems with water recently measured by Kipkemboi, et al. Continuum solvation calculations and ...

  4. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of water + t-butyl alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydroxyl-proton chemical shifts for water and t-butyl alcohol in water + t-butyl alcohol mixtures with 8 mol% t-butyl alcohol, and the average hydroxyl and amino proton chemical shift for water + t-butylamine mixtures, have been determined at 200 MHz for four temperatures (263, 278, 298 and 313 K) as a function of ...

  5. Anaerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in petrochemical wastewater. (United States)

    Ghasemian, Mohammad; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat


    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to evaluate treatment of a synthetic substrate mixture representing petrochemical wastewater containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol and acetic acid. Influent MTBE concentrations were 5, 10 and 50 mg/l (corresponding to MTBE loading rates of 0.2, 0.4 and 2 mg/l.d) with overall organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.51, 3.23 and 3.25 g COD/1.d, respectively. These OLRs resulted in removal efficiencies for MTBE of 78%, 98% and 88%. Removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand were 85% and 90% with influent MTBE concentrations of 5 and 10mg/l, but were significantly reduced to 72% with influent MTBE concentrations of 50mg/l. During all reactor runs, effluent concentrations oftert-butyl alcohol (TBA) were below the detection limit. Batch degradation of the organic substrate mixture demonstrated initial inhibitory effects when exposed to MTBE concentrations of 50 mg/l and complete inhibition with MTBE concentrations above 2000 mg/l. It is interesting to note that in batch tests using MTBE as the sole organic substrate (initial MTBE concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/l), the specific methanogenic activity decreased to below detection within the first 96 hours, but following a 72-hour lag phase the methane production increased again. Based on low volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, disappearance of TBA peaks and no findings of any other intermediate via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the MTBE concentration is still high, it can be suggested that during the batch tests the breakdown of gas production and the following lag phase were the direct effect of higher MTBE concentrations (more than 50 mg/l) and not because of the TBA or VFA accumulations.


    Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

  7. Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.


    Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline- contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Liquid samples in glass vials were attached to a motor drive unit situated in the macrochamber of the spectrometer. The vial was then spun to enhance the Raman signal ..... partially covalent linear hydrogen-bonded complex formation of the type NH2----O-H. This band thus is due to the amine-alcohol complex which is in ...

  9. Tert-butyl alcohol used to fabricate nano-cellulose aerogels via freeze-drying technology (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Hua; Song, Yuxuan; Zhou, Zhaobing; Zhao, Hua


    Aerogel, a highly porous material, is attracting increasing attention owing to low thermal conductivity and high specific surface area. Freeze-drying technology has been employed to produce nano-cellulose aerogels; however, the resultant product has low specific surface areas. Here, a modified approach to prepare nano-cellulose aerogels was reported, which involves tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent. Nano-cellulose aerogels were prepared via a spontaneous gelation fashion using calcium chloride solution, followed by tert-butyl alcohol solvent displacement and freeze drying. Addition of calcium chloride (0.25%) accelerated the physical gelation process. The application of tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent contributed to preservation of gel network. The obtained spherical nano-cellulose aerogels had a shrinkage rate of 5.89%. The specific surface area and average pore size was 164. 9666 m2 g-1 and 10.01 nm, respectively. Additionally, nano-cellulose aerogels had a comparable thermal degradation property when compared to microcrystalline cellulose. These biophysical properties make nano-cellulose aerogels as a promising absorption material.

  10. Final report of the addendum to the safety assessment of n-butyl alcohol as used in cosmetics. (United States)

    McLain, Valerie C


    n-Butyl Alcohol is a primary aliphatic alcohol historically used as a solvent in nail care cosmetic products, but new concentration of use data indicate that it also is being used at low concentrations in eye makeup, personal hygiene, and shaving cosmetic products. n-Butyl Alcohol has been generally recognized as safe for use as a flavoring substance in food and appears on the 1982 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of inactive ingredients for approved prescription drug products. n-Butyl Alcohol can be absorbed through the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. n-Butyl Alcohol may be formed by hydrolysis of butyl acetate in the blood, but is rapidly oxidized. The single oral dose LD(50) of n-Butyl Alcohol for rats was 0.79 to 4.36 g/kg. The dermal LD(50) for rabbits was 4.2 g/kg. Inhalation toxicity studies in humans demonstrate sensory irritation of the upper respiratory tract, but only at levels above 3000 mg/m(3). Animal studies demonstrate intoxication, restlessness, ataxia, prostration, and narcosis. Exposures of rats to levels up to 4000 ppm failed to produce hearing defects. High concentrations of n-Butyl Alcohol vapors can be fatal. Ocular irritation was observed for n-Butyl alcohol at 0.005 ml of a 40% solution. The behavioral no-effect dose for n-Butyl Alcohol injected subcutaneously (s.c.) was 120 mg/kg. Fetotoxicity has been demonstrated, but only at maternally toxic levels (1000 mg/kg). No significant behavioral or neurochemical effects were seen in offspring following either maternal or paternal exposure to 3000 or 6000 ppm. n-Butyl Alcohol was not mutagenic in Ames tests, did not induce sister-chromatid exchange or chromosome breakage in chick embryos or Chinese hamster ovary cells, did not induce micronuclei formation in V79 Chinese hamster cells, did not have any chromosome-damaging effects in a mouse micronucleus test, and did not impair chromosome distribution in the course of mitosis. Clinical testing of n-Butyl Alcohol for

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Butyl acetate, Ethyl acetate and Isopropyl alcohol on undesirable microorganisms in cosmetic products. (United States)

    Lens, C; Malet, G; Cupferman, S


    The microbiological contamination risk of a cosmetic product has to be assessed by the manufacturer, according to the composition, to determine whether microbiological testing is required. Certain ingredients in cosmetic formulations help to create an environment hostile towards microbial growth. In this study, the influence on microbial survival of some solvents used in nail varnishes was evaluated. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to define the thresholds to be considered for the exemption of products from microbiological testing. The second was to assess the cross-contamination risk linked to the use on successive consumers of solvent-based products in beauty salons. Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum were exposed to various concentrations of ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol in culture medium to estimate their MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration). These strains are relevant to cosmetic products as they are associated with skin and nail infections. Mixtures of the three solvents, which are characteristic of nail varnish compositions, were also tested for their cidal activity. Ethyl and butyl acetates had a stronger impact than isopropyl alcohol: the MIC of ethyl and butyl acetate is ≤5% for all of the tested strains, whereas that of isopropyl alcohol is ≤10%. Various combinations of the three solvents tested showed a significant effect on both fungal and bacterial strains (greater than 3 log reduction in 15 min for the bacterial test strains and in 30 min for T. rubrum). Products containing more than 5% ethyl or butyl acetate or more than 10% isopropyl alcohol are hostile towards microbial growth. These products can therefore be considered as microbiologically low risk during both production and use, and so do not require microbiological testing (challenge test and end-product testing). Moreover, the nine tested mixtures of these three

  12. Temperature effect on tert-butyl alcohol (TBA biodegradation kinetics in hyporheic zone soils

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    Sims Ronald C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remediation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA in subsurface waters should be taken into consideration at reformulated gasoline contaminated sites since it is a biodegradation intermediate of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE, and tert-butyl formate (TBF. The effect of temperature on TBA biodegradation has not been not been published in the literature. Methods Biodegradation of [U 14C] TBA was determined using hyporheic zone soil microcosms. Results First order mineralization rate constants of TBA at 5°C, 15°C and 25°C were 7.84 ± 0.14 × 10-3, 9.07 ± 0.09 × 10-3, and 15.3 ± 0.3 × 10-3 days-1, respectively (or 2.86 ± 0.05, 3.31 ± 0.03, 5.60 ± 0.14 years-1, respectively. Temperature had a statistically significant effect on the mineralization rates and was modelled using the Arrhenius equation with frequency factor (A and activation energy (Ea of 154 day-1 and 23,006 mol/J, respectively. Conclusion Results of this study are the first to determine mineralization rates of TBA for different temperatures. The kinetic rates determined in this study can be used in groundwater fate and transport modelling of TBA at the Ronan, MT site and provide an estimate for TBA removal at other similar shallow aquifer sites and hyporheic zones as a function of seasonal change in temperature.

  13. Design and Control of Glycerol-tert-Butyl Alcohol Etherification Process (United States)

    Vlad, Elena; Bozga, Grigore


    Design, economics, and plantwide control of a glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) etherification plant are presented. The reaction takes place in liquid phase, in a plug flow reactor, using Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. The products' separation is achieved by two distillation columns where high-purity ethers are obtained and a section involving extractive distillation with 1,4-butanediol as solvent, which separates TBA from the TBA/water azeotrope. Details of design performed in AspenPlus and an economic evaluation of the process are given. Three plantwide control structures are examined using a mass balance model of the plant. The preferred control structure fixes the fresh glycerol flow rate and the ratio glycerol + monoether : TBA at reactor-inlet. The stability and robustness in the operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics. PMID:23365512

  14. [n-Butyl Alcohol-soluble Chemical Constituents of Psidium guajava Leaves]. (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Wan, Kai-hua; Fu, Hui-zheng; Yan, Qing-wei


    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Psidium guajava. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MPLC. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of special analysis. Seven compounds were isolated from n-butyl alcohol fraction, whose structures were elucidated as morin-3-O-α-L-arabopyranoside (1), morin-3-O-α-L-iyxopyranoside (2), 2,6-dihydroxy-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-benzophenone (3), casuarictin (4),2,6-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-4-O-(6"-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzophenone(5), globulusin A(6), and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6"-galloyl) galactopyranoside (7). Compounds 3 and 5 ~ 7 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  15. Design and Control of Glycerol-tert-Butyl Alcohol Etherification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vlad


    Full Text Available Design, economics, and plantwide control of a glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA etherification plant are presented. The reaction takes place in liquid phase, in a plug flow reactor, using Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. The products' separation is achieved by two distillation columns where high-purity ethers are obtained and a section involving extractive distillation with 1,4-butanediol as solvent, which separates TBA from the TBA/water azeotrope. Details of design performed in AspenPlus and an economic evaluation of the process are given. Three plantwide control structures are examined using a mass balance model of the plant. The preferred control structure fixes the fresh glycerol flow rate and the ratio glycerol + monoether : TBA at reactor-inlet. The stability and robustness in the operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics.

  16. Pressure effect on water dynamics in tert-butyl alcohol/water solutions (United States)

    Calandrini, Vania; Deriu, Antonio; Onori, Giuseppe; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Telling, Mark T. F.


    We report here a quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) investigation of the effect of pressure on the diffusivity properties of water in a dilute aqueous solution of hydrophobic molecules (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA). The experiment was performed at fixed TBA concentration (0.02 molar fraction) by varying pressure from 1 to 2000 bar at two different temperatures (268 and 278 K). The quasi-elastic line-shapes have been analysed in terms of a model based on the memory function formalism. Our data indicate that, on increasing pressure up to 2000 bar, the diffusion coefficient of water in the TBA/water mixture exhibits a relative increase larger than that of pure water under the same thermodynamic conditions. The extent of this effect increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behaviour is described in terms of pressure-induced distortions of the H-bonded random network of liquid water.

  17. Stage efficiencies of minor amounts of n-propyl alcohol and iso-butyl alcohol in ethanol aqueous solution; Ethanol suiyoekichu no biryo n-propyl alcohol, iso-butyl alcohol no dankoritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatate, Y.; Mitsudome, K. Uemura, Y.; Aiko, R. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kashiwada, M. [Miyazaki Food Processing R and D Center, Miyazaki (Japan); Kawano, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shimoda, M.; Omori, T. [Sanwa Shurui Co., Oita (Japan)


    The new method was proposed for easy precise determination of the stage efficiency of minute components of a certain specific azeotropic composition in ethanol aqueous solution. The Murphree stage efficiency of minor amounts of n-propyl alcohol and iso-butyl alcohol in ethanol aqueous solution was determined using the new method under various operation conditions. The Murphree stage efficiency of minute components in ethanol aqueous solution was determined using a 10-stage Oldershow type rectification column. By employing azeotropic operation of ethanol-water system, equilibrium ratios of minute components were made constant throughout all stages to obtain the precise value of the Murphree stage efficiency. The Murphree stage efficiencies of both minute components were almost the same, and decreased from 0.80 to 0.65 with a decrease in pressure from 101.3 to 12.7kPa. The same result was obtained for both periodic and continuous reflux operations. The laboratory-scale data obtained by periodic reflux were applicable to the prediction of industrial scale continuous reflux. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Temperature Drift of Conformational Equilibria of Butyl Alcohols Studied by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Fully Anharmonic DFT. (United States)

    Grabska, Justyna; Beć, Krzysztof B; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Huck, Christian W


    Conformational isomerism of aliphatic alcohols with respect to the internal rotation of C-O(H) group and its impact on near-infrared (NIR) spectra has been known in the literature. However, no attempt has ever been made to investigate systematically whether and how the conformational flexibility of the aliphatic chain determines the observed NIR data of aliphatic alcohols. In the present study NIR spectra of four kinds of butyl alcohols, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, and tert-butyl alcohol, were investigated in diluted (0.1 M) CCl4 solutions. The experimental NIR spectra of butyl alcohols were accurately reproduced and explained in a fully anharmonic DFT study by means of generalized second-order vibrational perturbation theory (GVPT2). Entire conformational populations were taken into account in each case. On the basis of the theoretical study, influences of conformational flexibility with respect to internal rotations not only about the C-O bond, but also about the C-C bonds have been well evidenced in the experimental spectra. The conformational isomerism affects significantly the shape of NIR spectra. The temperature-dependent NIR spectra of butyl alcohols show changes in the band shape and a blue-shift of the overtone band due to the stretching mode of free OH group, and its intensity decreases with increasing temperature. These effects can be closely monitored by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). In this work, the experimental 2D-COS patterns have been successfully reproduced, based on DFT calculated NIR spectra of conformational isomers of the studied molecules and their Boltzmann coefficients over the corresponding temperature range. Thus, the experimentally observed effects are fully reflected in the DFT study, which leads to the conclusion that the main factor in the temperature-dependent spectral changes of 2νOH band of aliphatic alcohols in the diluted phase, where no self-association occurs, is played by the changes in the

  19. Impact of tert-butyl alcohol on crystallization kinetics of gemcitabine hydrochloride in frozen aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Munjal, Bhushan; Bansal, Arvind K


    The effect of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) on isothermal crystallization kinetics of gemcitabine hydrochloride (GHCl) in frozen aqueous solutions was assessed by cold-stage microscopy. Addition of TBA (0%-5%, w/w) increased the value of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami rate constant (1.3-33.3 h⁻¹) and reduced the Avrami exponent (2.5-1.0). Thermodynamic parameters [enthalpy (ΔH(‡)), entropy (ΔS(‡)), and free energy (ΔG(‡)) of activation], calculated using Arrhenius and Eyring-Polanyi equations, established that TBA (2%, w/w) accelerated GHCl crystallization by reducing its ΔH(‡) (53.9 cf. 96.5 kJ/mol⁻¹) and ΔG(‡) (68.5 cf. 74.9 kJ/mol⁻¹). Further, to explore insights into the effect of TBA on nucleation and crystal growth of GHCl, crystallization kinetics data were deconvolved using Finke-Watzky model. This revealed that addition of TBA decreased ΔH(‡) of nucleation and increased ΔS(‡) of crystal growth, thereby reducing ΔG(‡) of nucleation and crystal growth by 11.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Finkey-Watzky model also predicted a reduction in the crystal size upon TBA addition, which was confirmed by comparing particle size of GHCl lyophilized in the presence and absence of TBA. In conclusion, TBA reduces ΔG(‡) of nucleation and crystal growth in a differential manner, thereby enhancing the crystallization kinetics of GHCl and affecting its morphological features. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Amended final report of the safety assessment of t-Butyl Alcohol as used in cosmetics. (United States)

    Chen, Melody


    t-Butyl Alcohol (t-BuOH) is a tertiary aliphatic alcohol that is used as a solvent or an alcohol denaturant and as a perfume carrier in cosmetics. t-BuOH was reported as an ingredient in 32 formulations of eye makeup, fragrance, and shaving preparations, at concentrations ranging from 0.00001% and 0.3%. There is little acute oral toxicity in animals; e.g., the acute oral LD(50) in rats was 3.0 to 3.7 g/kg. In short-term oral studies in rats, t-BuOH at 2% (w/v) or less in drinking water did not cause gross organ or tissue damage in mice, although weight loss was reported and microscopic damage to livers and kidney and alterations such as centrilobular necrosis, vacuolation in hepatocytes, and loss of hepatic architecture were noted. Subchronic oral dosing with t-BuOH increased the mineralization of the kidney, nephropathy, and urinary bladder transitional cell epithelial hyperplasia in rats; and liver damage, chronic inflammation, hyperplasia of transitional cell epithelium urinary, and proliferative changes including hyperplasia and neoplasia in the thyroid in mice. Male rats exposed to t-BuOH were susceptible to alpha 2mu-globulin nephropathy. t-BuOH (99.9%) was a moderate to severe ocular irritant to rabbits and caused mild to moderate dermal irritation to rabbits. It was not considered to be a primary dermal irritant to rabbits. In animal studies, fetotoxicity generally increased with concentration, and fetal weights were slightly depressed at concentrations of 0.5% to 1% t-BuOH. t-BuOH produced a significant increase in the number of resorptions per litter. There was also a significant decrease in the number of live fetuses per litter. t-BuOH reduced maternal weight gain, litter sizes, birth weights, and weights at weaning, and increased perinatal and postnatal mortality. t-BuOH was not mutagenic in several bacterial and mammalian test systems. The principal effects from 2 years of exposure to t-BuOH in drinking water (up to 10 mg/ml for rats and 20 mg/ml for


    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  2. Investigation of emissions characteristics of secondary butyl alcohol-gasoline blends in a port fuel injection spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri I.M.


    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions especially from light duty gasoline engine are a major contributor to air pollution due to the large number of vehicles on the road. The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the exhaust pollutant emissions of a four-stroke port fuel spark ignition engines operating using secondary butyl alcohol–gasoline blends by percentage volume of 5% (GBu5, 10% (GBu10 and 15% (GBu15 of secondary butyl- alcohol (2-butanol additives in gasoline fuels at 50% of wide throttle open. The exhaust emissions characteristics of the engine using blended fuels was compared to the exhaust emissions of the engine with gasoline fuels (G100 as a reference fuels. Exhaust emissions analysis results show that all of the blended fuels produced lower CO by 8.6%, 11.6% and 24.8% for GBu5, GBu10 and GBu15 respectively from 2500 to 4000 RPM, while for HC, both GBu10 and GBu15 were lower than that G100 fuels at all engine speeds. In general, when the engine was operated using blended fuels, the engine produced lower CO and HC, but higher CO2.

  3. UV absorption spectra, kinetics and mechanism for alkyl and alkyl peroxy radicals originating from t-butyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.; Ljungström, E.; Sehested, J.


    Alkyl and alkyl peroxy radicals from 1-butyl alcohol (TBA), HOC (CH3)2CH2. and HOC(CH3)2CH2O2. have been studied in the ps phase at 298 K. Two techniques were used: pulse radiolysis UV absorption to measure the spectra and kinetics, and long path-length Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR......) to identify and quantify the reaction products. Absorption cross sections were quantified over the wavelength range 220-320 nm. At 240 nm, sigma(HOC(CH3)2CH2) = (2.4 +/- 0.3) x 10(-18) and sigma(HOC(CH3)2CH2O2) = (3.4 +/- 0.5) X 10(-18) cm2 molecule-1 have been obtained. Observed rate constants for the self...

  4. Application of the two-film model to the volatilization of acetone and t-butyl alcohol from water as a function of temperature (United States)

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.


    The two-film model is often used to describe the volatilization of organic substances from water. This model assumes uniformly mixed water and air phases separated by thin films of water and air in which mass transfer is by molecular diffusion. Mass-transfer coefficients for the films, commonly called film coefficients, are related through the Henry's law constant and the model equation to the overall mass-transfer coefficient for volatilization. The films are modeled as two resistances in series, resulting in additive resistances. The two-film model and the concept of additivity of resistances were applied to experimental data for acetone and t-butyl alcohol. Overall mass-transfer coefficients for the volatilization of acetone and t-butyl alcohol from water were measured in the laboratory in a stirred constant-temperature bath. Measurements were completed for six water temperatures, each at three water mixing conditions. Wind-speed was constant at about 0.1 meter per second for all experiments. Oxygen absorption coefficients were measured simultaneously with the measurement of the acetone and t-butyl alcohol mass-transfer coefficients. Gas-film coefficients for acetone, t-butyl alcohol, and water were determined by measuring the volatilization fluxes of the pure substances over a range of temperatures. Henry's law constants were estimated from data from the literature. The combination of high resistance in the gas film for solutes with low values of the Henry's law constants has not been studied previously. Calculation of the liquid-film coefficients for acetone and t-butyl alcohol from measured overall mass-transfer and gas-film coefficients, estimated Henry's law constants, and the two-film model equation resulted in physically unrealistic, negative liquid-film coefficients for most of the experiments at the medium and high water mixing conditions. An analysis of the two-film model equation showed that when the percentage resistance in the gas film is large and

  5. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.


    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  6. Biodiesel production by direct esterification of fatty acids with propyl and butyl alcohols

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    Ferial A. Zaher


    Full Text Available The expected depletion of natural petroleum resources in the near future and pollution of the environment due to excessive carbon dioxide emissions by fossil fuel and its adverse effect on global warming constitute two major problems facing the whole world. In view of these problems, much research work is now directed worldwide to find fuels alternative to those derived from petroleum which should be renewable and more environmentally friendly fuels. Biodiesel fuel which is a blend of fatty acid esters with alcohols is considered the most suitable alternative fuel for diesel engines. In this scope of research work, a previous study (Soliman et al., 2013 has been made to explore the opportunity of utilizing the fatty acids that can be obtained from the waste of edible oil industry in Egypt to produce biodiesel fuel by direct esterification with methanol as well as ethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. This paper is a continuation of that work where two other alcohols of a chain length longer than ethanol have been used being propanol and butanol. The performance of a diesel engine running using a 50% blend of regular diesel fuel and each of the two biodiesels prepared was compared to that using regular diesel fuel. The results have shown that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and the brake thermal efficiency at full engine loading were almost the same in all cases. This indicates that the produced fuel could be used as an efficient fuel substitute for diesel engines. By comparing the results of the present work to those reported in our previous work, it appeared that methanol which has the shortest carbon chain length is the most recommended in view of the brake thermal efficiency of a diesel engine at full loading.

  7. Cultivation of Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 on the fuel oxygenate intermediate tert-butyl alcohol induces aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis at extremely low feeding rates. (United States)

    Rohwerder, Thore; Müller, Roland H; Weichler, M Teresa; Schuster, Judith; Hübschmann, Thomas; Müller, Susann; Harms, Hauke


    Aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis (AAP) is found in an increasing number of proteobacterial strains thriving in ecosystems ranging from extremely oligotrophic to eutrophic. Here, we have investigated whether the fuel oxygenate-degrading betaproteobacterium Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 can use AAP to compensate kinetic limitations at low heterotrophic substrate fluxes. In a fermenter experiment with complete biomass retention and also during chemostat cultivation, strain L108 was challenged with extremely low substrate feeding rates of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), an intermediate of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Interestingly, formation of photosynthetic pigments, identified as bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin, was only induced in growing cells at TBA feeding rates less than or equal to maintenance requirements observed under energy excess conditions. Growth continued at rates between 0.001 and 0.002 h(-1) even when the TBA feed was decreased to values close to 30 % of this maintenance rate. Partial sequencing of genomic DNA of strain L108 revealed a bacteriochlorophyll synthesis gene cluster (bchFNBHL) and photosynthesis regulator genes (ppsR and ppaA) typically found in AAP and other photosynthetic proteobacteria. The usage of light as auxiliary energy source enabling evolution of efficient degradation pathways for kinetically limited heterotrophic substrates and for lowering the threshold substrate concentration Smin at which growth becomes zero is discussed.

  8. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of t -Butyl Alcohol (CAS No. 75-65-0) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Drinking Water Studies). (United States)


    t -Butyl alcohol is widely used in the manufacture of perfumes and a variety of cosmetics. It is also used as a raw material in the production of isobutylene, which may be used to produce methyl tertiary butyl ether, a common gasoline additive, or to produce butyl elastomers used in the production of automobile tires. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were given t -butyl alcohol (greater than 99% pure) in drinking water for 13 weeks or 2 years. The genetic toxicity of t -butyl alcohol was assessed by testing the ability of the chemical to induce mutations in various strains of Salmonella typhimurium and in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and by measuring the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in mouse peripheral blood. 13-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were given 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/mL t -butyl alcohol in drinking water for 13 weeks. All males and six females given 40 mg/mL died during the study. Final mean body weights of 10 and 20 mg/mL males and of 40 mg/mL females were 12%, 17%, or 21% less than those of the corresponding controls, respectively. Serum sorbitol dehydrogenase activities in 10 and 20 mg/mL males were greater than that in the controls after 13 weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity in 40 mg/mL females was greater than that in the controls after 2 weeks and greater in all exposed females after 13 weeks. Urine volumes of 10, 20, and 40 mg/mL males and females decreased, and urine specific gravity values increased. Transitional epithelial hyperplasia and inflammation of the urinary bladder were observed in 20 and 40 mg/mL males and 40 mg/mL females. Absolute and relative liver weights of all exposed groups of females and relative liver weights of 5, 10, and 20 mg/mL males were significantly greater than those of the controls. Absolute and relative kidney weights of all exposed groups of males and

  9. On the competition between weak Osbnd H⋯F and Csbnd H⋯F hydrogen bonds, in cooperation with Csbnd H⋯O contacts, in the difluoromethane - tert-butyl alcohol cluster (United States)

    Spada, Lorenzo; Tasinato, Nicola; Bosi, Giulio; Vazart, Fanny; Barone, Vincenzo; Puzzarini, Cristina


    The 1:1 complex of tert-butyl alcohol with difluoromethane has been characterized by means of a joint experimental-computational investigation. Its rotational spectrum has been recorded by using a pulsed-jet Fourier-Transform microwave spectrometer. The experimental work has been guided and supported by accurate quantum-chemical calculations. In particular, the computed potential energy landscape pointed out the formation of three stable isomers. However, the very low interconversion barriers explain why only one isomer, showing one Osbnd H⋯F and two Csbnd H⋯O weak hydrogen bonds, has been experimentally characterized. The effect of the H → tert-butyl-group substitution has been analyzed from the comparison to the difluoromethane-water adduct.

  10. Relationship between Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Exposure and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Petrol Station Attendants in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Yang


    Full Text Available Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE—A well known gasoline additive substituting for lead alkyls—causes lipid disorders and liver dysfunctions in animal models. However, whether MTBE exposure is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD remains uncertain. We evaluate the possible relationship between MTBE exposure and the prevalence of NAFLD among 71 petrol station attendants in southern China. The personal exposure concentrations of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS. NAFLD was diagnosed by using abdominal ultrasonography according to the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD suggested by the Chinese Hepatology Association. Demographic and clinical characteristics potentially associated with NAFLD were investigated. Mutivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to measure odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI. The result showed that the total prevalence of NAFLD was 15.49% (11/71 among the study subjects. The average exposure concentrations of MTBE were 292.98 ± 154.90 μg/m3 and 286.64 ± 122.28 μg/m3 in NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference between them (p > 0.05. After adjusting for age, gender, physical exercise, body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, white blood cell (WBC, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the odds ratios were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.85–1.54; p > 0.05, 1.14 (95% CI: 0.81–1.32; p > 0.05, 1.52 (95% CI: 0.93–1.61; p > 0.05 in the groups (including men and women with exposure concentrations of MTBE of 100–200 μg/m3, 200–300 μg/m3, and ≥300 μg/m3, respectively, as compared to the group (including men and women ≤100 μg/m3. Our investigation indicates that exposure to MTBE does not seem to be a significant risk factor for the prevalence of

  11. Selective liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by tert-butyl hydroperoxide over γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported copper and gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndolomingo, Matumuene Joe; Meijboom, Reinout, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Cu and Au on γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were prepared and characterized. • Benzyl alcohol oxidation to benzaldehyde was performed by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in the absence of any solvent using the prepared catalysts. • The as prepared catalysts exhibited good performance in terms of conversion and selectivity towards benzaldehyde. • The kinetics of the reaction was investigated; k{sub app} was proportional to the amount of nano catalyst and oxidant present in the system. • The catalysts was recycled and reused with neither significant loss of activity nor selectivity. - Abstract: Benzyl alcohol oxidation to benzaldehyde was performed by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) in the absence of any solvent using γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported copper and gold nanoparticles. Li{sub 2}O and ionic liquids were used as additive and stabilizers for the synthesis of the catalysts. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), N{sub 2} absorption/desorption (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR), whereas, the oxidation reaction was followed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The as prepared catalysts exhibited good catalytic performance in terms of conversion and selectivity towards benzaldehyde. The performance of the Au-based catalysts is significantly higher than that of the Cu-based catalysts. For both Cu and Au catalysts, the conversion of benzyl alcohol increased as the reaction proceeds, while the selectivity for benzaldehyde decreased. Moreover, the catalysts can be easily recycled and reused with neither significant loss of activity nor selectivity. A kinetic study for the Cu and Au-catalyzed oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzyldehyde is reported. The rate at which the oxidation of benzyl alcohol

  12. Renal histopathology in toxicity and carcinogenicity studies with tert-butyl alcohol administered in drinking water to F344 rats: a pathology working group review and re-evaluation. (United States)

    Hard, Gordon C; Bruner, Richard H; Cohen, Samuel M; Pletcher, John M; Regan, Karen S


    An independent Pathology Working Group (PWG) re-evaluated the kidney changes in National Toxicology Program (NTP) toxicology/carcinogenicity studies of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in F344/N rats to determine possible mode(s) of action underlying renal tubule tumors in male rats at 2-years. In the 13-week study, the PWG confirmed that the normal pattern of round hyaline droplets in proximal convoluted tubules was replaced by angular droplet accumulation, and identified precursors of granular casts in the outer medulla, changes typical of alpha(2u)-globulin (α(2u)-g) nephropathy. In the 2-year study, the PWG confirmed the NTP observation of increased renal tubule tumors in treated male groups. Linear papillary mineralization, another hallmark of the α(2u)-g pathway was present only in treated male rats. Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) was exacerbated in high-dose males and females, with a relationship between advanced grades of CPN and renal tumor occurrence. Hyperplasia of the papilla lining was a component of CPN in both sexes, but there was no pelvic urothelial hyperplasia. High-dose females showed no TBA-related nephrotoxicity. The PWG concluded that both α(2u)-g nephropathy and exacerbated CPN modes of action were operative in TBA renal tumorigenicity in male rats, neither of which has relevance for human cancer risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of dielectric parameters of hydrogen bonded complexes using Huysken-Craco, Palit and Onsager's methods: tri- n-butyl phosphate (TBP) with aliphatic alcohols (United States)

    Dash, S. K.; Karunamoy, T.; Dalai, B.; Swain, B. B.


    The mechanism of dipolar complexation involving TBP and three alcohols namely 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol and 1-octanol in an apolar medium benzene is investigated by three direct methods using dielectric measurement data at frequency 455 kHz and at temperature 303.16 K. The parameters evaluated in these systems are the interaction dipole moment, induced polarization and apparent complex formation constant for thermodynamically most favoured stoichiometry of 1:1 complexes. Two conclusions resulted from the study. Firstly, the complexation is predominantly due to polarization effect involving charge redistribution and secondly, the complex formation is most favoured in 1-hexanol system.

  14. Alcohol (United States)

    ... to buy or use alcohol. By setting the drinking age at 21, they hope older people will be ... stop without help. A person who starts drinking alcohol at a young age is more likely to develop alcoholism. Alcoholism is ...

  15. Alcohol (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  16. Tertiary butyl alcohol in drinking water induces phase I and II liver enzymes with consequent effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis in the B6C3F1 female mouse. (United States)

    Blanck, O; Fowles, J; Schorsch, F; Pallen, C; Espinasse-Lormeau, H; Schulte-Koerne, E; Totis, M; Banton, M


    Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) was administered to groups of 15 female B6C3F1 mice in drinking water at concentrations of 0, 2.0 or 20 mg TBA ml(-1), for 14 days, for assessment of gross and histological changes in the liver and thyroid, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, and TSH), total hepatic cytochrome P450 (Cyp) content, specific Cyp activities and quantitative PCR analysis of specific Cyp enzymes (Cyp1a1, Cyp2b9, Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11), sulfuryltransferases (ST1a1, ST2a2, and STn) and glucuronyltransferases (UGT1a1, UGT2b1, and UGT2b5). Phenobarbital (PB) was administered to a positive control group by oral gavage at a daily dose of 80 mg kg(-1). TBA caused, on day 14, a reduction in circulating T3 (12-15% decrease) and a dose-dependent reduction in T4 (13-22% decrease), with no evidence of thyroid pathology. Two of five livers examined in the 20 mg TBA ml(-1) dose group showed mild, diffuse centrilobular hypertrophy. On day 14, Cyp 7-benzoxyresorufin-O-debenzylase activity was significantly induced 12-fold by TBA at 20 mg ml(-1), and 1.8-fold at the 2.0 mg TBA ml(-1) concentration. Cyp 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity was slightly induced (2.1-fold) by 20 mg TBA ml(-1) on day 14. Quantitative PCR analysis of gene transcripts showed a significant induction of Cyp2b10 and ST1a1 with both TBA concentrations, and a slight induction of Cyp2b9 at 20 mg TBA ml(-1) only. PB induced all phase I and phase II gene transcripts except for Cyp1a1 and Cyp2b9. These findings suggest that TBA, at and below doses used in chronic studies, is an inducer of phase I and phase II liver enzymes, with resulting decreases in circulating thyroid hormones in B6C3F1 mice.

  17. Alcohol (United States)

    ... addicted, there are some downsides to drinking: The punishment is severe. Teens who drink put themselves at ... treatment centers help a person gradually overcome the physical and psychological dependence on alcohol. previous continue What ...

  18. Removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) with Nafion. (United States)

    Lien, Hsing-Lung; Zhang, Wei-Xian


    A solid organic polymer, Nafion, is tested for the removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water. Nafion with perfluorosulfonic acid backbone and terminal sulfonic acid groups has a surface acidity similar to 100% sulfuric acid, and has been commonly used as a strong-acid catalyst in many organic reactions. Sorption and subsequent transformation of MTBE were observed in batch experiments. The transformation of MTBE by porous nanocomposite Nafion SAC-13 to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), acetone, isobutene and probably methanol was found. Subsequent transformation of TBA to acetone was also observed. Results suggest that transformational pathways may include hydrolysis, dehydrogenation and oxidation. Dissolved oxygen is needed for the oxidation of isobutene to acetone. As Nafion is insoluble in water, chemically stable, and regenerable, its use in packed-bed reactors for MTBE removal looks promising.

  19. A study of butyl acetate synthesis. 4-reaction kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño


    Full Text Available This work was aimed at studying liquid-phase acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (P atm =0.76 Bar,using an ion exchange resin (Lewatit K-2431 as catalyst. The effect of the absence of internal and external mass transport on catalyst particles was established in the research conditions used here. A set of assays to determine the effect of catalyst load (0.5%, 1%, 2% w/w temperature (73°C, 80°C, 87°C and molar ratio (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 acid/alcohol on reaction rate was carried out and both LHHW and pseudo-homogeneous kinetic expressions were obtained, these being in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Optical fibers by butyl methacrylate reactive extrusion


    Berthet, Romuald; Chalamet, Yvan; Taha, Mohamed; Zerroukhi, Amar


    51 p.; A process for a poly(butyl methacrylate) optical fibers production by reactive extrusion was developed. The reactive system was adapted to the reduced reaction time in the extruder combining concepts based on the free volume theory and a kinetic model for mass polymerization a butyl methacrylate. A kinetic model was proposed and the reaction evolution was simulated at different temperature and initiator concentration. This allowed the choice of reaction conditions in adequation with re...

  1. Impact of activation methods on persulfate oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether. (United States)

    Deng, Dayi; Peng, Libin; Guan, Mengyun; Kang, Yuan


    To provide guidance on the selection of proper persulfate processes for the remediation of MTBE contaminated groundwater, MTBE aqueous solutions were treated with three common field persulfate processes including heat activated persulfate, Fe(III)-EDTA activated persulfate and alkaline persulfate, respectively. The results were compared with MTBE oxidation by Fenton's reagent and persulfate alone at 25°C. The impact of the activating conditions on the fate of MTBE and its daughter products was investigated. Heat activation at 40°C offered the most rapid removal of MTBE and its daughter products, while Fe(III)-EDTA activation showed higher efficiency of MTBE removal but low removal efficiency of its daughter products. On the other hand, alkaline persulfate showed slower kinetics for the removal of MTBE and less accumulation of the daughter products. Furthermore, tert-butyl alcohol and acetone were observed as the main purgeable daughter products along with a small amount of tert-butyl formate in persulfate oxidation of MTBE, while tert-butyl formate, tert-butyl alcohol and acetone were the main products in Fenton oxidation. Mechanistic analysis suggests that degradation of MTBE by persulfate most likely happens via non-oxygen demand pathways, different from the dominant oxygen demand degradation pathways observed in Fenton oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Butylated caffeic acid: An efficient novel antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shi


    Full Text Available A novel antioxidant, butylated caffeic acid (BCA was rationally designed by adding a tert-butyl group to caffeic acid, which was synthesized at a high yield (36.2% from 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol by a four-step reaction including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, bromine oxidation, ether bond hydrolysis and Knoevenagel condensation. Its antioxidant capacity was much stronger than common commercial antioxidant tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ and its mother compound, caffeic acid, in both rancimat and deep frying tests. When investigated via the DPPH method, the antioxidant capacity of BCA was almost equal to TBHQ, but lower than caffeic acid. BCA could be a potentially strong antioxidant, especially for food processing at high temperatures such as deep frying and baking.

