Sample records for buttresses

  1. Hypertrophy of the acetabulo-cristal buttress in Homo sapiens. (United States)

    Rader, W T; Peters, C R


    In the early 1970s, excavation at the King site, a contact period Mississippian village in northwest Georgia, yielded the skeletal remains of a robust male (King 65) possessing marked hypertrophy of the acetabulo-cristal buttress. The buttress is morphologically similar to that of Plio-Pleistocene Homo but it is accompanied by an anatomically modern degree of thickening of the gluteal table of the ilium. Although the degree of cortical thickness of the gluteal table of the ilium is apparently species-specific, hypertrophy of the acetabulo-cristal buttress is developmental and may be expressed in all species of Homo.

  2. The effect of buttressing on grounding line dynamics (United States)

    Haseloff, Marianne; Sergienko, Olga


    Changes in ice shelf properties can affect the flow of grounded ice by altering the stress balance at the grounding line. However, attributing observed changes in the flow of grounded ice to specific forcing mechanisms (e.g. variability in oceanic forcing), and quantifying the effects of varying forcings, remains a major challenge for ice sheet modeling. The conclusions drawn from these models often depend on the type of model used. For example, recent simulations with two-dimensional, plan view, ice-flow models suggest that ice shelves can change the stability of grounding lines through buttressing. In contrast, many flow line models exclude ice shelves from their momentum balance. To investigate the role of buttressing for grounding line dynamics, we extend a recently developed boundary layer approach to laterally integrated ice flow models with parameterized buttressing. This approach allows us to determine the backstress at the grounding line as a function of ice shelf properties such as shelf width and length, and to establish the functional dependence of the ice flux at the grounding line on these properties. We find that the steady-state position and stability of marine ice sheets depend on the calving front boundary conditions, and that different calving laws have different effects on grounding line dynamics. Our results show that the prescription of a constant calving front position can lead to multivalued flux-ice thickness relationships and stabilize grounding lines on retrograde slopes. In contrast, a prescribed ice thickness at the calving front can lead to both stable and unstable grounding line positions on beds sloping downwards towards the ocean.

  3. Secure Screw Placement in Management of Acetabular Fractures Using the Suprapectineal Quadrilateral Buttress Plate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. J. Egli; M. J. B. Keel; J. L. Cullmann; J. D. Bastian


    .... The recently introduced suprapectineal quadrilateral buttress plate is specifically designed to prevent secondary medial subluxation of the femoral head, especially in elderly patients with reduced...

  4. Adolescent Volar Barton Fracture with Open Physis treated with Volar Plating using Buttressing Principle

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    Shah H


    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the outcome of Salter- Harris type III distal radius fracture fixed using the principle of buttressing and avoiding screw insertion through the physis. Materials and Method: Eight school going children in the age group of 11-16 years with volar Barton fractures were treated with a volar plate using the buttress principle without inserting screws in the distal fragment. Patients were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Clinical evaluation was done using the Green O’Brien criteria and radiological evaluation using the Sarmiento criteria. Results: The average union time was two months. All the patients had good to excellent functional outcome with full extension and flexion. Conclusion: Buttress plating of volar Barton fractures in the adolescent age group is an excellent technique to achieve satisfactory outcome without violation of the physis.

  5. Secure Screw Placement in Management of Acetabular Fractures Using the Suprapectineal Quadrilateral Buttress Plate


    Egli, R.J.; Keel, M. J. B.; Cullmann, J. L.; Bastian, J. D.


    Acetabular fractures involving predominantly the anterior column associated with a disruption of the quadrilateral surface can be treated with instrumentation implementing the stabilization of the quadrilateral surface. The recently introduced suprapectineal quadrilateral buttress plate is specifically designed to prevent secondary medial subluxation of the femoral head, especially in elderly patients with reduced ability for partial weight bearing. Whereas there are guidelines available for ...

  6. Biomechanical analysis of the acetabular buttress-plate: are complex acetabular fractures in the quadrilateral area stable after treatment with anterior construct plate-1/3 tube buttress plate fixation?

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    Yong-De Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The acetabular buttress-plate has been widely used in treating difficult cases with satisfying clinical results. However, the biomechanical properties of a postoperative acetabular fracture fixed by the buttress-plate are not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of stability after the anterior tube buttress-plate fixation of complex acetabular fractures in the quadrilateral area. METHODS: A construct was proposed based on anterior construct plate - 1/3 tube buttress plate fixation for acetabular both-column fractures. Two groups of six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvises were analyzed: (1 group A, the normal pelvis and (2 group B, anterior construct plate-1/3 tube buttress plate with quadrilateral area fixation. The displacements were measured, and cyclical loads were applied in both standing and sitting simulations. RESULTS: As the load was added, the displacements were Abuttress plate fixation provided a better stable construct for early sitting. The standing mode yielded more significant differences between the groups. Placing a 1/3 tube buttress-plate via an anterior approach is a novel method of providing quadrilateral area support in this setting.

  7. Are quadrilateral surface buttress plates comparable to traditional forms of transverse acetabular fracture fixation? (United States)

    Kistler, Brian J; Smithson, Ian R; Cooper, Seth A; Cox, Jacob L; Nayak, Aniruddh N; Santoni, Brandon G; Sagi, H Claude


    Several construct options exist for transverse acetabular fracture fixation. Accepted techniques use a combination of column plates and lag screws. Quadrilateral surface buttress plates have been introduced as potential fixation options, but as a result of their novelty, biomechanical data regarding their stabilizing effects are nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to determine if this fixation method confers similar stability to traditional forms of fixation. We biomechanically compared two acetabular fixation plates with quadrilateral surface buttressing with traditional forms of fixation using lag screws and column plates. Thirty-five synthetic hemipelves with a transverse transtectal acetabular fracture were allocated to one of five groups: anterior column plate+posterior column lag screw, posterior column plate+anterior column lag screw, anterior and posterior column lag screws only, infrapectineal plate+anterior column plate, and suprapectineal plate alone. Specimens were loaded for 1500 cycles up to 2.5x body weight and stiffness was calculated. Thereafter, constructs were destructively loaded and failure loads were recorded. After 1500 cycles, final stiffness was not different with the numbers available between the infrapectineal (568±43 N/mm) and suprapectineal groups (602±87 N/mm, p=0.988). Both quadrilateral plates were significantly stiffer than the posterior column buttress plate with supplemental lag screw fixation group (311±99 N/mm, p0.223). The infrapectineal group failed at the highest loads (5.4±0.6 kN) and this was significant relative to the suprapectineal (4.4±0.3 kN; p=0.023), lag screw (2.9±0.8 kN; p<0.001), and anterior buttress plate with posterior column lag screw (4.0±0.6 kN; p=0.001) groups. Quadrilateral surface buttress plates spanning the posterior and anterior columns are biomechanically comparable and, in some cases, superior to traditional forms of fixation in this synthetic hemipelvis model. Quadrilateral surface buttress

  8. The flying buttress construct for posterior spinopelvic fixation: a technical note

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    van Ooij Bas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posterior fusion of the spine to the pelvis in paediatric and adult spinal deformity is still challenging. Especially assembling of the posterior rod construct to the iliac screw is considered technically difficult. A variety of spinopelvic fixation techniques have been developed. However, extreme bending of the longitudinal rods or the use of 90-degree lateral offset connectors proved to be difficult, because the angle between the rod and the iliac screw varies from patient to patient. Methods We adopted a new spinopelvic fixation system, in which iliac screws are side-to-side connected to the posterior thoracolumbar rod construct, independent of the angle between the rod and the iliac screw. Open angled parallel connectors are used to connect short iliac rods from the posterior rod construct to the iliac screws at both sides. The construct resembles in form and function an architectural Flying Buttress, or lateral support arches, used in Gothic cathedrals. Results and discussion Three different cases that illustrate the Flying Buttress construct for spinopelvic fixation are reported here with the clinical details, radiographic findings and surgical technique used. Conclusion The Flying Buttress construct may offer an alternative surgical option for spinopelvic fixation in circumstances wherein coronal or sagittal balance cannot be achieved, for example in cases with significant residual pelvic obliquity, or in revision spinal surgery for failed lumbosacral fusion.

  9. Secure Screw Placement in Management of Acetabular Fractures Using the Suprapectineal Quadrilateral Buttress Plate

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    R. J. Egli


    Full Text Available Acetabular fractures involving predominantly the anterior column associated with a disruption of the quadrilateral surface can be treated with instrumentation implementing the stabilization of the quadrilateral surface. The recently introduced suprapectineal quadrilateral buttress plate is specifically designed to prevent secondary medial subluxation of the femoral head, especially in elderly patients with reduced ability for partial weight bearing. Whereas there are guidelines available for safe screw fixation for the anterior and posterior columns, there might be a concern for intra-articular placement of screws placed through the infrapectineal part of the quadrilateral buttress plate. Within this report we analyzed retrospectively screw placement in 30 plates in postoperative CT scans using algorithms for metal artifact reduction. None of the screws of the buttress plate penetrated the hip joint. We describe the placement, length, and spatial orientation of the screws used for fracture fixation and suggest that the use of intraoperative image intensifiers with a combined inlet-obturator view of 30–45° best projects the screws and the hip joint. Preoperative knowledge of approximate screw placement and information for accurate intraoperative imaging may contribute to safe acetabular fracture fixation and may reduce operating time and limit radiation exposure to the patient and the personnel. This trial is registered with KEK-BE: 266/2014.

  10. Secure Screw Placement in Management of Acetabular Fractures Using the Suprapectineal Quadrilateral Buttress Plate. (United States)

    Egli, R J; Keel, M J B; Cullmann, J L; Bastian, J D


    Acetabular fractures involving predominantly the anterior column associated with a disruption of the quadrilateral surface can be treated with instrumentation implementing the stabilization of the quadrilateral surface. The recently introduced suprapectineal quadrilateral buttress plate is specifically designed to prevent secondary medial subluxation of the femoral head, especially in elderly patients with reduced ability for partial weight bearing. Whereas there are guidelines available for safe screw fixation for the anterior and posterior columns, there might be a concern for intra-articular placement of screws placed through the infrapectineal part of the quadrilateral buttress plate. Within this report we analyzed retrospectively screw placement in 30 plates in postoperative CT scans using algorithms for metal artifact reduction. None of the screws of the buttress plate penetrated the hip joint. We describe the placement, length, and spatial orientation of the screws used for fracture fixation and suggest that the use of intraoperative image intensifiers with a combined inlet-obturator view of 30-45° best projects the screws and the hip joint. Preoperative knowledge of approximate screw placement and information for accurate intraoperative imaging may contribute to safe acetabular fracture fixation and may reduce operating time and limit radiation exposure to the patient and the personnel. This trial is registered with KEK-BE: 266/2014.

  11. Hiatoplasty with Crura Buttressing versus Hiatoplasty Alone during Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

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    Andrea Balla


    Full Text Available Introduction. In obese patients with hiatal hernia (HH, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG with cruroplasty is an option but use of prosthetic mesh crura reinforcement is debated. The aim was to compare the results of hiatal closure with or without mesh buttressing during LSG. Methods. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD was assessed by the Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL questionnaire before and after surgery in two consecutive series of patients with esophageal hiatus ≤ 4 cm2. After LSG, patients in group A (12 underwent simple cruroplasty, whereas in group B patients (17, absorbable mesh crura buttressing was added. Results. At mean follow-up of 33.2 and 18.1 months for groups A and B, respectively (p=0.006, the mean preoperative GERD-HRQL scores of 16.5 and 17.7 (p=0.837 postoperatively became 9.5 and 2.4 (p=0.071. In group A, there was no difference between pre- and postoperative scores (p=0.279, whereas in group B, a highly significant difference was observed (p=0.002. The difference (Δ comparing pre- and postoperative mean scores between the two groups was significantly in favor of mesh placement (p=0.0058. Conclusions. In obese patients with HH and mild-moderate GERD, reflux symptoms are significantly improved at medium term follow-up after cruroplasty with versus without crura buttressing during LSG.

  12. Root biomechanics in Rhizophora mangle: anatomy, morphology and ecology of mangrove's flying buttresses. (United States)

    Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Moctezuma, Coral; Ordoñez, Víctor R; Angeles, Guillermo; Martínez, Armando J; López-Portillo, Jorge


    Rhizophora species of mangroves have a conspicuous system of stilt-like roots (rhizophores) that grow from the main stem and resemble flying buttresses. As such, the development of rhizophores can be predicted to be important for the effective transmission of dynamic loads from the top of the tree to the ground, especially where the substrate is unstable, as is often the case in the habitats where Rhizophora species typically grow. This study tests the hypothesis that rhizophore architecture in R. mangle co-varies with their proximity to the main stem, and with stem size and crown position. The allometry and wood mechanical properties of R. mangle (red mangrove) trees growing in a mangrove basin forest within a coastal lagoon in Mexico were compared with those of coexisting, non-buttressed mangrove trees of Avicennia germinans. The anatomy of rhizophores was related to mechanical stress due to crown orientation (static load) and to prevailing winds (dynamic load) at the study site. Rhizophores buttressed between 10 and 33 % of tree height. There were significant and direct scaling relationships between the number, height and length of rhizophores vs. basal area, tree height and crown area. Wood mechanical resistance was significantly higher in the buttressed R. mangle (modulus of elasticity, MOE = 18·1 ± 2 GPa) than in A. germinans (MOE = 12·1 ± 0·5 GPa). Slenderness ratios (total height/stem diameter) were higher in R. mangle, but there were no interspecies differences in critical buckling height. When in proximity to the main stem, rhizophores had a lower length/height ratio, higher eccentricity and higher xylem/bark and pith proportions. However, there were no directional trends with regard to prevailing winds or tree leaning. In comparison with A. germinans, a tree species with wide girth and flare at the base, R. mangle supports a thinner stem of higher mechanical resistance that is stabilized by rhizophores resembling flying

  13. Internal fixation with headless compression screws and back buttress plate for treatment of old Hoffa fracture

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    Min Li


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the early clinical and radiographic outcomes of Hoffa fractures treated by a standard protocol of open reduction and internal fixation using headless compression screws combined with back buttress plate in a consecutive series of 8 Chinese patients. Methods: Open reduction and internal fixation was performed on all patients. The fractures were anatomically reduced and held temporarily by K-wire. If the ends of fractures were atrophic, autologous bone graft from the ipsilateral iliac crest was packed between the ends. Then the fracture fragments were fixed with AO 6.5 mm headless compression cannulated screws. At least two screws were used to provide rotational stability. One pre-contoured reconstruction plate was placed on the nonarticular surface posteromedially or posterolaterally as back buttress plate. Results: All the patients were followed up for at least 12 months (range 12-25 months. All fractures achieved anatomical reduction and healed clinically and radiographically. At recent follow-up, the mean flexion degree was 120.6° (range 110°-135° and the mean extension degree was 2.5° (range 0°-5°. The average visual analogue scale score was 1.6 points (range 0-3. Six patients were assessed as excellent and 2 as good according to the hospital for special surgery knee score system. There were no superficial or deep infections, or hardware breakages. No patient had giving way or locking of the knee, though some had intermittent pain and swelling after strenuous exercise. Injury mechanism had significant influence on the functional outcome (P=0.046.Conclusion: Headless compression screws combined with back buttress plate and/or autologous bone grafting to treat old Hoffa fracture is one of effective measures. It would be conducive to not only fracture healing but also early exercise and functional recovery. Key words: Fractures, bone; Fracture fixation, internal; Intra-articular fractures

  14. A short buttress plate fixation of posterior column through single ilioinguinal approach for complex acetabular fractures. (United States)

    Zhuang, Yan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Hu; Wei, Xing; Liu, Ping; Wang, Peng-Fei; Cong, Yu-Xuan; Lei, Jin-Lai; Kandemir, Utku


    The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new technique for posterior column fixation through the standard ilioinguinal approach. We conducted a retrospective review involving 33 consecutive patients with complex acetabular fractures treated using a short buttress plate fixation of posterior column through single ilioinguinal approach. Radiographic evaluation was performed using criteria described by Matta. Functional outcome was assessed using modified Postel Merle D'Aubigné score. Between 2008 and 2013, 33 adult patients with mean age of 46 years and mean follow up of 37.5 months were enrolled. Anatomic reduction was obtained in 61 % of cases, imperfect reduction in 24 % of cases and poor reduction in 15 % of cases. The average modified Merle d'Aubigné score was 15: categorized as excellent in seven, good in 18, fair in three, and poor in four. One patient died at 15 days because of pulmonary embolism. Four patients sustained temporary lateral femoral cutaneous palsy. At final follow up, two patients had severe post-traumatic arthritis; one of them underwent a total hip arthroplasty at 93 months. None of the patients had loss of reduction. A short buttress plate fixation of posterior column through single ilioinguinal approach for complex acetabular fractures is a safe and effective method.

  15. Thinning sea ice weakens buttressing force of iceberg mélange and promotes calving (United States)

    Robel, Alexander A.


    At many marine-terminating glaciers, the breakup of mélange, a floating aggregation of sea ice and icebergs, has been accompanied by an increase in iceberg calving and ice mass loss. Previous studies have argued that mélange may suppress calving by exerting a buttressing force directly on the glacier terminus. In this study, I adapt a discrete element model to explicitly simulate mélange as a cohesive granular material. Simulations show that mélange laden with thick landfast sea ice produces enough resistance to shut down calving at the terminus. When sea ice within mélange thins, the buttressing force on the terminus is reduced and calving is more likely to occur. When a calving event does occur, it initiates a propagating jamming wave within mélange, which causes local compression and then slow mélange expansion. The jamming wave can also initiate widespread fracture of sea ice and further increase the likelihood of subsequent calving events.

  16. Buttressing staples with cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) reinforces staple lines in an ex vivo peristaltic inflation model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burugapalli, Krishna


    Staple line leakage and bleeding are the most common problems associated with the use of surgical staplers for gastrointestinal resection and anastomotic procedures. These complications can be reduced by reinforcing the staple lines with buttressing materials. The current study reports the potential use of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) in non-crosslinked (NCEM) and crosslinked (XCEM) forms, and compares their mechanical performance with clinically available buttress materials [small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and bovine pericardium (BP)] in an ex vivo small intestine model.

  17. Creep deformation and buttressing capacity of damaged ice shelves: theory and application to Larsen C ice shelf

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    C. P. Borstad


    Full Text Available Around the perimeter of Antarctica, much of the ice sheet discharges to the ocean through floating ice shelves. The buttressing provided by ice shelves is critical for modulating the flux of ice into the ocean, and the presently observed thinning of ice shelves is believed to be reducing their buttressing capacity and contributing to the acceleration and thinning of the grounded ice sheet. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role that fractures play in the ability of ice shelves to sustain and transmit buttressing stresses. Here, we present a new framework for quantifying the role that fractures play in the creep deformation and buttressing capacity of ice shelves. We apply principles of continuum damage mechanics to derive a new analytical relation for the creep of an ice shelf that accounts for the softening influence of fractures on longitudinal deformation using a state damage variable. We use this new analytical relation, combined with a temperature calculation for the ice, to partition an inverse method solution for ice shelf rigidity into independent solutions for softening damage and stabilizing backstress. Using this new approach, field and remote sensing data can be utilized to monitor the structural integrity of ice shelves, their ability to buttress the flow of ice at the grounding line, and thus their indirect contribution to ice sheet mass balance and global sea level. We apply this technique to the Larsen C ice shelf using remote sensing and Operation IceBridge data, finding damage in areas with known crevasses and rifts. Backstress is highest near the grounding line and upstream of ice rises, in agreement with patterns observed on other ice shelves. The ice in contact with the Bawden ice rise is weakened by fractures, and additional damage or thinning in this area could diminish the backstress transmitted upstream. We model the consequences for the ice shelf if it loses contact with this small ice rise

  18. Teflon-buttressed sutures plus pericardium patch repair left ventricular rupture caused by radiofrequency catheter ablation: A case report. (United States)

    Cao, Hao; Zhang, Qi; He, Yanzhong; Feng, Xiaodong; Liu, Zhongmin


    Cardiac rupture often occurs after myocardial infarction or chest trauma with a high mortality rate. However, left ventricular rupture caused by radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is extremely rare. We describe a case of a 61-year-old male who survived from left ventricular rupture caused by a RFCA procedure for frequent ventricular premature contractions. Surgical exploration with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was performed when the signs of cardiac tamponade developed 7 hours after the ablation surgery. Teflon-buttressed sutures of the tear in the left ventricular posterolateral wall and pericardium patch applied to the contusion region on the wall repaired the rupture safely and effectively. Timely surgical intervention under CPB facilitated the survival of the patient. Teflon-buttressed sutures plus pericardium patch achieved the successful repair of the rupture.

  19. Atrophic, aseptic, tibial nonunion: how effective is modified Judet's osteoperiosteal decortication technique and buttress plating? (United States)

    Binod, Bijukachhe; Nagmani, Singh; Bigyan, Bhandari; Rakesh, John; Prashant, Adhikari


    Tibial nonunion is the most common nonunion encountered by the orthopedic surgeon. Repeated surgeries, cost, increased duration of hospital stay, disability, pain all contribute to the increased morbidity. Many methods have been used to treat nonunion of tibia with variable results and none of them are 100 % successful. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of modification of Judet's decortication technique and buttress plating, without bone graft, in the treatment of aseptic, atrophic tibial nonunion. Also, to find the correlation between time of achieving union and time since injury to decortication. Ours is a retrospective study conducted at a Level I trauma center. A total of 35 cases of atrophic tibial nonunion, irrespective of the cause, was treated by modifying Judet's osteoperiosteal decortication and plating during the time period January 2006 to July 2013. Demographic data, range of motion, time of achieving union and clinico-radiological evaluation for union of fracture were included as main outcome measurements. Union was achieved in all cases with a mean duration of 8.34 months. Pain and stiffness of joints were not reported in any case on long-term follow-up and the patients had satisfactory range of motion. Implant removal was done in three cases after fracture union. Treatment of atrophic tibial nonunion is challenging and management of each nonunion has to be customized based on the biological and mechanical characteristics of the nonunion. Plating with osteoperiosteal decortication is an effective and simple technique, which in our hands has shown to result in 100 % union rates without the need of additional bone healing augmentation procedures like bone grafting. Level II.

  20. Effect of acellular human dermis buttress on laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. (United States)

    Ward, Kyle C; Costello, Kevin P; Baalman, Sara; Pierce, Richard A; Deeken, Corey R; Frisella, Margaret M; Michael Brunt, L; Matthews, Brent D


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of acellular human dermis reinforcement during laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. A prospective non-randomized, single institution study enrolled patients undergoing laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. Acellular human dermis, FlexHD (Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation, Edison, NJ) or AlloDerm (LifeCell Inc., Branchburg, NJ) were used to buttress the repair after primary closure. A protocol barium swallow (BAS) was performed at 6 months and then as needed due to clinical indications. Primary outcome measure was recurrence. Patients completed preoperative and postoperative GERD symptom questionnaires and quality of life surveys (SF-36). Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, or Wilcoxon signed-rank test were utilized as appropriate (p hiatal hernia repair using Flex HD (n = 37) or AlloDerm (n = 17). Both groups were similar with respect to gender, age, hiatus size, hernia type [sliding/Type I (n = 14) or paraesophageal/Type III/IV (n = 40)], esophageal motor function (manometry), preoperative SF-36 quality of life surveys, and GERD symptom questionnaires. Forty-seven patients (87 %) completed the BAS at 6 months; each group had two recurrences (p = 0.597). At median follow-up of 33 months, there were 3 recurrences (18 %) in the AlloDerm group and 5 recurrences (14 %) in the Flex HD group (p = 0.365). Minimal differences in GERD symptoms or SF-36 scores were detected between groups. However, anti-reflux medication usage, GERD symptoms, and quality of life significantly improved for both groups after laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. Laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair with acellular human dermis reinforcement results in improvement of GERD-related symptoms and quality of life without mesh-associated complications. The type of acellular human dermis did not influence recurrence rate.

  1. A clinical study of the outcomes and complications associated with zygomatic buttress block bone graft for limited preimplant augmentation procedures. (United States)

    Sakkas, Andreas; Schramm, Alexander; Karsten, Winter; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Wilde, Frank


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using the zygomatic buttress as an intraoral bone harvesting donor site and determine the safety of this harvesting procedure for later optimal positioning of dental implants in accordance with prosthodontic and functional principles. A consecutive retrospective study was conducted on patients who had been treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Ulm military and academic hospital, over a 3-year period (January 2008 to December 2010). Medical history, smoking status, area of surgery, and complications were recorded. The need for bone grafting was defined by the impossibility of installing implants of adequate length or diameter to fulfill prosthetic requirements, or for esthetic reasons. The patients were treated using a 2-stage technique. During the first operation, bone blocks harvested from the zygomatic buttress region were placed as lateral onlay grafts and fixed with titanium osteosynthesis screws after exposure of the deficient alveolar ridge. After 3-6 months of healing, the flap was reopened, the screws removed and the implants placed. A total of 113 zygomatic buttress bone block grafts in 112 patients were performed. Graft loss and graft removal were defined as failure; swelling, wound dehiscence, infection with pus, temporary paresthesia, and perforations of the maxillary sinus membrane were defined as complications. According to our criteria, 4 (3.5%) of the patients presented postoperative complications of the donor site and 20 (17.8%) of the recipient site. Throughout, 93 (82.3%) of the bone grafts were successful and 20 (17.6%) had complications, regardless of the final success of the implant procedure. Smoking was associated with a high rate of complications and graft failure. Early graft exposure appeared to compromise the results, whereas pain and swelling were comparable to usual dentoalveolar procedures. However, in 1.7% of all cases, concerning 2 patients, the final

  2. One point fixation of zygomatic tripod fractures in the zygomatic buttress through Keen's intraoral approach: A review of 30 cases. (United States)

    Dakir, Abu; Muthumani, T; Prabu, N P; Mohan, Rakesh; Maity, Abhishek


    For decades, facial beauty and esthetics have been one of the most important quests of the human race. The lateral prominence and convexity of the zygomatic bone makes it the most important bone for providing the aesthetic facial look and sets up the facial width but at the same time this prominence and convexity makes this bone more vulnerable to injury. Zygomatic complex fractures or tripod fractures are the second most common fractures after nasal fractures among facial injuries. Several studies have been undertaken regarding the reduction and fixation of zygomatic fractures with mini plates and screws. In 2002 Fujioka et al in vivo studies successfully proved that one point fixation at the zygomaticomaxillary complex gives three point alignment and sufficient rigidity when the fractures are not comminuted. In this article, 30 cases have been reviewed with one point fixation of zygomatic complex tripod fractures at the zygomatic buttress through Keen's intraoral approach along with advantages and disadvantages.



    Biju; Sivaprasad; Kumar Babu; Satyanarayana Raju


    INTRODUCTI ON: We studied the clinical and functional outcome of distal radius fractures managed by ligamentotaxis and/or percutaneous pinning versus open reduction & internal fixation by buttress plates. METHODS : This prospective study was conducted during Aug 2012 to October 2014. All skeletally matured patients were having both Intra articular and extra articular Closed Distal Radius fractures were studied. Tre...

  4. Sphenotemporal buttress fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jend, H.H.; Jend-Rossmann, I.


    A new fracture type visible of CT images of the base of the skull is described. In this fracture the sphenoidal connection to the zygomatic and temporal bone breaks off all its three extensions. It was recognized in five patients with severe head injuries. In three surviving patients it was associated with ipsilateral persistent amaurosis. This fracture should alert the investigator to the possible sequelae of the head injury.


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    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: We studied the clinical and functional outcome of distal radius fractures managed by ligamentotaxis and/or percutaneous pinning versus open reduction & internal fixation by buttress plates. METHODS : This prospective study was conducted during Aug 2012 to October 2014. All skeletally matured patients were having both Intra articular and extra articular Closed Distal Radius fractures were studied. Treatment was done either external fixator supplemented with k wires or internal fixation with plate and screws. The radiographic evaluation included radial length, palmar tilt, any evidence of jointincongruity and radio ulnar joint instability and arthritis. The assessments that were made includes Subjective assessment – pain, numbness, weakness of hand, stiffness, OBJECTIVE : R ange of motion measured by hand held goniometer, Measurement of grip strength done by commercially available hand dynamometer. Unaffected hand served as control. RESULTS : Male patients (85.46% outnumbered female patients (14.54% in incidence. The incidence of distal ra dius fractures was common between the ages of 20 to 40 years. Left sided fractures were more common (52.73%. Type III was most common type of fracture (Frykman’s Classification, accounting for 29% of all fractures.25 cases were treated by external fixati on and 30 cases were treated by open reduction and buttress plating. The results were evaluated by using STEWART ET AL anatomical and functional scoring system. The average range of movement at the knee joint was Dorsiflexion 70*, Palmar Flexion 65*, Ulnar Deviation 25*, Radial Deviation 15*, Supination 70*, Pronation 65*. Most common early complication was pin tract infection. Based on the stewar et al scoring, 4(7.27% had excellent, 43(78.18% had good, 7(12.72% had fair, 1(1.81% had poor results. CONC LUSION : We observed that both fixations were equally same, there is no superiority with over the other. The incidence of complications in

  6. Operations buttressed by research - and everything works smoothly

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    Aeijaelae, M.; Ahtikari, J.; Repo, A. [ed.


    The central Finnish town of Jyvaeskylae is home to an IVO energy generation facility which is regarded as one of the most successful power-plant configurations in the world. During its ten years of operation, the Rauhalahti Power Plant, which produces 140 megawatts of district heat, 65 megawatts of industrial steam and 87 megawatts of electricity, has proved successful in terms of both profitability and technology

  7. SUMER Antarctic Ice-shelf Buttressing, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the French National Research Agency’s project on Survey and Modelling of East Antarctica (SUMER), consists of high-resolution information...

  8. Seismic risk assessment for Poiana Uzului (Romania) buttress dam on Uz river (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Toma-Danila, Dragos; Paerele, Cosmin Marian; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Ghita, Cristian


    The most important specific requirements towards dams' safety is the seismic risk assessment. This objective will be accomplished by rating the dams into seismic risk classes using the theory of Bureau and Ballentine, 2002, and Bureau (2003), taking into account the maximum expected peak ground motions at dams' site, the structures vulnerability and the downstream risk characteristics. The maximum expected values for ground motions at dams' site have been obtained using probabilistic seismic hazard assessment approaches. The structural vulnerability was obtained from dams' characteristics (age, high, water volume) and the downstream risk was assessed using human, economical, touristic, historic and cultural heritage information from the areas that might be flooded in the case of a dam failure. A couple of flooding scenarios have been performed. The results of the work consist of local and regional seismic information, specific characteristics of dam, seismic hazard values for different return periods and risk classes. The studies realized in this paper have as final goal to provide in the near future the local emergency services with warnings of a potential dam failure and ensuing flood as a result of a large earthquake occurrence, allowing further public training for evacuation. Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by the Partnership in Priority Areas Program - PNII, under MEN-UEFISCDI, DARING Project no. 69/2014 and the Nucleu Program - PN 16-35, Project no. 03 01 and 01 06.

  9. The Biomechanics of Bony Facial "Buttresses" in South African Australopiths: An Experimental Study Using Finite Element Analysis. (United States)

    Ledogar, Justin A; Benazzi, Stefano; Smith, Amanda L; Weber, Gerhard W; Carlson, Keely B; Dechow, Paul C; Grosse, Ian R; Ross, Callum F; Richmond, Brian G; Wright, Barth W; Wang, Qian; Byron, Craig; Carlson, Kristian J; De Ruiter, Darryl J; Pryor Mcintosh, Leslie C; Strait, David S


    Australopiths exhibit a number of derived facial features that are thought to strengthen the face against high and/or repetitive loads associated with a diet that included mechanically challenging foods. Here, we use finite element analysis (FEA) to test hypotheses related to the purported strengthening role of the zygomatic root and "anterior pillar" in australopiths. We modified our previously constructed models of Sts 5 (Australopithecus africanus) and MH1 (A. sediba) to differ in the morphology of the zygomatic root, including changes to both the shape and positioning of the zygomatic root complex, in addition to creating variants of Sts 5 lacking anterior pillars. We found that both an expanded zygomatic root and the presence of "anterior pillars" reinforce the face against feeding loads. We also found that strain orientations are most compatible with the hypothesis that the pillar evolved to resist loads associated with premolar loading, and that this morphology has an ancillary effect of strengthening the face during all loading regimes. These results provide support for the functional hypotheses. However, we found that an anteriorly positioned zygomatic root increases strain magnitudes even in models with an inflated/reinforced root complex. These results suggest that an anteriorly placed zygomatic root complex evolved to enhance the efficiency of bite force production while facial reinforcement features, such as the anterior pillar and the expanded zygomatic root, may have been selected for in part to compensate for the weakening effect of this facial configuration. Anat Rec, 300:171-195, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A doubly vergent fan structure in the Peninsular Ranges batholith: Transpression or local complex flow around a continental margin buttress? (United States)

    Schmidt, Keegan L.; Paterson, Scott R.


    The Jura-Cretaceous Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB) of southern and Baja California contains a remarkable example of a crustal transition between juxtaposed oceanic and continental floored arcs. Jura-Cretaceous deformation in the PRB is focused along this lithospheric discontinuity and defines a zone of contractional deformation that stretches at least 800 km along the batholith. The western edge of this zone is associated with a dramatic eastward increase in maximum recorded metamorphic pressures (from 2 to 6 kbar) and temperatures (from 650°C). Elsewhere in the North American Cordillera, similar lithospheric boundaries are thought to accommodate various amounts of orogen-parallel displacements of outboard tectonic fragments. To test this proposal in the PRB, we examined an unusually well-preserved part of the transition zone in the southern Sierra San Pedro Martir (SSPM). Here a spectacular ˜20 km wide, doubly vergent fan structure, which developed over a period >40 m.y. during both Jurassic and Cretaceous magmatism, occurs along the transition zone. This structure consists of moderately inward dipping, outward vergent, fold and thrust belts with widespread mylonitic fabrics that steepen toward the center where both mylonitic and magmatic fabrics occur in syntectonic, vertically sheeted plutons. Mineral lineations change from steeply pitching on the sides of the fan to moderately pitching in the center. A number of constraints on possible displacements, rotation of units, and duration of fabric formation limit the amount of orogen-parallel displacement to a few kilometers across the fan structure in the SSPM. Instead, we propose that the fan structure is a local feature that results from a combination of tectonic wedging caused by a cusp of rigid, pre-Mesozoic continental margin crust at this location and vise tectonics that arose from strong lateral rheological gradients resulting from extensive heating by the sheeted tonalite complex, focused deformation along the lithospheric discontinuity, and subsequent strain softening. We suggest that these mechanical controls on deformation during orthogonal convergence may be common in other orogens where similar fan structures have been attributed to transpression, emphasizing the need for caution in interpreting such features as zones of significant, orogen-parallel displacement.

  11. Stabilization of endangered part of structures by building dry brunt brick buttressing, critical case study of plane wall in DKG-North Area, Mohenjo daro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shaikh


    Full Text Available 'World Heritage Sites' are places or buildings of outstanding universal value recognized as constituting a world heritage 'for whose protection it is the duty of the international community as a whole to co-operate'. The concept of World Heritage is at the core of the World Heritage Convention, adopted by Heritage List as a means of identifying, protecting, conserving and presenting those parts of the world's natural and cultural heritage that are of sufficient 'outstanding universal value' to be the responsibility of the international community as a whole. By joining the Convention, nation states are pledged to safeguard the WH S by protecting their national heritage. UNESCO in 1972, to which 160 nations have now been adhered. The Convention came into force in 1975 and established a Site in their territory as part of a universally agreed policy for World. Moenjodaro site covering an area of 555 Acres out of which only 10 % of it has been excavated by exposing 50 Kilometer standing walls. The wall of the main street of DK G Area, Mohen jo Daro partially deformed, due to the torque effects this is studied here on a lateral cross wall in the chief house. Furthermore, the resulting behaviour of the bucking wall demonstrates the significant loadbearing capacity of the structure under service conditions and its high sensitivity to imposed changes of the geometry. Although the tensile stresses exceeded the flexural strength at the vertices and the length of the wall, hence both the geometry and condition of this area are critical for the safety of the wall. The results of this study can improve the assessment and thus help in the preservation of many important structures of the metropolitan city. Here the hydrous characteristic of the brick is studied as a general phenomenon, it is observed that the remains of the sites located in Sindh suffered a lot mostly due to age, human neglect variations of atmospheric condition, severe temperature and natural disasters. The main causes of decay are summarised as: Salt Action and moisture in filtration from ground and atmosphere direct rains. Has also resulted in structural distress including extreme thermal stress, poor site drainage, material decay and visitors behaviour. Hence the brick material is “tired” to performance and its durability decreases under different influences for varying reasons, the causes of decay are material properties or structure properties or by environmental influences thus repair1 is required. The aim of this paper is to study the main deformation affecting Moenjodaro structures, an archaeological site that prospered from 2350 to 1800 BC, thermal stress causing walls to lean and decay structurally.

  12. Translational Response of Toe-Restrained Retaining Walls to Earthquake Ground Motions Using CorpsWallSlip (CWSlip)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebeling, Robert M; Chase, Amos; White, Barry C


    This research report describes the engineering formulation and corresponding software developed for the translational response of rockfounded retaining walls buttressed at their toe by a reinforced...

  13. Zygomatic miniplates for skeletal anchorage in orthopedic correction of Class III malocclusion: A controlled clinical trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erdal Bozkaya; Alime Sema Yüksel; Süleyman Bozkaya


    Objective: To evaluate the effects of facemask therapy, which was anchored from the zygomatic buttresses of the maxilla by using two miniplates, in skeletal Class III patients with maxillary deficiency. Methods...

  14. Legalising same sex marriage and cloning: a need for ethical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    creating a pool of infertile persons” for purposes which go beyond the happiness of same sex couples. The methods adopted are analogical, casuistry and normative. Arguments put forward use same sex married couples situation to buttress the ...

  15. Ophthalmic Care of the Combat Casualty (United States)


    Assistant Professor of Surgery (Ophthalmology), Uniformed Services Uni- versity of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Md; Azar Eye Institute, Salisbury , Md...Medical Corps, US Army Reserve; Azar Eye Institute, 31519 Winter Place Parkway, Suite 1, Salisbury , Maryland 21804, and Assistant Professor of...tresses—such as (a) the external flying buttresses of the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Bayeau, France, or (b) the internal buttresses of such modern

  16. Biomechanics of Internal Fixation Modalities for Middle Phalangeal Base Fracture Dislocation. (United States)

    Foo, Gen-Lin; Ramruttun, Amit K; Cheah, Andre Eujin; Chong, Alphonsus Kin-Sze; Foo, Tun-Lin


    Internal fixation modalities of unstable (>50 percent articular involvement) middle phalangeal volar lip fracture-dislocations include interfragmentary screw and volar buttress plating. This study investigates the mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and stiffness) of interfragmentary screw (IS), simple buttress plating (BP) and buttress plating with subchondral screw (BP+S). Fifteen cadaveric digits (5 index, 5 middle, and 5 ring) were prepared by excising its skin envelope and flexor tendons while preserving the structures around the proximal interphalangeal joint. An oblique osteotomy involving 50 percent of the articular surface was performed, and this was fixed with based on its study group: interfragmentary screw (IS), simple buttress plating (BP) and buttress plating with subchondral screw (BP+S). These specimens were then loaded to failure. Yield strength was as follows: BP+S (33.5±9.76 N), IS (13.6±5.46 N), and BP (8.1±3.84 N). Ultimate tensile strength was as follows: BP+S (49.1±21.4 N), IS (15.6±5.19 N), and BP (8.86±3.99 N). Stiffness was as follows: BP+S (4.77±1.32 N/mm), IS (2.44±0.86 N/mm), and BP (1.84±0.71 N/mm). A buttress plate and screw construct confers significantly more stability than either interfragmentary screw or buttress plate only fixation in an experimental model.

  17. In vitro strain in human metacarpal bones during striking: testing the pugilism hypothesis of hominin hand evolution. (United States)

    Horns, Joshua; Jung, Rebekah; Carrier, David R


    The hands of hominins (i.e. bipedal apes) are distinguished by skeletal proportions that are known to enhance manual dexterity but also allow the formation of a clenched fist. Because male-male physical competition is important in the mating systems of most species of great apes, including humans, we tested the hypothesis that a clenched fist protects the metacarpal bones from injury by reducing the level of strain during striking. We used cadaver arms to measure in vitro strain in metacarpals during forward strikes with buttressed and unbuttressed fist postures and during side slaps with an open palm. If the protective buttressing hypothesis is correct, the clenched fist posture should substantially reduce strain in the metacarpal bones during striking and therefore reduce the risk of fracture. Recorded strains were significantly higher in strikes in which the hand was secured in unbuttressed and slapping postures than in the fully buttressed posture. Our results suggest that humans can safely strike with 55% more force with a fully buttressed fist than with an unbuttressed fist and with twofold more force with a buttressed fist than with an open-hand slap. Thus, the evolutionary significance of the proportions of the hominin hand may be that these are the proportions that improved manual dexterity while at the same time making it possible for the hand to be used as a club during fighting. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Autobuttressing of colorectal anastomoses using a mesenteric flap.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H M


    Anastomotic leakage is a common and dreaded complication of colorectal surgery. Many different approaches have been tried to attempt to reduce leakage and associated morbidity. The concept of reinforcement of an anastomosis by buttressing is well established. Techniques described include using sutures, native omentum, animal or synthetic material. We report a technique for buttressing using a mesenteric flap to envelope the anastomosis. The primary rationale is to reduce clinical sequelae of anastomotic leakage by promoting local containment, as well as providing a scaffold for healing. Using autologous tissue provides a safe, time-efficient and cost-effective buttress without the risks of infection or reaction associated with foreign material. A mesenteric flap is particularly useful in patients in whom omentum is not available due to previous surgery, or to fill the dead space posterior to a low anastomosis within the pelvis.

  19. The Limits of Learning: Homelessness and Educating the Employable Self (United States)

    Gerrard, Jessica


    Across national contexts, in the attempt to develop and buttress "knowledge economies", increasing pressure is placed on the need for flexible lifelong learners capable of constant knowledge and skills renewal. In this paper, I explore the impact of this broader sociopolitical context on the policy approach to poverty and, in particular,…

  20. Gender Disparity in Enrolment into Basic Formal Education in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    Abstract. Research studies have pointed to inequality in access to formal Education in Nigeria in favour of the male; despite the nation's commitment to equality of all, irrespective of race, sex or gender as buttressed by section 18, of the 1999 Nigerian constitution. This situation has grave implications for national ...

  1. divine illumination: the unity of explanation in neo-platonic thoughts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    To buttress Ibn Qayyim‟s assertion is the popular Prophetic. Hadith Qudsi that the more a servant goes ..... Two salient points are delineable from the prophetic response. Firstly, there is no succor following the wrath .... in the dream), angry with man for certain wrong accidentally done to them and sometimes via conscious ...

  2. Application of Integrated Soil Fertility Approach in the Improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This ecological region, to buttress the facts of its inadequacy in soil fertility and crop production, and do to these results, the soil suffers from inherent soil or land degradation, overgrazing, lack of adequate use of modern facing technologies, continuous cultivation, annual bush burning, moistures stress, and related erosion ...

  3. RESONANCE--IOc-to-ber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM shaped crown; often faintly aromatic. Whorls of branches spring at intervals from the main stem. Some species have aerial stilt roots arising from the base of the stem. Old stilt roots often flatten into aerial buttresses in the swamp dwelling Myristica fatua. Gymnacranthera canarica has loop-like breathing roots.

  4. Fracture pattern interpretation in the skull: differentiating blunt force from ballistics trauma using concentric fractures. (United States)

    Hart, Gina O


    There have been several anthropological studies on trauma analysis in recent literature, but few studies have focused on the differences between the three mechanisms of trauma (sharp force trauma, blunt force trauma and ballistics trauma). The hypothesis of this study is that blunt force and ballistics fracture patterns in the skull can be differentiated using concentric fractures. Two-hundred and eleven injuries from skulls exhibiting concentric fractures were examined to determine if the mechanism of trauma could be determined by beveling direction. Fractures occurring in buttressed and non-buttressed regions were examined separately. Contingency tables and Pearson's Chi-Square were used to evaluate the relationship between the two variables (the mechanism of trauma and the direction of beveling), while Pearson's r correlation was used to determine the strength of the relationship. Contingency tables and Chi-square tests among the entire sample, the buttressed areas, and the non-buttressed areas led to the null hypothesis (no relationship) to be rejected. Pearson's r correlation indicated that the relationship between the variables studied is greater than chance allocation.

  5. Dancing out a nation's state of pity and amusement: Kelani's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With music, song, drama, dialogue, mime and poetry and the artistry of dance on screen, Kelani's postcolonial logic is further buttressed in his tenacity as an auteur filmmaker who is highly concerned about the very nature and consequences of Nigeria's ossified political system. Keywords: Tunde Kelani, Hubert Ogunde, ...

  6. Diameter Measurement in Bald Cypress (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol; James E. Hotvedt


    The usual practice of measuring diameter at 4.5 feet ( 1.3 m) or Dbh is meaningless in wetland tree species such as bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), due to the presence of fluted basal swells. Since buttress dimensions usually have no consistent relation to volume or form in the tree, the current practice among...

  7. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research, Vol. 13, No.1, 2013 9 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Malaria is a prime cause of low birth weight in new born, anemia and infant deaths. UNICEF. (2008) noted that malaria causes more than a million deaths each year in Africa. It buttressed that in sub-Sahara Africa alone more than 2,000 children under five die in a day from malaria, while thousands more due to anemia and ...

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of flowering and non-flowering ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained from the flowering O. graveolens plant can justify its traditional use for treatment of common disease conditions. However, further studies should be conducted to buttress these findings and isolation of active antimicrobial components. Key words: Flowering and non-flowering parts of Ocimum graveolen, ...

  9. EJOTMAS 12

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The functions of culture above revealed that culture is a medium of communication, just as it defines the people's identity. It can therefore be inferred that television can define the people's identity since it is medium of communication. To buttress this position, we may take a look at the statement of Obafemi Awolowo in 1959 ...

  10. Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy in a Low Resource Setting: Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and difficulty with breathing are the top presenting complaints. Although sleep apnea ranked fourth, it is possible that caregiver may not have noticed this episode as much as the snoring. However, our findings still buttress the assertion that with more effective antimicrobial therapy the obstructive symptoms as an indication ...

  11. Fagaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soepadmo, E.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.


    Monoecious trees or rarely shrubs, in Mai. evergreen, sometimes buttressed or with stilt-roots; growth mode flushwise, with perular buds. Hairs simple or stellate or fasciculate, rarely with resiniferous colleters, or scales on pits on the underside of the leaf. Leaves simple, spirally arranged,

  12. Challenging the Strength of the Anti-Mercenary Norm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan; Kinsey, Christopher


    of peoples to self-determination and freedom of movement. To buttress these contentions, we draw upon documentary evidence focussing on the immediate period after the Napoleonic Wars up to the end of the first Carlist War in 1840, the Crimean War, and conflicts of national liberation in the de...

  13. Anacardiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding


    Trees, erect or scandent shrubs, or climbers, very rarely epiphytic shrubs; usually with acrid, often turpentine smelling sap becoming black when exposed to the air. Buttresses sometimes present. Stipules absent. Leaves often crowded at the (thickened) end of twigs, spiral or alternate (only

  14. Monetary models and exchange rate determination: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model shows that relative money supplies, income levels and real interest rate differentials provide better forecasts of the naira-US dollar exchange rate. The empirical validity of our MFPM estimates is buttressed by the fact that the coefficient of the difference between the domestic and foreign money supply is close to ...

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1981). This assertion was further buttressed by. Osweiler (1996) who reported that lead slows down haemosynthesis through inhibition of enzymes. A hypochromic, regenerative anaemia was reported to occur in some affected birds poisoned with lead (McDonald, 1988). According to studies (Stohs & Bagchi, 1995; Mateo.

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ÿþU s e r

    metaphyseal defects can be achieved by any of the following methods: cementation, distraction osteogenesis, insertion of hydroxyapatite, allografting or endoprosthetic replacement . The use of bone cement either alone or supported with internal fixation to buttress the bone continues to be one popular method in literatures.

  17. Life Skills Yield Stronger Academic Performance (United States)

    Lindsey, Tommie, Jr.; Mabie, Benjamin


    After one failed attempt to buttress the prospects of black males at a racially diverse high school, teachers fashioned a life skills class that was heavy on racial pride and personal insight. In so doing they borrowed liberally from the Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching by Margery Ginsberg and Raymond Wlodkowski that leans…

  18. Analysis of Reading Habits of Pupils in Public and Private Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading skills are among the competencies that promote gainful use of time, facilitate knowledge acquisition and buttress information dissemination. The importance attached to early development of reading habits necessitated this investigation while identification as exhibited by pupils in their reading exercises provided ...

  19. High variability of climate and surface mass balance induced by Antarctic ice rises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, Jan; Brown, Joel; van den Broeke, Michiel; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Drews, Reinhard; Callens, Denis; Philippe, Morgane; Gorodetskaya, I.V.; van Meijgaard, E.; Tijm - Reijmer, Catharina; Pattyn, F.; van Lipzig, N.P.M.


    Ice rises play key roles in buttressing the neighbouring ice shelves and potentially provide palaeoclimate proxies from ice cores drilled near their divides. Little is known, however, about their influence on local climate and surface mass balance (SMB). Here we combine 12 years (2001–12) of

  20. Antarctic ice rises and rumples : Their properties and significance for ice-sheet dynamics and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsuoka, Kenichi; Hindmarsh, Richard C A; Moholdt, Geir; Bentley, Michael J.; Pritchard, Hamish D.; Brown, Joel; Conway, Howard; Drews, Reinhard; Durand, Gaël; Goldberg, Daniel; Hattermann, Tore; Kingslake, Jonathan; Lenaerts, Jan T M; Martín, Carlos; Mulvaney, Robert; Nicholls, Keith W.; Pattyn, Frank; Ross, Neil; Scambos, Ted; Whitehouse, Pippa L.


    Locally grounded features in ice shelves, called ice rises and rumples, play a key role buttressing discharge from the Antarctic Ice Sheet and regulating its contribution to sea level. Ice rises typically rise several hundreds of meters above the surrounding ice shelf; shelf flow is diverted around

  1. Gender Disparity in Enrolment into Basic Formal Education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research studies have pointed to inequality in access to formal Education in Nigeria in favour of the male; despite the nation's commitment to equality of all, irrespective of race, sex or gender as buttressed by section 18, of the 1999 Nigerian constitution. This situation has grave implications for national development in ...

  2. Kombination von Platte und Fixateur externe zur biologischen Osteosynthese von Mehrfragmentfrakturen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pippow, A.; Krähenbühl, L.; Michel, M. C.; Witschger, P.


    In a comminuted fracture, a unilateral plate doesn't always give enough stability because the contralateral cortex cannot be used as a buttress. New plate systems as the Locking Compression Plate (LCP) may solve this problem. Another method to stabilize the contralateral cortex is by using an

  3. Elaeocarpus tuberculatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    ... used as prayer beads by Hindus, this species produces large, oval but slightly flattened seeds. This majestic tree is character- ized by its giant buttressed trunk and is commonly seen inevergreenforests of Western. Ghats. It bears beautiful large white showy flowers and round fruits which are eaten by small mammals such ...

  4. Earliest signs and management of leakage after bariatric surgeries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed Bekheit


    Oct 25, 2012 ... tro-jejunostomy was hand sewn in OGBP, it was created using a linear cutter stapler in LGBP. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrec- tomy involved gastric tubulization over a 36-French bougie starting 6cm from the pylorus. The staple line was not reinforced by either over-sewing or buttressing material. An.

  5. Evaluation of Drug Prescriptions in Oral Surgery | Ehigiator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Drug Prescriptions in Oral Surgery. ... To evaluate the pattern of medication prescription in an oral surgery outpatient clinic. A questionnaire was distributed to Resident doctord ... This however buttresses that the management of the orofacial pain and dental infection is inherent in dental practice. Keywords: Drig ...

  6. 75 FR 69061 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board (United States)


    ..., Stephanie J Brockman, David A Bromberg, Kenneth M Brott, Matthew J Brown Iii, Robert J Brown, Fred L Brown, Stephanie H Brown, Thomas E Bryan, Paul F Bryan, William N Burch, Linda C Burrows, Charles W Buttress, Larry... Pavetto, Carl S Pease, Harrison G Penry, Judith M Person Jr, George L Peterson, Bradley A Phan, Thomas H...

  7. Language Policy and the Loss of Tungusic Languages. (United States)

    Grenoble, Lenore A.; Whaley, Lindsay J.


    Provides a contrastive analysis of effects of two official policies geared toward promotion of indigenous populations, the Evenki in Siberia and the Oroqen in Northern China. Explores why the the Soviet and Chinese policies failed to buttress Evenki and Oroqen against encroaching languages and why the loss of the Oroqen language occurred faster…

  8. Citizen Participation Through Communicative Action: Towards a New Framework and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen


    The paper addresses public involvement in transport planning and introduces the concepts of communicative action to buttress and complement technical rationality, currently used in the transport planning process. A real-life case study is presented to demonstrate how communicative action was succ...

  9. Effective Knowledge Development in Secondary Schools Educational Level in Contemporary Information Age: Assessment of Availability of Electronic Information Resources in Nigerian School Libraries (United States)

    Bello, Stephen Adeyemi; Ojo, Funmilayo Roseline; Ocheje, Charles Bala


    Relevant electronic information resources in contemporary information age are necessity to buttress teaching and learning for effective knowledge development in educational institutions. The purpose of the study is to know the state of availability of electronic information resources in government owned secondary school libraries in Ijumu Local…

  10. Spontaneous closure of traumatic CSF otorrhoea following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the temporal bone extending in to the tympanomastoid area. Patient was managed conservatively with closure of the fistula and resolution of the leakage within 8 days after injury. We report this to further buttress the role of conservative management in CSF fistula. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 13 (3-4) 2006: pp.

  11. On the Distance Dependence of the Price Elasticity of Telecommunications Demand; Meta-analysis, and Alternative Theoretical Backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwersloot, Hans; Rietveld, Piet


    The positive correlation between the absolute price elasticity of telecommunications demand and the distance of the calling relation is well known. In this paper we first present a meta-analysis of existing studies to buttress the distance dependence empirically. The analysis confirms the existence

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  13. Res Nov 2016 Cover Tp 04.11.16

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Rudraksha) of the family. Elaeocarpaceae is a large endemic tree of evergreen forests of Western Ghats. Bole is buttressed and the bark greyish-brown with red blaze. Leaves are simple, alternate and finely hairy when young. Flowers are borne in ...

  14. In vitro Studies on the Inhibition of α-Amylase and α- Glucosidase by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and reducing sugars. Conclusion: The observed inhibitions of α-amylase and α-glucosidase suggest that the leaf extracts of P. nitida may be useful in the management of diabetes mellitus. This buttresses ...

  15. Pre and post craniotomy psychosis and seizure disorder in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report highlights psychosis and seizures presenting at two distinct periods of time in the course of Meningioma, in a 43 year old Nigerian medical doctor and buttresses the fact that the risk for post operative seizures and other symptoms include a history of pre-operative seizures and the site of the tumor. The subject ...

  16. Celastraceae—I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding


    Trees, erect or scandent shrubs; stems sometimes producing rootlets ( Euonymus spp.), rarely buttressed at the base (e.g. Bhesa) or with aerophores (Lophopetalum multinervium), sometimes thorny (Maytenus spp.) ; sometimes with elastic or resinous threads in the leaves, inflorescences, floral parts,

  17. Res March 2014 Cover Tp.cdr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Lophopetalum wightianum Arn., of the family Celastraceae is a tall evergreen tree of Indo-. Malayan origin and grows in the wet evergreenforests upto 900m of Western Ghats, usually along. StreamS. It is a tall buttressed tree. Bark is smooth with reddish blaze. Branchlets are cylindrical. Leaves are simple, entire, usually ...

  18. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    nitric oxide levels of gastric tissue homogenate compared with other treatment groups. ... compared with other treatment groups which further buttressed biochemical analysis. .... placed in phosphate buffer formalin before it was ..... Purkinje cell population, brain and cerebellar ... tannins from preserved and fresh leaves.