  3. Compound list: butylated hydroxyanisole [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available butylated hydroxyanisole BHA 00156 ...

  4. Thermal Polymerization of N-Butyl Acrylate (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.


    Simple new polymerization method enables production of n-butyl acrylate polymer of desired high molecular weight, without disadvantages that usually attend more conventional methods. Process, which is hybrid of thermal, solution, and emulsion polymerization methods, involves controlled thermal polymerization of monomer at moderate temperatures without use of catalysts or additives.

  5. 21 CFR 582.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene. (United States)


    ... 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of food provided the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 582.3173 Section 582.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole. (United States)


    ... 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of food provided the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butylated hydroxyanisole. 582.3169 Section 582.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene. (United States)


    ... of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of food, provided the substance is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole. (United States)


    ... of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of food, provided the substance is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxyanisole. 182.3169 Section 182.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    -t-butyl(benzyl/benzyliden)amino)-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4- triazole-5-one: (1) ... All potentiometric measurements were performed in an 80 mL jacketed titration cell ... potentiometric titration curves were formed for all the cases (Figure 2-5).

  10. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use...

  11. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk : results from analyses in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kleinjans, J.; Brandt, P.A. van den


    Both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The association between dietary intake of BHA and BHT and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)

  12. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A.


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of a Gasoline Oxygenate, Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; D'Amico, Teresa; Exline, Jennifer A.


    A laboratory procedure involving the synthesis and characterization of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is described. This experiment has been used in a general chemistry sequence that includes a section on organic chemistry, but is also well suited for an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course. ETBE is prepared by the acid-catalyzed reaction of tert-butyl alcohol with ethyl alcohol. The product is recovered as a low-boiling azeotrope and purified by liquid liquid extraction with water. By using gas chromatography and IR spectroscopy to examine both the crude and the purified products, students can see how much the purity of their sample improves. They can also appreciate the value of these methods (especially GC) as tools to establish purity. Student results are presented. The use of ETBE and its more prominent cousin methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as gasoline oxygenates has become very controversial because they have polluted underground water supplies. This lab permits students to prepare a compound that has a real use and regularly makes headlines in the news. This lab experiment is part of an effort to develop a general chemistry sequence for engineering students using the theme of "Chemistry and the Automobile".

  14. Fragrance material review on 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate. (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M


    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    ... causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  16. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by ferrous ion-activated persulfate oxidation: feasibility and kinetics studies. (United States)

    Chen, K F; Kao, C M; Wu, L C; Surampalli, R Y; Liang, S H


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using ferrous ion-activated persulfate oxidation to remediate groundwater contaminated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). In this study, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of various factors on the efficiency of MTBE degradation including persulfate concentrations, ferrous ion concentrations, and persulfate coupled with hydrogen peroxide. Results show that ferrous ion-activated persulfate oxidation was capable of degrading MTBE efficiently. Persulfate and ferrous ion concentrations correlated with MTBE degradation rates. However, excess addition of ferrous ion resulted in decreased MTBE degrading rates most likely because of competition for sulfate free radicals between ferrous ion and MTBE. Two main byproducts of MTBE degradation, tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl alcohol, were detected in the experiments; both were, however, subsequently degraded. Results of sulfate analysis show that proper addition of ferrous ion could prevent unnecessary persulfate decomposition.

  17. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi (United States)

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping


    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP.

  18. Hydrolysis of tert-butyl formate: Kinetics, products, and implications for the environmental impact of methyl tert-butyl ether (United States)

    Church, Clinton D.; Pankow, James F.; Tratnyek, Paul G.


    Asessing the environmental fate of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has become a subject of renewed interest because of the large quantities of this compound that are being used as an oxygenated additive in gasoline. Various studies on the fate of MTBE have shown that it can be degraded to tert-butyl formate (TBF), particularly in the atmosphere. Although it is generally recognized that TBF is subject to hydrolysis, the kinetics and products of this reaction under environmentally relevant conditions have not been described previously. In this study, we determined the kinetics of TBF hydrolysis as a function of pH and temperature. Over the pH range of 5 to 7, the neutral hydrolysis pathway predominates, with kN = (1.0 ± 0.2) × 10−6/s. Outside this range, strong pH effects were observed because of acidic and basic hydrolyses, from which we determined that kA = (2.7 ± 0.5) × 10−3/(M·s) and kB = 1.7 ± 0.3/(M·s). Buffered and unbuffered systems gave the same hydrolysis rates for a given pH, indicating that buffer catalysis was not significant under the conditions tested. The activation energies corresponding to kN, kA, and kBwere determined to be 78 ± 5, 59 ± 4, and 88 ±11 kJ/mol, respectively. In all experiments, tert-butyl alcohol was found at concentrations corresponding to stoichiometric formation from TBF. Based on our kinetics data, the expected half-life for hydrolysis of TBF at pH = 2 and 4°C (as per some standard preservation protocols for water sampling) is 6 h. At neutral pH and 22°C, the estimated half-life is 5 d, and at pH = 11 and 22°C, the value is only 8 min.

  19. Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase. (United States)

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi


    In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production.

  20. [Degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by O3/H2O2]. (United States)

    Hu, Qin-Hai; Mao, Ke-Hui; Zhu, Miao-Jun; Zhang, Xing-Qing; Xiong, Yun-Long; Wang, Juan


    The degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water solution has been studied using the combination of ozone/hydrogen peroxide in a bubble column. Effects of air (containing O3) currents, quantities of H2O2, initial concentrations of MTBE, pH values and temperatures on the oxidation of MTBE have been tested, and it is implicated that under the conditions of initial MTBE concentration of 10 mg x L(-1), air current of 0.5 L x min(-1), pH 6.5, 293 K and 2.4 mg x L(-1) H2O2 addition, MTBE can be reduced by 75.5% and the removal rate of COD reaches 68.0% within 30 min. The main of degradation products identified are tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), acetone (AC) and methyl acetate (MA). On the basis of that, the probable mechanism and pathway of the oxidation of MTBE by ozone/hydrogen peroxide have been proposed.

  1. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shape and size of the aggregates of sodium n-butyl benzene sulfonate in aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first SANS report on the aggre- gation behaviour of a hydrotrope in aqueous solutions. 2. Materials and methods n-Butyl benzene, procured from Herdilia Chemicals, Mumbai, was sulfonated ...

  2. An efficient and highly selective ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether catalyzed by sulfonated ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamdari Reza Fareghi


    Full Text Available A novel series of sulfonic acid-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs was found to act as efficient catalysts for ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE as the tert-butylating agent without an added solvent. The mono o-tert-butylated product was obtained in up to 80.4% isolated yield and 95.2% selectivity under such green conditions. No O-tert-butylated byproducts were formed.

  3. Excess Molar Volume Of Binarymixtures From Iso-Propyl Alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, binary mixtures from Tertiary-Butyl alcohol (TBA), Toluene (TOL) and Iso-Propyl alcohol (IPA) were prepared at 298K. The mixtures physical properties which includes densities of mixtures (ρ) and pure components (ρI) and mole fractions of components (x) were equally measured at 298K. Excess molar volumes ...

  4. Effects of low-molecular weight alcohols on bacterial viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Adrian


    Full Text Available Alcohol based solutions are among the most convenient and wide spread aid in the prevention of nosocomial infections. The current study followed the efficacy of several types and isomers of alcohols on different bacterial species. Seven alcohols (ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl alcohol, and ethylene glycol were used to evaluate their minimal inhibitory and bactericidal effects by microdilution method on bacteria that express many phenotypical characteristics: different cell-wall structure (Gram positive/negative bacteria, capsule production (Klebsiella pneumoniae, antibiotic resistance (MRSA vs MSSA or high environmental adaptability (Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The best inhibitory effect was noticed for n-propyl, followed by iso-propyl, n-butyl, and iso-butyl alcohols with equal values. Ethylene glycol was the most inefficient alcohol on all bacteria. In K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, the bactericidal concentrations were higher than the inhibitory one, and to a level similar to that encountered for most of the Gram-positive bacteria. Among Gram-positive cocci, E. faecalis presented the lowest susceptibility to alcohols. Conclusions: All alcohols presented good effect on bacteria, even in low concentrations. Compared to ethanol as standard, there are better alternatives that can be used as antimicrobials, namely longer-chain alcohols such as propyl or butyric alcohols and their iso- isomers. Ethylene glycol should be avoided, due to its toxicity hazard and low antimicrobial efficacy. Bacterial phenotype (highly adaptable bacteria, biofilm formation and structure (cell wall structure, presence of capsule may drastically affect the responsiveness to the antimicrobial activity of alcohols, leading to higher bactericidal than inhibitory concentrations.

  5. 4-tert-Butyl-pyridinium triiodide-4-tert-butyl-pyridine (1/1). (United States)

    He, Hongshan; Sykes, Andrew G


    The title compound, C(9)H(14)N(+)·I(3) (-)·C(9)H(13)N, consists of monoprotonated 4-tert-butyl-pyridinium cations and triiodide anions. The triiodide ion has near-symmetric linear geometry, with bond lengths of 2.9105 (4) Å (I-I) and a bond angle of 177.55 (3)° (I-I-I). For this room-temperature structure, the butyl group on the pyridine ring is disordered and has been treated as a rigid rotator, modeled in three separate positions with 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 occupancies. The cations assemble into dimeric forms by way of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  6. 4-tert-Butyl­pyridinium triiodide–4-tert-butyl­pyridine (1/1) (United States)

    He, Hongshan; Sykes, Andrew G.


    The title compound, C9H14N+·I3 −·C9H13N, consists of monoprotonated 4-tert-butyl­pyridinium cations and triiodide anions. The triiodide ion has near-symmetric linear geometry, with bond lengths of 2.9105 (4) Å (I—I) and a bond angle of 177.55 (3)° (I—I—I). For this room-temperature structure, the butyl group on the pyridine ring is disordered and has been treated as a rigid rotator, modeled in three separate positions with 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 occupancies. The cations assemble into dimeric forms by way of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:21523100

  7. Quantification of hypoglycin A as butyl ester. (United States)

    Sander, Johannes; Terhardt, Michael; Sander, Stefanie; Janzen, Nils


    L-α-amino-methylenecyclopropyl propionic acid (Hypoglycin A, HGA) has been found to be the toxic compound in fruits of the Sapindaceae family causing acute intoxication when ingested as food or feed. Clinical symptoms are consistent with acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD). Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure HGA after butylation. Sample volumes were 10μL for serum and 20μL for urine. Internal standard for HGA was d3-leucine, samples were plotted on a 7-point linear calibration curve. Coefficients of variation were Ackee fruit poisoning or atypical myopathy in horses and for forensic purposes in cases of suspected HGA poisoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by Enterobacter sp. NKNU02. (United States)

    Chen, Ssu Ching; Chen, Colin S; Zhan, Kai-Van; Yang, Kai-Hsing; Chien, Chih-Ching; Shieh, Bao-Sen; Chen, Wen-Ming


    We previously isolated and identified Enterobacter sp. NKNU02 as a methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading bacterial strain from gasoline-contaminated water. In this study, tert-butyl alcohol, acetic acid, 2-propanol, and propenoic acid were detected using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry when MTBE was degraded by rest cells of Enterobacter sp. NKNU02 cells. We also found that biodegradation of MTBE was decreased, but not totally inhibited in mixtures of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. The effects of MTBE on the biology of Enterobacter sp. NKNU02 were elucidated using 2D proteomic analysis. The cytoplasmic proteins isolated from these MTBE-treated and -untreated cells were carried out for proteomic analysis. Results showed that there were 6 differential protein spots and 8 differential protein spots, respectively, as compared to their corresponding control (without MTBE addition), at the indicated incubation times when 40% and 60% of 100 mg/L of MTBE had been removed, Among these proteins, nine were successfully identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. Proteins identified included extracellular solute-binding protein, periplasmic-binding protein ytfQ, cationic amino acid ABC transporter, isocitrate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase A, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC), transaldolase, and alcohol dehydrogenase. Based on these differential proteins, we discuss the bacterial responses to MTBE at the molecular level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular compressibility of some halides in alcohols (United States)

    Serban, C.; Auslaender, D.


    After measuring ultrasonic velocity and density, the molecular compressibility values from Wada's formula were calculated, for alkali metal halide solutions in methyl, ethyl, butyl, and glycol alcohol. The temperature and concentration dependence were studied, finding deviations due to the hydrogen bonds of the solvent.

  10. Enzymatic reactions and synthesis of n-butyl caproate: esterification, transesterification and aminolysis using a recombinant lipase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCR11. (United States)

    Sánchez-Otero, M Guadalupe; Quintana-Castro, Rodolfo; Mora-González, Paola C; Márquez-Molina, Ofelia; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaría


    The recombinant lipase LipMatCCR11 from the thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCR11 was applied in the synthesis of n-butyl caproate via transesterification in hexane and xylene. The short chain flavour ester was obtained by alcoholysis from ethyl caproate and n-butyl alcohol and acidolysis from n-butyl butyrate and caproic acid. This enzyme was also used in the condensation reaction from caproic acid and n-butanol. The conversion percentages at equilibrium (Xe) were similar to those obtained with Candida antarctica lipase fraction B (CAL-B) in the same reaction conditions, while lower conversion velocities (k) were attained. LipMatCCR11 reached high conversion percentages in either hexane or xylene as organic media (> 63%); the enzyme was also able to catalyze the aminolysis reaction of ethyl caproate with benzyl amine in hexane obtaining a conversion percentage > 62%.

  11. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate. (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Marciniak, Andrzej


    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, gamma 13 (infinity) for 32 solutes: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofurane, tert-butyl methyl ether, and water in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at the temperatures from 298.15 to 368.15 K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values Delta H 1 (E,infinity) were calculated from the experimental gamma 13 (infinity) values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivities for the hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, n-hexane/thiophene, n-decane/thiophene, cyclohexane/thiophene, toluene/thiophene, and oct-1-ene/thiophene separation problems were calculated from the gamma 13 (infinity). Obtained values were compared to the literature values for the other ionic liquids, NMP, and sulfolane.

  12. Kinetics of Methyl t-Butyl Ether Cometabolism at Low Concentrations by Pure Cultures of Butane-Degrading Bacteria (United States)

    Liu, Catherine Y.; Speitel, Gerald E.; Georgiou, George


    Butane-oxidizing Arthrobacter (ATCC 27778) bacteria were shown to degrade low concentrations of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE; range, 100 to 800 μg/liter) with an apparent half-saturation concentration (Ks) of 2.14 mg/liter and a maximum substrate utilization rate (kc) of 0.43 mg/mg of total suspended solids per day. Arthrobacter bacteria demonstrated MTBE degradation activity when grown on butane but not when grown on glucose, butanol, or tryptose phosphate broth. The presence of butane, tert-butyl alcohol, or acetylene had a negative impact on the MTBE degradation rate. Neither Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b nor Streptomyces griseus was able to cometabolize MTBE. PMID:11319100

  13. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study (United States)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.


    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  14. Aquatic Life Criteria - Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) (United States)

    Information pertaining to the 1999 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) for freshwater and salt water. Information includes the safe levels of MTBE that should protect the majority of species.

  15. Improvement of the butyl methacrylate-paraffin embedment. (United States)

    McMillan, P J; Engen, P C; Dalgleish, A; McMillan, J


    The excellent butyl methacrylate-paraffin method as an embedment for light microscopy has been technically improved. More uniform and reproducible polymerization has been obtained by using a vacuum oven to degas the polymerizing mixture and to replace the air with nitrogen at 650 Torr. The amount of benzoyl peroxide required must be determined for each batch of butyl methacrylate. A teflon lined, reusable metal mold and a method of one-step blocking of tissues in preparation for sectioning are also described.

  16. Community characterization of anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading enrichment cultures. (United States)

    Youngster, Laura K G; Kerkhof, Lee J; Häggblom, Max M


    Use of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has led to widespread environmental contamination. Anaerobic biodegradation of MTBE observed under different redox conditions is a potential means for remediation of contaminated aquifers; however, no responsible microorganisms have been identified as yet. We analyzed the bacterial communities in anaerobic-enriched cultures originating from three different contaminated sediments that have retained MTBE-degrading activity for over a decade. MTBE was transformed to tert-butyl alcohol and the methyl group used as a carbon and energy source. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the MTBE-utilizing microcosms established from different sediment sources had substantially different community profiles, suggesting that multiple species are capable of MTBE biodegradation. The 16S rRNA genes from one enrichment culture were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed a diverse community, with phylotypes belonging to the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Thermotogae. Continued enrichment on MTBE further reduced the community to three predominant phylotypes, as evidenced by T-RFLP analysis, which were most closely related to the Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi. These three common operational taxonomic units were detectable in the enrichments from Atlantic and Pacific coastal samples. Identification of the microorganisms important in mediating anaerobic MTBE transformation will provide the foundation for developing tools for site assessment and bioremediation monitoring.

  17. Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by Co-Metabolism with a Pseudomonas sp. Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li


    Full Text Available Co-metabolic bioremediation is supposed to be an impressive and promising approach in the elimination technology of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, which was found to be a common pollutant worldwide in the ground or underground water in recent years. In this paper, bacterial strain DZ13 (which can co-metabolically degrade MTBE was isolated and named as Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 based on the result of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Strain DZ13 could grow on n-alkanes (C5-C8, accompanied with the co-metabolic degradation of MTBE. Diverse n-alkanes with different carbon number showed a significant influence on the degradation rate of MTBE and accumulation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA. When Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 co-metabolically degraded MTBE with n-pentane as the growth substrate, a higher MTBE-degrading rate (Vmax = 38.1 nmol/min/mgprotein, Ks = 6.8 mmol/L and lower TBA-accumulation was observed. In the continuous degradation experiment, the removal efficiency of MTBE by Pseudomonas sp. Strain DZ13 did not show an obvious decrease after five times of continuous addition.

  18. Promotion or suppression of glucose isomerization in subcritical aqueous straight- and branched-chain alcohols. (United States)

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji


    The influence of water-miscible alcohols (methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and t-butyl alcohol) on the isomerization of glucose to fructose and mannose was investigated under subcritical aqueous conditions (180-200 °C). Primary and secondary alcohols promoted the conversion and isomerization of glucose to afford fructose and mannose with high and low selectivity, respectively. On the other hand, the decomposition (side-reaction) of glucose was suppressed in the presence of the primary and secondary alcohols compared with that in subcritical water. The yield of fructose increased with increasing concentration of the primary and secondary alcohols, and the species of the primary and secondary alcohols tested had little effect on the isomerization behavior of glucose. In contrast, the isomerization of glucose was suppressed in subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol. Both the conversion of glucose and the yield of fructose decreased with increasing concentration of t-butyl alcohol. In addition, mannose was not detected in reactions using subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol.

  19. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)


    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  20. Analysis of Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Soils: Optimization of Extraction and Chromatography (United States)

    This article describes the development of an analytical method for the determination of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in soil. The sensitive and selective determination of the telomer alcohols was performed by extraction with mthyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and analysis of the ext...

  1. Effectiveness of hyoscine butyl bromide in shortening the first stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prolonged labour from cervical dystocia or stasis is one of the common indications for caesarean delivery. Hyoscine N-butyl bromide (HBB), an anticholinergic and antispasmodic drug, has been found effective in shortening the first stage of labour with no adverse effects on feto-maternal outcomes.

  2. Solvent free lipase catalyzed synthesis of butyl caprylate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 10, 2017 ... Special Issue on Recent Trends in the Design and Development of Catalysts and their Applications. Solvent free lipase ... The ester, butyl caprylate has wide applications in commercial market and it also possesses characteristic fruity ... lyst can offer better advantage rather the use of acid or harmful catalyst ...

  3. A Study of the Teratogenicity of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst; Meyer, Otto A.


    A teratogenicity study on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was carried out in SPF New Zealand White rabbits. BHA was given by gavage from day 7–18 of the gestation period in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt./day. The fetuses were removed on day 28. No effect related to the treatment with BHA...

  4. 76 FR 59906 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances (United States)


    ... of fluazifop-P-butyl in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, refined oil; and cotton, undelinted...]propanoic acid, expressed as fluazifop, in or on cotton, undelinted seed at 0.9 ppm; and cotton, gin... made changes to the requested tolerances. First, EPA is raising the proposed cotton, gin byproducts...

  5. An alternative approach to synthesis of 2--butyl-5-nitrobenzofuran ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 5. An alternative approach to synthesis of 2--butyl-5-nitrobenzofuran derivative: A key starting material for dronedarone hydrochloride. P Raja Gopal E R R Chandrashekar M Saravanan B Vijaya Bhaskar P Veera Somaiah. Volume 124 Issue 5 September ...

  6. Polymerization behavior of butyl bis(hydroxymethyl)phosphine oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Polymerization behavior of butyl bis(hydroxymethyl)phosphine oxide: Phosphorus containing polyethers for. Li‒ion conductivities. Heeralal Vignesh Babu, Billakanti Srinivas and Krishnamurthi Muralidharan*. School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad - 500046, India. Table of Contents. TGA plots of SPE2.

  7. 76 FR 77709 - Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY...-propenoate and ethenylbenzene (CAS Reg. No. 25036-16-2); also known as butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid...-risk polymers are described in 40 CFR 723.250(d). Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer...

  8. Estimation of the Accuracy of Method for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Alcohol Products

    CERN Document Server

    Charepitsa, S V; Zadreyko, Y V; Sytova, S N


    Results of the estimation of the precision for determination volatile compounds in alcohol-containing products by gas chromatography: acetaldehyde, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol are presented. To determine the accuracy, measurements were planned in accordance with ISO 5725 and held at the gas chromatograph Crystal-5000. Standard deviation of repeatability, intermediate precision and their limits are derived from obtained experimental data. The uncertainty of the measurements was calculated on the base of an "empirical" method. The obtained values of accuracy indicate that the developed method allows measurement uncertainty extended from 2 to 20% depending on the analyzed compound and measured concentration.

  9. Rotational Investigation of the Adducts of Formic Acid with Alcohols, Ethers and Esters (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Spada, Lorenzo; Li, Weixing; Caminati, Walther


    Mixtures of formic acid with methyl alcohol, with isopropyl alcohol, with tert-butyl alcohol, with dimethylether and with isopropylformiate have been supersonically expanded as pulsed jets. The obtained cool plumes have been analyzed by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. It has been possible to assign the rotational spectra of the 1:1 adducts of formic acid with tert-butyl alcohol, with dimethyl ether and with isopropylformiate. The conformational shapes and geometries of these adducts, as well as the topologies of their itermolecular hydrogen bonds will be presented. An explanation is given of the failure of the assignments of the rotational spectra of the adducts of formic acid with methyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol.

  10. A novel organogelator incorporating tert-butyl esters of asparagines. (United States)

    Lozano, Virginia; Hernández, Rebeca; Mijangos, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús


    A novel organogelator based on tert-butyl esters of asparagines has been synthesized and its organogelation abilities have been investigated. The rheological characterization has confirmed the gelation behavior, and its thixotropic properties. Furthermore, the morphological studies performed reveal a spherical structure. Thus, this organogelator can be considered as a new example of the emerging, but still reduced, list of gels with a non-fibrillar assembly.

  11. 2-Benzhydryl-6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Yoon


    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H26O, was prepared by the reaction between 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and diphenylmethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid. Three benzene rings are attached directly to the central C—H group in a twisted propeller conformation with the local pseudo-C3 rotational axis coinciding with the C—H bond. There are three short C—H...O contacts in the molecule.

  12. Solution of a gallstone with methyl-tertiary butyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J.; Roeren, T.; Holstege, A.; Raedecke, J.


    Methyl-t-butyl ether is a new agent to dissolve gallstones. The substance proves to be very successful and acts very rapidly. A percutaneous transhepatic drainage supplies an adequate access route to dissolve calculi within the bile ducts. We report the case of a patient where before insertion of an internal stent a stone in the common bile duct was dissolved within 3 1/2 hours.

  13. Di-iso-Butyl Phthalate MATERNAL AND FETAL DATA FROM ... (United States)

    this file contains the raw data on the effects of in utero administration of di-iso-butyl phthalate on maternal weight gain during dosing and the numbers of fetuses and fetal resorptions. The data have all been previously published, as described on the file metadata sheet. Raw data file from our published studies on DIBP specifically requested (6/14/2016) by NCEA scientists for analysis and inclusion in their assessment of this chemical.

  14. Two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in Wistar rats. (United States)

    Dodd, Darol; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Bermudez, Edilberto


    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to reduce tailpipe emissions and its use has been discontinued. There remains a concern that drinking water sources have been contaminated with MTBE. A two-year drinking water carcinogenicity study of MTBE was conducted in Wistar rats (males, 0, 0.5, 3, 7.5 mg ml(-1); and females, 0, 0.5, 3, and 15 mg ml(-1)). Body weights were unaffected and water consumption was reduced in MTBE-exposed males and females. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased at the end of two years of exposure to 7.5 mg ml(-1) MTBE. Chronic progressive nephropathy was observed in males and females, was more severe in males, and was exacerbated in the high MTBE exposure groups. Brain was the only tissue with a statistically significant finding of neoplasms. One astrocytoma (1/50) was found in a female rat (15 mg ml(-1)). The incidence of brain astrocytomas in male rats was 1/50, 1/50, 1/50 and 4/50 for the 0, 0.5, 3 and 7.5 mg ml(-1) exposure groups, respectively. This was a marginally significant statistical trend, but not statistically significant when pairwise comparisons were made or when multiple comparisons were taken into account. The incidence of astrocytoma fell within historical control ranges for Wistar rats, and the brain has not been identified as a target organ following chronic administration of MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether, or tertiary butyl alcohol (in drinking water) to mice and rats. We conclude that the astrocytomas observed in this study are not associated with exposure to MTBE. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Alcoholic Hepatitis (United States)

    ... stop drinking alcohol. People who continue to drink alcohol face a high risk of serious liver damage and death. Symptoms The ... amount of alcohol you consume. The amount of alcohol intake that puts a person at risk of alcoholic hepatitis isn't known. But most ...

  16. Methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE) is anti- angiogenic in both in vitro and in vivo mammalian model systems (United States)

    Kozlosky, John; Bonventre, Josephine; Cooper, Keith


    Methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline oxygenate, and FDA approved gallstone treatment, has been previously shown to specifically target teleost embryonic angiogenesis. The studies reported here were to determine if similar vascular disrupting effects occurred in higher vertebrate models. Rat brain endothelial cells were isolated and allowed to form microcapillary-like tubes on Matrigel. MTBE (0.34–34.0 mM) exposure resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of tube formation, with the LOAEL at 0.34 mM, while MTBE’s primary metabolite, tertiary butyl alcohol had no effect on tube formation. HUVECs, a primary cell line representing macrovascular cells, were able to form tubes on Matrigel in the presence of MTBE (1.25 – 80 mM), but the tubes were narrower than those formed in the absence of MTBE. In a mouse Matrigel plug implantation assay, 34.0 mM MTBE completely inhibited vessel invasion into plugs containing Endothelial Cell Growth Supplement (ECGS) compared to control plugs with ECGS alone. When timed-pregnant Fisher 344 rats were gavaged with MTBE (500–1500 mg/kg) from day 6 of organogenesis through 10 days post parturition, no organ toxicity or histological changes in pup vasculature were observed. Therefore, MTBE is anti-angiogenic at mM concentrations and therefore a potential use as an anti-angiogenic treatment for solid tumors with minimal toxicity. PMID:22407988

  17. N-Butyl acrylate polymer composition for solar cell encapsulation and method (United States)

    Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)


    A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

  18. Enantioselective degradation and chiral stability of the herbicide fluazifop-butyl in soil and water. (United States)

    Qi, Yanli; Liu, Donghui; Luo, Mai; Jing, Xu; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang


    The stereoselective degradation and transformation of the enantiomers of the herbicide fluazifop-butyl in soil and water were studied to investigate the environmental behavior and chiral stability of the optical pure product. Its main chiral metabolite fluazifop was also monitored. LC/MS/MS with Chiralpak IC chiral column was used to separate the enantiomers of fluazifop-butyl and fluazifop. Validated enantioselective residue analysis methods were established with recoveries ranging from 77.1 to 115.4% and RSDs from 0.85 to 8.9% for the enantiomers. It was found the dissipation of fluazifop-butyl was rapid in the three studied soils (Beijing, Harbin and Anhui soil), and the degradation half-lives of the enantiomers ranged from 0.136 to 2.7 d. Enantioselective degradations were found in two soils. In Beijing soil, R-fluazifop-butyl was preferentially degraded leading to relative enrichment of S-enantiomer, but in Anhui soil, S-fluazifop-butyl dissipated faster. There was no conversion of the R-fluazifop-butyl into S-fluazifop-butyl or vice versa in the soils. The formation of fluazifop in the soils was rapidly accompanied with the fast degradation of fluazifop-butyl, and the enantioselectivity and the transformation of S-fluazifop to R-fluazifop were found. The degradation of fluazifop-butyl in water was also quick, with half-lives of the enantiomers ranging from 0.34 to 2.52 d, and there was no significant enantioselectivity of the degradation of fluazifop-butyl and the formation of fluazifop. The effects of pH on the degradation showed fluazifop-butyl enantiomers degraded faster in alkaline conditions. This study showed an evidence of enantioselective behavior and enantiomerization of the chiral herbicide fluazifop-butyl. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2-ylcarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene C. Hsu


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H13NO2S, the dihedral angle between the thiophene ring and the carbamate group is 15.79 (14°. In the crystal structure, intramolecular C—H...O interactions in tandem with the tert-butyl groups render the packing of adjacent molecules in the [001] direction nearly perpendicular [the angle between adjacent thiophene rings is 74.83 (7°]. An intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond gives rise to a chain extending along [001]. The crystal studied was found to be a racemic twin.

  20. Study of the PVA hydrogel behaviour in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The present paper aims at studying the behaviour of the poly(vinyl alcohol [PVA] cryogel in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]+[BF4]– aqueous solutions with various concentrations. The gravimetric method showed that the swollen PVA cryogels exhibit mechanically active behaviour. PVA cryogels showed shrinking in the presence of ionic liquid, (IL, and re-swelling in the presence of distilled water. The re-swelling is not completely reversible, due to the influence of the IL ions on the gel morphology. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra have indicated no chemical interaction between the PVA and the studied IL, but highlighted the gel crystallinity change as a function of IL concentration, as well as changes in the bound water amount. Rheological analyses showed dominating plastifying effect of the cation at a lower IL concentration and dominating kosmotropic effect of the anion at a higher IL concentration. A phenomenological kinetic equation that takes into account both fluxes of matters, in and out of the gel, is proposed, explaining the alteration of the gel properties when it comes in contact with BMIMBF4 solutions.

  1. Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael


    Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 ÀC. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (#6 and #10), one commercially available formulation (#21), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl #10 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl #10 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

  2. Black Alcoholism. (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt


    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  3. Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    ... time also can lead to alcohol poisoning. One alcoholic drink is defined as 1, 12-ounce bottle of ... limiting alcohol. Other ways to reduce your alcohol consumption include:Limit yourself to one drink when by yourself or with friends.Seek treatment ...

  4. Production of butyl solvents from lignocellulose: An economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J D; Daling, R; Sandel, R L; Fitzpatrick, S W


    A process is described that produces butyl solvents, butanol, isopropanol, and ethanol from wood or other lignocellulosic feedstock. Two new elements of technology introduced are the processing batch reactor developed at SERI that produces high yields of fermentable sugars (hexoses and pentoses) at the appropriate concentration for the butyl solvents fermentation and a novel method of separating products using liquid-liquid extraction, which reduces the separation energy required to about 30% of energy required in the conventional batch method. Economic analysis suggests that the project is attractive at a feedstock capacity of 400,000 dry MTA or larger (178 million lb/yr solvents). There are, however, uncertainties associated with the project because of the relatively early stage of development of the key elements of the process technology and the sensitivity of the DCFIROR to estimated capital cost. A further conclusion is that the process economics would benefit greatly from reduced capital cost of the fermentation section. This could perhaps be accomplished by developing a continuous fermentation process. Such fermentation technology has been demonstrated on laboratory scale, but as far as is known, has not been developed to pilot scale. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarov, Javid, E-mail: [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Kul, Ismail [Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Widener University, One University Place, Chester, PA 19013 (United States); El-Awady, Waleed A. [Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Mansoura Univeristy, Mansoura (Egypt); Shahverdiyev, Astan [Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Hassel, Egon [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany)


    Highlights: > (p, {rho}, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. > The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. > The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Pressure, density, temperature (p, {rho}, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [C4mpyr][BF{sub 4}] at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K and pressures up to p = 100 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of {Delta}{rho}/{rho} = {+-}(0.01 to 0.08)% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, {rho}, T) data of [C4mpyr][BF{sub 4}] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  6. Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae). (United States)

    Tshilanda, Dorothée Dinangayi; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Onyamboko, Damase Nguwo Vele; Mbala, Blaise Mavinga; Ngbolua, Koto-Te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha Tshibey; Bokolo, Matthieu Kokengo; Taba, Kalulu Muzele; Kasonga, Teddy Kabeya


    To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying.

  7. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane...

  8. and triorganotin(IV) complexes of 2-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    of organotin(IV) complexes of phenols are found in literature. 13–17 .... method suggested them to exist as monomers. 3.1 IR spectra. In the IR .... Tert-butyl. Phenolic butyl substituent. Phenolic ring carbon. Phenolic ring substituent Methyl. 119. Sn. Compound group protons protons protons R–Sn –CH3. –C o, m and p Cipso.

  9. 75 FR 44184 - Aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al.; Proposed... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al...-ethylphosphonate) and fenarimol; the herbicides butylate, clethodim, clomazone, fenoxaprop-ethyl, flumetsulam...(O- ethylphosphonate), clethodim, flumetsulam, and fluridone. In addition, EPA will be removing...

  10. Synthesis of Highly Porous Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Asymmetric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui


    For the first time, self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation was applied to polysulfone-based linear block copolymers, reaching mechanical stability much higher than other block copolymers membranes used in this method, which were mainly based on polystyrene blocks. Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k) with a low polydispersity of 1.4 was synthesized by combining step-growth condensation and RAFT polymerization. Various advanced electron microscopies revealed that PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k assembles into worm-like cylindrical micelles in DMAc and adopts a “flower-like” arrangement with the PSU central block forming the shell. Computational modeling described the mechanism of micelle formation and morphological transition. Asymmetric nanostructured membranes were obtained with a highly porous interconnected skin layer and a sublayer with finger-like macrovoids. Ultrafiltration tests confirmed a water permeance of 555 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 with molecular weight cut-off of 28 kg/mol. PtBA segments on the membrane surface were then hydrolyzed and complexed with metals, leading to cross-linking and enhancement of antibacterial capability.

  11. Impact of di-n-butyl phthalate on reproductive system development in European pikeperch (Sander lucioperca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Jarmołowicz


    Full Text Available Phthalic acid, di-n-butyl ester known as di-n-butyl phthalate, is an organic chemical compound that belongs to the group of endocrine disruptor compounds that have a documented negative impact on mammalian endocrine systems. Di-n-butyl phthalate is used widely as a plasticizer in the manufacture of artificial materials, which is why it is found in all types of environmental samples including those from water basins. The aim of the study was to describe the impact of di-n-butyl phthalate on the development of the reproductive system of European pikeperch (Sander lucioperca during the sex differentiation period (age 61–96 days post hatch. A total of 240 fish were divided into 6 groups (40 fish per tank. Treatments consisted of a control group (0 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 feed and five trial groups with 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 feed, respectively. Histological changes of the fish gonads, sex ratio, survival and growth of fish were evaluated. Di-n-butyl phthalate seriously disturbed sex differentiation process of pikeperch. Histopathological analyses revealed that the administration of 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 significantly affected the sex ratio. The feminization process (intersex gonads at concentrations of 1 g and 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 were observed. All analyzed concentrations delayed testicular development. Phthalate did not have a significant impact on the survival or growth rates of the pikeperch. This is the first report of disruption sex differentiation processes in fish by di-n-butyl phthalate.

  12. Oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether by alkane hydroxylase in dicyclopropylketone-induced and n-octane-grown Pseudomonas putida GPo1. (United States)

    Smith, Christy A; Hyman, Michael R


    The alkane hydroxylase enzyme system in Pseudomonas putida GPo1 has previously been reported to be unreactive toward the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). We have reexamined this finding by using cells of strain GPo1 grown in rich medium containing dicyclopropylketone (DCPK), a potent gratuitous inducer of alkane hydroxylase activity. Cells grown with DCPK oxidized MTBE and generated stoichiometric quantities of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Cells grown in the presence of DCPK also oxidized tert-amyl methyl ether but did not appear to oxidize either TBA, ethyl tert-butyl ether, or tert-amyl alcohol. Evidence linking MTBE oxidation to alkane hydroxylase activity was obtained through several approaches. First, no TBA production from MTBE was observed with cells of strain GPo1 grown on rich medium without DCPK. Second, no TBA production from MTBE was observed in DCPK-treated cells of P. putida GPo12, a strain that lacks the alkane-hydroxylase-encoding OCT plasmid. Third, all n-alkanes that support the growth of strain GPo1 inhibited MTBE oxidation by DCPK-treated cells. Fourth, two non-growth-supporting n-alkanes (propane and n-butane) inhibited MTBE oxidation in a saturable, concentration-dependent process. Fifth, 1,7-octadiyne, a putative mechanism-based inactivator of alkane hydroxylase, fully inhibited TBA production from MTBE. Sixth, MTBE-oxidizing activity was also observed in n-octane-grown cells. Kinetic studies with strain GPo1 grown on n-octane or rich medium with DCPK suggest that MTBE-oxidizing activity may have previously gone undetected in n-octane-grown cells because of the unusually high K(s) value (20 to 40 mM) for MTBE.

  13. Vapour phase alkylation of ethylbenzene with t-butyl alcohol over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    catalysts pose problems such as difficulty in handling, safety, corrosion, waste disposal and difficulties in product separation. Even heterogeneous catalysts like kieselghur- supported phosphoric acid, used for the production of cumene, are also felt to be undesirable owing to release of acid vapours. The first solid acid ...

  14. Aerobic, catalytic oxidation of alcohols in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Roberto F. de


    Full Text Available An efficient and simple catalytic system based on RuCl3 dissolved in ionic liquids has been developed for the oxidation of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones under mild conditions. A new fluorinated ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium pentadecafluorooctanoate, was synthesized and demonstrated better performance that the other ionic liquids employed. Moreover this catalytic system utilizes molecular oxygen as an oxidizing agent, producing water as the only by-product.

  15. Interactions between water and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids. (United States)

    Fadeeva, Tatiana A; Husson, Pascale; DeVine, Jessalyn A; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Greenbaum, Steven G; Castner, Edward W


    We report experimental results on the diffusivity of water in two ionic liquids obtained using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method. Both ionic liquids have the same cation, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, but different trifluoromethyl-containing anions. One has a strongly hydrophobic anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, while the second has a hydrophilic anion, trifluoromethylsulfonate. Transport of water in these ionic liquids is much faster than would be predicted from hydrodynamic laws, indicating that the neutral water molecules experience a very different friction than the anions and cations at the molecular level. Temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and densities are reported as a function of water concentration to further analyze the properties of the ionic liquid-water mixtures. These results on the properties of water in ionic liquids should be of interest to researchers in diverse areas ranging from separations, solubilizing biomass and energy technologies.

  16. Propyl alcohol (United States)

    ... alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT ...

  17. Alcohol Poisoning (United States)

    ... unconscious or can't be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that ... a short period of time, the greater your risk of alcohol poisoning. One drink is defined as: 12 ounces ( ...

  18. Alcoholism (image) (United States)

    Alcoholism is a chronic illness marked by dependence on alcohol consumption that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who ...

  19. Gamma-radiation effect on thermal ageing of butyl rubber compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Butyl rubber has a comprehensive use in sealing systems, especially in tires inner tubes, due to their low permeability to gases. So, it is required that butyl rubber compounds show a better performance, more and more. Butyl rubber is provided with excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Besides showing these properties, radiation exposures impart modifications in physical-chemical and morphological properties on butyl rubber materials. When exposed to gamma-radiation, rubbers suffer changes in their mechanical and physical properties, caused by material degradation. The major radiation effect in butyl rubbers is chain scission; besides, ageing promotes too the same effect with further build-up of free radicals. This work aims to the study of gamma-radiation in physical-chemical properties of butyl rubber subjected to thermal ageing. Doses used herein were: 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 KGy. Samples were evaluated before and after ageing according to traditional essays, such as: hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break. From accomplished assessments it is possible to affirm that at doses higher than 50 kGy it was observed a sharp decreasing in butyl rubber physical-chemical properties, before and after exposure to ageing. (author)

  20. Alcoholic hallucinosis. (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit


    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here.

  1. Alcoholic hallucinosis


    Pookala S Bhat; VSSR Ryali; Kalpana Srivastava; Shashi R Kumar; Jyoti Prakash; Ankit Singal


    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One...

  2. Thyroid disruption by Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP in Xenopus laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouxi Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP, a chemical widely used in many consumer products, is estrogenic and capable of producing seriously reproductive and developmental effects in laboratory animals. However, recent in vitro studies have shown that DBP and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP, the major metabolite of DBP, possessed thyroid hormone receptor (TR antagonist activity. It is therefore important to consider DBP and MBP that may interfere with thyroid hormone system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 51 Xenopus laevis were exposed to DBP and MBP (2, 10 or 15 mg/L separately for 21 days. The two test chemicals decelerated spontaneous metamorphosis in X. laevis at concentrations of 10 and 15 mg/L. Moreover, MBP seemed to possess stronger activity. The effects of DBP and MBP on inducing changes of expression of selected thyroid hormone response genes: thyroid hormone receptor-beta (TRβ, retinoid X receptor gamma (RXRγ, alpha and beta subunits of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHα and TSHβ were detected by qPCR at all concentrations of the compounds. Using mammalian two-hybrid assay in vitro, we found that DBP and MBP enhanced the interactions between co-repressor SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors and TR in a dose-dependent manner, and MBP displayed more markedly. In addition, MBP at low concentrations (2 and 10 mg/L caused aberrant methylation of TRβ in head tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings highlight potential disruption of thyroid signalling by DBP and MBP and provide data for human risk assessment.

  3. Alcohol Poisoning (United States)

    ... when a male rapidly consumes five or more alcoholic drinks within two hours, or a female rapidly consumes ... other drugs The percentage of alcohol in your drinks The rate and amount of alcohol consumption Your tolerance level Complications Severe complications can result ...

  4. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism (United States)

    ... and long-term alcohol drinking can cause such epigenetic changes in certain brain circuits and may modify GABA signaling. 34 Through these mechanisms alcohol may influence behavior—for example, how sensitive ...

  5. Overview of Alcohol Consumption (United States)

    ... form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal ... A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption People drink to socialize, celebrate, and relax. Alcohol ...

  6. Older Adults and Alcohol (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  7. Endoscopic Injection of a Ruptured Duodenal Varix with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Salgueiro


    Conclusions: The presented case supports endoscopic injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate as a treatment option for ruptured duodenal varices that, despite being a rare event, when it occurs, is often fatal.

  8. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi


    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  9. The reclaiming of butyl rubber and in-situ compatibilization of thermoplastic elastomer by power ultrasound (United States)

    Feng, Wenlai

    This is a study of the continuous ultrasound aided extrusion process for the in-situ compatibilization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) using a newly developed ultrasonic treatment reactor. The rheological, mechanical properties and morphology of the TPE with and without ultrasonic treatment were studied. In-situ compatibilization in the ultrasonically treated blends was observed as evident by their more stable morphology after annealing, improved mechanical properties and IR spectra. The obtained results indicated that ultrasonic treatment induced the thermo-mechanical degradations and led to the possibility of enhanced molecular transport and chemical reactions at the interfaces. Processing conditions were established for enhanced in situ compatibilization of the PP/EPDM TPE. The ultrasonic treatments of butyl rubber gum and ultrasonic devulcanization of butyl rubber, tire-curing bladder during extrusion using a grooved barrel ultrasonic reactor were carried out. The ultrasonic treatment of gum caused degradation of the polymer main chain leading to lower molecular weight, broader molecular weight distribution, less unsaturation and changes in physical properties. The devulcanization of butyl rubber was successfully accomplished only at severe conditions of ultrasonic treatment. The mechanical properties of vulcanizates prepared from devulcanized butyl rubber are comparable to that of the virgin vulcanizate. The molecular characterization of sol fraction of devulcanized butyl rubber showed the devulcanization and degradation of butyl rubber occurred simultaneously. 1H NMR transverse relaxation was also used to study butyl rubber gum before and after ultrasonic treatment, and ultrasonically devulcanized unfilled butyl rubber. The T2 relaxation decays were successfully described using a two-component model. The recyclability of tire-curing bladder was also investigated. Gel fraction, crosslink

  10. Control Measures of Sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis) Resistant Biotype using Propanil Quinclorac and Cyhalofop-butyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Motior Rahman; M. Aminul Islam; M. Sofian-Azirun; N.B. Amru; S. Ismail


    ...) sprangletop biotype (Kedah-SB8) but finally regain and exhilarate by use of propanil quinclorac and cyhalofop-butyl at eight-folds the recommended field use rates. The effective dose of propanil cyhalofop-butyl and quinclorac to inhibit plant growth by 50% (ED50) was 0.58 g m-2 0.05 g m-2 and 0.09 g m-2 for the R biotype while forthat of the susceptible (S) b...

  11. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by Kocuria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiković Dragan D.


    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE has been used to replace the toxic compounds from gasoline and to reduce emission of air pollutants. Due to its intensive use, MTBE has become one of the most important environment pollutants. The aim of this paper is isolation and identification of the bacteria from wastewater sample of “HIP Petrohemija” Pančevo (Serbia, capable of MTBE biodegradation. The results of the investigation showed that only the bacterial isolate 27/1 was capable of growth on MTBE. The result of sequence analyzes of 16S rDNA showed that this bacterial isolate belongs to the Kocuria sp. After the incubation period of 86 days, the degradation rates of initial MTBE concentration of 25 and 125 μg/ml were 55 and 36%, respectively. These results indicated that bacteria Kocuria sp. is successfully adapted on MTBE and can be potentially used in bioremediation of soils and waters contaminated with MTBE.

  12. Embolotherapy using N-butyl cyanoacrylate for abdominal wall bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Ho; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Cha, Joo Hee; Lee, Eun Hye; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We describe our experience with the use of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of abdominal wall bleeding and we evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the procedure. Embolization was performed in nine patients with abdominal wall bleeding. The sites of embolization were the left first lumbar (n = 1), left second lumbar (n = 1), right inferior epigastric (n 2), left inferior epigastric (n = 3), right circumflex iliac (n = 1), and left circumflex iliac artery (n = 1). A coil was used with NBCA in one patient due to difficulty in selecting only a bleeding focus and anticipated reflux. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:4. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the embolization procedure, and the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Hemostasis was obtained in six out of the nine patients and technical success was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure-related complications. Four out of the nine patients died due to rebleeding of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), multiorgan failure (n = 1), and hepatic failure (n =2) that occurred two to nine days after the embolization procedure. One patient had rebleeding. The five surviving patients had no rebleeding, and the patients continue to visit the clinical on an outpatient basis. NBCA embolization is a clinically safe procedure and is effective for abdominal wall bleeding.

  13. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters. (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander


    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  14. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy


    Maisch, B.


    The individual amount of alcohol consumed acutely or chronically decides on harm or benefit to a person?s health. Available data suggest that one to two drinks in men and one drink in women will benefit the cardiovascular system over time, one drink being 17.6?ml 100?% alcohol. Moderate drinking can reduce the incidence and mortality of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. More than this amount can lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which is define...

  15. Alcohol Alert (United States)

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  16. Alcoholic hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookala S Bhat


    Full Text Available Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916 termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here.

  17. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail:; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail:; Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)


    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  18. Benzene and cyclohexane separation using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (United States)

    Gonfa, Girma; Ismail, Marhaina; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi


    Cyclohexane is mainly produced by catalytic hydrogenation of benzene. Removal of unreacted benzene from the product stream is very important in this process. However, due to their close boiling points and azeotrope formation, it is very difficult to separate cyclohexane and benzene by conventional distillation. Currently, special separation processes such as processes extractive distillation is commercially used for this separation. However, this extractive distillation suffers from process complexity and higher energy consumption due to their low extractive selectivity of molecular entrainers used. The aim of the present work is to investigate the applicability of ionic liquids as entrainer in extractive distillation of benzene and cyclohexane mixture. In this study, we investigated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([BMIM][SCN]) ionic liquid for separation of benzene and cyclohexane by measuring the Vapor Liquid Equilibrium data of the two components in the presence of the ionic liquid. As green and potential environmentally friendly solvents, ionic liquids have attracted increasing attention as alternative conventional entrainers in extractive distillation. Isothermal Vapor Liquid Equilibrium for the benzene + cyclohexane + [BMIM][SCN] ternary system was obtained at 353.15 K using a Head Space Gas Chromatography. The addition of [BMIM][SCN] breaks the benzene-cyclohexane azeotrope and increased the relative volatility cyclohexane to benzene in the mixture. The effect of [BMIM][SCN] on the relative volatility cyclohexane to benzene was studied at various benzene and cyclohexane compositions and solvent to feed ratios. The performance of [BMIM][SCN] was compared with typical conventional solvents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The results show that the relative volatility of cyclohexane to benzene in the presence of [BMIM][SCN] is higher compared that of DMSO and DMF.

  19. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Seong, Chang Kyu; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding.

  20. Improved stereoselective bioreduction of t-butyl 6-cyano-(5R)-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate by Rhodotorula glutinis through heat treatment. (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Wang, Ya-Jun; Zheng, Yu-Guo


    Optically pure t-butyl 6-cyano-(3R, 5R)-dihydroxyhexanoate ((R)-1b) is the key precursor for atorvastatin calcium, the most widely used cholesterol-lowering drug. In this work, a strain ZJB-09224 capable of asymmetrically reducing t-butyl 6-cyano-(5R)-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate (1a) to corresponding optically pure (R)-1b was successfully isolated from soil sample, identified belonging to Rhodotorula glutinis based on the morphology, physiological tests, and the 18S rDNA sequence analysis. It was found that heat treatment of cell suspension at 45 °C for 25 Min significantly improved R. glutinis ZJB-09224 stereoselectivity. The asymmetric bioreduction of 1a was most efficient at pH 7.5, 35 °C, 50 mM (15.0 g L-1 ) substrate concentration, 40.0 g DCW L-1 cell loading size, 0.54 M (60.0 g L-1 ) sodium lactate acting as co-substrate. Under these optimal conditions, 0.046 M (R)-1b was produced with de (diastereomeric excess) value of 99.2% after 40 H conversion. Moreover, R. glutinis ZJB-09224 has a broad substrate spectrum, making it a potential tool for some valuable chiral alcohol pharmaceutical intermediates synthesis. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, G.H. [Xian Medical Univ. (China); Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [and others


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Experimental Validation of the Butyl-Rubber Finite Element (FE) Material Model for the Blast-Mitigating Floor Mat (United States)


    Experimental Validation of the Butyl- Rubber Finite Element (FE) Material Model for the Blast-Mitigating Floor Mat by Masayuki Sakamoto...MD 20783-1138 ARL-SR-0329 August 2015 Experimental Validation of the Butyl- Rubber Finite Element (FE) Material Model for the Blast...SUBTITLE Experimental Validation of the Butyl- Rubber Finite Element (FE) Material Model for the Blast-Mitigating Floor Mat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  4. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate. (United States)


    that the adverse effects known to be associated with Alcohol ingestion included in this safety assessment do not suggest a concern for Alcohol Denat. or SD Alcohols because of the presence of the denaturants, which are added for the express purpose of making the Alcohol unpotable. The CIR Expert Panel has previously conducted safety assessments of t-Butyl Alcohol, Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Alcohol, Salicylic Acid, Sodium Salicylate, and Methyl Salicylate, in which each was affirmed safe or safe with qualifications. Given their use as denaturants are at low concentrations of use in Alcohol, the CIR Expert Panel determined that Alcohol Denat. denatured with t-Butyl Alcohol, Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Alcohol, Salicylic Acid, Sodium Salicylate, and Methyl Salicylate is safe as used in cosmetic formulations with no qualifications. Likewise, because they are denatured with either t-Butyl Alcohol, Diethyl Phthalate, or Methyl Alcohol, SD Alcohols 3-A, 30, 39-B, 39-C, and 40-C all are considered safe as used. The Panel considered the available data for Denatonium Benzoate and SD Alcohol 40-B to be sufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetics. Denatonium Benzoate is sufficiently bitter that it is an effective denaturant at only 0.0006%. The Panel recognized that data on dermal penetration of Denatonium Benzoate were not available, but considered that the available data on lidocaine, a smaller structurally related chemical, indicates that dermal exposure does not result in measurable systemic exposure. The available data, however, were not sufficient to support the safety of Quassin, Brucine, and Brucine Sulfate, Alcohol Denat. denatured with those denaturants, or SD Alcohol 39 and SD Alcohol 40 (SD Alcohols denatured with Quassin, Brucine, and/or Brucine Sulfate), and in order for the Expert Panel to reach a conclusion for these denaturants, additional data are needed.

  5. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent. (United States)

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao


    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent.

  6. Radiation-induced degradation of butyl rubber vulcanized by three different crosslinking systems (United States)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C. L.; Lugao, Ademar B.


    Butyl rubber (IIR) is an isobutylene/isoprene copolymer and is provided with good properties including low permeability to gases, good thermal stability and high resistance to oxygen and ozone action, among others. It is well known that the major effect of ionizing radiations on butyl rubber is chain scission accompanied with a significant reduction in molar mass. This work aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation on the properties of butyl rubbers vulcanized by three different curing systems, such as, the ones based on sulfur, sulfur donor and phenolic resin to identify which curing system is the most stable under irradiation. The butyl rubber vulcanized by three different systems was gamma irradiated with doses of 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by the following techniques: tensile, elongation and hardness. It was observed that doses higher than 150 kGy practically destroy the assessed properties for all butyl compounds, irrespective of the vulcanization system used; however compounds cured with phenolic resin showed a decrease in properties proportional to the dose.

  7. Síntese do butirato de n-butila empregando lipase microbiana imobilizada em copolímero de estireno-divinilbenzeno Synthesis of butyl butyrate by microbial lipase immobilized onto styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos de Oliveira


    Full Text Available This work investigates the reaction parameters of an immobilized lipase in the esterification reaction of n-butanol and butyric acid. Microbial lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized onto styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (STY-DVB and subsequently introduced in an organic medium containing substrates in appropriate concentrations. Heptane was selected as solvent on the basis of its compatibility with the resin and the enzyme. The influence of molar ratio of acid to alcohol, amount of immobilized lipase and temperature on the butyl butyrate formation was determined. The results were compared with those achieved with free lipase and Lipozyme (commercially immobilized lipase under the same operational conditions.

  8. Elucidation of Chemical Structure of Wood Lignin by Dissolving in 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdulkhani


    Full Text Available Residual lignin of wood after MWL isolation was dissolved with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid. Chemical structure of isolated MWL from poplar wood (Popolus deltiodes and dissolved residual lignin were characterized with gas chromatography and 1D, 2D NMR techniques. Analytical results showed that  Popolus deltoides wood has more 4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl-2-methoxy phenol units (Guayacil lignin than 4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl-2,6-dimethoxy phenol units (Syringyl moieties. In addition to Guayacil and Syringyl, the extracted ligin is composed of a small amount of p-benzyl alcohol. The residual lignin is mainly composed of condensed structures which are often of carbohydrate complexes. The lignin structural ratios of dissolved wood in ionic liquid are the same as those of dioxan extracted lignin. Anomeric HSQC analysis of lignin showed that the lignin carbohydrate complex is composed of cellulose, xylan, mannan and arabinan sugars. Side-chain region of lignin structure is mainly composed of β-O-4, phenylcoumaran, resinol and spirodienone moieties.

  9. The oxidation of chiral alcohols catalyzed by catalase in organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magner, E.; Klibanov, A.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    The catalytic properties of bovine liver catalase have been investigated in organic solvents. In tetrahydrofuran, dioxane, and acetone (all containing 1% to 3% of water), the enzyme breaks down tert-butyl hydroperoxide several fold faster than in pure water. Furthermore, the rate of catalase-catalyzed production of tert-butanol from tert-butyl hydroperoxide increases more than 400-fold upon transition from aqueous buffer to ethanol as the reaction medium. The mechanistic rationale for this striking effect is that in aqueous buffer the rate-limiting step of the enzymatic process involves the reduction of catalase`s compound 1 by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. In ethanol, an additional step in the reaction scheme becomes available in which ethanol, greatly outcompeting the hydroperoxide, is oxidized by compound 1 regenerating the free enzyme. In solvents, such as acetonitrile or tetrahydrofuran, which themselves are not oxidizable by compound 1, catalase catalyzes the oxidation of numerous primary and secondary alcohols with tert-butyl hydroperoxide to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The enzymatic oxidation of some chiral alcohols (2,3-butanediol, citronellol, and menthol) under these conditions occurs enantioselectively. Examination of the enantioselectivity for the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol in a series of organic solvents reveals a considerable solvent dependence.

  10. [Alcoholism treatments]. (United States)

    Jacques, D


    The problem of the alcoholic dependence entails often dramatic consequences: problems of health, acts of violence, traffic accidents, absenteeism at work and lost of social insertion. The alcohol has on the other hand a sociocultural registration in our way of life often associated with conviviality. The alcoholism is often defined by some as a disease, by the others as a social plague. It also differs according to the forms which it takes, its previous history and the functions which it performs. What definition can we accept? What are the therapeutic options to be implemented? Some answers will be considered through condiderations on the concept of motivation to change.

  11. Alcohol Intolerance (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids: Cation-anion interactions (United States)

    Men, Shuang; Jiang, Jing; Licence, Peter


    In this study, four 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids are analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, together with three 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. A reliable fitting model for the carbon 1s region of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids is modified according to established models. The effect of the anion on the electronic environment of the cation is explored based upon the comparison between measured binding energies of nitrogen 1s and the hydrogen bond acceptor ability. The effect of the cation on the cation-anion interaction is also demonstrated by carefully comparing the hydrogen bond donating ability of different cations, with a definite anion.

  13. Crystal structure of (S)-sec-butyl-ammonium l-tartrate monohydrate. (United States)

    Publicover, Ernlie A; Kolwich, Jennifer; Stack, Darcie L; Doué, Alyssa J; Ylijoki, Kai E O


    The title hydrated mol-ecular salt, C4H12N+·C4H5O6-·H2O, was prepared by deprotonation of enanti-opure l-tartaric acid with racemic sec-butyl-amine in water. Only one enanti-omer was observed crystallographically, resulting from the combination of (S)-sec-butyl-amine with l-tartaric acid. The sec-butyl-ammonium moiety is disordered over two conformations related by rotation around the CH-CH2 bond; the refined occupancy ratio is 0.68 (1):0.32 (1). In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked through a network of O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, between the ammonium H atoms, the tartrate hy-droxy H atoms, and the inter-stitial water, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farrokhi ، S. Ahmadizad


    Full Text Available In this study dissolved humic substances and yeast extract were tested in different concentrations for enhancing methyl tert-butyl ether mineralization by isolated microorganisms from a variety of sources. All experiments were conducted at a constant temperature of 25ºC. Vials of 50 mL and 125 mL volume sealed with Teflon-lined Mini-Nert caps was used for microcosm experiments. In all experiments 1% sodium azide were used as control. Samples of bacterial cultures that metabolize methyl tert-butyl ether have been analysed by direct GC analysis using flame ionization detector. Cultures able to metabolize have been found in activated sludge and soils. These microorganisms weregram-positive bacterium. An aerobic microbial consortium was enriched in laboratory for four months. Methyl tert-butyl ether has been shown to biodegrade under aerobic and co-metabolic conditions. A microbial consortium isolated from activated sludges was identified as Cocobacillus. The concentration of the initial attached biomass was about 0.11 g/L of dry weight. The maximum mineralization rate and beneficial effects of stimulator substances on aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether occurred with the culture by combined concentrations of 500 mg/L of yeast extract and 20 mg/L of peat humic growth support of microbial consortium within 216 h and in presence of high oxygen levels and well mixing conditions. It was shown that adding, peat humic and yeast extract together, had better stimulatory effect on methyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation. Results clearly showed a stimulatory effect on methyl tert-butyl ether consumption higher than 20%. Consortium was capable of degrading concentrations of ≤1000 mg/L, whereas concentrations of >1000 mg/L, were not degraded.

  15. The screening of microorganisms capable of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation. (United States)

    Wieczorek, Andrzej; Przybulewska, Krystyna; Karpowicz, Katarzyna; Nowak, Maciej J


    As a result of examinations carried out, 16 strains of microorganisms able to grow on mineral media with methyl tert-butyl ether as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated. Bacteria prevailed among the isolated microorganisms. The growth of microorganisms under laboratory conditions was long and accompanied by low biomass increase. Under the conditions of the experiment, the isolated microorganisms did not show any quantitatively measurable biodegradability of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) under aerobic conditions. This requires far-reaching caution with respect to trading in MTBE-modified petrols in order to protect the natural environment in Poland against contamination with that hard-to-biodegrade substance.

  16. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} by Tri-sec-butyl phosphate. A comparison with Tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekar, Aditi; Suresh, A.; Sivaraman, N. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group


    Earlier studies carried out in our laboratory indicated that Tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) is a potential extractant for U/Th separation. Also, the third phase formation tendency of TsBP is lower compared to its isomers, Tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and Tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP). In this context, the extraction and third phase formation behaviour of 1.1 M solutions of TiBP and TsBP in n-dodecane in the extraction of Th(IV) from 1 M HNO{sub 3} at 303 K over a wide range of Th concentrations were investigated in the present study and the results are compared with the literature data on TBP system. Concentrations of Th(IV) and HNO{sub 3} loaded in the organic phase before third phase formation (biphasic region) as well as in third phase and diluent-rich phase after third phase formation (triphasic region) were measured as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase Th(IV) concentration. The density of loaded organic phase was also measured at various Th(IV) concentrations. The extraction profiles in the biphasic region indicated that extraction of Th(IV) by TBP is higher than that of TiBP which in turn is higher than that of TsBP. Extractant concentration in the diluent-rich phase and third phase was measured for the triphasic region.

  17. Alcohol withdrawal. (United States)

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia


    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios.

  18. Ruthenium(III Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Cai


    Full Text Available Ruthenium(III chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]. The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

  19. Radiation decomposition of alcohols and chloro phenols in micellar systems; Descomposicion por irradiacion de alcoholes y clorofenoles en sistemas micelares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno A, J


    The effect of surfactants on the radiation decomposition yield of alcohols and chloro phenols has been studied with gamma doses of 2, 3, and 5 KGy. These compounds were used as typical pollutants in waste water, and the effect of the water solubility, chemical structure, and the nature of the surfactant, anionic or cationic, was studied. The results show that anionic surfactant like sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), improve the radiation decomposition yield of ortho-chloro phenol, while cationic surfactant like cetyl trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), improve the radiation decomposition yield of butyl alcohol. A similar behavior is expected for those alcohols with water solubility close to the studied ones. Surfactant concentrations below critical micellar concentration (CMC), inhibited radiation decomposition for both types of alcohols. However radiation decomposition yield increased when surfactant concentrations were bigger than the CMC. Aromatic alcohols decomposition was more marked than for linear alcohols decomposition. On a mixture of alcohols and chloro phenols in aqueous solution the radiation decomposition yield decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. Nevertheless, there were competitive reactions between the alcohols, surfactants dimers, hydroxyl radical and other reactive species formed on water radiolysis, producing a catalytic positive effect in the decomposition of alcohols. Chemical structure and the number of carbons were not important factors in the radiation decomposition. When an alcohol like ortho-chloro phenol contained an additional chlorine atom, the decomposition of this compound was almost constant. In conclusion the micellar effect depend on both, the nature of the surfactant (anionic or cationic) and the chemical structure of the alcohols. The results of this study are useful for wastewater treatment plants based on the oxidant effect of the hydroxyl radical, like in advanced oxidation processes, or in combined treatment such as

  20. Risicogrenzen voor MTBE (Methyl tertiair-Butyl Ether) in bodem, sediment, grondwater, oppervlaktewater en voor drinkwaterbereiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes FA; Baars AJ; Fleuren RHLJ; Otte PF; LER


    Recentelijk is politieke commotie ontstaan ten gevolge van de mogelijke schadelijke gezondheidseffecten van Methyl tertiair-Butyl Ether (MTBE). Dit was reden voor het ministerie van VROM om het RIVM te verzoeken risicogrenzen voor MTBE in bodem, sediment, grondwater, oppervlaktewater, drinkwater en

  1. Risicogrenzen voor MTBE (Methyl tertiair-Butyl Ether) in bodem, sediment, grondwater, oppervlaktewater en voor drinkwaterbereiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes FA; Baars AJ; Fleuren RHLJ; Otte PF; LER


    Recently, possible unacceptable harmful effects from Methyl tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) to humans raised political consternation. For this reason the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment ("VROM") ordered the RIVM to derive solid risk limits for soil, sediment,

  2. Process Intensification of Enzymatic Fatty Acid Butyl Ester Synthesis Using a Continuous Centrifugal Contactor Separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero


    Fatty acid butyl esters were synthesized from sunflower oil with 1-butanol using a homogeneous Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic organic (triglyceride, 1-butanol, hexane)– water (with enzyme) system in a continuous setup consisting of a cascade of a stirred tank reactor and a continuous

  3. A Case of Successful Ablation of a Gastrophrenic Fistula with n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Mahajan


    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman with a fistula between a subphrenic abscess and the fundus of the stomach was successfully treated with n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. Conservative management had failed. Clinical presentation, treatment progress and imaging findings by computed tomography scan, ultrasound, gastroscopy and fluoroscopy are presented, along with a brief review of the relevant literature.

  4. Energetic Materials Center Report--Small-Scale Safety and Thermal Testing Evaluation of Butyl Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center


    Butyl Nitrate (BN) was examined by Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) Testing techniques to determine its sensitivity to impact, friction, spark and thermal exposure simulating handling and storage conditions. Under the conditions tested, the BN exhibits thermal sensitivity above 150 °C, and does not exhibit sensitive to impact, friction or spark.

  5. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.


    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or

  6. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides


    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.


    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or unprotected peptides.

  7. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.


    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft) (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from ot...

  9. An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (Egbe) (United States)

    This position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, was developed in support of the EPA's evaluation of a petition from the American Chemistry Council requesting to delist EGBE per the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Titl...


    The feasibility of photo-oxidation treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated in three ways, 1) using a slurry falling film photo-reactor, 2) a batch solar reactor system, and 3) a combination of air-stripping and gas phase photooxidation system. MTBE-c...

  11. (R-N-{2-tert-Butyl-2-[(R-tert-butylsulfonamido]ethylidene}-tert-butanesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Bin Fan


    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H30N2O2S2, is the product of the monoaddition reaction of tert-butyl magnesium chloride with bis-[(R-N-tert-butanesulfinyl]ethanediimine. There are two almost identical molecules in the asymmetric unit, the molecular conformation of which is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond.

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of butyl hydroxycinnamates and their inhibitory effects on LDL-oxidation. (United States)

    Vafiadi, Christina; Topakas, Evangelos; Alissandratos, Apostolos; Faulds, Craig B; Christakopoulos, Paul


    The potential of the Aspergillus niger type A feruloyl esterase (AnFaeA) for the synthesis of various phenolic acid esters was examined using a ternary-organic reaction system consisting of a mixture of n-hexane, 1- or 2-butanol and water. Reaction parameters including the type of methyl hydroxycinnamate, the composition of the reaction media, the temperature, and the substrate concentration were investigated to evaluate their effect on initial rate and conversion to butyl esters of sinapic acids. Optimisation of the reaction parameters lead to 78% and 9% yield for the synthesis of 1-butyl and 2-butyl sinapate, respectively. For the first time, a feruloyl esterase was introduced in the reaction system as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs), after optimisation of the immobilisation procedure, allowing the recycling and reuse of the biocatalyst. The inhibition of copper-induced LDL oxidation by hydroxycinnamic acids and their corresponding butyl esters was investigated in vitro. Kinetic analysis of the antioxidation process demonstrates that sinapate derivatives are effective antioxidants indicating that esterification increases the free acid's antioxidant activity especially on dimethoxylated compounds such as sinapic acid compared to methoxy-hydroxy-compounds such as ferulic acid.

  13. Studies on ethylene-propylene-diene rubber modification by N-chlorothio-N-butyl-benzenesulfonamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Datta, Rabin; Talma, Auke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.


    N-Chlorothiosulfonamides have been used to modify ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) to enhance the compatibility of EPDM in, e.g., natural rubber (NR)/butadiene rubber (BR)/EPDM blends for ozone resistance. N-Chlorothio-N-butyl-benzenesulfonamide (CTBBS) was selected as a representative for

  14. Iodine catalyzed and tertiary butyl ammonium bromide promoted p reparation of b enzoxazaphosphininyl phenylboronates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Kishore K. Reddy,


    Full Text Available Benzoxazaphosphininyl Phenylboronates were prepared by O-Phosphorylation of potassium salt ofphenylboronic acid with cyclic phosphoromonochloridates in the presence of stoichiometric amount of Iodineand catalytic amount of tertiary butyl ammonium bromide at 50-60 °C in dry toluene.

  15. Morphology and film formation of poly(butyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole core-shell latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, F; Lang, J

    Core-shell latex particles made of a poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) core and a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell were synthesized by two-stage polymerization. In the first stage, PBMA latex particles were synthesized in a semicontinuous process by free-radical polymerization. PBMA latex particles were

  16. Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Meyer, Otto A.; Bille, N.


    Groups of 60, 40, 40 and 60 F0 Wistar rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated and groups of 100, 80, 80 or 100 F1 rats of each se...

  17. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wokadala, OC


    Full Text Available Carbohydrate Polymers Vol. 112 Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification ofwaxy and high amylose starch Obiro Cuthbert Wokadalaa,b, Naushad Mohammad Emmambuxc,Suprakas Sinha Raya,b,c,∗ aDST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured...

  18. A new efficient synthesis of isothiocyanates from amines using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik; Hansen, Jon S.; Pittelkow, Michael


    Alkyl and aryl amines are converted smoothly to the corresponding isothiocyanates via the dithiocarbamates in good to excellent yields using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc(2)O) and 1-3 mol% of DMAP or DABCO as catalyst. As most of the byproducts are volatile, the work-up involves simple evaporation...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David


    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydrid...

  20. Synthetic phenolic antioxidants, including butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in resin-based dental sealants. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kannan, Pranav; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam


    Resin-based dental sealants (also referred to as pit-and-fissure sealants) have been studied for their contribution to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in children. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of other potentially toxic chemicals in dental sealants. In this study, the occurrence of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs), including 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxyethyl)phenol (BHT-OH), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), 2,6-di-tert-butylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (BHT-Q), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-COOH) and 2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA), was examined in 63 dental sealant products purchased from the U.S. market. BHT was found in all dental sealants at median and maximum concentrations of 56.8 and 1020µg/g, respectively. The metabolites of BHT and BHA were detected in 39-67% of samples, at concentration ranges of shelf-life of the products. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BHT, following sealant placement, based on a worst-case scenario (application on eight teeth at 8mg each tooth), was 930 and 6510ng/kg bw/d for adults and children, respectively. The EDI of BHT from dental sealants was several orders of magnitude lower than the current acceptable daily intake (ADI) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had to change his brand from stout (that is more potent) to beer just to remain competitive (Dumbili, 2015c). Although the consumption of large quantities of alcohol permeated our data, the partici- pants nonetheless demonstrated their awareness of the risks associated with heavy drinking. As the accounts above revealed ...

  2. Biodiesel production from triolein and short chain alcohols through biocatalysis. (United States)

    Salis, Andrea; Pinna, Marcella; Monduzzi, Maura; Solinas, Vincenzo


    Oleic acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) were synthesised by biocatalysis in solvent-free conditions. Different commercial immobilised lipases, namely Candida antarctica B, Rizhomucor miehei, and Pseudomonas cepacia, were tested towards the reaction between triolein and butanol to produce butyl oleate. Pseudomonas cepacia lipase resulted to be the most active enzyme reaching 100% of conversion after 6h. Different operative conditions such as reaction temperature, water activity, and reagent stoichiometric ratio were investigated and optimised. These conditions were then used to investigate the effect of linear and branched short chain alcohols. Methanol and 2-butanol were the worst alcohols: the former, probably, due to its low miscibility with the oil and the latter because secondary alcohols usually are less reactive than primary alcohols. Conversely, linear and branched primary alcohols with short alkyl chains (C(2)--C(4)) showed high reaction rate and conversion. A mixture of linear and branched short chain alcohols that mimics the residual of ethanol distillation (fusel oil) was successfully used for oleic acid ester synthesis. These compounds are important in biodiesel mixtures since they improve low temperature properties.

  3. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...... bed reactor, was determined using a batch kinetic based approach. The procedure involved modeling of methyl tert-butyl ether removal rates from batch experiments followed by parameter estimations. It was estimated to be 5-14% (w/w) of the measured volatile suspended solids concentration in the reactor....

  4. Toxicity of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) following exposure of Wistar Rats for 13 weeks or one year via drinking water. (United States)

    Bermudez, Edilberto; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Dodd, Darol


    Thirteen-week and one-year toxicity studies of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) administered in drinking water to Wistar rats were conducted. Male and female rats were exposed to MTBE in drinking water at 0.5, 3, 7.5 and 15 mg ml(-1) for 13 weeks and at 0.5, 3 and 7.5 (males) or 0.5, 3 and 15 mg ml(-1) (females) for 1 year. Body weights were reduced only in males following 13 weeks of exposure. Reduced water consumption and urine output were observed in males and females exposed to MTBE. Kidney cell replication and α(2u)-globulin levels in males were increased at 1 and 4 weeks of MTBE exposure and tubular cell regeneration was increased in male kidneys exposed to MTBE concentrations of 7.5 mg ml(-1) or greater for 13 weeks. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased following 13 weeks, 6 months and 1 year of exposure to MTBE concentrations of 7.5 mg ml(-1) or greater. Kidney wet weights were increased in females at MTBE concentrations of 15 mg ml(-1) for 13 weeks. Tertiary-butyl alcohol blood levels increased linearly with dose in males and females following 1 year of exposure. Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN), of minimal to mild severity, increased in males, but not females, with 1 year of MTBE exposure. In summary, exposure of Wistar rats to MTBE in the drinking water resulted in minimal exposure-related effects including limited renal changes in male rats suggestive of α(2u)-globulin nephropathy following 13 weeks of exposure and an exacerbation of CPN in males at the end of 1 year of exposure. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  6. Cast Nanostructured Films of Poly(methyl methacrylate-b-butyl acrylate)/Carbon Nanotubes: Influence of Poly(butyl acrylate) Content on Film Evaporation Rate, Morphology, and Electrical Resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soriano-Corral, F; Ramos-de Valle, L. F; Enríquez-Medrano, F. J; De León-Martínez, P. A; López-Quintanilla, M. L; Cabrera-Álvarez, E. N


      Nanocomposites of poly(methyl methacrylate-b-butyl acrylate)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared from different copolymers synthesized by RITP technique using iodine functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate...