  19. Developing Preservice Teachers' Positionalities in 140 Characters or Less: Examining Microblogging as Dialogic Space (United States)

    Cook, Mike P.; Bissonnette, Jeanne Dyches


    Studies examining preservice teachers' (PSTs) experiences with microblogging and activities that buttress and promote their social justice development have largely occurred in isolation from one another. To that end, this study examines in what ways pairing the popular social networking website Twitter with readings from a young adult literature…

  20. NEGATION IN DAGAARE James Angkaaraba Saanchi* Abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immediacy than b::> with the imperfective. This view is buttressed by the fact to:> with the imperfective may be used in conjunction with a hypothetical situation introduced by a conditional clause while ta with the perfective cannot. Thus while 5c is grammatical, 5d is not. 5c. ka a baa wa yi, b::> zoro. COND DEF dog come out ...

  1. Importing International Law in Post-Conflict States: the Role of Domestic Courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristjánsdóttir, E.; Nollkaemper, A.; Ryngaert, C.


    States that are in transition after a violent conflict or an authoritarian past face daunting challenges in (re)establishing the rule of law. This paper contains the introduction and the conclusion of a volume that empirically examines several recent attempts which states have made to buttress the

  2. Oral Traditions, Changing Rural Landscapes, and Science Education (United States)

    Stapleton, Sarah Riggs


    This forum response extends the argument made by Avery and Hains that oral traditions can be useful for including the cultures and contexts of rural areas within science instruction. To buttress the oral expressions presented in Avery and Hains, I compare oral expressions of a second rural area, 600 miles to the South, in Eastern North Carolina. I…

  3. Putting the "G" Back in English: Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Teach Grammar (United States)

    Hadjioannou, Xenia; Hutchinson, Mary C.


    Classroom teachers need to have a solid foundation in understanding and applying English grammar in order to buttress their content and pedagogical content knowledge and support their students' literacy development. However, teacher preparation programs are challenged to incorporate this kind of content into the existing curriculum, which is…

  4. The effect of ice shelves on the ice flux at the grounding line and implications for marine ice sheet stability (United States)

    Haseloff, M.; Sergienko, O. V.


    Ice shelves transmit ocean forcing (e.g. variations in basal melt rates) inland by changing the stress balance at the grounding line. However, determining mechanisms and quantifying their effects remains a major challenge for ice sheet models, and the conclusions drawn from these models often depend on the type of model used. Recent simulations with two-dimensional, plan view, ice-flow models suggest that ice shelves can change the stability of grounding lines through buttressing. In contrast, ice shelves can be excluded from the momentum balance in computationally-efficient flowline models. Here, we investigate whether parameterized buttressing in laterally integrated models of confined ice shelves can bridge the gap between these two classes of models. We extend a recently developed boundary layer approach to laterally confined, strongly buttressed ice shelves. This allows us to determine the backstress at the grounding line as a function of ice shelf properties such as shelf width and length, and to calculate how the ice flux at the grounding line changes under different parameterizations and calving law choices. In the limit of strong buttressing, we find that calving laws which prescribe the ice thickness at the calving front uniquely determine the flux through the grounding line. Conversely, prescribing a constant calving front position can lead to a multivalued relationship between ice thickness and flux at the grounding line, as has also been suggested by recent results with laterally extended models. However, we find that parameterizations of ice shelf buttressing do not change the stability properties of marine ice sheets in flowline models if either the length of the ice shelf or a constant calving front position are prescribed.

  5. Pour en finir avec le prologue de Gargantua !


    Vigliano, Tristan


    Le texte original est publié dans la revue en ligne @nalyses :; International audience; The prologue to Gargantua is quite unanimously considered as an important reading pact which can apply to all the various chronicles written by Rabelais. Moreover, this prologue is often put forward by literary critics to buttress their theories. But it is so abstruse that its exegesis has fuelled heated debates. My purpose here is to settle the controvers...

  6. Restoration of the church de la Sangre in Llíria (Valencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Primo García


    Full Text Available This text presents the restoration of a single storey church with a chapel between buttresses, with a double hipped roof and a coffered ceiling supported by arches. The author has a look at this typology which is so abundant in the Levant of the Spanish mainland. The restoration carried out afterwards was focused on the recuperation of the valuable original polychrome coffer, and this process is described in detail.

  7. Corporate governance and its political economy




    To fully understand governance and authority in the large corporation, one must attend to politics. Because basic dimensions of corporate organization can affect the interests of voters, because powerful concentrated interest groups seek particular outcomes that deeply affect large corporations, because those deploying corporate and financial resources from within the corporation to buttress their own interests can affect policy outcomes, and because the structure of some democratic gove...

  8. Environmental Inventory and Analysis for Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Volume I. Pine Bluff Metropolitan Area, Arkansas Urban Water Management Study. (United States)


    Bicycling 395 Boating 380 Cultural Activities: Arts and Crafts, Music, Fairs, etc. 376 Hiking 174 Horseback Riding 142 Bird-Watching and Nature Study 120...Church in Arkansas. Construction was begun in 1863 but was interrupted by the Civil War. It was not completed until 1871. It is a simple Gothic Revival...structure with buttressed masonry walls supporting a roof with two pitches, steep over the nave, shallow over the aisles. Stained glass, Gothic -style

  9. On the Distance Dependence of the Price Elasticity of Telecommunications Demand; Meta-analysis, and Alternative Theoretical Backgrounds


    Ouwersloot, Hans; Rietveld, Piet


    The positive correlation between the absolute price elasticity of telecommunications demand and the distance of the calling relation is well known. In this paper we first present a meta-analysis of existing studies to buttress the distance dependence empirically. The analysis confirms the existence of distance dependence, and gives insight into the size of the effect.Next we look for various explanations of the distance dependence. We analyse the roles of the functional form of demand functio...

  10. On the distance dependence of the price elasticity of telecommunications demand; review, analysis, and alternative theoretical backgrounds


    Piet Rietveld; Hans Ouwersloot


    The positive correlation between the absolute price elasticity of telecommunications demand and the distance of the calling relation is often suggested and presented as an empirical regularity. In this paper we first present an overview of existing studies to buttress the distance dependence empirically. A statistical analysis of the results confirms the existence of distance dependence, and gives insight into the size of the effect: doubling the distance leads to an increase of the elasticit...

  11. "A to p" screw versus posterolateral plate for posterior malleolus fixation in trimalleolar ankle fractures. (United States)

    OʼConnor, Timothy J; Mueller, Benjamin; Ly, Thuan V; Jacobson, Aaron R; Nelson, Eric R; Cole, Peter A


    To compare radiographic and clinical midterm outcomes of posterior malleolar fractures treated with posterior buttress plating versus anterior to posterior lag screw fixation. Retrospective case series. Level I trauma center. Between January 2002 and December 2010, patients with posterior malleolar fractures were identified by Current Procedural Terminology code and their charts reviewed for eligibility. Posterior malleolar fixation using either anterior to posterior (AP) lag screws or posterior buttress plating. Demographic data, length of follow-up, range of motion, and postoperative Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) scores were the main outcome measurements. Immediate postoperative radiographs for residual gap/step-off and final follow-up radiographs for the degree of arthritis that developed were evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were eligible for the study, and 27 chose to participate. Sixteen patients underwent posterior buttress plating, and 11 underwent AP screw fixation with mean follow-up times of 54.9 and 32 months, respectively. Demographic data were similar between groups. The posterolateral plating group demonstrated superior postoperative SMFA scores compared with the AP screw group with statistically significant differences in the SMFA bother index (26.7 vs. 9.2, P = 0.03) and trends toward improvement in the mobility (28.3 vs. 12.9, P = 0.08) and functional indices (20.2 vs. 9.4, P = 0.08). There were no significant differences in the range of motion or the development of ankle arthritis over time. Patients with trimalleolar ankle fractures in whom the posterior malleolus was treated with posterolateral buttress plating had superior clinical outcomes at follow-up compared with those treated with AP screws. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. Review of In Vivo Bone Strain Studies and Finite Element Models of the Zygomatic Complex in Humans and Nonhuman Primates: Implications for Clinical Research and Practice. (United States)

    Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Cláudia Rossi, Ana; Ledogar, Justin A; Smith, Amanda L; Dechow, Paul C; Strait, David S; Voigt, Tilman; Ross, Callum F


    The craniofacial skeleton is often described in the clinical literature as being comprised of vertical bony pillars, which transmit forces from the toothrow to the neurocranium as axial compressive stresses, reinforced transversely by buttresses. Here, we review the literature on bony microarchitecture, in vivo bone strain, and finite-element modeling of the facial skeleton of humans and nonhuman primates to address questions regarding the structural and functional existence of facial pillars and buttresses. Available bone material properties data do not support the existence of pillars and buttresses in humans or Sapajus apella. Deformation regimes in the zygomatic complex emphasize bending and shear, therefore conceptualizing the zygomatic complex of humans or nonhuman primates as a pillar obscures its patterns of stress, strain, and deformation. Human fossil relatives and chimpanzees exhibit strain regimes corroborating the existence of a canine-frontal pillar, but the notion of a zygomatic pillar has no support. The emerging consensus on patterns of strain and deformation in finite element models (FEMs) of the human facial skeleton corroborates hypotheses in the clinical literature regarding zygomatic complex function, and provide new insights into patterns of failure of titanium and resorbable plates in experimental studies. It is suggested that the "pillar and buttress" model of human craniofacial skeleton function be replaced with FEMs that more accurately and precisely represent in vivo function, and which can serve as the basis for future research into implants used in restoration of occlusal function and fracture repair. Anat Rec, 299:1753-1778, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Isolated bilateral zygomatic complex and zygomatic arch fractures with oral submucous fibrosis: An unusual and rare case report


    Alagappan Meyyappan; S Vijayparthiban; M Semmia


    Zygomatic bone forms major buttress of the facial skeleton and plays an important role in facial contour. Fractures of zygomatic complex are second most common only next to nasal bone fractures. Motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence are common causes. Bilateral fractures of zygomatic complex and zygomatic arch are very rare. We present a case report of isolated fractures involving bilateral zygomatic complex and zygomatic arch with oral submucous fibrosis, which is unique and fir...

  14. Isolated bilateral zygomatic complex and zygomatic arch fractures with oral submucous fibrosis: an unusual and rare case report. (United States)

    Meyyappan, Alagappan; Vijayparthiban, S; Semmia, M


    Zygomatic bone forms major buttress of the facial skeleton and plays an important role in facial contour. Fractures of zygomatic complex are second most common only next to nasal bone fractures. Motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence are common causes. Bilateral fractures of zygomatic complex and zygomatic arch are very rare. We present a case report of isolated fractures involving bilateral zygomatic complex and zygomatic arch with oral submucous fibrosis, which is unique and first of its kind to be reported.

  15. Model intercomparison of sea-level response to sudden Antarctic ice-shelf collapse (United States)

    Pattyn, Frank; Sun, Sainan; Golledge, Nicholas


    The magnitude of the Antarctic ice sheet's contribution to global sea level is dominated by the potential of its marine sectors to become unstable and collapse to ocean (and atmospheric) forcing. Ice shelf buttressing is a key element in the stability of the Antarctic ice sheet. Therefore, a useful model experiment to test this stability is the sudden removal of all floating ice shelves. It serves several purposes: (i) investigating an upper bound of Antarctic mass loss, and (ii) testing numerical ice sheet models on their sensitivity to grounding line migration and marine ice sheet instability (MISI). Two types of de-buttressing are investigated, i.e., (i) sudden removal followed by ice-shelf regrowth due to increased ice discharge across the grounding line, and (ii) without ice shelf regrowth after de-buttressing (so-called float-kill). Experiments are carried out with two state-of-the-art marine ice sheet models (f.ETISh and PISM) and different settings of grounding-line treatment. For the f.ETISh model these settings pertain to grounding-line flux conditions according to power-law basal sliding and Coulomb friction; for PISM this includes different settings on transition zone width and grounding-line interpolation. Results of the experiments show that regrowth of ice shelves after sudden de-buttressing stabilizes grounding lines and reduces the effect of MISI. Float-kill conditions lead to significant mass loss, which is further exacerbated by the type of grounding-line treatment, i.e., Coulomb friction renders grounding lines more sensitive (Tsai et al., 2015). However, compared to recent model studies where effects of hydro-fracturing and cliff-failure are considered (DeConto and Pollard, 2016), similar amounts of ice loss are only obtained when the highest grounding-line sensitivity is considered.

  16. Containment and contouring (CoCoon) technique: a biologically adequate approach to less invasive autogenous preimplant augmentation of bone. (United States)

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Tehranchian, Shahram; Kokemüller, Horst; Suarez-Cunqueiro, Maria Mercedes


    We have analysed retrospectively whether the less invasive zygomatic buttress graft is able to meet the dimensional and biological requirements of preimplant augmentation of bone. A total of 273 patients were treated by zygomatic buttress graft, of whom 42 (12 men and 30 women) met the criteria for inclusion. Intensity of pain was judged by a visual analogue score (VAS). Complications of grafting were evaluated, and dental implants were studied on clinical and radiographic examinations. The Schneiderian membrane was perforated in 13 cases (28%). The mean (SD) postoperative VAS was 3.1 (0.9) at the donor site. The mean (SD) follow-up after implant was 17(8) months. Two grafts were lost, one from initial dehiscence and later infection, and the other from infection. The mean (SD) marginal resorption of bone graft was 0.5 (0.7) mm. No implant was lost during the observation period. The zygomatic buttress graft meets the biological and dimensional requirements of augmentation of bone before implant that allows the dental implants to survive with satisfactory prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of three different implant thread designs on stress distribution: A three-dimensional finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Manish Oswal


    Full Text Available Purpose: Clinical success of implant prosthodontics is dependent in part upon the type of implant thread design. The selection of implant thread design plays an important role in the outcome of the treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the pattern of stress distribution using a finite element analysis; hence, the area which would be bearing maximum load for a given design would be arrived. Materials and Methods: Three implants with different thread designs, namely V-thread, buttress, and reverse buttress thread designs were considered and dimensions were standardized. The site considered was the mandibular molar region with cortical and trabecular bone assuming to be isotropic and homogeneous. The implant modeling was done with the CATIA software. Vertical loads of 100N were applied. The stresses were calculated as Von Mises stress criterion. Results: Maximum stresses were seen at the cortical bone and were transferred to the implant. Minimum Von Mises stresses were seen with reverse buttress thread design at the cortical bone. The stresses were observed least at the cancellous bone and maximum at the implant. Conclusion: Hence, within the limitations of this study the results obtained can be applied clinically for appropriate selection of implant thread design for a predictable success of implant therapy.

  18. Shear-induced reorganization of renal proximal tubule cell actin cytoskeleton and apical junctional complexes. (United States)

    Duan, Yi; Gotoh, Nanami; Yan, Qingshang; Du, Zhaopeng; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong; Weinbaum, Sheldon


    In this study, we demonstrate that fluid shear stress (FSS)-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization and junctional formation in renal epithelial cells are nearly completely opposite the corresponding changes in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) [Thi MM et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16483-16488]. Mouse proximal tubule cells (PTCs) were subjected to 5 h of FSS (1 dyn/cm(2)) to investigate the dynamic responses of the cytoskeletal distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin), ZO-1, E-cadherin, vinculin, and paxillin to FSS. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that FSS caused basal stress fiber disruption, more densely distributed peripheral actin bands (DPABs), and the formation of both tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). A dramatic reinforcement of vinculin staining was found at the cell borders as well as the cell interior. These responses were abrogated by the actin-disrupting drug, cytochalasin D. To interpret these results, we propose a "junctional buttressing" model for PTCs in which FSS enables the DPABs, TJs, and AJs to become more tightly connected. In contrast, in the "bumper-car" model for ECs, all junctional connections were severely disrupted by FSS. This "junctional buttressing" model explains why a FSS of only 1/10 of that used in the EC study can cause a similarly dramatic, cytoskeletal response in these tall, cuboidal epithelial cells; and why junctional buttressing between adjacent cells may benefit renal epithelium in maximizing flow-activated, brush border-dependent, transcellular salt and water reabsorption.

  19. Hydrological self-regulation of domed peatlands in south-east Asia and consequences for conservation and restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dommain


    Full Text Available This article explores the hydrological constraints on the existence of forested peat domes (peat swamp forests in the humid tropics, the self-regulation mechanisms that enable them to persist and the implications for restoration of damaged domes. The most important requirement for the preservation of peat is permanent saturation by water. The variable input of precipitation must be translated into a constant water supply to the peat mound. In intact tropical peat swamp domes, water is stored above the peat surface in depressions between hummocks that surround tree trunks and between spreading buttress roots. This above-ground water store is analogous to the water stored in the loose upper layer of peat and vegetation in Sphagnum bogs. The horizontal differentiation of the peat swamp forest floor into hummocks with limited hydraulic conductivity and depressions with high storage capacity resembles the hummock-hollow patterning of these Sphagnum bogs. Hummocks and other surface elements functionally resemble V-notch weirs that regulate water availability. Buttressed trees play a key role in providing the structural elements for hydrological self-regulation. An additional level of regulation is found in the concentric zonation of forest types with increased presence of buttressed trees on steeper margins. Conservation and restoration efforts should take into account the inter-relationships between trees, water and peat and the hydrological feedbacks that operate as a consequence.

  20. Impact of External Forcing on Glacier Dynamics at Jakobshavn Isbræ during 1840-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muresan, Ioana Stefania; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy

    Greenland's main outlet glaciers have more than doubled their contribution to global sea-level rise over the past decade through acceleration of ice discharge. One of the triggering mechanisms is a reduction in resistance (buttressing) at the marine based glacier front (i.e. through reduced thick...... and Ice Sensor (LVIS) data during 2007-2012. Our choice of ice sheet model comprises the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) and a continuous 172 years reconstruction of surface mass balance and its sub-components (Box, 2013).......Greenland's main outlet glaciers have more than doubled their contribution to global sea-level rise over the past decade through acceleration of ice discharge. One of the triggering mechanisms is a reduction in resistance (buttressing) at the marine based glacier front (i.e. through reduced...... thickness or retreat of the floating tongue of a glacier) caused by enhanced calving or a longer-term thinning due to a mass deficit of the ice sheet. Recent findings indicate the reduced buttressing at the marine terminus is responsible for the recent dynamic changes observed in Greenland...

  1. Incidence and management of zygomatic fractures at a level I trauma center. (United States)

    Sargent, Larry A; Fernandez, John G


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate current treatment of zygomatic fractures presenting at a level I trauma center. Radiology records over a 1-year period were retrospectively reviewed to determine all patients diagnosed with fractures through the zygoma. A total of 1049 computed tomography maxillofacial scans were reviewed which identified 243 patients with fractures through the zygoma. Of these, 200 patients were identified as clinically relevant zygomatic fractures defined as having 3 or more major buttress fractures. Among the 200 patients identified with zygomatic fractures, 132 patients were treated nonoperatively and 68 patients required operative management. In the operative group 31% were treated with a limited (one-buttress) approach. Review of our management of zygomatic fractures at a level I trauma center found a high incidence of zygomatic fractures (66%) that can be managed nonoperatively without significant complications. There is a select group of zygomatic fractures that can be successfully managed by the experienced surgeon with a limited one-buttress approach.

  2. Ability of modern distal tibia plates to stabilize comminuted pilon fracture fragments: Is dual plate fixation necessary? (United States)

    Penny, Phillip; Swords, Michael; Heisler, Jason; Cien, Adam; Sands, Andrew; Cole, Peter


    The purpose of this study was to examine the screw trajectory of ten commercially available distal tibia plates and compare them to common fracture patterns seen in OTA C type pilon fractures to determine their ability to stabilize the three most common fracture fragments while buttressing anterolateral zones of comminution. We hypothesized that a single plate for the distal tibia would fail to adequately stabilize all three main fracture fragments and zones of comminution in complex pilon fractures. Ten synthetic distal tibia sawbones models were used in conjunction with ten different locking distal tibia plate designs from three manufacturers (Depuy Synthes, J&J Co, Paoli, PA; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN; and Stryker, Mawa, NJ). Both medial and anterolateral plates from each company were utilized and separately applied to an individual sawbone model. Three implants allowing variable angle screw placement were used. The location of the locking screws and buttress effect 1cm above the articular surface was noted for each implant using axial computed tomography (CT). The images were then compared to a recently published "pilon fracture map" using an overlay technique to establish the relationship between screw location and known common fracture lines and areas of comminution. Each of the three main fragments was considered "captured" by a screw if it was purchased by at least two screws thereby controlling rotational forces on each fragment. Three of four anterolateral plates lacked stable fixation in the medial fragment. Of the 4 anterolateral plates used, only the variable angle anterolateral plate by Depuy Synthes captured the medial fragment with two screws. All four anterolateral plates buttressed the area of highest comminution and had an average of 1.25 screws in the medial fragment and an average of 3 screws in the posterolateral fragment. All five direct medial plates had variable fixation within anterolateral and posterolateral fragments with an average of

  3. A novel diamond anvil cell for x-ray diffraction at cryogenic temperatures manufactured by 3D printing (United States)

    Jin, H.; Woodall, C. H.; Wang, X.; Parsons, S.; Kamenev, K. V.


    A new miniature high-pressure diamond anvil cell was designed and constructed using 3D micro laser sintering technology. This is the first application of the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct high-pressure apparatus. The cell is specifically designed for use as an X-ray diffraction cell that can be used with commercially available diffractometers and open-flow cryogenic equipment to collect data at low temperature and high pressure. The cell is constructed from stainless steel 316L and is about 9 mm in diameter and 7 mm in height, giving it both small dimensions and low thermal mass, and it will fit into the cooling envelope of a standard CryostreamTM cooling system. The cell is clamped using a customized miniature buttress thread of diameter 7 mm and pitch of 0.5 mm enabled by 3D micro laser sintering technology; such dimensions are not attainable using conventional machining. The buttress thread was used as it has favourable uniaxial load properties allowing for higher pressure and better anvil alignment. The clamp can support the load of at least 1.5 kN according to finite element analysis (FEA) simulations. FEA simulations were also used to compare the performance of the standard thread and the buttress thread, and demonstrate that stress is distributed more uniformly in the latter. Rapid prototyping of the pressure cell by the laser sintering resulted in a substantially higher tensile yield strength of the 316L stainless steel (675 MPa compared to 220 MPa for the wrought type of the same material), which increased the upper pressure limit of the cell. The cell is capable of reaching pressures of up to 15 GPa with 600 μm diameter culets of diamond anvils. Sample temperature and pressure changes on cooling were assessed using X-ray diffraction on samples of NaCl and HMT-d12.

  4. Takedown of Ankle Arthrodesis With Insufficient Fibula: Surgical Technique and Intermediate-Term Follow-Up. (United States)

    Schuberth, John M; Christensen, Jeffrey C; Seidenstricker, Chad


    Conversion of ankle arthrodesis to total ankle arthroplasty has recently gained popularity. However, technical challenges are present when treating patients without a sufficient fibular buttress. We describe a technique for restoration of an adequate fibular buttress using an iliac crest bone graft or malleolar relocation. The results of 10 patients with an average follow-up period of 56 (range 24 to 123) months are presented. Of the 10 patients, 3 underwent tricortical iliac bone augmentation of the fibula, 4 underwent repositioning of the remnant fibula, and in 3, the in situ fibula was used. The average interval from fusion to takedown was 15.1 (range 5 to 35) years, and the average age at takedown was 52.8 (range 33 to 75) years. The average improvement in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot scale and Buechel-Pappas scale scores was 35.8 (range 30 to 46) and 34 (range 25 to 42), respectively. Three patients underwent a total of 7 subsequent operations related to the ankle implant. Only 1 of the patients had any residual frontal plane deformity. None of the patients exhibited any component subsidence; however, 2 patients experienced asymptomatic lateral talar component overgrowth. The improvement in the clinical scores in this group of patients suggests that takedown of an ankle arthrodesis with an insufficient fibula is a viable option to improve function. Various techniques to restore the lateral buttress can be used even with complete absence of the distal fibula. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of bioabsorbable staple reinforcement material in side-to-side anastomoses: Suture line reinforcement of the weak point of the anastomosis. (United States)

    Kimura, Masahiro; Terashita, Yukio


    Few studies have been designed regarding optimal reinforcement of the crotch of a side-to-side anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the weak point of the side-to-side anastomosis and to evaluate the effect of bioabsorbable reinforcement material. Fresh pig small bowel was used for all experiments. A side-to-side anastomosis was performed using a linear stapler, and the burst pressure of the anastomosis was measured. Three separate experiments were done. In experiment 1, the weak point and the burst pressure of that point were defined. In experiment 2, the burst pressure of the side of the anastomosis was measured. In experiment 3, we evaluated the effect of Neoveil(®) to strengthen the weak point of the anastomosis. The weak point of the side-to side anastomosis was the crotch and the burst pressure was 39.8 ± 5.7 mmHg. The burst pressure of the side of the anastomosis was 109.9 ± 7.9 mmHg. This was significantly higher than the burst pressure of the crotch (P = 0.008). The burst pressure of the crotch in the group with Neoveil(®) was 83.3 ± 14.9 mmHg. This pressure was significantly higher than the group with no Neoveil(®) reinforcement (P = 0.001). These findings suggest that the use of Neoveil(®) as a buttressing material is associated with reinforced staple lines and increased crotch burst pressures compared to non-buttressed staple lines. Neoveil(®) was found to perform comparably to clinically available buttress materials in this ex vivo model. Reinforcement of the weak point of the side-to-side anastomosis with Neoveil(®)may lead to fewer anastomotic leaks.

  6. Accretion of continental extensional zone and development of Rehamna metamorphic dome (Morocco) (United States)

    Chopin, F.; Schulmann, K.; Corsini, M.; El Houicha, M.; Ghienne, J. F.; El Attari, M.


    The Rehamna massif is a part of the Morocco Variscan belt where the metamorphic infrastructure has been exhumed in a continental accretionary wedge. The relationships between infra- and supra-structure tectonics originate by thickening of intra-continental Devonian and Carboniferous (Mississipian) basin. Two superposed deformations probably related to plate configuration changes have been identified. The first one corresponds to the development of the Barrovian metamorphism with a climax estimated at 0.5-0.7 Gpa, 500-550°C (litt.). The thickening of thermally preheated crust is related to a SW vergent nappe stacking in the orogenic infrastructure. This event terminates with large scale folding and extrusion of high grade rocks forming a large scale E-W trending metamorphic dome surrounded by un-metamorphosed Lower Palaeozoic rocks of orogenic suprastructre indicating complete decoupling between the two crustal layers. The second E-W shortening along Western Meseta Shear Zone event is responsible for the development of important deformation gradient orthogonal to the metamorphic dome axis. It is marked by an increase of the strain intensity towards the Cambrian rigid buttress located further west. This deformation gradient is marked by mechanical coupling and gentle folding of infra- and supra-structure in the east, development of slaty cleavage in the central part of the dome and intense deformation front close to the western buttress. Here the superposed fold pattern results in accentuation of asymmetrical NE-SW trending metamorphic dome close to the buttress and to further exhumation of deepest rocks associated with subsequent elevation and folding of metamorphic isograds. 40Ar/39Ar dating reveals that the cooling associated with the first thermal event occurred at around 310 Ma (biotite) while the second thermal event yields typical Alleghanian age around 280 Ma (muscovite). This last thermal event is contemporaneous with magmatic intrusions and continental

  7. Comparative study of comminuted posterior acetabular wall fracture treated with the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuntong; Zhao, Xue; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Chuncai; Xu, Shuogui; Xie, Yang


    Posterior wall fractures are one of the most common acetabular fractures. However, only 30% of these fractures involve a single large fragment, and comminuted acetabular posterior wall fractures pose a particular surgical challenge. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between patients who received fixation for comminuted posterior wall fracture using the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System (ATMFS) and patients who underwent fixation with conventional screws and buttress plates (Plates group). Between April 2003 and May 2007, 196 consecutive patients who sustained a comminuted posterior wall fracture of acetabulum were treated with ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plates. Operative time, fluoroscopy time, blood loss, and any intra-operative complications were recorded. Plain AP and lateral radiographs were obtained at all visits (Matta's criteria). Modified Merle d' Aubigne-Postel score, and Mos SF-36 score were compared between groups. Fifty patients were included in the analysis with 26 in the ATMFS group and 24 in the Plates group. The mean follow-up time was 57.5 months, ranging from 31 to 69 months. All patients had fully healed fractures at the final follow-up. There was no difference in clinical outcomes or radiological evaluations between groups. Patients with comminuted posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum treated with the ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plate techniques achieve a good surgical result. Both techniques are safe, reliable, and practical. Use of the ATMFS technique may reduce blood loss and improve rigid support to marginal bone impaction. The use ATMFS may need additional support when fractures involve the superior roof. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Endoscopic repair of transsellar transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele; case report and review of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalessi, M.D.


    Full Text Available We present an extremely rare case of transsellar transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele in a 36-year-old woman with pituitary dwarfism complaining of nasal obstruction. Imaging studies showed a bony defect in the sellar floor and sphenoid sinus with huge nasopharyngeal mass and 3rd ventricle involvement. Using endoscopic endonasal approach the sac was partially removed and the defect was reconstructed with fat and fascial graft, and buttressed with titanium mesh and septal flap. Visual field improvement was noticed post-operatively and no complication was encountered during follow-up. So, endoscopic endonasal approach with partial resection of the sac is a safe and effective treatment for this disease

  9. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann


    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  10. Technology Corner: Dating of Electronic Hardware for Prior Art Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellam Ismail


    Full Text Available In many legal matters, specifically patent litigation, determining and authenticating the date of computer hardware or other electronic products or components is often key to establishing the item as legitimate evidence of prior art. Such evidence can be used to buttress claims of technologies available or of events transpiring by or at a particular date.In 1945, the Electronics Industry Association published a standard, EIA 476-A, standardized in the reference Source and Date Code Marking (Electronic Industries Association, 1988.(see PDF for full tech corner

  11. Writing Therapies—An Ethnographic Approach to Transcultural Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Sturm


    Full Text Available The paper presents an ethnographic research in the ethnopsychoanalytic tradition about a specific type of therapy, which was developed in France: the transcultural therapy in a "multicultural group setting." The authors detail the construction of their methodological approach, which relies on the French and the Swiss tradition of ethnopsychoanalytic research. This research buttresses the argument that the work on the therapeutic alliance, mediation and the construction of new meanings are central for this type of work. They also describe this setting as a space for profoundly creative encounters and the development of new meanings coming "from the margins" of French society. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100319

  12. Treatment of skeletal 2 malocclusion using bone-plate anchorage. A case report. (United States)

    Kraikosol, Kallaya; Rattanayatikul, Charunee; Godfrey, Keith; Vattraphudej, Theparith


    To report the treatment of a severe Class II division 1 malocclusion using bone-plate anchorage. A 12 year-old Thai girl presented with a skeletal 2, Class II division 1 malocclusion. Following extraction of the maxillary first premolars and mandibular second premolars, the maxillary anterior teeth were retracted and the mandibular posterior teeth moved mesially. A miniplate with screws, placed in each zygomatic buttress, was used as absolute anchorage for coil springs to retract the maxillary anterior six teeth. After treatment, the patient presented with a normal overjet and overbite, a dental Class I relationship bilaterally and an improved facial profile.

  13. Teflon strip pneumostasis for excision of giant emphysematous bullae. (United States)

    Parmar, J M; Hubbard, W G; Matthews, H R


    Excision of giant emphysematous bullae commonly results in a persistent air leak that requires prolonged intercostal drainage and delays recovery. To minimise this we have used Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) strips to buttress the suture line and secure pneumostasis. During 1976-84 eight bullae were excised in seven patients. One patient had bilateral staged thoracotomies. All chest drains were removed within eight days (mean 4.5 days) and no patient developed pulmonary complications. At long term follow up (1-9 years, mean 5.5 years) no complications attributable to the Teflon felt have been identified. Images PMID:3324378

  14. EMNE Catch-up Strategies in the Wind Turbine Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram


    Emerging economy multinationals (EMNEs) are catching up with advanced economy MNEs (AMNEs) even in emerging, high technology industries, where their knowledge-based disadvantages are most severe. We explain this phenomenon by distinguishing between output and innovation capabilities. Successful...... EMNEs' focus on output capabilities need not facilitate innovation catch-up. We compare the knowledge bases of an industry-leading AMNE and a fast-follower EMNE using patent data, buttressed by qualitative information. The AMNE's knowledge base is deeper and composed of more distinct technology groups...

  15. Syllable parsing in English and French

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, M


    In this paper I argue that Optimality Theory provides for an explanatory model of syllabic parsing in English and French. The argument is based on psycholinguistic facts that have been mysterious up to now. This argument is further buttressed by the computational implementation developed here. This model is important for several reasons. First, it provides a demonstration of how OT can be used in a performance domain. Second, it suggests a new relationship between phonological theory and psycholinguistics. (Code in Perl is included and a WWW-interface is running at

  16. Oral traditions, changing rural landscapes, and science education (United States)

    Stapleton, Sarah Riggs


    This forum response extends the argument made by Avery and Hains that oral traditions can be useful for including the cultures and contexts of rural areas within science instruction. To buttress the oral expressions presented in Avery and Hains, I compare oral expressions of a second rural area, 600 miles to the South, in Eastern North Carolina. I explore similarities and differences in expressions from the two areas and consider the changing rural context within Eastern North Carolina. I add a consideration of larger demographic shifts impacting many rural areas—particularly in the US South—and close with a discussion of implications for science education.

  17. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sun


    Full Text Available Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ∼ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  18. What fosters concern for inequality among American adolescents? (United States)

    Cech, Erin A


    Understanding cultural beliefs about social and economic inequality is vital to discerning the roadblocks and pathways to addressing that inequality. The foundation of concern for inequality is laid during adolescence, yet scholars understand little about the factors that influence whether and how adolescents come to express such concern. Arguing that structural and cultural contexts are just as consequential as whether adolescents themselves are members of disadvantaged groups, I draw on four theoretical perspectives to identify factors that influence adolescents' concern for addressing inequality: the underdog thesis, intergroup contact theory, the education enlightens thesis, and ideological buttressing. Using representative restricted-use Educational Longitudinal Survey data, I find that 12th-graders' beliefs are indeed influenced by more than their own demography: the diversity of their social milieu, the content of education in and out of the classroom, and ideological buttressing via political region and entertainment all influence whether they express concern for addressing inequality. These findings suggest extensions and amendments to the four theoretical perspectives and underscore the importance of studying structural and cultural factors that shape beliefs about inequality. The results also point to several interventions that may increase students' concern for inequality: involvement in civic-oriented extracurricular activities, more education in academic subjects that consider inequality, nurturing of cross-race friendships, and increased leisure reading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Staple Line Reinforcement Methods in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: Comparison of Burst Pressures and Leaks. (United States)

    Timucin Aydin, M; Aras, Orhan; Karip, Bora; Memisoglu, Kemal


    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a technically simple and popular bariatric operation with acceptable results. However, leaks can occur in long staple lines, for which various reinforcement methods are used. We compared nonreinforced stapling in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with 3 staple line reinforcement methods: suturing, absorbable buttressing material, and fibrin glue. From March 1 until September 30, 2014, 118 patients with body mass index >40 kg/m(2) underwent sleeve gastrectomy and were enrolled in 4 groups, depending on the type of reinforcement used. The resected stomach specimens were treated with the same methods of reinforcement as used in the surgeries in the corresponding patients and then insufflated until a burst occurred. The burst pressures of the resected stomach specimens and adverse postoperative events were recorded. Five postoperative leaks occurred in the reinforcement groups (fibrin glue, 2; absorbable buttresses, 2; sutures, 1); no leaks were evident in the no-reinforcement group. Suturing afforded the highest burst pressure and took the longest to perform of the methods. There was no correlation between the leaks and burst pressures. All of the leaks occurred in the proximal fundus in the resected stomach specimens and in the affected patients. Although most surgeons use additional reinforcement on long staple lines in sleeve gastrectomy, there is no consensus about its necessity. We did not show any benefit of such reinforcement methods over proper stapling technique alone. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy without staple line reinforcement is safe and avoids additional costs for reinforcement materials.

  20. Skeletal anchorage for the correction of bimaxillary protrusion and gummy smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P P Biswas


    Full Text Available Many methods of achieving maximum anchorage have been experimented by various clinicians through the years. Usage of mini implants has its own limitations, inconsistent results being the most common. However, anchorage using mini plates produced consistent results even though it requires a minor invasive surgical procedure. The aim was to retract and correct a gummy smile of 5 mm, diagnosed to be due to a vertical maxillary excess, with mini plates used bilaterally in the zygomatic buttress region. A modified “L” shaped surgical stainless steel mini plate was inserted and stabilized with 3 screws in the anterior region of the zygomatic buttress and sutured with the tip of the surgical plate exposed in the oral cavity for the attachment of an elastomeric chain to the arch wire. The gummy smile was fully corrected with minimal intrusion of maxillary anteriors. Cephalometrically, there was intrusion and retraction of maxillary incisors with absolutely no anchor loss. The modified surgical mini plate is an excellent tool for the successful correction of the gummy smile and also has proved to be a very efficient absolute anchorage system for en masse retraction.

  1. Holistic morphometric analysis of growth of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma (Echinodermata:Echinoidea:Clypeasteroida). (United States)

    Zachos, Louis G


    Holistic morphometrics is a term implying complete shape characterization of all of the structural parts of an organism. The skeleton of an echinoid is comprised of hundreds of individual plates arranged in a closed 3-dimensional mosaic forming the test. GIS software and techniques were used to generate topologically correct digital models of an ontogenetic series of specimens of the sand dollar echinoid Echinarachnius parma. Plate growth can be considered in proportion to overall skeleton growth, resulting in a linear model of relative growth. Alternatively, separate logistic equations can be fit to the ontogenetic series of homologous plate areas using nonlinear least squares regression to result in a model for instantaneous growth. The linear and logistic parameters of the models describe the allometric growth of plates from different viewpoints. Growth is shown to fall into characteristic patterns defining distinct plate growth domains associated with development of the imago (larval) skeleton just prior to metamorphosis, early growth associated with expansion of the corona and fold-over (forming the flattened body form), juvenile growth and formation of petals, and adult growth. Functions of growth, plate translocation, plate juxtaposition between aboral and oral surfaces, and relationships with internal buttressing are quantified. Results offer explanations for general skeletal symmetry, distinction between ambulacral and interambulacral growth, the relationship of growth to internal buttressing, existence of a distinct petalodium, and anterior-posterior asymmetry during development. The parametric values of growth functions derived from the results are a basis for computational modeling of growth and development in sand dollars.

  2. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model (United States)

    Sun, Sainan; Cornford, Stephen L.; Moore, John C.; Gladstone, Rupert; Zhao, Liyun


    Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM) to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ˜ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor) fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  3. Zygomatic complex fracture: A comparative evaluation of stability using titanium and bio-resorbable plates as one point fixation. (United States)

    Tripathi, Nalini; Goyal, Manoj; Mishra, Brijesh; Dhasmana, Satish


    The malar bone represents a strong bone on fragile support and its processes - frontal, orbital, maxillary and zygomatic are frequently the site of fracture. Current study was done to compare the stability of zygomatic complex fracture using Biodegradable plates and titanium miniplates with one point fixation. Twenty patients of zygomatic complex fracture were randomly selected and divided in two groups which were further divided into two subgroups (A, B). Group I patients were treated with titanium miniplate at zygomatic buttress and Group II was treated by bio-resorbable plates. One point fixation was done either at zygomatic buttress or at frontozygomatic suture and it was observed that both the site have been the most favored site of rigid internal fixation in terms of stability, aesthetics and prevention of rotation of the fracture segment in either vertical or horizontal axis. There is no significant difference in post operative outcomes between two groups, but still bioresorbable system has some advantage over titanium system as these plates resorbs over a period of time and does not cause any interference with growth and post operative radiotherapy. However application of biodegradable system demands highly précised technique.

  4. Flexible fixation and fracture healing: do locked plating 'internal fixators' resemble external fixators? (United States)

    Schmal, Hagen; Strohm, Peter C; Jaeger, Martin; Südkamp, Norbert P


    External and internal fixators use bone screws that are locked to a plate or bar to prevent periosteal compression and associated impairment of blood supply. Both osteosynthesis techniques rely on secondary bone healing with callus formation with the exception of compression plating of simple, noncomminuted fractures. External fixation uses external bars for stabilization, whereas internal fixation is realized by subcutaneous placement of locking plates. Both of these "biologic" osteosynthesis methods allow a minimally invasive approach and do not compromise fracture hematoma and periosteal blood supply. Despite these similarities, differences between the two fixation methods prevail. Locked plating "internal fixators" allow a combination of biomechanical principles such as buttressing and dynamic compression. Periarticular locking plates are anatomically contoured to facilitate fixation of articular fractures. They allow for subchondral stabilization using small-diameter angular stable screws as well as buttressing of the joint and the metaphyseal component of a fracture. Biomechanically, they can be far stiffer than external fixators, because subcutaneous plates are located much closer to the bone surface than external fixator bars. External fixators have the advantage of being less expensive, highly flexible, and technically less demanding. They remain an integral part of orthopaedic surgery for emergent stabilization, for pediatric fractures, for definitive osteosynthesis in certain indications such as distal radius fractures, and for callus distraction.

  5. The use of AMS for the dating of lime mortars (United States)

    Tubbs, Laura Ellen; Kinder, Terryl N.


    In the production of lime mortars CaCO 3 is converted to CaO. Upon setting the CaO reacts with atmospheric CO 2 to form CaCO 3. Attempts to date mortars based on the carbon content of the CaCO 3 have been hampered by two major factors. The original CaCO 3 may not have been completely converted to CaO during heating and the sample will then contain dead carbon leading to an incorrect date. Secondly, marble chips from a construction site may have been added as part of the aggregate material. This will also add dead carbon and produce an erroneous date. The lime mortars contain a second possible source of carbon for dating. Small fragments of charcoal and plant material are often found upon crushing of the sample. This material can be used as the source of carbon for dating. Potential sources of dead carbon in this part of the sample would be if coal was used in the heating process. The use of AMS to determine 14C in lime mortars significantly reduces the amount of sample required and allows measurements to be made on standing structures. The comparison of 14C in lime mortars should allow original and reconstructed or repaired areas of architecturally and historically significant buildings to be discerned. An attempt to apply this method is being made at Pontigny Abbey, a Cistercian church in northern Burgundy which has been dated approximately to the mid-12th century. The building has flying buttresses which appear to belong to the original building campaign, although this structural support is not presently believed to have been developed until several decades later. Conventional art historical methods have been unable to determine whether the flying buttresses are original or added. Recent examinations point to the possibility that they are part of the original structure. Measurements of the 14C content of the plant material found in the lime mortars of the flying buttresses, the earliest parts of the building, and known reconstructed areas of the abbey were

  6. The 11th Century Collapse of Aqaba on the North Coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Fault System, Jordan (United States)

    Niemi, Tina; Allison, Alivia; Rucker, John


    The city of Aqaba is situated at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba along the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform Fault. Based both on the historical accounts and archaeological excavations, it is clear that earthquakes have played a significant role in the history of the region. The early Islamic city of Ayla was probably founded around 650 A.D., suffered some damage as a result of the 748 A.D. earthquake, and saw extensive reconstruction around the beginning of the Abbasid period (Whitcomb, 1994). Among other evidence of earthquake destruction at the Islamic city of Ayla is the leaning city Sea wall. Stratified pottery collections from our February 2009 excavation of the buttress of the city wall of Ayla strongly suggest a date for revetment construction in the early 11th Century. Based on the fact that the most recent pottery from sealed loci inside the buttress wall is late Abbasid - Fatimid and the absence of handmade pottery often found in the abandonment phases, the buttress was likely constructed after liquefaction damage from the 1033 earthquake. Damage from distant source earthquakes (748 and 1033) in the ancient city was repaired in antiquity. The destruction and loss of life (accounts claim that all but 12 residents who had been out fishing were killed) caused by the 1068 earthquake may account for the relative ease with which Baldwin I of Jerusalem took over when he arrived with a small retinue in 1116 A.D. Paleoseismic trenches in the modern city of Aqaba indicate that at least two earthquakes have occurred after deposits dated to 1045-1278 A.D. A preliminary analysis of the stratigraphy in new trenches in the Taba sabkha north of Aqaba shows at least three separate faulting events, with the most recent event located at a depth of 70 cm below the ground surface. This finding supports the initial ground penetrating radar survey conducted at the southern end of the Taba sabkha by Abueladas (2005). These data document a long period of quiescence

  7. Grammar resources for modelling dialogue dynamically. (United States)

    Gargett, Andrew; Gregoromichelaki, Eleni; Kempson, Ruth; Purver, Matthew; Sato, Yo


    This paper argues that by analysing language as a mechanism for growth of information (Cann et al. in The Dynamics of Language, Elsevier, Oxford, 2005; Kempson et al. in Dynamic Syntax, Blackwell, Oxford, 2001), not only does a unitary basis for ellipsis become possible, otherwise thought to be irredeemably heterogeneous, but also a whole range of sub-types of ellipsis, otherwise thought to be unique to dialogue, emerge as natural consequences of use of language in context. Dialogue fragment types modelled include reformulations, clarification requests, extensions, and acknowledgements. Buttressing this analysis, we show how incremental use of fragments serves to progressively narrow down the otherwise mushrooming interpretational alternatives in language use, and hence is central to fluent conversational interaction. We conclude that, by its ability to reflect dialogue dynamics as a core phenomenon of language use, a grammar with inbuilt parsing dynamics opens up the potential for analysing language as a mechanism for communicative interaction.

  8. Is Zaynab Alkali Merely A Feminist Writer? An Appraisal Of The Stillborn And The Virtuous Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amase, Emmanuel Lanior


    Full Text Available Many African literary critics seem to have some preconceived notions about female writers. Consequently, there has been indiscriminate branding of some female writers either as feminists or female chauvinists. This portrays them as incapable of addressing other topical issues of national interest other than those that affect the women directly. In this paper therefore, we have undertaken an appraisal of Zainab Alkali’s The Stillborn and The Virtuous Woman to buttress our position that the issues in her novels transcend gender imbalance. The paper examines Alkal’s treatment of the clash of westernisation, tradition and city life, political mal-administration, poor infrastructure as well as the challenging environment of the emerging cities. These are issues, which we believe, affect both male and female. The paper advocates a broader look at texts rather than the emphasis on the feminist angle in the interpretation of works by female authors at the expense of probably more important issues.

  9. Culture, science and the changing nature of fibromyalgia. (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Walitt, Brian


    Fibromyalgia is a common but contested illness. Its definition and content have changed repeatedly in the 110 years of its existence. The most important change was the requirement for multiple tender points and extensive pain that arose in the 1980s, features that were not required previously. By 2010, a second shift occurred that excluded tender points, allowed less extensive pain, and placed reliance on patient-reported somatic symptoms and cognitive difficulties ('fibro fog') that had never been part of past definitions or content. Fibromyalgia is closely allied with and often indistinguishable from neurasthenia, a disorder of the late 19th and early 20th centuries that lost favour when it was perceived as being a psychological illness. Fibromyalgia's status as a 'real disease', rather than a psychocultural illness, is buttressed by social forces that include support from official criteria, patient and professional organizations, pharmaceutical companies, disability access, and the legal and academic communities.

  10. Probing metastability in oxygen deficient YMn2O5 (United States)

    Pal, Sudip; Kumar, Kranti; Banerjee, A.


    In this article magnetic properties of YMn2O5-δ (δ=0.062) has been investigated through DC magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements. Sample has been prepared through chemical route. Iodometric titration has been used to determine oxygen deficiency and average Mn valance. Significant changes in magnetic properties have been found due to oxygen deficiency in the sample. It is observed that at low field, oxygen deficient sample undergoes only one phase transition around 42K but at higher applied field it shows three magnetic phase transitions while cooling those can be related to phase transitions found in stoichiometric sample. Frequency dependence of ac susceptibility indicates towards metastable nature of low temperature phase observed at low field. This is further buttressed by magnetic relaxation measurements.

  11. Community Engaged Leadership to Advance Health Equity and Build Healthier Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisha Holden


    Full Text Available Health is a human right. Equity in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Addressing the multi-faceted health needs of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in the United States is a complex issue that requires inventive strategies to reduce risk factors and buttress protective factors to promote greater well-being among individuals, families, and communities. With growing diversity concerning various ethnicities and nationalities; and with significant changes in the constellation of multiple of risk factors that can influence health outcomes, it is imperative that we delineate strategic efforts that encourage better access to primary care, focused community-based programs, multi-disciplinary clinical and translational research methodologies, and health policy advocacy initiatives that may improve individuals’ longevity and quality of life.

  12. Fixation of a Proximal Humeral Fracture Using a Novel Intramedullary Cage Construct following a Failed Conservative Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Macy


    Full Text Available A majority of proximal humeral fractures are preferably treated conservatively. However, surgical management may be beneficial in proximal humeral fractures with significant displacement or angulation. Unfortunately, the complication rates associated with current surgical procedures for fracture fixation, ORIF and IM devices, can be unacceptably high. A new technology, termed the PH Cage, addresses the technical limitations associated with current technologies available for fixation of proximal humeral fractures. It allows for intramedullary fixation of a PH fracture and provides direct load bearing support to the articular surface and buttresses the medial column during healing. We are presenting our first experience with the PH Cage for the fixation of a PH fracture, which had previously failed conservative management.

  13. Evidence for strong lateral seismic velocity variation in the lower crust and upper mantle beneath the California margin (United States)

    Lai, Voon; Graves, Robert; Wei, Shengji; Helmberger, Don


    Regional seismograms from earthquakes in Northern California show a systematic difference in arrival times across Southern California where long period (30–50 seconds) SH waves arrive up to 15 seconds earlier at stations near the coast compared with sites towards the east at similar epicentral distances. We attribute this time difference to heterogeneity of the velocity structure at the crust-mantle interface beneath the California margin. To model these observations, we propose a fast seismic layer, with thickness growing westward from the San Andreas along with a thicker and slower continental crust to the east. Synthetics generated from such a model are able to match the observed timing of SH waveforms better than existing 3D models. The presence of a strong upper mantle buttressed against a weaker crust has a major influence in how the boundary between the Pacific plate and North American plate deforms and may explain the observed asymmetric strain rate across the boundary.

  14. Cannabis and psychopathology: The meandering journey of the last decade (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Basu, Debasish


    Since its inception cannabis has been observed to be associated with various psycho-pathology. In this paper, the authors have reviewed the advancement made in this area over the last decade. The association between cannabis and schizophrenia has been researched more intensively. The controversy regarding the reliability, clinical utility, and the existence of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome has also been settled. Recent studies also buttressed the possibility of acute and chronic effect of cannabis on various cognitive functions. There has been a plethora of research regarding the treatment for cannabis use disorders. But the new and most interesting area of research is concentrated on the endocannabinoid system and its contribution in various psychiatric disorders. PMID:26124519

  15. México: contexto econômico e estratégias eleitorais Mexico: economic context and electoral strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alvarez Béjar


    Full Text Available Este "exercício de economia política para a análise da conjuntura" examina diversas dimensões do desempenho recente da economia mexicana para no final orientar a análise para a dimensão política, especialmente no que concerne aos mecanismo de sustentação do poder do PRI e às alianças das principais forças eleitorais.This "exercise in political economy directed to the analysis of the conjuncture" examines several dimensions of the recent performance of the Mexican economy, finishing by focusing the analysis on the political dimension, specially concerning the mechanisms for buttressing the power of the PRI and the alliances between the main electoral forces.

  16. Stepchildren, community disadvantage, and physical injury in a child abuse incident: a preliminary investigation. (United States)

    D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa


    It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology.

  17. Flexible fixation and fracture healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Strohm, Peter C; Jaeger, Martin


    , noncomminuted fractures. External fixation uses external bars for stabilization, whereas internal fixation is realized by subcutaneous placement of locking plates. Both of these "biologic" osteosynthesis methods allow a minimally invasive approach and do not compromise fracture hematoma and periosteal blood...... of articular fractures. They allow for subchondral stabilization using small-diameter angular stable screws as well as buttressing of the joint and the metaphyseal component of a fracture. Biomechanically, they can be far stiffer than external fixators, because subcutaneous plates are located much closer...... to the bone surface than external fixator bars. External fixators have the advantage of being less expensive, highly flexible, and technically less demanding. They remain an integral part of orthopaedic surgery for emergent stabilization, for pediatric fractures, for definitive osteosynthesis in certain...

  18. Abstinence and neutrality: development and diverse views. (United States)

    Schachter, J


    Usually, Freud adopted a technical device for personal or practical reasons and only later formulated its theoretical basis. His conception of abstinence initially seemed designed to curb his own troublesome erotic countertransference. These speculations, while having no bearing on the clinical value of abstinence and related neutrality, do emphasise the necessity to assess their utility objectively, on the basis of clinical data. Diverse views of abstinence and neutrality persist in part because early inconsistencies in Freud's conceptions remain unresolved, and in part because these views are derived from the analyst's personality and character, are not based upon clinical data, but are buttressed by iteration. An approach to empirical assessment is suggested using multiple analyst-observers: (1) to develop reliable criteria for four analyst behaviours: abstinence, neutrality, gratification and suggestion; and (2) to evaluate enhancement or impairment of analytic work. Utilisation of this approach in the supervision of candidates would enhance analytic pedagogy and to some degree facilitate a research orientation in candidates.

  19. The History of Education Institutions in Developed Countries has Lessons for the Reform of the System of Higher Education in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John


    Universities in African countries are widely considered to be a colonial relic that is in desperate need of reform. This article argues that useful lessons for such a reform may be drawn from the developed countries' own education institution policy debates and history, especially as those relate...... to development. In that history, innovation-oriented industrial employers that advocate adjustment and institutional change at universities often clash with the vested interests of the educated elite and its desire to buttress its privileged social position with restrictions on entry into various professions...... and continued as useful complements to the stock of the technically educated in later stages of development. It is therefore suggested that the proper basis for university reform in Africa is to ask first whether the range and quality of educational institutions is appropriate to the current state of private...

  20. Uncommon Dorsal Radiocarpal Fracture Dislocation Complicated With Median Nerve Palsy: Case Report, Review of the Literature, and a New Classification System Guiding the Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing-Cheong Wong


    Full Text Available We report the case of a 36-year-old lorry driver who sustained left dorsal radiocarpal fracture dislocation and left median nerve injury in a traffic accident in 2010. Emergency operation of closed reduction, cross-wrist-bridging external fixation, percutaneous transradial styloid Kirschner wire fixation, decompression of left median nerve, and repair of the partially torn palmar radiocarpal ligament were performed under general anaesthesia. Because of the persistent depressed dorsal articular rim fracture of left distal radius, another operation of open reduction, corticocancellous bone grafting, and dorsal buttress plating was performed 5 days after the initial operation. Six months after the operation, the patient enjoyed good range of wrist motion but weak twisting power, especially in supination. There was no radiological feature of radiocarpal subluxation.

  1. Teaching science as a cultural way of knowing: merging authentic inquiry, nature of science, and multicultural strategies (United States)

    Meyer, Xenia; Crawford, Barbara A.


    Due to the growing number of students from populations underrepresented in the sciences, there is an intensified need to consider alternatives to traditional science instruction. Inquiry-based instructional approaches provide promise and possibility for engaging underrepresented students in the activities of science. However, inquiry-based instruction without culturally relevant pedagogy and instructional congruency, may not be sufficient to support non-mainstream students in science learning, and may even serve to challenge students' cultural ways of knowing. This conceptual paper suggests that aligning reform efforts in science education to the field of multicultural education would buttress efforts to reach underrepresented student groups in science. This includes providing culturally relevant instruction and instruction toward making the assumptions of science explicit, in particular. To this end, this paper draws from literature in multicultural education to propose that deconstructing science through instruction in NOS may support Latino, African American and English language learning students in science learning.

  2. Current understanding of the neurobiology of major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Chiriţă, Anca Livia; Gheorman, Victor; Bondari, Dan; Rogoveanu, Ion


    Depression is highly prevalent worldwide and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately 340 million people worldwide suffer from depression at any given time. Based on estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is responsible for the greatest proportion of burden associated with non-fatal health outcomes and accounts for approximately 12% total years lived with disability. Probably no single risk factor can be completely isolated in major depressive disorder (MDD), as interactions between many sources of vulnerability are the most likely explanation. Buttressing the identification of grief, demoralization, hopelessness and styles of psychological coping of the depressed patient are vital, ongoing scientific developments that flow from an increased understanding of this interplay amongst the immune system, endocrine system and brain. The rapidly accumulating body of neurobiological knowledge has catalyzed fundamental changes in how we conceptualize depressive symptoms and has important implications regarding the treatment and even prevention of depressive symptoms in patients.