  7. Interstellar Alcohols (United States)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.


    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  8. Effect of thyme/cumin essential oils and butylated hydroxyl anisole/butylated hydroxyl toluene on physicochemical properties and oxidative/microbial stability of chicken patties. (United States)

    Sariçoban, Cemalettin; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin


    In this study, effects of thyme/cumin essential oils (EO) and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA)/butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) on physicochemical properties and storage stability of chicken patties were compared in different storage periods (0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d). It was found that there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between physicochemical properties of patty samples treated with EO and the synthetic antioxidants. The EO showed similar performance to those of BHA and BHT in limiting TBARS values of chicken patty samples. Similarity in performance was also the case for microbial stability (total aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic, lactic acid, and coliform bacteria as well as molds and yeasts); namely, their effects were significant (P < 0.05). Effect of thyme EO was significant (P < 0.05) and remarkable, not allowing any coliform bacteria to grow in the samples. Given that EO were obtained from natural sources, the data suggested that the EO might be more useful than their synthetic counterparts, BHA and BHT, as additives for chicken patties to maintain oxidative/microbial stability and increase shelf life.

  9. Process Intensification of Enzymatic Fatty Acid Butyl Ester Synthesis Using a Continuous Centrifugal Contactor Separator. (United States)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Abduh, Muhammad Y; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef G M; Hidayat, Chusnul; Heeres, Hero J


    Fatty acid butyl esters were synthesized from sunflower oil with 1-butanol using a homogeneous Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic organic (triglyceride, 1-butanol, hexane)- water (with enzyme) system in a continuous setup consisting of a cascade of a stirred tank reactor and a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS), the latter being used for integrated reaction and liquid-liquid separation. A fatty acid butyl ester yield up to 93% was obtained in the cascade when operated in a once-through mode. The cascade was run for 8 h without operational issues. Enzyme recycling was studied by reintroduction of the water phase from the CCCS outlet to the stirred tank reactor. Product yield decreased over time to an average of 50% of the initial value, likely due to accumulation of 1-butanol in water phase, loss of enzyme due to agglomeration, and the formation of a separate enzyme layer.

  10. Di-n-butylbis(N-n-butyl-N-ethyldithiocarbamato-κStin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seik Weng Ng


    Full Text Available The Sn atom in the title compound, [Sn(C4H92(C7H14NS22], exists in a tetrahedral C2S2Sn coordination geometry. The geometry is distorted towards skew-trapezoidal-bipyramidal owing to the proximity of the double-bond S atoms [Sn—S = 2.521 (2 and Sn...S = 2.933 (2 Å]. The Sn atom lies on a special position of mm2 site symmetry and the tin-bound n-butyl chain is disordered about a mirror plane. The ethyl and n-butyl groups of the dithiocarbamate unit are disordered about another mirror plane.

  11. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mark H.


    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  12. Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen + Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semi-Clathrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic stability and hydrogen occupancy on the hydrogen + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrate were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopic and phase equilibrium measurements under the three-phase equilibrium condition. The structure of mixed gas hydrates changes from tetragonal to another structure around 95 MPa and 292 K depending on surrounding hydrogen fugacity. The occupied amount of hydrogen in the semi-clathrate hydrate increases significantly associated with the structural transition. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrates can absorb hydrogen molecules by a pressure-swing without destroying the hydrogen bonds of hydrate cages at 15 MPa or over.

  13. Pulmonary embolism after endoscopic injection with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for gastric varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Robaina


    Full Text Available Gastric varices occur in one-third of patients with portal hypertension. Bleeding from gastric varices remains a significant cause of death. Currently the first-line of treatment for gastric varices is endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Though relatively safe, this option has several well-known complications. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis, who presented with fever, tachycardia and hypoxemia after endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Radiographic findings were consistent with pulmonary embolism of the sclerosing substance. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of this complication in order to distinguish it from other similar medical conditions and prevent a delay in diagnosis

  14. The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Radical Semi-Batch Copolymerization of Butyl Acrylate and 2-Hydroxyethyl Acrylate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan E S Schier; David Cohen-Sacal; Owen R Larsen; Robin A Hutchinson


    The radical copolymerization of butyl acrylate (BA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) was investigated under batch and semi-batch operations, with a focus on the influence of hydrogen-bonding on acrylate backbiting...

  15. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk...

  16. The role of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in the repair of traumatic diaphragmatic injuries (United States)

    Bas, Gurhan; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Alimoglu, Orhan; Eryilmaz, Ramazan; Sahin, Mustafa; Okan, Ismail; Cevikbas, Ugur


    Diaphragmatic injuries either by blunt or penetrating trauma require prompt surgical intervention and are often exigent to repair. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (n-butyl-2-CA) is a tissue adhesive which has gained wide application in many areas of surgery including emergency. To repair the extensive injuries of the diaphragm it may be necessary the use of synthetic mesh by fixing it with sutures or staples. The use of tissue adhesives may circumvent the potential problems associated with mesh fixation. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tissue adhesives usage for mesh fixation in diaphragmatic injury repair. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups each of them containing 8 rats. A 1- cm diaphragmatic defect was created in all rats. The defect was repaired by polypropylene suture in Group I, by mesh fixed with sutures in group II and by mesh fixed with n-butyl-2-CA in group III. The rats were sacrificed after 1 month. The episode of hernia and the adhesions were assessed by adhesion density score. Also, the abscess and inflammation in the repaired tissue were evaluated microscopically. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed for the histopathological analysis. No diaphragmatic hernia was detected in any group. While Group III had higher adhesion density scores than group I (P: 0.027), there were no differences between group III and II (P: 0.317) and group II and I (P = 0.095) regarding adhesion density scores. The inflammation grade was higher in group III than group I and II (P 0.05). Repair of traumatic diaphragmatic injury in penetrating wound, with polypropylene mesh fixed by n-butyl-2-CA in rats appears to be as efficacious and safe as conventional methods in early period. However, further experimental and clinical study are needed to compare the long-term results of adhesive mesh repair with those of the traditional sutured techniques. PMID:26131179

  17. Artificial Neural Network Approach to Predict Biodiesel Production in Supercritical tert-Butyl Methyl Ether


    Obie Farobie; Nur Hasanah


    In this study, for the first time artificial neural network was used to predict biodiesel yield in supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE). The experimental data of biodiesel yield conducted by varying four input factors (i.e. temperature, pressure, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio, and reaction time) were used to elucidate artificial neural network model in order to predict biodiesel yield. The main goal of this study was to assess how accurately this artificial neural network model to predict b...

  18. Reverse osmosis performance with solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, J.L.


    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reverse osmosis (RO) units at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River could be made to process solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). It was desired to test whether operation at a feed pH other than neutral would improve performance. Test results are discussed in this report and indicate that little improvement in the water flux can be expected at other pH values.

  19. High Solid Contents Copoly (Styrene/Butyl Acrylate)-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites


    M. Mirzataheri


    Higher solid contents (20 % and 40 %) nanocomposites of poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate) including higher content of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt %) were prepared via miniemulsion polymerization. Stability of the final latexes proved outstanding combination of polymerization procedure and surfactants. Morphological studies revealed by TEM, SAX and XRD showed three structures of core-shell, armored and individual dispersion of clay layers within the polymer particles. The effect of Cloisite 3...

  20. 1-[(E-2-(5-tert-Butyl-2-hydroxyphenyldiazen-1-yl]naphthalen-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba Bougueria


    Full Text Available The non-H atoms of the title compound, C20H20N2O2, is located on a mirror plane except two methyl groups of the tert-butyl group. Intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds exist between the hydroxy and diazenyl groups. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds into supramolecular chains running along the a-axis direction.

  1. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang


    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of the Transformations in Hibiscus sabdariffa-graft-poly(butyl acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Kaith


    Full Text Available Different reaction parameters for the graft copolymerization of butyl acrylate onto Hibiscus sabdariffa fiber were optimized. Graft copolymers thus obtained were subjected to characterization using XRD, TGA, DTA, SEM and FTIR techniques and were evaluated for physio-chemical changes in the behavior. The percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index were found to decrease with increase in grafting while there was reduction in moisture absorption and increase in chemical, thermal resistance of the graft copolymers.

  3. Solvation of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in aqueous ethanol--a green solution for dissolving 'hydrophobic' ionic liquids. (United States)

    Swatloski, R P; Visser, A E; Reichert, W M; Broker, G A; Farina, L M; Holbrey, J D; Rogers, R D


    The relatively hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been found to be totally miscible with aqueous ethanol between 0.5 and 0.9 mol fraction ethanol, whereas the ionic liquid is only partially miscible with either pure water or absolute ethanol; the ability to dissolve 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in a 'green' aqueous solvent system has important implications for cleaning, purification, and separations using ionic liquids.

  4. n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Synthesis. A New Quality Step Using Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaquelin Ramos Carriles


    Full Text Available Alkyl cyanoacrylates are interesting products for use in industry because of their properties enabling them to stick together a wide range of substrates. n-Butyl cyanoacrylate is one of the most successfully used tissue adhesives in the field of medicine because it exhibits bacteriostatic and haemostatic characteristics, in addition to its adhesive properties. At present, its synthesis is performed with good yields via Knoevenagel condensation using conventional sources of heating, but this requires a long processing time. The aim of this work was to look for a new way of synthesising n-butyl cyanoacrylate using microwave irradiation as the source of heating. This non-conventional source of heating most likely reduces the process time of the synthesis. In comparison with a conventional heating source, such as an oil bath, the results showed the advantages of this method whereby the n-butyl cyanoacrylate gave the same yield and quality with a reduction in the reaction time by a factor of 3-5-fold.

  5. Alcohol Use Screening (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  6. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator (United States)

    ... FAQS Helpful Links Toolkit Find Your Way to Alcohol Treatment The search for alcohol treatment can feel ... and make a choice. Who is the NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator SM for? The Navigator helps adults ...

  7. Alcoholic liver disease (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  8. Children of Alcoholics (United States)

    ... other children to become alcoholics themselves. Compounding the psychological impact of being raised by a parent who is suffereing from alcohol abuse is the fact that most children of alcoholics ...

  9. Treating Alcohol Problems (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alcohol Treating Alcohol Problems Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... offers treatment options The new publication, Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help , complements the information ...

  10. Incorporation of lipophilic drugs in sugar glasses by lyophilization using a mixture of water and tertiary butyl alcohol as solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Drooge, D.J.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Frijlink, H.W.


    In this study, anew and robust method was evaluated to prepare physically stable solid dispersions. Trehalose, sucrose, and two inulins having different chain lengths were used as carrier. Diazepam, nifedipine, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and cyclosporine A were used as model drugs. The sugar was

  11. IR studies of van der Waals interactions on perfluoro-t-butyl alcohol OH. Part II. Complexes with acetonitrile (United States)

    Luck, Werner A. P.; Peil, Stefan; Schriver, Louise; Schriver, Andre


    The intermolecular effects on the OH stretching mode of perfluoro-t-butanol/acetonitrile (PFTB/AN) complexes have been studied in the vapour phase, different low temperature matrices, liquid and different solvents and are compared with effects on PFTB monomers. The experiments demonstrate that IR spectroscopic studies of intermolecular interactions give much detail and need a sensitive knowledge of the different parameters. In matrices cooperativity effects of PFTB associates as well as of acetonitrile cluster on the PFTB/AN H-bond complex are observed. Matrices and solvents have different influences on the PFTB/AN complex and on PFTB monomers. Different solvents change the halfwidths Δν {1}/{2} of monomers and PFTB/AN in a similar way, proportional to the frequency shift Δν (interaction energies). The complex halfwidth and solvent induced Δν {1}/{2} appear to be additive. dΔν {1}/{2}/d T is proportional to δν, with different proportionality factors for monomers and the complexes. Differences are observed between PFTB monomers and the AN H-bonded complex which may be explained as follows: the direct intermolecular potentials act between monomers, whereas for the H-bond complexes the distance in the H-bond potential between OH and AN is changed due to a solvent effect.

  12. Adulterated alcoholic beverages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magnúsdóttir, Kristín; Kristinsson, Jakop; Jóhannesson, Borkell


    Adulterated alcoholic beverages are legal alcoholic products that have been illicitly tampered with, for instance, by criminally diluting them with water, purposely putting them into new containers...

  13. Alcohol Calorie Calculator (United States)

    ... NIAAA College Materials Supporting Research Special Features CollegeAIM College Administrators Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Calculators > Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie ...

  14. 5-tert-Butyl-2-[5-(5-tert-butyl-1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl-2-thienyl]-1,3-benzoxazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Jian


    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H26N2O2S, was prepared by the reaction of thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid and 2-amino-4-tert-butylphenol. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two conformations, with occupancies of 0.539 (1 and 0.461 (2. The two 1,3-benzoxazole rings are almost planar, with dihedral angles of 0.83 (18 and 1.64 (17° between the five- and six-membered rings. The thiophene ring makes dihedral angles of 21.54 (19 and 4.49 (18° with the planes of the five-membered oxazole rings. The crystal packing is controlled by π–π stacking interactions involving the thiophene and benzene rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.748 (2 Å.

  15. Health risks of alcohol use (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  16. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol (United States)

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... 18, 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. ... Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap ...

  17. Biodegradation of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE by a Microbial Consortium in a Continuous Up-Flow Packed-Bed Biofilm Reactor: Kinetic Study, Metabolite Identification and Toxicity Bioassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Alfonso-Gordillo

    Full Text Available This study investigated the aerobic biodegradation of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE by a microbial consortium in a continuous up-flow packed-bed biofilm reactor using tezontle stone particles as a supporting material for the biofilm. Although MTBE is toxic for microbial communities, the microbial consortium used here was able to resist MTBE loading rates up to 128.3 mg L-1 h-1, with removal efficiencies of MTBE and chemical oxygen demand (COD higher than 90%. A linear relationship was observed between the MTBE loading rate and the MTBE removal rate, as well as between the COD loading rate and the COD removal rate, within the interval of MTBE loading rates from 11.98 to 183.71 mg L-1 h-1. The metabolic intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA was not detected in the effluent during all reactor runs, and the intermediate 2-hydroxy butyric acid (2-HIBA was only detected at MTBE loading rates higher than 128.3 mg L-1 h-1. The results of toxicity bioassays with organisms from two different trophic levels revealed that the toxicity of the influent was significantly reduced after treatment in the packed-bed reactor. The packed-bed reactor system used in this study was highly effective for the continuous biodegradation of MTBE and is therefore a promising alternative for detoxifying MTBE-laden wastewater and groundwater.

  18. Biodegradation of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) by a Microbial Consortium in a Continuous Up-Flow Packed-Bed Biofilm Reactor: Kinetic Study, Metabolite Identification and Toxicity Bioassays. (United States)

    Alfonso-Gordillo, Guadalupe; Flores-Ortiz, César Mateo; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo


    This study investigated the aerobic biodegradation of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) by a microbial consortium in a continuous up-flow packed-bed biofilm reactor using tezontle stone particles as a supporting material for the biofilm. Although MTBE is toxic for microbial communities, the microbial consortium used here was able to resist MTBE loading rates up to 128.3 mg L-1 h-1, with removal efficiencies of MTBE and chemical oxygen demand (COD) higher than 90%. A linear relationship was observed between the MTBE loading rate and the MTBE removal rate, as well as between the COD loading rate and the COD removal rate, within the interval of MTBE loading rates from 11.98 to 183.71 mg L-1 h-1. The metabolic intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) was not detected in the effluent during all reactor runs, and the intermediate 2-hydroxy butyric acid (2-HIBA) was only detected at MTBE loading rates higher than 128.3 mg L-1 h-1. The results of toxicity bioassays with organisms from two different trophic levels revealed that the toxicity of the influent was significantly reduced after treatment in the packed-bed reactor. The packed-bed reactor system used in this study was highly effective for the continuous biodegradation of MTBE and is therefore a promising alternative for detoxifying MTBE-laden wastewater and groundwater.

  19. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.


    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  20. Synthesis of t-Butyl (2R)-Hydroxyisovalerate, A Precursor of Aureobasidin B (United States)

    Maharani, R.; Puspitasari, D.; Taufiqqurahman; Huspa, D. H. P.; Hidayat, A. T.; Sumiarsa, D.; Hidayat, I. W.


    Aureobasidins are a family of cyclodepsipeptides have antifungal properties. They were isolated from the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans R106 and over 30 derivatives have been successfully characterized. There are few publications reporting the total synthesis of aureobasidins. The limited reports of the synthesis of the aureobasidin derivatives are due to the difficult access to the preparations of precursors. The aim of this research is to synthesise a precursor of aureobasidin B, t-butyl (2R)-hydroxyisovalerate (t-Bu-Hiv), that is prepared for the total synthesis of aureobasidin B. The synthesis of AbB is planned to be undertaken by using a solid phase method, so the ester formation between t-Bu-Hiv and the Fmoc-β-hydroxymethylvaline will be carried out in solution phase to form depsidipeptide. The t-butyl group was used as protecting agent that is due to the straightforward elimination of the protecting group from the Fmoc-depsidipeptide. The t-Bu-Hiv acid was prepared from D-valine through diazotisation to form (2R)-acetyloxyisovaleric acid in 62.7% yield. Product of the first step was then protected by t-butyl group by using Boc-anhydride in t-butanol to give t-butil (2R)-acetyloxyisovalerate in 44% yield. In the last step, the acetyloxy group was eliminated by using potassium carbonate in methanol/water to give the desired product, t-Bu-Hiv in 33.5% yield. The t-Bu-Hiv is ready to be combined with Fmoc-β-hydroxymethylvaline to result in depsidipeptide that will be attached to the resin in the total synthesis of AbB. Each stage of this synthesis was controlled by thin layer chromatography and all products were purified by open column chromatography. All the synthesized products were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, including infrared spectrophotometer, mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Exposure (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  2. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Analysis of how the legal framework of alcohol regulation is implemented, enforced, and assessed. Cost-benefit of inaction on alcohol misuse. Impacts, or potential impacts, of: Tax and price policies aimed at reducing the affordability of alcohol products. Marketing restrictions, such as. Reducing availability of retailed alcohol.

  3. Women and Alcohol (United States)

    ... the risk of many chronic diseases, moderate alcohol consumption is up to one drink per day for women and up to two ... regularly misuse alcohol are more likely to develop alcoholic hepatitis, a serious acute illness, than men who drink the same amount of alcohol. This pattern of ...

  4. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use. (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D


    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Uranium stripping from tri-n-butyl phosphate by hydrogen peroxide solutions


    Smirnov, A. L.; Skripchenko, S. Y.; Rychkov, V. N.; Pastukhov, A. M.; Shtutsa, M. G.


    The processes of uranium stripping from 30% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in "odorless" kerosene by H2O2 solutions both with and without NH4OH added were investigated in the temperature range of 20-50 C and with a volumetric ratio of 1 between the organic and aqueous phases. The uranium was selectively precipitated in the form of uranium peroxide during stripping from the organic phase by hydrogen peroxide. The stripping of uranium increased with increasing H2O2 content, increasing temperature ...

  6. Photo catalytic degradation of methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) from contaminated water: complete mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, A.; Nasseri, S.; Maleki, A.; Aghvami, T.


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been commercially used as an octane enhancer to replace tetraethyl lead in gasoline since 1979. The high mobility, water solubility, and resistance to natural attenuation associated with MTBE may result in contamination of ground and surface waters. In this investigation the degradation of aqueous MTBE at relatively high concentrations was studied by UV-vis/TiO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} photo catalytic process. The effect of important operational parameters such as ph, oxygen flow, catalyst loading, and irradiation time were also studied. (Author)

  7. A coarse-grained polarizable force field for the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (United States)

    Zeman, Johannes; Uhlig, Frank; Smiatek, Jens; Holm, Christian


    We present a coarse-grained polarizable molecular dynamics force field for the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]). For the treatment of electronic polarizability, we employ the Drude model. Our results show that the new explicitly polarizable force field reproduces important static and dynamic properties such as mass density, enthalpy of vaporization, diffusion coefficients, or electrical conductivity in the relevant temperature range. In situations where an explicit treatment of electronic polarizability might be crucial, we expect the force field to be an improvement over non-polarizable models, while still profiting from the reduction of computational cost due to the coarse-grained representation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young


    Full Text Available Background: The objectivity in management of renal bleeding is to preserve a significant renal parenchyma tissue and prevent associated morbidities like anemic shock or renal impairment from substantial nephron demise or obstructed uropathy. Trans-arterial embolization therapy by interventional radiology offers a high success rate with potential of reserving normal renal tissue. The selection material for renal arterial embolization largely depends on vasculature anatomy and end-point of procedure. N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue in our experience is applied in lesion supplied by small size of end-artery. 

  9. Oxidation of heteroleptic diarylpalladium compounds with tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Substituent effects in aromatic oxidation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Valk, J.-M.; Boersma, J.


    A series of heteroleptic diarylpalladium compounds, containing both a naphthyl (1-C10H6CH2NMe2-2 or 1-C10H5CH2NMe2-2-Me-3) and a phenyl (1-C6H4CH2NMe2-2 or 1-C6H3CH2NMe2-2-Me-x, x = 3, 5, 6) monoanionic C,N-bidentate ligand, was reacted with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to give selective oxygen

  10. tert-Butyl 2-(3-acetylamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Healy


    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H18N2O4, crystallizes as discrete molecules associated as N—H...O hydrogen-bonded dimers disposed about a crystallographic inversion centre. The structure is the first solid-state structure for a 3-acetylpyridone without C-4 to C-6 substituents. The amide subsituent at C-3 is coplanar with the pyridone ring, while the tert-butyl ester group is orthogonal to the pyridine ring. The amide and ester carbonyl O atoms are not involved in strong hydrogen bonding with only a number of intramolecular and intermolecular C—H...O interactions apparent in the structure.

  11. Butylated hydroxyanisole sebagai Bahan Aditif Antioksidan pada Makanan dilihat dari Perspektif Kesehatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Fitri


    Full Text Available Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA is widely used since 1947 as antioxidant food additives used to prevent oils, fats and shortenings from oxidative deterioration and rancidity. It has been extensively studied for potential activities and its toxicities. This review summarized experimental studies that had been carried out on animals and humans as well. We also briefly reviewed about its absorptions, metabolisms, excretions and carcinogenicity from health perspective. At present there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of BHA, but there is hardly any indication that BHA is genotoxic.

  12. One-electron redox reaction of di-tert-butyl nitroxide at platinum electrode in acetonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishioka, Shin-ya; Yamada, Akifumi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan). Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering


    The electrochemical oxidation of di-tert-butyl nitroxide (DTBN) at a platinum electrode in acetonitrile was examined. The cyclic voltammogram indicated an irreversible response during a normal time scale measurement, whereas chemically reversible voltammograms were obtained during a shorter time using a micro disk electrode with relatively fast sweep rates. The apparent formal redox potential and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant were estimated to be 0.218 V (versus Fc{sup +}Fc) and 0.035 {+-} 0.015 cms{sup -1} from the digital simulation analysis. (author)

  13. High Solid Contents Copoly (Styrene/Butyl Acrylate-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzataheri


    Full Text Available Higher solid contents (20 % and 40 % nanocomposites of poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate including higher content of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt % were prepared via miniemulsion polymerization. Stability of the final latexes proved outstanding combination of polymerization procedure and surfactants. Morphological studies revealed by TEM, SAX and XRD showed three structures of core-shell, armored and individual dispersion of clay layers within the polymer particles. The effect of Cloisite 30B content on the barrier properties presents excellent and wide use of these films for packaging and nanocoatings industries.

  14. 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(methoxy-meth-yl)phenol. (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Sun, Ju-Feng


    The title compound, C(16)H(26)O(2), was easily obtained in high yield when 4-bromo-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol was reacted with methanol. There are two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The meth-oxy group in each of the independent mol-ecules was found to be disordered, with site-occupation factors of 0.8728 (18)/0.1272 (18) and 0.8781 (17)/0.1219 (17).

  15. Alcohol and bone. (United States)

    Mikosch, Peter


    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  16. Estudio de la síntesis de acetato de butilo 1. Selección del Caralizador Study of the butyl acetate synthesis - 1. Catalyst selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carballo Suárez Luis María


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó un estudio de selección, a escala de laboratorio, sobre ocho agentes catalíticos para la reacción de esterificación de ácido acético y butanol (siete resinas de intercambio catiónico y una matriz zeolitíca. Tomando en cuenta algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos, como los pretratamientos requeridos para la activación, la acidez, la resistencia térmica, el desempeño en reacción, etc, se encontró que las resinas de intercambio macroporosas son los catalizadores más eficientes específicamente la resina Lewatit K-2431.In this work, a laboratory scale selection study over eight catalytic agents was made, in the acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (seven lon exchange resins and a zeolytic solid. Considering some physicochemical characteristics as the activation pre-treating requirements, acidity, thermal stability, reaction performance, etc., it was found that macroporous ion exchange resins are the most efficient catalysts, especially Lewatit K-2431 resin.

  17. Micellization, interaction and thermodynamic study of butylated hydroxyanisole (synthetic antioxidant and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous-ethanol solution at 25, 30 and 35 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Bhardwaj


    Full Text Available Surfactants are found to enhance the diffusion significantly depending on hydrophobic/hydrophilic group lengths and the structure of the surfactant molecule. Aggregation properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in the presence of butylated hydroxyanisole (synthetic antioxidant, at a range of temperatures (25, 30 and 35 °C have been measured by the conductometric study in aqueous-ethanolic composite solution. The experimental data of aqueous-ethanolic solutions as a function of SDS concentration ranging from 1 to 14 mM dm−3 show the presence of inflexion points indicating micellization and interaction mechanisms. Effect of temperature was also observed in increasing the CMC (Critical Micelle Concentration in the narrow composition. From the CMC values as a function of temperature, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated viz: (a the standard enthalpy change (ΔHm°, (b standard entropy change (ΔSm°, and (c standard Gibbs energy change (ΔGm°. The results showed that the presence of alcohol, as well as the composition of water + ethanol may have effect on thermodynamic parameters. The variation in these parameters with the concentration of surfactant or with the change in temperature suggests the manifestation of hydrophobic interactions in the studied system.

  18. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus


    Y. E. Razvodovsky


    alcohol, affordability, alcohol-related mortality, Belarus. Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related pro...

  19. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, Davidâ C.


    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (-)-sparteine as a chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of the base and hydrogen-bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 degrees C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good-to-excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones.

  20. Dielectric relaxation of long-chain glass-forming monohydroxy alcohols (United States)

    Gao, Yanqin; Tu, Wenkang; Chen, Zeming; Tian, Yongjun; Liu, Riping; Wang, Li-Min


    The dielectric relaxation of two long-chain glass forming monohydroxy alcohols, 2-butyl-1-octanol and 2-hexyl-1-decanol, is studied at low temperature. Remarkable broadening from the pure Debye relaxation is identified for the slowest dynamics, differing from the dielectric spectra of short-chain alcohols. The broadening of the Debye-like relaxation in the two liquids develops as temperature increases, and the approaching of the Debye-like and structural relaxation widths is shown. Similar results are observed in the dielectric spectra of dilute 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in either 2-hexyl-1-decanol or squalane. The results of the liquids and mixtures reveal a correlation between the broadening and the Debye-like relaxation strength. Molecular associations in monohydroxy alcohols are discussed with the modification of the Debye relaxation.

  1. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla


    Parabens are a group of antimicrobial preservatives widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in foods. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown weak estrogenic effects of some parabens. Thus, especially, exposure of fetus and infants via the mother is a matter of concern. In order...... to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...

  2. Enzymes and genes involved in the aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). (United States)

    Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas; Malandain, Cédric; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise


    Fuel oxygenates, mainly methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) but also ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), are added to gasoline in replacement of lead tetraethyl to enhance its octane index. Their addition also improves the combustion efficiency and therefore decreases the emission of pollutants (CO and hydrocarbons). On the other hand, MTBE, being highly soluble in water and recalcitrant to biodegradation, is a major pollutant of water in aquifers contaminated by MTBE-supplemented gasoline during accidental release. MTBE was shown to be degraded through cometabolic oxidation or to be used as a carbon and energy source by a few microorganisms. We have summarized the present state of knowledge about the microorganisms involved in MTBE degradation and the MTBE catabolic pathways. The role of the different enzymes is discussed as well as the rare and recent data concerning the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the MTBE pathway. The phylogeny of the microorganisms isolated for their capacity to grow on MTBE is also described.

  3. Pyrolysis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). 2. Theoretical study of decomposition pathways. (United States)

    Zhang, Taichang; Zhang, Lidong; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Tao; Hong, Xin; Qi, Fei


    The thermal decomposition pathways of MTBE have been investigated using the G3B3 method. On the basis of the experimental observation and theoretical calculation, the pyrolysis channels are provided, especially for primary pyrolysis reactions. The primary decomposition pathways include formation of methanol and isobutene, CH4 elimination, H2 elimination and C-H, C-C, C-O bond cleavage reactions. Among them, the formation channel of methanol and isobutene is the lowest energy pathway, which is in accordance with experimental observation. Furthermore, the secondary pyrolysis pathways have been calculated as well, including decomposition of tert-butyl radical, isobutene, methanol and acetone. The radicals play an important role in the formation of pyrolysis products, for example, tert-butyl radical and allyl radical are major precursors for the formation of allene and propyne. Although some isomers (isobutene and 1-butene, allene and propyne, acetone and propanal) are identified in our experiment, these isomerization reaction pathways occur merely at the high temperature due to their high activation energies. The theoretical calculation can explain the experimental results reported in part 1 and shed further light on the thermal decomposition pathways.

  4. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation. (United States)

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C


    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodegradation of methyl t-butyl ether by pure bacterial cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, K. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Lora, C.O. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Wanken, A.E. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Javanmardian, M. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States); Yang, X. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States); Kulpa, C.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences


    Three pure bacterial cultures degrading methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) were isolated from activated sludge and fruit of the Gingko tree. They have been classified as belonging to the genuses Methylobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Arthrobacter. These cultures degraded 60 ppm MTBE in 1-2 weeks of incubation at 23-25 C. The growth of the isolates on MTBE as sole carbon source is very slow compared with growth on nutrient-rich medium. Uniformly-labeled [{sup 14}C]MTBE was used to determine {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution. Within 7 days of incubation, about 8% of the initial radioactivity was evolved as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. These strains also grow on t-butanol, butyl formate, isopropanol, acetone and pyruvate as carbon sources. The presence of these compounds in combination with MTBE decreased the degradation of MTBE. The cultures pregrown on pyruvate resulted in a reduction in {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from [{sup 14}C]MTBE. The availability of pure cultures will allow the determination of the pathway intermediates and the rate-limiting steps in the degradation of MTBE. (orig.)

  6. Butyl 2-(5-iodo-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk Lee


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17IO4S, the O atom and the methyl group of the methylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran fragment. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...π interactions between a methyl H atom of the methylsulfinyl group and the benzene ring of the benzofuran system, and by an I...O halogen bond of 3.173 (3 Å and a nearly linear C—I...O angle of 171.7 (1°. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The O atom of the carbonyl group and the butyl chain are both disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors from refinement of 0.55 (4 and 0.45 (4 (for the O atom, and 0.76 (2 and 0.24 (2 (for the butyl group.

  7. Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by bacterial consortium LV-1 enriched from river sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Wang

    Full Text Available A stable bacterial consortium (LV-1 capable of degrading di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP was enriched from river sludge. Community analysis revealed that the main families of LV-1 are Brucellaceae (62.78% and Sinobacteraceae (14.83%, and the main genera of LV-1 are Brucella spp. (62.78% and Sinobacter spp. (14.83%. The optimal pH and temperature for LV-1 to degrade DBP were pH 6.0 and 30°C, respectively. Inoculum size influenced the degradation ratio when the incubation time was < 24 h. The initial concentration of DBP also influenced the degradation rates of DBP by LV-1, and the degradation rates ranged from 69.0-775.0 mg/l/d in the first 24 h. Degradation of DBP was best fitted by first-order kinetics when the initial concentration was < 300 mg/l. In addition, Cd2+, Cr6+, and Zn2+ inhibited DBP degradation by LV-1 at all considered concentrations, but low concentrations of Pb2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ enhanced DBP degradation. The main intermediates (mono-ethyl phthalate [MEP], mono-butyl phthalate [MBP], and phthalic acid [PA] were identified in the DBP degradation process, thus a new biochemical pathway of DBP degradation is proposed. Furthermore, LV-1 also degraded other phthalates with shorter ester chains (DMP, DEP, and PA.

  8. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren


    be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking......: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East...

  9. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter


    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...... a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC...

  10. Enzymatic Kinetic Resolution of tert-Butyl 2-(1-Hydroxyethylphenylcarbamate, A Key Intermediate to Chiral Organoselenanes and Organotelluranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Piovan


    Full Text Available The enzymatic kinetic resolution of tert-butyl 2-(1-hydroxyethyl phenylcarbamate via lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction was studied. We investigated several reaction conditions and the carbamate was resolved by Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B, leading to the optically pure (R- and (S-enantiomers. The enzymatic process showed excellent enantioselectivity (E > 200. (R- and (S-tert-butyl 2-(1-hydroxyethylphenylcarbamate were easily transformed into the corresponding (R- and (S-1-(2-aminophenylethanols.

  11. Use of a continuous-flow microreactor for thiol-ene functionalization of RAFT-derived poly(butyl acrylate)


    Vandenbergh, Joke; Junkers, Thomas


    This study describes the synthesis of functionalized RAFT-derived poly(n-butyl acrylate) polymers via the use of a continuous-flow microreactor, in which aminolysis as well as thiol-ene reactions are executed in reaction times of just 20 minutes. Poly(n-butyl acrylate) (M-n = 3800 g mol(-1), PDI = 1.10) with a trithiocarbonate end group was prepared via a conventional RAFT process. The polymer was then functionalized via aminolysis/thiol-ene reactions in the micro-flow reactor with isobornyl ...

  12. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne


    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... banned for use in toys in the EU mainly due to their reproductive toxicity. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) has similar structural and application properties as DBP. and is being used as a substitute for DBR However, knowledge on male reproductive effects of DiBP in experimental animals is lacking, Methods...

  13. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism: an overview. (United States)

    Volpicelli, J R


    Alcoholism and alcohol abuse rank among the top 3 psychiatric disorders in the United States. These disorders are associated with significant medical and economic consequences. Furthermore, studies consistently show that an investment in addiction treatment leads to overall cost savings for society. Recent work has identified specific effects of alcohol on several neurotransmitter systems, including gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonin, dopamine, and the opioid receptors. These findings suggest that multiple pharmacologic interventions may be useful for the treatment of alcohol addiction. This article reviews the clinical use of naltrexone and discusses psychosocial programs to enhance treatment retention and adherence.

  14. Alcohol Dependence and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Mann


    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a disabling condition that has a high prevalence, but in Europe only a small fraction of the people diagnosed with alcohol abuse and dependence are treated, representing the widest treatment gap, as compared with other mental disorders. Early diagnosis and monitoring of alcoholic liver disease (ALD is still insufficiently solved. Although ALD is the most common cause for liver disease in the Western world, it largely remains underestimated and underdiagnosed for many reasons. The recent introduction of non-invasive elastographic techniques such as transient elastography (TE has significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. As demonstrated in the literature, inflammation-associated liver stiffness (LS rapidly decreases during alcohol detoxification, and is also directly correlated to change in LS in both abstinent and relapsing patients. Newly published data show that LS could be used to monitor and validate hepatoprotective effects during nalmefene usage. Nalmefene is an opioid system modulator that diminishes the reinforcing effects of alcohol, helping the patient to reduce drinking. Three randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup Phase III studies were designed to assess the efficacy and safety of nalmefene in reducing alcohol consumption. Patients with a high or very high drinking risk level (DRL at baseline and randomisation show a clinically significant effect from nalmefene treatment, which is generally well tolerated. Moreover, reduced alcohol consumption supported by nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support may indeed help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap.

  15. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo


    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili


    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  16. Alcoholic hepatitis. (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas


    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an increasing public health concern. The most widely used

  17. Alcohol Affordability and Epidemiology of Alcoholism in Belarus


    Y. E. Razvodovsky


    alcohol, affordability, alcohol dependence, prevalence, Belarus. Background: Since the alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences, the consumers' response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue of alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in a population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited ef...

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. (United States)

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C


    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.


    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an

  20. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease (United States)

    ... amount of alcohol: • One 12-ounce bottle of beer • One 4-ounce glass of wine • One 1- ... alcoholic hepatitis but never have symptoms. Additionally, alcohol consumption may worsen liver injury caused by non-alcoholic ...