  3. Channelized ice melting in the ocean boundary layer beneath Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica. (United States)

    Stanton, T P; Shaw, W J; Truffer, M; Corr, H F J; Peters, L E; Riverman, K L; Bindschadler, R; Holland, D M; Anandakrishnan, S


    Ice shelves play a key role in the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheets by buttressing their seaward-flowing outlet glaciers; however, they are exposed to the underlying ocean and may weaken if ocean thermal forcing increases. An expedition to the ice shelf of the remote Pine Island Glacier, a major outlet of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet that has rapidly thinned and accelerated in recent decades, has been completed. Observations from geophysical surveys and long-term oceanographic instruments deployed down bore holes into the ocean cavity reveal a buoyancy-driven boundary layer within a basal channel that melts the channel apex by 0.06 meter per day, with near-zero melt rates along the flanks of the channel. A complex pattern of such channels is visible throughout the Pine Island Glacier shelf.

  4. The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20th Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion? (United States)

    Hermalin, Albert I.; Lowry, Deborah S.


    The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908–1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20th century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument. PMID:22904585

  5. 'Cold reality in the land of fire': The interrelations of Azerbaijan's natural gas export and foreign policy (United States)

    Marosvari, Csaba

    Azerbaijan, a landlocked post-Soviet country since its independence has been trying to utilize its energy resources in its foreign policy. With production-sharing agreements with Western oil companies beginning with the 1994 signing of the "Contract of the Century" and the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline Azerbaijan successfully opened up its energy sector for foreign investment and used pipelines to stabilize its economy and underpin its foreign policy. The discovery of the Shah Deniz gas field opened up new opportunities for Baku to buttress its foreign policy goals with the export of natural gas. In this Master's thesis I will evaluate and show the importance and significance of natural gas export in Azerbaijani foreign policy.

  6. The Chomsky—Place correspondence 1993–1994 (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam; Place, Ullin T.


    Edited correspondence between Ullin T. Place and Noam Chomsky, which occurred in 1993–1994, is presented. The principal topics are (a) deep versus surface structure; (b) computer modeling of the brain; (c) the evolutionary origins of language; (d) behaviorism; and (e) a dispositional account of language. This correspondence includes Chomsky's denial that he ever characterized deep structure as innate; Chomsky's critique of computer modeling (both traditional and connectionist) of the brain; Place's critique of Chomsky's alleged failure to provide an adequate account of the evolutionary origins of language, and Chomsky's response that such accounts are “pop-Darwinian fairy tales”; and Place's arguments for, and Chomsky's against, the relevance of behaviorism to linguistic theory, especially the relevance of a behavioral approach to language that is buttressed by a dispositional account of sentence construction. PMID:22477211

  7. The design of risk mitigation measures for several large tailings dams in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clelland, Lawrence; Noack, Greg; Viles, Keith [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd, Subbury, (Canada); Donato, Randy; Ross, Trevor [Vale, Sudbury, (Canada)


    Vale Inco recently commissioned a risk assessment study on the main dams in the Sudbury central area. The risk assessment included a desktop review of the historical record, subsurface investigations, flood routing analysis, stability analysis and development of a failure modes and effects analyses table for the dams under review. This paper presented an overview of the design of risk mitigation measures at four of the perimeter dams located near the town of Copper Cliff. The present paper comprised a review of the existing stability of the project dams, which indicated several significant issues, including potential for overtopping in the event of a PMF IDF, previous piping related issues and seismic stability issues. remedial measures were designed to reduce risks associated with the identified issues and generally comprised the construction of a new spillway within the P area and stabilising buttresses for the P area project dams.

  8. Mixture-based combinatorial libraries from small individual peptide libraries: a case study on α1-antitrypsin deficiency. (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Pin; Chu, Yen-Ho


    The design, synthesis and screening of diversity-oriented peptide libraries using a "libraries from libraries" strategy for the development of inhibitors of α1-antitrypsin deficiency are described. The major buttress of the biochemical approach presented here is the use of well-established solid-phase split-and-mix method for the generation of mixture-based libraries. The combinatorial technique iterative deconvolution was employed for library screening. While molecular diversity is the general consideration of combinatorial libraries, exquisite design through systematic screening of small individual libraries is a prerequisite for effective library screening and can avoid potential problems in some cases. This review will also illustrate how large peptide libraries were designed, as well as how a conformation-sensitive assay was developed based on the mechanism of the conformational disease. Finally, the combinatorially selected peptide inhibitor capable of blocking abnormal protein aggregation will be characterized by biophysical, cellular and computational methods.

  9. Upper Miocene reef complex of Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomar, L.


    The late Tortonian-Messinian coral reef platform of south Mallorca onlaps a folded middle late Miocene carbonate platform on which progradation of up to 20 km occurs. Vertical sea cliffs (up to 100 m high) superbly show the last 5 km of this progradation and complement the numerous water-well cores from the island interior. The Mallorca reef presents the most complete facies zonation of the Miocene reefs of the western Mediterranean. The reef wall framework is up to 20 m thick and shows (1) erosional reef flat with reef breccia and small corals; (2) spur-and-grove zone with large, massive corals; (3) deep buttresses and pinnacles with terraces of branching corals; and (4) deep reef wall with flat, laminar coral colonies, branching red algae, and Halimeda sands.

  10. The importance of partnerships, mergers and acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabandt, C.A. [Merrill Lynch, New York, NY (United States)


    An overview of the electric utility industry was presented. The main factors driving mergers and acquisitions in the industry were identified as being consolidation, disaggregation, convergence and international expansion. To prove the point, statistics from recent merger and acquisition transactions in the U.S. were presented. The importance of disaggregation of the utility business and convergence as the major themes of the electricity and natural gas industries were demonstrated. They are driven by a new competitive marketplace and fewer regulations. The driving forces behind them were explained, buttressing the arguments with recent statistics reflecting an upsurge in convergence transactions. Significant opportunities abroad and recent foreign acquisitions by U. S. utilities were also reviewed. With regard to convergence, it was shown to be occurring in both the generation/wholesale and distribution/retail marketing segment of the electric power industry. 3 figs.

  11. Structural Heterogeneities in Southeast Tibet: Implications for Regional Flow in the Lower Crust and Upper Mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang


    Full Text Available Our seismic study together with the MT analysis reveal a “R-shape” flow existing in both the lower crust and uppermost mantle, which suggests the crustal deformation along the deep, large sutures (such as the Longmen Shan fault and the Anninghe Fault under the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is maintained by dynamic pressure from the regional flow intermingled with the hot upwelling asthenosphere. The material in the lower crust and uppermost mantle flowing outward from the center of the plateau is buttressed by the old, strong lithosphere that underlies the Sichuan basin, pushing up on the crust above and maintaining steep orogenic belt through dynamic pressure. We therefore consider that the “R-shape” regional flow played a key role in the crustal deformation along the deep suture zones of the Bangong-Nujiang, the Longmen-Shan faults, and other local heavily faulted zones beneath the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie O. Crofton


    Full Text Available Founded in 1974, American Share Insurance (ASI is an insurer for deposits in credit unions and it is the sole surviving private primary deposit insurer in the US. We assess reasons why ASI survived when numerous other deposit insurance systems did not. These reasons include ASI’s policy of insuring only credit unions, its geographic diversification, its efforts to shed the quasi-governmental nature of other nonfederal deposit insurers, its covering only stronger depositories, its ability to draw funding from stronger insured institutions as needed, and its use of incentives for improved performance among its insured institutions. While the severity of the effects of the housing, financial, and economic crises on depositories and their insurers is yet to become fully clear, ASI’s performance up to the Summer of 2009 points to a set of practices that could help buttress other government and private deposit insurers in the US and abroad.

  13. Direct skeletal traction for Le Fort I halo distraction replacing an intraoral dental splint and connecting traction hook. (United States)

    Satoh, Kaneshige; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Kadomatsu, Kohichi; Tosa, Yasuyoshi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki


    To obviate dental inconveniences after Le Fort I halo distraction using an intraoral dental splint and connecting traction hook, the authors initiated direct skeletal traction using an traction wire at the parapyriformis buttress area. Halo distraction using this procedure was conducted for 11 cleft lip and palate patients (age range, 13-21 years; 6 females and 5 males). Distraction amount ranged from 11 to 15 mm. A satisfactory occlusion was obtained in all patients. All 11 patients complained of pain during the distraction period, but it was controlled by regular oral intake of the usual amount of analgesics. No other particular complications were encountered during the postoperative follow-up of 8 to 18 months. This form of direct skeletal traction proves effective for Le Fort I halo distraction.

  14. Poročanje o sporu glede otočja Diaoyu/Diaoyutai/Senkaku v izbranih slovenskih medijih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa ISTENIČ


    Full Text Available The dispute over the sovereignty of the Diaoyu/Diaoyutai/Senkaku islands remains a source of significant international tension. Given that any miscalculation could lead to a war with unimaginable consequences, the issue has gained media attention across the world. Buttressed with the general newsworthiness of an international conflict, Slovene media has also been attentive to report on the islands’ controversy. Although the remote East Asian region is far down the list of Slovenia’s priorities and ambitions of its politicians, national commercial considerations are connected with a stable and secure environment in East Asia. By applying a combined quantitative and qualitative content analysis of the news stories on the dispute published in Slovene major print and online daily newspapers between 2010 and 2013, the present paper examines Slovene media’s coverage of the islands’ dispute.

  15. Human Elephant Conflict in the Waza-Logone Region of Northern Cameroon: An Assessment of Management Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchamba, MN.


    Full Text Available An investigation into the current level of humanelephant conflicts in the Waza Logone region was carried out during the 2005 rainy season to assess the effectiveness of conflict management. This was done by talking mainly to wildlife authorities, the local agricultural service, the local communities and consulting sequential reports from the nearest enumerators. The number of villages affected was declining in the dry season compared to the rainy season crop raiding. However, general pattern indicates a decline in the number of villages impacted by elephants since the 1992 to 1993 surveys, but comparatively more damaging as shown by the estimated costs. Therefore, the improve in ecological management of the Waza National Park and its elephant population has had a positive impact in the number of villages crop raided but has not definitely resolved the conflicts between man and elephant. Other approaches are needed to buttress the effort been undertaken in the region to date.

  16. Role of complement in in vitro and in vivo lung inflammatory reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czermak, B J; Lentsch, A B; Bless, N M


    Complement is one of the integral buttresses of the inflammatory response. In addition to host defense activities, proinflammatory properties of several complement components are described. This overview elucidates the role of complement in inflammatory reactions in vitro and in vivo, focusing...... on the complement activation products, C5a, and the membrane attack complex, C5b-9. Using several approaches, the impact of these complement components in mechanisms relevant to neutrophil recruitment is emphasized. In addition, the participation of complement in endothelial superoxide generation and its essential...... requirement for full expression of lung injury is demonstrated, as are the involved intracellular signal transduction pathways. Understanding the mechanisms of complement-induced proinflammatory effects may provide a basis for future therapeutic blockade of complement and/or its activation products....

  17. "Reclaiming the white daughter's purity": Afrikaner nationalism, racialized sexuality, and the 1975 Abortion and Sterilization Act in apartheid South Africa. (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M


    This article examines the struggle over abortion law reform that preceded the enactment in 1975 of the first statutory law on abortion in South Africa. The ruling National Party government produced legislation intended to eliminate access to doctors willing to procure abortions in an attempt to prevent young, unmarried white women from engaging in premarital (hetero) sexual activity. It was also aimed at strictly regulating the medical profession’s actions with regards to abortion. The production of the abortion legislation was directly influenced by international struggles for accessible abortion and, more broadly, sexual liberation. The regime believed South Africa was being infiltrated by Western "immorality" and the abortion law was an attempt to buttress racist heteropatriarchal apartheid culture. Examining the abortion controversy highlights the global circulation of ideas about reproduction in the twentieth century and foregrounds a neglected dimension of the history of sexual regulation in apartheid South Africa: the disciplining and regulation of white female reproductive sexuality.

  18. Modelled glacier dynamics over the last quarter of a century at Jakobshavn Isbræ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muresan, Ioana Stefania; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy


    and peaked in the summer 2004, was triggered by the final breakup of the floating tongue. This break-up reduced the buttressing at the JI terminus that resulted in further thinning. As the terminus retreated over a reverse bed slope into deeper water, sustained high velocities over the last decade have been......Observations over the past 2 decades show substantial ice loss associated with the speed-up of marineterminating glaciers in Greenland. Here we use a regional three-dimensional outlet glacier model to simulate the behaviour of Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI) located in western Greenland. Our approach...... observed at JI. Our model provides evidence that the 1998 and 2003 flow accelerations are most likely initiated by the ocean parametrization used but JI's subsequent dynamic response was governed by its own bed geometry. We are unable to reproduce the observed 2010-2012 terminus retreat in our simulations...

  19. Radiologic evaluation of facial injury; Avaliacao radiologica dos traumatismos faciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Volpato, Richard [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail:; Nascimento, Lia Paula [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    A detailed radiological investigation of the maxillofacial injuries is essential to achieve good treatment results. The images should identify every lesion and guide the treatment, thus improving esthetic and functional results. With the aim of simplifying the diagnostic task, the face may be seen as a five regions structure that may suffer a regional fracture or combined fractures involving the adjacent regions. These regions represent areas of focus for pre surgical planning and are as follows: nasal, orbital, zygomatic, maxillary, and mandibular. In order to understand the injury mechanisms and their consequences it is useful to know the supporting buttresses, which are divided in five sagittal planes, three horizontal planes and two coronal planes. We reviewed the cases of patients with facial trauma treated at Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A review of the relevant issues concerning radiological investigation of these injuries is presented. This study allowed standardization and ordering of the radiological investigation in patients with facial trauma. (author)

  20. Management of isolated zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures with an individualized approach: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Datta


    Full Text Available Aim: Fractures of the zygomatico maxillary complex (ZMC are commonly seen after traumatic injuries to the facial skeleton. The aim of the study was to review the outcome of individualized treatment approach in the management of isolated ZMC fractures. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 25 patients was conducted to assess the outcomes of isolated ZMC (iZMC fracture treatment at a multi specialty hospital (Punjab, India over a 3-year period. Results: Out of the 25 patients reviewed, 4 patients required no surgical intervention and 21 patients underwent surgical reduction via the buccal sulcus approach. An individualized treatment plan was formulated for each patient to decide mini plate fixation at one- two- or three-point with or without orbital rim exploration. Two patients required removal of mini plates from the buttress area on postoperative follow up. Conclusion: Our review shows that an individualized treatment approach produces the most favorable results in the management of iZMC fractures.

  1. Positive affect and age as predictors of exercise compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia


    Full Text Available Physical exercise is linked to individuals whose affect profiles are invariably positive and it induces anti-apoptotic and anti-excitotoxic effects, buttressing blood–brain barrier intactness in both healthy individuals and those suffering from disorders accompanying overweight and obesity. In this regard, exercise offers a unique non-pharmacologic, non-invasive intervention that incorporates different regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance, or resistance. In this brief report we present a self-reported study carried out on an adolescent and adult population (N = 280, 144 males and 136 females, which indicated that the propensity and compliance for exercise, measured as the “Archer ratio”, was predicted by a positive affect. This association is discussed from the perspective of health, well-being, affect dimensions, and age.

  2. Cenozoic thrust emplacement of a Devonian batholith, northeastern Brooks Range: Involvement of crystalline rocks in a foreland fold-and-thrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))


    Involvement of crystalline rocks in thrusting near the foreland basin of a fold-and-thrust belt is relatively uncommon. In the northeastern Brooks Range, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was thrust northward and structurally elevated above adjacent foreland basin deposits during Cenozoic fold-and-thrust deformation. The batholith may have acted initially as a regional structural buttress, but a drop in the basal detachment surface to greater depth south of the batholith resulted in northward transport of the batholith. Shortening within the batholith was accommodated by (1) the development of discrete thrust slices bounded by ductile shear zones, (2) simple shear and development of penetrative mesoscopic and microscopic fabrics throughout the batholith, or both. The Mississippian Kayak Shale, a regional detachment horizon at the base of the overlying cover sequence, is depositionally thin or absent adjacent to the batholith. Thus, most of the cover sequence remained structurally coupled to the batholith during thrusting and was shortened by the development of penetrative structures.

  3. Ontogeny of the alligator cartilago transiliens and its significance for sauropsid jaw muscle evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry P Tsai

    Full Text Available The cartilago transiliens is a fibrocartilaginous structure within the jaw muscles of crocodylians. The cartilago transiliens slides between the pterygoid buttress and coronoid region of the lower jaw and connects two muscles historically identified as m. pseudotemporalis superficialis and m. intramandibularis. However, the position of cartilago transiliens, and its anatomical similarities to tendon organs suggest the structure may be a sesamoid linking a single muscle. Incompressible sesamoids often form inside tendons that wrap around bone. However, such structures rarely ossify in reptiles and have thus far received scant attention. We tested the hypothesis that the cartilago transiliens is a sesamoid developed within in one muscle by investigating its structure in an ontogenetic series of Alligator mississippiensis using dissection, 3D imaging, and polarizing and standard light microscopy. In all animals studied, the cartilago transiliens receives collagen fibers and tendon insertions from its two main muscular attachments. However, whereas collagen fibers were continuous within the cartilaginous nodule of younger animals, such continuity decreased in older animals, where the fibrocartilaginous core grew to displace the fibrous region. Whereas several neighboring muscles attached to the fibrous capsule in older individuals, only two muscles had significant contributions to the structure in young animals. Our results indicate that the cartilago transiliens is likely a sesamoid formed within a single muscle (i.e., m. pseudotemporalis superficialis as it wraps around the pterygoid buttress. This tendon organ is ubiquitous among fossil crocodyliforms indicating it is a relatively ancient, conserved structure associated with the development of the large pterygoid flanges in this clade. Finally, these findings indicate that similar tendon organs exist among potentially homologous muscle groups in birds and turtles, thus impacting inferences of jaw

  4. Slope Stability Problems and Back Analysis in Heavily Jointed Rock Mass: A Case Study from Manisa, Turkey (United States)

    Akin, Mutluhan


    This paper presents a case study regarding slope stability problems and the remedial slope stabilization work executed during the construction of two reinforced concrete water storage tanks on a steep hill in Manisa, Turkey. Water storage tanks of different capacities were planned to be constructed, one under the other, on closely jointed and deformed shale and sandstone units. The tank on the upper elevation was constructed first and an approximately 20-m cut slope with two benches was excavated in front of this upper tank before the construction of the lower tank. The cut slope failed after a week and the failure threatened the stability of the upper water tank. In addition to re-sloping, a 15.6-m deep contiguous retaining pile wall without anchoring was built to support both the cut slope and the upper tank. Despite the construction of a retaining pile wall, a maximum of 10 mm of displacement was observed by inclinometer measurements due to the re-failure of the slope on the existing slip surface. Permanent stability was achieved after the placement of a granular fill buttress on the slope. Back analysis based on the non-linear (Hoek-Brown) failure criterion indicated that the geological strength index (GSI) value of the slope-forming material is around 21 and is compatible with the in situ-determined GSI value (24). The calculated normal-shear stress plots are also consistent with the Hoek-Brown failure envelope of the rock mass, indicating that the location of the sliding surface, GSI value estimated by back analysis, and the rock mass parameters are well defined. The long-term stability analysis illustrates a safe slope design after the placement of a permanent toe buttress.

  5. A comparative study of "plasmacup" and "porous-coated" acetabular components: survival after 10 to 12 years of follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Negreiros Vicente


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our primary aim was to compare the long-term survivorship rates and the rates of successful osseointegration between two different types of uncemented acetabular components. INTRODUCTION: Two types of alloys have primarily been used for the manufacture of the uncemented acetabular components: titanium-based and cobalt-based alloys. A titanium-based alloy appears to be more effective with regard to interface stress transfer to the host bone because of its lower elastic modulus relative to a cobalt-based alloy. This supposed mechanical advantage of a titanium-based alloy component motivated this comparative study. METHODS: Two uncemented acetabular components, a porous-coated acetabulum and a Plasmacup®, were compared with a focus on long-term prosthesis survivorship and the development of acetabular osseointegration. Five radiographic signs of osseointegration were evaluated at the last follow-up appointment: (1 absence of radiolucent lines, (2 presence of a superolateral buttress, (3 medial stress-shielding, (4 radial trabeculae, and (5 an inferomedial buttress. We considered the presence of any three of these radiographic signs, in the absence of acetabular dislocation or symptoms, to be indicative of successful acetabular osseointegration. RESULTS: Among 70 patients implanted with the porous-coated acetabulum, 80% achieved osseointegration over a mean follow-up time of 11.9 years versus 75.3% of the 73 patients who received a Plasmacup insert over a mean of 10.7 years. Prosthesis survivorship rates were not different between the two groups. Revision surgery due to mild or severe acetabular osteolysis, polyethylene wear, and aseptic loosening occurred in eight patients (11.4% with a PCA versus nine (12.3% with a Plasmacup. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, during the first ten years after surgery, there is no significant difference between these two types of uncemented cups with regard to either prosthesis survivorship or successful

  6. Biomechanical rationale for surgical-orthodontic expansion of the adult maxilla. (United States)

    Shetty, V; Caridad, J M; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J


    To develop a biomechanical rationale for surgical-orthodontic correction of transverse maxillary deficiencies in adults by clarifying the internal stress responses to rapid palatal expansion in a photoelastic model. A three-dimensional photoelastic analog of an adult human skull was constructed by fabricating the individual facial bones from a photoelastic material and fixing them along their anatomic sutural areas. After determining the force-activation characteristics of a Hyrax expansion appliance in a straining frame, the appliance was applied to the analog and incrementally activated. The stresses developing at the different craniofacial areas were visualized and photographed in the field of a circular polariscope. Sequential cuts were performed to simulate midpalatal, zygomatic buttress, and pterygomaxillary osteotomies, and the alterations in the internal stress responses were recorded after each individual cut. The force-activation characteristics of the Hyrax appliance are in the orthopedic range (500 g). The magnitude and distribution of the stresses induced by appliance activation differed notably between the simulated osteotomies. Analysis of fringe patterns showed that the midpalatal and pterygomaxillary articulations were the primary anatomic sites of resistance to expansion forces. The patterns of distribution and the increase in the magnitude of the stresses at superior sutural location were particularly pronounced after the pterygomaxillary cuts. The forces produced by the Hyrax appliance had deep anatomic effects, with internal stresses also manifesting at regions distant from the site of force application. Based on photoelastic observation, it may be concluded that complete midpalatal and pterygomaxillary osteotomies are essential for predictable skeletal expansion in adults. Exclusive use of bilateral zygomatic buttress osteotomies appears to be inadequate. The expansion forces exerted by the Hyrax appliance are orthopedic in nature and produce

  7. Subduction zone and crustal dynamics of western Washington; a tectonic model for earthquake hazards evaluation (United States)

    Stanley, Dal; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley


    The Cascadia subduction zone is extremely complex in the western Washington region, involving local deformation of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate and complicated block structures in the crust. It has been postulated that the Cascadia subduction zone could be the source for a large thrust earthquake, possibly as large as M9.0. Large intraplate earthquakes from within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Puget Sound region have accounted for most of the energy release in this century and future such large earthquakes are expected. Added to these possible hazards is clear evidence for strong crustal deformation events in the Puget Sound region near faults such as the Seattle fault, which passes through the southern Seattle metropolitan area. In order to understand the nature of these individual earthquake sources and their possible interrelationship, we have conducted an extensive seismotectonic study of the region. We have employed P-wave velocity models developed using local earthquake tomography as a key tool in this research. Other information utilized includes geological, paleoseismic, gravity, magnetic, magnetotelluric, deformation, seismicity, focal mechanism and geodetic data. Neotectonic concepts were tested and augmented through use of anelastic (creep) deformation models based on thin-plate, finite-element techniques developed by Peter Bird, UCLA. These programs model anelastic strain rate, stress, and velocity fields for given rheological parameters, variable crust and lithosphere thicknesses, heat flow, and elevation. Known faults in western Washington and the main Cascadia subduction thrust were incorporated in the modeling process. Significant results from the velocity models include delineation of a previously studied arch in the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. The axis of the arch is oriented in the direction of current subduction and asymmetrically deformed due to the effects of a northern buttress mapped in the velocity models. This

  8. Putting Roman Dams in Context: a Virtual Approach (United States)

    Decker, M. J.; Du Vernay, J. P.; Mcleod, J. B.


    Water resources and management have become a critical global issue. During the half-millennium of its existence, the Roman Empire developed numerous strategies to cope with water management, from large-scale urban aqueduct systems, to industrial-scale water mills designed to cope with feeding growing city populations. Roman engineers encountered, adopted, and adapted indigenous hydraulic systems, and left lasting imprints on the landscape of the Mediterranean and temperate Western Europe by employing a range of water technologies. A recent academic study has enabled the identification of remains of and references to seventy-two dams from the Roman era, constructed in Spain between the 1st and 4th century AD. Such unique heritage, without comparisons in the Mediterranean makes Spain an emblematic case study for the analysis of Roman hydraulic engineering and water management policies. Fifty dams have been located and detailed. The twenty-two outstanding, although identified on the ground, have not been able to be acceptably characterized, due in some cases to their being ruins in a highly degraded state, others due to their being masked by repairs and reconstructions subsequent to the Roman era. A good example of such neglected dams is the buttress dam of Consuegra , in Toledo province (Castilla-La Mancha). Dating to the 3rd - 4th century AD, the Dam of Consuegra, on the basin of the Guadiana, with its over 600 metres length and 4,80 metres height, is a remarkable case of Roman engineering mastery. It had a retaining wall upstream, numerous buttresses and perhaps an embankment downstream, of which no remains are left. The application of 3D digital imaging technique to create a high quality virtual model of such monuments has proved to be successful especially for the study of the technological aspects related its construction. The case study of the Roman dam of Muel (Zaragoza) has shown, in fact, as best practices in digital archaeology can provide an original and

  9. Homo naledi pelvic remains from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa. (United States)

    VanSickle, Caroline; Cofran, Zachary; García-Martínez, Daniel; Williams, Scott A; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R; Hawks, John


    In the hominin fossil record, pelvic remains are sparse and are difficult to attribute taxonomically when they are not directly associated with craniodental material. Here we describe the pelvic remains from the Dinaledi Chamber in the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, which has produced hominin fossils of a new species, Homo naledi. Though this species has been attributed to Homo based on cranial and lower limb morphology, the morphology of some of the fragmentary pelvic remains recovered align more closely with specimens attributed to the species Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus than they do with those of most (but not all) known species of the genus Homo. As with A. afarensis and A. africanus, H. naledi appears to have had marked lateral iliac flare and either a weakly developed or non-existent acetabulocristal buttress or a distinct, albeit weakly developed, acetabulospinous buttress. At the same time, H. naledi has robust superior pubic and ischiopubic rami and a short ischium with a narrow tuberoacetabular sulcus, similar to those found in modern humans. The fragmentary nature of the Dinaledi pelvic assemblage makes the attribution of sex and developmental age to individual specimens difficult, which in turn diminishes our ability to identify the number of individuals represented in the assemblage. At present, we can only confidently say that the pelvic fossils from Rising Star represent at least four individuals based on the presence of four overlapping right ischial fossils (whereas a minimum of 15 individuals can be identified from the Dinaledi dental assemblage). A primitive, early Australopithecus-like false pelvis combined with a derived Homo-like true pelvis is morphologically consistent with evidence from the lower ribcage and proximal femur of H. naledi. The overall similarity of H. naledi ilia to those of australopiths supports the inference, drawn from the observation of primitive pelvic


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    M. J. Decker


    Full Text Available Water resources and management have become a critical global issue. During the half-millennium of its existence, the Roman Empire developed numerous strategies to cope with water management, from large-scale urban aqueduct systems, to industrial-scale water mills designed to cope with feeding growing city populations. Roman engineers encountered, adopted, and adapted indigenous hydraulic systems, and left lasting imprints on the landscape of the Mediterranean and temperate Western Europe by employing a range of water technologies. A recent academic study has enabled the identification of remains of and references to seventy-two dams from the Roman era, constructed in Spain between the 1st and 4th century AD. Such unique heritage, without comparisons in the Mediterranean makes Spain an emblematic case study for the analysis of Roman hydraulic engineering and water management policies. Fifty dams have been located and detailed. The twenty-two outstanding, although identified on the ground, have not been able to be acceptably characterized, due in some cases to their being ruins in a highly degraded state, others due to their being masked by repairs and reconstructions subsequent to the Roman era. A good example of such neglected dams is the buttress dam of Consuegra , in Toledo province (Castilla-La Mancha. Dating to the 3rd - 4th century AD, the Dam of Consuegra, on the basin of the Guadiana, with its over 600 metres length and 4,80 metres height, is a remarkable case of Roman engineering mastery. It had a retaining wall upstream, numerous buttresses and perhaps an embankment downstream, of which no remains are left. The application of 3D digital imaging technique to create a high quality virtual model of such monuments has proved to be successful especially for the study of the technological aspects related its construction. The case study of the Roman dam of Muel (Zaragoza has shown, in fact, as best practices in digital archaeology can provide

  11. A comparative assessment of antiproliferative properties of resveratrol and ethanol leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill and Perr against HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. (United States)

    Olugbami, Jeremiah Olorunjuwon; Damoiseaux, Robert; France, Bryan; Onibiyo, Esther Modupe; Gbadegesin, Michael Adedapo; Sharma, Shivani; Gimzewski, James Kazimierz; Odunola, Oyeronke Adunni


    Epidemiological and experimental evidences have shown cancer as a leading cause of death worldwide. Although the folklore use of plants as a reliable source of health-restoring principles is well-documented, the search for more of such plants that are active against diseases, such as cancer, continues. We report here a laboratory-based evidence of the relevance of an ethanol leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (A2L) in comparison with resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, in cancer therapy. The quantitative assessment of flavonoid and phenolic contents involved quercetin and gallic acid as standards, respectively were determined using spectrophotometry. Cytotoxicity was determined fluorometrically using propidium-iodide-staining method. Antioxidant status, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, caspase activities and mitochondrial integrity were assessed using fluorometry/luminometry. The antioxidant assay demonstrated that A2L possesses a strong antioxidant capacity as compared with the reference compounds, ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. This is further buttressed by the significantly high level of phenolics obtained in the quantitative assessment of the extract. A 72-h post-treatment examination indicated that both A2L and resveratrol modulate the proliferation of HepG2 liver carcinoma cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Determination of the total nuclei area, propidium-iodide negative and positive nuclei areas all further buttress the modulation of cell proliferation by A2L and resveratrol with the indication that the observed cell death is due to apoptosis and necrosis at lower and higher concentrations of treatments respectively. At lower concentrations (0.39-3.13 μg/mL), resveratrol possesses higher tendencies to activate caspases 3 and 7. Bioenergetically, both resveratrol and A2L do not adversely affect the cells at lower concentrations (0.39-6.25 μg/mL for resveratrol and 12.5-100.0 μg/mL for A2L) except at higher

  12. Análisis constructivo y estructural de la catedral de Valencia

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    Llopis Pulido, V.


    Full Text Available The cathedral of Valencia constructive characteristics make it a representative example of the Mediterranean Gothic: low slenderness, little height difference between the naves and limited voids dimension. These differences are explained from the present work, where a constructive study and a structural system analysis under gravity loads and seismic effects are shown. For the analysis a pushover method and a non-linear damage model have been used. The buttresses and diaphragms function will be patent with the Finite Element structural model modification which will progressively remove each one of these constructive elements. The results display a resistant capacity enough to face a seism of 450 years that gets worse if a return period of 950 years is considered. The need of the walls continuity trough the buttresses that turn into authentic diaphragm walls will be demonstrated.Las características constructivas de la catedral de Valencia la convierten en un ejemplo representativo del gótico mediterráneo: reducida esbeltez, escasa diferencia de altura entre las naves y limitadas dimensiones de huecos. Estas características se explican a partir del presente trabajo donde se muestra un estudio constructivo y un análisis del sistema estructural frente a cargas gravitatorias y efectos sísmicos. En el análisis se utiliza el método por empujes incrementales (pushover y el método no-lineal de modelo de daño. La función de arbotantes y diafragmas quedará patente con la modificación del modelo MEF que eliminará progresivamente cada uno de estos elementos constructivos. Los resultados muestran una suficiente capacidad resistente frente a un sismo con un período de retorno de 475 años que empeora si se considera de 950 años. Se evidenciará la necesidad de la continuidad muraria a través de los arbotantes que se convierten en auténticos muros diafragmáticos.

  13. Geologic setting, sedimentary architecture, and paragenesis of the Mesoproterozoic sediment-hosted Sheep Creek Cu-Co-Ag deposit, Helena embayment, Montana (United States)

    Graham, Garth; Hitzman, Murray W.; Zieg, Jerry


    The northern margin of the Helena Embayment contains extensive syngenetic to diagenetic massive pyrite horizons that extend over 25 km along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone and extend up to 8 km basinward (south) within the Mesoproterozoic Newland Formation. The Sheep Creek Cu-Co deposit occurs within a structural block along a bend in the fault system, where replacement-style chalcopyrite mineralization is spatially associated mostly with the two stratigraphically lowest massive pyrite zones. These mineralized pyritic horizons are intercalated with debris flows derived from synsedimentary movement along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone. Cominco American Inc. delineated a geologic resource of 4.5 Mt at 2.5% Cu and 0.1% Co in the upper sulfide zone and 4 Mt at 4% Cu within the lower sulfide zone. More recently, Tintina Resources Inc. has delineated an inferred resource of 8.48 Mt at 2.96% Cu, 0.12% Co, and 16.4 g/t Ag in the upper sulfide zone. The more intact upper sulfide zone displays significant thickness variations along strike thought to represent formation in at least three separate subbasins. The largest accumulation of mineralized sulfide in the upper zone occurs as an N-S–trending body that thickens southward from the generally E trending Volcano Valley Fault and probably occupies a paleograben controlled by normal faults in the hanging wall of the Volcano Valley Fault. Early microcrystalline to framboidal pyrite was accompanied by abundant and local barite deposition in the upper and lower sulfide zones, respectively. The sulfide bodies underwent intense (lower sulfide zone) to localized (upper sulfide zone) recrystallization and overprinting by coarser-grained pyrite and minor marcasite that is intergrown with and replaces dolomite. Silicification and paragenetically late chalcopyrite, along with minor tennantite in the upper sulfide zone, replaces fine-grained pyrite, barite, and carbonate. The restriction of chalcopyrite to inferred

  14. Geomorphology and benthic cover of mesophotic coral ecosystems of the upper insular slope of southwest Puerto Rico (United States)

    Sherman, C.; Nemeth, M.; Ruíz, H.; Bejarano, I.; Appeldoorn, R.; Pagán, F.; Schärer, M.; Weil, E.


    The upper insular slope of southwest Puerto Rico is defined as extending from the shelf break at ~20 m water depth down to a depth of ~160 m where there is a pronounced change in geomorphic character and the basal slope begins. The upper slope is divided into two geomorphic zones separated by a pronounced break in slope gradient at ~90 m water depth. Descending from the shelf break, these are Zone I (20-90 m) and Zone II (90-160 m). As orientation of the shelf margin changes, geomorphology of Zone I shows systematic variations consistent with changes in exposure to prevailing waves. Within Zone I, exposed southeast-facing slopes have a gentler gradient and lower relief than more sheltered southwest-facing slopes, which are steep and irregular. Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) are largely restricted to Zone I and concentrated on topographic highs removed from the influence of active downslope sediment transport. Accordingly, MCEs are more abundant, extensive and diverse on southwest-facing slopes where irregular topography funnels downslope sediment transport into steep narrow grooves. MCEs are more sporadic and widely spaced on southeast-facing slopes where topographic highs are more widely spaced and downslope sediment transport is spread over open, low-relief slopes inhibiting coral recruitment and growth. Relict features formed during preexisting sea levels lower than present include deep buttresses at ~45-65 m water depth and a prominent terrace at ~80 m. Based on correlations with existing reef accretion and sea-level records, it is proposed that the 80-m terrace formed during the last deglaciation ~14-15 ka and subsequently drowned during a period of rapid sea-level rise associated with meltwater pulse 1A at ~14 ka and deep buttresses at ~45-65 m formed between ~11.5 and 13.5 ka and then drowned during a period of rapid sea-level rise associated with meltwater pulse 1B at ~11.3 ka.

  15. Preoperative evaluation and surgical technique of functional and cosmetic aspects in zygomatic complex fracture patients. (United States)

    Lin, Q; Hong, X Y; Zhang, D; Jin, H J


    The zygomatico-maxillary complex functions as the principle buttress of the face and is the cornerstone to an individual’s aesthetic appearance. Its fracture not only creates cosmetic deformities owing to its position and facial contour, but can also cause disruption of ocular and mandibular functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality, efficacy and impact of internal fixation of zygomatic complex fractures on functional and cosmetic outcomes. A prospective study was carried out on 100 patients who were divided according to the classification and the severity of injury. Subjective evaluation was submitted based on the patient’s perception of signs and symptoms in the preoperative and postoperative periods. Intraoperative and postoperative assessment of bone reduction quality was made according to the type of the fracture and related difficulties; also, the difference between these groups was observed as functional and esthetic outcome. To optimize the treatment of zygomatic bone fractures, a pre-designed questionnaire was used for subjective evaluation of symptoms and treatment outcome. In 70% of cases, ophthalmologic consultation was taken and was most common in type VII fractures (100% cases). Neurosensory disturbance was the most common finding (60%), followed by diplopia (56R%), pain upon mouth opening (54%) and malar depression (50%). Out of all possible 400 fracture sites in 100 patients of zygomatic complex fractures, 266 (66.5%) fractures were detected by clinical examination, in contrast to 330 (82.5%) on radiological examination, which were highest at zygomatic-maxillary buttress (93%) followed by infraorbital rim (91%) and almost equal among fronto-zygomatic site (72%) and zygomatic arch (74%). The scores from the questionnaire for annoyance were significantly higher for paraesthesia (23%) than for trismus (10%), pain (8.5%), or deformity (8.25%). Residual deformity and pain significantly influenced the total satisfaction. Conclusively

  16. Introduction to "Mapping Vietnameseness"

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    Hue-Tam Ho Tai


    Full Text Available Vietnam and China are currently engaged in a map war, with each country using ancient maps to buttress its claims to territorial sovereignty over some uninhabited islands in the South China Sea (in Chinese terminology, also known as the Eastern Sea (in Vietnamese. But what do maps in fact represent? What is meant by “territory”? How are territorial limits conceived? These questions were raised in a May 2015 workshop inspired by Thongchai Winichakul’s Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation (1994, a groundbreaking book that traces the transformation of Thai geographical consciousness as a result of Siam’s encounter with Western powers in the nineteenth century. While many of Thongchai’s insights apply to the Vietnamese case, as the first of the three articles included in this special issue of Cross-Currents shows, some of the 2015 workshop participants’ conclusions departed from his, especially regarding the formation of a Vietnamese geographical consciousness before the colonial period.[i] This is true of the other two papers, which focus specifically on the construction of borders and the associated production of maps in the nineteenth century before French colonial conquest... Notes 1 Thanks are due to the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Change in Gottingen, Germany, for its gracious hosting and generous funding of the conference, together with the Asia Center of Harvard University.

  17. Impact of donor site for bone graft harvesting for dental implants on health-related and oral health-related quality of life. (United States)

    Reissmann, Daniel R; Dietze, Björn; Vogeler, Michael; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Heydecke, Guido


    To assess and compare changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) after bone graft harvesting for dental implants with respect to the donor site. Autologous bone grafts were harvested in a consecutive sample of 23 patients (mean age: 46.1 years; 52% female) either from an intra-oral (IO; N = 8; chin, ascending ramus, buttress region) or an extra-oral (EO; N = 15; anterior iliac crest) donor site, followed by implant placements. HRQoL was self-administered by the patients using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) and OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) preoperatively, 3 days and 4 weeks after surgery. Impact of donor site on changes in both concepts of QoL was determined in multiple linear regression analyses. Patients with extra-oral donor sites reported a substantial deterioration in the physical component (PC) of HRQoL indicated by an increase in the PC score of the SF-36 (P bone graft harvesting, patients and clinicians should be aware of the expected decrease in HRQoL if deciding to use extra-oral donor sites. Whenever possible, intra-oral donor sites should be preferred. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. The Iron Fist vs. the Microchip

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    Elizabeth I. Bryant


    Full Text Available This article focuses on how information and communication technology (ICT influences the behavior of authoritarian regimes. Modern information and communication tools can challenge authoritarian rule, but the same technology can be used by savvy regimes to buttress their own interests. The relationship of technology and political power is more accurately conceived of as a contested space in which competitors vie for dominance and as a neutral tool that is blind to value judgments of good versus evil. A realist understanding of the nature and limits of technology is vital in order to truly evaluate how ICT impacts the relative strength of intransigent regimes fighting to stay in power and those on the disadvantaged side of power agitating for change. This is particularly relevant when examining both regimes that have survived and those that have fallen in the wake of the Arab Spring. The cases of Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Iran are used to demonstrate why some regimes fail in this pursuit, while others thrive.

  19. Organization of the ectodermal nervous structures in medusae: cubomedusae. (United States)

    Eichinger, Justin M; Satterlie, Richard A


    At least two conducting systems are well documented in cubomedusae. A variably diffuse network of large neurons innervates the swim musculature and can be visualized immunohistochemically using antibodies against α- or β-tubulin. Despite the non-specificity of these antibodies, multiple lines of evidence suggest that staining highlights the primary motor networks. These networks exhibit unique neurite distributions among the muscle sheets in that network density is greatest in the perradial frenula, where neurites are oriented in parallel with radial muscle fibers. This highly innervated, buttress-like muscle sheet may serve a critical role in the cubomedusan mechanism of turning. In scyphomedusae, a second subumbrellar network immunoreactive to antibodies against the neuropeptide FMRFamide innervates the swim musculature, but it is absent in cubomedusae. Immunoreactivity to FMRFamide in cubomedusae is mostly limited to a small network of neurons in the pacemaker region of the rhopalia, the pedalial apex at the nerve ring junction, and a few neuron tracts in the nerve ring. However, FMRFamide-immunoreactive networks, as well as tubulin-immunoreactive networks, are nearly ubiquitous outside of the swim muscle sheets in the perradial smooth muscle bands, manubrium, pedalia, and tentacles. Here we describe in detail the peripheral nerve nets of box jellyfish on the basis of immunoreactivity to the antibodies above. Our results offer insight into how the peripheral nerve nets are organized to produce the complex swimming, feeding, and defensive behaviors observed in cubomedusae.

  20. An unusual basal Therizinosaur dinosaur with an ornithischian dental arrangement from northeastern China.

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    Hanyong Pu

    Full Text Available Therizinosauria are an unusual group of theropod dinosaurs, found mostly in the Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia, China and western USA. The basal forms of this group are represented by incomplete or disarticulated material. Here, we report a nearly complete, articulated skeleton of a new basal therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Jianchang County, western part of Liaoning Province, which sheds light on our understanding of anatomy of basal therizinosaurs. This new dinosaur shows some typical therizinosaur features, such as neural spines of the anterior caudal vertebrae that possess anterior and posterior alae, a rectangular buttress on the ventrolateral side of the proximal end of metacarpal I, and appressed metatarsal shafts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a basal therizinosaur (sister taxon to Therizinosauroidea because it bears many basal therizinosaur characters in the dentition, pelvis and hind limbs. The new therizinosaur described here has unique tooth and jaw characters such as the offsetting of the tooth row by a shelf and dentary teeth with labially concave and lingually convex dentary teeth, similar to ornithopods and ceratopsians.

  1. Promoting Social and Emotional Competencies among Young Children in Croatia with Preschool PATHS.

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    Josipa Mihic


    Full Text Available Preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies is an evidence-based universal prevention program focused on promoting children’s social and emotional competencies and reducing the likelihood of behaviour problems and negative relationships with peers and teachers. This paper examines changes in the social and emotional competencies of the first children to participate in Preschool PATHS in Croatia. This study included 164 children, ages 3-6, in 12 preschool classrooms in three cities across Croatia, who participated in the classroom-based Preschool PATHS curriculum. At the beginning and end of the preschool year, teachers completed wellvalidated and reliable assessments of social and emotional competencies on each child. Hierarchical linear models revealed statistically significant and substantial improvements in prosocial behaviour, emotion regulation, emotion symptoms, peer problems, relational aggression, conduct problems, and hyperactive-impulsive behaviour. Study findings reveal significant changes in children’s social and emotional competencies during preschool. This time may present a unique opportunity to buttress children’s skills and improve long-term school success through the implementation of a rigorous empiricallyvalidated prevention program such as Preschool PATHS.

  2. Lyman A. Brewer III (1907-1988): surgeon-scientist, inspirational teacher, and humanist. (United States)

    Carter, R


    Dr. Lyman Augustus Brewer III, a distinguished, colorful thoracic surgeon and among the first to practice that specialty in the West, died on June 25, 1988, in Los Angeles, California, after a courageous battle with lymphoma. Dr. Brewer was a great humanist, innovative clinical surgeon, charismatic teacher, and surgical leader. In World War II, Lieutenant Colonel Brewer served in the Second Auxiliary Surgical Group in the Mediterranean and European theaters and helped define criteria that became the standard for the management of thoracic war injuries. Out of this experience he authored the classic paper, "The Wet Lung in War Casualties." Dr. Brewer's scientific contributions embraced the broad spectrum of thoracic surgical topics, including treatment of tuberculosis, classification of lung cancer, bronchial stump buttressing using the pericardial fat pad (Brewer fat pad), and management of esophageal perforation. Dr Brewer wrote seven books and more than 100 papers, and served as First Vice President of The American College of Surgeons and as President of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and The Pacific Coast Surgical Association.

  3. Spreader Grafts in Functional Rhinoplasty. (United States)

    Kim, Leslie; Papel, Ira D


    Management of the middle vault is paramount to achieving optimal aesthetic and functional outcomes in rhinoplasty. The ideal treatment for middle vault complications, such as internal nasal valve collapse, inverted-V deformity, and middle vault dorsal asymmetry, is prevention. Risk factors for middle vault problems in rhinoplasty that may be identified in preoperative consultation include short nasal bones, long and weak upper lateral cartilages, thin skin, previous trauma or surgery, preoperative positive Cottle maneuver, tension nose deformity, and anteriorly positioned inferior turbinates. When any of these risk factors are identified, preventive measures should be pursued. These include preservation of middle vault support structures, judicious resection in dorsal hump reduction, use of conservative osteotomies, and reconstruction of the cartilaginous middle vault with structural grafting. Spreader grafts have become the workhorse in middle vault reconstruction. They are invaluable in restoring nasal dorsal aesthetic lines, repairing or maintaining the internal nasal valve, and buttressing a corrected crooked nose. Functional and aesthetic problems related to the middle nasal vault are among the most common reasons for patients seeking revision rhinoplasty. Although complications in rhinoplasty are inevitable, underlying their etiology and instituting prophylactic treatment can significantly help reduce their occurrence. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Type C distal radial fractures treated with conventional AO plates: an easy and cost-saving solution in a locking plate era. (United States)

    Twigt, Bas; Bemelman, Michael; Lansink, Koen; Leenen, Loek


    C-type distal radial fractures remain challenging fractures. Currently locking plates are very popular because of their length preserving, stability. A considerable drawback is the high cost. Since 2003 we have been using mini AO plates (2.7 mm) as an alternative. We analysed our results and performed a cost analysis. Retrospective analysis was performed of all patients operated upon between 2003 and 2008 for C type distal radius fractures. Reduction was achieved with mini AO plates, applied in a buttress fashion, with ligamentotaxis. Rehabilitation consisted of immediate mobilisation. Pre- and postoperative X-rays, operative results and patient charts were reviewed. Furthermore, we prospectively evaluated the functional results using VAS, DASH and Mayo wrist scores. Lastly, we assessed the implant costs and compared them to locking plates. Thirty-four patients were treated with a mean age of 49 years. Mean radial shortening improved 2 mm; dorsal and radial angulation improved 23 and 4°, respectively. At consolidation (eight weeks) the average radial shortening was 0.75 mm, a volar angulation of 3°, and 21° of radial angulation. Functional results were excellent, demonstrated by a mean VAS score less than 1, a DASH score of 12 and a Mayo wrist score of 87. Compared to locking plates, there was an overall reduction in material costs of 15,300 Euro. Our technique has excellent biomechanical stability, enabling immediate functional rehabilitation, good anatomical and functional outcome with significantly lower costs.

  5. Leadership is a conversation. (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael


    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  6. "You are free to set your own hours": governing worker productivity and health through flexibility and resilience. (United States)

    MacEachen, Ellen; Polzer, Jessica; Clarke, Judy


    Flexible work is now endemic in modern economies. A growing literature both praises work flexibility for accommodating employees' needs and criticizes it for fueling contingency and job insecurity. Although studies have identified varied effects of flexible work, questions remain about the workplace dimensions of flexibility and how occupational workplace health is managed in these workplaces. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of how managers in the computer software industry situate workplace flexibility and approach worker health. In-depth interviews were conducted with managers (and some workers) at 30 firms in Ontario, Canada. Using a critical discourse analysis approach, we examine managers' optimistic descriptions of flexibility which emphasize how flexible work contributes to workers' life balance. We then contrast this with managers' depictions of flexibility work practices as intense and inescapable. We suggest that the discourse of flexibility, and the work practices they foster, make possible and reinforce an increased intensity of work that is driven by the demands of technological pace and change that characterize the global information technology and computer software industries. Finally, we propose that flexible knowledge work has led to a re-framing of occupational health management involving a focus on what we call "strategies of resilience" that aim to buttress workers' capacities to withstand intensive and uncertain working conditions.

  7. Hard-object feeding in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and interpretation of early hominin feeding ecology. (United States)

    Daegling, David J; McGraw, W Scott; Ungar, Peter S; Pampush, James D; Vick, Anna E; Bitty, E Anderson


    Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods.

  8. Deterioration of Pracana Dam due to ASR. Main features and repair works

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    Matos, D.S.; Camelo, S. [HIDRORUMO, EDP, Porto (Portugal); Silva, H.S.; Pinho, J.S. [LNEC, Lisboa (Portugal)


    Some of the Portuguese concrete dams show evidences of ASR. In majority the phenomena is still benign. However, in a few cases some significant deterioration of ASR type have malfunctions arose. In such cases deteriorations of ASR type have been detected while in the others the ASSR type prevail, depending on the type of aggregate. The paper reports the most important case of ASR in Portuguese concrete dams. Pracana dam is a buttress structures built in 1948-51, being the aggregates predominantly of quartzitic and metapellitic nature. Subsequently to the intense fracturing due to a quick concrete cooling during the first filling of the reservoir, high levels of expansion rates had been detected by means of monitoring system. After 8 years emptied reservoir, rehabilitation works took place in 1991-92 aiming at the concrete mass regeneration and the installation of an upstream face membrane, the improvement of spillway capacity and of the foundation performances. The behaviour of the dam as well as the performed tests (petrographic, mechanic, ultrasonic and expansibility ones) and repair works are described in the paper.

  9. Who Cares? Care and the Ethical Self

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    Monique Lanoix


    Full Text Available Over three decades ago, Carol Gilligan’s seminal book In a Different Voice provided feminist theorists with a powerful new approach to address the shortcomings of traditional moral theories. With a focus on concrete situations, an ethics of care can attend to the specifics of moral dilemmas that might otherwise be glossed over. As feminist reflection on moral and political philosophizing has progressed, another challenge has emerged. Recent feminist scholarship proposes non-ideal theories as preferable action-guiding theories. In this paper, I examine Kittay’s call for a version of care ethics as a naturalized ethics that comes from lived experience, in order to draw out the salient characteristics of the caring agent. This allows me to show how Kittay’s key assertion that “we are all some mother’s child” resonates with Ricoeur’s framing of self-esteem, which is, in turn, anchored on a notion of solicitude. Secondly, I make the case that care ethics can benefit from Ricoeur’s little ethics as it helps buttress the goal of good caring practices. Finally, care ethics, with its emphasis on the universality of care needs, helps to strengthen the central role of solicitude for the political sphere.

  10. Tool use in urban populations of capuchin monkeys Sapajus spp. (Primates: Cebidae

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    Lucas M. Aguiar


    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys, Sapajus Kerr, 1792, are known for their flexible behavior, including tool use, and their ability to survive in urban forests. We observed capuchin juveniles using wood as hammer and anvil and different materials as sponges (four tool-use events in two geographically distinct urban populations in Brazil, in 2012: two in Goiânia, Central Brazil and two in Foz do Iguaçu, Southern Brazil. In Goiânia, a male used a detached tree branch as a hammer and a buttress root as an anvil to pound a seed of Terminalia Linnaeus. Another male used a small branch with leaves as a dipping tool to access water inside a tree trunk hole. In Foz do Iguaçu, the capuchins used a small branch and a piece of bread to obtain water by dipping them into tree trunk holes. This latter event might be interpreted as a case of self-control, with a familiar food item used as a tool to reach a resource that is difficult to access otherwise. Our observations contribute to the knowledge on the tool-kit of capuchins and we propose that these urban populations should be conserved for scientific evaluations of behavioral flexibility in non-human primates.

  11. Space life and biomedical sciences in support of the global exploration roadmap and societal development (United States)

    Evetts, S. N.


    The human exploration of space is pushing the boundaries of what is technically feasible. The space industry is preparing for the New Space era, the momentum for which will emanate from the commercial human spaceflight sector, and will be buttressed by international solar system exploration endeavours. With many distinctive technical challenges to be overcome, human spaceflight requires that numerous biological and physical systems be examined under exceptional circumstances for progress to be made. To effectively tackle such an undertaking significant intra- and international coordination and collaboration is required. Space life and biomedical science research and development (R & D) will support the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) by enabling humans to 'endure' the extreme activity that is long duration human spaceflight. In so doing the field will discover solutions to some of our most difficult human health issues, and as a consequence benefit society as a whole. This space-specific R&D will drive a significant amount of terrestrial biomedical research and as a result the international community will not only gain benefits in the form of improved healthcare in space and on Earth, but also through the growth of its science base and industry.

  12. Staple line reinforcement during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: does it affect clinical outcomes? (United States)

    Glaysher, Michael; Khan, Omar A; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Wan, Andrew; Reddy, Marcus; Vasilikostas, Georgios


    Although laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is safe and efficacious treatment for morbid obesity, this procedure is associated with major staple line complications including leakage and bleeding. Staple-line reinforcement (SLR) either through suturing or buttressing with biological or synthetic material has been suggested as a method to prevent these complications. A Best Evidence Topic was constructed to address the question of whether SLR reduced these and other complications. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL searches up to October 2012 returned 97 unique results, of which nine (one meta-analysis, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs), six prospective cohort studies) provided the best evidence to answer this clinical question. We conclude that current evidence suggests that staple-line reinforcement reduces the incidence of leakage and postoperative complications than non-reinforcement but does not significantly reduce bleeding complications. However, we cannot as yet recommend staple-line reinforcement as the strength of the presented evidence is limited by the variable quality of the published studies. The full-length publication of several abstracts of randomised, controlled trials presented at various recent conferences is awaited. This may provide more data on the effect of staple-line reinforcement on other outcomes largely neglected by currently available studies. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bony outgrowths on the jaws of an extinct sperm whale support macroraptorial feeding in several stem physeteroids (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier; Bianucci, Giovanni; Beatty, Brian L.


    Several extinct sperm whales (stem Physeteroidea) were recently proposed to differ markedly in their feeding ecology from the suction-feeding modern sperm whales Kogia and Physeter. Based on cranial, mandibular, and dental morphology, these Miocene forms were tentatively identified as macroraptorial feeders, able to consume proportionally large prey using their massive teeth and robust jaws. However, until now, no corroborating evidence for the use of teeth during predation was available. We report on a new specimen of the stem physeteroid Acrophyseter, from the late middle to early late Miocene of Peru, displaying unusual bony outgrowths along some of the upper alveoli. Considering their position and outer shape, these are identified as buccal maxillary exostoses. More developed along posterior teeth and in tight contact with the high portion of the dental root outside the bony alveoli, the exostoses are hypothesized to have developed during powerful bites; they may have worked as buttresses, strengthening the teeth when facing intense occlusal forces. These buccal exostoses further support a raptorial feeding technique for Acrophyseter and, indirectly, for other extinct sperm whales with a similar oral apparatus ( Brygmophyseter, Livyatan, Zygophyseter). With a wide size range, these Miocene stem physeteroids were major marine macropredators, occupying ecological niches nowadays mostly taken by killer whales.