  1. Modeling the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone permeation through butyl- and natural-rubber gloves. (United States)

    Zellers, E T; Sulewski, R


    This paper describes the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) permeation through gloves used in microelectronics fabrication facilities. One type of butyl-rubber glove (North B161), two types of natural-rubber gloves (Edmont Puretek and Ansell Pacific White), and a natural rubber/nitrile/neoprene-blend glove (Pioneer Trionic) were tested at four temperatures from 25-50 degrees C using the ASTM F739-85 permeation test method. The butyl-rubber glove showed no breakthrough after four hours of exposure at any temperature. The variations with temperature of measured breakthrough times (BT) and steady-state permeation rates (SSPR) for the other gloves were described well by Arrhenius relationships, with BT values decreasing by factors of 7-10 and SSPR values increasing by factors of 4-6 over the temperature range studied. Extrapolation to 70 and 93 degrees C, the temperatures at which degreasing is often performed, yielded BT values of < 2 min and < 0.5 min, respectively, in all cases. With the exception of the butyl-rubber glove, following an initial exposure at 25 degrees C and air drying overnight, low levels of NMP vapor were detected off-gassing from the inner surfaces of the gloves. Experimental results were then compared to those expected from several permeation models. Estimates of the equilibrium solvent solubility, S, were calculated using a model based on three-dimensional solubility parameters. Estimates of the solvent diffusion coefficient, D, were obtained from correlations with either the solvent kinematic viscosity or the product of the Flory interaction parameter, chi, and the solvent molar volume. Combining these values of D and S in Fickian diffusion equations gave modeled BT estimates that were within 23% of experimental values over the temperature range examined. Modeled SSPR values were within 50% (typically within 25%) of experimental values. Another model based on a generalized Arrhenius relationship also provided useful but

  2. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz


    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  3. Alcoholic Liver Disease (United States)

    ... liver disease is more likely to develop if people Drink large amounts of alcohol Have been drinking a long time (usually, for more than 8 years) Are women Have a genetic makeup that makes them susceptible to alcoholic liver disease ...

  4. Alcohol, coagulation and fibrinolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Gaag, M.S. van der


    Despite the solid evidence for thrombosis playing a key role in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, identifying specific haemostatic risk factors for CHD has been difficult except for fibrinogen. Excessive alcohol consumption clearly affects platelet function. Moderate alcohol consumption may

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  6. Women and Alcohol (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  7. Myths about drinking alcohol (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  8. Benzyl Alcohol Topical (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  9. Alcohol during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  10. Alcohol and Cancer Risk (United States)

    ... port: 16-20 percent alcohol Liquor, or distilled spirits, such as gin, rum, vodka, and whiskey, which ... risk of breast cancer was higher across all levels of alcohol intake: for every 10 grams of ...

  11. Alcohol Use Disorder (United States)

    ... date rape Increased risk of attempted or completed suicide Impact on your health Drinking too much alcohol ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  12. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per


    -6% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose, and even in a theoretical case of binge drinking, the children would not be subjected to clinically relevant amounts of alcohol. Newborns metabolize alcohol at approximately half the rate of adults. Minute behavioural changes in infants exposed to alcohol-containing milk...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...... have been reported, but the literature is contradictory. Any long-term consequences for the children of alcohol-abusing mothers are yet unknown, but occasional drinking while breastfeeding has not been convincingly shown to adversely affect nursing infants. In conclusion, special recommendations aimed...

  13. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide. (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  14. Alcohol-Induced Blackout


    Dai Jin Kim; Sungwon Roh; Hamin Lee


    For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS). However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory ...

  15. Children of alcoholics


    Robert Oravecz


    This thesis tries to present the experience of children/adolescents who come from alcoholic family systems. The theoretical part focuses on the importance of a functional or dysfunctional family for the child's development. I explore how does a family as a system with alcoholic parents, influence their own children their perception and behavior and also emotions that are frequently experienced by children of alcoholics. It explores how children perceive their parents as alcoholics, how they v...

  16. Effect of tert-Butyl Functionalization on the Photoexcited Decay of a Fe(II)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pápai, Mátyás Imre; Penfold, Thomas J.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard


    . This occurs because the tert-butyl functionalization stabilizes the 1MC states, enabling the 1,3MLCT → 1MC population transfer to occur close to the Franck-Condon geometry, making the conversion very efficient. Subsequently, a spin cascade occurs within the MC manifold, leading to the population of triplet...

  17. Ultrasonic promoted catalyst-free N-formylation of amines in neutral ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod T. Kamble


    Full Text Available A catalyst-free, simple and efficient protocol for N-formylation of alkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl amines with formic acid under ultrasonic irradiation at room temperature using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [Bmim]BF4 as a neutral medium is described.

  18. Nonlinear viscoelastic response of carbon black-filled butyl rubber and implications for o-ring aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolf, D.


    Butyl rubber, unfortunately, has pronounced nonlinear viscoelastic behavior, which may be modelled by a separable KBKZ formalism. While these effects seem to have minimal impact on accelerated sealing force measurements, they do severely impact compression set tests. Therefore, a new test is suggested for evaluating field-return o-rings which is free from such confounding effects.

  19. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Giddings, A.M.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.


    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four food chemicals, namely butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG) and thiabendazole (TB), on cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms in cultured human hepatocytes. 2. Treatment of human hepatocytes for 72 h with 2-200

  20. Di-iso-Butyl Phthalate MATERNAL AND FETAL DATA FROM THE LE GRAY RESEARCH TEAM FOR NCEA June 15 2016 (United States)

    this file contains the raw data on the effects of in utero administration of di-iso-butyl phthalate on maternal weight gain during dosing and the numbers of fetuses and fetal resorptions. The data have all been previously published, as described on the file metadata sheet.

  1. Crystal structure of 2-tert-butyl-1,3-thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. El-Hiti


    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H12N2S, does not contain any strong hydrogen-bond donors but two long C—H...N contacts are observed in the crystal structure, with the most linear interaction linking molecules along [010]. The ellipsoids of the tert-butyl group indicate large librational motion.

  2. Alcoholism and Lesbians (United States)

    Gedro, Julie


    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  3. The Alcoholism Questionnaire. (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  4. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides. (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro


    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  5. Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) in bioaugmented bioslurry phase reactor. (United States)

    Shailaja, S; Ramakrishna, M; Venkata Mohan, S; Sarma, P N


    Bioremediation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) in soil was studied with various concentrations in a bioslurry phase batch reactor operated in sequenting batch mode (bioaugmented with effluent treatment plant (ETP) microflora) for a total cycle period of 96h. Process performance during the reactor operation was assessed by monitoring DnBP concentration and biochemical process parameters viz., pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), colony forming units (CFU) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR), during the sequence phase operation. The degradation rate was observed to be rapid at lower substrate concentrations and found to be slow as the substrate concentration increased. The potent bacterial strain was also isolated from the slurry phase reactor. Metabolites formed during the degradation of DnBP in the slurry phase reactor were identified. Studies on the kinetics and half-life of the reaction revealed that the degradation process followed zero-order kinetic model.

  6. Degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water by glow discharge plasma. (United States)

    Tong, Shaoping; Ni, Yanyan; Shen, Chensi; Wen, Yuezhong; Jiang, Xuanzhen


    This study evaluated the ability of the glow discharge plasma (GDP) technique to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in an aqueous solution. The results showed that a large amount of hydrogen peroxide and highly active *OH free radicals were produced during the treatment. Various experimental parameters including discharge current, initial MTBE concentration and initial pH played significant roles on MTBE degradation. In addition, Fe2+ had a catalytic effect on the degradation of MTBE, which is potentially attributable to the reaction between Fe3+ and the hydrated electron. It was also confirmed that GDP was comparable to electrocatalytic oxidation and high-density plasma and more efficient than photocatalytic degradation techniques. These results suggest that GDP may become a competitive MTBE wastewater treatment technology.

  7. Epidemiology, toxicokinetics, and health effects of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). (United States)

    Phillips, Scott; Palmer, Robert B; Brody, Aaron


    This paper reviews the published information assessing the kinetics and potential for adverse health effects related to exposure to the fuel oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Data were obtained from previously published reports, using human data where possible. If human data were not available, animal studies were cited. The kinetic profile of MTBE in humans is similar for ingestion and inhalation. The concentrations of MTBE to which the general public is expected to be exposed are orders of magnitude below concentrations that have caused adverse health effects in animals. Controlled human studies have not replicated early epidemiology studies that suggested, but did not confirm, a possible association between MTBE exposure and nonspecific health complaints.

  8. Barrierity of hydrogenated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butyl rubber after exposure to organic solvents. (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M


    Resistance of antichemical clothing primarily depends on the type of material it is made from, in particular on the type of polymer used for coating the fabric carrier. This paper reports on systematic investigations on the influence of the cross-linking density of an elastomer and the composition of a cross-linked elastomer on its resistance to permeation of selected organic solvents. Tests of barrier material samples made from nonpolar butyl rubber (IIR) and polar hydrogenated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (HNBR) showed that (a) in rubber-solvent systems with medium thermodynamic affinity, cross-linking density influenced resistance to permeation and (b) the polarity of the system had a significant influence on barrierity.

  9. Crystal structure of (1,3-di-tert-butyl-η5-cyclopentadienyltrimethylhafnium(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Pérez-Redondo


    Full Text Available The molecule of the title organometallic hafnium(IV compound, [Hf(CH33(C13H21] or [HfMe3(η5-C5H3-1,3-tBu2], adopts the classical three-legged piano-stool geometry for monocyclopentadienylhafnium(IV derivatives with the three methyl groups bonded to the Hf(IV atom at the legs. The C atoms of the two tert-butyl group bonded to the cyclopentadienyl (Cp ring are 0.132 (5 and 0.154 (6 Å above the Cp least-squares plane. There are no significant intermolecular interactions present between the molecules in the crystal structure.

  10. FE-SEM observation of swelled seaweed using hydrophilic ionic liquid; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. (United States)

    Takahashi, Chisato; Shirai, Takashi; Fuji, Masayoshi


    The method to observe the exact morphology of swelled seaweed as an example of biological material by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with the aid of hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL); 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate is reported. Seaweed was first swelled in 3.5% NaCl solution and then treated with the IL and water mixture in 1:7 weight ratios and centrifuged to remove the excess IL solution. Thus treated seaweed maintained its morphology even at high magnification and did not show drying in the FE-SEM chamber. This observation technique might be useful for various kinds of biological materials to be observed under FE-SEM. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek


    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince E.


    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  13. Study of n-Butyl Acrylate Self-Initiation Reaction Experimentally and via Macroscopic Mechanistic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the self-initiation reaction of n-butyl acrylate (n-BA in free-radical polymerization. For the first time, the frequency factor and activation energy of the monomer self-initiation reaction are estimated from measurements of n-BA conversion in free-radical homo-polymerization initiated only by the monomer. The estimation was carried out using a macroscopic mechanistic mathematical model of the reactor. In addition to already-known reactions that contribute to the polymerization, the model considers a n-BA self-initiation reaction mechanism that is based on our previous electronic-level first-principles theoretical study of the self-initiation reaction. Reaction rate equations are derived using the method of moments. The reaction-rate parameter estimates obtained from conversion measurements agree well with estimates obtained via our purely-theoretical quantum chemical calculations.

  14. Microbial dynamics in anaerobic enrichment cultures degrading di-n-butyl phthalic acid ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trably, Eric; Batstone, Damien J.; Christensen, Nina


    Although anaerobic biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalic acid ester (DBP) has been studied over the past decade, only little is known about the microorganisms involved in the biological anaerobic degradation pathways. The aim of this work is to characterize the microbial community dynamics...... losses were observed in the sterile controls (20-22%), substantial DBP biodegradation was found in the enrichment cultures (90-99%). In addition, significant population changes were observed. The dominant bacterial species in the DBP-degrading cultures was affiliated to Soehngenia saccharolytica......, a microorganism described previously as an anaerobic benzaldehyde degrader. Within the archaeal community, there was a shift between two different species of the genus Methanosaeta sp., indicating a highly specific impact of DBP or degradation products on archaeal species. RNA-directed probes were designed from...

  15. Volumetric properties of binary mixtures of alkoxyethanols with ethyl tert-butyl ether at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinart, Cezary M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Lodz, 90-236 Lodz, Pomorska 163 (Poland)]. E-mail:; Nowak, Katarzyna [Department of Chemistry, University of Lodz, 90-236 Lodz, Pomorska 163 (Poland); Kinart, Wojciech J. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Lodz, 90-136 Lodz, Narutowicza 68 (Poland)


    Densities at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K in the binary liquid mixtures of ethyl tert-butyl ether with 2-methoxyethanol, 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol or 2-{l_brace}2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy{r_brace}ethanol have been measured over the entire mixture compositions. These data have been used to compute the excess molar volumes. The excess molar volumes are negative over the entire range of composition for all mixtures. The changes of V{sup E} with variations of the composition and the chain-length of the alkyl groups in the alkoxyethanol molecules are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions.

  16. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chen; Lingling, Xu; Hongbo, Shang; Zhibin, Zhang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)


    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g{sup -1}, the particle diameter was 20-35 {mu}m. (author)

  17. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)], E-mail:; Xu Lingling; Shang Hongbo; Zhang Zhibin [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)


    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 deg. C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g{sup -1}, the particle diameter was 20-35 {mu}m.

  18. Determining the primary nucleation and growth mechanism of cloxacillin sodium in methanol-butyl acetate system (United States)

    Zhi, Minjie; Wang, Yongli; Wang, Jingkang


    The primary nucleation and growth mechanism of cloxacillin sodium in methanol-butyl acetate system are determined on the basis of induction time measurements. The induction time of cloxacillin sodium is experimentally determined by the laser scattering method at different supersaturations and temperatures. The measured induction times are then treated using the models of mononuclear and polynuclear mechanisms. It is discovered that the primary nucleation mechanism of cloxacillin sodium is identified as polynuclear mechanism, which relates the induction time and the supersaturation for various growth mechanisms. On the basis of these analyses, the growth mechanism of cloxacillin sodium is two-dimensional nucleation-mediated growth at 285 K, and changes into spiral growth with increasing temperature (at 291 and 297 K).

  19. Structure and Supersaturation of Highly Concentrated Solutions of Buckyball in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fileti, E. E.; Chaban, V. V.


    Solubilization of fullerenes is of high interest because of their wide usage in both fundamental research and numerous applications. This paper reports molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of saturated and supersaturated solutions of C-60 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C4C1IM......-long real-time dynamics. The ion-molecular structure patterns in saturated and supersaturated solutions are distinguished in terms of radial distribution functions and cluster analysis of the solute particles. The cation separated solute pair is found to be a common structure in both saturated......][BF4], room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). The simulations cover a wide range of temperatures between 280 and 500 K at ambient pressure. Unlike in simpler solvents, C-60 in [C4C1IM][BF4] forms highly supersaturated solutions, whose internal arrangement remains unaltered during nearly a microsecond...

  20. Inhibition Effect of 1-Butyl-4-Methylpyridinium Tetrafluoroborate on the Corrosion of Copper in Phosphate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scendo


    Full Text Available The influence of the concentration of 1-Butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (4MBPBF4 as ionic liquid (IL on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M PO43− solutions of pH 2 and 4 was studied. The research involved electrochemical polarization method, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. The results obtained showed that the inhibition efficiency of corrosion of copper increases with an increase in the concentration of 4MBPBF4 but decreases with increasing temperature. The thermodynamic functions of corrosion analysis and adsorptive behavior of 4MBPBF4 were carried out. During the test, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the copper surface in the phosphate solutions was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and had a physical mechanism.

  1. Bronchoscopic management of bronchopleural fistula with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh K Chawla


    Full Text Available Context: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF is a communication between the pleural space and bronchial tree. Materials and Methods: A series of 9 cases are reported where BPF was identified and managed with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl-cyanoacrylate through a video bronchoscope. Results: Out of 9 patients the BPF was successfully sealed in 8 cases (88.88%. In 1 patient of postpneumonectomy, the fistula was big, that is >8 mm who had a recurrence after the procedure. In one case of pyopneumothorax the leak reduced slowly and it took us 14 days to remove the intercostal drainage tube. Rest of the patients had a favorable outcome. No complications were observed in a follow-up of 6 months. Conclusions: In our opinion, it is a cost-effective, viable, and safe alternative compared with costly, time-consuming, and high-risk surgical procedures.

  2. A Validated HPLC Method for the Determination of Vanillyl Butyl Ether in Cosmetic Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ríos


    Full Text Available A specific HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method has been developed and validated for the determination of vanillyl butyl ether in cosmetic products. The extraction procedure with an isopropanol water 1:1 mixture is described. The method uses a RP-C-18 column with isocratic elution and an ultraviolet (UV detector. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer (Na2HPO4 20 mM in water (30:70 v/v with a variable flow rate. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision (repeatability and reproducibility, specificity and linearity. The procedure described here is simple, selective and reliable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests of commercially available cosmetic products.

  3. Alcohol and the elderly. (United States)

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E


    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  4. Degradation of aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether by photochemical, biological, and their combined processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Asadi


    Full Text Available The degradation of aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE at relatively high concentrations was investigated by various photo-induced oxidation processes such as UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 as well as biological processes and their combination. It was shown that the degradation of MTBE by UV/H2O2 and TiO2 photocatalytic followed a first-order model with apparent rate constant of 1.31×10−1 and 1.21×10−2 min-1, respectively. It was observed that UV/H2O2/TiO2 process did not have any advantages over each of the other processes alone. The biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE was evaluated using aerobic mixed culture with three different approaches, including ultimate biological oxygen demand (BODU assessment, nonacclimated, and acclimated mixed cultures. The apparent rate constant for the biodegradation of MTBE by nonacclimated mixed culture was 4.36×10−2 day-1. It was shown that the acclimatization of the mixed cultures enhanced the rate of biodegradation of MTBE to 3.24×10−1mg L-1h-1. Finally, the effects of the photocatalytic pretreatment of aqueous MTBE on its subsequent biological treatment were studied. It was observed that the rate of bioreaction was not enhanced and the photocatalytic pretreatment had adverse effects on its biological treatment so that the apparent rate constant decreased to 2.83×10−1 mg L-1h-1.

  5. Self-initiation mechanism in spontaneous thermal polymerization of ethyl and n-butyl acrylate: a theoretical study. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sriraj; Lee, Myung Won; Grady, Michael C; Soroush, Masoud; Rappe, Andrew M


    In this study, the mechanism of self-initiation in spontaneous thermal polymerization of ethyl and n-butyl acrylate is explored using first-principles calculations. Density functional theory (with B3LYP functional and 6-31G* basis set) was used to study [4 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions on the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces. Diels-Alder (DA) dimers of ethyl acrylate [6-ethoxy-2-ethoxycarbonyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran (EDP)] and of n-butyl acrylate [6-butoxy-2-butoxycarbonyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran (BDP)] were found to form on the singlet surface via the concerted pathway proposed by Mayo. The formation of diethyl cyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DECD) and dibutyl cyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DBCD) via a nonconcerted pathway was identified on the singlet surface of ethyl and n-butyl acrylate, respectively. The presence of a diradical transition state for the formation of the DECD and DBCD was predicted. Triplet potential energy surfaces for the formation of diradical dimer of ethyl and n-butyl acrylate were computed, and the presence of a triplet diradical intermediate was identified for each of the monomers. A low energy monoradical generation mechanism was identified to be involving hydrogen abstraction by a third acrylate monomer from the triplet diradical species. The molecular structure of the computed monoradical species was found to correlate with chain initiating species of the dominant series of peaks in previously reported electrospray ionization-Fourier transform mass spectra of spontaneously polymerized samples of ethyl and n-butyl acrylate. In view of these observations, it is concluded that this self-initiation mechanism is most likely the initiating mechanism in spontaneous thermal polymerization of alkyl acrylates.

  6. Alcohol and breastfeeding. (United States)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per


    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5-6% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose, and even in a theoretical case of binge drinking, the children would not be subjected to clinically relevant amounts of alcohol. Newborns metabolize alcohol at approximately half the rate of adults. Minute behavioural changes in infants exposed to alcohol-containing milk have been reported, but the literature is contradictory. Any long-term consequences for the children of alcohol-abusing mothers are yet unknown, but occasional drinking while breastfeeding has not been convincingly shown to adversely affect nursing infants. In conclusion, special recommendations aimed at lactating women are not warranted. Instead, lactating women should simply follow standard recommendations on alcohol consumption. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of tert-butylhydroquinone, tert-butylquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol in edible oils by normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Li, Jun; Bi, Yanlan; Sun, Shangde; Peng, Dan


    A normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of tert-butylhydroquinone, tert-butylquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol in edible oils was investigated. A silica column was used to separate the analytes with the gradient elution. An ultraviolet-visible detector was set at dual wavelengths mode (280 and 310nm). The column temperature was 30°C. The analytes were directly extracted with methanol. Results showed that the normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method performed well with wide liner ranges (0.10∼500.00μg/mL, R2>0.9998), low limits of detection and quantitation (below 0.40 and 1.21μg/mL, respectively), and good recoveries (81.38∼102.34% in soybean oils and 83.03∼100.79% in lard, respectively). The reduction of tert-butylquinone caused by the reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography during the injection was avoided with the current normal-phase method. The two isomers of butylated hydroxyanisole can also be separated with good resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Alcohol and construction workers]. (United States)

    Mosconi, G; Riva, M M; Lorenzi, S; Silva, Giulia; Bartolozzi, F; Pavesi, Greta; Bancone, Claudia; Bettineschi, O; Magno, D


    On the basis of the data drawn by national and international literature and the introduction of recent legislation concerning "alcohol and alcohol-related problems", we studied alcohol consumption and the consequences that alcohol abuse has on health, working ability, accidents and absenteeism in construction workers. We studied alcohol consumption in two groups of building workers over different periods (1996-2000; 2006). In 142 workers alcohol concentration was measured in expired air during the periodic health surveillance examination and during work on building sites. We also analyzed the relationship between declared alcohol consumption, accidents and absenteeism. Our study showed a reduction in the average consumption of alcohol over the last ten years but confirmed the role of alcohol-related diseases as a cause of work limitations or work disability. On the other hand, "breathalysing" demonstrated that alcohol consumption during pauses in work is still common. The results of this study confirm the correlation between frequency/seriousness of accidents, absenteeism and average consumption of alcohol.

  9. Clonidine and alcohol withdrawal. (United States)

    Cushman, P


    Clonidine attenuates opiate withdrawal syndrome, via reduction in catecholamine activity in the brain, most probably at the locus ceruleus. Clonidine and locus ceruleus lesions, in animals with alcohol dependency as with the opiates, modify alcohol withdrawal. Both alcohol loading and withdrawal from steady alcohol use alter catecholamines in man and animals. Clonidine's potential to treat alcoholics in withdrawal is reviewed. Several double blind studies showed clonidine, or similar analogues, to be somewhat superior to placebo in acute alcohol withdrawal. Major improvements were in pulse, blood pressure and composite alcohol withdrawal scores. Side effects were minor and mainly included mild sedation, or postural hypotension. In the only available published study clonidine compared reasonably well to a standard sedative in alcohol withdrawal, and greatly influential in plasma catecholamine levels. Other components of alcohol withdrawal, as seizures and hallucinations-delirium tremens have not been documented to change with clonidine. The alpha-2-adrenergic agonists in alcohol treatment seemed modestly effective for treatment of some parts of alcohol withdrawal. They represent a promising, novel, but still investigational approach. Additional data, particularly comparing them to the benzodiazepines, are needed before their potential in therapeutics can be assessed.

  10. Genetics and alcoholism. (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana


    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  11. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (United States)

    Bayard, Max; McIntyre, Jonah; Hill, Keith R; Woodside, Jack


    The spectrum of alcohol withdrawal symptoms ranges from such minor symptoms as insomnia and tremulousness to severe complications such as withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Although the history and physical examination usually are sufficient to diagnose alcohol withdrawal syndrome, other conditions may present with similar symptoms. Most patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal can be treated safely and effectively as outpatients. Pharmacologic treatment involves the use of medications that are cross-tolerant with alcohol. Benzodiazepines, the agents of choice, may be administered on a fixed or symptom-triggered schedule. Carbamazepine is an appropriate alternative to a benzodiazepine in the outpatient treatment of patients with mild to moderate alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Medications such as haloperidol, beta blockers, clonidine, and phenytoin may be used as adjuncts to a benzodiazepine in the treatment of complications of withdrawal. Treatment of alcohol withdrawal should be followed by treatment for alcohol dependence.

  12. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis. (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep


    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  13. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  14. (2S,4R)- and (2S,4S)-perfluoro-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyproline: two conformationally distinct proline amino acids for sensitive application in 19F NMR. (United States)

    Tressler, Caitlin M; Zondlo, Neal J


    (2S,4R)- and (2S,4S)-perfluoro-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyproline were synthesized (as Fmoc-, Boc-, and free amino acids) in 2-5 steps. The key step of each synthesis was a Mitsunobu reaction with perfluoro-tert-butanol, which incorporated a perfluoro-tert-butyl group, with nine chemically equivalent fluorines. Both amino acids were incorporated in model α-helical and polyproline helix peptides. Each amino acid exhibited distinct conformational preferences, with (2S,4R)-perfluoro-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyproline promoting polyproline helix. Peptides containing these amino acids were sensitively detected by (19)F NMR, suggesting their use in probes and medicinal chemistry.

  15. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol (United States)

    ... same effects. Cortisol also has a role in cognition, including learning and memory. In particular, it has ... C.; Hong, K.A.; et al Enhanced negative emotion and alcohol craving, and altered physiological responses following ...

  16. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti


    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  17. Diagnosis of alcohol misuse and alcoholic liver disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among these, 46.8% acknowledged use of alcohol while 21% and 10% met the study definition of alcoholic misuse and alcoholic liver disease respectively. Both alcohol misuse and alcoholic liver disease was significantly associated (p-value ≤ 0.05) with male gender, region of origin, number of life time sexual partners ...

  18. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls. (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  19. Highly enantioselective organocatalytic oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols using chiral alkoxyamines as precatalysts: catalyst structure, active species, and substrate scope. (United States)

    Murakami, Keiichi; Sasano, Yusuke; Tomizawa, Masaki; Shibuya, Masatoshi; Kwon, Eunsang; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu


    The development and characterization of enantioselective organocatalytic oxidative kinetic resolution (OKR) of racemic secondary alcohols using chiral alkoxyamines as precatalysts are described. A number of chiral alkoxyamines have been synthesized, and their structure-enantioselectivity correlation study in OKR has led us to identify a promising precatalyst, namely, 7-benzyl-3-n-butyl-4-oxa-5-azahomoadamantane, which affords various chiral aliphatic secondary alcohols (ee up to >99%, k(rel) up to 296). In a mechanistic study, chlorine-containing oxoammonium species were identified as the active species generated in situ from the alkoxyamine precatalyst, and it was revealed that the chlorine atom is crucial for high reactivity and enantioselectivity. The present OKR is the first successful example applicable to various unactivated aliphatic secondary alcohols, including heterocyclic alcohols with high enantioselectivity, the synthetic application of which is demonstrated by the synthesis of a bioactive compound.

  20. Alcohol and Puberty (United States)

    Dees, William L.; Hiney, Jill K.; Srivastava, Vinod K.


    Adolescence represents a vulnerable period for developing youth. Alcohol use and misuse are especially problematic behaviors during this time. Adolescents are more sensitive to alcohol and less tolerant of its detrimental effects than are adults. Research in humans and animals has revealed that early alcohol consumption can result in delayed pubertal development. Animal studies have shown that alcohol detrimentally affects neuroendocrine systems within the hypothalamic region of the brain that are associated with the normal, timely onset of the pubertal process. To effectively restore development and shorten recovery time associated with the adverse effects of alcohol on puberty, researchers must first understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms by which alcohol interferes with critical hypothalamic functions. PMID:28988578

  1. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila


    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  2. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foppa Murilo


    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  3. Mixing proteomics and alcohol. (United States)

    Lovinger, David M


    Techniques for high-throughput measurement of protein expression and posttranslational modification are just beginning to be applied to alcohol research. Studies using this proteomic approach to examine tissue from alcoholic humans and alcohol-exposed nonhuman primates have appeared in the last year. In the present issue of Alcohol, Bell et al. present the first such analysis of brain protein expression in relation to alcohol drinking in rodents. This study found changes in several interesting classes of proteins, including molecules involved in vesicular neurotransmitter release, cellular metabolism, and cell structure. These new and exciting findings are discussed in relation to the proteomics studies in primates, and the future of proteomics in the alcohol research field.

  4. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten


    (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...... evidence that wine may have more beneficial effects than beer and distilled spirits; however, these results are still controversial and may be confounded by personal characteristics and other lifestyle factors such as diet. The inverse association between alcohol intake and CHD is influenced by age, gender...

  5. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites (United States)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.


    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration (X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  6. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites (United States)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.


    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration ( X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  7. Attendance at alcohol-free and alcohol-service parties and alcohol consumption among college students. (United States)

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P; Clark, Melissa


    To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but the number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabrication and optimisation of optical biosensor using alcohol oxidase enzyme to evaluate detection of formaldehyde (United States)

    Rachim, A.; Sari, A. P.; Nurlely, Fauzia, V.


    In this study, a new and simple biosensor base on alcohol oxidase (AOX)-enzyme for detecting formaldehyde in aqueous solutions has been successfully fabricated. The alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme was immobilized on poly-n-butyl acrylic-co-N-acryloxysuccinimide (nBA-NAS) membrane containing chromoionophore. The chemical reaction between AOX and formaldehyde generates a colour change of chromoionophore detected by optical absorbance measured in UV Vis. This paper focuses on the concentration optimization of buffer phosphate solution, response time, the quantity of enzyme and the measurement of the detection range of biosensors. The result shows that the optimum concentration and pH of buffer phosphate solution is 0.05 M and pH 7, respectively. The optimum response time is 3 min, the optimum unit of enzyme for biosensor is 1 unit/sample and the detection range of biosensor is 0.264 mM with R2 = 0.9421.

  9. Three Aspects of Alcoholism: The Recovering Alcoholic, Adult Child of an Alcoholic, and Mother of an Alcoholic. (United States)

    Briles, Amanda

    This paper focuses on shedding light on three aspects--or faces--of alcoholism. The paper, in an interview format, presents the perspectives of the recovering alcoholic, a mother of the recovering alcoholic, and the adult child of an alcoholic. It also provides brief medical definitions of the various types of alcoholism. The paper points out that…



    Spear, Linda Patia


    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  11. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim


    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  12. [Toxic alcohol poisonings]. (United States)

    Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz

    Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.

  13. Frequency dependence of electron spin-lattice relaxation for semiquinones in alcohol solutions. (United States)

    Elajaili, Hanan B; Biller, Joshua R; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R


    The spin-lattice relaxation rates at 293 K for three anionic semiquinones (2,5-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, 2,6-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethoxy-1,4-benzosemiquinone) were studied at up to 8 frequencies between 250 MHz and 34 GHz in ethanol or methanol solution containing high concentrations of OH(-). The relaxation rates are about a factor of 2 faster at lower frequencies than at 9 or 34 GHz. However, in perdeuterated alcohols the relaxation rates exhibit little frequency dependence, which demonstrates that the dominant frequency-dependent contribution to relaxation is modulation of dipolar interactions with solvent nuclei. The relaxation rates were modeled as the sum of two frequency-independent contributions (spin rotation and a local mode) and two frequency-dependent contributions (modulation of dipolar interaction with solvent nuclei and a much smaller contribution from modulation of g anisotropy). The correlation time for modulation of the interaction with solvent nuclei is longer than the tumbling correlation time of the semiquinone and is consistent with hydrogen bonding of the alcohol to the oxygen atoms of the semiquinones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Alcohol Structure on the Optimum Condition for Novozym 435-Catalyzed Synthesis of Adipate Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman


    Full Text Available Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435, was used as the biocatalyst in the esterification of adipic acid with four different isomers of butanol (n-butanol, sec-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol. Optimum conditions for the synthesis of adipate esters were obtained using response surface methodology approach with a four-factor-five-level central composite design concerning important reaction parameters which include time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of enzyme. Reactions under optimized conditions has yielded a high percentage of esterification (>96% for n-butanol, iso-butanol, and sec-butanol, indicating that extent of esterification is independent of the alcohol structure for primary and secondary alcohols at the optimum conditions. Minimum reaction time (135 min for achieving maximum ester yield was obtained for iso-butanol. The required time for attaining maximum yield and also the initial rates in the synthesis of di-n-butyl and di-sec-butyl adipate were nearly the same. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B was also capable of esterifying tert-butanol with a maximum yield of 39.1%. The enzyme is highly efficient biocatalyst for the synthesis of adipate esters by offering a simple production process and a high esterification yield.

  15. Alcohol consumption and suicide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sher, L

    .... Impulsivity and aggression are strongly implicated in suicidal behaviour. Constructs related to aggression and impulsivity confer additional risk for suicidal behaviour in people with alcohol dependence...

  16. Alcohol Use Disorders (United States)

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  17. Alcohol and civil aviation. (United States)

    Holdener, F


    In aviation medicine until the early 1960s the idea that pilots would fly while under the influence of alcohol was taboo. In the United States of America, the taboo was broken when it became known that 30% of fatally injured pilots in general aviation had been under the influence of alcohol. Since then the rate has declined to 10%. No fatal accidents involving alcohol have been recorded in airline passenger transport. The prevalence of pilots flying under the influence of alcohol is unknown. The lowest studied blood alcohol concentration (BAC) with impaired flying skill today is 0.025%, effectively suggesting that the permitted level should be zero, but many aviation authorities have not yet translated such findings into rules and regulations. In the early 1970s the US Federal Air Surgeon began to re-issue licences for rehabilitated alcoholic pilots. Previously alcoholism had been a reason for mandatory permanent grounding. The possibility of returning to the cockpit first opened the way to early recognition of alcoholic pilots on a larger scale. Today many airlines have their own alcohol programmes. This paper gives a brief account of the Swissair programme with its four phases: observation, intervention, treatment and follow-up.

  18. Social perceptions about alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik


    Full Text Available Background: Research among adults has yielded some conclusions about the stigma of mental illness. First, people with mental illness are stigmatised more severely than those with physical health conditions and those who abuse alcohol are viewed more harshly than those with mental illness. The aim of our study was to identify the stigma and self-stigmatisation in our cultural background regarding sex, level of drinking, the identity of an alcoholic, age and educational level.Methods: A semi-structural questionnaire was applied to patients (n = 337, who were in outpatient clinic for treating alcoholism and patients from family medicine practice. We used t-test and factor analysis for the comparison of samples.Results: Women had more negative social attributions and presumptions than men and were also more emphatic towards alcoholics. People without the identity of an alcoholic had more negative presumptions, there were more negative and positive presumptions with advanced age and less with a higher level of education. With a higher education there was also a higher level of empathy towards alcoholics.Conclusions: In our cultural background we have a very high level of stigmatisation, that is higher than self-stigmatisation of alcoholics. The therapists involved in alcoholism treatment will have to change our own social presumptions about the stigma in general population, that will have an influence on some of our therapeutic interventions in the alcoholism treatment

  19. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep


    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  20. Alcohol and Sexual Assault (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam


    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  1. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.


    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an


    Block copolymers of polystyrene and poly(t-butyl acrylate) were prepared using atom transfer radical polymerization techniques. These polymers were synthesized with a CuBr/N,N,N,NInduction of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)-Oxidizing Activity in Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 by MTBE


    Johnson, Erika L.; Smith, Christy A.; O'Reilly, Kirk T.; Hyman, Michael R.


    Alkane-grown cells of Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 cometabolically degrade the gasoline oxygenate methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) through the activities of an alkane-inducible monooxygenase and other enzymes in the alkane oxidation pathway. In this study we examined the effects of MTBE on the MTBE-oxidizing activity of M. vaccae JOB5 grown on diverse nonalkane substrates. Carbon-limited cultures were grown on glycerol, lactate, several sugars, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, both ...

  3. Surfactant and counter-ion distribution in styrene-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid dry latex submonolayers


    Keslarek Amauri José; Leite Carlos Alberto P; Galembeck Fernando


    Styrene-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid latex submonolayers prepared using a non-reactive phosphate surfactant together with a reactive sulfonate surfactant were examined in a transmission microscope using electron energy loss spectroscopy imaging (ESI-TEM). Phosphorus is nearly absent from the particles core but it is detected in a thick shell and in unusual, strongly scattering structures with a low carbon content, and largely made out of inorganic phosphate. P is also dispersed outside the par...

  4. When does the fluazifop-P-butyl degradate, TFMP, leach through an agricultural loamy soil to groundwater?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Norgaard, Trine; Olsen, Preben


    In intensely cultivated regions, it is crucial to have knowledge of the leaching potential related to pesticides in agricultural production. This is especially true in countries, like Denmark, that base its drinking water supply on untreated groundwater. Since fluazifop-P-butyl (FPB) is applied...... value for drinking water applies to them, having its leaching potential regulatory assessed based on high quality estimations of their persistence, and be exposed to an assessment of the risk to consumers of drinking contaminated groundwater....

  5. Method for photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate by tri-N-butyl phosphate and application of this method to nuclear fuel reprocessing (United States)

    De Poorter, Gerald L.; Rofer-De Poorter, Cheryl K.


    Uranyl ion in solution in tri-n-butyl phosphate is readily photochemically reduced to U(IV). The product U(IV) may effectively be used in the Purex process for treating spent nuclear fuels to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(III) is readily separated from uranium in solution in the tri-n-butyl phosphate by an aqueous strip.