  14. Sharing in the life of the person with disability: A Ghanaian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E. Owusu-Ansah


    Full Text Available This thought article was a hermeneutic inquiry into the experiences of informal caregivers of the elderly who are also physically disabled. The experiences of some Ghanaian informal caregivers were examined in three clinical cases and laced with the lived experiences of the author as an informal caregiver and clinician. Two processes were explored. The first relates to how a caregiver is changed through the experience of caregiving by examining the intrapersonal and interpersonal dynamics affecting caregiving. Secondly, the positive ‘shifts’ that occurred in therapy were explored. In the present Ghanaian society it appears that care for the elderly disabled is compounded by the rapid migration of many Ghanaians to ‘greener pastures’ in search of a brighter future, with consequent empty homesteads and fragmentation of the socio-cultural practices that hitherto buttressed informal care for the aged. In the absence of well-established professional care facilities, informal caregiving with its numerous challenges has become the norm for many. This article posited that caregiver self-care is the most important, and yet often forgotten, aspect of informal caregiving. When this is neglected, caregiver burnout is sure to occur, which results in poor physical, mental and emotional health for the caregiver. In this state caregivers may injure both themselves and the care recipients.

  15. Hard-object feeding in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys and interpretation of early hominin feeding ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Daegling

    Full Text Available Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods.

  16. Immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma using chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies. (United States)

    Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin; Cheung, Nai-Kong V


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide with an overall survival rate of less than 15% in developed countries. Despite attempts at new therapeutic strategies, the majority of patients succumb to this cancer. Buttressed by the highly successful clinical impact in melanoma, immunotherapy is gaining momentum as the next treatment modality for many human cancers. Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) contain the antigen binding moieties of a monoclonal antibody and the co-stimulatory and signaling domains associated with effector receptor signaling. Bispecific antibodies (BsAb) combine the binding specificities of two different monoclonal antibodies, one activating a receptor on a killer effector cell, while the other engaging a tumor-associated antigen to initiate tumor cytotoxicity. In this review, we survey the HCC targets for which CARs and bispecific antibodies have been generated. The pros and cons of these targets for T-cell and Natural Killer cell based immunotherapy will be discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Head size, weaponry, and cervical adaptation: Testing craniocervical evolutionary hypotheses in Ceratopsia. (United States)

    VanBuren, Collin S; Campione, Nicolás E; Evans, David C


    The anterior cervical vertebrae form the skeletal connection between the cranial and postcranial skeletons in higher tetrapods. As a result, the morphology of the atlas-axis complex is likely to be shaped by selection pressures acting on either the head or neck. The neoceratopsian (Reptilia:Dinosauria) syncervical represents one of the most highly modified atlas-axis regions in vertebrates, being formed by the complete coalescence of the three most anterior cervical vertebrae. In ceratopsids, the syncervical has been hypothesized to be an adaptation to support a massive skull, or to act as a buttress during intraspecific head-to-head combat. Here, we test these functional/adaptive hypotheses within a phylogenetic framework and critically examine the previously proposed methods for quantifying relative head size in the fossil record for the first time. Results indicate that neither the evolution of cranial weaponry nor large head size correlates with the origin of cervical fusion in ceratopsians, and we, therefore, reject both adaptive hypotheses for the origin of the syncervical. Anterior cervical fusion has evolved independently in a number of amniote clades, and further research on extant groups with this peculiar anatomy is needed to understand the evolutionary basis for cervical fusion in Neoceratopsia. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Imagining Critical Cosmic Pedagogy nested within Critical Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs Tracey I.


    Full Text Available The infinite problems attendant with mass public schooling requires evermore resilient and innovative theories to buttress an account of education that is socially defensible. While educational inequality could previously be attributed to developing nations due to their economic underdevelopment, developed nations too, with growing rapidity have to confront their internal burgeoning crises in education. It is against this backdrop that I focus on the possibility of expanding a notion of critical pedagogy by nesting the concept of cosmic pedagogy therein. As such, I draw on the Montessorian theory of cosmic education;Bazalukan theory of the formation of a planetary and cosmic personality; and Freireian critical pedagogy to discover the resonance and disharmony between these conceptual positions. Of the three theoretical frames, each can in their own right be considered a methodological approach to address particular problems in education and society at large. So it is with these theories and methods in mind that I suggest and reflect upon the ways that education might nudge us along in our attempt to be fully human and to occupy the space of intelligent matter in an ever expanding universe.

  19. The "not so simple" ankle fracture: avoiding problems and pitfalls to improve patient outcomes. (United States)

    Hak, David J; Egol, Kenneth A; Gardner, Michael J; Haskell, Andrew


    Ankle fractures are among the most common injuries managed by orthopaedic surgeons. Many ankle fractures are simple, with straightforward management leading to successful outcomes. Some fractures, however, are challenging, and debate arises regarding the best treatment to achieve an optimal outcome. Some patients have medical comorbidities that increase the risk for complications or may require modifications to standard surgical techniques and fixation methods. Several recent investigations have highlighted the pitfalls in accurately reducing syndesmotic injuries. Controversy remains regarding the number and diameter of screws, the duration of weight-bearing limitations, and the need or timing of screw removal. Open reduction may allow more accurate reduction than standard closed methods. Direct fixation of associated posterior malleolus fractures may provide improved syndesmotic stability. Posterior malleolus fractures vary in size and can be classified based on the orientation of the fracture line. As the size of the posterior malleolus fracture fragment increases, the load pattern in the ankle is altered. Direct or indirect reduction and surgical fixation may be required to prevent posterior talar subluxation and restore articular congruency. The supination-adduction fracture pattern is also important to recognize. Articular depression of the medial tibial plafond may require reduction and bone grafting. Optimal fixation requires directing screws parallel to the ankle joint or using a buttress plate. Identifying ankle fractures that may present additional treatment challenges is essential to achieving a successful outcome. A careful review of radiographs and CT scans, a thorough patient assessment, and detailed preoperative planning are needed to improve patient outcomes.

  20. The mechanisms of corporate governance in the United States: an assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrighi Dante Mendes


    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the mechanisms of corporate governance currently at work in the United States. Section 1 turns its focus to the reasons accounting for the still relative scarceness of large shareholders in American publicly held companies. The analysis thereafter concentrates on assessing the efficacy of each of the pillars purportedly buttressing the American system of corporate control. The paper argues that the evidence provided by the existing corporate governance literature supports the following propositions: 1 the legal and regulatory framework actually restrains the scope for expropriating minority shareholders, though at the cost of inhibiting institutional investor activism; 2 as a rule, the board of directors do not comply with their mandatory duty of overseeing management, although some progress has recently been made, with directors in several companies becoming less submissive to chief executive officers; 3 the market for corporate control encounters a great number of difficulties (ranging from legal hurdles to high transaction costs and to serious free-riding problems, which are sufficient to cast a cloud on its reliability as a means of repressing managerial inefficiencies and rent-seeking; 4 competition in the product and capital markets is likely to produce effects only in the long-run.

  1. Canada's early nuclear policy : fate, chance, and character

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, B


    The advent of nuclear weapons introduced a complex new factor into world politics, drawing a line through history and ensuring that international relations would never be the same. By both accident and design, Canada was a central player in the new nuclear era, as countries grappled with the implications of this revolutionary new development. Canada's decision, unique among pioneer atomic powers, not to acquire a nuclear arsenal has been used to buttress widely differing political agendas, while the factors that shaped the policy-making process have been largely ignored. In Canada's Early Nuclear Policy Brian Buckley weaves information from a number of disciplines to shed new light on Canada's early policies. Filling a longstanding gap in the national story, he explores the country's role in the early post-war period, cautioning against simplistic explanations and pointing to the continuing roles of contingency and personality in decision making. While the threat of nuclear war has receded in recent years, the number of states with nuclear weapons, the number of weapons, and their killing power are all far greater than they were five decades ago. Virtually all the issues that emerged fifty years ago remain on the international agenda and are as relevant today as ever.

  2. Analytical Tools for Fluids Management in Space (United States)

    Weislogel, M.

    Recent advances in the analysis of a class of capillary-driven flows relevant to materials processing and general fluids management in space have been made. The class of flows addressed concern spontaneous capillary flows in complex containers with interior corners. Such flows are commonplace in space-based fluid systems and arise from the particular container geometry and wetting properties of the system. Important applications for this work involve low-g liquid fill and/or purge operations where the container (i.e. test cell, fuel tank, etc.) geometry is complex, possessing interior corners, and where quantitative information of fluid location, transients, flow rates, and stability is critical. Examples include the storage and handling of liquid propellants and cryogens, water conditioning for life support, fluid phase-change thermal systems, materials processing in the liquid state, and on-orbit biofluids processing. For several important problems, closed form expressions to transient three- dimensional flows are possible that, as design tools, replace difficult, time- consuming, and rarely performed numerical calculations. The theory is readily extended to address flows at corner intersections and throughout complex corner networks. An overview of a selection of solutions in-hand is presented with example problems solved. NASA drop tower and low-g aircraft experimental results are employed where practical to buttress the theoretical findings.

  3. Calibration under uncertainty for finite element models of masonry monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atamturktur, Sezer,; Hemez, Francois,; Unal, Cetin


    Historical unreinforced masonry buildings often include features such as load bearing unreinforced masonry vaults and their supporting framework of piers, fill, buttresses, and walls. The masonry vaults of such buildings are among the most vulnerable structural components and certainly among the most challenging to analyze. The versatility of finite element (FE) analyses in incorporating various constitutive laws, as well as practically all geometric configurations, has resulted in the widespread use of the FE method for the analysis of complex unreinforced masonry structures over the last three decades. However, an FE model is only as accurate as its input parameters, and there are two fundamental challenges while defining FE model input parameters: (1) material properties and (2) support conditions. The difficulties in defining these two aspects of the FE model arise from the lack of knowledge in the common engineering understanding of masonry behavior. As a result, engineers are unable to define these FE model input parameters with certainty, and, inevitably, uncertainties are introduced to the FE model.

  4. Applying lessons from social psychology to transform the culture of error disclosure. (United States)

    Han, Jason; LaMarra, Denise; Vapiwala, Neha


    The ability to carry out prompt and effective error disclosure has been described in the literature as an essential skill among physicians that can lead to improved patient satisfaction, staff well-being and hospital outcomes. However, few studies have addressed the social psychology principles that may influence physician behaviour. The authors provide an overview of recent administrative measures designed to encourage physicians to disclose error, but note that deliberate practice, buttressed with lessons from social psychology, is needed to implement further productive behavioural changes. Two main cognitive biases that may hinder error disclosure are identified, namely: fundamental attribution error, and forecasting error. Strategies to overcome these maladaptive cognitive patterns are discussed. The authors note that interactions with standardised patients (SPs) can be used to simulate hospital encounters and help teach important behavioural considerations. Virtual reality is introduced as an immersive, realistic and easily scalable technology that can supplement traditional curricula. Lastly, the authors highlight the importance of establishing a professional standard of competence, potentially by incorporating difficult patient encounters, including disclosure of error, into medical licensing examinations that assess clinical skills. Existing curricula that cover physician error disclosure may benefit from reviewing the social psychology literature. These lessons, incorporated into SP programmes and emerging technological platforms, may improve training and evaluative methods for all medical trainees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  5. Malthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery


    Full Text Available T.R. Malthus' "An Essay on the Principle of Population" (1798 was one of the first systematic studies of the problem of population in relation to resources. It was the first such study to stress the fact that, in general, powerful checks operate at all times to keep human populations from increasing beyond the available food supply. In a later edition, published in 1803, he buttressed this assertion with carefully collected demographic and sociological data from many societies at various periods of their histories. The debate between Malthus and his contemporaries closely parallels current discussions of optimal global population in relation to the carrying capacity of the earth's environment. This essay will discuss not only the historical debate on the ideas of Malthus, but also its relevance to the 21st century. In particular, the essay will discuss the danger that a famine of unprecedented scale may occur during the present century, caused by prohibitively high prices of fossil fuels (on which modern agriculture depends compounded by the effects of climate change.

  6. From cyclic ice streaming to Heinrich-like events: the grow-and-surge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (United States)

    Feldmann, Johannes; Levermann, Anders


    Here we report on a cyclic, physical ice-discharge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, simulating the flow of a three-dimensional, inherently buttressed ice-sheet-shelf system which periodically surges on a millennial timescale. The thermomechanically coupled model on 1 km horizontal resolution includes an enthalpy-based formulation of the thermodynamics, a nonlinear stress-balance-based sliding law and a very simple subglacial hydrology. The simulated unforced surging is characterized by rapid ice streaming through a bed trough, resulting in abrupt discharge of ice across the grounding line which is eventually calved into the ocean. We visualize the central feedbacks that dominate the subsequent phases of ice buildup, surge and stabilization which emerge from the interaction between ice dynamics, thermodynamics and the subglacial till layer. Results from the variation of surface mass balance and basal roughness suggest that ice sheets of medium thickness may be more susceptible to surging than relatively thin or thick ones for which the surge feedback loop is damped. We also investigate the influence of different basal sliding laws (ranging from purely plastic to nonlinear to linear) on possible surging. The presented mechanisms underlying our simulations of self-maintained, periodic ice growth and destabilization may play a role in large-scale ice-sheet surging, such as the surging of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which is associated with Heinrich events, and ice-stream shutdown and reactivation, such as observed in the Siple Coast region of West Antarctica.

  7. From cyclic ice streaming to Heinrich-like events: the grow-and-surge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Feldmann


    Full Text Available >Here we report on a cyclic, physical ice-discharge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, simulating the flow of a three-dimensional, inherently buttressed ice-sheet-shelf system which periodically surges on a millennial timescale. The thermomechanically coupled model on 1 km horizontal resolution includes an enthalpy-based formulation of the thermodynamics, a nonlinear stress-balance-based sliding law and a very simple subglacial hydrology. The simulated unforced surging is characterized by rapid ice streaming through a bed trough, resulting in abrupt discharge of ice across the grounding line which is eventually calved into the ocean. We visualize the central feedbacks that dominate the subsequent phases of ice buildup, surge and stabilization which emerge from the interaction between ice dynamics, thermodynamics and the subglacial till layer. Results from the variation of surface mass balance and basal roughness suggest that ice sheets of medium thickness may be more susceptible to surging than relatively thin or thick ones for which the surge feedback loop is damped. We also investigate the influence of different basal sliding laws (ranging from purely plastic to nonlinear to linear on possible surging. The presented mechanisms underlying our simulations of self-maintained, periodic ice growth and destabilization may play a role in large-scale ice-sheet surging, such as the surging of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which is associated with Heinrich events, and ice-stream shutdown and reactivation, such as observed in the Siple Coast region of West Antarctica.

  8. Protein-RNA and Protein-Protein Recognition by Dual KH1/2 Domains of the Neuronal Splicing Factor Nova-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Teplova; L Malinina; J Darnell; J Song; M Lu; R Abagyan; K Musunuru; A Teplov; S Burley; et al.


    Nova onconeural antigens are neuron-specific RNA-binding proteins implicated in paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (POMA) syndrome. Nova harbors three K-homology (KH) motifs implicated in alternate splicing regulation of genes involved in inhibitory synaptic transmission. We report the crystal structure of the first two KH domains (KH1/2) of Nova-1 bound to an in vitro selected RNA hairpin, containing a UCAG-UCAC high-affinity binding site. Sequence-specific intermolecular contacts in the complex involve KH1 and the second UCAC repeat, with the RNA scaffold buttressed by interactions between repeats. Whereas the canonical RNA-binding surface of KH2 in the above complex engages in protein-protein interactions in the crystalline state, the individual KH2 domain can sequence-specifically target the UCAC RNA element in solution. The observed antiparallel alignment of KH1 and KH2 domains in the crystal structure of the complex generates a scaffold that could facilitate target pre-mRNA looping on Nova binding, thereby potentially explaining Nova's functional role in splicing regulation.

  9. Large-scale slope remodelling by landslides - Geomorphic diversity and geological controls, Kamienne Mts., Central Europe (United States)

    Migoń, Piotr; Jancewicz, Kacper; Różycka, Milena; Duszyński, Filip; Kasprzak, Marek


    The Kamienne Mts. in the Sudetes, Central Europe, bear widespread evidence of landsliding which mainly occurred at the boundary between Carboniferous and Permian clastic sedimentary rocks and overlying Permian volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. 47 individual landslides have been delimited using a combination of LiDAR-derived DEM analysis and field mapping. They have been characterized through a range of geomorphometric parameters and cluster analysis reveals four major groups in terms of surface expression and consequently, likely origin and history. Spatial analysis confirms distinct association of landslides with the steepest terrain and north to east aspect of slopes, but distance from lithological contact emerges as the critical parameter. > 80% of the total landslide area is located within 200 m of a contact, on either side of it. Joint measurements within head scarps at selected landslides indicate that displacements took place along steeply dipping joints in the volcanic cap, but the existence of low angle detachment surfaces in the underlying sedimentary formations is inferred. The spatial distribution of slope deformations coupled with apparently different (although yet unspecified) ages of individual landslides suggests that remodelling of the mountain range by landslides is an ongoing process. Geomorphic history of the area excludes glacial or fluvial erosion and resultant slope de-buttressing as the cause of instability. Rather, landslides are considered as mechanisms by which slopes which have become too high and steep due to long-term differential erosion restore their strength equilibrium.

  10. Surgical Strategy and Techniques for Low-Profile Dorsal Plating in Treating Dorsally Displaced Unstable Distal Radius Fractures. (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshitaka; Gotani, Hiroyuki; Hibino, Naohito; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Ryousuke; Sasaki, Kousuke; Kanchanathepsak, Thepparat


    Background The low-profile dorsal locking plating (DLP) technique is useful for treating dorsally comminuted intra-articular distal radius fractures; however, due to the complications associated with DLP, the technique is not widely used. Methods A retrospective review of 24 consecutive cases treated with DLP were done. Results All cases were classified into two types by surgical strategy according to the fracture pattern. In type 1, there is a volar fracture line distal to the watershed line in the dorsally displaced fragment, and this type is treated by H-framed DLP. In type 2, the displaced dorsal die-punch fragment is associated with a minimally displaced styloid shearing fracture or a transverse volar fracture line. We found that the die-punch fragment was reduced by the buttress effect of small l-shaped DLP after stabilization of the styloid shearing for the volar segment by cannulated screws from radial styloid processes. At 6 months after surgery, outcomes were good or excellent based on the modified Mayo wrist scores with no serious complications except one case. The mean range of motion of each type was as follows: the palmar flexion was 50, 65 degrees, dorsiflexion was 70, 75 degrees, supination was 85, 85 degrees, and pronation was 80, 80 degrees; in type 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion DLP is a useful technique for the treatment of selected cases of dorsally displaced, comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius with careful soft tissue coverage.

  11. Contraceptive medicalisation, fear of infertility and teenage pregnancy in Brazil. (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; Souza, Ana D; Tavares, Patrícia A; Cruz, Suélen H; Béhague, Dominique P


    In Brazil, as in many other countries, teenage pregnancy is widely recognised as a public health problem. Buttressed by a public health science of the economics of teenage pregnancy that emphasises the postponement of parenthood as key to poverty reduction, young people's lack of appreciation for medical knowledge of contraceptives is most often credited for failed attempts to reduce teenage pregnancy. Based on a longitudinal ethnographic study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil, with young people over the course of 10 years, our study found that young women who became teenage parents did not lack medical knowledge but were, rather, highly medicalised. Not only were they intensely concerned with the ill-effects of oral contraceptives on possible future fertility, they also engaged in intricate routines of contraceptive-use as a way of testing and safeguarding their fecundity. Our analysis attends to the way these practices are shaped by the problematisation of the economics of teenage pregnancy, as well as by the gendering of cultural norms relating to the transition to adulthood. We theorise the results by considering how contraceptive medicalisation enabled some women to engage with the authority of normative society, while developing a potent off-stage critique of this authority and of what they considered to be discriminatory messages imbedded in scientific discourses on teenage pregnancy.

  12. Organophosphate insecticides target the serotonergic system in developing rat brain regions: disparate effects of diazinon and parathion at doses spanning the threshold for cholinesterase inhibition. (United States)

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Tate, Charlotte A; Ryde, Ian T; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J


    In the developing brain, serotonin (5HT) systems are among the most sensitive to disruption by organophosphates. We exposed neonatal rats to daily doses of diazinon or parathion on postnatal days (PND)1-4 and evaluated 5HT receptors and the 5HT transporter in brainstem and forebrain on PND5, focusing on doses of each agent below the maximum tolerated dose and spanning the threshold for cholinesterase inhibition: 0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg for diazinon, and 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg for parathion. Diazinon evoked up-regulation of 5HT1A and 5HT2 receptor expression even at doses devoid of effects on cholinesterase activity, a pattern similar to that seen earlier for another organophosphate, chlorpyrifos. In contrast, parathion decreased 5HT1A receptors, again at doses below those required for effects on cholinesterase. The two agents also differed in their effects on the 5HT transporter. Diazinon evoked a decrease in the brainstem and an increase in the forebrain, again similar to that seen for chlorpyrifos; this pattern is typical of damage of nerve terminals and reactive sprouting. Parathion had smaller, nonsignificant effects. Our results buttress the idea that, in the developing brain, the various organophosphates target specific neurotransmitter systems differently from each other and without the requirement for cholinesterase inhibition, their supposed common mechanism of action.

  13. Designing patient-specific 3D printed craniofacial implants using a novel topology optimization method. (United States)

    Sutradhar, Alok; Park, Jaejong; Carrau, Diana; Nguyen, Tam H; Miller, Michael J; Paulino, Glaucio H


    Large craniofacial defects require efficient bone replacements which should not only provide good aesthetics but also possess stable structural function. The proposed work uses a novel multiresolution topology optimization method to achieve the task. Using a compliance minimization objective, patient-specific bone replacement shapes can be designed for different clinical cases that ensure revival of efficient load transfer mechanisms in the mid-face. In this work, four clinical cases are introduced and their respective patient-specific designs are obtained using the proposed method. The optimized designs are then virtually inserted into the defect to visually inspect the viability of the design . Further, once the design is verified by the reconstructive surgeon, prototypes are fabricated using a 3D printer for validation. The robustness of the designs are mechanically tested by subjecting them to a physiological loading condition which mimics the masticatory activity. The full-field strain result through 3D image correlation and the finite element analysis implies that the solution can survive the maximum mastication of 120 lb. Also, the designs have the potential to restore the buttress system and provide the structural integrity. Using the topology optimization framework in designing the bone replacement shapes would deliver surgeons new alternatives for rather complicated mid-face reconstruction.

  14. Effects of Lexico-syntactic Errors on Teaching Materials: A Study of Textbooks Written by Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peace Chinwendu Israel


    Full Text Available This study examined lexico-syntactic errors in selected textbooks written by Nigerians. Our focus was on the educated bilinguals (acrolect who acquired their primary, secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria and the selected textbooks were textbooks published by Vanity Publishers/Press. The participants (authors cut across the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria – Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba and the selection of the textbooks covered the major disciplines of study. We adopted the descriptive research design and specifically employed the survey method to accomplish the purpose of our exploratory research.  The lexico-syntactic errors in the selected textbooks were identified and classified into various categories. These errors were not different from those identified over the years in students’ essays and exam scripts. This buttressed our argument that students are merely the conveyor belt of errors contained in the teaching material and that we can analyse the students’ lexico-syntactic errors in tandem with errors contained in the material used in teaching.

  15. Dire necessity and transformation: entry-points for modern science in Islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines. (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Furber, Steven W; Kholwadia, Mohammad A; Moosa, Ebrahim


    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a 'good' that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived components by referencing opinions of several Islamic authorities. In the Islamic ethico-legal tradition controversy surrounds the use of proteins from an animal (pig) that is considered to be impure by Islamic law. As we discuss the Islamic ethico-legal constructs used to argue for or against the use of porcine-based vaccines we will call attention to areas where modern medical data may make the arguments more precise. By highlighting areas where science can buttress and clarify the ethico-legal arguments we hope to spur an enhanced applied Islamic bioethics discourse where religious scholars and medical experts use modern science in a way that remains faithful to the epistemology of Islamic ethics to clarify what Islam requires of Muslim patients and healthcare workers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Absolute Summ (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  17. Diasteromeric Effect on the Homolysis of the C–ON Bond in Alkoxyamines: A DFT Investigation of 1,3-Diphenylbutyl-TEMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Roubaud


    Full Text Available The rate constants kd of the homolysis of the C–ON bond in styryl dyads TEMPO-based alkoxyamines have recently been published (Li et al. Macromolecules 2006, 39, 9201. The diastereoisomers exhibited different values which were higher than for the unimer TEMPO-styryl alkoxyamine 1. At a first glance, the localization of the steric strain was not obvious. To decipher this problem, diastereoisomer models 2 (RR/SS and 3 (RS/SR, as well as the released alkyl radicals, were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d level. It was revealed that the increase in kd from 1 to 3 was due to the compression (buttressing effect of the reactive center by the second styryl moiety. The difference in kd for the diastereoisomer was clearly an activation entropy effect DS≠ because the alkyl fragment of the RS/SR diastereoismer exhibited the same conformation as the released radical whereas the conformation for the RR/SS diastereoisomer was quite different and thus required the rotation of several bonds to reach the correct TS, which cost DS≠, and thus lowers kd.

  18. Wedgeless 'V' shaped distal femoral osteotomy with internal fixation for genu valgum in adolescents and young adults. (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas; Kamra, Gaurav; Singh, Davinder; Pandey, Ketan; Arora, Sumit


    The treatment of angular malalignment includes restoration of normal mechanical axis alignment and joint orientation.The supracondylar wedgeless distal femoral 'V' osteotomy, as a treatment modality, is sparsely explored in the literature. This study was conducted at a tertiary level teaching referral hospital from October 2010 to September 2012. Forty six lower limbs (in 30 patients) were operated with a wedgeless 'V' osteotomy that was fixed with a buttress 'L' plate. The pre-operative deformity, post-operative correction and knee range of movement were noted. Mobilisation was started at 3 weeks after surgery and full weight-bearing was allowed at 3 months. The knee score by Bostman et al. was used for functional outcome. The mean age of the patients in our study was 16.9 years (range: 15 years to 23 years). The patients were followed up for a mean period of 19.8 months (range, 15 months to 29 months). The mean radiological tibiofemoral angle was 22.2 degrees (range, 16 degrees to 29 degrees) before surgery, that improved to a mean postoperative value of 5.1 degrees (range, 0 degrees to 10 degrees) (p p p V' shaped osteotomy is a simple procedure for the correction of genu valgum in individuals nearing skeletal maturity and is easy to perform. It has the advantage of being wedgeless as it does not cause limb length discrepancy. Internal fixation helps in early rehabilitation after surgery.

  19. Tongue contractions during speech may have led to the development of the bony geometry of the chin following the evolution of human language: a mechanobiological hypothesis for the development of the human chin. (United States)

    Ichim, Ionut; Kieser, Jules; Swain, Michael


    One of the most fundamental yet unanswered questions of human evolution is that of the development of the chin. Whereas it is known that the chin, or mentum osseum, is an unique anatomical feature of modern humans that emerged during the Middle and Late Pleistocene, its origin and biomechanical significance are the subjects of intense controversy. Theories range from the suggestion that the chin evolved as a result of progressive reduction of the dental arch, which left it as a protrusion, to the hypothesis that it provided resistance to mandibular bending during mastication. Until now however, no accepted functional explanation of the human chin has emerged. Here, we develop the hypothesis that the actions of the tongue and non-masticatory orofacial muscles may have played a significant role on the development of the human chin. We report numerical simulations of the forces and resultant stresses developed in hypothetical chinned and non-chinned mandibles. Using empirical data and estimates of the forces generated by the human tongue during speech, our hypothesis suggests that the chin might in fact have developed as a result of the actions of the tongue and perioral muscles, rather than as a buttress to withstand masticatory induced stress. This provides a new perspective on the generation of the chin and importantly, suggests that its appearance may be causally related to the development of the human language.

  20. The conservation of Javanese-cultured city through visual expression study on the architecture of Keraton Yogyakarta (United States)

    Tohar, Ibrahim; Hardiman, Gagoek; Ratih Sari, Suzanna


    Keraton Yogyakarta as a summit of Javanese culture has been renowned as a heritage building. As object of study, Keraton Yogyakarta is ornamented with a collection of architectural artifacts. The acculturation and merging of these different styles create a unique impression within the palace complex. This study aims to identify the pattern of acculturation of these two styles and to interpret their meaning and expression. A descriptive-qualitative method is employed in this research, which contains visual observation, documentation collection, interviews with informants, and relevant literature review. As results of study, the expression of Tratag Pagelaran, Tratag Sitihinggil, Bangsal Ponconiti, and Gedong Jene tends to widen, while the expression of Gedong Purwaretna tends to uprise. Every building has its own point of interest and ornamentation which its place and content are different.. In visual observations, there are two categories of buildings in Keraton Yogyakarta,which accommodate two styles, namely Javanese Traditional style and Dutch Colonial style. Buildings of Javanese traditional style, which hold a special concept of shading, were built without buttresses and embody a ‘light’ expression, while buildings of Dutch Colonial style, which hold a concept of protection, were built with massive enclosure and produce a “heavy” expression. Although visually split into two distinct styles, the acculturation process in Keraton Yogyakarta produced a unity in its overall expression. The expression pattern of Keraton Yogyakarta can be used as conservation guidance of Javanese-cultured city.

  1. Energy Sources for Yotta-TeV Iceberg Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAyeal, Douglas [University of Chicago


    In late February of 2002, warming climate along the Antarctic Peninsula triggered a macroscopic particle acceleration event that smashed a 350 Gkg floating ice shelf, called the Larsen B. The particle shower released by the acceleration involved on the order of >10^6 iceberg particles accelerated to an aggregate total kinetic energy of ~10^17 J (100 Mt TNT equivalent). The explosion was so extreme that it caught glaciological science by surprise (an injury to the egos of glaciologists worldwide) and caused glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula formerly buttressed by the missing ice shelf to surge (yielding a small increment to sea level rise). In this presentation, I shall describe research, both experimental and field oriented, that has revealed the energy source for this explosive event. I shall also describe how climate warming has the capacity to trigger this type of ice-shelf collapse. A review of the geologic record of ice-rafted debris on the ocean floor suggests that extreme, explosive ice-shelf collapse may be a ubiquitous catastrophe that has happened regularly in the past as part of glacial/interglacial climate cycles.

  2. Ratio of Simple versus Comminuted Lateral Wall Fractures of the Orbit. (United States)

    Barta, Ruth J; Schubert, Warren


    Reduction of a fracture may be relatively easy with a simple, noncomminuted fracture along the zygomaticofrontal suture, zygomaticomaxillary buttress, or the inferior rim of the orbit. When one or more of these key landmarks is comminuted, it becomes more important to confirm that the fracture commonly seen between the greater wing of the sphenoid and the zygoma is properly repositioned. The zygomaticosphenoidal suture is an excellent landmark with a simple lateral orbital wall fracture (LOWF), but it may not be reliable in patients with a comminuted fracture. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency that the lateral orbital wall (LOW) is a reliable landmark in the reduction of a zygoma fracture by determining the ratio between simple versus comminuted LOWF. To identify 100 patients with a LOWF, the authors reviewed consecutive midface computed tomography images of 877 patients performed over a 25-month period from one of our city's primary Level I trauma and teaching hospitals. A total of 121 LOWF were identified in 100 patients. In 60.3% of cases the facture was a simple, noncomminuted LOWF. In 39.7% of cases the fracture was comminuted (p = 0.023). Simple LOWF are significantly more common than comminuted fractures. In 39.7% of fractures the LOW is comminuted. This suggests that there are many fractures in which other modalities may be much more important to use to confirm the proper reduction of the zygoma.

  3. 3D Printing Aids Acetabular Reconstruction in Complex Revision Hip Arthroplasty

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    Andrew J. Hughes


    Full Text Available Revision hip arthroplasty requires comprehensive appreciation of abnormal bony anatomy. Advances in radiology and manufacturing technology have made three-dimensional (3D representation of osseous anatomy obtainable, which provide visual and tactile feedback. Such life-size 3D models were manufactured from computed tomography scans of three hip joints in two patients. The first patient had undergone multiple previous hip arthroplasties for bilateral hip infections, resulting in right-sided pelvic discontinuity and a severe left-sided posterosuperior acetabular deficiency. The second patient had a first-stage revision for infection and recurrent dislocations. Specific metal reduction protocols were used to reduce artefact. The images were imported into Materialise MIMICS 14.12®. The models were manufactured using selective laser sintering. Accurate templating was performed preoperatively. Acetabular cup, augment, buttress, and cage sizes were trialled using the models, before being adjusted, and resterilised, enhancing the preoperative decision-making process. Screw trajectory simulation was carried out, reducing the risk of neurovascular injury. With 3D printing technology, complex pelvic deformities were better evaluated and treated with improved precision. Life-size models allowed accurate surgical simulation, thus improving anatomical appreciation and preoperative planning. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the technique should prove invaluable as a tool to aid clinical practice.

  4. Surgical treatment of post-infarction left ventricular pseudoaneurysm: Case series highlighting various surgical strategies. (United States)

    Prifti, Edvin; Bonacchi, Massimo; Baboci, Arben; Giunti, Gabriele; Veshti, Altin; Demiraj, Aurel; Zeka, Merita; Rruci, Edlira; Bejko, Ervin


    The left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVP) is rare, the surgical experience is limited and its surgical treatment remains still a challenge with an elevated mortality. Herein, it is presented a retrospective analysis of our experience with acquired post infarct LVP over a10-year period. Between January 2006 through August 2016, a total of 13 patients underwent operation for post infarct pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle. There were 10 men and 3 women and the mean age was 61 ± 7.6 years. 4 patients presented acute LVP. Two patients had preoperative intraortic balloon pump implantation. Various surgical techniques were used to obliterate the pseudoaneurysm such as direct pledgeted sutures buttressed by polytetrafluoroethylene felt, a Gore-Tex or Dacron patch, transatrial closure of LVP neck in submitral pseudoaneurysm, or linear closure in cases presenting associated postinfarct ventricular septal defect. Concomitant coronary artery bypasses were performed for significant stenoses in 12 patients, ventricular septal defect closure in 4 patients, mitral valve replacement in 3 and aortic valve replacement in 1 patient. Operative mortality was 30.8% (4 patients). Three of them were acute LVP. Three patients required the continuous hemodyalisis and 8 patients required intra-aortic balloon pump. At follow-up two deaths occurred at 1 and 3 years after surgery. In conclusion, this study revealed that surgical repair of post infarct left ventricular pseudoaneurysm was associated with an acceptable surgical mortality rate, that cardiac rupture did not occur in surgically treated patients.

  5. Holocene changes in fire frequency in north-western boreal forest of Quebec, Canada (United States)

    Cyr, D.; Bergeron, Y.; Carcaillet, C.; Gauthier, S.; Hely-Alleaume, C.; Flannigan, M.


    Changes in fire frequency were reconstructed for the last 8,000 yrs in the boreal forest of north-western Quebec using dendrochronology and charcoal records in lake sediments and organic soils. During the middle Holocene, fire frequency was characterized by a long period of low frequency between ca. 7500 and 2000 yrs BP. The high fire frequency during the last 2000 years was interrupted by periods of lower fire frequency notably since the end of the Little Ice Age ca 1850 AD. Climate appears to be the main process triggering fire. Simulations using GCMs (2xCO2 scenarios), buttressed by palaeoecological and dendrochronological evidence, suggest that future warming is unlikely to significantly increase fire frequency in the boreal forest of north-eastern Quebec since higher temperature appears to be associated with less frequent drought in this area. Palaeoecological and dendrochronological data clearly demonstrate the changing nature of forest ecosystem dynamics. We discuss the implications of these dynamics on disturbance-based forest management strategies

  6. Maxillary Tuberosity Reconstruction with Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

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    F. Ugurlu


    Full Text Available Severe bone loss due to pathology in the maxillary tuberosity region is a challenging problem both surgically and prosthetically. Large bone grafts have a poor survival rate due to the delicate bony architecture in this area and presence of the maxillary sinus. Our case presentation describes a new technique for reconstructing severe bony defect in the maxillary tuberosity with horizontal distraction osteogenesis in a 45-year-old man. A 4×6×3cm cyst was discovered in the left maxillary molar region and enucleated. Three months postoperatively, the area had a severe bone defect extending to the zygomatic buttress superiorly and hamular notch posteriorly. Three months later, a bone segment including the right upper second premolar was osteotomised and distracted horizontally. The bone segment was distracted 15 mm distally. After consolidation, implants were placed when the distractor was removed. A fixed denture was loaded over the implants after 3 months. Complete alveolar bone loss extending to the cranial base can be reconstructed with transport distraction osteogenesis. Distalisation of the alveolar bone segment adjacent to the bony defect is an easy method for reconstructing such severe defects.

  7. Medical informed consent: general considerations for physicians. (United States)

    Paterick, Timothy J; Carson, Geoff V; Allen, Marjorie C; Paterick, Timothy E


    Medical informed consent is essential to the physician's ability to diagnose and treat patients as well as the patient's right to accept or reject clinical evaluation, treatment, or both. Medical informed consent should be an exchange of ideas that buttresses the patient-physician relationship. The consent process should be the foundation of the fiduciary relationship between a patient and a physician. Physicians must recognize that informed medical choice is an educational process and has the potential to affect the patient-physician alliance to their mutual benefit. Physicians must give patients equality in the covenant by educating them to make informed choices. When physicians and patients take medical informed consent seriously, the patient-physician relationship becomes a true partnership with shared decision-making authority and responsibility for outcomes. Physicians need to understand informed medical consent from an ethical foundation, as codified by statutory law in many states, and from a generalized common-law perspective requiring medical practice consistent with the standard of care. It is fundamental to the patient-physician relationship that each partner understands and accepts the degree of autonomy the patient desires in the decision-making process.

  8. Biomechanical evaluation of a new fixation technique for internal fixation of three-part proximal humerus fractures in a novel cadaveric model. (United States)

    Brianza, Stefano; Plecko, Michael; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Windolf, Markus; Schwieger, Karsten


    The optimal surgical treatment for displaced proximal humeral fractures is still controversial. A new implant for the treatment of three-part fractures has been recently designed. It supplements the existing Expert Humeral Nail with a locking plate. We developed a novel humeral cadaveric model and the existing implant and the prototype were biomechanically compared to determine their ability in maintaining interfragmentary stability. The bone mineral density of eight pairs of cadaveric humeri was assessed and a three-part proximal humeral fracture was simulated with a Greater Tuberosity osteotomy and a surgical neck wedge ostectomy. The specimens were randomly assigned to either treatment. A bone anchor simulated part of a rotator cuff tendon pulling on the Greater Tuberosity. Specimens were initially tested in axial compression and afterward with a compound cyclic load to failure. An optical 3D motion tracking system continuously monitored the relative interfragmentary movements. The specimen stabilized with the prototype demonstrated higher stiffness (P=0.036) and better interfragmentary stability (P valuesplate assembly must be confirmed in vivo but the current study provides a biomechanical rationale for its use in the treatment of three-part proximal humeral fractures. The improved stability could be advantageous in particular when medial buttress is missing, even in osteoporotic bone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonunion of the femur treated with conventional osteosynthesis combined with autogenous and strut allogeneic bone grafts. (United States)

    Weng, Lin-Hsiu; Wang, Jun-Wen


    In this study, we reviewed the results of conventional osteosynthesis combined with strut onlay allografts and autogenous bone grafts as the treatment for nonunion of the femur. We conducted a retrospective study of 18 patients with nonunion of the femur treated with internal fixation (eight 95 degree fixed-angled blade plates, 7 intramedullary nails, 2 dynamic hip compression plates and screws, and 1 condylar buttress plate) and autogenous bone grafts and cortical strut allografts. There were 1.8 operations on average before surgery. The average time from the initial treatment of the fracture or osteotomy to surgery was 32.5 months. The average follow-up was 32.2 months. All 18 nonunions had healed by the time of follow-up. Positive intraoperative cultures (Staphylococcus epidermidis) in 2 patients were resolved by parenteral antibiotics with no additional treatment. Removal of implants was required in 5 patients because of screw irritation or bony union. One concomitant quadricepsplasty as well as 2 excisions of a protruding graft were required because of restricted knee motion or impingement. For difficult nonunions of the femur in the current study, strict adherence to the principles of the treatment of nonunion and the addition of strut allografts to enhance stability and repair potential proved to be a good alternative.

  10. Renovating the Pyramid of Needs: Contemporary Extensions Built Upon Ancient Foundations. (United States)

    Kenrick, Douglas T; Griskevicius, Vladas; Neuberg, Steven L; Schaller, Mark


    Maslow's pyramid of human needs, proposed in 1943, has been one of the most cognitively contagious ideas in the behavioral sciences. Anticipating later evolutionary views of human motivation and cognition, Maslow viewed human motives as based in innate and universal predispositions. We revisit the idea of a motivational hierarchy in light of theoretical developments at the interface of evolutionary biology, anthropology, and psychology. After considering motives at three different levels of analysis, we argue that the basic foundational structure of the pyramid is worth preserving, but that it should be buttressed with a few architectural extensions. By adding a contemporary design feature, connections between fundamental motives and immediate situational threats and opportunities should be highlighted. By incorporating a classical element, these connections can be strengthened by anchoring the hierarchy of human motives more firmly in the bedrock of modern evolutionary theory. We propose a renovated hierarchy of fundamental motives that serves as both an integrative framework and a generative foundation for future empirical research. © The Author(s) 2010.

  11. Health Literacy as a Complex Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Hunter


    Full Text Available As attention to health literacy grows as an area for policy intervention, policy discourse continues to draw on skills deficit and patient compliance, buttressed by the dominant political discourse of individual responsibility. But for patients, the health domain is interwoven with linguistic challenges, significant affective issues, underlying cultural dimensions, political and economic exigencies, variable access to resources, and cognitive and situated complexity. From these perspectives, this article reports on findings of an ongoing study of health literacy demands in the Midlands region of the North Island of New Zealand, an area of high ethnic and socio-economic diversity. The study focuses on patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease - two chronic areas strongly associated with ‘failure to care’ and identifed as having reached epidemic proportions. It analyses work to date: health professionals’ conceptions of and responses to perceived patients’ health literacy needs, and health information documents for patients. Implications of the study support the need for improvement in language and literacy skills among patients, but also the recognition of complexity and a collective responsibility for effective health communication.

  12. Centennial inventory: the changing face of orthodontics. (United States)

    Ghafari, Joseph G


    The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics celebrates its centennial, safeguarded by the nearly 115-year-old American Association of Orthodontists. This journey witnessed the rise and demise of various developments, concepts, and procedures, while basic knowledge is still needed. Various periods can be defined in the past century, but the goals remain to obtain more accurate diagnosis through precise anatomic imaging, more controlled and faster tooth movement, more discreet appliances, and the balance of esthetics, function, and stability. The most recent technologic advances have buttressed these goals. Cone-beam computed tomography has brought 3-dimensional assessment to daily usage, albeit the original enthusiasm is tempered by the risk of additional radiation. Temporary anchorage devices or miniscrews have revolutionized orthodontic practice and loom as a solid cornerstone of orthodontic science. Decortication and microperforation promise to speed up tooth displacement by stimulating vascularization. The concept of the regional acceleratory phenomenon has touched upon even the timing of orthognathic surgery. The burden of esthetic appliances remains, with the demand for "cosmetic" appliances and clear aligners. Have these developments changed the face of orthodontics? Have we engaged in another turn wherein certain treatment modalities may fade, while others join mainstream applications? These questions are addressed in this essay on the challenges, promises, and limitations of current orthodontic technology, enhancement of biologic response, and personalized treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The medicalization of beauty

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    Paulo Poli Neto


    Full Text Available Concern with body image and medical interventions related to physical beauty has greatly increased in the past few years. The purpose of this study is to investigate how medicine is dealing with the theme of beauty. The 2003/2004 editions of the periodicals Aesthetic Surgery Journal and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery were analyzed, in order to investigate the rationality buttressing their discourse. Three categories were prioritized for this study: definition of aesthetic plastic surgery's study object; beauty patterns guiding interventions; and understanding popular demand for aesthetic corrections. Discourse is sustained by biomedical rationality, structured around a disease theory and a dual construction between normal and pathological, with emphasis on biology. In the articles, the beauty patterns guiding therapeutic practices are anchored in biological norms defined through several anthropometric measures, which refer to abstract concepts of beauty, harmony, proportionality and symmetry. In this discourse, there are no references to patterns or to social norms of beauty; motivation for aesthetic intervention appears to be rooted in low self-esteem related to the aging process or to some bodily nonconformity. As per the meaning of 'medicalization' adopted herein, biomedical rationality appropriates variations or anomalies of physical appearance, thus allowing the theme to be dealt with in terms of health and disease, normal and pathological.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical frontiers and perspectives (United States)

    Bruix, Jordi; Gores, Gregory J; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and is currently the main event leading to death in patients with cirrhosis. Evolving information suggests that the metabolic syndrome with non-alcoholic liver disease may be an important cause of HCC in addition to viral hepatitis and alcohol-induced liver disease. The molecular pathogenesis is extremely complex and heterogeneous. To date the molecular information has not impacted on treatment decisions. Periodic surveillance imaging of patients with cirrhosis is widely practiced, especially because diagnostic, radiographic criteria for early-stage HCC have been defined (including nodules between 1 and 2 cm) and effective treatment is available for tumours detected at an early stage. Worldwide the approach to resection versus transplantation varies depending upon local resources, expertise and donor availability. The criteria for transplantation are discussed, and the controversial areas highlighted with evidence-based recommendations provided. Several approaches are available for intermediate stage disease, including radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolisation and radioembolisation; the rationale for these therapies is buttressed by appropriate outcome-based studies. For advanced disease, systemic therapy with sorafenib remains the option best supported by current data. Thus, while several trials have failed to improve the benefits of established therapies, studies assessing the sequential or combined application of those already known to be beneficial are needed. Also, new concepts are provided in regards to selecting and stratifying patients for second-line studies, which may help explain the failure of prior studies. PMID:24531850

  15. Evolution of the Jugal/Zygomatic Bones. (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C; Wang, Qian


    This issue of the Anatomical Record is the second of a two-volume set on the zygoma (also called the cheek bone, the zygomatic bone, the malar, or the jugal, the latter term being used in vertebrates other than mammals). The zygoma is an important component of the craniofacial skeleton, in which the zygoma is a connection between the midfacial and the cranial skeletons; has a functional role as the origin of one of the masticatory muscles, the masseter muscle, and several facial muscles; has been considered as an essential buttress of the facial skeleton for resisting masticatory forces; and has importance for determining phylogenetic relationships. In humans, the zygoma is also of aesthetic significance for facial appearance, and its restoration following trauma has resulted in a large clinical literature. In this second half of the special issue on the zygoma, a series of papers discuss studies related to evolution of the zygoma and related parts of the craniofacial skeleton throughout the vertebrates, and in particular in human evolution. There are also a series of articles discussing variation of the zygoma in modern humans. This article is an overview in which we discuss the primary findings of these studies and some of their implications. Anat Rec, 300:12-15, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. ‘Beds and thrones: the reform of aulic space in late eighteenth-century France’

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    Jean-François Bédard


    Full Text Available Court societies relied on interior decoration to make visible their strict social hierarchies. The successful deployment of architecture and furnishings not only enhanced a regime’s prestige but also buttressed its political legitimacy. This paper will address the intimate relationship between buildings and furniture that the architects Charles Percier (1764–1838 and Pierre François Léonard Fontaine (1762–1853 orchestrated for the Napoleonic court. By reconfiguring the spaces and décor of the Palace of the Tuileries, the primary site of Napoleonic pageantry, Percier and Fontaine materialized an ever stricter imperial etiquette. This study compares the successive editions of the Étiquette du Palais Impérial, the exacting guide to ceremonial behavior at the Tuileries, to Percier and Fontaine’s architectural and decorative refurbishments of this former royal residence. By probing ceremonial, architectural, and decorative practice, this study intends to challenge the disciplinary boundaries that would otherwise obscure the complex interaction between theatrical politics and their material manifestations.

  17. Mechanical Constraints on the Hominin Pelvis and the "Obstetrical Dilemma". (United States)

    Ruff, Christopher


    The "obstetrical dilemma" posits that increases in birth canal dimensions during hominin evolution were constrained by mechanical factors associated with bipedal gait. This model has recently been challenged, in part on the basis of experimental data showing little association between pelvic and proximal femoral dimensions and locomotor costs among human experimental subjects. However, complete rejection of the model is premature, for two reasons: (1) it is difficult to extrapolate experimental results to naturalistic conditions and the much more varied body form and possibly locomotor style of early hominins. Relative pelvic breadth and femoral neck length in both australopiths and early Homo are at or beyond the limits observed among modern humans, and there is evidence that australopiths may have used an altered form of bipedal gait. (2) Other mechanical factors in addition to locomotor cost are important when assessing pelvic and proximal femoral morphology. Increasing biacetabular breadth increases the joint reaction force (JRF) on the femoral head. Increasing femoral neck length may reduce hip JRF, but also increases stress and fracture risk in the femoral neck. Increasing both biacetabular breadth and femoral neck length also increases mediolateral bending stress in the proximal femoral shaft, necessitating substantial buttressing of the diaphysis. Thus, there are mechanical consequences beyond simply locomotor costs that must be considered when evaluating variation in pelvic and femoral morphology among past and extant hominins. Anat Rec, 300:946-955, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining (United States)

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Tainer, John A.; Ellenberger, Tom


    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation. PMID:26130724

  19. The telomerase essential N-terminal domain promotes DNA synthesis by stabilizing short RNA–DNA hybrids (United States)

    Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Parks, Joseph W.; Stone, Michael D.


    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repetitive DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes and consists of two main subunits: the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein and an associated telomerase RNA (TER). The telomerase essential N-terminal (TEN) domain is a conserved region of TERT proposed to mediate DNA substrate interactions. Here, we have employed single molecule telomerase binding assays to investigate the function of the TEN domain. Our results reveal telomeric DNA substrates bound to telomerase exhibit a dynamic equilibrium between two states: a docked conformation and an alternative conformation. The relative stabilities of the docked and alternative states correlate with the number of basepairs that can be formed between the DNA substrate and the RNA template, with more basepairing favoring the docked state. The docked state is further buttressed by the TEN domain and mutations within the TEN domain substantially alter the DNA substrate structural equilibrium. We propose a model in which the TEN domain stabilizes short RNA–DNA duplexes in the active site of the enzyme, promoting the docked state to augment telomerase processivity. PMID:25940626

  20. Cadmium Exposure as a Putative Risk Factor for the Development of Pancreatic Cancer: Three Different Lines of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Buha


    Full Text Available Although profoundly studied, etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC is still rather scant. Exposure to cadmium (Cd, a ubiquitous metal associated with well-established toxic and carcinogenic properties, has been hypothesized to one putative cause of PC. Hence, we analyzed recently published observational studies, meta-analyses, and experimental animal and in vitro studies with the aim of summarizing the evidence of Cd involvement in PC development and describing the possible mechanisms. Consolidation of epidemiological data on PC and exposure to Cd indicated a significant association with an elevated risk of PC among general population exposed to Cd. Cadmium exposure of laboratory animals was showed to cause PC supporting the findings suggested by human studies. The concordance with human and animal studies is buttressed by in vitro studies, although in vitro data interpretation is problematic. In most instances, only significant effects are reported, and the concentrations of Cd are excessive, which would skew interpretation. Previous reports suggest that oxidative stress, apoptotic changes, and DNA cross-linking and hypermethylation are involved in Cd-mediated carcinogenesis. Undoubtedly, a significant amount of work is still needed to achieve a better understanding of the Cd involvement in pancreatic cancer which could facilitate prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of this fatal disease.

  1. Proximal femoral fractures: Principles of management and review of literature (United States)

    Mittal, Ravi; Banerjee, Sumit


    Purpose The purpose of this study was to review the principles involved in the management of proximal femoral fractures as reported in the literature. Methods: A medical literature search in the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane database was undertaken to review strategies and principles in proximal femoral fracture treatment. Randomized control trials and meta analysis were given preference while case reports/small series were rejected. Results and conclusions: Early anatomical reduction and surgical fixation remains the best option to reduce the risk of complications like non-union and avascular necrosis in treating fracture neck femurs. Cancellous screws continue to be the preferred treatment for fixation of neck femur fractures in younger population until the benefit of using sliding hip screws is validated by large multicentric studies. In the geriatric age group, early prosthetic replacement brings down the mortality and morbidity associated with neck femur fractures. Sliding hip screw (DHS) is the best available option for stable inter trochanteric fractures. The use of intramedullary nails e.g. PFN is beneficial in treating inter trochanteric fractures with comminution and loss of lateral buttress. Intramedullary implants have been proven to have increased success rates in subtrochanteric fractures and should be preferred over extramedullary plate fixation systems. PMID:25983451

  2. Ipsilateral fracture dislocations of the hip and knee joints with contralateral open fracture of the leg: a rare case and its management principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Ramesh Kumar


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】This paper discussed the injury mecha- nism and management of a patient who had concomitant ipsilateral hip and knee dislocations and contralateral open leg fracture. A 32-year-old man presented with ipsilateral fracture- dislocations of the left hip (Pipkin’s type IV and knee (Moore II joints and contralateral open fracture of the leg bones after a car accident. After emergency resuscitative measures, the hip joint was reduced and Pipkin’s fracture was fixed using Ganz approach with lag screws; knee joint was reduced closely and tibial plateau fracture was stabi- lized with lateral buttress plate and a transarticular span- ning fixator. The open fracture on the other leg was de- brided and fixed with an external fixator. There was no insta- bility in both joints after fixation when he was examined under anesthesia. The fractures united after 3 months and the patient had no residual instability of hip and knee. There was no clinical or radiological evidence of osteonecrosis in the hip joint after 6 months. At one-year follow-up, he had satisfactory functional outcome with almost normal range of motion at both joints. Ipsilateral hip and knee dislocations are rare injuries and more caution is needed for early diagnosis. A timely appro- priate intervention can provide good functional outcome to the patient in this situation. Key words: Hip dislocation; Knee dislocation; Fractures, bone

  3. Materials, used in historical buildings, analysis methods and solutions puroposals (United States)

    Döndüren, M. Sami; Sişik, Ozlem


    Most of historical buildings are built with pressure principle and have the characteristics of masonry structures. Therefore, the structure components of buildings are constituted bearing walls, columns, buttresses, vaults and domes. Natural stone, cut stone, rubble stone brick or alternate materials were used in the bearing elements. Brick-dust and mortar with more binding feature were used as combination elements. In time, some problems were occurred in used materials and in structure as a result of various effects. Therefore, it is necessary to apply various applications in framework of repair and strengthening of buildings. In this study, restoration of historic buildings and the control of the adequacy of the bearing systems as one most important part of structure were examined. For this purpose, static analysis of Edirne-Merkez Demirtaş (Timurtaş) mosque located in Edirne was tested. Testes could give suggestions and be applied if buildings needed be revealed. The structure was modelled with finite element model of sap2000 package program and the forces generated under various loads and stresses, the occurred deformation due to that, overflow of allowable stress of this deformation and stresses were investigated. As the results of this study can be note that the maximum compressive stress at the construction is calculated as 1.1 MPa.

  4. Effects of benzoic acid and cadmium toxicity on wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav


    Full Text Available Benzoic acid (BA and Cd exhibit cumulative effects on plants due to their accumulation in the soil. The present study reports the effects of BA an allelochemical, Cd and their combinations on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical parameters, and response of antioxidant enzymes in Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted in sand supplemented with Hoagland nutrient solution. Benzoic acid was applied at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM with or without Cd (7 mg L-1 to observe effects of allelochemical and Cd alone and in combination on wheat. Both stresses exhibited inhibitory effect on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings. The allelochemical in single and combined treatments with Cd decreased seedling growth as compared to Cd stress. The two stresses significantly enhanced malondialdehyde content of wheat seedlings. The activity of other antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were also recorded. SOD increased in seedlings under the two stresses. CAT more prominently ameliorates the toxic effects of H2O2 as compared with APX and POX and protected wheat seedlings from oxidative stress. Allelochemical buttressed the toxic effect of Cd on wheat seedlings.