  6. Adsorption of methyl tert-butyl ether using granular activated carbon : equilibrium and kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.Z.; Chen, J.M. [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Biological and Environmental Engineering; Zhang, J.X. [Yuhuan County Environmental Protection Bureau, Yuhuan (China)


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used in gasoline as a replacement for lead in order to promote combustion efficiency. However, MTBE is one of the most frequently detected underground water pollutants caused by leaks in underground fuel storage tanks, and has been classified as a potential human carcinogen. This study investigated that adsorption of MTBE through a granular activated carbon filter. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order equation and intraparticle diffusion equation kinetic models were used to predict the constant rate of adsorption. The study showed that the pseudo-second order model accurately described the adsorption kinetics for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon. The Lagergren first-order rate constant k{sub 1} and the pseudo-second order rate constant k{sub 2} decreased with initial increases of MTBE. A Boyd plot was used to demonstrate that external mass transfer is the principal rate-limiting step during the initial stages of adsorption. Results of the study indicated that granular activated carbon is an effective adsorbent for MTBE. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Impetigo herpetiformis occurring during N-butyl-scopolammonium bromide therapy in pregnancy: case report. (United States)

    Guerriero, C; Lanza Silveri, S; Sisto, T; Rosati, D; De Simone, C; Fossati, B; Pomini, F; Rotoli, M; Amerio, P; Capizzi, R


    Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a rare dermatosis arising during the third trimester of pregnancy which is generally considered as a form of pustular psoriasis of unknown aetiology. Clinically it is characterized by erythematous plaques surrounded by sterile pustules associated with fever, diarrhea, sweating and increasing risk of stillbirth for placental insufficiency. We describe a case of developed erythematous plaques surrounded by pustules localised initially to the trunk of a 35-year-old woman at the 34th week of gestation after 5 days of treatment with N-Butyl-Scopolammonium, and which later involved the upper and lower limbs. Skin histology confirmed the diagnosis of generalised pregnancy pustular psoriasis (impetigo herpetiformis). IH is reported to be associated with hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, use of oral contraceptives and bacterial infections. This is the first report suggesting the potential role of drugs other than oral contraceptives in the pathogenetic mechanism of this disease. In this case an adverse cutaneous reaction to BB could be the cause of the development of Koebner isomorphism.

  8. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picel, Andrew C., E-mail: [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology (United States); Koo, Sonya J. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Roberts, Anne C. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology (United States)


    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).Materials and methodsA retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatin sponge in one procedure (20 %).ResultsEmbolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization.ConclusionsTAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.

  9. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations. (United States)

    Picel, Andrew C; Koo, Sonya J; Roberts, Anne C


    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). A retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatin sponge in one procedure (20 %). Embolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization. TAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.

  10. Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira


    Full Text Available The effects of mango seed extract (MSE and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on pH, lipid oxidation, and color of Bologna-type mortadella during refrigerated storage for 21 days were studied. Bologna-type mortadella samples were formulated to contain 0.1% MSE, 0.2% MSE, or 0.01% BHT. After 14 days of storage, the products containing MSE 0.1 or 0.2% had higher pH values than those containing BHT 0.01%. Lipid oxidation values increased with storage time but were not affected by the type of antioxidant. The highest values for color parameter L* were observed for mortadella containing BHT 0.01% after 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Values for the color parameters a* and b* tended to decrease during mortadella storage. Products containing 0.1 or 0.2% MSE showed higher values for color parameter a* and lower values for color parameter b* compared to those containing 0.01% BHT. It can be concluded that MSE can be used in 0.1 or 0.2% levels in Bologna-type mortadella with similar or better antioxidant effects than those of BHT 0.01%.

  11. Mediating electrostatic binding of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride to enzyme surfaces improves conformational stability. (United States)

    Nordwald, Erik M; Kaar, Joel L


    We have recently developed a general approach to improve the utility of enzymes in ionic liquids (ILs) via tuning of the ratio of enzyme-containing positive to negative surface charges. In this work, the impact of enzyme surface charge ratio on the biophysical interaction of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]) with chymotrypsin and lipase was investigated to understand this approach at the molecular level. Results of fluorescence quenching assays indicated that the extent of binding of the [BMIM] cation decreased (7- and 3.5-fold for chymotrypsin and lipase, respectively) as a function of increasing ratio of positive to negative surface charges. Conformational stability assays further showed a close correlation between thermodynamic stabilization and enzyme surface charge ratio as well as [BMIM] binding. As evidence of this correlation, succinylation and acetylation resulted in the stabilization of chymotrypsin in 10% (v/v) [BMIM][Cl] by 17.0 and 6.6 kJ/mol, respectively, while cationization destabilized chymotrypsin by 3.6 kJ/mol. Combined, these results indicate that altering the surface charge ratio mediates the organization of IL molecules, namely, [BMIM] and [Cl], around the enzymes. Preferential exclusion of [Cl], in particular, via lowering of the ratio of positive to negative surface charges, correlated with increased enzyme stability. Accordingly, these results more broadly provide insight into the mechanism of stabilization in ILs via charge modification.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar


    Full Text Available In the present paper the experimental data of extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 have been presented. The data of FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]BF4. Further, the thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of the [BMIM]BF4 were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 73.02% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild reaction conditions. The ionic liquids could be reused four times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurizations of real fuels, multistage extraction were presented. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazoled ILs for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  13. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on dog sperm longevity in chilling storage and cryopreservation. (United States)

    Sahashi, Yu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Higaki, Shogo; Nagano, Masashi; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Hishinuma, Mitsugu


    This study evaluated the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble antioxidant, on dog sperm in chilling storage and cryopreservation. In Experiment 1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM BHT were added to egg yolk Tris extender (EYT), and sperm were stored at 4°C for 96 hr. Sperm motility, viability, acrosomal integrity and morphological abnormality in the BHT treatment groups were not different from those of the control (0 mM BHT). In Experiment 2, the effect of BHT in EYT containing 0.75% Equex STM paste and 5% glycerol on survivability of cryopreserved sperm was examined after culture at 39°C for 3 hr. Sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity in the 0.2 to 0.8 mM BHT treatment groups were not different from those of the control. However, sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity decreased when 1.6 mM BHT was added to the extender (Pchilling storage and cryopreservation. Supplementation of 1.6 mM BHT did not affect characteristics of chilled sperm but impaired longevity of cryopreserved sperm in the dog.

  14. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in rat. (United States)

    Saeedi, Arastoo; Omidi, Mahmoud; Khoshnoud, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadi-Bardbori, Afshin


    1. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly used as an octane booster and oxygenate additive to gasoline. The assumed toxic effects of MTBE on human health are a matter of great debate. Exposure to MTBE has been shown to induce oxidative damage and no mechanistic explanation is available so far. Our goals were to determine whether MTBE is a mitochondrial toxicant, if so, what mechanism(s) is involved. 2. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were received MTBE in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of treatments, animals were killed, liver and blood samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological studies, and oxidative stress biomarkers. The rat liver mitochondria were isolated and several mitochondrial indices were measured. 3. We found that zinc plasma levels were remarkably declined with MTBE and N, N, N', N'-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN; a zinc chelator) exposure. MTBE induced oxidative damage and caused mitochondrial dysfunctions in rats. Supplementation with zinc was able to protect against MTBE-induced cellular and sub-cellular toxicity. 4. Our results demonstrated that long-term exposure to MTBE is associated with zinc deficiency, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial energy failure in rat.

  15. Toxicity and biofilm-based selection for methyl tert-butyl ether bioremediation technology. (United States)

    Guisado, I M; Purswani, J; Catón-Alcubierre, L; González-López, J; Pozo, C


    Extractive membrane biofilm reactor (EMBFR) technology offers productive solutions for volatile and semi-volatile compound removal from water bodies. In this study, the bacterial strains Paenibacillus etheri SH7(T) (CECT 8558), Agrobacterium sp. MS2 (CECT 8557) and Rhodococcus ruber strains A5 (CECT 8556), EE6 (CECT 8612) and EE1 (CECT 8555), previously isolated from fuel-contaminated sites, were tested for adherence on tubular semipermeable membranes in laboratory-scale systems designed for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) bioremediation. Biofilm formation on the membrane surface was evaluated through observation by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) as well as the acute toxicity (as EC50) of the bacterial growth media. Moreover, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production for each strain under different MTBE concentrations was measured. Strains A5 and MS2 were biofilm producers and their adherence increased when the MTBE flowed through the inner tubular semipermeable membrane. No biofilm was formed by Paenibacillus etheri SH7(T), nevertheless, the latter and strain MS2 exhibited the lowest toxicity after growth on the EMBFR. The results obtained from FESEM and toxicity analysis demonstrate that bacterial strains R. ruber EE6, A5, P. etheri SH7(T) and Agrobacterium sp. MS2 could be excellent candidates to be used as selective inocula in EMBFR technology for MTBE bioremediation.

  16. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of poly(lactic acid)/ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer nanocomposites (United States)

    Wacharawichanant, S.; Hoysang, P.; Ratchawong, S.


    This paper reports a melt blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBAC) with organoclay content at 3 phr. The mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of PLA/EBAC blends and nanocomposites were investigated. The morphological analysis revealed EBAC phase dispersed as a spherical domain in PLA matrix and the domain size of EBAC dispersed phase increased with increasing EBAC content. The addition of organoclay could improve the miscibility of PLA/EBAC blends due to the decrease of domain size of EBAC dispersed phase. The mechanical properties indicated that the strain at break and impact strength of PLA increased when added EBAC, but Young’s modulus and tensile strength decreased. Storage modulus increased with the addition of organoclay to the PLA/EBAC blends. The thermal properties found that the incorporation of organoclay in the PLA/EBAC blends did not effect on the glass transition temperature and melting temperature values relative to PLA. The degradation temperature of PLA improved with the addition of EBAC. This indicated that EBAC has more thermal stability and degradation temperature than PLA. From X-ray diffraction patterns displayed the characteristic peak in PLA/EBAC/organoclay nanocomposites appeared at the lower angle, which indicated the dispersed clay is intercalated in the polymer matrix. However, second-order diffraction peak appeared at the higher angle indicated that there was partially the conventional composite.

  17. [Effects of O-(4-ethoxyl-butyl)-berbamine on isolated frog hearts]. (United States)

    Zheng, G H; Chen, Z L; Jiang, J H


    To study the effects of O-(4-ethoxyl-butyl)-berbamine (EBB) on isolated frog heart. The isolated frog hearts were prepared with Straub's method; heart contractions were recorded using LMS-2A recorder by tonotransducer. EBB 1-100 mumol.L-1 caused concentration-dependent increase in systolic and diastolic activities, but did not alter the heart rate. EBB 250-500 mumol.L-1 slowed the heart beats and caused ventricular asystole. Cimetidine 10 mumol.L-1 or prazosin 100 mumol.L-1 did not inhibit the positive inotropic action of EBB. Whereas verapamil 0.01 mumol.L-1 antagonized the positive inotropic action of EBB. EBB enhanced positive inotropic action of CaCl2. The action of EBB was slower but longer than caffeine or isoproterenol. At room temperature (21.0 +/- 0.5) degree C, however, the onset of oubain was slower, but the duration of its peak action was longer, than EBB. The positive inotropic action of EBB was, at least partially, via promoting the inward current of [Ca2+]o, rather than increasing the intracellular Ca2+ release.

  18. Redox Regulation of the Tumor Suppressor PTEN by Hydrogen Peroxide and Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang


    Full Text Available Organic peroxides and hydroperoxides are skin tumor promoters. Free radical derivatives from these compounds are presumed to be the prominent mediators of tumor promotion. However, the molecular targets of these species are unknown. Phosphatase and tensin homologs deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN are tumor suppressors that play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, and cell survival by negative regulation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling. PTEN is reversibly oxidized in various cells by exogenous and endogenous hydrogen peroxide. Oxidized PTEN is converted back to the reduced form by cellular reducing agents, predominantly by the thioredoxin (Trx system. Here, the role of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP in redox regulation of PTEN was analyzed by using cell-based and in vitro assays. Exposure to t-BHP led to oxidation of recombinant PTEN. In contrast to H2O2, PTEN oxidation by t-BHP was irreversible in HeLa cells. However, oxidized PTEN was reduced by exogenous Trx system. Taken together, these results indicate that t-BHP induces PTEN oxidation and inhibits Trx system, which results in irreversible PTEN oxidation in HeLa cells. Collectively, these results suggest a novel mechanism of t-BHP in the promotion of tumorigenesis.

  19. Selective arterial embolization of 36 aneurysmal bone cysts of the skeleton with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Giuseppe [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Interventional Angiographic Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, Eugenio; Vanel, Daniel [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Bartalena, Tommaso [University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Gerardi, Antonio [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Anatomical Human Science and Physiopathology of the Musculoskeletal System, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, Marco [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Pathological Anatomy, Bologna (Italy); Staals, Eric Lodwijk; Errani, Costantino; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Toscano, Angelo; Mercuri, Mario [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, V Division of Musculoskeletal Tumors, Bologna (Italy)


    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a lytic benign bone lesion representing about 1% of all primary bone tumors. The lesion causes pain and swelling, which are generally present for less than 3 months. From April 2003 to April 2008 36 patients affected by aneurysmal bone cysts were treated by selective arterial embolization with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate. The study population comprised 20 male and 16 female patients with an age range of 3.3-60.8 years. Nine lesions were localized in the appendicular skeleton (1 in the upper and 8 in the lower limb), 4 in the thoracic cage (1 rib lesion and 3 scapular lesions), 17 in the pelvis and 6 in the spine (1 thoracic and 5 sacral localizations). A total of 55 embolizations were performed: in 22 cases (61%) only one embolization was needed, whilst two embolizations were necessary in 9 cases (25%) and 3 in the remaining 5 patients (14%). The treatment was effective in 32 patients (94%): follow-up was 0.9-5 years. In one patient, previously surgically treated, only the cyanoacrylate embolization turned out to be useful for healing the lesion. Another 7 patients underwent surgery during the study period. In the 55 procedures we performed we had 3 complications (5%): 2 cases of skin necrosis and 1 of transient paresis. Arterial embolization with cyanoacrylate may be the treatment of choice for aneurysmal bone cysts. Embolization is a less invasive, lower cost, simpler procedure than surgery and is easily repeatable. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hamidova


    Full Text Available Abstract Pressure-density-temperature (p, ρ ,T data of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide [BMIM][NTF2] at T = (273.15 to 413.15 K and pressures up to p =140 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of Δ ρ / ρ = ±(0.01 to 0.08% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, aqueous NaCl solution, methanol, toluene and acetone. An empirical equation of state for fitting the (p, ρ ,T data of [BMIM][NTF2] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature. This equation is used for the calculation of the thermophysical properties of the ionic liquid, such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, thermal pressure coefficient, internal pressure, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, speed of sound and isentropic expansibility.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid pathways from cisterns to ventricles in N-butyl cyanoacrylate-induced hydrocephalic rats. (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyuk; Park, Yong-Sook; Suk, Jong-Sik; Park, Seung-Won; Hwang, Sung-Nam; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Kim, Young-Baeg; Lee, Won-Bok


    Cerebrospinal fluid typically enters the subarachnoid space from the ventricles via the fourth ventricular foramina. However, there is clinical evidence that CSF also flows in the opposite direction. Ventricular reflux of CSF from a cistern is a well-known phenomenon in radioisotope studies in patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Additionally, the presence of ventricular blood in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently observed. The goal of this investigation was to examine the potential CSF pathways from cisterns to ventricles. The authors examined pathways in rat models in which they occluded the fourth ventricular outlets and injected a tracer into the subarachnoid space. The model for acute obstructive hydrocephalus was induced using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in 10 Sprague-Dawley rats. After 3 days, cationized ferritin was infused into the lumbar subarachnoid space to highlight retrograde CSF flow pathways. The animals were sacrificed at 48 hours, and the brains were prepared. The CSF flow pathway was traced by staining the ferritin with ferrocyanide. Ferritin was observed in the third ventricle in 7 of 8 rats with hydrocephalus and in the temporal horn of the lateral ventricles in 4 of 8 rats with hydrocephalus. There was no definite staining in the aqueduct, which suggests that the ventricular reflux originated from routes other than through the fourth ventricular outlets. The interfaces between the quadrigeminal cistern and third ventricle and those between the ambient cistern and lateral ventricle appear to be potential sites of CSF reflux from cisterns to ventricles in obstructive hydrocephalus.

  3. Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

  4. Acute toxicity and cancer risk assessment values for tert-butyl acetate. (United States)

    Budroe, John D; Brown, Joseph P; Salmon, Andrew G; Salsmon, Andrew G; Marty, Melanie A


    tert-Butyl acetate (TBAc) is an industrial chemical with potential uses as a degreaser and in architectural coatings. Limited chronic toxicity data exist for TBAc. However, acute inhalation exposure data are available for TBAc. Additionally, TBAc has been demonstrated to be substantially metabolized to tert-butanol (TBA) in rats, and a positive TBA genotoxicity study suggests that TBA may cause oxidative DNA damage. TBA has been shown to induce tumors in both rats and mice, and the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has calculated an oral cancer potency factor (CSF) for TBA of 3 x 10(-3)(mg/kg-day)(-1). Therefore, TBAc should be considered to pose a potential cancer risk to humans because of the metabolic conversion to TBA. An acute 1-h reference exposure level of 1 mg/m3 can be calculated from the extrapolated no observed adverse effect level of 50 mg/m3. A CSF of 0.002(mg/kg-day)(-1) can be derived for TBAc, assuming 100% metabolism of TBAc to TBA. An inhalation unit risk value for TBAc of 4 x 10(-7)(microg/m(3))(-1) can then be derived from the CSF value for TBAc by assuming a human breathing rate of 20 m3/day, 70% fractional absorption, and an average human body weight of 70 kg.

  5. Electrochemical Studies on Uranyl Chloride Complexes in 1-Butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Based Ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuhisa Ikeda; Katsuyuki Hiroe; Nobutaka Ohta; Masanobu Nogami; Atsushi Shirai [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-34 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Noriko Asanuma [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Tokai University 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)


    Sample solutions were prepared by dissolving UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}-nH{sub 2}O or Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} into 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (BMICl). Their UV-visible absorption spectra showed that uranyl species in BMICl exist as [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}. Cyclic voltammograms were measured using a glassy carbon working electrode, a platinum wire counter electrode, and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode with a liquid junction filled with BMIBF{sub 4} at 80 {+-} 1 deg. C in glove box under an Ar atmosphere. Peaks of one redox couple were observed at around -0.73 V and -0.65 V on both systems. Potential differences between two peaks ({delta}E{sub p}) at scan rates in the range of 10 to 50 mV/s are 70 - 80 mV, which are almost consistent with theoretical {delta}E{sub p} value (67 mV) for the reversible one electron transfer reaction at 80 deg. C. From these results, it is concluded that [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-} in BMICl is reduced quasi-reversibly to [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 3-}. (authors)

  6. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect (United States)

    Niculae, G.; Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.


    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions.

  7. Di (n-butyl) phthalate inhibits testosterone synthesis through a glucocorticoid-mediated pathway in rats. (United States)

    Xiao-feng, Zhang; Nai-qiang, Qu; Jing, Zheng; Zi, Li; Yang, Zhang


    The present study focused on investigating whether the inhibitory effect of di (n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) on testosterone (T) biosynthesis was mediated by the glucocorticoid (GC) pathway in prepubertal male rats and T production after the exposure to DBP ceased. Prepubertal male rats were administered DBP in corn oil orally at 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg daily for 30 days. Serum T and GC were measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The responses, including glucocorticoid receptor (GR), type I 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD1), and steroidogenesis acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the testes tissues, were determined by Western blotting and reverse transcriptase PCR. DBP exposure resulted in testicular toxicity, such as seminiferous tubule degeneration and a decrease in the number of spermatogenic cells. T was decreased and GC was increased in a DBP concentration-dependent manner in the exposure group. The expression of GR and 11beta-HSD1 was significantly increased, with an associated decrease in expression of StAR. Neither the expression of the GR nor 11beta-HSD1 and StAR were statistically significantly different in the postexposure group compared with the control. However, the weight and morphology of the testes did not recover in the postexposure group. These data suggest that DBP inhibits testosterone production through a GC-mediated pathway in prepubertal male rats, and after exposure to DBP ceases, testosterone biosynthesis returns.

  8. (RSS)-[N-Hydroxyethyloxy]-hexafluoroVal-MeLeu-Ala tert-butyl ester. (United States)

    Eberle, Marcel K; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Keese, Reinhart


    THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: (2S,5S,8R)-tert-butyl 8-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-yl)-12-hydroxy-5-isobutyl-2,6-dimethyl-4,7-dioxo-10-oxa-3,6,9-triazadodecanoate], C(21)H(36)F(6)N(3)O(6), is a tripeptide crystallizing in the chiral ortho-rhom-bic spacegroup P2(1)2(1)2(1). The absolute configuration (R) of the chiral center in the hexa-fluoro-valine unit is based on the known stereochemistry of MeLeu and Ala (SS). The N-hydroxy-ethyl-oxy substituent of hexa-fluoro-valine is positionally disordered [occupancy ratio 0.543 (9):0.457 (9)]. In the solid state structure there are N-H⋯F and N-H⋯O intra-molecular hydrogen bonds supporting the coiled structure of this tripeptide with the three hydro-phobic substituents on the outside.

  9. (GaIn)(NAs) growth using di-tertiary-butyl-arsano-amine (DTBAA) (United States)

    Sterzer, E.; Ringler, B.; Nattermann, L.; Beyer, A.; von Hänisch, C.; Stolz, W.; Volz, K.


    III/V semiconductors containing small amounts of Nitrogen (N) are very interesting for a variety of optoelectronic applications. Unfortunately, the conventionally used N precursor 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMHy) has an extremely low N incorporation efficiency in GaAs when grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Alloying Ga(NAs) with Indium (In) even leads to an exponential reduction of N incorporation. The huge amount of UDMHy in turn changes drastically the growth conditions. Furthermore, the application of this material is still hampered by the large carbon incorporation, most probably originating from the metal organic precursors. Hence, novel precursors for dilute nitride growth are needed. This paper will show (GaIn)(NAs) growth studies with the novel precursor di-tertiary-butyl-arsano-amine in combination with tri-ethyl-gallium and tri-methyl-indium. We show an extremely high N incorporation efficiency in the In containing (GaIn)(NAs). The (GaIn)(NAs) samples investigated in this study have been examined using high resolution X-Ray diffraction, room temperature photoluminescence and atomic force microscope measurements as well as secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  10. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jung, Ah Young; Lee, Whal; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Between March 1999 and December 2002, TAE for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed in 93 patients. The endoscopic approach had failed or was discarded as an approach for control of bleeding in all study patients. Among the 93 patients NBCA was used as the primary embolic material for TAE in 32 patients (28 men, four women; mean age, 59.1 years). The indications for choosing NBCA as the embolic material were: inability to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and effective wedging of the microcatheter into the bleeding artery. TAE was performed using 1:1 1:3 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. The angiographic and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The angiographic and clinical success rates were 100% and 91% (29/32), respectively. There were no serious ischemic complications. Recurrent bleeding occurred in three patients (9%) and they were managed with emergency surgery (n = 1) and with a successful second TAE (n = 2). Eighteen patients (56%) had a coagulopathy at the time of TAE and the clinical success rate in this group of patients was 83% (15/18). TAE with NBCA is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when it is not possible to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and when the patient has a coagulopathy.

  11. A study of butyl acetate synthesis 3. Analysing adsorption on catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño


    Full Text Available Reactive system (acetic acid-n-butanol-butyl acetate-water, in liquid phase, 0.76 Bar pressure adsorption on a cationic exchange resin (Bayer Lewatit K-2431 was studied in this work. Solid particle size distribution was verified and low dispersion was noticed with 86% of total mass between 20 and 30 mesh. The dried solid showed a bi- nodal distribution with 40% above 25 mesh and 45% between 25 and 45 mesh. Resin swelling assays were carried out on pure components and non-reactive binary mixtures and increased matrix volume was observed (2.2 to 3 times higher. Selective adsorption on the reactive system was observed in the sequence: water > n-butanol acid> acetate. Both ideal and non-ideal models were tested for calculating adsorption using a composite isotherm, demonstrating these models’ weakness in representing adsorption on ionic polymer matrices. Calorimetric characterisation assays were carried out on swelled catalyst and a change in solid structure caused by thermal treatment was recognised using infrared scanning.

  12. Artificial Neural Network Approach to Predict Biodiesel Production in Supercritical tert-Butyl Methyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obie Farobie


    Full Text Available In this study, for the first time artificial neural network was used to predict biodiesel yield in supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE. The experimental data of biodiesel yield conducted by varying four input factors (i.e. temperature, pressure, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio, and reaction time were used to elucidate artificial neural network model in order to predict biodiesel yield. The main goal of this study was to assess how accurately this artificial neural network model to predict biodiesel yield conducted under supercritical MTBE condition. The result shows that artificial neural network is a powerful tool for modeling and predicting biodiesel yield conducted under supercritical MTBE condition that was proven by a high value of coefficient of determination (R of 0.9969, 0.9899, and 0.9658 for training, validation, and testing, respectively. Using this approach, the highest biodiesel yield was determined of 0.93 mol/mol (corresponding to the actual biodiesel yield of 0.94 mol/mol that was achieved at 400 °C, under the reactor pressure of 10 MPa, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio of 1:40 within 15 min of reaction time.

  13. Bioremediation of endocrine disruptor di-n-butyl phthalate ester by Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas stutzeri. (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Chen, Lung-Chieh; Chen, Bing-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Hsien


    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a group of phthalate esters (PAEs) that are widely used in cosmetics, perfumes, and plasticizers. Due to its high production and application figures, DBP is commonly found in wastewater, sewage sludge, and aquatic environments. It has been classified as suspected endocrine disruptors by most countries. In this study, we isolated two DBP degradable strains from activated sludge. The strains were identified with their 16S rRNA as Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas stutzeri. We constructed the optimal condition of DBP degradation by using different kinds of incubation factors such as temperature, initial pH, yeast extract and surfactants. The optimal conditions of DBP degradation for these two strains are: 30 degrees C, pH 7.5 and static culture. Besides, addition of 0.23 mM of Triton X-100 could enhance the DBP degradation for D. radiodurans. In the end, we amended these two strains into the origin activated sludge and analyzed the whole microbial community structure of mixed cultures by PCR-DGGE technique. The result showed that only D. radiodurans could survive in the activated sludge after 7d of incubation. Based on this work, we hope that these findings could provide some useful information for applying the bioremediation of DBP in our environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrochemistry of TiF{sub 4} in 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriyko, Yuriy, E-mail: yuriy.andriyko@cest.a [Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology (CEST), Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Andriiko, Alexander [National Technical University of Ukraine ' Kyiv Polytechnic Institute' , Prospect Peremogy 37, 03057 Kyiv (Ukraine); Babushkina, Olga B. [Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology (CEST), Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Nauer, Gerhard E. [Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology (CEST), Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Vienna University, Faculty of Chemistry, Waehringer Strasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria)


    Electrochemical behaviour of Ti(IV) species in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMMImBF{sub 4}) was studied by means of chronopotentiometry (CP) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in melts with different concentrations of TiF{sub 4} (2-35 mol%) within a temperature range of 65-180 deg. C. The electrochemical reduction of Ti(IV) was suggested to proceed via the sequence of one-electron steps with the formation of poorly soluble low valence intermediates (LVI). LVIs undergo further solid-state electrochemical reduction to Ti metal. Thin Ti coatings on a Pt substrate were thus obtained and characterized by ESEM method. FTIR spectroscopy was used for identification of the electrochemical active species of Ti(IV). The reaction 2BF{sub 4}{sup -} + TiF{sub 4} reversible TiF{sub 6}{sup 2-} + 2BF{sub 3}arrow up takes place in the concentrated solutions of TiF{sub 4} at elevated temperatures.

  15. Ginger attenuated di (n-butyl phthalate-induced reproductive toxicity in pubertal male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Oda


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of di (n-butyl phthalate (DBP on reproductive functions in male rabbits and the probable protective role of ginger. Twenty rabbits were divided equally into 4 groups: control group; DBP group (520 mg/kg body weight [BW] DBP orally, DBP+ginger group (520 mg/kg BW DBP and 400 mg/kg BW ginger and ginger group (400 mg/kg BW ginger orally. Treatments were given three-times/week. After 7 wk of the experiment, DBP induced significant reduction in testis and prostate weights, serum and intratesticular testosterone concentrations, sperm counts both mass and progressive sperm motility and live sperms percentage as well as significant elevation of testicular malondialdehyde compared to control group. No significant changes were detected in epididymal weights, serum FSH and serum LH concentrations and testicular total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in all treated groups. DBP induced considerable histopathological alterations in testis and to minimal extent in epididymis and prostates. Ginger treatment attenuated the significant changes to a certain extent induced by DBP intoxication in male rabbits probably due to its potential to scavenge free radicals.

  16. Adsorption of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether on Granular Zeolites: Batch and Column Studies (United States)

    Abu-Lail, Laila; Bergendahl, John A.; Thompson, Robert W.


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be readily removed from water with powdered zeolites, but the passage of water through fixed beds of very small powdered zeolites produces high friction losses not encountered in flow through larger sized granular materials. In this study, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of MTBE onto granular zeolites, a coconut shell granular activated carbon (CS-1240), and a commercial carbon adsorbent (CCA) sample was evaluated. In addition, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on MTBE adsorption was evaluated. Batch adsorption experiments determined that ZSM-5 was the most effective granular zeolite for MTBE adsorption. Further equilibrium and kinetic experiments verified that granular ZSM-5 is superior to CS-1240 and CCA in removing MTBE from water. No competitive-adsorption effects between NOM and MTBE were observed for adsorption to granular ZSM-5 or CS-1240, however there was competition between NOM and MTBE for adsorption onto the CCA granules. Fixed-bed adsorption experiments for longer run times were performed using granular ZSM-5. The bed depth service time model (BDST) was used to analyze the breakthrough data. PMID:20153106

  17. Cometabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether by a new microbial consortium ERS. (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Li, Danni; Yan, Wei


    The release of methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) into the environment has increased the worldwide concern about the pollution of MTBE. In this paper, a microbial consortium was isolated from the soil sample near an oil station, which can degrade MTBE directly with a low biomass yield and MTBE degrading efficiency. Further research has indicated that this consortium can degrade MTBE efficiently when grown on n-octane as the cometabolic substrate. The results of 16S rDNA based on phylogenetic analysis of the selected operating taxonomic units (OTUs) involved in the consortium revealed that one OTU was related to Pseudomonas putida GPo1, which could cometabolically degrade MTBE on the growth of n-octane. This may help explain why n-octane could be the optimal cometabolic substrate of the consortium for MTBE degradation. Furthermore, the degradation of MTBE was observed along with the consumption of n-octane. Different K s values for MTBE were observed for cells grown with or without n-octane, suggesting that different enzymes are responsible for the oxidation of MTBE in cells grown on n-octane or MTBE. The results are discussed in terms of their impacts on our understanding of MTBE biodegradation and cometabolism.

  18. Studying the Kinetics of n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Tissue Adhesive and Its Oily Mixtures (United States)

    Nedvedova, Marie; Kresalek, Vojtech; Vaskova, Hana; Provaznik, Ivo


    This study deals with the measurement of the kinetics of tissue adhesives used for supporting the hemostasis and wound closure during surgical intervention. There are available several types of adhesives of different composition which is closely related with their application. When selecting an appropriate adhesive, the time of curing could play an important role because some applications may require very fast polymerization for prompt vessel or wound closure; conversely, some situations need slower solidification because of longer manipulation with the glue during surgery. The terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is used for studying the kinetics of the n-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue in this study. An oily substance is added to the glue samples to slow the reaction rate. The technique of attenuated total reflection is used in this application; the defined amount of glue sample or its mixture is applied on the silicon crystal and the terahertz response is measured in time. This time dependences are analyzed to find time constants for mathematical description of the glue kinetics. Further, the investigated samples were analyzed using light microscopy and Raman spectroscopy for description of the structures and compositions.

  19. Esterification for butyl butyrate formation using Candida cylindracea lipase produced from palm oil mill effluent supplemented medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Salihu


    Full Text Available The ability of Candida cylindracea lipase produced using palm oil mill effluent (POME as a basal medium to catalyze the esterification reaction for butyl butyrate formation was investigated. Butyric acid and n-butanol were used as substrates at different molar ratios. Different conversion yields were observed according to the affinity of the produced lipase toward the substrates. The n-butanol to butyric acid molar ratio of 8 and lipase concentration of 75 U/mg gave the highest butyl butyrate formation of 63.33% based on the statistical optimization using face centered central composite design (FCCCD after 12 h reaction. The esterification potential of the POME based lipase when compared with the commercial lipase from the same strain using the optimum levels was found to show a similar pattern. It can be concluded therefore that the produced lipase possesses appropriate characteristics to be used as a biocatalyst in the esterification reactions for butyl butyrate formation.

  20. Structure and properties of oil palm-based nanocellulose reinforced chitosan nanocomposite for efficient synthesis of butyl butyrate. (United States)

    Elias, Nursyafiqah; Chandren, Sheela; Attan, Nursyafreena; Mahat, Naji Arafat; Razak, Fazira Ilyana Abdul; Jamalis, Joazaizulfazli; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul


    In this study, nanocellulose (NC) was successfully extracted from oil palm frond leaves (OPFL) using a combination of bleaching, alkaline treatment and acid hydrolysis. X-ray diffractogram revealed the extracted NC was crystalline with a crystallinity index of 70.2%. This indicates its suitability as nano-fillers for preparing the chitosan/nanocellulose (CS-NC) supports to immobilize Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) to produce the CRL/CS-NC biocatalysts. FTIR, FESEM and TGA characterizations of the CRL/CS-NC confirm the CRLs were successfully conjugated to the CS-NC supports. The air-dried CS-NC supports gave satisfactory immobilization of the CRLs (5.2mg/g) with the resultant CRL/CS-NCs catalysed conversions of ≥80% of butyl butyrate within 6h. Time course reaction profile revealed that 76.3% butyl butyrate conversion was achieved at 4h immobilization time using 3mg/mL of CRL/CS-NCs. NMR analyses on the purified butyl butyrate confirmed that the ester was successfully synthesized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol advertising and youth. (United States)

    Saffer, Henry


    The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with

  2. Alcohol's Effects on the Body (United States)

    ... Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a single occasion or ... your health. Here’s how alcohol can affect your body: Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, ...

  3. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes. (United States)


    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  4. FastStats: Alcohol Use (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 19,388 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 30,722 ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) (United States)

    ... alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) a routine element of health care in all primary care settings. ... Materials & Multimedia Fact Sheets & Brochures Posters & Print Ads Infographics 5 Steps for Alcohol Screening and Counseling Alcohol ...

  6. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    necessitating the need for analysis. A collation of literature illus- trates the presence of alcoholic beverages obtained from several ingredients including melons,2 oranges,3 mango,4 agave plants.5,6. Analyses of some unrecorded alcohols from India, Mexico,. Russia, Tanzania, Zambia,7 Nigeria, Lithuania, Hungary, Guate-.

  7. Antidepressants and Alcohol (United States)

    ... If you have depression: You may be at risk of alcohol abuse. People with depression are at increased risk ... Anonymous may help. If you're at low risk of addiction to alcohol, it may be OK to have an occasional ...

  8. Colby Alcohol Reports. (United States)

    Seitzinger, Janice

    Due to a variety of internal and external events the Student Affairs Committee of Colby College (Maine) studied alcohol use on campus and recommended solutions in two major areas, educational and social. Five educational strategies were recommended: (1) development of clear policies regarding alcohol and other drugs; (2) enforcement of…

  9. Molecular basis of alcoholism. (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron


    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  11. Do chimpanzees like alcohol?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Maria Thomsen


    Full Text Available In the last common ancestor of modern humans and the three living African ape species a genetic mutation occurred that increased the rate that alcohol was metabolized. This fact initially supports the "drunken monkey hypothesis" which states that natural selection should have favoured individuals that routinely incorporated alcohol- and thus energy-rich fruits into their diet. However, random observations from apes living in the wild do not provide evidence for such kind of choosey feeding behaviours. To investigate whether or not the living great apes have evolved a preference of alcohol-rich fruits over normal ripe fruits we performed a bioassay with captive chimpanzees offering them apple puree with and without rum flavour. Initially, the chimpanzees were curious about the alcohol-flavoured apple puree and feed on it when it was presented to them for the very first time. Once tasted, however, they lost interest in it indicating that chimpanzees are able to perceive, but do not prefer alcohol-rich fruits more than non-alcoholic fruits. Thus, we think that for our hominoid ancestors from the late Miocene the possibility to consume alcohol-rich fruits was helpful to survive periods of food scarcity, but did not lead to a genetic predisposition for alcohol.

  12. Pellagra In An Alcoholic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan


    Full Text Available Pellagra is a nutritional disorder that occurs due to niacin deficiency. In the present day context, in western world, pellagra is confined to individuals who have improper food intake, such as psychiatry patients, alcoholics and recluses. Here with we report a case of pellagra occurring in a 60 year old male who was a chronic alcoholic.

  13. Alcohol Locus of Control. (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick B.; Reszka, Diane

    Research has shown that differences in perceived control can influence drinking behavior and alcoholic rehabilitation. This study examined the viability of an alcohol-specific locus of control scale. Undergraduate students (41 male and 40 female) completed a demographic questionnaire assessing age, sex, ethnicity, and drinking frequency; Rotter's…

  14. Neurologic complications of alcoholism. (United States)

    Noble, James M; Weimer, Louis H


    This review serves as an overview of neurologic conditions associated with alcohol abuse or withdrawal, including epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnostic approach, and treatment. Frequent alcohol abuse and frank alcoholism are very common among adults in the United States. Although rates decline with each decade, as many as 10% of the elderly drink excessively. Given the ubiquitous nature of alcoholism in society, its complications have been clinically recognized for generations, with recent advances focusing on improved understanding of ethanol's biochemical targets and the pathophysiology of its complications. The chronic effects of alcohol abuse are myriad and include neurologic complications through both direct and indirect effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems. These disorders include several encephalopathic states related to alcohol intoxication, withdrawal, and related nutritional deficiencies; acute and chronic toxic and nutritional peripheral neuropathies; and myopathy. Although prevention of alcoholism and its neurologic complications is the optimal strategy, this article reviews the specific treatment algorithms for alcohol withdrawal and its related nutritional deficiency states.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (United States)

    ... the amount, frequency and the timing of the consumption of alcohol by the mother during pregnancy. The first three months of pregnancy is the time in which vital organs like the heart and the kidney are developing. Drinking alcoholic beverages in that time period can be especially ...