  5. The Efficacy of Meniscal Treatment Associated with Lateral Tibial Plateau Fractures. (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Hui-Du; Cho, Jin Ho


    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of lateral meniscal tears associated with lateral tibial plateau fractures and report the clinical outcomes of meniscal treatment with internal fixation of fractures. All lateral tibial plateau fractures (Schatzker types II and III) in skeletally mature patients treated operatively at our institution between January 2010 and February 2016 were included. All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation using a buttress plate or cancellous screws. All meniscal tears were initially considered for repair using an all-inside technique. The incidence of lateral meniscal tears with lateral tibial plateau fractures was 64%. Ten patients underwent meniscal repair. In second-look arthroscopy, normal healing was observed in all of the repaired lateral menisci. At the last follow-up, none of the 10 patients had clinical symptoms related to meniscal injuries. One of the 4 patients who had not undergone meniscal treatment although a lateral tear was suspected based on magnetic resonance imaging achieved stable bony union; however, due to the complaint of persisting knee pain, lateral meniscectomy was performed. Treatment of meniscal lesions associated with lateral tibial plateau fractures showed good clinical and second-look arthroscopic results. Therefore, we believe that recognition and treatment of a meniscal injury at the time of surgical fixation can improve clinical outcome.

  6. Presence and Pathways of Atlantic water inflow to Northwest Greenland fjords: collaborative science with the Ocean Research Project (United States)

    Trenholm, N.; Richards, C.; Fenty, I. G.


    Recent glacial mass loss and acceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) has been hypothesized to be the result of an overall warming of the subpolar North Atlantic Gyre. Such warming has the potential to deliver increased heat to the face of marine-terminating glaciers, thereby enhancing melt and leading to glacial retreat and a loss of buttressing. However many parts of the Greenland coast, particularly in the Northwest, remain relatively unexplored and few oceanographic observations exist to track warm water pathways into the numerous fjords. Further, much of the bathymetry of the region is unknown, leading to uncertainty over whether or not warm Atlantic sourced water is capable of reaching the glacier margins. To fill this gap the R/V Ault, flagship of the Ocean Research Project (ORP, an incorporated 501(c)3), sailed between Nuuk and 78N from June to September 2015. Among several independent sampling programs, ORP data collected during the cruise included sea-surface salinity (through a thermosalinograph system), CTD casts, and over 2600 km of reconnaissance bathymetric surveys of the west Greenland continental shelf and fjords. CTD data from this data-sparse region indicate pathways of warm-water inflow, and will be used to supplement water column sampling for NASA's Ocean Melting Greenland project. Results obtained from the 2015 field season will be used to inform and plan for a second field program in summer 2016.

  7. Repositioning and stabilization of the radial styloid process in comminuted fractures of the distal radius using a single approach: the radio-volar double plating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobi Matthias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A possible difficulty in intra-articular fracture of the distal radius is the displacement tendency of the radial styloid process due to the tension of the brachioradialis tendon. Methods Ten patients treated within one year for complex distal radius fractures by double-plating technique with a radial buttress plate and volar locking plate, through a single volar approach, were followed prospectively during 24 months. Outcome measures included radiographic follow-up, range of motion, grip strength and score follow-up (VAS, Gartland-Werley score and patient-rated wrist evaluation. Results Ten patients with intraarticular distal radius fractures with dislocation of the radial styloid process were treated with this technique. This resulted after 24 months in good clinical outcome (mean visual analog scale 0.9; almost symmetric range of motion; mean Gartland-Werley score 2 ± 3; mean patient-rated wrist evaluation 3.2 ± 2.4. Radiologic evaluation according to the Dresdner Score revealed anatomic reduction without secondary dislocation during the follow-up and uneventful consolidation. Conclusions The described technique strongly facilitates anatomic reduction and stable fixation of intra-articular distal radius fractures with dislocation of the radial styloid process and leads to satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcome.

  8. Hiatal hernia repair with biologic mesh reinforcement reduces recurrence rate in small hiatal hernias. (United States)

    Schmidt, E; Shaligram, A; Reynoso, J F; Kothari, V; Oleynikov, D


    The utility of mesh reinforcement for small hiatal hernia found especially during antireflux surgery is unknown. Initial reports for the use of biological mesh for crural reinforcement during repair for defects greater than 5 cm have been shown to decrease recurrence rates. This study compares patients with small hiatal hernias who underwent onlay biologic mesh buttress repair versus those with suture cruroplasty alone. This is a single-institution retrospective review of all patients undergoing repair of hiatal hernia measuring 1-5 cm between 2002 and 2009. The patients were evaluated based on surgical repair: one group undergoing crural reinforcement with onlay biologic mesh and other group with suture cruroplasty only. Seventy patients with hiatal hernia measuring 1-5 cm were identified. Thirty-eight patients had hernia repair with biologic mesh, and 32 patients had repair with suture cruroplasty only. Recurrence rate at 1 year was 16% (5/32) in patients who had suture cruroplasty only and 0% (0/38) in the group with crural reinforcement with absorbable mesh (statistically significant, P = 0.017). Suture cruroplasty alone appears to be inadequate for hiatal hernias measuring 1-5 cm with significant recurrence rate and failure of antireflux surgery. Crural reinforcement with absorbable mesh may reduce hiatal hernia recurrence rate in small hiatal hernias. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  9. Combination chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis in reducing the incidence of leprosy (United States)

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Balagon, Marivic F


    Leprosy is a complex infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that is a leading cause of nontraumatic peripheral neuropathy. Current control strategies, with a goal of early diagnosis and treatment in the form of multidrug therapy, have maintained new case reports at ~225,000 per year. Diagnostic capabilities are limited and even with revisions to multidrug therapy regimen, treatment can still require up to a year of daily drug intake. Although alternate chemotherapies or adjunct immune therapies that could provide shorter or simpler treatment regimen appear possible, only a limited number of trials have been conducted. More proactive strategies appear necessary in the drive to elimination. As a prevention strategy, most chemoprophylaxis campaigns to date have provided about a 2-year protective window. Vaccination, in the form of a single bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunization, generally provides ~50% reduction in leprosy cases. Adapting control strategies to provide both chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis has distinct appeal, with chemoprophylaxis theoretically buttressed by vaccination to generate immediate protection that can be sustained in the long term. We also discuss simple assays measuring biomarkers as surrogates for disease development or replacements for invasive, but not particularly sensitive, direct measures of M. leprae infection. Such assays could facilitate the clinical trials required to develop these new chemoprophylaxis, immunoprophylaxis strategies, and transition into wider use. PMID:27175099

  10. Developing a monitoring and verification plan with reference to the Australian Otway CO2 pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds, K.; Daley, T.; Freifeld, B.; Urosevic, M.; Kepic, A.; Sharma, S.


    The Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC) is currently injecting 100,000 tons of CO{sub 2} in a large-scale test of storage technology in a pilot project in southeastern Australia called the CO2CRC Otway Project. The Otway Basin, with its natural CO{sub 2} accumulations and many depleted gas fields, offers an appropriate site for such a pilot project. An 80% CO{sub 2} stream is produced from a well (Buttress) near the depleted gas reservoir (Naylor) used for storage (Figure 1). The goal of this project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} can be safely transported, stored underground, and its behavior tracked and monitored. The monitoring and verification framework has been developed to monitor for the presence and behavior of CO{sub 2} in the subsurface reservoir, near surface, and atmosphere. This monitoring framework addresses areas, identified by a rigorous risk assessment, to verify conformance to clearly identifiable performance criteria. These criteria have been agreed with the regulatory authorities to manage the project through all phases addressing responsibilities, liabilities, and to assure the public of safe storage.

  11. Maxillary reconstruction using anterolateral thigh flap and bone grafts. (United States)

    Bianchi, Bernardo; Ferri, Andrea; Ferrari, Silvano; Copelli, Chiara; Sesenna, Enrico


    Loss of the maxilla and midfacial bone buttresses after tumor resections can lead to severe functional and esthetic consequences. The loss of palate function may lead to oro-nasal communication, nasal speech, and oral intake difficulties. Several techniques have been proposed for maxillary defects reconstruction including prosthesis, locoregional flaps, or free flaps. The authors propose the use of anterolateral thigh free flap and iliac crest, or calvaria bone graft association for reconstruction of this kind of defects. Between November 2003 and June 2007, eight patients underwent maxillectomies, with preservation of the orbital contents and simultaneous reconstruction using this technique. : All the flaps were harvested and transplanted successfully. No major complication occurred and only one patient developed a palatal dehiscence with partial necrosis of the skin of the flap. There were no complications at the donor sites. Speech was assessed as normal in five patients, intelligible in two patients, and poor in one patient. Six patients returned to normal diets, while two patients were restricted to soft diets. The esthetic results were evaluated by the patients themselves as good (in five cases) and acceptable (in two cases). In the remaining case, the esthetic result was deemed to be poor, due to ectropion and poor color matching of the skin used for the external coverage. The good results obtained using this technique encourage the choice of the association of anterolateral thigh and bone grafts for reconstructing maxillary complex defects. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 2009.

  12. Distribution of micromotion in implants and alveolar bone with different thread profiles in immediate loading: a finite element study. (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Kun; Chen, Yung-Chuan; Huang, Ching-Chieh; Lu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Hsun-Heng


    To detect the differences in the distribution of micromotion within implants and alveolar bone with different implant thread designs during immediate loading. A three-dimensional finite element model with contact elements was used to simulate the contact behavior between the implant and alveolar bone. Implants with four different thread designs were created: Acme (trapezoidal) thread (AT), buttress thread (BT), square thread (ST), and a standard V-thread (VT). To simulate immediate loading, the model was designed without osseointegration between the implant and alveolar bone. A load of 300 N was applied axially to the model, and the micromovements were measured. The maximum micromotion values of the ST, AT, VT, and BT models were 8.53, 9.57, 11.00, and 15.00 µm, respectively. All micromotion was located near the interface of cortical and cancellous bone. Different thread designs showed different distribution of micromotion during loading. This indicates that initial stability in immediate loading may be affected by thread design. The ST profile showed the most favorable result in the study. An implant with an ST profile might provide the best primary stability in an immediate loading situation.

  13. Stress analysis of parallel oil and gas steel pipelines in inclined tunnels. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Wu, Shijuan


    Geological conditions along long distance pipelines are complex. In consideration of differences in elevation and terrain obstacles, long distance pipelines are commonly laid through tunnels. Oil and gas pipelines are often laid side by side to reduce construction costs and minimize geological impact. The layout and construction of parallel oil and gas pipelines are more complex than those of single pipelines. In order to reduce safety hazards, it is necessary to carry out stress analysis of the oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels. In this study, a stress analysis model of pipelines running through a tunnel was developed. On the basis of the finite element method, CAESAR II software was used to analyze the stress and displacement of a section of parallel oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels and stress and displacement distribution laws were drawn from the analyses. A study of the factors influencing stress recommended that: (1) The buttress interval of the parallel oil and gas pipelines in a tunnel should be 12 m; (2) The angle of inclined pipelines should be no greater than 25°; (3) The stress of oil pipelines enhances more obviously than that of gas pipelines under earthquake action; (4) The average stress can be reduced by adopting "ladder" laying; and (5) Guide bend can be set at the tunnel entrance and exit in order to reduce the stress.

  14. The scapulocoracoid of the Queensland lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri (Dipnoi: Sarcopterygii): morphology, development and evolutionary implications for bony fishes (Osteichthyes). (United States)

    Johanson, Zerina; Joss, Jean M P; Wood, Daniel


    Among bony fishes, the ontogenetic sequence by which the actinopterygian scapulocoracoid develops has been well described, but that of the sarcopterygian scapulocoracoid is poorly known, as the majority of taxa are only known from fossils. To rectify this, the cartilaginous scapulocoracoid of the extant lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri is examined. In initial stages of its development, the scapulocoracoid of Neoceratodus has a simple rounded shape, and supports the glenoid fossa. It appears nearly contemporaneously with the proximal endochondral element (humerus) of the pectoral fin. Pectoral fin elements develop by segmentation from a continuous field of cartilaginous precursor cells extending distally from the glenoid region of the scapulocoracoid. Subsequent scapulocoracoid development produces a ventromedial process, which is not associated with this field of precursor cells. A dorsal process also develops outside this field. Thus, the scapulocoracoid of Neoceratodus may consist of at least two developmentally distinct regions; (1) the ventromedial being homologous with the coracoid of actinopterygians, tetrapods and other jawed vertebrates and (2) a smaller dorsal process, homologous to the scapular region. The two, together with the glenoid region, give an overall triangular shape. The scapulocoracoids of fossil lungfish and other sarcopterygian fishes are also triangular and are composed of scapular and coracoid regions, rather than the 'buttresses' associated with scapulocoracoids of the Actinopterygii and Tetrapoda.

  15. A will to youth: the woman's anti-aging elixir. (United States)

    Smirnova, Michelle Hannah


    The logic and cultural myths that buttress the cosmeceutical industry construct the older woman as a victim of old age, part of an "at-risk" population who must monitor, treat and prevent any markers of old age. A content and discourse analysis of 124 advertisements from the US More magazine between 1998 and 2008, revealed three major themes working together to produce this civic duty: (1) the inclusion of scientific and medical authorities in order to define the cosmeceutical as a 'drug' curing a disease, (2) descriptions of the similarities (and differences) between the abilities of cosmeceuticals and cosmetic surgery to restore one's youth, and (3) the logic equating youth with beauty, femininity and power and older age with the absence of these qualities. Together these intersecting logics produce the "will to youth"-the imperative of the aging woman to promote her youthful appearance by any and all available means. Further, by using images and references to fantasies and traditional fairytales, cosmeceutical advertisements both promise and normalize expectations of eternal youth of the aging woman. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conscientiousness and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A


    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness.

  17. Reparación e impermeabilización de las juntas de la presa de Cavallers, en los pirineos de Lérida-España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell De Masy, M.


    Full Text Available The problems with reinforced concrete and their repair are undoubtedly of great interest nowadays throughout the world. The problems of the reinforced concrete of the buttress dam in the Catalonian Pyrenees are considered in this article. Said problems led to a loss of 60 liters of water/sec. The technical solution to the problem is explained, as well as how it was carried out at temperatures of around O °C. Part of the repair work was done in the Spring of 1984, and the remainder at the beginning of 1985. The years which have elapsed confirm the effectiveness of the treatment.

    La patología del hormigón armado y su reparación, no cabe duda que es un tema de actualidad a nivel mundial. En este informe se expone la problemática planteada en el hormigón armado de una presa de contrafuertes, en los Pirineos de Lérida, que ocasionaba una pérdida de agua de 60 I/segundo, la solución técnica dada y su proceso de ejecución a temperaturas del orden de O °C. Una parte de la reparación fue llevada a cabo en la primavera de 1984 y, el resto, a principios de 1985. Los años transcurridos están confirmando la eficacia del tratamiento.

  18. Mauritania. (United States)


    The West African country of Mauritania bridges the chasm between Mediterranean and sub-Saharan Africa. The population of 1.85 million is a mixture of Arab, Berber and Negroid races, with languages and cultures to match, but they all share the Islam religion. Geographically, Mauritania meets Saharan Algeria on the northeast, contains mineral and iron rich hills in the center, Sahelian plains in the south, and the Senegal river valley on its southwestern border. Although a large proportion of the population are nomads, since 1980 many have settled in urban shanty-towns to escape drought. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000, life expectancy 46 years, literacy 17%, and per capita income $450. THe economy is split between those doing subsistence herding or farming, and the industrial iron and copper mines and fisheries. Mauritania has been governed by a military junta, the Committee for National Salvation, since 1978. The current government permitted municipal elections in 1986, but political parties and debate are banned. The economy is buttressed by high-grade iron ore exports; otherwise, drought, mismanagement and low commodity prices have plagued Mauritania's development.

  19. Paradigm in aetiology and management of zygomatic complex fractures in Pakistan. (United States)

    Abbas, Assad; Syed, Iffat Batool; Abbas, Hasnain; Abbas, Iram


    The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of wire osteosynthesis with bone plating in the management of zygomatic complex (ZMC) fractures. The rationale was to enable the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to select either of the treatment procedure with confidence. In this quasi experimental study, Sixty five patients of ZMC fractures were randomly allocated in groups of bone plating and wire osteosynthesis. This was done through envelope draw method. Three points fixation with either of the treatment modality was undertaken. Titanium bone plating or stain less steel wire osteosynthesis was carried out at frontozygomatic suture, infra orbital rim and at zygomaticomaxillary buttress. In this quasi experimental study, three patients failed to follow up. There were 31 patients in each group. Infra orbital step defect was observed in one patient of wire osteosynthesis and two patients of bone plating. Mild facial deformity was observed in two patients of wire osteosynthesis while none in that of bone plating. There is insignificant difference of proportion of infra orbital step defect and facial deformity between wire osteosynthesis and bone plating.

  20. Effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms and biomarkers in depression. (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Josefsson, Torbjorn; Lindwall, Magnus


    Regular physical exercise/activity has been shown repeatedly to promote positive benefits in cognitive, emotional and motor domains concomitant with reductions in distress and negative affect. It exerts a preventative role in anxiety and depressive states and facilitates psychological well-being in both adolescents and adults. Not least, several meta-analyses attest to improvements brought about by exercise. In the present treatise, the beneficial effects of exercise upon cognitive, executive function and working memory, emotional, self-esteem and depressed mood, motivational, anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, and somatic/physical, sleep disturbances and chronic aches and pains, categories of depression are discussed. Concurrently, the amelioration of several biomarkers associated with depressive states: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis homeostasis, anti-neurodegenerative effects, monoamine metabolism regulation and neuroimmune functioning. The notion that physical exercise may function as "scaffolding" that buttresses available network circuits, anti-inflammatory defences and neuroreparative processes, e.g. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), holds a certain appeal.

  1. Pains and Gains from China’s Experiences with Emerging Epidemics: From SARS to H7N9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wei


    Full Text Available Over the recent decades, China experienced several emerging virus outbreaks including those caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome- (SARS- coronavirus (Cov, H5N1 virus, and H7N9 virus. The SARS tragedy revealed faults in China’s infectious disease prevention system, propelling the Chinese government to enact reforms that enabled better combating of the subsequent H1N1 and H7N9 avian flu epidemics. The system is buttressed by three fundamental, mutually reinforcing components: (1 enduring government administration reforms, including legislation establishing a unified public health emergency management system; (2 prioritized funding for biotechnology and biomedicine industrialization, especially in the areas of pathogen identification, drug production, and the development of vaccines and diagnostics; and (3 increasing investment for public health and establishment of a rapid-response infectious diseases prevention and control system. China is now using its hard-gained experience to support the fight against Ebola in Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in its own country.

  2. Surgical repair of a severely comminuted maxillary fracture in a dog with a titanium locking plate system. (United States)

    Illukka, E; Boudrieau, R J


    A four-year old male Labrador Retriever was admitted with head trauma after being hit by a car. The dog had sustained multiple nasal, maxillary, and frontal bone fractures that resulted in separation of the maxilla from the base of the skull. A severely comminuted left zygomatic arch fracture was also present. These fractures were all repaired using a point contact, locking titanium plate system, in a single procedure that resulted in excellent postoperative occlusion and immediate function. Healing was uneventful. Full function and excellent cosmetic appearance were evident 13 months after surgery. This case illustrates the ease of repair and the success of treatment of severely comminuted maxillofacial fractures by conforming to basic biomechanical principles taken directly from the human experience and successfully applied to the dog; these included multiple plate application along the buttresses and trusses of the facial skeleton. The plate fixation was applied to bridge the multiple fractures along the most appropriate lines of stress. The small size of the plates, and the ability to easily contour them to adapt to the bone surface in three-dimensions, allowed their placement in the most appropriate positions to achieve sufficient rigidity and lead to uncomplicated healing without any postoperative complications.

  3. Puente sobre el río Guadalete de tablero de vigas pretensadas prefabricadas de hormigón de alta resistencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue, F.


    Full Text Available Project and construction of a bridge across Guadalete river which construction project is based on the use of prefabricated prestressed beams of High Strength Concrete (HSC. Starting from the different project solutions, the description develops aspects such as foundations, piles, buttresses, beams, slabs, etc., and continues with prefabrication, calculus and construction. It also describes the tests carried out on the beams, and the concrete that has been used in this work.

    Se describe el proyecto y la construcción de un puente sobre el río Guadalete, cuya realización y cálculo se basan en el empleo de vigas pretensadas prefabricadas, concretamente de Hormigón de Alta Resistencia (HAR. Partiendo de diversas soluciones de proyecto, se van definiendo aspectos tales como la cimentación, pilas y estribos, vigas, losas, etc. Se continúa con la prefabricación, construcción y cálculo, así como los ensayos realizados sobre el hormigón y las vigas de dicha obra.

  4. Tarlov Cyst Causing Sacral Insufficiency Fracture. (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Gates, Marcus J; Copeland, William; Krauss, William E; Fogelson, Jeremy


    Tarlov cysts, also known as perineural cysts, have been described as meningeal dilations of the spinal nerve root sheath between the peri- and endoneurium at the dorsal root ganglion. Most often they are found in the sacrum involving the nerve roots. Normally asymptomatic, they have been reported to present with radiculopathy, paresthesias, and even urinary or bowel dysfunction. Sacral insufficiency has not been a well-documented presentation. The patient is a 38-year-old female who started to develop left low back pain and buttock pain that rapidly progressed into severe pain with some radiation down the posterior aspect of her left leg. There was no recent history of spine or pelvic trauma. These symptoms prompted her initial emergency department evaluation, and imaging demonstrated a large Tarlov cyst with an associated sacral insufficiency fracture. She was noted to have a normal neurological examination notable only for an antalgic gait. She was taken to surgery via a posterior approach and the cyst was identified eccentric to the left. The cyst was fenestrated and the nerve roots identified. Given her large area of bone erosion and insufficiency fractures, fixation of the sacroiliac joints was deemed necessary. Fusion was extended to the L5 vertebral body to buttress the fixation. She tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 3. Tarlov cysts of the sacrum can lead to significant bone erosion and subsequent insufficiency fractures, requiring fenestration and in some cases, complex sacropelvic fixation.

  5. Discovery of Conservation and Diversification of miR171 Genes by Phylogenetic Analysis based on Global Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhu


    Full Text Available The microRNA171 (miR171 family is widely distributed and highly conserved in a range of species and plays critical roles in regulating plant growth and development through repressing expression of ( transcription factors. However, information on the evolutionary conservation and functional diversification of the miRNA171 family members remains scanty. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among miR171 precursor and mature sequences so as to investigate the extent and degree of evolutionary conservation of miR171 in (L. Heynh. (ath, grape ( L. (vvi, poplar ( Torr. & A.Gray ex Hook. (ptc, and rice ( L. (osa. Despite strong conservation of over 80%, some mature miR171 sequences, such as , and and , -, and -, have undergone critical sequence variation, leading to functional diversification, since they target non gene transcript(s. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a combination of old ancestral relationships and recent lineage-specific diversification in the miR171 family within the four model plants. The -regulatory motifs on the upstream promoter sequences of genes were highly divergent and shared some similar elements, indicating their possible contribution to the functional variation observed within the miR171 family. This study will buttress our understanding of the functional differentiation of miRNAs and the relationships of miRNA–target pairs based on the evolutionary history of genes.

  6. Reconstructing masculinity? A qualitative evaluation of the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures interventions in urban informal settlements in South Africa. (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Willan, Samantha


    Evidence shows the importance of working with men to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV-risk. Two claims dominate this work. The first is that interventions 'reconstruct' masculinities--these new formations of masculinity exist in opposition to existing ones and are healthier for men and less harmful for women. The second is that to be successful, such interventions need to address men's exclusion from the economy. Using a qualitative longitudinal cohort study of young men who participated in a gender transformative and livelihood strengthening intervention, as well as dyadic interviews with men's main female partners, we explore these claims. Data suggests men saw some improvements in livelihoods and relationships. However, challenging social contexts, including high rates of unemployment, peer networks and a dominant youth masculinity, limited change. Rather than reconstructing masculinity, a more subtle shift was seen with men moving away from 'harmful' aspects of a dominant youth masculinity towards a form of masculinity whereby male power is buttressed by economic provision and attempting to form and support 'households'. Working with men on their livelihoods at an instrumental level encouraged participation in the intervention. Beyond encouragement, men's improving livelihoods afforded men the opportunity to materially demonstrate the social changes - in the form of shifts in masculinity--they were seeking to enact.

  7. Reconstruction of Acetabular Posterior Wall Fractures (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Min; Hur, Jun-Oh; Lee, Jong-Seo; Cheon, Sang-Jin


    Background The results after acetabular fracture are primarily related to the quality of the articular reduction. We evaluated the results of internal fixation of posterior wall fractures with using three-step reconstruction. Methods Thirty-three patients (mean age at the time of injury, 47.9 years; 28 males and 5 females) were followed for a minimum of 2 years after surgery. The three-step reconstruction included 1) preservation of soft tissues and reduction of the marginally impacted osteochondral (articular) fragments using screws, 2) filling the impacted cancellous void with a bone graft, and 3) reinforcement with buttress-plating. Clinical evaluation was done according to the criteria of D'aubigne and Postel, while the radiological criteria were those of Matta. The associated injuries and complications were evaluated. Results The clinical results were excellent in 15 (45.5%) patients and they were good in 5 (15.2%), (i.e., satisfactory in 60.7%), while the radiologic results were excellent in 10 (30.3%) and good in 14 (42.4%) (satisfactory in 72.7%). Heterotopic ossification was common, but this did not require excision, even without prophylactic treatment with indomethacin. Deep infection was the worst complication and this was accompanied by a poor outcome. Conclusions This study confirms that three-step reconstruction facilitates accurate and firm reduction of displaced posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum. Therefore, we anticipate less long-term arthrosis in the patients treated this way. PMID:21629471

  8. Surgical exposures and options for instrumentation in acetabular fracture fixation: Pararectus approach versus the modified Stoppa. (United States)

    Bastian, J D; Savic, M; Cullmann, J L; Zech, W D; Djonov, V; Keel, M J


    As an alternative to the modified Stoppa approach, the Pararectus approach is used clinically for treatment of acetabular fractures involving the anterior column. The current study assessed the surgical exposure and the options for instrumentation using both of these approaches. Surgical dissections were conducted on five human cadavers (all male, mean age 88 years (82-97)) using the modified Stoppa and the Pararectus approach, with the same skin incision length (10cm). Distal boundaries of the exposed bony surfaces were marked using a chisel. After removal of all soft-tissues, distances from the boundaries in the false and true pelvis were measured with reference to the pelvic brim. The exposed bone was coloured and calibrated digital images of each inner hemipelvis were taken. The amount of exposed surface using both approaches was assessed and represented as a percentage of the total bony surface of each hemipelvis. For instrumentation, a suprapectineal quadrilateral buttress plate was used. Screw lengths were documented, and three-dimensional CT reconstructions were performed to assess screw trajectories qualitatively. Wilcoxon's signed rank test for paired groups was used (level of significance: pfracture fixation in the posterior pelvic ring and allows for the option to extend the approach without a new incision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Posterior acetabular column and quadrilateral plate fractures: fixation with tension band principles. (United States)

    Aly, Tarek A; Hamed, Hany


    Acetabular fractures can be classified into 5 simple and 5 associated fracture patterns. A significant amount of variation and complexity exists in these fractures patterns. Fractures of the posterior wall are the most common acetabular fractures. Comminution of the quadrilateral plate adds to fracture instability, and more rigid and stable internal fixation is mandatory. The goal of this study was to assess the results of reconstruction of comminuted posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum associated with quadrilateral plate fractures using the tension band technique. Twelve patients (9 men and 3 women) were included in the study. Mean patient age was 38.6 years (range, 24-47 years). Minimum follow-up was more than 2 years postoperatively. Reconstruction of the fracture included anatomic reduction of the fracture and fixation with a buttress plate for the posterior column and a prebent one-third tubular plate for the quadrilateral plate fracture. Clinical results were excellent in 58% of patients and good in 17% of patients. Radiologic results were excellent in 50% of patients and good in 17% of patients. Radiologically, based on the fracture gap postoperatively, 8 (66%) patients showed anatomic reduction, 2 (17%) showed good reduction, and 2 (17%) showed poor reduction. The study confirms that this method of reconstruction facilitates accurate and firm reduction of displaced posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Acetabular fractures: what radiologists should know and how 3D CT can aid classification. (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Meir H; Dym, Akiva A; Spektor, Michael; Avery, Laura L; Dym, R Joshua; Amanatullah, Derek F


    Correct recognition, description, and classification of acetabular fractures is essential for efficient patient triage and treatment. Acetabular fractures may result from high-energy trauma or low-energy trauma in the elderly. The most widely used acetabular fracture classification system among radiologists and orthopedic surgeons is the system of Judet and Letournel, which includes five elementary (or elemental) and five associated fractures. The elementary fractures are anterior wall, posterior wall, anterior column, posterior column, and transverse. The associated fractures are all combinations or partial combinations of the elementary fractures and include transverse with posterior wall, T-shaped, associated both column, anterior column or wall with posterior hemitransverse, and posterior column with posterior wall. The most unique fracture is the associated both column fracture, which completely dissociates the acetabular articular surface from the sciatic buttress. Accurate categorization of acetabular fractures is challenging because of the complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the pelvis, the rarity of certain acetabular fracture variants, and confusing nomenclature. Comparing a 3D image of the fractured acetabulum with a standard diagram containing the 10 Judet and Letournel categories of acetabular fracture and using a flowchart algorithm are effective ways of arriving at the correct fracture classification. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  11. Structural and In Vivo Studies on Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase from Pathogenic Fungi Provide Insights into Its Catalytic Mechanism, Biological Necessity, and Potential for Novel Antifungal Drug Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Miao


    Full Text Available The disaccharide trehalose is critical to the survival of pathogenic fungi in their human host. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1 catalyzes the first step of trehalose biosynthesis in fungi. Here, we report the first structures of eukaryotic Tps1s in complex with substrates or substrate analogues. The overall structures of Tps1 from Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus are essentially identical and reveal N- and C-terminal Rossmann fold domains that form the glucose-6-phosphate and UDP-glucose substrate binding sites, respectively. These Tps1 structures with substrates or substrate analogues reveal key residues involved in recognition and catalysis. Disruption of these key residues severely impaired Tps1 enzymatic activity. Subsequent cellular analyses also highlight the enzymatic function of Tps1 in thermotolerance, yeast-hypha transition, and biofilm development. These results suggest that Tps1 enzymatic functionality is essential for the fungal stress response and virulence. Furthermore, structures of Tps1 in complex with the nonhydrolyzable inhibitor, validoxylamine A, visualize the transition state and support an internal return-like catalytic mechanism that is generalizable to other GT-B-fold retaining glycosyltransferases. Collectively, our results depict key Tps1-substrate interactions, unveil the enzymatic mechanism of these fungal proteins, and pave the way for high-throughput inhibitor screening buttressed and guided by the current structures and those of high-affinity ligand-Tps1 complexes.

  12. Doris Lessing’s Fiction: Literature as Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Gendusa


    Full Text Available -Abstract in lingua inglese: The publication of The Grass Is Singing in 1950 inaugurated the beginning of the long and distinguished literary career of Doris Lessing (1919-2013, the 2007 Nobel laureate for literature. The novel proves to be highly anticipatory in many respects. Firstly, the “eclectic realism” characterizing its formal aspect paves the way to Lessing’s future aesthetic experimentalism and stylistic innovations. Moreover, it also displays several interconnected thematic correspondences with the main motifs informing its author’s entire production and testifies to the oppositional, if not subversive, nature of her works with respect to the normative symbolic foundations of society buttressed within official discourse in England and its colonies from the 1950s onward. Indeed, in giving a voice to those who would tend to be silenced, Lessing turned writing into a privileged site of corrosive social criticism in which she stigmatised numerous forms of oppression, including those that the establishment obscures or secretly condones. Endowed with an “extraordinary barometric sensitivity to the social cli mate”, which allowed her to register minutely – if not foresee – social change, Lessing made her literary intervention the political vehicle for a re-modelling and a re-definition of national (as well as Western identity paradigms.

  13. Evolutionary rates of mitochondrial genomes correspond to diversification rates and to contemporary species richness in birds and reptiles (United States)

    Eo, Soo Hyung; DeWoody, J. Andrew


    Rates of biological diversification should ultimately correspond to rates of genome evolution. Recent studies have compared diversification rates with phylogenetic branch lengths, but incomplete phylogenies hamper such analyses for many taxa. Herein, we use pairwise comparisons of confamilial sauropsid (bird and reptile) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequences to estimate substitution rates. These molecular evolutionary rates are considered in light of the age and species richness of each taxonomic family, using a random-walk speciation–extinction process to estimate rates of diversification. We find the molecular clock ticks at disparate rates in different families and at different genes. For example, evolutionary rates are relatively fast in snakes and lizards, intermediate in crocodilians and slow in turtles and birds. There was also rate variation across genes, where non-synonymous substitution rates were fastest at ATP8 and slowest at CO3. Family-by-gene interactions were significant, indicating that local clocks vary substantially among sauropsids. Most importantly, we find evidence that mitochondrial genome evolutionary rates are positively correlated with speciation rates and with contemporary species richness. Nuclear sequences are poorly represented among reptiles, but the correlation between rates of molecular evolution and species diversification also extends to 18 avian nuclear genes we tested. Thus, the nuclear data buttress our mtDNA findings. PMID:20610427

  14. A symptom-level examination of parent-child agreement in the diagnosis of anxious youths. (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Kendall, Philip C


    To examine parent-child agreement, at the symptom level, in the assessment of anxiety in youths. Differences between agreement at the diagnostic and symptom levels were explored as well as differences in agreement across symptom categories. Differences in the direction of disagreement across symptom categories were also examined. Participants were 98 children, 7 to 14 years old (54 boys) who met diagnostic criteria for separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder and their parents. Diagnostic and symptom data were obtained using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children and Parents. Parent-child agreement at the symptom level was stronger than agreement at the diagnostic level for all three disorders. Parent-child agreement was stronger for observable symptoms than for unobservable symptoms and weaker for school-based symptoms than for non-school-based symptoms. In cases of discrepant symptom reports, the direction of disagreement varied according to the type of symptom. These findings buttress the need for a multi-informant approach in the assessment of childhood anxiety. Further, given the low parent-child agreement at the symptom level in the assessment of child anxiety, clinicians may do well to consider employing the "or rule" at the symptom level when integrating discrepant reports. Copyright 2004 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

  15. ‘The Trial the World is Watching’: The 1972 Prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, Abortion, and the Regulation of the Medical Profession in Apartheid South Africa (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M.


    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa’s extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  16. 'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa. (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M


    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975).

  17. Spatiotemporal control over molecular delivery and cellular encapsulation from electropolymerized micro- and nanopatterned surfaces. (United States)

    Stern, Eric; Jay, Steven M; Demento, Stacey L; Murelli, Ryan P; Reed, Mark A; Malinski, Tadeusz; Spiegel, David A; Mooney, David J; Fahmy, Tarek M


    Bioactive, patterned micro- and nanoscale surfaces that can be spatially engineered for three-dimensional ligand presentation and sustained release of signaling molecules represent a critical advance for the development of next-generation diagnostic and therapeutic devices. Lithography is ideally suited to patterning such surfaces due to its precise, easily scalable, high-throughput nature; however, to date polymers patterned by these techniques have not demonstrated the capacity for sustained release of bioactive agents. We demonstrate here a class of lithographically-defined, electropolymerized polymers with monodisperse micro- and nanopatterned features capable of sustained release of bioactive drugs and proteins. We show that precise control can be achieved over the loading capacity and release rates of encapsulated agents and illustrate this aspect using a fabricated surface releasing a model antigen (ovalbumin) and a cytokine (interleukin-2) for induction of a specific immune response. We further demonstrate the ability of this technique to enable three-dimensional control over cellular encapsulation. The efficacy of the described approach is buttressed by its simplicity, versatility, and reproducibility, rendering it ideally suited for biomaterials engineering.

  18. Leaf micromorphology of some Phyllanthus L. species (Phyllanthaceae)

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    Solihani, N. S., E-mail:; Noraini, T., E-mail: [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Azahana, A., E-mail: [Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Nordahlia, A. S., E-mail: [Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Comparative leaf micromorphological study was conducted of five chosen Phyllanthus L. (Phyllanthaceae) species, namely P. acidus L., P. elegans Wall. ex Müll. Arg., P. emblica L., P. urinaria L. and P. pulcher Wall. ex Müll. Arg. The objective of this study is to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification. The procedures involve examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings of this study have demonstrated variations in the leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in the types of waxes present on adaxial and abaxial epidermis surfaces, in the stomata and types of trichome. Common character present in all species studied are the presence of a thin film layer and buttress-like waxes on epidermal leaf surfaces. Diagnostics characters found in this study are the presence of papilla in P. elegens, amphistomatic stomata in P. urinaria and flaky waxes in P. pulcher. The result of this study has shown that leaf micromorphological characters have some taxonomic significance and can be used in identification of species in the genus Phyllanthus.

  19. Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pattyn


    Full Text Available Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models that are able to robustly simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison exercise for marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no effects of lateral buttressing. Unique steady state grounding line positions exist for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed, while hysteresis occurs across an overdeepened bed, and stable steady state grounding line positions only occur on the downward-sloping sections. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which does not resolve extensional stresses, do not reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line. For extensional-stress resolving "shelfy stream" models, differences between model results were mainly due to the choice of spatial discretization. Moving grid methods were found to be the most accurate at capturing grounding line evolution, since they track the grounding line explicitly. Adaptive mesh refinement can further improve accuracy, including fixed grid models that generally perform poorly at coarse resolution. Fixed grid models, with nested grid representations of the grounding line, are able to generate accurate steady state positions, but can be inaccurate over transients. Only one full-Stokes model was included in the intercomparison, and consequently the accuracy of shelfy stream models as approximations of full-Stokes models remains to be determined in detail, especially during transients.

  20. Comparison of ultrasonography with conventional radiography in the diagnosis of zygomatic complex fractures. (United States)

    Menon, Rahul P; Chowdhury, Sanjay Kumar Roy; Semi, Ravinder Singh; Gupta, Vishal; Rahman, Serat; Balasundaram, T


    Zygomatic complex fractures have changed in patterns of occurrence, severity, and, more importantly, in the mode of injury. Protection of the globe and maintaining the width of the face are the more important roles of the complex. Diagnosis and treatment planning of such fractures become imperative in the sequencing of repair if and where indicated, especially in the case of isolated zygomatic complex fractures. Exploring the versatility of ultrasonography (US), in diagnosing zygomatic complex fractures in comparison to conventional radiography in a double-blind study, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of US and to explore the possibility of making US examination a mainstay in the primary diagnosis of such fractures. The prospective, double-blind study design included 32 patients suspected of having sustained isolated zygomatic complex fractures. The patients underwent US examination and radiographic examination in the form of para-nasal sinus (PNS) and sub-mentovertex (SMV) views for comparison. A sensitivity of 100% was seen in favor of US in the areas of the fronto-zygomatic suture (FZ), arch, infra-orbital, and buttress areas. Statistically significant differences (p zygomatic complex, it lacked in quantifying the amount and degree of displacement of the fractured segments, which hampered accurate treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological verbs and the double-dependency hypothesis. (United States)

    Beretta, A; Campbell, C


    The double-dependency hypothesis (DDH, Mauner et al., 1993) holds that where two dependencies of a certain kind are present, comprehension in Broca's aphasia will be random, but that where there is only one dependency, comprehension will be intact. We tested this hypothesis by examining the performance of Broca's aphasics on sentences with psychological verbs of two different classes. One class has an argument structure in which the Experiencer role is assigned to the subject. In the other class, the Experiencer role is assigned to the object. Subject-Experiencer verbs can form verbal passives which have two relevant dependencies, whereas object-Experiencer verbs can form adjectival passives and have only one relevant dependency. Thus these sentence types make contrasting predictions relevant to the DDH. Our results clearly demonstrate that patients understand the adjectival passive psychological verbs, as predicted by the DDH. On the verbal passive psychological verbs, patients perform at chance, again consistent with DDH predictions. These results firmly buttress the DDH account. They also contradict the results of an earlier study (of verbal passive psychological verbs only), a study which we argue is plagued with problems (namely, Grodzinsky, 1995b).

  2. Physical Exercise Alleviates Health Defects, Symptoms, and Biomarkers in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M


    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterized by symptom profiles consisting of positive and negative symptoms, cognitive impairment, and a plethora of genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic biomarkers. Assorted animal models of these disorders and clinical neurodevelopmental indicators have implicated neurodegeneration as an element in the underlying pathophysiology. Physical exercise or activity regimes--whether aerobic, resistance, or endurance--ameliorate regional brain and functional deficits not only in affected individuals but also in animal models of the disorder. Cognitive deficits, often linked to regional deficits, were alleviated by exercise, as were quality-of-life, independent of disorder staging and risk level. Apoptotic processes intricate to the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia were likewise attenuated by physical exercise. There is also evidence of manifest benefits endowed by physical exercise in preserving telomere length and integrity. Not least, exercise improves overall health and quality-of-life. The notion of scaffolding as the outcome of physical exercise implies the "buttressing" of regional network circuits, neurocognitive domains, anti-inflammatory defenses, maintenance of telomeric integrity, and neuro-reparative and regenerative processes.

  3. Stable fixation of an osseointegated implant system for above-the-knee amputees: titel RSA and radiographic evaluation of migration and bone remodeling in 55 cases. (United States)

    Nebergall, Audrey; Bragdon, Charles; Antonellis, Anne; Kärrholm, Johan; Brånemark, Rickard; Malchau, Henrik


    Rehabilitation of patients with transfemoral amputations is particularly difficult due to problems in using standard socket prostheses. We wanted to assess long-term fixation of the osseointegrated implant system (OPRA) using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and periprosthetic bone remodeling. 51 patients with transfemoral amputations (55 implants) were enrolled in an RSA study. RSA and plain radiographs were scheduled at 6 months and at 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 years after surgery. RSA films were analyzed using UmRSA software. Plain radiographs were graded for bone resorption, cancellization, cortical thinning, and trabecular streaming or buttressing in specifically defined zones around the implant. At 5 years, the median (SE) migration of the implant was -0.02 (0.06) mm distally. The rotational movement was 0.42 (0.32) degrees around the longitudinal axis. There was no statistically significant difference in median rotation or migration at any follow-up time. Cancellization of the cortex (plain radiographic grading) appeared in at least 1 zone in over half of the patients at 2 years. However, the prevalence of cancellization had decreased by the 5-year follow-up. The RSA analysis for the OPRA system indicated stable fixation of the implant. The periprosthetic bone remodeling showed similarities with changes seen around uncemented hip stems. The OPRA system is a new and promising approach for addressing the challenges faced by patients with transfemoral amputations.

  4. Longitudinal stability of the folding pattern of the anterior cingulate cortex during development

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    A. Cachia


    Full Text Available Prenatal processes are likely critical for the differences in cognitive ability and disease risk that unfold in postnatal life. Prenatally established cortical folding patterns are increasingly studied as an adult proxy for earlier development events – under the as yet untested assumption that an individual's folding pattern is developmentally fixed. Here, we provide the first empirical test of this stability assumption using 263 longitudinally-acquired structural MRI brain scans from 75 typically developing individuals spanning ages 7 to 32 years. We focus on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC – an intensely studied cortical region that presents two qualitatively distinct and reliably classifiable sulcal patterns with links to postnatal behavior. We show – without exception–that individual ACC sulcal patterns are fixed from childhood to adulthood, at the same time that quantitative anatomical ACC metrics are undergoing profound developmental change. Our findings buttress use of folding typology as a postnatally-stable marker for linking variations in early brain development to later neurocognitive outcomes in ex utero life.

  5. A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. (United States)

    Walton, Gregory M; Cohen, Geoffrey L


    A brief intervention aimed at buttressing college freshmen's sense of social belonging in school was tested in a randomized controlled trial (N = 92), and its academic and health-related consequences over 3 years are reported. The intervention aimed to lessen psychological perceptions of threat on campus by framing social adversity as common and transient. It used subtle attitude-change strategies to lead participants to self-generate the intervention message. The intervention was expected to be particularly beneficial to African-American students (N = 49), a stereotyped and socially marginalized group in academics, and less so to European-American students (N = 43). Consistent with these expectations, over the 3-year observation period the intervention raised African Americans' grade-point average (GPA) relative to multiple control groups and halved the minority achievement gap. This performance boost was mediated by the effect of the intervention on subjective construal: It prevented students from seeing adversity on campus as an indictment of their belonging. Additionally, the intervention improved African Americans' self-reported health and well-being and reduced their reported number of doctor visits 3 years postintervention. Senior-year surveys indicated no awareness among participants of the intervention's impact. The results suggest that social belonging is a psychological lever where targeted intervention can have broad consequences that lessen inequalities in achievement and health.

  6. An exploration of life experiences of left behind wives in Edo State, Nigeria

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    Adediran Daniel Ikuomola


    Full Text Available Research emphasising effects of migration on left behind families often focus on implications of absent fathers, particularly in Africa and areas with historic male migration. Yet, information on the experiences of left behind wives in a patriarchal and familial setting is scanty. This Study explore the socio-cultural challenges facing wives of migrants (Bini women, in Edo State, Nigeria. Specifically it examines the stigmatised experiences and the effect of cultural constrains on women adjustment to life in the absence of their husbands. Drawing on qualitative data collected from in-depth interviews with twenty-one (21 left-behind wives in Benin, Edo State. The study shows how women are confronted with traditions and the need to readjust their lives amidst cultural and familial cooperations and constrains. Narratives buttressed on the excessive surveillance through significant others and the renegotiation of living arrangements based on patriarchal values and expectations. Life adjustment was described as stigmatic, hectic and demanding in maintaining the home front.

  7. Unsweetened Natural Cocoa Powder Has the Potential to Attenuate High Dose Artemether-Lumefantrine-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Non-Malarious Guinea Pigs

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    Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye


    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the elemental composition of unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP, its effect on nitric oxide, and its hepatoprotective potential during simultaneous administration with high-dose artemether/lumefantrine (A/L. Method. Macro- and microelements in UNCP were analyzed with EDXRF spectroscopy. Thirty (30 male guinea-pigs were then divided into five groups. For groups 3 (low-dose, 4 (medium-dose, and 5 (high-dose, the animals received oral UNCP prophylactically for 14 days. Group 1 received distilled water (14 days and group 2 A/L for the last 3 days (days 12 to 14. After euthanisation, biochemical and histopathological examinations were carried out in all groups. Results. Phytochemical analysis of UNCP showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. Thirty-eight (38 macro- and microelements were found. UNCP produced significant decreases in ALT, ALP, GGT, and AST levels. A significant increase in total protein levels was observed during A/L+UNCP administration in comparison to 75 mg/kg A/L group. Histopathological examinations buttressed the protective effects of cocoa administration. UNCP administration increased nitric oxide levels 149.71% (P<0.05 compared to controls. Conclusion. UNCP increases nitric oxide levels and has hepatoprotective potential during A/L administration. A high level of copper was observed which may be detrimental during high daily consumptions of UNCP.

  8. Quantitatively probing propensity for structural transitions in engineered virus nanoparticles by single-molecule mechanical analysis (United States)

    Castellanos, Milagros; Carrillo, Pablo J. P.; Mateu, Mauricio G.


    Viruses are increasingly being studied from the perspective of fundamental physics at the nanoscale as biologically evolved nanodevices with many technological applications. In viral particles of the minute virus of mice (MVM), folded segments of the single-stranded DNA genome are bound to the capsid inner wall and act as molecular buttresses that increase locally the mechanical stiffness of the particle. We have explored whether a quantitative linkage exists in MVM particles between their DNA-mediated stiffening and impairment of a heat-induced, virus-inactivating structural change. A series of structurally modified virus particles with disrupted capsid-DNA interactions and/or distorted capsid cavities close to the DNA-binding sites were engineered and characterized, both in classic kinetics assays and by single-molecule mechanical analysis using atomic force microscopy. The rate constant of the virus inactivation reaction was found to decrease exponentially with the increase in elastic constant (stiffness) of the regions closer to DNA-binding sites. The application of transition state theory suggests that the height of the free energy barrier of the virus-inactivating structural transition increases linearly with local mechanical stiffness. From a virological perspective, the results indicate that infectious MVM particles may have acquired the biological advantage of increased survival under thermal stress by evolving architectural elements that rigidify the particle and impair non-productive structural changes. From a nanotechnological perspective, this study provides proof of principle that determination of mechanical stiffness and its manipulation by protein engineering may be applied for quantitatively probing and tuning the conformational dynamics of virus-based and other protein-based nanoassemblies.Viruses are increasingly being studied from the perspective of fundamental physics at the nanoscale as biologically evolved nanodevices with many technological

  9. Significance of the precambrian basement and late Cretaceous thrust nappes on the location of tertiary ore deposits in the Oquirrh Mountains, Utah (United States)

    Tooker, Edwin W.


    buttress east of the Salt Lake area. The accretion suture along the north flank of the Uinta Anticline overlaps an earlier Precambrian east-west mobile zone, the Uinta trend (Erickson, 1976, Bryant and Nichols, 1988 and John, 1989), which extends westward across western Utah and into Nevada. A trace of the trend underlies the middle part of the Oquirrh Mountains. Its structure is recognized by disrupted Paleozoic stratigraphic units and fold and fault evidence of thrust faulting, intermittent local uplift and erosion, the alignment of Tertiary intrusives and associated ore deposits. Geologic readjustments along the trend continued intermittently through the Paleozoic, Cenozoic, Tertiary, and the development of clastic deposits along the shores of Pleistocene Lake Bonneville. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks were deposited on the craton platform shelf in westernmost Utah and eastern Nevada as the shelf subsided gradually and differentially. Debris was shed into two basins separated by the uplifted Uinta trend, the Oquirrh Basin on the south and Sublette Basin on the north. Sediments were derived from the craton to the east, the Antler orogenic zone on the west (Roberts, 1964), and locally from uplifted parts of the trend itself. Thick accumulations of clastic calcareous quartzite, shale, limestone, and dolomite of Lower and Upper Paleozoic ages are now exposed in the Oquirrh Mountains, the result of thrust faults. Evidence of decollement thrust faults in in the Wasatch Mountains during the Late Cretaceous Sevier orogeny, recognized by Baker and others (1949) and Crittenden (1961, is also recognized in the Oquirrh Mountains by Roberts and others (1965). During the late Cretaceous Sevier Orogeny, nappes were thrust sequentially along different paths from their western hinterland to the foreland. Five distinct nappes converged over the Uinta trend onto an uplifted west-plunging basement buttress east of the Oquirrh Mountains area: the Pass Canyon, Bingham,

  10. From Pangaea to the present: geochronology, thermochronology and isotopic tracking of tectonic processes along the Northern Andes (United States)

    Spikings, R.; Cochrane, R.; Van der Lelij, R.; Villagomez, D.


    Triassic - Tertiary rocks within the Central Cordillera of Colombia and Eastern Cordillera of Ecuador provide a record of the rift-to-drift phase of the western Tethys Wilson Cycle, Jurassic steady-state active margin magmatism, Early Cretaceous attenuation of the margin and the formation of new continental crust, and the accretion of an extensive oceanic plateau and arc sequence at ~75 Ma, which shielded juvenile continental crust from tectonic erosion during the Tertiary. The margin remained active throughout the Tertiary, and exhumed in response to changing oceanic plate kinematics and the collision of heterogeneous oceanic crust. We present geochronological, thermochronological, geochemical and Hf, Nd and O isotopic data that provide a highly-temporally resolved record of the evolution of NW Gondwana from Pangaea to the present. Migmatitic leucosomes and S-type granites were emplaced along the NW South American margin during ~275-225 Ma, and tholeiitic amphibolites intruded during ~240 - 225 Ma. These sequences formed during continental rifting in a back-arc, leading to the formation of ophiolite sequences and oceanic crust by ~216 Ma. The Maya and Oaxaquia terranes of Central America may represent parts of the conjugate margin. The NW South American margin remained passive until ~183 Ma, when subduction gave rise to calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids until ~143 Ma. Earliest Cretaceous roll-back extended and exhumed the margin, causing the arc axis to migrate oceanward while the magmatic rocks became progressively more isotopically juvenile. Arc migration opened Early Cretaceous intra-arc basins that were floored by lavas and filled with arc detritus. The arc axis stabilized at ~130-115 Ma and fringed the continental margin outboard of the Jurassic arc. Compression at 120-110 Ma closed the intra-arc basins, exhumed the buttressing continental margin and obducted variably metamorphosed rocks of the east dipping-subduction channel onto the continental margin during

  11. Vanishing glaciers, degrading permafrost, new lakes and increasing probability of extreme floods from impact waves - a need for long-term risk reduction concerning high-mountain regions (United States)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian; Boeckli, Lorenz


    As a consequence of continued global warming, rapid and fundamental changes are taking place in high-mountain regions. Within decades only, many still existing glacier landscapes will probably transform into new and strongly different landscapes of bare bedrock, loose debris, numerous lakes and sparse vegetation. These new landscapes are then likely to persist for centuries if not millennia to come. During variable but mostly extended parts of this future time period, they will be characterised by pronounced disequilibria within their geo- and ecosystems. Such disequilibria include a long-term stability reduction of steep/icy mountain slopes as a slow and delayed reaction to stress redistribution following de-buttressing by vanishing glaciers and to changes in strength and hydraulic permeability caused by permafrost warming and degradation. With the formation of many new lakes in close neighbourhood to, or even directly at the foot of, so-affected slopes, the probability of far-reaching flood waves from large rock falls into lakes is likely to increase for extended time periods. Quantitative information for anticipating possible developments exists in the European Alps. The present (2011) glacier cover is some 1800 km2, the still existing total ice volume 80 ± 20 km3 and the average loss rate about -2 km3 ice per year. The permafrost area has recently been estimated at some 3000 km2 with a total subsurface ice volume of 25 ± 2 km3; loss rates are hardly known but are certainly much smaller than for glaciers - probably by at least a factor of 10. Based on a detailed study for the Swiss Alps, total future lake volume may be assumed to be a few percent of the presently remaining glacier volume, i.e., a few km3 for the entire Alps. Forward projection of such numbers into the future indicates that glacier volumes tend to much more rapidly vanish than volumes of subsurface ice in permafrost, and lake volumes are likely to steadily increase. Already during the second

  12. Velódromo Olímpico de Montreal – Canadá

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    Taillibert, Roger


    Full Text Available This stadium is one of the most interesting ones that have been constructed lately. It has the following basic conditions: harmonious integration with the other Olympic installations; possibilities for future enlargements; total absence of supports; perfect permeability for the natural daylight; and perfect insulations in view of the hard climate of Montreal. Bearing these features in mind, the building consists of two parts: — The velodrome itself with lawn; 285.70 m long and 7.50 m wide courses with a slope varying between 18° and 48° with regard to the horizontal line; gallery for the public; auxiliary premises; dressing rooms, etc. — And the regular spheric roof the plan form of which represents three segments beginning with one buttress in the northeast end and increasing to three buttresses in the southeast end. This entirely self-supporting dome is 172 m long with a maximum height of 32 m. The total surface is 15,000 m2. The work was calculated by means of computers and was carried out with prefabricated pieces of concrete so as to achieve a better quality control of the concrete, and above all, a greater exactness of the prefabricated members. This was an indispensable factor in this case, where the maximum admissible error in most of the pieces was only 1.5 mm.Es uno de los estadios más interesantes de los últimos tiempos, con las siguientes condiciones básicas: armónica integración con las restantes instalaciones olímpicas; posibilidad de transformación para futuras aplicaciones; total ausencia de soportes; amplia permeabilidad a la luz natural; y perfecta estanquidad ante las duras condiciones climáticas de Montreal. Partiendo de estas premisas, el edificio consta de dos partes: — El velódromo propiamente dicho, con: césped; pista de carreras de 285,70 m de desarrollo, 7,50 m de anchura e inclinación variable entre 18° y 48° respecto a la horizontal; gradas para el público; locales auxiliares

  13. Influence of pre-salt topographic features on supra-salt deformation in Mediterranean basins: Geology vs. physical models (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Gratacós, Oscar; Roca, Eduard; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Esestime, Paolo; Rodriguez, Karyna; Yazmin Piragauta, Mary; Feliu, Nil


    The presence of a thick Messinian evaporite unit is a well known feature of the Mediterranean basins. This salt unit is composed of three sub-units (Lower, Mobile and Upper Units) in the Northwest Mediterranean. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean it is characterized by a multilayered evaporite sequence. In both regions the salt acted as a detachment favoring the downslope gravitational failure of the overlying sediments in a thin-skinned deformation regime (e.g. Liguro-Provençal or Levant basins). As a result, these salt-bearing passive margins exhibit the classical three-domain structural zonation characterized by upslope extension, intermediate translation and downslope contraction. Nevertheless, the presence of pre-salt reliefs (e.g. irregularly eroded palaeotopography or volcanic edifices) is rather common in the translational domain of the Northwestern Mediterranean (e.g. Liguro-Provençal and West Corsica margins). In this scenario, pre-salt reliefs act as flow barriers and hinder salt drainage. When their summit lies close or above the top salt, these structures may partially or fully block salt flow. They also disrupt locally the structural zonation of the passive margin and constrain cover deformation. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean the Eratosthenes seamount is characterized by a large scale submerged massif (ca. 120 km in size) that significantly influenced the structural evolution of the surrounding areas. This inherited relief acted as a buttress and deflected the Messinian salt flow constraining supra-salt deformation (e.g. Levant Basin and Nile margin). In addition, the geometry of the Eratosthenes seamount also restrained the structural style of the allochthonous salt that was expulsed during the development of the Cyprus subduction zone to the north. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and new analysis techniques, we investigate salt and supra-salt deformation in response to two different types of pre-salt relief: 1

  14. The Lautaro Basin: A record of inversion tectonics in northern Chile La Cuenca Lautaro: un registro de inversión tectónica en el norte de Chile

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    Fernando Martínez


    Full Text Available The Triassic and Jurassic tectonic history of northern Chile has been dominated by extension, although clear evidence about the nature and geometry of the extensional basins and subsequent inversion structures has been adequately illustrated in only a few cases. In this contribution we present a structural study of the Lautaro Basin located at the western edge of the Frontal Cordillera in the Atacama region of northern Chile. The Lautaro Basin is a Jurassic half-graben, filled by at least 2,600 m of marine deposits of the Lautaro Formation and developed on top of, at least 2,000 m of Triassic volcanic successions of the La Ternera Formation, also accumulated during an earlier period of extensional deformation. Detailed field mapping and construction of a regional balanced cross-section, supported by good exposures along the Copiapó River valley, allow reconstruction of the structural style of both the Jurassic and Triassic extensional depocenters. New structural data have shown that the Lautaro Basin has a complex structural framework reflected in two major Mesozoic extensional periods, overprinted by Cenozoic inversion involving thin- and thick-skinned tectonics. Shortening was accommodated by a combination of inversion of pre-existing normal faults, buttresses, development of footwall short-cuts, and both thin and thick-skinned thrusting. New estimates of shortening are up to 13.1 km (30%, while Mesozoic extension is estimated to be 3 km (7%.Durante el Triásico y Jurásico la evolución tectónica del norte de Chile fue dominada por extensión cortical. No obstante, evidencias claras acerca del estilo estructural y subsecuente inversión de las cuencas asociadas con el evento extensional, han sido ilustradas en pocos casos. En este trabajo, se presenta un estudio estructural de la Cuenca Lautaro, localizada en el borde occidental de la Cordillera Frontal, en la región de Atacama del norte de Chile. La Cuenca Lautaro, es un hemigraben que

  15. Therapeutical Management of the Tibial Plateau Fractures

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    Obada B.