  16. Smith Alcohol Knowledge Test. (United States)

    Smith, Berneda C.

    High school students' knowledge of alcohol and its use is measured by a test composed of 76 five option multiple choice items. Areas covered include definition of terms, physical effects, psychological effects, the disease concept of alcoholism, treatment and prevention, socio-economic factors, and safety factors. Mean scores by age and sex for a…

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  18. Adolescents' Perceptions of Alcohol (United States)

    Roy, Amit; Ikonen, Risto; Keinonen, Tuula; Kumar, Kuldeep


    Purpose: Rising trends in alcohol consumption and early drinking initiation pose serious health risks especially for adolescents. Learner's prior knowledge about alcohol gained from the social surroundings and the media are important sources that can impact the learning outcomes in health education. The purpose of this paper is to map adolescents'…

  19. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder. (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael


    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  20. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim


    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  1. [Endovascular treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformation with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Working methods and experience in 58 cases]. (United States)

    Jordan González, José A; Llibre Guerra, Juan Carlos; Prince López, José A; Vázquez Luna, Frank; Rodríguez Ramos, Raúl Marino; Ugarte Suarez, José Carlos


    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) constitute malformative lesions of the central nervous system vasculature and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Endovascular embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate is a well established modality of AVM treatment, usually combined with surgery or radiosurgery. The purpose of this study was to characterise the AVMs that were treated endovascularly with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and to evaluate the post-embolization results in the Cuban population. From February 2006 to February 2011, a group of 58 consecutive patients with brain AVMs were embolized using n-butyl cyanoacrylate in the endovascular therapy unit of the Medical Surgical Research Centre in Havana (Cuba). In all, 91sessions were carried out with intranidal embolization and mainly partial devascularization, 25-30% per session, and closing 123 arterial pedicles. Safety times for n-butyl cyanoacrylate injection were established by calculating the polymerisation times for different dilutions, using post-embolisation hypotension systematically, as well as a superselective test with propofol to determine cerebral eloquence. Haemorrhagic signs were the initial presentation in 68.8% of the patients, 24.1% presented with epileptic episodes and 1.7% with ischemic stroke. Of the AVMs, 93.2% were supratentorial; according to the Spetzler and Martin classification, 13.8% were grade II, 56.9% were grade III, 22.4% were grade IV and 6.8%, grade V. One hundred and twenty-eight selective tests with propofol were performed and 118 (92.2%) of those were negative. Partial devascularization (20-30%) prevailed; complete obliteration was achieved in 17.2% of the patients and 70%-99% in 27.5% of the patients. Safety times for n-butyl cyanoacrylate injection were established and the use of post-procedure hypotension was settled. Morbidity of 17.2%, with 6.9% haemorrhagic complications and mortality of 3.4% were registered in the whole series. The rates of total occlusion and of morbidity and

  2. [Baclofen for alcohol addiction]. (United States)

    Helland, Arne; Bramness, Jørgen G


    Baclofen is approved for muscle spasms and cerebral spasticity. Several studies have recently investigated the use of baclofen for alcohol withdrawal symptoms and as an abstinence-promoting agent in alcohol-dependent subjects. The evidence is too weak to recommend baclofen for alcohol withdrawal, and drugs with better documentation such as benzodiazepines and carbamazepine should be preferred for this indication. The evidence for the use of baclofen to prevent relapse to drinking in alcohol dependence is somewhat conflicting, but the drug could be considered as a therapeutic option in case of conservative measures and approved drugs such as disulfiram and acamprosate having insufficient effect. Despite enthusiastic appraisal in case reports, the use of baclofen in high doses to suppress alcohol craving cannot be recommended due to insufficient evidence. Trials that may resolve this issue are underway.

  3. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn


    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......,, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  4. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas


    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  5. Struggling with alcoholism. (United States)

    Ferrell, Donald R


    Written conjointly by a psychoanalyst and his patient, this article was inspired by a poem and commentary written in the course of his analysis by a patient who was dealing with profound loss and the struggle to remain sober in the face of that loss. The article explores the influence of Swiss psychiatrist C. G. Jung upon Bill Wilson, co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, especially the discovery of both men that alcoholism is best treated by helping the alcoholic accept the helplessness and hopelessness that his/her addiction to alcohol generates and in developing a spiritual life based on a deep encounter with the numinous/divine and the ego's surrender to this Higher Power. The patient author, consistent with his commitment to the healing community of Alcoholics Anonymous and its principles and practices, will remain anonymous.

  6. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes Of...

  7. Molecular structures of tris(1-tert-butyl-2-mercaptoimidazolyl)hydroborate complexes of titanium, zirconium and hafnium. (United States)

    Rong, Yi; Sambade, David; Parkin, Gerard


    Cyclopentadienyl and tris(pyrazolyl)hydroborate have found much use as supporting ligands in the chemistry of titanium, zirconium and hafnium, especially with respect to applications involving olefin polymerization catalysis. In contrast, closely related tris(1-alkyl-2-mercaptoimidazolyl)hydroborate, [Tm(R)], ligands have so far found little application to the chemistry of these elements, despite the fact that such ligands are currently used extensively in coordination chemistry. In view of the fact that a substituent in the 2-position exerts a direct influence on the steric environment of the metal center, we report here the application of the sterically demanding tris(1-tert-butyl-2-mercaptoimidazolyl)hydroborate [Tm(t-Bu)] ligand to these metals. Dichlorido(η(5)-cyclopentadienyl)[tris(1-tert-butyl-2-sulfanylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-yl)borato-κ(3)S,S',H]zirconium(IV) benzene hemisolvate, [Zr(C21H34BN6S3)(C5H5)Cl2]·0.5C6H6, (I), dichlorido(η(5)-cyclopentadienyl)[tris(1-tert-butyl-2-sulfanylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-yl)borato-κ(3)S,S',H]titanium(IV) benzene hemisolvate, [Ti(C21H34BN6S3)(C5H5)Cl2]·0.5C6H6, (II), [bis(1-tert-butyl-2-sulfanylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-yl)borato-κ(3)S,S',H]dichlorido(η(5)-cyclopentadienyl)zirconium(IV), [Zr(C14H24BN4S2)(C5H5)Cl2], (III), (1-tert-butyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazole-2-thione-κS)(1-tert-butyl-2-sulfanylidene-1H-imidazol-3-ido-κ(2)N(3),S)dichlorido(η(5)-cyclopentadienyl)zirconium(IV) benzene monosolvate, [Zr(C7H11N2S)(C7H12N2S)(C5H5)Cl2]·C6H6, (IV), and tribenzyl[tris(1-tert-butyl-2-sulfanylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-yl)borato-κ(3)S,S',S'']hafnium(IV) benzene tetrasolvate, [Hf(C7H7)3(C21H34BN6S3)]·4C6H6, (V), have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. The [Tm(t-Bu)] ligand coordinates to Ti and Zr in Cp[κ(3)S2,H-Tm(t-Bu)]MCl2 [M = Zr, (I), and Ti, (II)] in a κ(3)S2,H mode, while the benzyl compounds [Tm(t-Bu)]M(CH2Ph)3 [M = Zr and Hf, (V)] exhibit κ(3)S3 coordination.

  8. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression


    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M.; Leonard, Kenneth E.


    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  9. Avaliação das condições reacionais para a síntese enzimática do butirato de butila empregando lipase de Candida rugosa Evaluation of the reaction conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of the butyl butyrate using lipase from Candida rugosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Maciel Gomes


    Full Text Available Lipase de Candida rugosa na forma livre foi usada na síntese de butirato de butila pela esterificação direta de n-butanolcom ácido butírico. Um planejamento fatorial completo 2(4 foi empregado para determinar a influência da razão molar do álcool para ácido (1: 0,5-2,5, concentração de agente dessecante (0-20%, concentração de enzima (40-80 mg e temperatura de incubação (30-60 °C no rendimento de esterificação. A concentração de agente dessecante foi o fator mais significativo na esterificação, sendo sua influência negativa. O progresso da esterificação foi favorecido para substratos contendo ácido em excesso, mesmo em baixa concentrações de enzima (40 mg, sendo a conversão de 50%. Na região avaliada, a formação do butirato de butila (26,67 g/L foi maximizada para razão molar (1:2,5, ausência de agente dessecante, concentração de enzima (80 mg e temperatura de incubação de 30 °C.Free lipase from Candida rugosa was used for the synthesis of butyl butyrate by direct esterification of butyric acid and butyl alcohol. A full factorial experimental design (2(4 was employed to determine the effect of alcohol to acid ratio (1: 0.5-2.5, water adsorbent concentration (0-20%, enzyme concentration (40-80 mg and incubation temperature (30-60 °C on the esterification yield. Water adsorbent concentration has been found to be the most significant factor on the esterification reaction and its influence was negative. The extent of esterification was higher for substrates containing acid in excess even with a low enzyme concentration of 40 mg and 50% conversion was observed. The maximum predicted values for butyl butyrate yield (92.67% can be attained with substrate containing acid in excess (molar ratio alcohol to acid 1:2.5, 80 mg enzyme concentration in the absence of water adsorbent at temperature incubation of 30 °C.

  10. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming. (United States)

    Davidson, Stephen D; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong


    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  11. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation. (United States)

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.


    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  12. Alcohol tax changes and the use of alcohol in Europe. (United States)

    Österberg, Esa L


    Different motives in determining the level and structure of alcohol taxes lead to greatly varying alcohol excise duty levels. The aim of this paper is to look at alcohol excise duty rates in European Union (EU) and the mechanisms affecting them. Also the trends in alcohol prices and alcohol consumption will be discussed. Material concerning alcohol taxes and consumption comes from available statistics and published literature. This paper shows that despite many attempts the EU has not been able to harmonise alcohol excise duty rates in its member states. The importance of alcohol taxes as an alcohol control measure has decreased as the real value of alcohol excise duty rates has decreased in most EU countries during the last decades. In most European countries the share of alcohol taxes of the price of alcoholic beverages is quite low. Therefore, increasing alcohol excise duty rates would in most countries lead to increased alcohol tax revenues to the public sector. Consequently, increasing alcohol excise duty rates would serve both the fiscal and the health and social policy interests of the state. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs. (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  14. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.


    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol degrad...

  15. Ethyl[tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methylpyrazol-1-yl)hydridoborato]zinc(II). (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Papish, Elizabeth T; Zeller, Matthias


    The X-ray crystal structure of the title compound, [Zn(C(2)H(5))(C(24)H(40)BN(6))], or Tp(tBu,Me)ZnEt [Tp(tBu,Me) is tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methylpyrazolyl)hydridoborate], reveals a distorted tetrahedral geometry around the Zn atom. The Zn center is coordinated by three N atoms of the borate ligand and by one C atom of the ethyl group. The present structure and other tetrahedral Tp zinc alkyl complexes are compared with similar Ttz ligands (Ttz is 1,2,4-triazolylborate), but no major differences in the structures are noted, and it can be assumed that variation of the substitution pattern of Tp or Ttz ligands has little or no influence on the geometry of alkylzinc complexes. Refinement of the structure is complicated by a combination of metric pseudosymmetry and twinning. The metrics of the structure could also be represented in a double-volume C-centered orthorhombic unit cell, and the structure is twinned by one of the orthorhombic symmetry operators not present in the actual structure. The twinning lies on the borderline between pseudomerohedral and nonmerohedral. The data were refined as being nonmerohedrally twinned, pseudomerohedrally twinned and untwinned. None of the approaches yielded results that were unambiguously better than any of the others: the best fit between structural model and data was observed using the nonmerohedral approach which also yielded the best structure quality indicators, but the data set is less than 80% complete due to rejected data. The pseudomerohedral and the untwinned structures are complete, but relatively large residual electron densities that are not close to the metal center are found with values up to three times higher than in the nonmerohedral approach.

  16. Aqueous Solutions of the Ionic Liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride Denature Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL


    As we advance our understanding, ionic liquids (ILs) are finding ever broader scope within the chemical sciences including, most recently, pharmaceutical, enzymatic, and bioanalytical applications. With examples of enzymatic activity reported in both neat ILs and in IL/water mixtures, enzymes are frequently assumed to adopt a quasi-native conformation, even if little work has been carried out to date toward characterizing the conformation, dynamics, active-site perturbation, cooperativity of unfolding transitions, free energy of stabilization, or aggregation/oligomerization state of enzymes in the presence of an IL solvent component. In this study, human serum albumin and equine heart cytochrome c were characterized in aqueous solutions of the fully water-miscible IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering. At [bmim]Cl concentrations up to 25 vol.%, these two proteins were found to largely retain their higher-order structures whereas both proteins become highly denatured at the highest IL concentration studied here (i.e., 50 vol.% [bmim]Cl). The response of these proteins to [bmim]Cl is analogous to their behavior in the widely studied denaturants guanidine hydrochloride and urea which similarly lead to random coil conformations at excessive molar concentrations. Interestingly, human serum albumin dimerizes in response to [bmim]Cl, whereas cytochrome c remains predominantly in monomeric form. These results have important implications for enzymatic studies in aqueous IL media, as they suggest a facile pathway through which biocatalytic activity can be altered in these nascent and potentially green electrolyte systems.

  17. Adsorption of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from aqueous solution by porous polymeric adsorbents. (United States)

    Ji, Biyan; Shao, Fei; Hu, Guanjiu; Zheng, Shourong; Zhang, Qingmei; Xu, Zhaoyi


    MTBE has emerged as an important water pollutant because of its high mobility, persistence, and toxicity. In this study, a postcrosslinked polymeric adsorbent was prepared by postcrosslinking of a commercial chloromethylated polymer, and a nonpolar porous polymer with comparable surface area and micropore volume to the postcrosslinked polymer was prepared by suspended polymerization. The postcrosslinked polymer, nonpolar porous polymer and chloromethylated polymer were characterized by N2 adsorption, FTIR and XPS analysis. Results showed that postcrosslinking reaction led to the generation of a microporous postcrosslinked polymer with BET surface area 782m2g(-1), average pore width 3.0nm and micropore volume 0.33cm3g(-1). FTIR and XPS analysis indicated the formation of surface oxygen-containing groups on the postcrosslinked polymer. The three polymers were used as adsorbents to remove aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Adsorption of MTBE over the postcrosslinked polymeric adsorbent was found to follow the linear adsorption isotherm, whereas MTBE adsorption onto the nonpolar porous polymer and chloromethylated polymer followed Langmuir adsorption model. Comparison of adsorption capacities of the postcrosslinked polymer, chloromethylated polymer and nonpolar porous polymer revealed that the adsorption of MTBE from aqueous solution is dependent on both pore structure and surface chemistry of polymeric adsorbents, and the high adsorption efficiency of the postcrosslinked polymer towards MTBE is attributed to its high surface area, large micropore volume and moderate hydrophility. The process of MTBE adsorption onto the adsorbents can be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the rate of adsorption decreased at higher MTBE initial concentration.

  18. The effects of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the male rat reproductive system. (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Yuan, Chuntao; Gong, Yi; Huang, Yufeng; Han, Xiaodong


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is an oxygenated compound, which has been widely used in Asia, Europe and North America. Although numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity and the toxicity of MTBE, there is still a lack of data on reproductive system exposure of MTBE in male rodent animals. We studied subacute exposure of MTBE on the reproductive systems of male Sprague-Dawley rats. MTBE was administered to rats at dose levels of 0, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg/day. After 2 or 4 weeks of treatments, the rats were euthanized, and their serum, epididymis and testes were collected. Significant adverse effects in their reproductive system were observed including: a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm; an irregular and disordered arrangement of the seminiferous epithelium indicated by a histopathological examination; changed serum levels of testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); and decreased levels of mRNA and of androgen binding protein (ABP). In the oxidative stress study, results indicated an increased maleic dialdehyde (MDA) content, implying a raised peroxide level, and that the total antioxidant ability in serum was significantly increased. This finding was especially strong at 1600 mg/kg/day MTBE. In the 2-week treatment, at 1600 mg/kg/day, the mRNA level of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosidase (OGG1) was significantly decreased, and the mRNA level of the extra-cellular form of superoxide dismutase (SOD(EX)) was significantly increased. Our experiments suggest that relatively high doses of MTBE can exert reproductive system toxicity of male rats and disturb the secretions of T, LH and FSH, possibly due to oxidative stress induced by MTBE.

  19. A comparative electrographic analysis of the effect of sec-butyl-propylacetamide on pharmacoresistant status epilepticus. (United States)

    Pouliot, W; Bialer, M; Hen, N; Shekh-Ahmad, T; Kaufmann, D; Yagen, B; Ricks, K; Roach, B; Nelson, C; Dudek, F E


    Better treatment of status epilepticus (SE), which typically becomes refractory after about 30 min, will require new pharmacotherapies. The effect of sec-butyl-propylacetamide (SPD), an amide derivative of valproic acid (VPA), on electrographic status epilepticus (ESE) was compared quantitatively to other standard-of-care compounds. Cortical electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from rats during ESE induced with lithium-pilocarpine. Using a previously-published algorithm, the effects of SPD on ESE were compared quantitatively to other relevant compounds. To confirm benzodiazepine resistance, diazepam (DZP) was shown to suppress ESE when administered 15 min after the first motor seizure, but not after 30 min (100mg/kg). VPA (300 mg/kg) also lacked efficacy at 30 min. SPD (130 mg/kg) strongly suppressed ESE at 30 min, less after 45 min, and not at 60 min. At a higher dose (180 mg/kg), SPD profoundly suppressed ESE at 60 min, similar to propofol (100mg/kg) and pentobarbital (30 mg/kg). After 4-6h of SPD-induced suppression, EEG activity often overshot control levels at 7-12h. Valnoctamide (VCD, 180 mg/kg), an SPD homolog, was also efficacious at 30 min. SPD blocks pilocarpine-induced electrographic seizures when administered at 1h after the first motor seizure. SPD has a faster onset and greater efficacy than DZP and VPA, and is similar to propofol and pentobarbital. SPD and structurally similar compounds may be useful for the treatment of refractory ESE. Further development and use of automated analyses of ESE may facilitate drug discovery for refractory SE. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcoholism and occupation. (United States)

    Olkinuora, M


    Occupational roles are a dominant force in many aspects of social life. Occupation signifies a complex of social and psychological factors that reflect intelligence, education, personality, ambition, social status, and life-style. The consumption of alcohol and alcoholism have many correlations with occupational roles. Mortality from cirrhosis of the liver reflects the per capita consumption of alcohol. In certain occupations such mortality rates are clearly above average. The highest risk is found in occupations associated with the serving of food and beverages. A Finnish study has shown that the alcohol-related use of health services among males is the highest among unskilled workers, painters, seamen, and construction workers and the lowest among executives and farmers. Many population studies have shown that blue-collar workers and laborers have the highest level of drinking. This pattern is not necessarily true among females. The risk factors associated with occupation include the availability of alcohol at work, social pressure to drink on the job, separation from normal social relationships, and freedom from supervision. The opportunity to obtain alcoholic beverages relatively inexpensively, when combined with social pressure by peers to drink heavily, is an especially powerful explanation for high rates of alcoholism within an occupation.

  1. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani


    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  2. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane


    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... and alcohol consumption (volume of drinking and risky single occasion drinking). Conclusions: This study found some support for an association between closer distances between place of residence and alcohol outlets and alcohol related harm for women. Future studies in the Nordic region should continue...

  3. Alcohol and ageing. (United States)

    Sander, Ruth


    Older adults are sensitive to the effects of alcohol as a consequence of physiological changes associated with ageing, a high prevalence of diseases and concomitant use of multiple drugs. This study investigated the medicinal use of alcohol by individuals aged 65 years and over. The most commonly mentioned conditions were cardiovascular disease, sleep disturbances, common cold and indigestion. The amount taken was usually small but the authors say its use was associated with forgetting to take medicines, interactions with prescribed medicines and increased risks of falls and fractures. Older adults should be educated about alcohol consumption and use of medication.

  4. [Alcoholism in women]. (United States)

    Davies-Osterkamp, S


    The present survey of empirical studies of female alcholism considers firstly questions concerning the prevalence of female alcoholism. Empirical findings on the psychopathology, the development and course of female alcoholism, partner relationships and problems in female identification of these patients are described and discussed with regard to their informative value. It is shown that most of the present empirical results contribute little to a more refined understanding of female alcoholism and that they also have little relevance to the development of special therapeutic approaches. Finally basic reasons for this state of affairs are discussed together with suggestions for further research.

  5. Synthèse catalytique de lévulinates de butyle à partir de biomasse en présence d’alcools ou d’oléfines


    Demolis, Alexandre


    The objective of this work was to study in details the catalytic synthesis of butyl levulinates from biomass, first by using butanol isomers, then butene isomers as esterifying agents. Usually obtained by esterification of levulinic acid, levulinic esters including butyl levulinates possess physical and chemical properties making them potential fuel additives, platform molecules, solvents or additives for the food or pharmaceutical industry. By selectively converting cellulose into butyl levu...

  6. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica


    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  7. Episodic Alcohol Consumption by Youths


    Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich


    AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy 

  8. Episodic Alcohol Consumption by Youths


    Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich


    AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy 

  9. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides. (United States)

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  10. Caffeinated alcohol use and expectancies for caffeine versus alcohol. (United States)

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N


    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use is related to alcohol-related risk. Limited research has examined outcome expectancies and CAB consumption. This study tested the predictive utility of caffeine and alcohol expectancies in CAB use outcomes (i.e. quantity, frequency, and alcohol-related harms). Participants were 419 (302 women) alcohol and caffeine users from a mid-sized urban university. Data collection occurred between August 2010 and December 2011. Participants completed measures of caffeine and alcohol expectancies, alcohol problems, alcohol use, and CAB use. Caffeine and alcohol expectancies contributed uniquely to approximately 12% of the variability in quantity, 8% in frequency, and 16% in problems. When examined separately, alcohol expectancies explained approximately 10% to 11% of the variance, whereas caffeine expectancies accounted for 6% of the variance in CAB use quantity. For CAB use frequency, alcohol and caffeine expectancies accounted for about 8% and 4%, respectively. Alcohol expectancies accounted for 12% to 14% of variance, whereas caffeine expectancies accounted for 4% to 6% in alcohol-related harms. CONCLUSIONS/ IMPORTANCE: The present study sought to address a gap in the literature regarding the contributions of expectancies in the prediction of CAB use. Our findings provide support for the predictive utility of both caffeine and alcohol expectancies in accounting for individual variability in CAB use but alcohol expectancies may exert greater impact on use patterns. Inclusion of both types of expectancies in larger theoretical frameworks may be beneficial in gaining a more complete and deeper conceptualization of this risky behavior.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova


    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  12. Fetal alcohol syndrome (United States)

    ... offer assistance: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependency -- SAMHSA National Helpline -- 1-800- ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  13. [Prevention of alcohol dependence]. (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M


    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  14. Alcohol use disorder (United States)

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier ...

  15. Alcohol and Hepatitis (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  16. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage) from Botswana by ... posing public health threats of unknown magnitude and necessitating .... Table 2 Analytical performance parameters of the GC-FID for the stan- .... Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers,.

  17. Consumo de alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo del Sol Padrón


    Full Text Available En este artículo se emite una definición clasificatoria de los individuos que consumen alcohol, según supuestos establecidos por Manconi. Se estratifican las personas atendiendo a los diferentes riesgos para este consumo. Se describen las afectaciones a la salud que produce el consumo de alcohol, y además se plantean las medidas estratégicas para propiciar una conducta efectiva antialcohólica. Por último, se presenta un flujograma para la intervención individual en las personas clasificadas como bebedoras en riesgo.This article provides a definition that classifies individuals who consume alcohol and establishes a Manconi classification chart. Individuals are stratified by different consumption risk levels. Alcohol’s effects on health are described as well as strategies to promote effective anti-alcoholic conducts. Finally, a flow chart for individual intervention in patients considered to be at risk is presented.

  18. Alcohol Use Disorder (United States)

    ... it's not safe, such as when driving or swimming Developing a tolerance to alcohol so you need ... may be seen on tests. Complete a psychological evaluation. This evaluation includes questions about your symptoms, thoughts, ...

  19. Alcohol advertising and youth. (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W


    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  20. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darja Škrila


    Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only...

  1. Alcohol Facts and Statistics (United States)

    ... Research Intramural Research Program Alcohol Research Resource Awards Biosensor Challenge Prize NESARC-III Research Training Centers and ... 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26:259–279, 2005. PMID: ...

  2. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob


      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  3. Non alcoholic steatohepatitis - Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter L. M.


    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an underdiagnosed liver disease characterized by steatosis, necroinflammation and fibrosis. This disease may eventually develop into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is highly prevalent among obese individuals and among patients with diabetes

  4. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome: preventive measures. (United States)


    A withdrawal syndrome of variable intensity and severity may be triggered when an alcohol-dependent individual stops drinking altogether or significantly reduces alcohol consumption. Preventive measures can be implemented after identifying patients at risk of a severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Patients at risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome should be closely monitored during the first 48 hours of abstinence, either on an outpatient or inpatient basis. When medication is needed to prevent alcohol withdrawal syndrome, a benzodiazepine is the drug of first choice.

  5. Complexes of tetra-tert-butyl-tetraazaporphine with Al(III) and Zr(IV) cations as fluoride selective ionophores. (United States)

    Górski, Lukasz; Mroczkiewicz, Monika; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Malinowska, Elzbieta


    In this work, complexes of Zr(IV) and Al(III) cations with 2,7,12,17-tetra-tert-butyl-5,10,15,20-tetraazaporphine (TAP) were tested as ionophores in plasticized PVC membranes of ion-selective electrodes. It was found that both tested ionophores show enhanced affinity towards fluoride anion. High fluoride selectivity was observed in the presence of anionic or cationic additives in the membrane, which indicates that proposed compounds work according to charged or neutral carrier mechanism, depending on membrane composition and pretreatment. tert-Butyl substituents, present in the structure of tested compounds, were supposed to prevent formation of ionophore dimers within the membrane phase. This process was found to be responsible for some unfavorable potentiometric properties of electrodes based on complexes of Zr(IV) and Al(III) cations with porphyrins (compounds closely related to tetra-tert-butyl-5,10,15,20-tetraazaporphine). As it was shown using spectrophotometrical measurements, Al(III)-TAP was not susceptible to dimerization, while dimer formation was observed for Zr(IV)-TAP. In full agreement with these observations, electrodes with membranes containing Al(III)-TAP responded in near-Nernstian and fast manner towards fluoride anion, while the employment of Zr(IV)-TAP as ionophore resulted in super-Nernstian and sluggish response. Plasticized PVC membranes doped with Al(III)-TAP and 20mol% of lipophilic anionic additives shown remarkable F(-) selectivity, with selectivity coefficients, logK(F-pot.).(Y-), as follows: -4.4 (Y(-)Br(-)), -4.3 (Cl(-)), -4.2 (NO(3)(-)), -3.6 (SCN(-)), -2.9 (ClO(4)(-)).

  6. Children and alcohol. (United States)

    Lang, A R; Stritzke, W G


    The literature on what, when, and how young children learn about alcohol and drinking is critically reviewed and key issues are highlighted. Available evidence points to recognition of alcohol, identification of drinking norms and rules, formation of attitudes toward drinking and drinkers, and appreciation of some of the consequences of alcohol consumption as early as the preschool years. Understanding of drinking motives appears to require a level of cognitive development that is not present until about 10 to 12 years of age, although there is a dearth of research on this probably crucial determinant of later decisions to drink. Among the factors involved in the acquisition of alcohol cognitions and dispositions are observational learning via families, media, and peers as well as personal drinking experience. Salience of alcohol and its management in the child's immediate environment appears to be an important moderator/mediator of learning. Application of relevant theory to understanding the development of the meaning of alcohol and drinking in preadolescent children is seen as underdeveloped at this time. However, there are a number of potentially fruitful avenues to pursue which could have important implications for future education and prevention efforts.

  7. Alcoholism in Peru. (United States)

    Yamamoto, J; Silva, J A; Sasao, T; Wang, C; Nguyen, L


    Alcoholism is a problem of worldwide concern. Full appreciation of this international problem requires that adequate diagnostic measures be constructed and that comparable measures for different cultures be available so that valid differences in prevalence across cultures can be detected. A Spanish-language version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) has been used for epidemiologic studies of alcohol abuse and dependence in Los Angeles Mexican-Americans and mainland Puerto Ricans, and the authors used the same instrument to conduct a similar study in Peru. A population sample (N = 815) from the Independencia district of Lima, Peru, was chosen for interviews with a revised form of the Spanish translation of the DIS. Lifetime prevalence rates of alcoholism and other DSM-III diagnoses were determined. The prevalence of alcohol abuse or dependence was higher among the men (34.80%) than among the women (2.46%), but the onset for women was earlier. Alcoholism was strongly associated with antisocial personality disorder and with drug abuse or dependence. The prevalence of alcoholism for the Peruvian men is higher than prevalences for men in U.S. studies, but the prevalence among the Peruvian women is one of the lowest reported. The high prevalence among men is likely due to cultural mores but may also be linked to the stresses found in impoverished societies undergoing rapid social, cultural, and economic change.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of 2,4-D Butyl Ester Degrading Acinetobacter sp. ZX02 from a Chinese Ginger Cultivated Soil. (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Jia, Hai-Fei; Jeong, In-Hong; Ahn, Young-Joon; Zhu, Yong-Zhe


    Strain ZX02 was isolated from Chinese ginger cultivated soil contaminated with various pesticides, which could utilize 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (2,4-D butyl ester) as the sole carbon source. On the basis of the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene as well as the morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of strain ZX02, the organism belonged to Gram-negative bacterium and was identified as Acinetobacter sp. ZX02. The strain ZX02 showed a remarkable performance in 2,4-D butyl ester degradation (100% removal in <96 h) in pure culture. Strain ZX02 was sensitive to tetracycline and resistant to amoxicillin and chloramphenicol in an antibiotic sensitivity test. The curing study indicates that the gene for degradation of 2,4-D butyl ester was encoded on a single plasmid of 23 kb. The gene encoding resistance to polymixin B sulfate was also located on this plasmid. On the basis of its greater biodegradation activity, this bacterium is a potential candidate as a bioremediation agent in soils contaminated with 2,4-D butyl ester.

  9. Development of adhesive pit and fissure sealants using a MMA resin initiated by a tri-n-butyl borane derivative. (United States)

    Nakabayashi, N; Masuhara, E


    A new adhesive fissure sealant, which consists of a solution of 3% 2-hydroxy-3-beta-naphthoxypropyl methacrylate in methyl methacrylate (MMA), poly-MMA powder and an oxidized tri-n-butyl borane, a polymerization initiator, was developed. Tensile bond strength between an acid-etched bovine enamel and a poly-MMA bar joined by this sealant was 60 kg/cm2, and the value did not decrease much after 30 days immersion in water at 37 degrees C. Penetration of fuchsin into the sealant-enamel interface during a percolation test was not observed. SEM observation showed no voids between the enamel and the cured sealant.

  10. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and ab initio Investigations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) clusters and MTBE-water clusters (United States)

    Di Palma, Tonia M.; Bende, Attila


    The structures and energetics of neutral, ionized and protonated methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) clusters and (MTBE)m(H2O)n clusters are investigated by tunable vacuum-UV photoionization mass spectrometry and DFT calculations. While the mass spectra of bare MTBE clusters show unprotonated and protonated clusters ions, the mass spectra of mixed clusters show protonated ions that exhibit magic numbers that correspond to n = m - 2 combinations. Ab initio calculations show that in the larger clusters a multiple proton transfer leads to a protonated water core where all available hydrogen bonds interact with MTBE molecules. The resulting bond structure explains the cluster stability.

  11. Analysis of possible sources and pathways of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in the aquatic environment


    Kolb, Axel


    In the present study possible sources and pathways of the gasoline additive methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in the aquatic environment in Germany were investigated. The objective of the present study was to clarify some of the questions raised by a previous study on the MTBE situation in Germany. In the USA and Europe 12 million t and 3 million t of MTBE, respectively, are used as gasoline additive. The detection of MTBE in the aquatic environment and the potential risk for drinking water ...

  12. Removal of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE vapour from contaminated air streams using different bacterial cultures in biotrickling filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nikpey, M. Nikpey, H. Kazemian


    Full Text Available The treatment of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE vapors in biotrickling filters for air pollution control was investigated using different bacterial cultures. In the first phase, reactor was inoculated by the indigenous organisms and in the next phase, an aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade MTBE was used for reactor bed inoculation. Result was obtained only by specific organism: reactor was able to remove MTBE,after a short adaptation phase. Laboratory scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 25 g/m.h with removal efficiency of 90%. They also showed a low rate of biomass accumulation.

  13. Scanning thermal lithography of tailored tert-butyl ester protected carboxylic acid functionalized (meth)acrylate polymer platforms. (United States)

    Duvigneau, Joost; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, G Julius


    In this paper, we report on the development of tailored polymer films for high-resolution atomic force microscopy based scanning thermal lithography (SThL). In particular, full control of surface chemical and topographical structuring was sought. Thin cross-linked films comprising poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (MA(20)) or poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (A(20)) were prepared via UV initiated free radical polymerization. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and FTIR spectroscopy showed that the heat-induced thermal decomposition of MA(20) by oxidative depolymerization is initially the primary reaction followed by tert-butyl ester thermolysis. By contrast, no significant depolymerization was observed for A(20). For A(20) and MA(20) (at higher temperatures and/or longer reaction times) the thermolysis of the tert-butyl ester liberates isobutylene and yields carboxylic acid groups, which react further intramolecularly to cyclic anhydrides. The values of the apparent activation energies (E(a)) for the thermolysis were calculated to be 125 ± 13 kJ mol(-1) and 116 ± 7 kJ mol(-1) for MA(20) and A(20), respectively. Both MA(20) and A(20) films showed improved thermomechanical stability during SThL compared to non cross-linked films. Carboxylic acid functionalized lines written by SThL in A(20) films had a typically ~10 times smaller width compared to those written in MA(20) films regardless of the tip radius of the heated probe and did not show any evidence for thermochemically or thermomechanically induced modification of film topography. These observations and the E(a) of 45 ± 3 kJ mol(-1) for groove formation in MA(20) estimated from the observed volume loss are attributed to oxidative thermal depolymerization during SThL of MA(20) films, which is considered to be the dominant reaction mechanism for MA(20). The smallest line width values obtained for MA(20) and A(20) films with SThL were 83 ± 7 nm and 21 ± 2 nm, whereas the depth of the lines was below 1 nm, respectively.

  14. Effects of promoters on N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in the rat.


    Ito, N; Fukushima, S; Shirai, T; Nakanishi, K


    It has been shown that the occurrence of the preneoplastic lesion, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia) in rat urinary bladder induced by carcinogens is correlated with that of cancer. Therefore, the promoting effects of chemicals in two-stage bladder carcinogenesis were judged by measuring their ability to induce PN hyperplasia in rats. Male rats were given N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) for 4 weeks and then one of 16 test chemicals for 32 to 34 weeks. Saccharin, as...

  15. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten


    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  16. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi


    (50-100%), compared to drinking drinks/week. In general, results were similar for women. CONCLUSIONS: In men, daily drinking was associated with an increased risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Recent alcohol consumption rather than earlier in life was associated with risk of alcoholic cirrhosis......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS...

  17. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth


    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizing Effects of Nitric Oxide Sterilization on tert-Butyl Acrylate Shape Memory Polymers (United States)

    Phillippi, Ben

    As research into the potential uses of shape memory polymers (SMPs) as implantable medical devices continues to grow and expand, so does the need for an accurate and reliable sterilization mechanism. The ability of an SMP to precisely undergo a programmed shape change will define its ability to accomplish a therapeutic task. To ensure proper execution of the in vivo shape change, the sterilization process must not negatively affect the shape memory behavior of the material. To address this need, this thesis investigates the effectiveness of a benchtop nitric oxide (NOx) sterilization process and the extent to which the process affects the shape memory behavior of a well-studied tert-Butyl Acrylate (tBA) SMP. Quantifying the effects on shape memory behavior was performed using a two-tiered analysis. A two-tiered study design was used to determine if the sterilization process induced any premature shape recovery and to identify any effects that NOx has on the overall shape memory behavior of the foams. Determining the effectiveness of the NOx system--specially, whether the treated samples are more sterile/less contaminated than untreated--was also performed with a two-tiered analysis. In this case, the two-tiered analysis was employed to have a secondary check for contamination. To elaborate, all of the samples that were deemed not contaminated from the initial test were put through a second sterility test to check for contamination a second time. The results of these tests indicated the NOx system is an effective sterilization mechanism and the current protocol does not negatively impact the shape memory behavior of the tBA SMP. The samples held their compressed shape throughout the entirety of the sterilization process. Additionally, there were no observable impacts on the shape memory behavior induced by NOx. Lastly, the treated samples demonstrated lower contamination than the untreated. This thesis demonstrates the effectiveness of NOx as a laboratory scale

  19. Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Ground Water, Air, and Precipitation at North Windham, Maine (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Peckenham, John M.