    Full Text Available The study was aimed to identify the role of surgical treatment of tibial plateau fractures, its functional outcome and complications. Demographic data for the patients and details of current clinical and radiological follow-up findings were obtained to assess range of motion, clinical stability, alignment of the knee, and posttraumatic arthrosis (Kellgren/Lawrence score. 64 cases of tibial plateau fractures treated by different surgical methods and variuos implants type were studied from 2013 to 2015 and followed-up for minimum period of 6 months. The systematisation of the casuitry was made using Schatzker and AO classifications. The treatment methods consist of: percutaneous cannulated cancellous screws, ORIF with buttress plate with or without bone grafting, locking or nonlocking plates, external fixator. As complications we found: redepression 4 case, malunion 2 cases, knee stiffness 9, wound dehiscence in 1 cases and non-union or infection in none of our cases. The average flexion of the injured knee was significantly lower in comparison with the contralateral side (124.9°/135.2°. Knee stability did not differ statistically significantly. There were no signs of posttraumatic arthrosis in 45% of cases, mild signs in 30%, clear signs in 18%, and severe signs in 7%. As conclusion we found that surgical management of tibial plateau fractures will give excellent anatomical reduction and rigid fixation to restore articular congruity, facilitate early motion and reduce arthrosis risk and hence to achieve optimal knee function. The choice of optimal surgical methods, proper approach and implant is made in relation to fracture type according Schatzker and AO classification.

  16. Social Responsibility and the State's Duty to provide Healthcare: An Islamic Ethico-Legal Perspective. (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I


    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes. In this essay I reflect on a state's moral obligation to provide healthcare from the perspective of Islamic moral theology and law. I examine how Islamic ethico-legal conceptual analogues for human rights and communal responsibility, ḥuqūq al-'ibād and farḍ al-kifāyah and other related constructs might be used to advance a moral argument for healthcare provision by the state. Moving from theory to application, I next illustrate how notions of human rights and social responsibility were used by Muslim stakeholders to buttress moral arguments to support American healthcare reform. In this way, the paper advance discourses on a universal bioethics and common morality by bringing into view the concordances and discordances between Islamic ethico-legal constructs and moral arguments advanced by transnational health policy advocates. It also provides insight into applied Islamic bioethics by demonstrating how Islamic ethico-legal values might inform the discursive outputs of Muslim organizations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Laparoscopic Repair of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in Adults (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Afaque, Yusuf; Bhartia, Abhishek Kumar; Bhartia, Vishnu Kumar


    Background, Aims, and Objectives. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia typically presents in childhood but in adults is extremely rare entity. Surgery is indicated for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are fit for surgery. It can be done by laparotomy, thoracotomy, thoracoscopy, or laparoscopy. With the advent of minimal access techniques, the open surgical repair for this hernia has decreased and results are comparable with early recovery and less hospital stay. The aim of this study is to establish that laparoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a safe and effective modality of surgical treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of laparoscopic diaphragmatic hernia repair done during May 2011 to Oct 2014. Total n = 13 (M/F: 11/2) cases of confirmed diaphragmatic hernia on CT scan, 4 cases Bochdalek hernia (BH), 8 cases of left eventration of the diaphragm (ED), and one case of right-sided eventration of the diaphragm (ED) were included in the study. Largest defect found on the left side was 15 × 6 cm and on the right side it was 15 × 8 cm. Stomach, small intestine, transverse colon, and omentum were contents in the hernial sac. The contents were reduced with harmonic scalpel and thin sacs were usually excised. The eventration was plicated and hernial orifices were repaired with interrupted horizontal mattress sutures buttressed by Teflon pieces. A composite mesh was fixed with nonabsorbable tackers. All patients had good postoperative recovery and went home early with normal follow-up and were followed up for 2 years. Conclusion. The laparoscopic repair is a safe and effective modality of surgical treatment for congenital diaphragmatic hernia in experienced hands. PMID:28074156

  18. Laparoscopic Repair of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in Adults

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    Sanjay Kumar Saroj


    Full Text Available Background, Aims, and Objectives. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia typically presents in childhood but in adults is extremely rare entity. Surgery is indicated for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are fit for surgery. It can be done by laparotomy, thoracotomy, thoracoscopy, or laparoscopy. With the advent of minimal access techniques, the open surgical repair for this hernia has decreased and results are comparable with early recovery and less hospital stay. The aim of this study is to establish that laparoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a safe and effective modality of surgical treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of laparoscopic diaphragmatic hernia repair done during May 2011 to Oct 2014. Total n=13 (M/F: 11/2 cases of confirmed diaphragmatic hernia on CT scan, 4 cases Bochdalek hernia (BH, 8 cases of left eventration of the diaphragm (ED, and one case of right-sided eventration of the diaphragm (ED were included in the study. Largest defect found on the left side was 15 × 6 cm and on the right side it was 15 × 8 cm. Stomach, small intestine, transverse colon, and omentum were contents in the hernial sac. The contents were reduced with harmonic scalpel and thin sacs were usually excised. The eventration was plicated and hernial orifices were repaired with interrupted horizontal mattress sutures buttressed by Teflon pieces. A composite mesh was fixed with nonabsorbable tackers. All patients had good postoperative recovery and went home early with normal follow-up and were followed up for 2 years. Conclusion. The laparoscopic repair is a safe and effective modality of surgical treatment for congenital diaphragmatic hernia in experienced hands.

  19. Generating political priority for regulatory interventions targeting obesity prevention: an Australian case study. (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Gill, Timothy; Friel, Sharon; Carey, Gemma; Kay, Adrian


    Effective obesity prevention requires a synergistic mix of population-level interventions including a strong role for government and the regulation of the marketing, labelling, content and pricing of energy-dense foods and beverages. In this paper we adopt the agenda of the Australian Federal Government (AFG) as a case study to understand the factors generating or hindering political priority for such 'regulatory interventions' between 1990 and 2011. Using a theoretically-guided process tracing method we undertook documentary analysis and conducted 27 interviews with a diversity of actors involved in obesity politics. The analysis was structured by a theoretical framework comprising four dimensions: the power of actors involved; the ideas the actors deploy to interpret and portray the issue; the institutional and political context; and issue characteristics. Despite two periods of sustained political attention, political priority for regulatory interventions did not emerge and was hindered by factors from all four dimensions. Within the public health community, limited cohesion among experts and advocacy groups hampered technical responses and collective action efforts. An initial focus on children (child obesity), framing the determinants of obesity as 'obesogenic environments', and the deployment of 'protecting kids', 'industry demonization' and 'economic costs' frames generated political attention. Institutional norms within government effectively selected out regulatory interventions from consideration. The 'productive power' and activities of the food and advertising industries presented formidable barriers, buttressed by a libertarian/neolibertarian rhetoric emphasizing individual responsibility, a negative view of freedom (as free from 'nanny-state' intervention) and the idea that regulation imposes an unacceptable cost on business. Issue complexity, the absence of a supportive evidence base and a strict 'evidence-based' policy-making approach were used as

  20. Increased prefrontal cortex activity during negative emotion regulation as a predictor of depression symptom severity trajectory over 6 months. (United States)

    Heller, Aaron S; Johnstone, Tom; Peterson, Michael J; Kolden, Gregory G; Kalin, Ned H; Davidson, Richard J


    Emotion regulation is critically disrupted in depression, and the use of paradigms that tap into these processes may uncover essential changes in neurobiology during treatment. In addition, because neuroimaging outcome studies of depression commonly use only baseline and end-point data-which are more prone to week-to-week noise in symptomatology-we sought to use all data points over the course of a 6-month trial. To examine changes in neurobiology resulting from successful treatment. Double-blind trial examining changes in the neural circuits involved in emotion regulation resulting from 1 of 2 antidepressant treatments during a 6-month trial. Twenty-one patients with major depressive disorder and without other Axis I or Axis II diagnoses were scanned before treatment and 2 and 6 months into treatment at the university's functional magnetic resonance imaging facility. Venlafaxine hydrochloride extended release (with doses of up to 300 mg) or fluoxetine hydrochloride (with doses of up to 80 mg). Neural activity, as measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of an emotion regulation paradigm, as well as regular assessments of symptom severity using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. For use of all data points, slope trajectories were calculated for rate of change in depression severity and for rate of change in neural engagement. The depressed individuals who showed the steepest decrease in depression severity over the 6-month period were the same individuals who showed the most rapid increases in activity in Brodmann area 10 and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity when regulating negative affect over the same time frame. This relationship was more robust when using only the baseline and end-point data. Changes in prefrontal cortex engagement when regulating negative affect correlate with changes in depression severity over 6 months. These results are buttressed by calculating these statistics, which are more reliable and

  1. Fracture reduction with positive medial cortical support: a key element in stability reconstruction for the unstable pertrochanteric hip fractures. (United States)

    Chang, Shi-Min; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Ma, Zhuo; Li, Qing; Dargel, Jens; Eysel, Peer


    To introduce the concept of fracture reduction with positive medial cortical support and its clinical and radiological correlation in geriatric unstable pertrochanteric fractures. A retrospective analysis of 127 patients (32 men and 95 women, with mean age 78.7 years) with AO/OTA 31A2.2 and 2.3 hip fractures treated with cephalomedullary nail (PFNA-II or Gamma-3) between July 2010 and June 2013 was performed. They were classified into three groups according the grade of medial cortical support in postoperative fracture reduction (positive, neutral, and negative). The positive cortex support was defined that the medial cortex of the head-neck fragment displaced and located a little bit superomedially to the medial cortex of the shaft. If the neck cortex is located laterally to the shaft, it is negative with no cortical buttress, and if the two cortices contact smoothly, it is in neutral position. The demographic baseline, postoperative radiographic femoral neck-shaft angle and neck length, rehabilitation progress and functional recovery scores of each group were recorded and compared. There were 89 cases (70 %) in positive, 26 in neutral, and 12 in negative support. No statistical differences were found between the three groups among patient age, sex ratio, prefracture score of activity of daily living, walking ability score, ASA physical risk score, number of medical comorbidities, osteoporosis Singh index, fracture reduction quality (Garden alignments), and the position of lag screw or helical blade in femoral head (TAD). In follow-up, patients in positive medial cortical support reduction group had the least loss in neck-shaft angle and neck length, and got ground-walking much earlier than negative reduction group, with good functional outcomes and less hip-thigh pain presence. Fracture reduction with nonanatomic positive medial cortical support allows limited sliding of the head-neck fragment to contact with the femur shaft and achieve secondary stability

  2. Analysis of friction and instability by the centre manifold theory for a non-linear sprag-slip model (United States)

    Sinou, J.-J.; Thouverez, F.; Jezequel, L.


    This paper presents the research devoted to the study of instability phenomena in non-linear model with a constant brake friction coefficient. Indeed, the impact of unstable oscillations can be catastrophic. It can cause vehicle control problems and component degradation. Accordingly, complex stability analysis is required. This paper outlines stability analysis and centre manifold approach for studying instability problems. To put it more precisely, one considers brake vibrations and more specifically heavy trucks judder where the dynamic characteristics of the whole front axle assembly is concerned, even if the source of judder is located in the brake system. The modelling introduces the sprag-slip mechanism based on dynamic coupling due to buttressing. The non-linearity is expressed as a polynomial with quadratic and cubic terms. This model does not require the use of brake negative coefficient, in order to predict the instability phenomena. Finally, the centre manifold approach is used to obtain equations for the limit cycle amplitudes. The centre manifold theory allows the reduction of the number of equations of the original system in order to obtain a simplified system, without loosing the dynamics of the original system as well as the contributions of non-linear terms. The goal is the study of the stability analysis and the validation of the centre manifold approach for a complex non-linear model by comparing results obtained by solving the full system and by using the centre manifold approach. The brake friction coefficient is used as an unfolding parameter of the fundamental Hopf bifurcation point.

  3. Compensation for coarticulation reflects gesture perception, not spectral contrast. (United States)

    Fowler, Carol A


    This article reports three experiments designed to explore the basis for speech perceivers' apparent compensations for coarticulation. In the first experiment, the stimuli were members of three /da/-to-/ga/ continua hybridized from natural speech. The monosyllables had originally been produced in disyllables /ada/ and /aga/ to make Continuum 1, /alda/ and /alga/ (Continuum 2), and /arda/ and /arga/ (Continuum 3). Members of the second and third continua were influenced by carryover coarticulation from the preceding /l/ or /r/ context. Listeners showed compensation for this carryover coarticulation in the absence of the precursor /al/ or /ar/ syllables. This rules out an account in which compensation for coarticulation reflects a spectral contrast effect exerted by a precursor syllable, as previously has been proposed by Lotto, Holt, and colleagues (e.g., Lotto, Kluender, & Holt, 1997; Lotto & Kluender, 1998). The second experiment showed an enhancing effect of the endpoint monosyllables in Experiment 1 on identifications of preceding natural hybrids along an /al/-to-/ar/ continuum. That is, coarticulatory /l/ and /r/ information in /da/ and /ga/ syllables led to increased judgments of /l/ and /r/, respectively, in the precursor /al/-to-/ar/ continuum members. This was opposite to the effect, in Experiment 3, of /da/ and /ga/ syllables on preceding tones synthesized to range in frequency from approximately the ending F3 of /ar/ to the ending F3 of /al/. The enhancing, not contrastive, effect in Experiment 2, juxtaposed to the contrastive effect in Experiment 3, further disconfirms the spectral contrast account of compensation for coarticulation. A review of the literature buttresses that conclusion and provides strong support for an account that invokes listeners' attention to information in speech for the occurrence of gestural overlap.

  4. Balancing bioethics by sensing the aesthetic. (United States)

    Macneill, Paul


    This article is critical of "bioethics" as it is widely understood and taught, noting in particular an emphasis given to philosophical justification, reason and rationality. It is proposed that "balancing" bioethics be achieved by giving greater weight to practice and the aesthetic: Defined in terms of sensory perception, emotion and feeling. Each of those three elements is elaborated as a non-cognitive capacity and, when taken together, comprise aesthetic sensitivity and responsiveness. This is to recognise the aesthetic as a productive element in bioethics as practice. Contributions from the philosophy of art and aesthetics are drawn into the discussion to bring depth to an understanding of "the aesthetic". This approach is buttressed by philosophers - including Foucault and 18th century German philosophers (in particular Kant) - who recognized a link between ethics and aesthetics. The article aims to give substance to a claim that bioethics necessarily comprises a cognitive component, relating to reason, and a non-cognitive component that draws on aesthetic sensibility and relates to practice. A number of advantages of bioethics, understood to explicitly acknowledge the aesthetic, are proffered. Having defined bioethics in conventional terms, there is discussion of the extent to which other approaches to bioethics (including casuistry, virtue ethics, and narrative ethics) recognize aesthetic sensitivity in their practice. It is apparent that they do so to varying extents although not always explicitly. By examining this aspect of applied ethics, the paper aims to draw attention to aesthetic sensitivity and responsiveness as integral to ethical and effective health care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Current indications and results for thoracoplasty and intrathoracic muscle transposition. (United States)

    Krassas, Athanase; Grima, Renaud; Bagan, Patrick; Badia, Alain; Arame, Alex; Barthes, Françoise Le Pimpec; Riquet, Marc


    Thoracoplasty has lost much of its popularity and is being supplanted by space-reduction operations using muscle flaps. Our purpose is to retrospectively study the remaining indications and the evolving modifications of this ancient technique in our current surgical practice. From 1994 to 2008, 35 patients underwent a thoracoplasty procedure in a single thoracic surgery centre for treatment of infectious complications of previous thoracic surgery. The number and length of ribs excised were dictated by the size and location of the thoracic cavity to obliterate. Muscle flaps were used to buttress bronchial fistulas and to fill out residual spaces. We reviewed the immediate and long-term results concerning infection control and procedure tolerance. The infectious complications of previous thoracic surgery were related to cancer in 25, tuberculosis in six, oesophageo-pleural fistula in two, ruptured lung abscess and pleural thickening in one each. The thoracoplasty procedure was performed for: (1) post-pneumonectomy empyema, n=20 (bronchial fistula, n=11; open window thoracostomy, n=14; mean number of resected ribs, n=7.5; associated intrathoracic muscle transposition, n=12; postoperative death, n=3); (2) post-lobectomy empyema, n=8 (bronchial fistula n=8; open window thoracostomy n=1; mean number of resected ribs n=3.6; associated intrathoracic muscle transposition n=7; no death); (3) other indications, n=7 (mean number of resected ribs n=4.8; associated intrathoracic muscle transposition n=3; no death). All patients discharged from the hospital except one were cured and did not complain of symptoms of secondary lung function and shoulder impairment. Although thoracoplasty is rarely indicated nowadays, this does not imply that the procedure should be avoided. Thoracoplasty may be associated with myoplasty, which permits achieving complete space obliteration by combining resection of a few rib segments and limited intrathoracic muscle transposition. Copyright 2009

  6. Livestock Production in the UK in the 21st Century: A Perfect Storm Averted?

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    Madeleine L. Campbell


    Full Text Available There is a school of thought that future demand for meat and other farm animal products is unsustainable for several reasons, including greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants; standards of farm animal health and welfare, especially when farm animals are kept intensively; efficiency of conversion by livestock of solar energy into (human food, particularly by pigs and poultry; water availability and usage for all types of agricultural production, including livestock; and human health and consumption of meat, eggs and milk. Demand for meat is forecast to rise as a result of global population growth and increasing affluence. These issues buttress an impending perfect storm of food shortages, scarce water and insufficient energy, which is likely to coincide with global population reaching about 9 billion people in 2030 (pace Beddington. This paper examines global demand for animal products, the narrative of ‘sustainable intensification’ and the implications of each for the future of farm animal welfare. In the UK, we suggest that, though non-ruminant farming may become unsustainable, ruminant agriculture will continue to prosper because cows, sheep and goats utilize grass and other herbage that cannot be consumed directly by humans, especially on land that is unsuitable for other purposes. However, the demand for meat and other livestock-based food is often for pork, eggs and chicken from grain-fed pigs and poultry. The consequences of such a perfect storm are beginning to be incorporated in long-term business planning by retailers and others. Nevertheless, marketing sustainable animal produce will require considerable innovation and flair in public and private policies if marketing messages are to be optimized and consumer behaviour modified.

  7. Acellular bi-layer silk fibroin scaffolds support tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of onlay urethroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeun Goo Chung

    Full Text Available Acellular scaffolds derived from Bombyx mori silk fibroin were investigated for their ability to support functional tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of urethra repair. A bi-layer silk fibroin matrix was fabricated by a solvent-casting/salt leaching process in combination with silk fibroin film casting to generate porous foams buttressed by homogeneous silk fibroin films. Ventral onlay urethroplasty was performed with silk fibroin grafts (Group 1, N = 4 (Width × Length, 1 × 2 cm(2 in adult male rabbits for 3 m of implantation. Parallel control groups consisted of animals receiving small intestinal submucosa (SIS implants (Group 2, N = 4 or urethrotomy alone (Group 3, N = 3. Animals in all groups exhibited 100% survival prior to scheduled euthanasia and achieved voluntary voiding following 7 d of initial catheterization. Retrograde urethrography of each implant group at 3 m post-op revealed wide urethral calibers and preservation of organ continuity similar to pre-operative and urethrotomy controls with no evidence of contrast extravasation, strictures, fistulas, or stone formation. Histological (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome, immunohistochemical, and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that both silk fibroin and SIS scaffolds promoted similar extents of smooth muscle and epithelial tissue regeneration throughout the original defect sites with prominent contractile protein (α-smooth muscle actin and SM22α and cytokeratin expression, respectively. De novo innervation and vascularization were also evident in all regenerated tissues indicated by synaptophysin-positive neuronal cells and vessels lined with CD31 expressing endothelial cells. Following 3 m post-op, minimal acute inflammatory reactions were elicited by silk fibroin scaffolds characterized by the presence of eosinophil granulocytes while SIS matrices promoted chronic inflammatory responses indicated by mobilization of mononuclear cell infiltrates. The results

  8. Antarctic sub-shelf melt rates via SIMPEL (United States)

    Reese, Ronja; Albrecht, Torsten; Winkelmann, Ricarda


    Ocean-induced melting below ice-shelves is currently suspected to be the dominant cause of mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (e.g. Depoorter et al. 2013). Although thinning of ice shelves does not directly contribute to sea-level rise, it may have a significant indirect impact through the potential of ice shelves to buttress their adjacent ice sheet. Hence, an appropriate representation of sub-shelf melt rates is essential for modelling the evolution of ice sheets with marine terminating outlet glaciers. Due to computational limits of fully-coupled ice and ocean models, sub-shelf melt rates are often parametrized in large-scale or long-term simulations (e.g. Matin et al. 2011, Pollard & DeConto 2012). These parametrizations usually depend on the depth of the ice shelf base or its local slope but do not include the physical processes in ice shelf cavities. Here, we present the Sub Ice shelf Melt Potsdam modEL (SIMPEL) which mimics the first-order large-scale circulation in ice shelf cavities based on an ocean box model (Olbers & Hellmer, 2010), implemented in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (Bueler & Brown 2009, Winkelmann et al. 2011, In SIMPEL, ocean water is transported at depth towards the grounding line where sub-shelf melt rates are highest, and then rises along the shelf base towards the calving front where refreezing can occur. Melt rates are computed by a description of ice-ocean interaction commonly used in high-resolution models (McPhee 1992, Holland & Jenkins 1999). This enables the model to capture a wide-range of melt rates, comparable to the observed range for Antarctic ice shelves (Rignot et al. 2013).

  9. Smokers' reasons for quitting in an anti-smoking social context. (United States)

    Baha, M; Le Faou, A-L


    To examine the impact of the social denormalization of smoking on smokers' motives for quitting and on subsequent abstinence in a context of intensified anti-smoking measures. This study is based on data from 13,746 French smokers who were registered in cessation services nationwide between September 2006 and September 2007. Motives freely reported by smokers on their first visit to a cessation service were explored through open coding. Bivariate methods and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association with biochemically validated abstinence at 1 month follow-up. Motives most frequently expressed by smokers were health concerns (55.0%) and cost of smoking (24.2%), but no significant association was found with abstinence. The highest abstinence rates were achieved by smokers motivated by their social network: 'motivated or pressured by others' (20.9%), 'setting a good example' (20.7%) and 'having a smoke-free social network' (20.3%). Smokers could no longer bear the social constraints of smoking: '[my] friends and family have all quit, [I] smoke outside all alone and feel left out' and 'I no longer want people to say with disgust that I smell of tobacco. I would like to be freed from this addiction because I'm ashamed of smoking, not at home but on the street'. French smokers' motives for quitting reflect a social unacceptability of smoking which has been buttressed by measures intended to reduce tobacco use. Through smoke-free social networks, the denormalization of smoking appears to improve short-term abstinence. 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface Aneurysmal Bone Cyst: Clinical and Imaging Features in 10 New Cases. (United States)

    Yalcinkaya, Merter; Lapcin, Osman; Arikan, Yavuz; Aycan, Osman Emre; Ozer, Devrim; Kabukcuoglu, Yavuz Selim


    Aneurysmal bone cyst originating from the surface of the bone, either within the cortex or subperiosteally, is an uncommon anatomic subtype. This article reports the clinical and radiologic evaluations and treatment outcomes of 10 patients with surface aneurysmal bone cysts that were surgically treated between 1982 and 2014. Mean age at the time of surgery was 22.4 years (range, 11-44 years). According to Capanna's radiographic evaluation criteria, 6 of the lesions were classified as type V and 4 were classified as type IV. Radiographically, periosteal shell formation was observed to be complete in 4 patients, partial in 3, and absent in 3, and 6 patients had Codman's angle or buttress formation. In 1 patient, computed tomography scan showed birdcage-like ossification attached to the surface of bone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed fluid-fluid levels in 5 patients. All of the patients had standard curettage and high-speed burr application as an adjuvant. No patient had local recurrence at the end of the follow-up period of 98.4 months (range, 13-288 months). These findings show the importance of careful radiologic evaluation and biopsy to better plan a treatment strategy when surface aneurysmal bone cyst is included in the differential diagnosis. The finding of fluid-fluid levels on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography is not pathognomonic for primary aneurysmal bone cyst; however, the absence of this finding does not rule out the diagnosis. The rate of local recurrence after curettage plus high-speed burr is reasonably low, and other adjuvant procedures should be used whenever needed. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):e897-e903.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Hydrologically-induced slow-down as a mechanism for tidewater glacier retreat (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian


    Outlet glaciers flowing into the ocean often terminate at a calving front, whose position is sensitively determined by the balance between ice discharge and calving/terminus-melting. Rapid retreat of tidewater glaciers can be initiated when the front is perturbed from a preferred pinning point, particularly when the glacier sits in an overdeepened trough. This is believed to make certain areas of ice sheets particularly vulnerable to ice loss. A number of factors may cause a previously stable front position to become unstable, including changes in buttressing provided by an ice shelf, and changes in ocean temperature. Another possibility is that initial retreat is induced by a reduction in the supply of ice from the interior of the ice sheet. Such a reduction can naturally arise from an increase in surface melting and runoff (in the absence of accumulation changes), and this may be amplified if more efficient meltwater routing reduces basal lubrication, as has been observed in some areas of the Greenland ice sheet. Since the initiation of rapid retreat often results in an increase of ice discharge at the front (due to increased ice thickness), such a process may not be easy to detect. In this study, I employ a simplified model of an outlet glacier and its frontal behaviour to examine the extent to which hydrologically induced slow-down of the feeding ice sheet may induce (or help to induce) calving front retreat. The model builds on earlier parameterisations of grounding line fluxes, and assumes that calving occurs according to a criterion that keeps the front close to the flotation thickness. The glacier bed is assumed to be plastic. This allows for a transparent identification of the different forcing terms affecting margin position. We conclude that hydrologically-induced slow-down of ice sheets is likely to have a more significant effect on mass loss than hydrologically-induced speed-up.

  12. Evidence that the adaptive allele of the brain size gene microcephalin introgressed into Homo sapiens from an archaic Homo lineage. (United States)

    Evans, Patrick D; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Vallender, Eric J; Hudson, Richard R; Lahn, Bruce T


    At the center of the debate on the emergence of modern humans and their spread throughout the globe is the question of whether archaic Homo lineages contributed to the modern human gene pool, and more importantly, whether such contributions impacted the evolutionary adaptation of our species. A major obstacle to answering this question is that low levels of admixture with archaic lineages are not expected to leave extensive traces in the modern human gene pool because of genetic drift. Loci that have undergone strong positive selection, however, offer a unique opportunity to identify low-level admixture with archaic lineages, provided that the introgressed archaic allele has risen to high frequency under positive selection. The gene microcephalin (MCPH1) regulates brain size during development and has experienced positive selection in the lineage leading to Homo sapiens. Within modern humans, a group of closely related haplotypes at this locus, known as haplogroup D, rose from a single copy approximately 37,000 years ago and swept to exceptionally high frequency (approximately 70% worldwide today) because of positive selection. Here, we examine the origin of haplogroup D. By using the interhaplogroup divergence test, we show that haplogroup D likely originated from a lineage separated from modern humans approximately 1.1 million years ago and introgressed into humans by approximately 37,000 years ago. This finding supports the possibility of admixture between modern humans and archaic Homo populations (Neanderthals being one possibility). Furthermore, it buttresses the important notion that, through such adminture, our species has benefited evolutionarily by gaining new advantageous alleles. The interhaplogroup divergence test developed here may be broadly applicable to the detection of introgression at other loci in the human genome or in genomes of other species.

  13. Reinforcement strategy for lateral rafting plate fixation in posterolateral column fractures of the tibial plateau: The magic screw technique. (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Zhu, Yi; He, Qi-Fang; Shu, Lin-Yuan; Zhang, Wei; Chai, Yi-Min


    A posterolateral column fracture of the tibial plateau (PLCF) is not uncommon, especially lateral and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Currently, there is no consensus on the methods of surgical treatment for PLCF, including the surgical approach or the fixation strategy. Though various posterior approaches have been explored and can allow posterior buttress plate fixation, the necessity of a posterior approach with fixation for PLCFs is increasingly questioned. Meanwhile, there is no literature to analyse the morphological features of PLCFs. None of the available surgical techniques can solve all of the problems of PLCFs. From February 2016 to June 2016, an inconsecutive series of 16 patients who suffered Schatzker type II tibial plateau fractures involving the posterolateral column were selected based on an analysis of the morphological characteristics of PLCFs. The patients were all treated by lateral rafting plate fixation with magic screw implantation through the extended lateral approach. According to PLCF morphology, 4 patients had mild slope-type depression fractures (MSDF) of the articular surface, and the other 12 patients had block-type splitting fractures (BSF). After a 12-month follow-up period, there were no complications related to the fixation technique and no significant changes in limb alignment. At the final follow-up, the average range of motion (ROM) of the affected knees was 2.3°-125°, and the average HSS score was 94.2. The selected patients who suffered Schatzker type II fractures involving the posterolateral column could be successfully treated via lateral rafting plate fixation with the magic screw technique. For PLCF treatment, magic screw fixation is a valuable technique that may reduce the utilization of posterior approaches and posterior fixations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling Ocean-Forced Changes in Smith Glacier (United States)

    Lilien, D.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.


    Glaciers along the Amundsen Coast are changing rapidly, which has drawn substantial scientific and public attention. Modeling and observation suggest warm-water intrusion and consequent melting as the cause of observed changes, and that unstoppable retreat may have already been triggered in some drainages. While Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers are losing the most mass and have been the predominant objects study, other systems, particularly Smith, Pope and Kohler Glaciers and the corresponding Dotson and Crosson Shelves, are changing more rapidly relative to their size. Though smaller, these glaciers still have potentially large implications for overall regional dynamics as their beds connect below sea level to surrounding basins. In particular, the long, deep trough of Smith Glacier nearly links to the large eastern tributary of Thwaites, potentially causing rapid changes of Smith to have significant impact on the continuing retreat of Thwaites.We implemented a numerical model in Elmer/Ice, an open-source, full-Stokes, finite-element software package, to investigate the response of the Smith/Pope/Kohler system to different initial conditions. We use various parameterizations of sub-shelf melting with constant magnitude to examine the sensitivity of overall dynamics to melt distribution. Because melt distribution affects lateral buttressing and upstream grounded areas, it is potentially an important control on ice shelf and outlet glacier dynamics. Through comparison to the most recent velocity data, we evaluate the ability of differing melt parameterizations to reproduce the behavior currently seen in Smith/Pope/Kohler glaciers. In addition, we investigate the effect of using different years of velocity data with constant elevation input when initiating model runs. By comparing results over the satellite record to initiation with synchronous observations, we assess the accuracy of the often necessary practice of using differently timestamped datasets.

  15. [Unstable pertrochanteric fractures, biomechanic, classification and therapy.]. (United States)

    Cech, O; Kostál, R; Váchal, J


    The authors deal with unstable pertrochanteric, intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures extending as far as calcar femorale. The treatment of pertrochanteric issues is a serious issue as their total number in the Czech Republic exceeds 5.000 annually and with the exception of those which are contraindicated due to their health condition, all patients are indicated to surgery. In the treatment of unstable pertrochanteric fractures there occurs failure of internal fixation also with the use of implants such as dynamic hip screw or Gamma nail. The cause of unsuccessful treatment of unstable fractures is the defect in calcar femorale - impairment of the weightbearing area of proximal femur and failure of the implant as a result of its cyclic overloading - breakage of the nail, cutting out of the screw from the head in the osteoporotic bone or breaking out of screws fixing the plate to the femoral shaft. For a causal procedure the authors consider the reconstruction of the calcar femorale by a wedge valgus osteotomy of the comminuted zone after the original design of Debrunner and Cech (1969). Simultaneously with reconstruction of the medial cortical support in the calcar femorale the 160 degrees valgization is performed. In the AO classification the authors consider for unstable the fractures of types 31.A2.1, A2.2, A3.3. Significant from the therapeutic viewpoint is the classification of stable fractures (with open reduction the anatomic reconstruction of weight-bearing calcar femorale is possible) and unstable fractures - where with open reduction the defect of calcar femorale persists. For stabilization of unstable the authors recommend fixation by DHS at 150 degrees angle. If need be, this fixation may be combined with lag screws and in case of a simultaneous fracture of greater trochanter and in reverse fractures a trochanteric buttress plate has to be added. Key words: unstable pertrochanteric fractures, nonanatomic valgus reduction, DHS fixation.

  16. Seasonality and microhabitat selection in a forest-dwelling salamander (United States)

    Basile, Marco; Romano, Antonio; Costa, Andrea; Posillico, Mario; Scinti Roger, Daniele; Crisci, Aldo; Raimondi, Ranieri; Altea, Tiziana; Garfì, Vittorio; Santopuoli, Giovanni; Marchetti, Marco; Salvidio, Sebastiano; De Cinti, Bruno; Matteucci, Giorgio


    Many small terrestrial vertebrates exhibit limited spatial movement and are considerably exposed to changes in local environmental variables. Among such vertebrates, amphibians at present experience a dramatic decline due to their limited resilience to environmental change. Since the local survival and abundance of amphibians is intrinsically related to the availability of shelters, conservation plans need to take microhabitat requirements into account. In order to gain insight into the terrestrial ecology of the spectacled salamander Salamandrina perspicillata and to identify appropriate forest management strategies, we investigated the salamander's seasonal variability in habitat use of trees as shelters in relation to tree features (size, buttresses, basal holes) and environmental variables in a beech forest in Italy. We used the occupancy approach to assess tree suitability on a non-conventional spatial scale. Our approach provides fine-grained parameters of microhabitat suitability and elucidates many aspects of the salamander's terrestrial ecology . Occupancy changed with the annual life cycle and was higher in autumn than in spring, when females were found closer to the stream in the study area. Salamanders showed a seasonal pattern regarding the trees they occupied and a clear preference for trees with a larger diameter and more burrows. With respect to forest management, we suggest maintaining a suitable number of trees with a trunk diameter exceeding 30 cm. A practice of selective logging along the banks of streams could help maintain an adequate quantity of the appropriate microhabitat. Furthermore, in areas with a presence of salamanders, a good forest management plan requires leaving an adequate buffer zone around streams, which should be wider in autumn than in spring.

  17. Hyper-stasis as opposed to hyper-activism: the politics of health policy in the USA set against England. (United States)

    Paton, Calum


    This paper considers health policy-making in the USA with England as comparator. It contrasts policy inertia in US healthcare despite crisis with hyper-activity in perpetual 'reform' in England despite absence of crisis in the NHS. It does so from the standpoint of political science and political economy. I suggest that 'path-dependency', the view that past policy constrains future policy, lacks explanatory power and that wider and deeper explanations must be sought. The USA's apparent path dependency is in fact a story of political economy and power, buttressed by institutions. England's apparent lack of path-dependency in promulgating NHS reform is in fact a story of executive hyper-activism which is oblivious to how implementation will obviate its prescriptions. This failure of 'reform' in the NHS is not a symptom of concealed path-dependency but a sign of pragmatism by those charged with implementation. In the USA, the durability of its various systems of healthcare is by contrast a sign of pragmatism not being adequate to achieve health sector reform. In the USA, a weak state is unable to manage healthcare reform which would actually benefit US capitalism as a whole. In the UK, a strong state has created and developed the NHS to the benefit of capital through the economical provision of healthcare to the workforce. Such an 'investment state' is a testimony to the continuing validity of the neo-Marxist argument that social investment and social expenses are an important and functional component of the capitalist state. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Biophysical modeling of high field diffusion MRI demonstrates micro-structural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain. (United States)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove; Kroenke, Christopher D; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hansen, Brian; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj


    Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Immense heterogeneity in symptoms of depression causes difficulty in diagnosis, and to date, there are no established biomarkers or imaging methods to examine depression. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS) induced anhedonia is considered to be a realistic model of depression in studies of animal subjects. Stereological and neuronal tracing techniques have demonstrated persistent remodeling of microstructure in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala of CMS brains. Recent developments in diffusion MRI (d-MRI) analyses, such as neurite density and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), are able to capture microstructural changes and are considered to be robust tools in preclinical and clinical imaging. The present study utilized d-MRI analyzed with a neurite density model and the DKI framework to investigate microstructure in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen and amygdala regions of CMS rat brains by comparison to brains from normal controls. To validate findings of CMS induced microstructural alteration, histology was performed to determine neurite, nuclear and astrocyte density. d-MRI based neurite density and tensor-based mean kurtosis (MKT) were significantly higher, while mean diffusivity (MD), extracellular diffusivity (Deff) and intra-neurite diffusivity(DL) were significantly lower in the amygdala of CMS rat brains. Deff was also significantly lower in the hippocampus and caudate putamen in stressed groups. Histological neurite density corroborated the d-MRI findings in the amygdala and reductions in nuclear and astrocyte density further buttressed the d-MRI results. The present study demonstrated that the d-MRI based neurite density and MKT can reveal specific microstructural changes in CMS rat brains and these parameters might have value in clinical diagnosis of depression and for evaluation of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tremendous advance in mechanization and fastness of travel have been accompanied by steep increase in number and severity of fractures and those of tibial plateau are no exception. Knee being one of the major weight bearing joints of the body, fractures around it will be of paramount importance. AIM OF STUDY: This study is to analyze the functional outcome of CRIF or ORIF with or without bone grafting in tibial plateau fractures in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 30 cases of tibial plateau fractures treated by various modalities were studied from 1 - 8 - 2012 to 31 - 1 - 2014 at our institution and followed for a minimum of 6 months. Fractures were evaluated using Modified Rasmussen’s Clinical, Radiological grading system. RESULTS : The selected patients were evaluated thoroughly and after the relevant investigations, were taken for surgery. The fractures were classified as per the SCHATZKER’S types and operated accordingly with CRIF with Percutaneous cannulated cancellous screws, ORIF with buttress plate/LCP with or without bone grafting. Immobilization of fractures continued for 3 weeks by POP slab. Early range of motion was then started. Weight bearing up to 6 - 8 weeks was not allowed. The full weight bearing deferred until 12 weeks or complete fracture union . The knee range of motion was excellent to very good, gait and weight bearing after complete union was satisfactory, knee stiffness in 3 cases , wound dehiscence and infection in 1 case and non - union in none of our cases was noted. CONCLUSION: Functional outcome is better in operatively treated tibial plateau fractures in adults, because it gives excellent anatomical reduction and rigid fixation to restore articular congruity and early motion thereby preventing knee stiffness.

  20. A metaphor-enriched social cognition. (United States)

    Landau, Mark J; Meier, Brian P; Keefer, Lucas A


    Social cognition is the scientific study of the cognitive events underlying social thought and attitudes. Currently, the field's prevailing theoretical perspectives are the traditional schema view and embodied cognition theories. Despite important differences, these perspectives share the seemingly uncontroversial notion that people interpret and evaluate a given social stimulus using knowledge about similar stimuli. However, research in cognitive linguistics (e.g., Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) suggests that people construe the world in large part through conceptual metaphors, which enable them to understand abstract concepts using knowledge of superficially dissimilar, typically more concrete concepts. Drawing on these perspectives, we propose that social cognition can and should be enriched by an explicit recognition that conceptual metaphor is a unique cognitive mechanism that shapes social thought and attitudes. To advance this metaphor-enriched perspective, we introduce the metaphoric transfer strategy as a means of empirically assessing whether metaphors influence social information processing in ways that are distinct from the operation of schemas alone. We then distinguish conceptual metaphor from embodied simulation--the mechanism posited by embodied cognition theories--and introduce the alternate source strategy as a means of empirically teasing apart these mechanisms. Throughout, we buttress our claims with empirical evidence of the influence of metaphors on a wide range of social psychological phenomena. We outline directions for future research on the strength and direction of metaphor use in social information processing. Finally, we mention specific benefits of a metaphor-enriched perspective for integrating and generating social cognitive research and for bridging social cognition with neighboring fields.

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Flow Reduction with Adjustable Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Balloon-Expandable Stents Using the "Sheath Control" Technique. (United States)

    Blue, Robert C; Lo, Grace C; Kim, Edward; Patel, Rahul S; Scott Nowakowski, F; Lookstein, Robert A; Fischman, Aaron M


    A complication of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) placement is refractory portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE) often requiring TIPS reduction. We report the results of a "sheath control technique" utilizing constraining sheaths during deployment of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered balloon-expandable stents, minimizing stent migration, and providing additional procedural control. TIPS reduction was performed in 10 consecutive patients for PSE using Atrium iCast covered stents (Atrium Maquet Getinge Group, Germany). Within the indwelling TIPS stent, a 9 mm × 59 mm iCast stent was deployed with 2 cm exposed from the sheath's distal end and the majority of the stent within the sheath to create the distal hourglass shape. During balloon retraction, the stent was buttressed by the sheath. The proximal portion of the stent was angioplastied to complete the hourglass configuration, and the central portion of the stent was dilated to 5 mm. Demographics, pre- and post-procedure laboratory values, and outcomes were recorded. Ten patients underwent TIPS reduction with 100 % technical success. There was no stent migration during stent deployment. All patients experienced initial improvement of encephalopathy. One patient ultimately required complete TIPS occlusion for refractory PSE, and another developed TIPS occlusion 36 days post-procedure. There was no significant trend toward change in patients' MELD scores immediately post-procedure or at 30 days (p = 0.46, p = 0.47, respectively). TIPS reduction using Atrium iCast PTFE balloon-expandable stents using the "sheath control technique" is safe and effective, and minimizes the risk of stent migration.

  2. Internal fixation of distal radius fractures with dorsal dislocation: pi-plate or two 1/4 tube plates? A prospective randomized study. (United States)

    Hahnloser, D; Platz, A; Amgwerd, M; Trentz, O


    Severely comminuted distal radius fractures can be treated by different methods. Our routine procedure in dorsal dislocated fractures is the dorsal stabilization with two 1/4 tube plates. The new pi-plate is an other device that matches optimally the anatomy of the distal radius and allows a near half-circumferential dorsal buttress of comminuted intraarticular and extra-articular radial fractures. In a prospective randomized study, comminuted distal radius fractures with dorsal displacement were stabilized either with two 1/4 tube plates or with the pi-plate. All patients were reviewed at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery by thorough clinical examination and standard radiographs of both wrists. Results were analyzed and compared in both groups. Subjective and objective results in the pi-plate group are disappointing. Although optimal anatomic results were achieved, the complication-rate was high (14.3%) and the range of motion was limited. At final review, extension and flexion of the injured wrist had recovered to an average of 67% of the normal, contralateral side. Radial and ulnar deviation were limited to 64%, whereas pronation and supination reached 89% and 87%, respectively. Overall, results were good to excellent only in 56%. In a comparable group of patients with similar fractures and stabilization with two 1/4 tube plates, 82% of patients achieved excellent to good results, wrist motion was significantly better (p plate fixation in comminuted distal radial fractures, excellent results can be achieved. In our experience, we cannot recommend the 7pi-plate in its current shape and prefer to stabilize distal radius fractures and dorsal fragment dislocations with two 1/4 tube plates.

  3. Minors and euthanasia: a systematic review of argument-based ethics literature. (United States)

    Cuman, Giulia; Gastmans, Chris


    Euthanasia was first legalised in the Netherlands in 2002, followed by similar legislation in Belgium the same year. Since the beginning, however, only the Netherlands included the possibility for minors older than 12 years to request euthanasia. In 2014, the Belgian Act legalising euthanasia was amended to include requests by minors who possess the capacity of discernment. This amendment sparked great debate, and raised difficult ethical questions about when and how a minor can be deemed competent. We conducted a systematic review of argument-based literature on euthanasia in minors. The search process followed PRISMA guidelines. Thirteen publications were included. The four-principle approach of medical ethics was used to organise the ethical arguments underlying this debate. The justification for allowing euthanasia in minors is buttressed mostly by the principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy. Somewhat paradoxically, both principles are also used in the literature to argue against the extension of legislation to minors. Opponents of euthanasia generally rely on the principle of non-maleficence. The present analysis reveals that the debate surrounding euthanasia in minors is at an early stage. In order to allow a more in-depth ethical discussion, we suggest enriching the four-principle approach by including a care-ethics approach. What is Known: • The Netherlands and Belgium are the only two countries in the world with euthanasia legislation making it possible for minors to receive euthanasia. • This legislation provoked great debate globally, with ethical arguments for and against this legislation. What is New: • A systematic description of the ethical concepts and arguments grounding the debate on euthanasia in minors, as reported in the argument-based ethics literature. • A need has been identified to enrich the debate with a care-ethics approach to avoid oversimplifying the ethical decision-making process.

  4. Chemometric modeling of thermogravimetric data for the compositional analysis of forest biomass. (United States)

    Acquah, Gifty E; Via, Brian K; Fasina, Oladiran O; Adhikari, Sushil; Billor, Nedret; Eckhardt, Lori G


    The objective of this study was to investigated the use of chemometric modeling of thermogravimetric (TG) data as an alternative approach to estimate the chemical and proximate (i.e. volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash contents) composition of lignocellulosic biomass. Since these properties affect the conversion pathway, processing costs, yield and / or quality of products, a capability to rapidly determine these for biomass feedstock entering the process stream will be useful in the success and efficiency of bioconversion technologies. The 38-minute long methodology developed in this study enabled the simultaneous prediction of both the chemical and proximate properties of forest-derived biomass from the same TG data. Conventionally, two separate experiments had to be conducted to obtain such information. In addition, the chemometric models constructed with normalized TG data outperformed models developed via the traditional deconvolution of TG data. PLS and PCR models were especially robust in predicting the volatile matter (R2-0.92; RPD- 3.58) and lignin (R2-0.82; RPD- 2.40) contents of the biomass. The application of chemometrics to TG data also made it possible to predict some monomeric sugars in this study. Elucidation of PC loadings obtained from chemometric models also provided some insights into the thermal decomposition behavior of the chemical constituents of lignocellulosic biomass. For instance, similar loadings were noted for volatile matter and cellulose, and for fixed carbon and lignin. The findings indicate that common latent variables are shared between these chemical and thermal reactivity properties. Results from this study buttresses literature that have reported that the less thermally stable polysaccharides are responsible for the yield of volatiles whereas the more recalcitrant lignin with its higher percentage of elementary carbon contributes to the yield of fixed carbon.

  5. Structure and tectonics of the Sierra Madre oriental fold-thrust belt near Monterrey, northeastern Mexico

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    Johnson, C.A.; Gray, G.G.; Goldhammer, R. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))


    The Monterrey salient was examined using Landsat TM and MSS images to determine factors controlling the development, distribution, and exposure of Laramide structures. Lateral Mesozoic facies changes influence structural styles and distribution. Exposure of deep foreland structures north of Monterrey is partly related to the location of the Cupido reef trend. Structure along the front of the salient changes abruptly from tectonic wedging to normal overthrusting where deltaic clastics of the Difunta Group grade into incompetent Mendez shale. Salt thickness is an important factor controlling structural development. Areas without evaporites are usually persistent basement highs characterized by less severe deformation. Areas with thin evaporites have complex structural styles, depending on stratigraphy, depth of exposure, and distance from the Sierra Madre thrust front. Thick salt, apparently in a Jurassic rift beneath the salient, facilitated the northward transport of thrust sheets. Late Cretaceous salt movement influenced stratigraphy in La Popa basin where limestone lenses developed in the clastic Difunta Group. Basement topography is the major factor controlling development, style, distribution of structures, and areal distribution of salt and lateral facies changes. The authors propose a tectonic model that explains the large scale structural styles in the region. The Coahuila basement-high block acted as a buttress during Laramide shortening, limiting northward progression of deformation west of Saltillo. East, in the Monterrey salient, the effect of deeper basement and thick salt permitted thrusts to transport material much farther north, resulting in development of a north-south zone of distributed left-lateral shear in the region of Saltillo.

  6. Magnetic fabric as a tool to decipher the kinematics of inverted basins; examples from the western Tethys (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Casas, A. M.; Román-Berdiel, T.; Soto, R.; García-Lasanta, C.; Izquierdo-Llavall, E.; Moussaid, B.; El'Ouardi, H.; Villalain, J.; Torres, S.


    Magnetic fabrics have been widely used in different scenarios and rock types since Graham (1954) become aware of the parallelism between the magnetic fabric and the petrofabric of a rock. Two key points are used to decipher the kinematics and strain partitioning within inverted basins where strain markers are scarce: i) the long axis of the magnetic ellipsoid is parallel to extension direction in extensional regimes (Sagnotti et al. 1999; Cifelli et al. 2004); ii) the long axis of the magnetic ellipsoid becomes parallel to the elongation direction in compressive regimes (usually perpendicular to the compression direction) (Parés et al., 1999). Between these two end-members, intermediate fabrics can be also obtained in inverted basins, depending on factors as buttressing, fault inversion and cleavage development (Oliva-Urcia et al., 2011; 2012). In addition, the proper interpretation of magnetic fabrics needs complementary sources of information (i.e., low-temperature magnetic fabric, ferromagnetic fabric, neutron or X-ray texture goniometry, classical structural field analyses, magnetic mineralogy analyses…). Some Mesozoic inverted basins have been studied mainly by means of magnetic fabrics, that allow deciphering (i) the main extensional directions during the basinal stage in Cameros (Iberian Range), Organyá (South Pyrenean Zone), Lusitanian (Portugal) and central and west High Atlas (Aïtt Atab, Ouaouizaght and Argana, Morocco) basins; (ii) the strain distribution and partitioning during compression in the Mauléon (North Pyrenean Zone, France), Cabuérniga (west Pyrenees), and Triassic Nogueres (central Pyrenees) basins, where the fabric is interpreted as the result of the overprint of compressional deformation onto a primary extensional fabric.

  7. Extended Anterolateral Approach for Complex Lateral Tibial Plateau Fractures. (United States)

    Kfuri, Mauricio; Schatzker, Joseph; Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; Giordano, Vincenzo; Fogagnolo, Fabricio; Stannard, James P


    Complex fractures of the lateral tibial plateau may extend to the posterior rim of the knee and to the tibial spines. Displaced fractures of the posterolateral corner of the tibial plateau may result in joint incongruity and instability, especially with the knee in flexion. Anatomical reduction of the joint surface and containment of the tibial rim are the primary goals of the treatment in such cases. Dedicated surgical approaches including dissection of the peroneal nerve, sometimes in association with an osteotomy of the fibular head are typically used to address these injuries. Some techniques require special positioning of the patient on the operative table. Anatomical studies of the knee allowed us to conclude that an osteotomy of the lateral epicondyle of the femur may be a natural extension of the standard anterolateral approach to the tibial plateau. The main advantage of this approach is the broad exposure of the lateral joint surface, allowing its anatomical reduction. It does not violate the proximal tibiofibular joint or pose a risk to the peroneal nerve. The main limitation is the lack of visualization of the posterior metaphysis of the tibia, preventing the application of a buttress plate parallel to the plane of fracture split. To overcome this limitation, we describe a method to support the posterior tibial plateau rim, in cases of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures, combining the extended anterolateral with the posteromedial approach. For selected cases, with a significant compromise of the posterolateral and anterolateral quadrants of the tibial plateau, including the tibial spines, the extended anterolateral approach may be complemented by a planned detachment of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus. In such variant, a complete exposure of the entire surface of the lateral tibial plateau and tibial spines is achievable, assuring optimal conditions for an anatomical reduction of the articular surface. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh

  8. The origins of altruism in offspring care. (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D


    The current review aims to unify existing views of altruism through an examination of the biological bases of a fundamental form of giving: altruistic responding. Altruistic responding is most salient during heroic acts of helping but is also observed any time one perceives another's distress or need, which in turn motivates one to help at a current cost to the self. Such aid is simple, observable across species, and rooted in the instincts and circuits that evolved to maximize inclusive fitness through the care of helpless offspring. By design, the system already biases aid to both kin and nonkin under conditions that are largely adaptive. These inherent benefits are also buttressed in primates and humans by known, later-arriving benefits to helping in group-living animals. Evidence for the proposed homology between altruistic responding and offspring retrieval is presented through 10 key shared factors. Conceptually, both require (a) participation by nonmothers, (b) motor competence and expertise, (c) an adaptive opponency between avoidance and approach, and a facilitating role of (d) neonatal vulnerability, (e) salient distress, and (f) rewarding close contact. Physiologically, they also share neurohormonal support from (g) oxytocin, (h) the domain-general mesolimbocortical system, (i) the cingulate cortex, and (j) the orbitofrontal cortex. The framework intermixes ultimate and proximate levels of analysis and unifies existing views by assuming that even complex human behaviors reflect ancient mammalian neural systems that evolved to solve key problems in adaptive ways, with far-reaching consequences for even our most venerated human traits. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  9. Geology of the South Yolla Bolly area, northern California, and its techtonic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, D.M.


    The South Yolla Bolly area contains the mutual boundary of three tectonic provinces: the Franciscan trench-wedge complex, the Great Valley forearc basin sequence, and the Klamath Mountains igneous and metamorphic complex. Within the Franciscan complex, several distinct units are distinguished by rock type, textural grade, metamorphic grade, style of deformation, and fabric. Grain distortion, recrystallization, metamorphic grade, and intensity of folding increase eastwardly in increments across faults. Hence, the most highly metamorphosed unit, the South Fork Mountain Schist, is also the easternmost and structurally the highest. Lithologic and structural data collected in this area, as well as regional age relationships, indicate that these faults originated as underthrust faults which in at least two instances were localized at or near the sediment/ocean crust contact. Later, while subduction continued to the west in the continually accreting trench, the lithic slabs bounded by these faults were partly extruded out of the upper part of the trench wedge. Subsequent to their upward emplacement, these metasedimentary rocks with their boundary faults were bent in such a fashion that today the structural grain changes from north-south where these Franciscan rocks are juxtaposed against the Great Valley sequence, to west-northwest where they are faulted against rocks of the Klamath Mountains. This bending occurred as the Klamath Mountains moved westward relative to the trench wedge in Late Cretaceous time, an event which is recorded in the South Yolla Bolly and adjacent areas by several northwest trending left lateral strike-slip faults. These faults cut only superjacent Klamath and Great Valley rocks, and do not transect the Franciscan trench wedge, which was largely buttressed against the advancing Klamath mass. (JMT)

  10. Combination tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and cranial closing wedge osteotomy of the tibia for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifles with excessive tibial plateau angle. (United States)

    Talaat, Miriam B; Kowaleski, Michael P; Boudrieau, Randy J


    To describe a surgical technique, and outcome, for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficient stifle joints with excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) by combined tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and cranial closing wedge osteotomy (TPLO/CCWO). Retrospective clinical study. Fifteen client-owned dogs (18 stifle joints). Medical records of dogs that had TPLO/CCWO were reviewed. Pre- and postoperative TPA, CCWO technique, method of fixation and complications were recorded. In-hospital re-evaluation of limb function and length of time to radiographic healing was reviewed. Long-term outcome was assessed by owner telephone interview. Mean pre- and postoperative TPA was 42 degrees and 8 degrees, respectively. The Slocum biradial saw was used to create the CCWO in 4 stifle joints (mean postoperative TPA, 16 degrees) and a sagittal saw was used in 14 stifle joints (mean postoperative TPA, 5 degrees). Postoperative surgical complications were documented in 77.8% of cases; including patellar tendon thickening (61.1%), and implant loosening or breakage (27.8%), seroma formation (11.1%), and local irritation (11.1%). A second surgical procedure was performed in one-third of cases primarily to retrieve implants. Mean time to documented radiographic healing was 18 weeks. Final in-hospital re-evaluation of limb function (mean, 23 weeks postoperatively) was recorded as no lameness in 73.3% and mild lameness in 26.7%. All interviewed owners were satisfied with outcome and 90.9% reported marked improvement or a return to preinjury status. Long-term clinical outcome of TPLO/CCWO was very good in dogs with excessive TPA, with high owner satisfaction. Longer healing times and a higher complication rate were observed compared with TPLO alone. TPLO/CCWO of the tibia in stifle joints with excessive TPA allows for full correction of the TPA to 5 degrees without eliminating buttress support of the tibial tuberosity.

  11. Municipal Awareness as an Integral Part for Enhancing Citizen Satisfaction of Malaysian Municipal Councils, Batu Pahat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Bello


    Full Text Available This research study critically analysed the existing literature on municipal awareness relevancy of municipal councils’ service delivery for the purpose of enhancing citizen satisfaction. The purpose of the study is the investigation of citizen satisfaction level of municipal services through the use of municipal awareness. The Material and methods were carried out using secondary data and were meticulously and critically analysed to come up with reliable results. The study shows the relevance of the public awareness, citizen satisfaction and municipal council performance in Malaysia. It is evidence in the research that citizen consent is important before municipal services should be provided in the local community. The research study highlighted many discrepancies in many kinds of literature related to the existing research study, evidence-based analysis were carried out to buttress importance and significance of the related study to the research work. The literature was reviewed to ascertain the current happening in the area of municipal council service delivery. The study shows that many municipal councils in Malaysia provide adequate and satisfactory services to their citizens’. The results of the study also revealed that municipal awareness plays an important role on citizen satisfactions of municipal service delivery. It is also evident that adequate provision of services has direct bearing with municipal councils. The study concludes that municipal service delivery can be enhanced through citizen awareness campaign, to sensitise the local community on various aspects of service delivery including maintenance of the facilities provided. The study also concludes that local Authorities lack of awareness section affects their performance in service delivery process. The study recommends that municipal councils need to consults the citizen for their needs and wants; awareness campaign needs to be regularly carried out to maintain cordial

  12. Occlusal load distribution through the cortical and trabecular bone of the human mid-facial skeleton in natural dentition: a three-dimensional finite element study. (United States)

    Janovic, Aleksa; Saveljic, Igor; Vukicevic, Arso; Nikolic, Dalibor; Rakocevic, Zoran; Jovicic, Gordana; Filipovic, Nenad; Djuric, Marija


    Understanding of the occlusal load distribution through the mid-facial skeleton in natural dentition is essential because alterations in magnitude and/or direction of occlusal forces may cause remarkable changes in cortical and trabecular bone structure. Previous analyses by strain gauge technique, photoelastic and, more recently, finite element (FE) methods provided no direct evidence for occlusal load distribution through the cortical and trabecular bone compartments individually. Therefore, we developed an improved three-dimensional FE model of the human skull in order to clarify the distribution of occlusal forces through the cortical and trabecular bone during habitual masticatory activities. Particular focus was placed on the load transfer through the anterior and posterior maxilla. The results were presented in von Mises stress (VMS) and the maximum principal stress, and compared to the reported FE and strain gauge data. Our qualitative stress analysis indicates that occlusal forces distribute through the mid-facial skeleton along five vertical and two horizontal buttresses. We demonstrated that cortical bone has a priority in the transfer of occlusal load in the anterior maxilla, whereas both cortical and trabecular bone in the posterior maxilla are equally involved in performing this task. Observed site dependence of the occlusal load distribution may help clinicians in creating strategies for implantology and orthodontic treatments. Additionally, the magnitude of VMS in our model was significantly lower in comparison to previous FE models composed only of cortical bone. This finding suggests that both cortical and trabecular bone should be modeled whenever stress will be quantitatively analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutron Absorption Measurements Constrain Eucrite-Diogenite Mixing in Vesta's Regolith (United States)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Feldman, W. C.; Hendricks, J. S.; Lawrence, D. J.; Peplowski, P. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Yamashita, N.; Beck, A.; LeCorre, L.; hide


    The NASA Dawn Mission s Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1] acquired mapping data during 5 months in a polar, low altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) with approx.460-km mean radius around main-belt asteroid Vesta (264-km mean radius) [2]. Neutrons and gamma rays are produced by galactic cosmic ray interactions and by the decay of natural radioelements (K, Th, U), providing information about the elemental composition of Vesta s regolith to depths of a few decimeters beneath the surface. From the data acquired in LAMO, maps of vestan neutron and gamma ray signatures were determined with a spatial resolution of approx.300 km full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM), comparable in scale to the Rheasilvia impact basin (approx.500 km diameter). The data from Vesta encounter are available from the NASA Planetary Data System. Based on an analysis of gamma-ray spectra, Vesta s global-average regolith composition was found to be consistent with the Howardite, Eucrite, and Diogenite (HED) meteorites, reinforcing the HED-Vesta connection [2-7]. Further, an analysis of epithermal neutrons revealed variations in the abundance of hydrogen on Vesta s surface, reaching values up to 400 micro-g/g [2]. The association of high concentrations of hydrogen with equatorial, low-albedo surface regions indicated exogenic delivery of hydrogen by the infall of carbonaceous chondrite (CC) materials. This finding was buttressed by the presence of minimally-altered CC clasts in howardites, with inferred bulk hydrogen abundances similar to that found by GRaND, and by studies using data from Dawn s Framing Camera (FC) and VIR instruments [8-10]. In addition, from an analysis of neutron absorption, spatial-variations in the abundance of elements other than hydrogen were detected [2].

  14. The genetic basis of addictive disorders. (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David


    Addictions are common, chronic, and relapsing diseases that develop through a multistep process. The impact of addictions on morbidity and mortality is high worldwide. Twin studies have shown that the heritability of addictions ranges from 0.39 (hallucinogens) to 0.72 (cocaine). Twin studies indicate that genes influence each stage from initiation to addiction, although the genetic determinants may differ. Addictions are by definition the result of gene × environment interaction. These disorders, which are in part volitional, in part inborn, and in part determined by environmental experience, pose the full range of medical, genetic, policy, and moral challenges. Gene discovery is being facilitated by a variety of powerful approaches, but is in its infancy. It is not surprising that the genes discovered so far act in a variety of ways: via altered metabolism of drug (the alcohol and nicotine metabolic gene variants), via altered function of a drug receptor (the nicotinic receptor, which may alter affinity for nicotine but as discussed may also alter circuitry of reward), and via general mechanisms of addiction (genes such as monoamine oxidase A and the serotonin transporter that modulate stress response, emotion, and behavioral control). Addiction medicine today benefits from genetic studies that buttress the case for a neurobiologic origin of addictive behavior, and some general information on familially transmitted propensity that can be used to guide prevention. A few well-validated, specific predictors such as OPRM1, ADH1B, ALDH2, CHRNA5, and CYP26 have been identified and can provide some specific guidance, for example, to understand alcohol-related flushing and upper GI cancer risk (ADH1B and AKLDH2), variation in nicotine metabolism (CYP26), and, potentially, naltrexone treatment response (OPRM1). However, the genetic predictors available are few in number and account for only a small portion of the genetic variance in liability, and have not been integrated

  15. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative pressure transmission ratio and urethral pressure profilometry in patients with successful outcome following the vaginal wall patch sling technique. (United States)

    Mikhail, Magdy S; Rosa, Hector; Palan, Prabhudas; Anderson, Patrick


    We studied preoperative and postoperative pressure transmission ratio (PTR) and urethral pressure profilometry in patients undergoing the vaginal wall patch sling technique as a first surgical approach for genuine stress incontinence (GSI) with urethral hypermobility. The specific aims were to determine the exact urodynamic parameters, if any, that may be improved postoperatively and to report the urodynamic outcome of the vaginal wall patch sling technique in successful cases. Preoperatively, all patients had a positive standing stress test, urethral hypermobility on Q-tip testing, and normal postvoid residual volume. On urodynamics, all patients had equalization of maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) on cough profilometry, and absence of detrusor contractions on subtracted cystometry. The PTR for each cough was calculated. Cough spikes were assigned locations in the first, second, third, or fourth quartile of the functional urethral length (FUL). Urethral pressure profilometry was performed at bladder capacity in the sitting position. All urodynamic tests were repeated 3-6 months postoperatively. A two-tailed t-test was used for statistical analysis. Forty-eight patients demonstrated successful outcome at initial follow up and constituted the study population. There was a statistically significant increase in MUCP at stress as well as a statistical increase in PTR in the first, second, and third quartiles of the FUL postoperatively. The vaginal patch sling technique appears to restore continence both by buttressing the urethra at times of stress as well as repositioning the proximal urethra into the intra-abdominal pressure zone, thus, enhancing pressure transmission to the proximal urethra.

  16. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis. (United States)

    O'Mahony, S M; Clarke, G; Borre, Y E; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F


    The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin functions as a key neurotransmitter at both terminals of this network. Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the gut microbiome in regulating normal functioning of this axis. In particular, it is becoming clear that the microbial influence on tryptophan metabolism and the serotonergic system may be an important node in such regulation. There is also substantial overlap between behaviours influenced by the gut microbiota and those which rely on intact serotonergic neurotransmission. The developing serotonergic system may be vulnerable to differential microbial colonisation patterns prior to the emergence of a stable adult-like gut microbiota. At the other extreme of life, the decreased diversity and stability of the gut microbiota may dictate serotonin-related health problems in the elderly. The mechanisms underpinning this crosstalk require further elaboration but may be related to the ability of the gut microbiota to control host tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway, thereby simultaneously reducing the fraction available for serotonin synthesis and increasing the production of neuroactive metabolites. The enzymes of this pathway are immune and stress-responsive, both systems which buttress the brain-gut axis. In addition, there are neural processes in the gastrointestinal tract which can be influenced by local alterations in serotonin concentrations with subsequent relay of signals along the scaffolding of the brain-gut axis to influence CNS neurotransmission. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota might be a viable treatment strategy for serotonin-related brain-gut axis disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Confucian Ideology in the Construction of the National State in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Visočnik


    Full Text Available The very ideas of searching for an identity of people living in Japan entails a process of having them explaining themselves and their country. Many new concepts were constructed within this process, and research into ethnogenesis on Japanese islands was under the great influence of nationalist discourses in Japanese culture, thus triggering a number of diverse assumptions which are still present today. The process of constructing identities, especially Japanese national identity, was intense during the Meiji period (1868–1912, i.e. when Japan opened up to the world and tried to form a national state under external influence. The politicians of this period adopted the sense of a national belongingness that was to function as the foundation stone for the modern national state. They formed the idea of a family state (kazoku kokka, 家族国 家 which contained traditional familism buttressed by Confucian ethics; however, it is still somehow different than the Japanese interpretation of the group. Familism, which included the extended family system, was expanded to cover the entire nation in a way that included the imperial family as the main family of all Japanese families. This paper thus tries to answer the question of how Confucianism was integrated within the Japanese context of the modernizing nation-states of the late nineteenth century and how it came to define one of the major or even the dominant layer of early-modern and modern worldviews. In doing so, the paper also critically questions the concept used in these processes and also looks into the way these concepts were constructed and were changing in accordance with social changes.

  18. The results of high tibial open wedge osteotomy in patients with varus deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Jabalameli


    Full Text Available Background: High tibial open wedg osteotomy is one of the most important modality for treatment of varus deformity in order to correct deformity and improving signs and symptoms of patients with primary degenerative osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of high tibial open wedge osteotomy in patients with varus deformities.Methods: This retrospective study conducted on twenty nine patients (36 knees undergone proximal tibial osteotomy operation in Shafa Yahyaian University Hospital from 2004 to 2010. Inclusion criteria were: age less than 60 years, high physical activity, varus deformity and involvement of medical compartment of knee. Patients with obesity, smoking, patelofemoral pain, lateral compartment lesion, deformity degree more than 20 degree, extension limitation and range of motion less than 90 degree were excluded. The clinical and radiologic characteristics were measured before and after operation.Results: Fourteen patients were females. All of them were younger than 50 years, with mean (±SD 27.64 (±10.88. The mean (±SD of follow up time was 4.33 (±1.7. All the patients were satisfied with the results of operation. Tenderness and pain decreased in all of them. In all patients autologus bone graft were used, in 15 cases (42.5% casting and in the rest T.Buttress plate were used for fixation of fractures. In both groups of primary and double varus the International knee documentation committee (IKDC and modified Larson indices were improved after operation, but there was no significant difference between two groups.Conclusion: High tibial open wedge osteotomy can have satisfying results in clinical signs and symptoms of patients with primary medial joint degenerative osteoarthritis. This procedure also may correct the deformity and improves the radiologic parameters of the patients.

  19. False Blister Beetles and the Expansion of Gymnosperm-Insect Pollination Modes before Angiosperm Dominance. (United States)

    Peris, David; Pérez-de la Fuente, Ricardo; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier; Barrón, Eduardo; Labandeira, Conrad C


    During the mid-Cretaceous, angiosperms diversified from several nondiverse lineages to their current global domination [1], replacing earlier gymnosperm lineages [2]. Several hypotheses explain this extensive radiation [3], one of which involves proliferation of insect pollinator associations in the transition from gymnosperm to angiosperm dominance. However, most evidence supports gymnosperm-insect pollinator associations, buttressed by direct evidence of pollen on insect bodies, currently established for four groups: Thysanoptera (thrips), Neuroptera (lacewings), Diptera (flies), and now Coleoptera (beetles). Each group represents a distinctive pollination mode linked to a unique mouthpart type and feeding guild [4-9]. Extensive indirect evidence, based on specialized head and mouthpart morphology, is present for one of these pollinator types, the long-proboscid pollination mode [10], representing minimally ten family-level lineages of Neuroptera, Mecoptera (scorpionflies), and Diptera [8, 10, 11]. A recurring feature uniting these pollinator modes is host associations with ginkgoalean, cycad, conifer, and bennettitalean gymnosperms. Pollinator lineages bearing these pollination modes were categorized into four evolutionary cohorts during the 35-million-year-long angiosperm radiation, each defined by its host-plant associations (gymnosperm or angiosperm) and evolutionary pattern (extinction, continuation, or origination) during this interval [12]. Here, we provide the first direct evidence for one cohort, exemplified by the beetle Darwinylus marcosi, family Oedemeridae (false blister beetles), that had an earlier gymnosperm (most likely cycad) host association, later transitioning onto angiosperms [13]. This association constitutes one of four patterns explaining the plateau of family-level plant lineages generally and pollinating insects specifically during the mid-Cretaceous angiosperm radiation [12]. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Cohesive Properties of the Caulobacter crescentus Holdfast Adhesin Are Regulated by a Novel c-di-GMP Effector Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin S. Sprecher


    Full Text Available When encountering surfaces, many bacteria produce adhesins to facilitate their initial attachment and to irreversibly glue themselves to the solid substrate. A central molecule regulating the processes of this motile-sessile transition is the second messenger c-di-GMP, which stimulates the production of a variety of exopolysaccharide adhesins in different bacterial model organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown. Here we identify HfsK, a member of a versatile N-acetyltransferase family, as a novel c-di-GMP effector involved in holdfast biogenesis. Cells lacking HfsK form highly malleable holdfast structures with reduced adhesive strength that cannot support surface colonization. We present indirect evidence that HfsK modifies the polysaccharide component of holdfast to buttress its cohesive properties. HfsK is a soluble protein but associates with the cell membrane during most of the cell cycle. Coincident with peak c-di-GMP levels during the C. crescentus cell cycle, HfsK relocalizes to the cytosol in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. Our results indicate that this c-di-GMP-mediated dynamic positioning controls HfsK activity, leading to its inactivation at high c-di-GMP levels. A short C-terminal extension is essential for the membrane association, c-di-GMP binding, and activity of HfsK. We propose a model in which c-di-GMP binding leads to the dispersal and inactivation of HfsK as part of holdfast biogenesis progression.

  1. Stepwise Percutaneous Leverage Technique to Avoid Posterior Interosseous Nerve Injury in Pediatric Radial Neck Fracture. (United States)

    Choi, Wan-Sun; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Lee, Ga-Eun; Kweon, Heon-Ju; Cho, Jae-Ho


    To introduce a stepwise percutaneous leverage technique to avoid posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) injury in pediatric patients with radial neck fractures and to evaluate the clinical outcome and the predisposing factors affecting the outcome. Retrospective case series study. University level 1 trauma center. Thirty-four children with a radial neck fracture, who were treated using a stepwise percutaneous leverage technique, were included in the study. The radial head fragment was reduced by pulling the first Steinmann pin proximally as a lever. Then, the kinked soft tissue was released by removal of the Steinmann pin with buttressing the radial head by the operator's thumb. The second Steinmann pin was inserted into relaxed soft tissue for fixation of the radial head. We used the Métaizeau classification as a radiologic result and Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) as a clinical outcome. Regression analysis was performed to identify the predisposing factors affecting the outcome. There was no occurrence of PIN palsy. According to the Métaizeau classification, 23 cases were classified as excellent, 9 as good, 1 as fair, and 1 as poor. The average MEPS was 97.6 points. Based on the regression analysis, only the postoperative Métaizeau classification was confirmed as a risk factor of a relatively poor outcome. The stepwise percutaneous leverage technique can be considered a good option in the treatment of pediatric radial neck fractures, because it ensures excellent results by avoiding injury to soft tissues including the PIN. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Communities, Boundaries and New Neighbours: the Discursive Construction of EU Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta Caliendo


    Full Text Available The institutional discourse of the European Union (EU is undergoing important changes that are also reflected by new initiatives in its communication policy. Against a background of widespread scepticism towards EU enlargement among the public, this change is driven by the need to promote the widening of its borders in a more effective way in order to prompt popular endorsement. Through the use of its textual and visual communicative strategies, the EU is thus finding new ways to buttress its legitimacy and raise consensus around its political actions. The node of interaction between citizens and institutions is represented by the informative publications of the EU (also made available on the europa website, which become a constitutive element in building Union-to-citizen communication. The analysis of textual and visual formulations of the European Commission’s key booklets on EU enlargement in the period from 2004 to 2007 - in terms of their content and pragmatic aims - reveals the emergence of new consensus-building strategies. Results show that a sense of allegiance and belonging attributed to a deepening of European integration is now increasingly linked to the practical advantages of EU enlargement, as expressed through the use of ‘promotional’ and strategic discursive practices. Moving away from a merely informative content, communication modes ‘migrate’ towards a more direct and ‘commodified’ type of message, while an increase in visual elements plays a complementing role in promoting legitimacy and a feeling of mutual belonging between ‘old’ and ‘new’ members of the European family.

  3. On the Basic Principles of Igneous Petrology (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.


    How and why Differentiation occurs has dominated Igneous Petrology since its beginning (~1880) even though many of the problems associated with it have been thoroughly solved. Rediscovery of the proverbial wheel with new techniques impedes progress. As soon as thin section petrography was combined with rock and mineral chemistry, rock diversity, compositional suites, and petrographic provinces all became obvious. The masterful 1902 CIPW norm in a real sense solved the chemical mystery of differentiation: rocks are related by the addition and subtraction of minerals in the anciently appreciated process of fractional crystallization. Yet few believed this, even after phase equilibria arrived. Assimilation, gas transfer, magma mixing, Soret diffusion, immiscibility, and other processes had strong adherents, even though by 1897 Becker conclusively showed the ineffectiveness of molecular diffusion in large-scale processes. The enormity of heat to molecular diffusion (today's Lewis no.) should have been convincing; but few paid attention. Bowen did, and he refined and restated the result; few still paid attention. And in spite of his truly masterful command of experiment and field relations in promoting fractional crystallization, Fenner and others fought him with odd arguments. The beauty of phase equilibria eventually dominated at the expense of knowing the physical side of differentiation. Bowen himself saw and struggled with the connection between physical and chemical processes. Progress has come from new concepts in heat transfer, kinetics, and slurry dynamics. The key approach is understanding the dynamic competition between spatial rates of solidification and all other processes. The lesson is clear: Scholarship and combined field, laboratory and technical expertise are critical to understanding magmatic processes. Magma is a limitlessly enchanting and challenging material wherein physical processes buttressed by chemistry govern.

  4. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)


    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  5. Outcomes and stability in patients with anterior open bite and long anterior face height treated with temporary anchorage devices and a maxillary intrusion splint (United States)

    Scheffler, Nicole R.; Proffit, William R.; Phillips, Ceib


    Introduction Temporary skeletal anchorage devices now offer the possibility of closing anterior open bites and decreasing anterior face height by intruding maxillary posterior teeth, but data for treatment outcomes are lacking. This article presents outcomes and posttreatment changes for consecutive patients treated with a standardized technique. Methods The sample included 33 consecutive patients who had intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth with a maxillary occlusal splint and nickel-titanium coil springs to temporary anchorage devices in the zygomatic buttress area, buccal and apical to the maxillary molars. Of this group, 30 had adequate cephalograms available for the period of treatment, 27 had cephalograms including 1-year posttreatment, and 25 had cephalograms from 2 years or longer. Results During splint therapy, the mean molar intrusion was 2.3 mm. The mean decrease in anterior face height was 1.6 mm, less than expected because of a 0.6-mm mean eruption of the mandibular molars. During the postintrusion orthodontics, the mean change in maxillary molar position was a 0.2-mm extrusion, and there was a mean 0.5-mm increase in face height. Positive overbite was maintained in all patients, with a slight elongation (Intrusion of the maxillary posterior teeth can give satisfactory correction of moderately severe anterior open bites, but 0.5 to 1.5 mm of reeruption of these teeth is likely to occur. Controlling the vertical position of the mandibular molars so that they do not erupt as the maxillary teeth are intruded is important in obtaining a decrease in face height. PMID:25439210

  6. Molar Intrusion in Open-bite Adults Using Zygomatic Miniplates. (United States)

    Marzouk, Eiman S; Abdallah, Essam Mohamed; El-Kenany, Walid A


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes that arise after intrusion of the maxillary molars using zygomatic miniplates in adult skeletal anterior open bite patients. In addition to measuring the amount and rate of molar intrusion; with special emphasis on changes in the axial inclination of the intruded molars. The study group was composed of 13 anterior open bite patients (mean age 18 years, 8 months ± 2 years, 2 months) with posterior dentoalveolar excess. Mini-plates were placed in the zygomatic buttress bilaterally. The upper arch was segmentally leveled and a double Trans-Palatal Arch (TPA) was bonded. Closed NiTi coil spring was placed bilaterally between the book of the mini-plate just mesial and distal to the first molar buccal tube applying intrusive force of 450 gper side. Lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms were taken before intrusion (T1: post upper segmental leveling) and after intrusion (T2). Comparison between means before and after the intrusion was done using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test (WSRT). Mandibular autorotation followed the molar intrusion, SNB and SN-Pog angles significantly increased while the ANB, MP-SN angle and N-S-Gn angle significantly decreased. The mean amount of accomplished molar intrusion was 3.1mm ± 0.74mm, with a rate of 0.36mm per month ± 0.08mm per month and a bite closure of 6.55mm ± 1.83mm. There was no significant buccal tip in the right and left molars upon intrusion. Conclusion: Miniplates zygomatic anchorage can be used effectively for skeletal open bite correction through posterior dento-alveolar intrusion. Intrusion of the posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage induced counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and, as a consequence, corrected the anteroposterior intermaxillary relationship with a dramatic improvement in the facial soft tissue convexity.

  7. Allometric equations for estimating belowground biomass ofAndrostachys johnsoniiPrain. (United States)

    Magalhães, Tarquinio Mateus


    The belowground component of the trees is still poorly known because it needs labour- and time-intensive in situ measurements. However, belowground biomass (BGB) constitutes a significant share of the total forest biomass. I analysed the BGB allocation patterns, fitted models for estimating root components and root system biomasses, and called attention for its possible use in predicting anchoring functions of the different root components. More than half and almost one third of BGB is allocated to the lateral roots and to the root collar, respectively. More than 80% of the BGB is found at a depth range of 9.6-61.2 cm. As the tree size increased, the proportion of BGB allocated to taproots decreased and that allocated to lateral roots increased. All independent models performed almost equally, with the predictors explaining, on average, 98% of the variation in the BGB. It was hypothesised that BGB allocation patterns are a response of the anchoring functions of the tap and lateral roots and therefore, root component biomass models can be used as a methodology to predict anchoring functions of the different root components. Based on the fact that all models performed almost equally, the models using either diameter at breast height (DBH) exclusively as a predictor should be preferred, as tree height is difficult to measure. Models using the root collar diameter (RCD) only should be preferred when the tree is found cut down, as sometimes the RCD is affected by root buttress. Given the large sample size, the validation results, and the coverage of a wide geographical, soil and climatic range, the models fitted can be applied in all A. johnsonii stands in Mozambique.

  8. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Flow Reduction with Adjustable Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Balloon-Expandable Stents Using the “Sheath Control” Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Robert C., E-mail:; Lo, Grace C.; Kim, Edward; Patel, Rahul S.; Scott Nowakowski, F.; Lookstein, Robert A.; Fischman, Aaron M. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Interventional Radiology Section, Department of Radiology (United States)


    PurposeA complication of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) placement is refractory portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE) often requiring TIPS reduction. We report the results of a “sheath control technique” utilizing constraining sheaths during deployment of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered balloon-expandable stents, minimizing stent migration, and providing additional procedural control.MethodsTIPS reduction was performed in 10 consecutive patients for PSE using Atrium iCast covered stents (Atrium Maquet Getinge Group, Germany). Within the indwelling TIPS stent, a 9 mm × 59 mm iCast stent was deployed with 2 cm exposed from the sheath’s distal end and the majority of the stent within the sheath to create the distal hourglass shape. During balloon retraction, the stent was buttressed by the sheath. The proximal portion of the stent was angioplastied to complete the hourglass configuration, and the central portion of the stent was dilated to 5 mm. Demographics, pre- and post-procedure laboratory values, and outcomes were recorded.ResultsTen patients underwent TIPS reduction with 100 % technical success. There was no stent migration during stent deployment. All patients experienced initial improvement of encephalopathy. One patient ultimately required complete TIPS occlusion for refractory PSE, and another developed TIPS occlusion 36 days post-procedure. There was no significant trend toward change in patients’ MELD scores immediately post-procedure or at 30 days (p = 0.46, p = 0.47, respectively).ConclusionTIPS reduction using Atrium iCast PTFE balloon-expandable stents using the “sheath control technique” is safe and effective, and minimizes the risk of stent migration.

  9. Use of local pro-coagulant haemostatic agents for intra-cavity control of haemorrhage after trauma. (United States)

    Navarro, A; Brooks, A


    Uncontrolled haemorrhage as a result of trauma remains a significant surgical challenge, accounting for approximately 25-40% of trauma-related mortality. A wide range of local internal haemostatic agents have been developed to help achieve intra-cavity control of bleeding, with choice of agent influenced by the circumstances and nature of the haemorrhage. Trauma patients are frequently coagulopathic, so products that incorporate pro-coagulant technology and thereby act independently of the clotting cascade may be more effective in these settings. A range of products that utilise thrombin and fibrinogen to promote local haemostasis at intra-cavity bleeding points are available or in development, including fibrin glues (e.g. Tisseel®/Tissucol® and Evicel®/Crosseal®/Quixil®), fibrin sealant patches (e.g. TachoSil®) and products based on a gelatin-thrombin haemostatic matrix (e.g. FloSeal®). This systematic review was performed to assess all peer-reviewed evidence of product efficacy. Fibrin sealant patches have shown haemostatic efficacy in a variety of surgical procedures and appear to offer practical advantages over liquid fibrin glues. Existing evidence suggests that patch products enable delivery of pro-coagulants to defined areas with less chance of dilution and/or displacement by blood flow, but they require a pressure buttress for a suitable amount of time to achieve good results after trauma. Our experience, supported by other reports in the literature, suggests the use of such fibrin patches may provide an effective option in helping to control haemorrhage after trauma. However, there is a general paucity of clinical data for intra-cavity haemostatic agent use, with the majority of data being based on animal models and case reports. Further clinical evidence, ideally including comparative studies between different agents, would be beneficial in helping guide surgeon choice to the most appropriate products to use in trauma settings.

  10. How safe is bisphenol A? Fundamentals of toxicity: metabolism, electron transfer and oxidative stress. (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter


    The FDA recently announced concern about the safety of bisphenol A (BPA) and the need for more research. In the current controversy, scant attention is being paid to toxicity at the fundamental, molecular level, which is the topic of this report. Important information is provided by extensive studies on metabolism. The principal pathway is detoxification, mainly by conjugation leading to a glucuronide. A minor route entails oxidation by hydroxylation to a catechol followed by further transformation to an o-quinone. The catechol-o-quinone couple is capable of redox cycling with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS). o-Quinones are highly electron affinic with very favorable reduction potentials that permit electron transfer (ET) under physiological conditions. Only small amounts are sufficient to generate large quantities of ROS catalytically. There is extensive evidence for production of ROS, which buttresses ET by o-quinone as a plausible source. In addition, there are numerous reports on toxicity to body constituents by BPA. Those adversely affected include the liver, DNA, genes, CNS, reproductive system and kidney. Since a plethora of prior studies links ROS-OS with toxicity, it is reasonable to propose a similar connection for BPA. Cell signaling also plays a role. There are various other factors involved with toxic responses, including age, with the fetus and infants being the most vulnerable. A report concludes that human exposure to BPA is not negligible. The present overview represents a novel, integrated approach to BPA toxicity. A similar article was recently published in this journal which deals with toxicity of prevalent phthalate plasticizers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sustained eruptions on Enceladus explained by turbulent dissipation in tiger stripes (United States)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Rubin, Allan M.


    Spacecraft observations suggest that the plumes of Saturn’s moon Enceladus draw water from a subsurface ocean, but the sustainability of conduits linking ocean and surface is not understood. Observations show eruptions from “tiger stripe” fissures that are sustained (although tidally modulated) throughout each orbit, and since the 2005 discovery of the plumes. Peak plume flux lags peak tidal extension by ˜1 rad, suggestive of resonance. Here, we show that a model of the tiger stripes as tidally flexed slots that puncture the ice shell can simultaneously explain the persistence of the eruptions through the tidal cycle, the phase lag, and the total power output of the tiger stripe terrain, while suggesting that eruptions are maintained over geological timescales. The delay associated with flushing and refilling of O(1)-m-wide slots with ocean water causes erupted flux to lag tidal forcing and helps to buttress slots against closure, while tidally pumped in-slot flow leads to heating and mechanical disruption that staves off slot freezeout. Much narrower and much wider slots cannot be sustained. In the presence of long-lived slots, the 106-y average power output of the tiger stripes is buffered by a feedback between ice melt-back and subsidence to O(1010) W, which is similar to observed power output, suggesting long-term stability. Turbulent dissipation makes testable predictions for the final flybys of Enceladus by Cassini. Our model shows how open connections to an ocean can be reconciled with, and sustain, long-lived eruptions. Turbulent dissipation in long-lived slots helps maintain the ocean against freezing, maintains access by future Enceladus missions to ocean materials, and is plausibly the major energy source for tiger stripe activity.

  12. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) alleviates arsenic-induced damages to DNA and intestinal tissues in rat and in situ intestinal loop by reinforcing antioxidant system. (United States)

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Sajed Ali, Sk; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit


    This study elucidates the protective role of Green tea (Camellia sinensis or CS) against arsenic-induced mutagenic DNA-breakage/intestinal (small) damages in female rats. Intestinal epithelial cells receive ingested arsenic initially. Though, the possibility of damages in this tissue is immense and the therapeutic strategies against this damage are of great concern, reports on either issue are scanty. Our earlier study on arsenic-exposed human unveils a link between carcinogenesis and mutagenic DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that supplementation of CS-extract (10 mg/mL water) with NaAsO2 (0.6 ppm)/100 g b.w. for 28 days to rats offered a significant protection against arsenic-induced oxidative damages to DNA and intestinal (small) tissues by buttressing antioxidant systems. Necrotic and apoptotic damages and their CS-protection are shown in DNA-fragmentation, comet-assay, and histoarchitecture (hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-schiff staining) results. Only arsenic exposure significantly decreased intestinal superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and level of soluble thiol with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde/conjugated dienes. Alteration of serum necrotic marker lactate dehydrogenase and the metabolic inflammatory marker c-reactive protein also indicate the impairment may be occurring at transcription and/or cellular signal transduction level. In addition, in situ incubation in rat intestinal loop filled for 24 h with NaAsO2 alone (250 µM) or with aqueous CS-extract (250 mg/mL) suggests that small intestinal epithelial cells are significantly protected by CS against arsenic-associated necrotic/mutagenic damages, which is observed in DNA-breakage studies. In conclusion, besides intensifying endogenous antioxidant system, CS polyphenols also offer a direct role on free radical scavenging activity that is associated to the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakages and prevention of tissue necrosis/carcinogenesis generated by arsenic. © 2014

  13. [Sequential reduction and fixation for zygomatic complex fractures]. (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Liu, Chunming; Hua, Wenmei; Liu, Weidong; Wang, Xiguang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Zhanle; Li, Meifang; Duan, Hainan


    To explore the procedure and effectiveness of sequential reduction and fixation for zygomatic complex fractures. Between March 2004 and February 2012, 32 patients with zygomatic complex fractures were treated. There were 28 males and 4 females with a median age of 29 years (range, 17-55 years). Fractures were caused by traffic accident in 29 cases and by tumble in 3 cases. The time between injury and admission was 1-12 days (mean, 3 days) in 28 fresh fractures and 22-60 days (mean, 40 days) in 4 old fractures. All patients were diagnosed by clinical symptom and CT scan. Coronal scalp incision, lower eyelid aesthetic incision, and intraoral incision were used to expose the zygomatic bone segments. The sequence of fractures reduction and fixation was horizontal first, and then longitudinal. In horizontal orientation, reduction and simultaneous fixation started from the root of the zygoma, to zygomatic arch, body of the zygoma, and inferior orbital rim in turn. Longitudinally, fracture reduction of zygomatico-frontal suture and orbital posterolateral walls was done first, followed by fracture reduction of zygomaticomaxillary buttress. Primary healing of incision was obtained in all 32 cases, without complications of maxillary sinus fistula and infection. Eighteen patients were followed up 6 months to 6 years with a median time of 32 months. All the patients gained satisfactory results with normal zygomatic contour and symmetric midface. All patients restored normal mouth opening. No eye and vision damage occurred. Frontal disappearance and brow ptosis were observed in 2 cases. Hair loss (2-3 mm) was seen at the site of coronal scalp incision, without scar hyperplasia; there was no obvious scar at lower eyelid. CT and X-ray films showed bony healing at 6 months after operation. Sequential reduction and fixation is accord with the mechanical characters of complicated zygomatic fractures. It is very easy to achieve anatomic reduction of the bone segments and facial

  14. Zygomatic Root Position in Recent and Fossil Hominids. (United States)

    Weber, Gerhard W; Krenn, Viktoria A


    The relative position of the zygomatic root to the dentition plays a crucial role in determining the overall strength of the face in response to bite forces. The powerful superficial head of the masseter arises there and the zygomaticoalveolar crest (ZAC) is discussed as a buttressing feature of the face. For instance, a more forwardly or backwardly positioned zygomatic root or a lower or higher vertical distance to the dentition could be indicative for evolutionary adaptations to particular loading regimes which are associated with diet. We therefore examined the morphology of the maxilla using state-of-the-art 3D Geometric Morphometric methods. The data set was reduced to a minimum of relevant measurements and includes five landmarks (pr, ol, zm, lingual and buccal midpoint of second molar alveoli) and three curves with semilandmarks along the lingual and buccal alveolar rim and the ZAC. Results show a stunning overlap in shape variation. We find no clear pattern of shape that would allow separating different hominid groups with confidence, except two extreme forms-Paranthropines and Neanderthals. We also find no clear trend over time. Australopithecines, Habilines, Erectines, and Middle Pleistocene Homo can be very similar to modern humans. Even great apes are within or not far from the central shape distribution of Homo, but they separate clearly from gracile and robust Australopithecines. We discuss the shape factors underlying our data. The geometry studied allows simple measurements and analyses and is thus potentially interesting for classification purposes of extreme forms. Anat Rec, 300:160-170, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Influence of physical exercise on traumatic brain injury deficits: scaffolding effect. (United States)

    Archer, Trevor


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be due to a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts normal brain function; it presents an ever-growing, serious public health problem that causes a considerable number of fatalities and cases of permanent disability annually. Physical exercise restores the healthy homeostatic regulation of stress, affect and the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Physical activity attenuates or reverses the performance deficits observed in neurocognitive tasks. It induces anti-apoptotic effects and buttresses blood-brain barrier intactness. Exercise offers a unique non-pharmacologic, non-invasive intervention that incorporates different regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance, or resistance. Exercise intervention protects against vascular risk factors that include hypertension, diabetes, cellular inflammation, and aortic rigidity. It induces direct changes in cerebrovasculature that produce beneficial changes in cerebral blood flow, angiogenesis and vascular disease improvement. The improvements induced by physical exercise regimes in brain plasticity and neurocognitive performance are evident both in healthy individuals and in those afflicted by TBI. The overlap and inter-relations between TBI effects on brain and cognition as related to physical exercise and cognition may provide lasting therapeutic benefits for recovery from TBI. It seems likely that some modification of the notion of scaffolding would postulate that physical exercise reinforces the adaptive processes of the brain that has undergone TBI thereby facilitating the development of existing networks, albeit possibly less efficient, that compensate for those lost through damage. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  16. Heinrich event 1: an example of dynamical ice-sheet reaction to oceanic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Álvarez-Solas


    Full Text Available Heinrich events, identified as enhanced ice-rafted detritus (IRD in North Atlantic deep sea sediments (Heinrich, 1988; Hemming, 2004 have classically been attributed to Laurentide ice-sheet (LIS instabilities (MacAyeal, 1993; Calov et al., 2002; Hulbe et al., 2004 and assumed to lead to important disruptions of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC and North Atlantic deep water (NADW formation. However, recent paleoclimate data have revealed that most of these events probably occurred after the AMOC had already slowed down or/and NADW largely collapsed, within about a thousand years (Hall et al., 2006; Hemming, 2004; Jonkers et al., 2010; Roche et al., 2004, implying that the initial AMOC reduction could not have been caused by the Heinrich events themselves.

    Here we propose an alternative driving mechanism, specifically for Heinrich event 1 (H1; 18 to 15 ka BP, by which North Atlantic ocean circulation changes are found to have strong impacts on LIS dynamics. By combining simulations with a coupled climate model and a three-dimensional ice sheet model, our study illustrates how reduced NADW and AMOC weakening lead to a subsurface warming in the Nordic and Labrador Seas resulting in rapid melting of the Hudson Strait and Labrador ice shelves. Lack of buttressing by the ice shelves implies a substantial ice-stream acceleration, enhanced ice-discharge and sea level rise, with peak values 500–1500 yr after the initial AMOC reduction. Our scenario modifies the previous paradigm of H1 by solving the paradox of its occurrence during a cold surface period, and highlights the importance of taking into account the effects of oceanic circulation on ice-sheets dynamics in order to elucidate the triggering mechanism of Heinrich events.

  17. Landscape response to rare flood events: a feedback cycle in channel-hillslope coupling (United States)

    Golly, Antonius; Turowski, Jens; Hovius, Niels; Badoux, Alexandre


    Fluvial channels and the surrounding landscapes are in a permanent feedback relation, exchanging mass and energy. Only rarely we get the opportunity to observe the processes at work and study the underlying cause and effect relations. This is especially difficult, since processes can be highly non-linear, and the response to a trigger may occur after a lag time such that their correspondence is not immediately obvious. In the Erlenbach, a mountain stream in the Swiss Prealps, we study the mechanistic relations between in-channel hydrology, channel morphology, external climatic forcing and the surrounding sediment sources to identify relevant controls of sediment input and their characteristic scales. Here, we present time-lapse observations of a suspended slow-moving landslide complex with a direct connection to the channel. The channel-hillslope system was in a stable system state for several months. Only after a flood event, in which a channel step was eroded at the base of the hillslope, the hillslope was destabilized through debuttressing. As a consequence, the landslide was reactivated and entered a sustained phase of integral motion. The response phase ended when the landslide material reached the channel and formed a new channel step, re-buttressing the hillslope. The observations reveal that, at least in the Erlenbach, sediment input from the hillslopes is not a uniform process controlled by precipitation only. Instead, a perturbation of the system in form of the erosion of an alluvial channel step was necessary to initiate the feedback cycle. The observation illustrates the importance of a thorough identification of the process mechanics to understand the sediment dynamics and the formation of landscapes on long time-scales.

  18. Livestock Production in the UK in the 21(st) Century: A Perfect Storm Averted? (United States)

    Wathes, Christopher M; Buller, Henry; Maggs, Heather; Campbell, Madeleine L


    There is a school of thought that future demand for meat and other farm animal products is unsustainable for several reasons, including greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants; standards of farm animal health and welfare, especially when farm animals are kept intensively; efficiency of conversion by livestock of solar energy into (human) food, particularly by pigs and poultry; water availability and usage for all types of agricultural production, including livestock; and human health and consumption of meat, eggs and milk. Demand for meat is forecast to rise as a result of global population growth and increasing affluence. These issues buttress an impending perfect storm of food shortages, scarce water and insufficient energy, which is likely to coincide with global population reaching about 9 billion people in 2030 (pace Beddington). This paper examines global demand for animal products, the narrative of 'sustainable intensification' and the implications of each for the future of farm animal welfare. In the UK, we suggest that, though non-ruminant farming may become unsustainable, ruminant agriculture will continue to prosper because cows, sheep and goats utilize grass and other herbage that cannot be consumed directly by humans, especially on land that is unsuitable for other purposes. However, the demand for meat and other livestock-based food is often for pork, eggs and chicken from grain-fed pigs and poultry. The consequences of such a perfect storm are beginning to be incorporated in long-term business planning by retailers and others. Nevertheless, marketing sustainable animal produce will require considerable innovation and flair in public and private policies if marketing messages are to be optimized and consumer behaviour modified.

  19. Sustained eruptions on Enceladus explained by turbulent dissipation in tiger stripes. (United States)

    Kite, Edwin S; Rubin, Allan M


    Spacecraft observations suggest that the plumes of Saturn's moon Enceladus draw water from a subsurface ocean, but the sustainability of conduits linking ocean and surface is not understood. Observations show eruptions from "tiger stripe" fissures that are sustained (although tidally modulated) throughout each orbit, and since the 2005 discovery of the plumes. Peak plume flux lags peak tidal extension by ∼1 rad, suggestive of resonance. Here, we show that a model of the tiger stripes as tidally flexed slots that puncture the ice shell can simultaneously explain the persistence of the eruptions through the tidal cycle, the phase lag, and the total power output of the tiger stripe terrain, while suggesting that eruptions are maintained over geological timescales. The delay associated with flushing and refilling of O(1)-m-wide slots with ocean water causes erupted flux to lag tidal forcing and helps to buttress slots against closure, while tidally pumped in-slot flow leads to heating and mechanical disruption that staves off slot freezeout. Much narrower and much wider slots cannot be sustained. In the presence of long-lived slots, the 10(6)-y average power output of the tiger stripes is buffered by a feedback between ice melt-back and subsidence to O(10(10)) W, which is similar to observed power output, suggesting long-term stability. Turbulent dissipation makes testable predictions for the final flybys of Enceladus by Cassini Our model shows how open connections to an ocean can be reconciled with, and sustain, long-lived eruptions. Turbulent dissipation in long-lived slots helps maintain the ocean against freezing, maintains access by future Enceladus missions to ocean materials, and is plausibly the major energy source for tiger stripe activity.

  20. A role for inherited metabolic deficits in persistent developmental stuttering (United States)

    Kang, Changsoo; Drayna, Dennis


    Stuttering is a common but poorly understood speech disorder. Consistent evidence for the involvement of genetic factors in stuttering has motivated studies aimed at identifying causative genetic variants that could shed light on the underlying molecular and cellular deficits in this disorder. Such studies have begun to identify causative genes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the gene discoveries to date, and to cover the subsequent functional studies that are beginning to provide insights into how these gene mutations might cause stuttering. Surprisingly, the first variant genes to be associated with stuttering are those encoding the lysosomal targeting system, GNPTAB, GNPTG, and NAGPA. Although mutations in NAGPA have not been associated with a disorder in humans, mutations in GNPTAB and GNPTG cause mucolipidosis types II and III, which are rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders, associated with pathology of bone, connective tissue, liver, spleen, and brain. Analysis of mutations in these genes has so far identified predominantly missense mutations in stuttering, in contrast to the truncating and other mutations that result in very low GNPTAB/G enzyme activity and are historically associated with mucolipidosis. Genetic evidence for the role of lysosomal targeting mutations in stuttering has now been buttressed by biochemical studies of the mutant enzymes found in this disorder. While data on the GlcNAc phosphotransferase encoded by GNPTAB/G remains limited and only suggestive, a study of the enzyme encoded by NAGPA has shown that the mutations found in stuttering reduce the overall cellular activity of this enzyme by about half, and that they result in deficits in intracellular processing and trafficking that lead to a reduced cellular half life. How these deficits result in the presumed speech-specific neuropathology associated with stuttering is not yet known. However these findings have opened several new lines of inquiry, including

  1. Instrumentalizing Szeklerland Autonomy Through Szekler Memory Sites and Rites in post-1989 Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Szedlacsek


    Full Text Available In post-communist Romania, Szekler political and intellectual elites have taken advantage of a long discursive tradition on Szekler autonomy, which developed throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries within the nationalizing states (Brubaker 1996 of Hungary and Romania. As part of the interwar ideology of Transylvanianism, a particular Szekler identity-construction mechanism was developed, buttressed by a rhetoric on geographical remoteness in relation to the centers of power of Budapest and Bucharest. More precisely, the Szekler-ization of geography was enabled by imagining and cultivating sites and rites of memory in the Szeklerland – from pilgrimages to the funerary monuments of Szekler cultural elites and the sanctifying of Hungarian and Szekler flags in public squares. Drawing on this context, my paper explores the post-1989 revival of Szekler commemoration narratives that have attempted to construct a Szekler life-world within Romania by linking memory to territory. Since minority rituals of memory, parallel to the official state ones, are no longer silenced in Szekler public spaces after the fall of communism, interwar realms of memory have been reframed and popularized. On the line suggested by Katherine Verdery in The Political Lives of Dead Bodies (1999, this analysis also looks at how funeral ceremonies shape the relationship between the Szekler community and “its” territory with the Romanian Other. In this respect, this study focuses on the attempt to rebury the Szekler pro-Nazi writer József Nyirő on Szekler (yet Romanian soil. Apart from triggering a huge diplomatic incident between Hungary and Romania in the summer of 2012, it also pinpoints the reformulation of Szekler identity discourse within the Romanian post-communist context. In short, I will address questions regarding the practices of memory production permitted in present, the aims of Szekler elites in popularizing such practices and the way  these aims

  2. Science education for empowerment and social change: a case study of a teacher educator in urban Pakistan (United States)

    Zahur, Rubina; Calabrese Barton, Angela; Upadhyay, Bhaskar Raj


    In this manuscript we focus on the question, 'What should be the purpose of science education for children of the very poor class in caste-oriented developing countries such as Pakistan?' In other words, in a country where the literacy rate hovers around 10 per cent for the poorest segment of society and where there is no expectation that children will complete primary school, of what importance is primary science education and to what end should it be offered in schools? We begin a conversation around this question by presenting, in this manuscript, a case study of one teacher educator whose beliefs and practices sharply deviate from the norm - she believes science education ought to be about empowering students to make physical and political changes in their community. In particular, using the rich, contextual interview and observational data generated through case study, we show how Haleema's (pseudonym) orientation to science teacher education are buttressed by three fundamental beliefs: that low levels of literacy and school achievement among poor children have as much to do with poor families' lack of power/influence on the purposes and processes of schooling as it has to do with opportunities and resources; that school science can begin to address inequalities in power by fostering a kind of scientific literacy among children that leads to individual and community empowerment around health and environmental issues, the very science-related issues that divide quality of life and opportunity for poor families; and that teacher education programmes can play a role in transforming a society's views about how science and scientific practices might play a role in bringing communities together to effect change for the better.

  3. The impossibility of "justice": female foeticide and feminist discourse on abortion. (United States)

    Menon, N


    This study considers the relationship of feminism with the language of rights and the law and argues that the reason why the law fails to be just is not because of sexist interpretations forwarded by biased functionaries. Instead, there is a fundamental contradiction between the law, which creates uniform categories from a multiplicity of identities and meanings, and rights, which are constituted by particular discourses and are not universal. After further examining criticisms of the discourse of human rights, the idea that rights are morally sanctioned, and the identification of abortion as a "right" in the US, the study turns to the issue of abortion within the feminist and legal discourse in India where the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act allows abortion as a population control measure rather than as a right and is not buttressed by safe and available abortion services. The feminist campaign against sex determination tests and selective abortion of female fetuses is then discussed, and the loopholes in the legislation in Maharashtra to curtail sex determination are described as inevitable in light of current government population policies which create political contradictions. Philosophical dilemmas also arise when abortion is considered a right which women who select to abort female fetuses must be denied. The limits to and precarious nature of the right to abortion in India are shown to be circumscribed by medical discretion and balanced on patriarchal assumptions. Thus, women of the South see abortion as one more way in which husbands who refuse to use contraception control the reproductive autonomy of their wives and in which governments achieve population goals. The discussion ends with a consideration of law and justice which notes that the law has as great a potential to subvert as to realize the feminist vision.

  4. Nonrandom spatial clustering of spontaneous anterior fossa cerebrospinal fluid fistulas and predilection for the posterior cribriform plate. (United States)

    Murray, Richard D; Friedlander, Rachel; Hanz, Samuel; Singh, Harminder; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H


    distributed in a nonrandom fashion. The most likely site of origin of the spontaneous CSF leaks of the anterior midline skull base is the cribriform plate, particularly the posterior third of the plate, likely because of the lack of significant thick bony buttressing. Clinicians searching for occult spontaneous leaks of the anterior skull base should examine the cribriform plate, especially the posterior third with particularly close scrutiny.

  5. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

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    S. Berger


    Full Text Available Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB, i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique – based on satellite observations – to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation. Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from −14.7 to 8.6 m a−1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a−1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks. However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite

  6. Structural and In Vivo Studies on Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase from Pathogenic Fungi Provide Insights into Its Catalytic Mechanism, Biological Necessity, and Potential for Novel Antifungal Drug Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yi; Tenor, Jennifer L.; Toffaletti, Dena L.; Maskarinec, Stacey A.; Liu, Jiuyu; Lee, Richard E.; Perfect, John R.; Brennan, Richard G.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.



    The disaccharide trehalose is critical to the survival of pathogenic fungi in their human host. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) catalyzes the first step of trehalose biosynthesis in fungi. Here, we report the first structures of eukaryotic Tps1s in complex with substrates or substrate analogues. The overall structures of Tps1 fromCandida albicansandAspergillus fumigatusare essentially identical and reveal N- and C-terminal Rossmann fold domains that form the glucose-6-phosphate and UDP-glucose substrate binding sites, respectively. These Tps1 structures with substrates or substrate analogues reveal key residues involved in recognition and catalysis. Disruption of these key residues severely impaired Tps1 enzymatic activity. Subsequent cellular analyses also highlight the enzymatic function of Tps1 in thermotolerance, yeast-hypha transition, and biofilm development. These results suggest that Tps1 enzymatic functionality is essential for the fungal stress response and virulence. Furthermore, structures of Tps1 in complex with the nonhydrolyzable inhibitor, validoxylamine A, visualize the transition state and support an internal return-like catalytic mechanism that is generalizable to other GT-B-fold retaining glycosyltransferases. Collectively, our results depict key Tps1-substrate interactions, unveil the enzymatic mechanism of these fungal proteins, and pave the way for high-throughput inhibitor screening buttressed and guided by the current structures and those of high-affinity ligand-Tps1 complexes.

    IMPORTANCEInvasive fungal diseases have emerged as major threats, resulting in more than 1.5 million deaths annually worldwide. This epidemic has been further complicated by increasing resistance to all major classes of antifungal drugs in the clinic. Trehalose biosynthesis is essential for the fungal stress response and virulence. Critically, this biosynthetic pathway is absent in

  7. FAUNA DE FLEBOTOMÍNEOS (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE EN ACANDÍ (CHOCÓ, COLOMBIA Fauna of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae in Acandí (Chocó, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available La región geográfica denominada Chocó-Darién-Caribe es uno de los ecosistemas de bosque húmedo tropical de gran diversidad, pero aún poco explorado. El presente estudio documenta algunas especies de flebotomíneos colectados en un área de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea. Se realizó un estudio entomológico en la reserva natural el Aguacate, municipio de Acandí, Chocó. La metodología incluyó el uso de trampas de luz CDC y búsqueda activa en raíces tabulares, colectando con aspiradores bucales. Se recolectaron 1.205 individuos, de los cuales sobresalen Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor y Lutzomyia hartmanni reconocidos como vectores potenciales de leishmaniasis cutánea en el nuevo mundo. Se relata el hallazgo de 16 especies del género Lutzomyia França y dos especies del género Brumptomyia Sherlock para la costa del Darién-Caribe colombiano, destacando la presencia de las especies Lutzomyia atroclavata (Knab y Brumptomyia mesai (Sherlock como nuevos registros para el departamento del Chocó. Este estudio aporta al conocimiento de la fauna de flebotomíneos del municipio de Acandí, Chocó.The geographic region called Chocó-Darién-Caribe is a tropical forest ecosystem considered of great diversity but still a poorly known region. The current study focuses on some phlebotominae species collected in a geographic area where it has been documented cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission. An entomological study was conducted at the Natural Reserve El Aguacate, in Acandí municipality, Chocó. Sampling methods included light traps such as CDC and collections of adult sand flies in resting sites such as tree buttresses using mouth aspirators devices. The collection findings comprise a total of 1205 phlebotominae adults, with some species of note such as Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor

  8. Teacher Research Programs: An Effective Form of Professional Development to Increase Student Achievement and Benefit the Economy (United States)

    Dubner, J.