    Thirty-one monitoring wells in the Windham aquifer in North Windham, Maine, were sampled for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from July 1998 to May 1999. MTBE was detected in 35 percent of the wells sampled in the Windham aquifer. MTBE was detected in 64 percent of wells in the high-yielding part of the aquifer; these wells account for 82 percent of all wells with detectable MTBE. Land cover also was found to be associated with MTBE in the wells in the study area, with the urban and low-density residential areas having more MTBE than undeveloped areas. The median concentration in wells with detectable MTBE was 1.13 micrograms per liter. Air and precipitation samples were collected in North Windham along with ground-water samples. Air samples were collected every 10 days from December 1998 to July 1999 (20 samples). MTBE was present in all 20 air samples collected, at concentrations ranging from 0.03 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) to 1.0 ppbv. Before Maine opted out of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) program in the spring of 1999, median concentrations in air at the North Windham site were 0.25 ppbv. After Maine stopped using RFG, the median concentration in air dropped to 0.09 ppbv. No MTBE was detected in four samples of precipitation at North Windham. The lack of rainfall during the study period prevented the collection of an adequate number of samples, and technical difficulties negated the results of some of the analyses of the samples that were collected. Based on the equilibrium partitioning of MTBE from the air into rain, the hypothetical average concentration of MTBE in rainfall during months when recharge typically occurs (March-April and October-December) would be approximately 0.3 to 0.4 micrograms per liter during the time that RFG was being used in Maine. After the phaseout of RFG, the maximum average concentration of MTBE in rainfall during these months would be approximately 0.1 micrograms per liter. The distribution and concentrations of MTBE that

  20. [Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in atmosphere of the Pearl River Delta, China]. (United States)

    Wang, Bo-guang; Shao, Min; Zhang, Yuan-hang; Lü, Wan-Ming; Zhou, Yan


    The concentration of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and its spatio-temporal distribution were researched in atmosphere of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) by sampling with air sampling canisters and analyzing with pre-concentrator and gas chromatograph-mass spectrum instrument. The results showed that 1) MTBE could be prevalently checked in atmosphere of traffic area, industrial area, residential area and commercial area of the PRD, and its range of hourly average concentration in the long-term observation was from 0 - 1.250 microg m(-3), the summer had more serious pollution than the spring, and urban was the central area of high MTBE concentration, and suburban in the downwind was obviously polluted by the urban air. 2) During the enhanced observation in summertime, the diurnal average concentration of Guangzhou urban site was (1.520 +/- 0.370) microg m(-3), which was about 7 times of Huadou site in the downwind of Guangzhou and over 100 times of Conghua site in the background of Guangzhou. In urban, 2 peak values appeared in the period of 10:00 - 12:00 and 16:00 - 18:00 respectively, and the nighttime had the lowest average concentration, but the suburban in the downwind had the peak value in the nighttime. 3) During the enhanced observation in wintertime, the diurnal average concentration of Guangzhou urban site was (0.950 +/- 0.240) microg m(-3), which was 3.6 times of Xinken site in the downwind of Guangzhou. Several peak values appeared on the diurnal variation, the high concentration period of urban was in 18:00 - 22:00, and that of suburban was in 04:00 - 10:00 of the next day. 4) When it was weak sunshine, the concentration of MTBE beside the urban traffic roadside was decreasing with the height increasing, but when it was strong sunshine, it was increasing with the height increasing. So, except the original emission from the automobiles, MTBE still had the secondary pollution sources formed by air photochemical reaction.

  1. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in river and wastewater in Germany. (United States)

    Achten, Christine; Kolb, Axel; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Seel, Peter; Gihr, Regine


    An overview of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations in German river water (315 samples) and wastewater (82 samples) is given. In the agglomerated area of Frankfurt/M, several samples of surface water, wastewater, and industrial effluents were analyzed for its MTBE content from 1999 to 2001. MTBE was analyzed by a combination of headspace-solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Rhine and Main water concentrations of MTBE in the lower parts of the rivers were approximately 250 ng/L and 200 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations increased from the upper parts of the rivers to its mouths. Water from the Elbe, Neckar, and Weser rivers showed lower MTBE concentrations, and the ether was not detected in the Danube river. Generally, higher MTBE concentrations were detected at urban agglomerations compared to rural areas. Small urban creeks without significant industrial input showed MTBE concentrations of approximately 50 ng/L, and it was hardly detectable in small rural creeks. Higher MTBE concentrations in river water were correlated with increased concentrations of the oxygenate measured in precipitation. Most MTBE concentrations in river water fell in the range of 50-200 ng/L (32%), 10-50 ng/L (28%), and 200-1000 ng/L (26%). MTBE concentrations in German surface water and air are 3-17 times lower compared to Californian data. Wastewater samples from influents of two sewage plants showed MTBE concentrations of approximately 100-300 ng/L, and a loading of 2-37 kg/a was calculated. An eliminated MTBE percentage of roughly 30-35% of MTBE in the plants was estimated. Industrially influenced samples of river water or public wastewater and industrial effluents showed MTBE concentrations of up to 2267 ng/L and 28 microg/L, respectively. This input has not been considered before because only 1.5% of the produced amount of MTBE in Germany is used for industrial processes, but it should not be neglected because MTBE is very

  2. Preparation of seeding type immobilized microorganisms and their degradation characteristics on Di-n-butyl phthalate. (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Luo, Qi-Fang; Zhao, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-He; Huang, Li-Jing


    To study the preparation of seeding type immobilized microorganisms and their degradation characteristics on di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Diatomite, clinoptilolite, silk zeolite, and coal fly ash were chosen as reserved materials and modified. Their adsorption capacity and intensity in the bacteria were determined and the best carrier was picked out. The seeding type immobilized microorganisms were prepared by the best carrier and then it degraded DBP under different primary concentration, vibration rate, pH, temperature in the presence of metal compounds. The adsorption capacity of the modified coal fly ash, silk zeolite, clinoptilolite and zeolite was 44.2%, 71.6%, 84.0%, and 94.4%, respectively, which was 1.66, 1.49, 1.37, and 1.16 times as high as that of their natural state. Their adsorption intensity was 72.1%, 90.5%, 90.1%, and 91.1% in turn. The modified diatomite was selected to prepare the seeding type immobilized microorganisms. When the primary DBP concentration was 100 to 500 mg/L, the DBP-degraded rate of the immobilized microorganisms could be above 80%. The degradation activity of both the dissociative and immobilized microorganisms was higher in vibration than in stillness. When pH was 6.0 to 9.0, the DBP-degraded rate of the immobilized microorganisms was above 82%, which was higher than the dissociative microorganisms. When the temperature was between 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C, the DBP-degraded rate could reach 84.5% in 24 h. The metal compounds could inhibit the degradation activity of both the dissociative and immobilized microorganisms. The degradation process of the immobilized microorganisms could be described by the first-order model. The adsorption capacity of the diatomite, clinoptilolite, silk zeolite and coal fly ash on DBP-degrading bacteria can be improved obviously after they are modified. The modified diatomite is best in terms of its adsorption capacity and intensity. Its seeding type immobilized microorganisms could degrade DBP

  3. Toxicokinetics of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) in humans, and implications to their biological monitoring. (United States)

    Vainiotalo, Sinikka; Riihimäki, Vesa; Pekari, Kaija; Teräväinen, Eija; Aitio, Antero


    Healthy male volunteers were exposed via inhalation to gasoline oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) or tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The 4-hr exposures were carried out in a dynamic chamber at 25 and 75 ppm for MTBE and at 15 and 50 ppm for TAME. The overall mean pulmonary retention of MTBE was 43 +/- 2.6%; the corresponding mean for TAME was 51 +/- 3.9%. Approximately 52% of the absorbed dose of MTBE was exhaled within 44 hr following the exposure; for TAME, the corresponding figure was 30%. MTBE and TAME in blood and exhaled air reached their highest concentrations at the end of exposure, whereas the concentrations of the metabolites tert-butanol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) concentrations were highest 0.5-1 hr after the exposure and then declined slowly. Two consecutive half-times were observed for the disappearance of MTBE and TAME from blood and exhaled air. The half-times for MTBE in blood were about 1.7 and 3.8 hr and those for TAME 1.2 and 4.9 hr. For TAA, a single half-time of about 6 hr best described the disappearance from blood and exhaled air; for TBA, the disappearance was slow and seemed to follow zero-order kinetics for 24 hr. In urine, maximal concentrations of MTBE and TAME were observed toward the end of exposure or slightly (MTBE and 0.1% of the dose of TAME was excreted unchanged in urine, whereas the urinary excretion of free TBA and TAA was 1.2% and 0.3% within 48 hr. The blood/air and oil/blood partition coefficients, determined in vitro, were 20 and 14 for MTBE and 20 and 37 for TAME. By intrapolation from the two experimental exposure concentrations, biomonitoring action limits corresponding to an 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) exposure of 50 ppm was estimated to be 20 micro mol/L for post-shift urinary MTBE, 1 mu mol/L for exhaled air MTBE in a post-shift sample, and 30 micro mol/L for urinary TBA in a next-morning specimen. For TAME and TAA, concentrations corresponding to an 8-hr TWA exposure at 20 ppm were estimated to be

  4. Vapor intrusion risk of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): A modeling study. (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Xiong, Desen; Li, Haiyan; Ding, Yi; Xia, Xiangcheng; Yang, Yongqi


    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represents a critical yet still neglected problem at sites contaminated by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to investigate the vapor intrusion potential of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Simulated indoor air concentration of these compounds can exceed USEPA indoor air screening level for MTBE (110μg/m 3 ). Our results also reveal that MTBE has much higher chance to cause vapor intrusion problems than TAME and ETBE. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the vertical screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbons may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel additives, and ether oxygenates in particular. In addition to adverse impacts on human health, ether oxygenate vapor intrusion may also cause aesthetic problems (i.e., odour and flavour). Overall, this study points out that ether oxygenates can cause vapor intrusion problems. We recommend that USEPA consider including the field measurement data of synthetic fuel additives in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Discovery of 4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethylphenylsulfur trifluoride as a deoxofluorinating agent with high thermal stability as well as unusual resistance to aqueous hydrolysis, and its diverse fluorination capabilities including deoxofluoro-arylsulfinylation with high stereoselectivity. (United States)

    Umemoto, Teruo; Singh, Rajendra P; Xu, Yong; Saito, Norimichi


    Versatile, safe, shelf-stable, and easy-to-handle fluorinating agents are strongly desired in both academic and industrial arenas, since fluorinated compounds have attracted considerable interest in many areas, such as drug discovery, due to the unique effects of fluorine atoms when incorporated into molecules. This article describes the synthesis, properties, and reactivity of many substituted and thermally stable phenylsulfur trifluorides, in particular, 4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethylphenylsulfur trifluoride (Fluolead, 1k), as a crystalline solid having surprisingly high stability on contact with water and superior utility as a deoxofluorinating agent compared to current reagents, such as DAST and its analogues. The roles of substituents on 1k in thermal and hydrolytic stability, fluorination reactivity, and the high-yield fluorination mechanism it undergoes have been clarified. In addition to fluorinations of alcohols, aldehydes, and enolizable ketones, 1k smoothly converts non-enolizable carbonyls to CF(2) groups, and carboxylic groups to CF(3) groups, in high yields. 1k also converts C(=S) and CH(3)SC(=S)O groups to CF(2) and CF(3)O groups, respectively, in high yields. In addition, 1k effects highly stereoselective deoxofluoro-arylsulfinylation of diols and amino alcohols to give fluoroalkyl arylsulfinates and arylsulfinamides, with complete inversion of configuration at fluorine and the simultaneous, selective formation of one conformational isomer at the sulfoxide sulfur atom. Considering the unique and diverse properties, relative safety, and ease of handling of 1k in addition to its convenient synthesis, it is expected to find considerable use as a novel fluorinating agent in both academic and industrial arenas.

  6. Alcohol expectancies, alcohol use, and hostility as longitudinal predictors of alcohol-related aggression. (United States)

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Homish, Gregory G; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E


    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives, however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in dispositional hostility, however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The article discusses the extent to which findings may vary depending on whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression (United States)

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M.; Leonard, Kenneth E.


    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in hostility however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The extent to which findings may vary depending upon whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior are discussed. PMID:22004128

  8. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on temperature dependent electrical conductivity of poly (n-butyl methacrylate) nanocomposites: Application of different conductivity models (United States)

    Suhailath, K.; Ramesan, M. T.


    This paper focused on the electrical properties of poly (n-butyl methacrylate) using nanostructured TiO2 as an additive material and these composites were prepared by a simple in situ polymerization of butyl methacrylate with different content of TiO2. The temperature dependent AC conductivity of the nanocomposite was investigated and conductivity increases with raise in temperatures, frequencies and the volume fraction of TiO2 nanoparticles. The activation energy of the nanocomposite materials were determined. The variation of DC conductivity with the addition of nanoparticles in poly (n-butyl methacrylate) was correlated with different theoretical conductivity model based on Bueche, Scarisbrick and McCullough equations.

  9. Novel technology of butyl rubber chlorination and investigation of chlorinated modifier content influence on vulcanizing characteristics of pure-gum compound (United States)

    Sukhareva, Ksenia; Mastalygina, Elena; Mikhailov, Igor; Andriasyan, Yurik; Popov, Anatoly


    The paper is devoted to the novel solution for the technology of chlorination butyl rubber - mechanochemical halide modification, as a more efficient way to obtain halogenated elastomers with a wide range of halogen content (from 3 to 15 %). The vulcanizing characteristics of elastomeric compounds based on the chlorinated butyl rubber as well as the production conditions of vulcanization process have been studied by the methods of differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical rheometry. The performed investigation revealed the optimum content of the vulcanizing agent (6 wt%) and accelerator (2 wt%) for chlorinated butyl rubbers compositions. The preferable vulcanization temperature of 150±5°C for rubbers under investigation regardless of chlorine content in a sample has been determined. The effectiveness of the process of vulcanization studies by combination of differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical rheometry methods with the purpose of comprehensive assessment of the rubber compositions vulcanization characteristics has been shown.

  10. The Emulsion Polymerization of Each of Vinyl Acetate and Butyl Acrylate Monomers Using bis (2-ethylhexyl Maleate for Improving the Physicomechanical Properties of Paints and Adhesive Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Shaffei


    Full Text Available Improving the water sensitivity of polyvinyl acetate PVAc films as well as pressure sensitivity, adhesion and washability of polybutyl acrylate were achieved by using bis (2-ethylhexyl maleate (BEHM. The emulsion polymerization kinetics of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate in presence of BEHM was studied. The order of the polymerization reaction with respect to the BEHM in presence of each of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate was studied. The physicomechanical properties of the polyvinyl acetate films and vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate copolymer films were studied in presence of BEHM and the obtained results were matched with those prepared in the presence of pluronic F 108 and showed superior values. The obtained mean average molecular weights were found to be smaller in presence of BEHM assuring the presence of chain transfer reaction.

  11. College-Related Alcohol Beliefs and Problematic Alcohol Consumption: Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies as a Mediator. (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R


    College-related alcohol beliefs, or beliefs that drinking alcohol is central to the college experience, have been shown to robustly predict alcohol-related outcomes among college students. Given the strength of these associations, it is imperative to understand more proximal factors (i.e., closer in a causal chain leading to alcohol-related outcomes) that can explain these associations. The current research examined alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a potential mediator of the association between college-related alcohol beliefs and alcohol outcomes among college student drinkers. Participants were undergraduate students from a large southeastern university (Sample 1; n = 561) and a large southwestern university (Sample 2; n = 563) in the United States that consumed alcohol at least once in the previous month. Path analysis was conducted examining the concurrent associations between college-related alcohol beliefs, PBS use (both as a single facet and multidimensionally), alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences (i.e., double mediation). In both samples, there was a significant double-mediated association that suggested that higher college-related alcohol beliefs is associated with lower PBS use (single facet), which is associated with higher alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Multidimensionally, only one double-mediation effect (in Sample 2 only) was significant (i.e., college-related alcohol beliefs → manner of drinking PBS → alcohol consumption → alcohol-related consequences). Conclusions/Importance: These results suggest that targeting these college-related alcohol beliefs as well as PBS use are promising targets for college alcohol interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  12. Oropharynx microbiota among alcoholics and non-alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Golin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The oropharynx microbiota plays an important role in the origin of infections, especially among alcoholics whose airway defenses are impaired. OBJECTIVE: To compare the normal oropharingeal flora in heavy alcohol drinker and non-alcoholics. PATIENTS: 117 persons, 58 heavy alcohol drinkers and 59 non-alcoholics. SETTING: Santa Casa de São Paulo Emergency Service. DESIGN: A blind prospective study. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Prevalence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. RESULTS: The study of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy alcohol drinkers demonstrated the presence of anaerobic microorganisms in 84.5% of them, including: Bacteroides sp, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium sp, Veilonella sp, Peptostreptococcus sp, Propionibacterium sp, Bifidobacterium sp and Clostridium sp, versus 30.5% (p<0.005 of non-alcoholics. Candida sp was present in 34.5% of heavy alcohol drinkers and 5.1% of non-alcoholics (p<0.005. Enterobacteria predominated among heavy alcohol drinkers (25% compared with non-alcoholics (5.5% only in the age group 14 to 34 years (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Based upon these results, it was possible to conclude that the knowledge of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy drinkers and non-alcoholics has an important predictive value concerning probable etiologic agents of lower airway infections. Infections caused by anaerobic microorganisms and fungi should be taken into consideration during the choice of empirical therapy for heavy alcohol drinkers.

  13. Alcoholic recidivism after liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis. (United States)

    Fábrega, E; Crespo, J; Casafont, F; De las Heras, G; de la Peña, J; Pons-Romero, F


    Liver transplantation (LT) for alcoholic cirrhosis remains controversial. This controversy surrounding LT in alcoholics focuses on the risk of alcohol recidivism and on potential noncompliance with the immunosuppressive regimen, both of which result in graft failure. Our study examined alcohol recidivism after LT by measuring alcohol in urine and its repercussion on the allograft. Forty-four consecutive alcoholic patients and a comparison group of 17 patients receiving LT were included in this study and followed up for a mean of 39.5 +/- 19.6 months. Seven percent (3 of 44) of patients with alcoholic liver disease and 0% of patients in the comparison group admitted to having used alcohol after LT. Alcohol in urine, however, was detected in 18% (8 of 44) of the alcoholic group; therefore the true recidivism rate was higher than the rate admitted. All patients in both groups were compliant with the medications, because the cyclosporine levels were within the therapeutic range in all. On histologic examination the only alcohol-induced lesion found in three of the eight recidivistic patients was steatosis. Therefore, although alcoholic recidivism occurs, it does not seem to affect compliance to treatment profoundly or to compromise graft function. Therefore, LT seems justified for end-stage alcoholic cirrhosis.

  14. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems. (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W


    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  15. Formation of Germa-ketenimine on the Ge(100) Surface by Adsorption of tert-Butyl Isocyanide. (United States)

    Shong, Bonggeun; Yoo, Jong Suk; Sandoval, Tania E; Bent, Stacey F


    Reactions of the (100) surfaces of Ge and Si with organic molecules have been generally understood within the concept of "dimers" formed by the 2 × 1 surface reconstruction. In this work, the adsorption of tert-butyl isocyanide on the Ge(100)-2 × 1 surface at large exposures is investigated under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. A combination of infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed desorption experiments along with dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations is used to determine the surface products. Upon adsorption of a dense monolayer of tert-butyl isocyanide, a product whose structure resembles a germa-ketenimine (N=C=Ge) with σ donation toward and π back-donation from the Ge(100) surface appears. Formation of this structure involves divalent-type surface Ge atoms that arise from cleavage of the Ge(100)-2 × 1 surface dimers. Our results reveal an unprecedented class of reactions of organic molecules at the Ge(100) surface.

  16. Experimental determination and prediction of phase behavior for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluorobutyl sulfonate and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Kang; Park, YoonKook [Hongik University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Pore, Dattaprasad Marutrao [Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)


    The vapor-liquid equilibrium of the binary system CO{sub 2}+1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluorobutyl sulfonate ([BMIM][NfO]) was measured over a temperature range of 298.2-323.2 K at intervals of 5.0 K for CO{sub 2} mole fraction ranging from 0.137 to 0.900 using a high-pressure variable-volume view cell. The Peng-Robinson equation of state was then applied with two-parameter mixing rules over the same range and the results compared with the experimentally obtained data. Increasing the alkyl chain length in perfluorinated sulfonate from methyl to butyl markedly increased the CO{sub 2} solubility. To investigate the effect of the number of fluorine atoms in the anion on the phase behavior of imidazolium based ionic liquid, these experimental results were then compared with those reported in previous experimental studies of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations and with modeling data. It looks likely that both the number of fluorine atoms in the anion and the presence of S=O groups play an important role in designing CO{sub 2}-philic molecules.

  17. Electrochemical nucleophilic synthesis of di-tert-butyl-(4-[18F]fluoro-1,2-phenylene)-dicarbonate. (United States)

    He, Qinggang; Wang, Ying; Alfeazi, Ines; Sadeghi, Saman


    An electrochemical method with the ability to conduct (18)F-fluorination of aromatic molecules through direct nucleophilic fluorination of cationic intermediates is presented in this paper. The reaction was performed on a remote-controlled automatic platform. Nucleophilic electrochemical fluorination of tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) protected catechol, an intermediate model molecule for the positron emission tomography (PET) probe (3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine), was performed. Fluorination was achieved under potentiostatic anodic oxidation in acetonitrile containing Et3N·3HF and other supporting electrolytes. Radiofluorination efficiency was influenced by a number of variables, including the concentration of the precursor, concentration of Et3N·3HF, type of supporting electrolyte, temperature and time, as well as applied potentials. Radio-fluorination efficiency of 10.4±0.6% (n=4) and specific activity of up to 43GBq/mmol was obtained after 1h electrolysis of 0.1M of 4-tert-butyl-diboc-catechol in the acetonitrile solution of Et3N·3HF (0.033M) and NBu4PF6 (0.05M). Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to explain the tert-butyl functional group facilitation of electrochemical oxidation and subsequent fluorination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Treatment of high-concentration butyl-acrylate-production wastewater by A three-phase biological fluidized bed reactor]. (United States)

    Fan, Zhi-qing; Song, Yu-dong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Liang, Han-dong


    The butyl-acrylate-production wastewater was treated by a three-phase biological fluidized bed reactor. The influences of acrylic acid concentrations, p-toluenesulfonic acid concentrations, volumic load and hydraulic retention time on pollutants removal efficiencies were investigated. It was indicated that the reactor was suitable for the treatment of butyl-acrylate-production wastewater at a high loading rate. Acrylic acid of 100 mg/L or p-toluenesulfonic acid of 50 mg/L in the influent can inhibit the unacclimated microorganisms in the fluidized bed reactor. The inhibition effects were eliminated after an acclimation of two weeks. Acrylic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid could be removed completely at COD loading rates up to 11.56-13.56 kg/(m3 x d). The effluent COD could satisfy the demand of Class II in Chinese Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996) at COD loading rates up to 8.86 kg/(m3 x d) when influent COD concentration is below 2000 mg/L. When the influent COD concentration was increased to 9550-11,800 mg/L(acrylic acid of 6244 mg/L and p-toluenesulfonic acid of 1000 mg/L), the effluent COD was 271-360 mg/L, which satisfied the demand of Class III in Chinese Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996) at COD loading rates of 7.96-9.83 kg/(m3 x d).

  19. Synthesis of tert-butyl (substituted benzamido)phenylcarbamate derivatives: anti-inflammatory activity and docking studies. (United States)

    Bhookya, Shankar; Pochampally, Jalapathi; Valeru, Anil; Sunitha, Vianala; Balabadra, Saikrishna; Manga, Vijjulatha; Kudle, Karunakar Rao


    A series of new tert-butyl 2-(substituted benzamido) phenylcarbamate (4a-4j) were synthesized by the condensation of tert-butyl 2-amino phenylcarbamate (3) with various substituted carboxylic acid in the presence of EDCI and HOBt as coupling reagent, obtain in excellent yields. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were characterized spectroscopically and evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity compared to the standard drug, indomethacin, by using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema protocol. Most of the compounds exhibited a promising anti-inflammatory activity within 9 to 12 h, the percentage of inhibition values ranging from 54.239 to 39.021%. The results revealed that the compounds 4i and 4a exhibited better or equivalent anti-inflammatory activity with the percentage of inhibition of 54.239 and 54.130%, respectively, which was comparable to standard drug. In addition to experimental results, in silico docking studies was used as a tool to verify and expand the experimental outcomes.

  20. Healing of periodontal flaps when closed with silk sutures and N-butyl cyanoacrylate: A clinical and histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Sudhindra


    Full Text Available Background: The closure of the periodontal flaps post-surgery is a necessity for attainment of a primary union between the flap margins and the establishment of a healthy dentogingival junction. N-butyl cyanoacrylate is a tissue adhesive, which can be used for the closure of the incised wounds to overcome the problems associated with conventional suture materials like silk. Objective: The present study was carried out to assess the healing of the periodontal flaps when closed with the conventional silk sutures and N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 24 patients who needed flap surgical procedure for pocket therapy. Results: It was found that healing with the cyanoacrylate is associated with less amount of inflammation during the first week when compared with silk. However, over a period of 21 days to 6 weeks, the sites treated with both the materials showed similar healing patterns. Conclusion: It can be concluded that cyanoacrylate aids in early initial healing.

  1. Sensitivity of photoelectron diffraction to conformational changes of adsorbed molecules: Tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene/Au(111). (United States)

    Schuler, A; Greif, M; Seitsonen, A P; Mette, G; Castiglioni, L; Osterwalder, J; Hengsberger, M


    Electron diffraction is a standard tool to investigate the atomic structure of surfaces, interfaces, and adsorbate systems. In particular, photoelectron diffraction is a promising candidate for real-time studies of structural dynamics combining the ultimate time resolution of optical pulses and the high scattering cross-sections for electrons. In view of future time-resolved experiments from molecular layers, we studied the sensitivity of photoelectron diffraction to conformational changes of only a small fraction of molecules in a monolayer adsorbed on a metallic substrate. 3,3',5,5'-tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene served as test case. This molecule can be switched between two isomers, trans and cis, by absorption of ultraviolet light. X-ray photoelectron diffraction patterns were recorded from tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene/Au(111) in thermal equilibrium at room temperature and compared to patterns taken in the photostationary state obtained by exposing the surface to radiation from a high-intensity helium discharge lamp. Difference patterns were simulated by means of multiple-scattering calculations, which allowed us to determine the fraction of molecules that underwent isomerization.

  2. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Choksi, Swati; Liu, Zheng-Gang, E-mail: [Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)


    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80{sup +} macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206{sup +} TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer.

  3. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Blocks the Occurrence of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang


    Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs promote tumorigenesis because of their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions. Here, we report that butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA blocks occurrence of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Continuous administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, a ROS inhibitor, before or after NNK treatment significantly blocked tumor development, although less effectively when BHA is administered after NNK treatment. Strikingly, BHA abolished the occurrence of F4/80+ macrophages with similar efficiency no matter whether it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Detection of cells from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF confirmed that BHA markedly inhibited the accumulation of macrophages while slightly reducing the number of lymphocytes that were induced by NNK. Immunohistological staining showed that BHA specifically abolished the occurrence of CD206+ TAMs when it was administered before or after NNK treatment. Western blot analysis of TAMs markers, arginase I and Ym-1, showed that BHA blocked NNK-induced TAMs accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrated that inhibiting the occurrence of TAMs by BHA contributes to the inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, suggesting ROS inhibitors may serve as a therapeutic target for treating smoke-induced lung cancer.

  4. Study of interaction of butyl p-hydroxybenzoate with human serum albumin by molecular modeling and multi-spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qin, E-mail: wqing07@lzu.c [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Yaheng, E-mail: zhangyah04@lzu.c [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Sun Huijun, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen Hongli, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen Xingguo, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)


    Study of the interaction between butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (butoben) and human serum albumin (HSA) has been performed by molecular modeling and multi-spectroscopic method. The interaction mechanism was predicted through molecular modeling first, then the binding parameters were confirmed using a series of spectroscopic methods, including fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The thermodynamic parameters of the reaction, standard enthalpy {Delta}H{sup 0} and entropy {Delta}S{sup 0}, have been calculated to be -29.52 kJ mol{sup -1} and -24.23 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively, according to the Van't Hoff equation, which suggests the van der Waals force and hydrogen bonds are the predominant intermolecular forces in stabilizing the butoben-HSA complex. Results obtained by spectroscopic methods are consistent with that of the molecular modeling study. In addition, alteration of secondary structure of HSA in the presence of butoben was evaluated using the data obtained from UV-visible absorbance, CD and FT-IR spectroscopies. - Research highlights: The interaction between butyl p-hydroxybenzoate with HSA has been investigated for the first time. Molecular modeling study can provide theoretical direction for experimental design. Multi-spectroscopic method can provide the binding parameters and thermodynamic parameters. These results are important for food safety and human health when using parabens as a preservative.

  5. Physical Properties and Biological Activity of Poly(butyl acrylate–styrene) Nanoparticle Emulsions Prepared with Conventional and Polymerizable Surfactants (United States)

    Garay-Jimenez, Julio C.; Gergeres, Danielle; Young, Ashley; Dickey, Sonja; Lim, Daniel V.; Turos, Edward


    Recent efforts in our laboratory have explored the use of polyacrylate nanoparticles in aqueous media as stable emulsions for potential applications in treating drug-resistant bacterial infections. These emulsions are made by emulsion polymerization of acrylated antibiotic compounds in a mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene (7:3 w:w) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a surfactant. Prior work in our group established that the emulsions required purification to remove toxicity associated with extraneous surfactant present in the media. This paper summarizes our investigations of poly(butyl acrylate-styrene) emulsions made using anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, and non-charged (amphiphilic) surfactants, as well as attachable surfactant monomers (surfmers), comparing the cytotoxicity and microbiological activity levels of the emulsion both before and after purification. Our results show that the attachment of a polymerizable surfmer onto the matrix of the nanoparticle neither improves nor diminishes cytotoxic or antibacterial effects of the emulsion, regardless of whether the emulsions are purified or not, and that the optimal properties are associated with the use of the non-ionic surfactants versus those carrying anionic, cationic, or zwitterionic charge. Incorporation of an N-thiolated β-lactam antibacterial agent onto the nanoparticle matrix via covalent attachment endows the emulsion with antibiotic properties against pathogenic bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), without changing the physical properties of the nanoparticles or their emulsions. PMID:19523413

  6. Sensitivity of photoelectron diffraction to conformational changes of adsorbed molecules: Tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene/Au(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schuler


    Full Text Available Electron diffraction is a standard tool to investigate the atomic structure of surfaces, interfaces, and adsorbate systems. In particular, photoelectron diffraction is a promising candidate for real-time studies of structural dynamics combining the ultimate time resolution of optical pulses and the high scattering cross-sections for electrons. In view of future time-resolved experiments from molecular layers, we studied the sensitivity of photoelectron diffraction to conformational changes of only a small fraction of molecules in a monolayer adsorbed on a metallic substrate. 3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene served as test case. This molecule can be switched between two isomers, trans and cis, by absorption of ultraviolet light. X-ray photoelectron diffraction patterns were recorded from tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene/Au(111 in thermal equilibrium at room temperature and compared to patterns taken in the photostationary state obtained by exposing the surface to radiation from a high-intensity helium discharge lamp. Difference patterns were simulated by means of multiple-scattering calculations, which allowed us to determine the fraction of molecules that underwent isomerization.

  7. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal. (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina


    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  8. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani


    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  9. Ureteric Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Fistulae: Use of Two Amplatzer Vascular Plugs and N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Employing the 'Sandwich' Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail:; Kalagher, S.; Turba, U. C.; Sabri, S. S.; Park, A.-W.; Stone, J.; Angle, J. F.; Matsumoto, A. H. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Division of Vascular Interventional Radiology (United States)


    PurposeThis study describes and evaluated the effectiveness of occluding distal ureters in the clinical setting of urinary vaginal (vesicovaginal or enterovesicovaginal) fistulae utilizing a new technique which combines Amplatzer vascular plugs and N-butyl cyanoacrylate.MaterialsThis is a retrospective study (January 2007-December 2010) of patients with urinary-vaginal fistulae undergoing distal ureter embolization utilizing an Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique. An 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plug was delivered using the sheath and deployed in the ureter distal to the pelvic brim. Instillation of 0.8-1.5 cc of N-butyl cyanoacrylate into ureter proximal to the Amplatzer plug was performed. This was followed by another set of 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plugs in a technique referred to as the 'sandwich technique.'ResultsFive ureters in three patients were occluded utilizing the above-described technique during the 4-year study period. Mean maximum size Amplatzer used per ureter was 10.8 mm (range, 8-12). One ureter required three Amplatzer plugs and the rest required two. Two patients (3 ureters) were clinically successful with complete resolution of symptoms in 36-48 h. The third patient (2 ureters) was partly successful and required a second Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate sandwich technique embolization. The mean clinical follow-up was 11.3 months (range, 1.7-29.2).ConclusionsThe Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique for occluding the distal ureter is safe and effective with a quick (probably due to the N-butyl cyanoacrylate) and durable (probably due to the Amplatzer plugs) clinical response.

  10. Invertebrate models of alcoholism. (United States)

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A


    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  11. Stress, Epigenetics, and Alcoholism (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C.


    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker’s dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity—for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA–protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism. PMID:23584115

  12. Adolescents, alcohol and aggression. (United States)

    Milgram, G G


    Research findings demonstrate that the majority of young adults consume alcohol and that males drink more and more often than females. A significant number of high school seniors and college students have consumed five or more drinks in a row during a 2-week period. High-risk reasons for consumption include: to become intoxicated, to cope with a problem, because of anger and frustration. Social and behavioral consequences of alcohol use affect a number of young adults. Medium to heavy drinkers expect to experience more aggressiveness after drinking. Common risk factors for serious chronic delinquents and frequent users of drugs include psychological and personality factors as well as family conflict, peer factors and school failure. Although research has not determined that alcohol/drugs cause crime or produce the motivation to commit crimes, a relationship between alcohol/drug use and aggressive behavior is apparent. Alcohol plays a significant role in adolescent deaths due to accidents, homicides and suicides, acts of sexual aggression, and criminality. Implications of the research findings are that programs need to be designed with a clear philosophy and realistic goals and they need to target at-risk adolescents. Implementation of promising prevention strategies should take place in the home, school and community, incorporating the influence of parents and peers.

  13. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility. (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora


    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Consumption of Alcohol Surrogates Among Alcohol-Dependent Women. (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury Evgeny


    This is the first in-depth study of alcohol and surrogate drinking patterns, types, reasons, and correlates among alcohol-dependent women in Belarus. The structured interviews were performed in 2013 with 103 alcohol-dependent women admitted to a narcological clinic in Grodno, Belarus. The results suggest that at least 30.3% of alcohol-dependent women regularly consume samogon (moonshine) and 10.8% of women use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that samogon exceeds licensed vodka in quality is the main motive for its consumption. The results from the present study confirm that noncommercial alcohol use is common among alcohol-dependent women although its use may be underreported. These findings emphasize that the implementation of a comprehensive alcohol policy must take fully into account the consumption of alcohol from illicit sources.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Alcohol Use in Pregnancy ...

  16. Alcohol, emotion and attention: revisiting the Alcohol Myopia Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Izabela Mocaiber; Isabel Antunes David; Letícia de Oliveira; Mirtes Garcia Pereira; Eliane Volchan; Ivan Figueira; Jaime Vila; Walter Machado-Pinheiro


    ... (such as attention and memory), emotion, risk-taking and aggressive behavior are noteworthy. Here, we performed literature review in order to reinterpret alcohol effects on behavior according to the Alcohol Myopia Theory...

  17. [Alcohol and the cardiovascular system]. (United States)

    Frenzel, H; Roth, H; Schwartzkopff, B


    Because of the high frequency of cardiovascular diseases and a steadily increasing consumption of alcohol the potentially causal relationship between alcohol and cardiovascular diseases gains great interest for public health policy. Alcohol and its metabolites induce a toxic damage of myocardial metabolism with an injury of electromechanic coupling. As a consequence of acute alcoholic intake cardiac arrhythmias and a reduced contractility of the myocardium are found not only for chronic alcoholics but also in healthy non-drinkers. Chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages for many years can be the cause of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in a small percentage of patients, who have a bad prognosis. Atria and ventricles are dilated, light and electron microscopic changes of the myocardium are unspecific. The pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy is unknown, modulations of cardiomyocytic membranes are discussed in the course of a toxic damage. In the genesis of atherosclerosis alcohol can approach from different sites: Changings on thrombocytes and an increase of HDL-cholesterin can be protective, however an increase in blood pressure support the process of atherosclerosis. In numerous investigations a smaller degree of atherosclerosis was found for little or moderate alcohol intake, while in chronic heavy abuse of alcohol a higher extent of atherosclerosis was observed. As the amount of alcohol, assumed to be protective against the development of atherosclerosis, is consumed already by the majority of the population, there is no reason to propagate a regulate consume of moderate amount of alcoholic beverages.

  18. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.


    Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027

  19. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)


    Johnson, Brian


    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence ( The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  20. [Adulterated alcoholic beverages]. (United States)

    Magnúsdóttir, Kristín; Kristinsson, Jakop; Jóhannesson, Borkell


    Adulterated alcoholic beverages are legal alcoholic products that have been illicitly tampered with, for instance, by criminally diluting them with water, purposely putting them into new containers to conceal their true origin or adding toxic substances to manipulate the qualities of alcoholic beverages. The collection of cases at the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland, which contains examples of each category of adulteration, is the basis of the present article. Especially noteworthy are cases involving the toxic substances methanol and/or ethylene glycol. Methanol has been added to legally produced wines to increase their "bite" and ethylene glycol to increase their sweetness. Adding these substances to wine has resulted in poisoning or death in other countries, but not in Iceland as far as is known.