    U.S. high school students perform markedly less well in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) than students in other economically advanced countries. This low level of STEM performance endangers our democracy and economy. The President's Council of Advisors in Science and Technology's 2004 report attributed the shortfall of students attracted to the sciences is a result of the dearth of teachers sufficiently conversant with science and scientists to enable them to communicate to their students the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery, and the opportunities science provides for highly rewarding and remunerative careers. Nonetheless, the United States has made little progress in correcting these deficiencies. Studies have shown that high-quality teaching matters more to student achievement than anything else schools do. This belief is buttressed by evidence from Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP) that highly motivated, in-service science teachers require professional development to enable them and their students to perform up to their potential. Columbia's Summer Research Program is based on the premise that to teach science effectively requires experience in using the tools of contemporary science to answer unsolved questions. From its inception, SRP's goal has been to enhance interest and improve performance in science of students. It seeks to achieve this goal by increasing the professional competence of teachers. The reports of Elmore, Sanders and Rivers, and our own studies, show that professional development is a "key lever for improving student outcomes." While most middle and high school science teachers have taken college science courses that include cookbook laboratory exercises, the vast majority of them have never attempted to answer an unsolved question. Just as student learning depends on the expertise of teachers, the expertise of teachers depends on the quality of their professional

  9. Trinidadian capitalism

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    Kevin A. Yelvington


    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and

  10. The Pink and White Terraces of Lake Rotomahana: what was their fate after the 1886 Tarawera Rift eruption? (United States)

    de Ronde, C. E. J.; Fornari, D. J.; Ferrini, V. L.; Walker, S. L.; Davy, B. W.; LeBlanc, C.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Kukulya, A. L.; Littlefield, R. H.


    The Pink and White Terraces that once stood regally on the shores of old Lake Rotomahana, and which were unique in their beauty as a natural wonder of the world, were regarded by the local Māori as a taonga, or treasure, because of the therapeutic qualities of the waters and their majestic appearance. The eruption of Mt. Tarawera on June 10, 1886 is commonly cited as the cause of their demise, with the lake rapidly rising soon thereafter to drown the large, newly formed Rotomahana crater and other volcanic edifices shaped during the excavation of the old lake. Thus, the effects of the eruption have been masked from onlookers for more than 125 years. However, application of state-of-the-art survey techniques usually applied in the marine realm to modern Lake Rotomahana, including AUV surveys with numerous sensors, seismic profiling, water column surveys and deployment of deep sea cameras, has provided a wealth of new information about the state of hydrothermal systems in the lake and the probable fortunes of the Pink and White Terraces. We believe that the majority of both sets of terraces were destroyed during the eruption. However, some tantalizing evidence remains for remnants from both sites to exist to this day. High-resolution bathymetric mapping of the lake floor clearly recognizes some features of the post-1886 landscape, including a prominent landmark known as The Pinnacle. If we accept the postulated location of The Pinnacle on a pre-1886 map of Lake Rotomahana, then we appear to have captured a photograph of one of the buttresses to a tier of the nearby White Terraces. More revealing, are side-scan sonar images of structures located in the correct position of the Pink Terraces with respect to The Pinnacle, albeit ~ 20 m deeper than expected if the pre-1886 lake level of 292 m above sea level is to be believed. This work clearly shows that the greater Pink Terraces hydrothermal system survived the eruption and is very active today, whereas that part of

  11. The West Beverly Hills Lineament and Beverly Hills High School: Ethical Issues in Geo-Hazard Communication (United States)

    Gath, Eldon; Gonzalez, Tania; Roe, Joe; Buchiarelli, Philip; Kenny, Miles


    Results of geotechnical studies for the Westside Subway were disclosed in a public hearing on Oct. 19, 2011, showing new "active faults" of the Santa Monica fault and the West Beverly Hills Lineament (WBHL), identified as a northern extension of the Newport-Inglewood fault. Presentations made spoke of the danger posed by these faults, the possibility of killing people, and how it was good news that these faults had been discovered now instead of later. The presentations were live and are now memorialized as YouTube videos, ( and others). No faults had been physically exposed or observed by the study; the faults were all interpreted from cone penetrometer probes, supplemented by core borings and geophysical transects. Several of the WBHL faults traversed buildings of the Beverly Hills High School (BHHS), triggering the school district to geologically map and characterize these faults for future planning efforts, and to quantify risk to the students in the 1920's high school building. 5 exploratory trenches were excavated within the high school property, 12 cone penetrometers were pushed, and 26-cored borings were drilled. Geologic logging of the trenches and borings and interpretation of the CPT data failed to confirm the presence of the mapped WBHL faults, instead showing an unfaulted, 3° NE dipping sequence of mid-Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits conformably overlying an ~1 Ma marine sand. Using 14C, OSL, and soil pedology for stratigraphic dating, the BHHS site was cleared from fault rupture hazards and the WBHL was shown to be an erosional margin of Benedict Canyon, partially buttressed by 40-200 ka alluvial deposits from Benedict Wash. The consequence of the Westside Subway's active fault maps has been the unexpected expenditure of millions of dollars for emergency fault investigations at BHHS and several other private properties within a densely developed urban highrise environment. None of these studies have found

  12. Quantum Locality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry


    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ (CQT) that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues, on the basis of his examination of certain arguments that claim to demonstrate the existence of such nonlocal influences, that such influences do not exist. However, his examination was restricted mainly to hidden-variable-based arguments that include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by attributing to the system properties alien to that system. Hence Griffiths’ rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his ‘consistent quantum theory’ shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive framework. This necessary existence, within the ‘consistent’ framework, of long range essentially instantaneous influences refutes the claim made by Griffiths that his ‘consistent’ framework is superior to the orthodox quantum theory of von Neumann because it does not entail instantaneous influences. An added section responds to Griffiths’ reply, which cites a litany of ambiguities that seem to restrict, devastatingly, the scope of his CQT formalism, apparently to buttress his claim that my use of that formalism to validate the nonlocality theorem is flawed. But the

  13. Selectively Bred Crossed High Alcohol Preferring Mice Drink To Intoxication And Develop Functional Tolerance, But Not Locomotor Sensitization During Free-Choice Ethanol Access (United States)

    Matson, Liana M.; Kasten, Chelsea R.; Boehm, Stephen L.; Grahame, Nicholas J.


    by increasing alcohol tolerance. In addition to buttressing the hypothesized importance of tolerance in drinking, our findings suggest that cHAP mice may be a unique, translational resource for studying tolerance as a contributor to and consequence of chronic, excessive ethanol consumption. PMID:23909817

  14. Complex Paleotopography and Faulting near the Elsinore Fault, Coyote Mountains, southern California (United States)

    Brenneman, M. J.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.


    The Coyote Mountains of southern California are bounded on the southwest by the Elsinore Fault, an active dextral fault within the San Andreas Fault zone. According to Axen and Fletcher (1998) and Dorsey and others (2011), rocks exposed in these mountains comprise a portion of the hanging wall of the east-vergent Salton Detachment Fault, which was active from the late Miocene-early Pliocene to Ca. 1.1-1.3 Ma. Detachment faulting was accompanied by subsidence, resulting in deposition of a thick sequence of marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks. Regional detachment faulting and subsidence ceased with the inception of the Elsinore Fault, which has induced uplift of the Coyote Mountains. Detailed geologic mapping in the central Coyote Mountains supports the above interpretation and adds some intriguing details. New discoveries include a buttress unconformity at the base of the Miocene/Pliocene section that locally cuts across strata at an angle so high that it could be misinterpreted as a fault. We thus conclude that the syn-extension strata were deposited on a surface with very rugged topography. We also discovered that locally-derived nonmarine gravel deposits exposed near the crest of the range, previously interpreted as part of the Miocene Split Mountain Group by Winker and Kidwell (1996), unconformably overlie units of the marine Miocene/Pliocene Imperial Group and must therefore be Pliocene or younger. The presence of such young gravel deposits on the crest of the range provides evidence for its rapid uplift. Additional new discoveries flesh out details of the structural history of the range. We mapped just two normal faults, both of which were relatively minor, thus supporting Axen and Fletcher's assertion that the hanging wall block of the Salton Detachment Fault had not undergone significant internal deformation during extension. We found abundant complex synthetic and antithetic strike-slip faults throughout the area, some of which offset Quaternary alluvial

  15. On thin ice/in hot water: Rapid drawdown of Wordie Ice Shelf glaciers in the decades after collapse in response to a changing ocean (United States)

    Walker, C. C.; Gardner, A. S.


    Over the past 50 years, several Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves have retreated or collapsed completely. One such collapse was the Wordie Ice Shelf (WIS), located in Marguerite Bay, which began to disintegrate around 1989. We use several observational datasets to show that the glaciers that used to maintain WIS have experienced a surprising acceleration in flow ( 500m/yr) that began 2008, nearly 20 years after the onset of WIS collapse. During the same period, airborne altimetry from NASA Operation IceBridge shows the glaciers experienced a drawdown at their calving fronts between 4 and 9 m/yr, a near-doubling in rate of elevation change from the 1990's and early-2000's. The time lag between WIS collapse and rapid glacier drawdown suggests that these recent changes are unrelated to loss of buttressing. We identify possible links to changes in ocean conditions using in-situ Palmer Station Long-Term Ecological Research (PAL LTER) ocean CTD-gridded observations (Martinson et al., 2008) taken along the continental shelf on the west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) since 1993. We use ECCO2 simulations and atmospheric reanalysis data to characterize changes in atmospheric forcing. We also measure changes in ice shelf area using historic archives and Landsat imagery for 50 glacier systems along the WAP from 1945 to present. Surface structural changes in the WIS system, e.g., melt ponds, sea/fast ice presence, and crevasse density/orientation, are also examined. We conclude that recent changes in WIS tributaries likely resulted from a significant increase in upwelling of warm, salty Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) due to enhanced wind forcing following coincident global atmospheric oscillation events, namely a positive Southern Annular Mode and a moderate La Nina event. This enabled enhanced incursions of UCDW into Marguerite Bay between 2008-2014, in part due to the deep Marguerite Trough that connects the bay to the continental shelf break, along which the southern boundary

  16. Poro-elastic Properties of Whillan's Ice Stream Till: Implications for Basal Stick-Slip (United States)

    Leeman, J.; Valdez, R. D.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Saffer, D. M.


    Whillans ice stream, West Antarctica, flows rapidly from the West Antarctic ice sheet into the Ross Ice Shelf. Regions of highly compacted till, termed sticky-spots, pin the ice in place. Upstream ice flow increases driving stress, until minor changes in buttressing stresses from tides affecting the ice shelf cause the main sticky-spot to fail, triggering diurnal or semidiurnal stick-slip events. The mechanical and hydrological properties of the till partially control the basal conditions, generation and persistence of the sticky spots, and thus the dynamics of the rupture and healing processes. Here we present laboratory tests on core samples of the till beneath Whillan's Ice Stream collected in the 1989-1993 field seasons. Two types of tests were performed on till cores: stepped loading and cyclic loading. In the stepped loading test, the effective stress was increased from 0.1 to 10 MPa in a series of steps, and the permeability measured at each step. Cyclic loading tests consisted of a series of effective stress oscillations with 24 h period lasting 5-10 d each, increasing in amplitude from 20-150 kPa. The permeability was measured after each set of oscillations to investigate the role of cyclic loading in driving enhanced compaction. Compressional wave velocity (Vp) was also measured during both test sequences. We observe sample initial porosities of 30% and permeabilities of 3x10-17 m2. During stepped loading tests, porosity is reduced to 20% and permeability to 8x10-18 m2. Vp ranged from 2.2-2.95 km s-1 and was well fit by an effective medium model. Application of this model to Vp obtained by field seismic surveys is consistent with low ( 50 kPa) effective vertical stresses in the uppermost till. Cyclic loading sequences reduced porosity by 4% and permeability by an order of magnitude. A transient numerical model based on our data shows that over the tidal timescale, a layer of stiffened till 10 cm thick should develop. We suggest that this provides one

  17. Modeling the response of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, to external forcings for the next 50 years (United States)

    Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.; Larour, E. Y.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Khazendar, A.


    Pine Island Glacier experienced spectacular changes over the past decades. This glacier has been thinning and accelerating since the 1970's at least and its grounding line has been retreating inland at a rate of about 1 km/yr. Initiation of these changes is usually attributed to warmer ocean waters in the Amundsen Sea affecting the floating part of Pine Island. By buttressing grounded ice flow and controlling the discharge of inland ice to the ocean, the ice shelf of Pine Island plays a major role in the stability of the glacier. Interactions between the ice shelf and ice stream remain poorly understood, which limits the ability to predict the future evolution of major outlet glaciers and ice streams and their contribution to sea level rise. We use the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) and a three-dimensional higher-order model to simulate the evolution of the glacier for the next fifty years and assess the effect of changes in several climate forcings and model parameters, namely basal melting under the floating part, ice front position, atmospheric conditions and grounding line retreat. Simulation results show the dominant effect of basal melting and of grounding line retreat. Results also show that changes are not limited to the ice shelf and the grounding line area but propagate far inland, almost to the ice divide. We find that enhanced basal melting or grounding line retreat are each associated with a distinct pattern of ice thinning and acceleration. We compare the simulation results with remote sensing observations of velocity changes and grounding line evolution to elucidate which forcing is more likely to have caused the recent acceleration of Pine Island Glacier. In general, our simulations indicate that Pine Island Glacier has much potential to continue changing over the coming years. This work was performed at the University of California Irvine and the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National

  18. Controlling mechanisms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica (United States)

    Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E. J.; Larour, E. Y.; Mouginot, J.; Khazendar, A.


    Ice shelves play a major role in the stability of fast flowing ice streams in Antarctica, by exerting buttressing on inland ice and controlling the discharge of ice into the ocean. However, the mechanisms at work remain poorly understood and interactions between floating and grounded ice need to be better characterized in order to estimate the impact of climate change on the ice sheets. Thwaites glacier, in West Antarctica, features a small and heavily fractured ice shelf that provides limited back stress pressure on inland ice but is pinned on the eastern part on a prominent ridge. Thwaites glacier has maintained a consistently high velocity and negative mass balance for at least 20 years. Recent observations show a widening of its fast flowing area as well as a sustained acceleration since 2006 and a rapid retreat of its grounding line in the center of the glacier. The objective of this work is to characterize the dynamic response of Thwaites glacier to changes in its floating tongue on decadal to centennial time scales. To achieve this objective, we rely on high resolution ice flow modeling and grounding line dynamics using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). We will focus on the complex interplay between the main floating tongue of Thwaites Glacier and its eastern, slow moving ice shelf, which is pinned down by an ice rumple. The speed of the eastern ice shelf is strongly affected by the coupling with the main floating ice tongue, which results in significant fluctuations in speed of the eastern ice shelf the formation of ice shelf cracks at the grounding line during acceleration phases. Our results show that ice rigidity at the junction between the eastern and western part of the shelf controls the dynamic regime of the ice shelf and suggest that Thwaites Glacier is likely to undergo substantial changes in the coming decades. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the University of California Irvine

  19. Damage in a Distal Radius Fracture Model Treated With Locked Volar Plating After Simulated Postoperative Loading. (United States)

    Salas, Christina; Brantley, Justin A; Clark, James; Taha, Mahmoud Reda; Mercer, Deana M; Myers, Orrin B


    "Damage" is an engineering term defining a period between a state of material perfection and the onset of crack initiation. Clinically, it is a loss of fixation due to microstructural breakdown, indirectly measured as a reduction of stiffness of the bone-implant construct, normalized by the cross-sectional area and length of the bone. The purpose of this study was to characterize damage in a cadaver model of extra-articular distal radius fracture with dorsal comminution treated using 2-column volar distal radius plates. Ten matched distal radii were randomly divided into 2 groups: group I specimens were treated with a volar distal radius plate with an independent, 2-tiered scaffold design; group II specimens (contralateral limbs) were treated with a volar plate with a single-head design for enhanced ulnar buttressing. Specimens were cyclically loaded to simulate a 6-month postoperative load-bearing period. We report damage after a defined protocol of cyclical loading and load to failure simulating a fall on an outstretched hand. Group II specimens experienced more damage under cyclic loading conditions than group I specimens. Group I specimens were stiffer than group II specimens under load-to-failure conditions. Ultimate force at failure in group I and group II specimens was not different. Specimens failed by plate bending (group I, n = 6/10; group II, n = 2/10) and fracture of the lunate facet (group I, n = 4/10; group II, n = 8/10). Group I specimens had less screw cutout at the lunate facet than group II specimens under cyclic loading as indicated by lower damage measures and fewer facet fractures during load-to-failure testing. The overall strength of the construct is not affected by plate design. Microstructural damage or a loss of fixation due to an overly rigid volar plate design may cause malunion or nonunion of fracture fragments and lead to bone-implant instability. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc

  20. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauron Alexandre


    framework of medical supervision. Summary Current anti-doping strategy is aimed at eradication of doping in elite sports by means of all-out repression, buttressed by a war-like ideology similar to the public discourse sustaining international efforts against illicit drugs. Rather than striving for eradication of doping in sports, which appears to be an unattainable goal, a more pragmatic approach aimed at controlled use and harm reduction may be a viable alternative to cope with doping and doping-like behaviour.

  1. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Practices and Birth Weight in Northern Ghana.

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    Abdulai Abubakari

    -health conscious'. Health conscious diet (OR = 0.23 95% CI 0.12-0.45 per standard deviation change in scores, P; <0.0001 and dietary diversity score (OR = 0.10 95% CI 0.04-0.13 per standard deviation change in scores, P; <0.0001 showed a protective effect for low birth weight respectively after adjusting for gestational age.Mothers who practiced good nutrition such as consuming foods across and within the various food groups were less likely to have low birth weight babies. Our findings buttress the importance of optimal nutrition during pregnancy.

  2. Biomechanical comparison of dynamic condylar screw and locking compression plate fixation in unstable distal femoral fractures: An in vitro study

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    Ashutosh Kumar Singh


    Full Text Available Background: Distal femur fractures are difficult to manage and the selection of implant for internal fixation remains controversial. The objective of this study is to establish the relative strength of fixation of a distal femoral locking plate (DFLP compared with the dynamic condylar screw (DCS in the distal femur fractures. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 16 freshly harvested cadaveric distal femoral specimens, eight implanted with DCS and other eight with DFLP. The construct was made unstable by removing a standard sized medial wedge of 1 cm base (gap-osteotomy beginning 6 cm proximal to the lateral joint line in distal metaphyseal region with the loss of medial buttress. Fatigue test was conducted under load control mode at the frequency of I Hz. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading of 2 kN, under observation for 50,000 cycles or until failure/cutout, which ever occurred earlier. Results: In DFLP group, there was no implant failure and the average number of cycles sustained was 50,000. Six out of eight specimens completed 50,000 cycles and two failed in DCS group. The average number of cycles sustained by DCS was 46150. Though the bone quality as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry DEXA was comparable in both DFLP and DCS group ( P = 0.06, none failed in DFLP group and subsidence was 1.02 ± 0.34 mm (range: 0.60-1.32 mm, which was significantly 43% lower ( P = 0.006 than subsidence in DCS group (1.82 ± 0.58; range: 1.20-3.08 mm. The average stiffness of DCS group was 52.8 ± 4.2 N/mm, which was significantly lower than average stiffness of locked condylar plate group (71.2 ± 5.1 N/mm ( P = 0.02. Conclusions: DFLP fixation of the distal femur fractures resulted in stronger construct than the DCS fixation in both cyclic loading and ultimate strength in biomechanical testing of a simulated A3 distal femur fracture.

  3. Failure of delayed nonsynaptic neuronal plasticity underlies age-associated long-term associative memory impairment

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    Watson Shawn N


    learning and memory impairment in Lymnaea and buttress the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation-dependent depression of intrinsic excitability is a hallmark of normal neuronal aging. The data implicate both lipid peroxidation-dependent non-synaptic as well as apparently lipid peroxidation-independent synaptic mechanisms in the age-dependent decline in behavioural plasticity in this model system.

  4. Ocean forcing of Ice Sheet retreat in central west Greenland from LGM to the early Holocene (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.; Andrews, John T.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Onge, Guillaume St.; Sheldon, Christina; Belt, Simon T.; Cabedo-Sanz, Patricia; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude


    Three radiocarbon dated sediment cores from trough mouth fans on the central west Greenland continental slope were studied to determine the timing and processes of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) retreat from the shelf edge during the last deglaciation and to test the role of ocean forcing (i.e. warm ocean water) thereon. Analyses of lithofacies, quantitative x-ray diffraction mineralogy, benthic foraminiferal assemblages, the sea-ice biomarker IP25, and δ18 O of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral from sediments in the interval from 17.5-10.8 cal ka BP provide consistent evidence for ocean and ice sheet interactions during central west Greenland (CWG) deglaciation. The Disko and Uummannaq ice streams both retreated from the shelf edge after the last glacial maximum (LGM) under the influence of subsurface, warm Atlantic Water. The warm subsurface water was limited to depths below the ice stream grounding lines during the LGM, when the GIS terminated as a floating ice shelf in a sea-ice covered Baffin Bay. The deeper Uummannaq ice stream retreated first (ca. 17.1 cal ka BP), while the shallower Disko ice stream retreated at ca. 16.2 cal ka BP. The grounding lines were protected from accelerating mass loss (calving) by a buttressing ice shelf and by landward shallowing bathymetry on the outer shelf. Calving retreat was delayed until ca. 15.3 cal ka BP in the Uummannaq Trough and until 15.1 cal ka BP in the Disko Trough, during another interval of ocean warming. Instabilities in the Laurentide, Innuitian and Greenland ice sheets with outlets draining into northern Baffin Bay periodically released cold, fresh water that enhanced sea ice formation and slowed GIS melt. During the Younger Dryas, the CWG records document strong cooling, lack of GIS meltwater, and an increase in iceberg rafted material from northern Baffin Bay. The ice sheet remained in the cross-shelf troughs until the early Holocene, when it retreated rapidly by calving and strong

  5. Word learning emerges from the interaction of online referent selection and slow associative learning (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.


    Classic approaches to word learning emphasize the problem of referential ambiguity: in any naming situation the referent of a novel word must be selected from many possible objects, properties, actions, etc. To solve this problem, researchers have posited numerous constraints, and inference strategies, but assume that determining the referent of a novel word is isomorphic to learning. We present an alternative model in which referent selection is an online process that is independent of long-term learning. This two timescale approach creates significant power in the developing system. We illustrate this with a dynamic associative model in which referent selection is simulated as dynamic competition between competing referents, and learning is simulated using associative (Hebbian) learning. This model can account for a range of findings including the delay in expressive vocabulary relative to receptive vocabulary, learning under high degrees of referential ambiguity using cross-situational statistics, accelerating (vocabulary explosion) and decelerating (power-law) learning rates, fast-mapping by mutual exclusivity (and differences in bilinguals), improvements in familiar word recognition with development, and correlations between individual differences in speed of processing and learning. Five theoretical points are illustrated. 1) Word learning does not require specialized processes – general association learning buttressed by dynamic competition can account for much of the literature. 2) The processes of recognizing familiar words are not different than those that support novel words (e.g., fast-mapping). 3) Online competition may allow the network (or child) to leverage information available in the task to augment performance or behavior despite what might be relatively slow learning or poor representations. 4) Even associative learning is more complex than previously thought – a major contributor to performance is the pruning of incorrect associations

  6. Long-term monitoring of glacier dynamics of Fleming Glacier after the disintegration of Wordie Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Friedl, Peter; Seehaus, Thorsten; Wendt, Anja; Braun, Matthias


    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the world`s most affected regions by Climate Change. Dense and long time series of remote sensing data enable detailed studies of the rapid glaciological changes in this area. We present results of a study on Fleming Glacier, which was the major tributary glacier of former Wordie Ice Shelf, located at the south-western side of the Antarctic Peninsula. Since the ice shelf disintegrated in a series of events starting in the 1970s, only disconnected tidewater glaciers have remained today. As a reaction to the loss of the buttressing force of the ice shelf, Fleming Glacier accelerated and dynamically thinned. However, all previous studies conducted at Wordie Bay covered only relatively short investigation periods and ended in 2008 the latest. Hence it was not well known how long the process of adaption to the changing boundary conditions exactly lasts and how it is characterized in detail. We provide long time series (1994 - 2016) of glaciological parameters (i.e. ice extent, velocity, grounding line position, ice elevation) for Fleming Glacier obtained from multi-mission remote sensing data. For this purpose large datasets of previously active (e.g. ERS, Envisat, ALOS PALSAR, Radarsat-1) as well as currently recording SAR sensors (e.g. Sentinel-1, TerraSAR-X, TanDEM-X) were processed and combined with data from other sources (e.g. optical images, laser altimeter and ice thickness data). The high temporal resolution of our dataset enables us to present a detailed history of 22 years of glacial dynamics at Fleming Glacier after the disintegration of Wordie Ice Shelf. We found strong evidence for a rapid grounding line retreat of up to 13 km between 2008 and 2011, which led to a further amplification of dynamic ice thinning. Today Fleming Glacier seems to be far away from approaching a new equilibrium. Our data show that the current glacier dynamics of Fleming Glacier are not primarily controlled by the loss of the ice shelf anymore, but

  7. Structural Kinematics of Two Regional Transects Across the Manila Trench Offshore Southern Taiwan: Untangling Thick from Thin Skin Deformation (United States)

    Bernal-Olaya, R.; Chi, W. C.; Kunath, P.; McIntosh, K. D.


    Recent research offshore Southern Taiwan has proposed that a hyper-extended continental crust is involved in the convergent margin of the Manila trench as far south as 20°N (Lester et al., 2013; McIntosh et al., 2013; and Eakin et al., 2014). If and how such pre-existing structures affect modern deformation styles is still unclear. Here, we combine large offset seismic reflection profiles, gravity anomaly, and seismicity data to study two transects. Preliminary analyses of Bouguer gravity data and focal mechanisms are consistent with the proposed hyper-extended model. Observations suggest two major crustal lineament trends: 1. A NE-SW steep gravity gradient trend west of Taiwan that correlates with the passive margin normal faults as defined by Lin et al., 2003; 2. A NW-SE regional lineament that correlates with deep seismicity (>30km) offshore SW Taiwan (Wu et al., 2009) and is orthogonal to the normal fault trend. Preliminary gravity analyses also suggest southward deepening of the top of the basement from the Central Range, to the Hengchun Peninsula, to its offshore continuation. By integrating gravity and earthquake data with the structural interpretation of two 2D EW-trending regional seismic sections at 20oN and 22oN, we describe the geometry, and propose a kinematic history of the prowedge. Results display contrasting widths and taper angles between both sections. To the north, the wedge is wide ( 95km) and less steep (α+β= 6ͦ) than to the south. In contrast, the wedge to the south is narrower ( 65km) and steeper (α+β= 13ͦ). We interpret that differences in coulomb wedge behavior from north to south are due to the presence of inherited crustal structures and to the effect of the initial stages of collision. Inherited structures accommodate very thick sedimentary deposition and also accommodate deformation by buttressing younger structures. These characteristics make the Manila accretionary prism a unique example of ongoing basement

  8. Evidence of marine ice-cliff instability in Pine Island Bay from iceberg-keel plough marks (United States)

    Wise, Matthew G.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Jakobsson, Martin; Larter, Robert D.


    Marine ice-cliff instability (MICI) processes could accelerate future retreat of the Antarctic Ice Sheet if ice shelves that buttress grounding lines more than 800 metres below sea level are lost. The present-day grounding zones of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica need to retreat only short distances before they reach extensive retrograde slopes. When grounding zones of glaciers retreat onto such slopes, theoretical considerations and modelling results indicate that the retreat becomes unstable (marine ice-sheet instability) and thus accelerates. It is thought that MICI is triggered when this retreat produces ice cliffs above the water line with heights approaching about 90 metres. However, observational evidence confirming the action of MICI has not previously been reported. Here we present observational evidence that rapid deglacial ice-sheet retreat into Pine Island Bay proceeded in a similar manner to that simulated in a recent modelling study, driven by MICI. Iceberg-keel plough marks on the sea-floor provide geological evidence of past and present iceberg morphology, keel depth and drift direction. From the planform shape and cross-sectional morphologies of iceberg-keel plough marks, we find that iceberg calving during the most recent deglaciation was not characterized by small numbers of large, tabular icebergs as is observed today, which would produce wide, flat-based plough marks or toothcomb-like multi-keeled plough marks. Instead, it was characterized by large numbers of smaller icebergs with V-shaped keels. Geological evidence of the form and water-depth distribution of the plough marks indicates calving-margin thicknesses equivalent to the threshold that is predicted to trigger ice-cliff structural collapse as a result of MICI. We infer rapid and sustained ice-sheet retreat driven by MICI, commencing around 12,300 years ago and terminating before about 11,200 years ago, which produced large numbers of icebergs smaller than the

  9. Simulating the evolution of Thwaites Glacier with a coupled ice-ocean model (United States)

    Seroussi, Helene; Nakayama, Yoshihiro; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Larour, Eric; Morlighem, Mathieu; Rignot, Eric; Khazendar, Ala


    Ice shelves and floating glacier termini play an important role in the stability of ice sheets and interact strongly with the ocean. They account for much of the buttressing against the flow of inland glaciers that drain the Antarctic ice sheet. Changes in their geometry due to ice-front retreat, thinning or even collapse profoundly affect the flow of their tributary glaciers, which in turn affects the volume of grounded ice carried by these tributary glaciers into the ocean, and the extent of resulting sea level rise. Recent simulations of glaciers in Antarctica show that the largest climatic impact on ice dynamics is the rate of ice shelf melting, which rapidly affects glaciers' speed over several hundreds of kilometers upstream of the grounding line. However, accurate knowledge of these melting rates, as well as their spatial and temporal evolution remain largely unknown. Coupled ice-ocean models are the best available approach to address this question. In this study, we focus on Thwaites glacier in the Amundsen Sea sector, a glacier that has been accelerating, widening and experiencing a complex grounding line retreat pattern over the past three decades. We simulate the coupled ice-ocean system using a new two-way coupled system between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) and the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). We investigate the feedbacks between changes in the ice and ocean, and the dynamic response of the glacier to changes in the ocean circulation. Our results reproduce the grounding line retreat and ice flow acceleration observed over the last couple decades, and show the rapid adjustment of ocean-induced melting rates to the evolution of the sub-ice shelf cavity, demonstrating the importance of simulating the coupled ice-ocean system to produce accurate melting rates under the ice shelf and at the grounding line. The simulations suggest that Thwaites Glacier is likely to undergo substantial changes in the coming


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Incidence of distal femur fractures is approximately 37 per 1 , 00,000 person - years.¹Distal femoral fractures has two different injury mechanisms, high energy trauma and low energy trauma. In high - energy trauma, the problem of restoring the function in a destroyed knee joint persists. Complex knee ligament injuries frequently occur additionally to extensive cartilage injuries. In elderly patients, extreme osteoporosis represents a particular problem for anchoring the implant. 2 Supracondylar and inter condylar fractures often are unstable and comminuted and tend to occur in the elderly or those with multiple injuries. Treatment options are many with varied results. The final outcome would depend upon the type of fracture, stabilization of fixation and and perhaps patient general condition. 3 The options for operative treatment are traditional plating techniques that require compression of the implant to the femoral shaft (blade plate, Dynamic Condylar Screw, non - locking condylar buttress plate, antegrade nailing fixation, retrograde nailing, sub muscular locked internal fixation and external fixation. 4 However, as the complexity of fractures needing treatment has changed from simple extra - articular supra - condylar types to inter - condylar and metaphyseal comminuted types, these implants may not be ideal. Double plating, and more recently, locked plating techniques have been advocated 5 . However with double plating there is often extensive soft tissue stripping on both sides of the femur, resulting in reduced blood supply and potential non - union and failure of the implants 6 . The LCP is a single beam construct where the strength of its fixation is equal to the sum of all screw - bone interfaces rather than a single screw’s axial stiffness or pullout resistance as seen in unlocked plates 7,8 . Its unique biomechanical function is based on splinting rather than compression resulting in flexible stabilization

  11. Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors. (United States)

    Lane, Sean P; Bluestone, Cheryl; Burke, Christopher T


    research has linked together whether the children who receive non-authoritative parenting and are overweight in infancy are the same children who are overweight in adolescence. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: • Evidence for 3 different prototypes of BMI percentile growth over the course of childhood approaching adolescence. • Adds complexity re the influence of parenting styles as an influence on patterns of weight gain. • Buttresses existing research as to early and lasting effects of SES on patterns of BMI. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Mariel refugees: six years after. (United States)

    Portes, A; Clark, J M


    indicate that official and private programs targeted on this refugee group should give priority to 4 aspects: 1) support of small entrepreneurship through credit and training facilities to buttress the widespread efforts in this direction; 2) provision of English language courses and help to overcome extreme language deficiencies; 3) promotion of the reunification of the Mariel refugee families who were separated against their will; and 4) additional efforts by Cuban-American organizations to combat lingering prejudice against Mariel refugees.

  13. Dominant Capital and the New Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimshon Bichler


    Full Text Available The recent shift from ‘global villageism’ to the ‘new wars’ revealed a deep crisis in heterodox political economy. The popular belief in neoliberal globalization, peace dividends, fiscal conservatism and sound finance that dominated the 1980s and 1990s suddenly collapsed. The early 2000s brought rising xenophobia, growing military budgets and policy profligacy. Radicals were the first to identify this transition, but their attempts to explain it have been bogged down by two major hurdles: (1 most writers continue to apply nineteenth century theories and concepts to twenty-first century realities; and (2 few seem to bother with empirical analysis. This paper offers a radical alternative that is both theoretically new and empirically grounded. We use the ‘new wars’ as a stepping stone to understand a triple transformation that altered the nature of capital, the accumulation of capital and the unit of capital. Specifically, our argument builds on a power understanding of capital that emphasizes differential accumulation by dominant capital groups. Accumulation, we argue, has little to do with the amassment of material things measured in ‘utils’ or ‘abstract labor.’ Instead, accumu-lation, or ‘capitalization,’ represents a commodification of power by leading groups in society. Over the past century, this power has been restructured and concentrated through two distinct regimes of differential accumulation—‘breadth’ and ‘depth.’ A breadth regime relies on proletarianization, on green-field investment and, particularly, on mergers and acquisitions. A depth regime builds on redistribution through stagflation—that is, on differential inflation in the midst of stagnation. In contrast to breadth which presupposes some measure of growth and stability, depth thrives on ‘accumulation through crisis.’ The past twenty years were dominated by breadth, buttressed by neoliberal rhetoric, globalization and capital mobility. This regime started

  14. Anthropogenic salts from deteriorated stones of a historical monument (Kraków, Poland) (United States)

    Marszałek, Mariola; Prajer, Marta


    The results focus on the stone architectonic elements of the Hebdowski Palace in the Okół, an old, medieval part of Kraków. The object was built around 1400, then rebuilt at the turn of the 17th century and at the first half of the 19th century. Its façade was covered with plaster, whose scaling fragments prior to the renovation in 2015 revealed underneath bricks, particularly in the lower part of the palace. The sandstone elements were used in the main portal, while the limestone ones in window frames of the lower section of the façade, base mouldings, and the buttresses at the corner of Poselska and Senacka streets (one of the oldest streets in Kraków). The stone blocks show various forms of damage, ranging from the accumulation of black crusts and efflorescences to crumbling and scaling of their surfaces. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were used for analysing deterioration products of the stone samples that were collected during the restoration campaign of 2015. The salt minerals detected in the efflorescences and the black crusts include mainly gypsum CaSO4•2H2O and halite NaCl. On the surface of the limestone gypsum is accompanied by oxalates (whewellite CaC2O4•H2O and/or weddellite CaC2O4•2H2O). The black crust developed on both stone types also contain numerous dust particles and a carbonaceous matter, probably soot. The origin of the anthropogenic salts can be mainly assigned to air pollution, to the stones themselves (mainly in the case of the limestone), and to migration of ions from some elements of the façade (e.g. plaster) in the case of the sandstone. The chemicals used for removing ice from streets and pavements (chiefly NaCl and CaCl2) also seem to be important in the formations of the salts. Finally, the existence of simple life forms, such as lichens and fungi, could result in the precipitation of oxalates. This work has been financially supported by

  15. Selectively bred crossed high-alcohol-preferring mice drink to intoxication and develop functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization during free-choice ethanol access. (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Kasten, Chelsea R; Boehm, Stephen L; Grahame, Nicholas J


    addition to buttressing the hypothesized importance of tolerance in drinking, our findings suggest that cHAP mice may be a unique, translational resource for studying tolerance as a contributor to and consequence of chronic, excessive EtOH consumption. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Isolated percutaneous thoracoplasty procedure for skeletally mature adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, with rib deformity as their only concern: short-term outcomes. (United States)

    Yang, Jae Hyuk; Bhandarkar, Amit Wasudeo; Kasat, Niraj Sharad; Suh, Seung Woo; Hong, Jae Young; Modi, Hitesh N; Hwang, Jin Ho


    was observed after surgery. This suggests that the convex ribs function as a buttress for curve progression.

  17. Arthroscopic-assisted plate fixation for displaced large-sized comminuted greater tuberosity fractures of proximal humerus: a novel surgical technique. (United States)

    Park, Sang-Eun; Jeong, Jae-Jung; Panchal, Karnav; Lee, Jong-Yun; Min, Hyung-Ki; Ji, Jong-Hun


    The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of a novel hybrid surgical technique-arthroscopic-assisted plate fixation-and evaluate its clinical and anatomical outcomes in the management of large, displaced greater tuberosity (GT) fractures with comminution. From 2009 to 2011, this novel technique was performed in 11 patients [2 men and 9 women; median age, 64 years (range 41-83 years)] with large, comminuted GT fractures, with fragment displacements of >5 mm. The preoperative mean posterior and superior migration of the fractured fragment, as measured on computed tomography (CT), was 19.5 and 5.5 mm, respectively. Two patients had shoulder fracture-dislocation, and three had associated undisplaced surgical neck fracture. The mean duration between injury and surgery was 4 days. The mean follow-up duration was 26 months. At the final follow-up, the mean postoperative ASES, UCLA and SST scores were 84, 29, and 8, respectively. The mean range of motion was as follows: forward flexion, 138°; abduction, 135°; external rotation at the side, 19°; and internal rotation, up to the L2 level. The mean posterior and superior displacements of fracture fragments on postoperative CT scan [0.7 ± 0.8 mm (range 0-2.1 mm) and 2.8 ± 0.5 mm (range 3.4-5.3 mm), respectively] were significantly improved (p fracture fragment was noted in 1 patient at 4 weeks, after corrective reduction and fixation surgery. The novel arthroscopic-assisted anatomical plate fixation technique was found to be effective in reducing large-sized, displaced, comminuted GT fractures and in allowing concurrent management of intra-articular pathologies and early functional rehabilitation. Compared with the conventional plate fixation or arthroscopic suture anchor fixation technique, arthroscopic-assisted plate fixation enabled accurate restoration of the medial footprint of the GT fracture and provided an effective buttress to the large-sized GT fracture fragments. Retrospective

  18. Analogue modelling of deformation structures at Mt Cameroon analysed with a digital image correlation technique (United States)

    Kervyn, Matthieu; Walter, Thomas R.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Ernst, Gerald G. J.


    enhanced by local buttressing. Directional spreading is associated with both deep-seated normal listric faults causing summit subsidence as well as shallow outward dipping normal faults causing large scale slumps at mid-flanks. These shallow slumps, combined with inflation of upper flank through magma intrusion, account for the unusual steep slopes and flank landslides observed at Mt Cameroon.

  19. Hemichannel-mediated and pH-based feedback from horizontal cells to cones in the vertebrate retina.

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    Iris Fahrenfort


    Full Text Available Recent studies designed to identify the mechanism by which retinal horizontal cells communicate with cones have implicated two processes. According to one account, horizontal cell hyperpolarization induces an increase in pH within the synaptic cleft that activates the calcium current (Ca(2+-current in cones, enhancing transmitter release. An alternative account suggests that horizontal cell hyperpolarization increases the Ca(2+-current to promote transmitter release through a hemichannel-mediated ephaptic mechanism.To distinguish between these mechanisms, we interfered with the pH regulating systems in the retina and studied the effects on the feedback responses of cones and horizontal cells. We found that the pH buffers HEPES and Tris partially inhibit feedback responses in cones and horizontal cells and lead to intracellular acidification of neurons. Application of 25 mM acetate, which does not change the extracellular pH buffer capacity, does lead to both intracellular acidification and inhibition of feedback. Because intracellular acidification is known to inhibit hemichannels, the key experiment used to test the pH hypothesis, i.e. increasing the extracellular pH buffer capacity, does not discriminate between a pH-based feedback system and a hemichannel-mediated feedback system. To test the pH hypothesis in a manner independent of artificial pH-buffer systems, we studied the effect of interfering with the endogenous pH buffer, the bicarbonate/carbonic anhydrase system. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase allowed for large changes in pH in the synaptic cleft of bipolar cell terminals and cone terminals, but the predicted enhancement of the cone feedback responses, according to the pH-hypothesis, was not observed. These experiments thus failed to support a proton mediated feedback mechanism. The alternative hypothesis, the hemichannel-mediated ephaptic feedback mechanism, was therefore studied experimentally, and its feasibility was buttressed

  20. Volcano Flank Structures on Earth and Mars (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Byrne, P. K.; Mathieu, L.; Murray, J. B.; Troll, V. R.


    Shield volcanoes on Earth and Mars share common features, including calderas and pit crater chains. A set of structures present on the sides of several of the large shields on Mars are not regarded as having Earth analogues, however. Flank terraces are topographically subtle structures, characterised by a gentle convex profile and a distinctive "fish scale" imbricate distribution pattern. Magma chamber inflation, lithospheric flexure, flank relaxation, or gravitational slumping have been suggested as terrace formation mechanisms. Terraces on both Mars and Earth are clearly visible only in slope maps, and may thus escape visual detection in the field. We show that both Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Etna (Sicily) display the same characteristic "fish scale" terrace pattern. This pattern delineates structures that we contend are terrestrial flank terraces. Heterogeneities in volcano geometry, due to buttressing or extension, result in terrace distributions that are not as evenly circumferential as those on Mars. Plan and cross-sectional profiles, however, parallel those of the Martian structures. These structures may also be present on Alayta (Ethiopia), Santa Cruz (Galapagos), and Tendürek Dagi (Turkey). Another type of structure, larger and steeper than flank terraces but sharing a similar plan-view morphology, is also present on Mauna Lau and Etna. These "flank bulges" appear to correlate with structures on Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion), Cosiguina (Nicaragua), and Karthala (Comoros) on Earth, and Apollinaris Patera and Tharsis Tholus on Mars. Elsewhere (Paul K. Byrne et al., this volume) we argue that lithospheric flexure is a likely formation mechanism for Martian terraces. Flexure is active beneath Mauna Loa, and possibly under Etna, and so may also be responsible for terrestrial flank terraces. Scaled analogue models suggest that the larger flank bulges are due to magma intrusions derived from large chambers within these edifices. There is thus a strong

  1. Hemichannel-mediated and pH-based feedback from horizontal cells to cones in the vertebrate retina. (United States)

    Fahrenfort, Iris; Steijaert, Marvin; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Vickers, Evan; Ripps, Harris; van Asselt, Jorrit; Endeman, Duco; Klooster, Jan; Numan, Robert; ten Eikelder, Huub; von Gersdorff, Henrique; Kamermans, Maarten


    Recent studies designed to identify the mechanism by which retinal horizontal cells communicate with cones have implicated two processes. According to one account, horizontal cell hyperpolarization induces an increase in pH within the synaptic cleft that activates the calcium current (Ca(2+)-current) in cones, enhancing transmitter release. An alternative account suggests that horizontal cell hyperpolarization increases the Ca(2+)-current to promote transmitter release through a hemichannel-mediated ephaptic mechanism. To distinguish between these mechanisms, we interfered with the pH regulating systems in the retina and studied the effects on the feedback responses of cones and horizontal cells. We found that the pH buffers HEPES and Tris partially inhibit feedback responses in cones and horizontal cells and lead to intracellular acidification of neurons. Application of 25 mM acetate, which does not change the extracellular pH buffer capacity, does lead to both intracellular acidification and inhibition of feedback. Because intracellular acidification is known to inhibit hemichannels, the key experiment used to test the pH hypothesis, i.e. increasing the extracellular pH buffer capacity, does not discriminate between a pH-based feedback system and a hemichannel-mediated feedback system. To test the pH hypothesis in a manner independent of artificial pH-buffer systems, we studied the effect of interfering with the endogenous pH buffer, the bicarbonate/carbonic anhydrase system. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase allowed for large changes in pH in the synaptic cleft of bipolar cell terminals and cone terminals, but the predicted enhancement of the cone feedback responses, according to the pH-hypothesis, was not observed. These experiments thus failed to support a proton mediated feedback mechanism. The alternative hypothesis, the hemichannel-mediated ephaptic feedback mechanism, was therefore studied experimentally, and its feasibility was buttressed by means of a

  2. Increasing risks related to landslides from degrading permafrost into new lakes in de-glaciating mountain ranges (United States)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian


    While glacier volumes in most cold mountain ranges rapidly decrease due to continued global warming, degradation of permafrost at altitudes above and below glaciers is much slower. As a consequence, many still existing glacier and permafrost landscapes probably transform within decades into new landscapes of bare bedrock, loose debris, sparse vegetation, numerous new lakes and steep slopes with slowly degrading permafrost. These new landscapes are likely to persist for centuries if not millennia to come. During variable but mostly extended future time periods, such new landscapes will be characterized by pronounced disequilibria within their geo- and ecosystems. This especially involves long-term stability reduction of steep/icy mountain slopes as a slow and delayed reaction to stress redistribution following de-buttressing by vanishing glaciers and to changes in mechanical strength and hydraulic permeability caused by permafrost degradation. Thereby, the probability of far-reaching flood waves from large mass movements into lakes systematically increases with the formation of many new lakes and systems of lakes in close neighborhood to, or even directly at the foot of, so-affected slopes. Results of recent studies in the Swiss Alps are reviewed and complemented with examples from the Cordillera Blanca in Peru and the Mount Everest region in Nepal. Hot spots of future hazards from potential flood waves caused by large rock falls into new lakes can already now be recognized. To this end, integrated spatial information on glacier/permafrost evolution and lake formation can be used together with scenario-based models for rapid mass movements, impact waves and flood propagation. The resulting information must then be combined with exposure and vulnerability considerations related to settlements and infrastructure. This enables timely planning of risk reduction options. Such risk reduction options consist of two components: Mitigation of hazards, which in the present

  3. Mapping rift domains within an inverted hyperextended rift system: The role of rift inheritance in controlling the present-day structure of the North Iberian margin (Bay of Biscay) (United States)

    Cadenas, Patricia; Fernández-Viejo, Gabriela; Álvarez-Pulgar, Javier; Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Minshull, Tim


    This study presents a new rift domain map in the central and western North Iberian margin, in the southern Bay of Biscay. This margin was structured during polyphase Triassic to Lower Cretaceous rifting events which led to hyperextension and exhumation and the formation of oceanic crust during a short-lived seafloor spreading period. Extension was halted due to the Alpine convergence between the Iberian and the European plates which led to the formation of the Cantabrian-Pyrenean orogen during the Cenozoic. In the Bay of Biscay, while the northern Biscay margin was slightly inverted, the North Iberian margin, which is at present-day part of the western branch of the Alpine belt together with the Cantabrian Mountains, exhibits several degrees of compressional reactivation. This makes this area a natural laboratory to study the influence of rift inheritance into the inversion of a passive margin. Relying on the interpretation of geological and geophysical data and the integration of wide-angle results, we have mapped five rift domains, corresponding to the proximal, necking, hyperthinned, exhumed mantle, and oceanic domains. One of the main outcomes of this work is the identification of the Asturian Basin as part of a hyperthinned domain bounded to the north by the Le Danois basement high. We interpret Le Danois High as a rift-related crustal block inherited from the margin structure. Our results suggest that the inherited rift architecture controlled the subsequent compressional reactivation. The hyperextended domains within the abyssal plain focused most of the compression resulting in the development of an accretionary wedge and the underthrusting of part of these distal domains beneath the margin. The presence of the Le Danois continental block added complexity, conditioning the inversion undergone by the Asturian Basin. This residual block of less thinned continental crust acted as a local buttress hampering further compressional reactivation within the platform

  4. The Reconstruction of the Historical Building of the Latin School in Malbork (United States)

    Duda, Zenon; Kryzia, Katarzyna


    The paper summarizes the reconstruction of the historical building erected in the 14th century, during the times of the residence of Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Winrich von Kniprode, currently referred to as the Latin School. It characterizes the location of the Latin School in the urban conservation area of the town of Malbork. The building is situated in the stretch of the buttressed brick escarpment on the Nogat River in the line of the historic defensive walls of Malbork. The paper also outlines the history of this building, constructed and managed by the municipal authorities of Malbork, which for a long time was a seat of a Patronage of Saint George and the Merchant Guild, and next, from the 16th century until 1864, the building housed a school where basic Latin was taught. Next, the situation of this historical monument in the 20th century is discussed. In the next part of the paper, the geological conditions of the site where the building was erected are discussed. The conducted archeological and architectural exploratory research related to the historical building with a particular emphasis on historic preservation and restoration works focusing on the building and its surroundings is presented and analyzed. Currently carried out design, construction and adaptation works allowing new functions to be embedded into this building are also discussed. The paper shows the benefits due to the realization of the reconstruction program of the degraded building of the Latin school in the historic quarter of the town. These activities are aimed at the conversion of the currently derelict building by means of embedding new functions into it. There are being designed, among others, an interactive educational center modern library, astronomical observatory, craft museum and multifunctional hall, allowing proper conditions to be created for the development of educational, artistic and tourism related activities in the reconstructed building. The reconstruction of

  5. Elementos auxiliares de construcción en la arquitectura gótica. El pilar «major» de la catedral de Tortosa

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    i Ginovart, J. Lluis


    Full Text Available Gothic construction wouldn’t have been possible without the use of auxiliary resources which could handle the efforts of the structure during the raising process. In the cathedral of Tortosa case, the ‘libros de obra’ refers to a big pillar used during the building of the apse, which is named ‘pilar major’. The logic of the construction, and also the knowledge about the building phases, has let to deduce the role and the location of this element. Complementarily, it have been verified by graphical methods that the equilibrium of the apse is not possible before the presbitery is closed, without an element of buttressing. The study of the subsoil by means of a georadar has let to identify a solid mass on the center of the apse, where the ‘pilar major’ would be situated. It probably could be the foundation for its construction.La construcción gótica no habría sido posible sin la utilización de medios auxiliares que soportaran los empujes de la estructura durante el proceso de montaje. En el caso de la catedral gótica de Tortosa, los libros de obra hacen referencia a un gran pilar utilizado durante la construcción del ábside, al que se refieren como pilar major. La lógica constructiva, junto con el conocimiento sobre las fases de ejecución, han permitido deducir el funcionamiento y ubicación de este elemento. De manera complementaria, se ha verificado gráficamente que el equilibrio del ábside no es posible antes del cierre del presbiterio sin un elemento de contrarresto. El estudio del subsuelo por medio de un georadar ha permitido identificar una masa sólida situada en el centro del ábside, que coincide con la ubicación del pilar major y que habría servido como base de cimentación para su construcción.

  6. Preparing Scientists to be Community Partners (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.


    Many students, especially students from historically under-represented communities, leave science majors or avoid choosing them because scientific careers do not offer enough opportunity to contribute to their communities. Citizen science, or public participation in scientific research, may address these challenges. At its most collaborative, it means inviting communities to partner in every step of the scientific process from defining the research question to applying the results to community priorities. In addition to attracting and retaining students, this level of community engagement will help diversify science, ensure the use and usability of our science, help buttress public support of science, and encourage the application of scientific results to policy. It also offers opportunities to tackle scientific questions that can't be accomplished in other way and it is demonstrably effective at helping people learn scientific concepts and methods. In order to learn how to prepare scientists for this kind of intensive community collaboration, we examined several case studies, including a project on disease and public health in Africa and the professionally evaluated experience of two summer interns in Southern Louisiana. In these and other cases, we learned that scientific expertise in a discipline has to be accompanied by a reservoir of humility and respect for other ways of knowing, the ability to work collaboratively with a broad range of disciplines and people, patience and enough career stability to allow that patience, and a willingness to adapt research to a broader set of scientific and non-scientific priorities. To help students achieve this, we found that direct instruction in participatory methods, mentoring by community members and scientists with participatory experience, in-depth training on scientific ethics and communication, explicit articulation of the goal of working with communities, and ample opportunity for personal reflection were essential


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    Sandhi Imam Maulana


    Full Text Available Allometric equations can be used to estimate biomass and carbon stock of  the forest. However, so far the allometric equations for commercial species in Papua tropical forests have not been appropriately developed. In this research, allometric equations are presented based on the genera of  commercial species. Few equations have been developed for the commercial species of  Intsia, Pometia, Palaquium and Vatica genera and an equation of  a mix of  these genera. The number of  trees sampled in this research was 49, with diameters (1.30 m above-ground or above buttresses ranging from 5 to 40 cm. Destructive sampling was used to collect the samples where Diameter at Breast Height (DBH and Wood Density (WD were used as predictors for dry weight of  Total Above-Ground Biomass (TAGB. Model comparison and selection were based on the values of  F-statistics, R-sq, R-sq (adj, and average deviation. Based on these statistical indicators, the most suitable model for Intsia, Pometia, Palaquium and Vatica genera respectively are Log(TAGB = -0.76 + 2.51Log(DBH, Log(TAGB = -0.84 + 2.57Log(DBH, Log(TAGB = -1.52 + 2.96Log(DBH, and Log(TAGB = -0.09 + 2.08Log(DBH. Additional explanatory variables such as Commercial Bole Height (CBH do not really increase the indicators’ goodness of  fit for the equation. An alternative model to incorporate wood density should  be considered for estimating the above-ground biomass for mixed genera. Comparing the presented mixed-genera equation; Log(TAGB = 0.205 + 2.08Log(DBH + 1.75Log(WD, R-sq: 97.0%, R-sq (adj: 96.9%, F statistics 750.67, average deviation: 3.5%; to previously published datashows that this local species specific equation differs substantially from previously published equations and this site-specific equation is  considered to give a better estimation of  biomass.

  8. Experimentación geométrica y constructiva en piedra: algunos casos especiales de escaleras de caracol

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    Sanjurjo, A.


    Full Text Available Stonecutting specialized literature often describes, specifically between the 16th and the 18th century, complex spiral staircases that, in many cases, have never been carried out practically. At the same time, hidden inside of towers and turrets or concealed in buttresses, there is a variety of built examples whose arrangements differentiate from those of the written treatises, showing an outstanding technical mastery, clear sign of experimentation and professional training. They are characterized by their complex geometry and complicated construction, which emphasizes their singularity in comparison to their small dimension and their irrelevant location. Both models, those conceived and drawn in the treatises, but not built, and those constructed in churches and cathedrals, but not considered in the treatises, are the objective of this paper. To this end, we will look at some of these stairs, analysing them and trying to find the source of their existence.La literatura técnica de la cantería describió, fundamentalmente entre el siglo XVI y el XVIII, complejos caracoles de piedra que, en algunos casos, no se llevaron nunca a la práctica. Asimismo, escondidos en torreones y disimulados en machones, estribos y contrafuertes encontramos ejemplos construidos, con soluciones distintas a las de los tratados escritos, de un gran virtuosismo técnico, testigos evidentes de procesos de experimentación y capacitación profesional. Su compleja geometría y difícil construcción las caracteriza, y acentúa aún más su singularidad en contraposición con su pequeña dimensión y su secundaria ubicación. Ambos modelos, los pensados y dibujados en los tratados, pero no construidos, y los construidos en iglesias y catedrales, pero no contemplados en los tratados, son el objeto de este artículo. En él, hacemos un recorrido por algunas de esas escaleras especiales, estudiándolas y tratando de encontrar el porqué de su existencia.

  9. Análise de fatores associados à não aceitação da vacina contra hepatite B em adolescentes escolares de baixa renda Analysis of factors associated with non-acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine among low income adolescent students

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    Michelle Dias da Silva Oliveira


    Full Text Available Para avaliar os fatores de predição da não adesão à vacina contra o vírus da hepatite B (VHB em adolescentes escolares de baixa renda da Região Metropolitana de Goiânia, Goiás, 304 indivíduos suscetíveis ao VHB, matriculados em duas escolas, foram entrevistados e a vacina contra hepatite foi oferecida. Somente 195 (64% adolescentes aceitaram a primeira dose da vacina. Por outro lado, 182/195 (93,3% receberam o esquema completo. Verificou-se que fatores escolares exerceram um papel na aceitação da vacina, uma vez que a escola B e turno noturno foram independentemente associados à não adesão à vacina. Os achados deste estudo ratificam a baixa aceitação da vacina contra hepatite B em adolescentes e evidenciam a necessidade de programas de educação em saúde para sensibilização desse grupo em relação à vacinação, e reforçam a importância de estratégias de imunização na escola para o cumprimento do esquema completo da vacina contra o VHB nesta população-alvo.To evaluate the predictor factors for non-acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine among low-income adolescent students in the Goiânia Metropolitan Region, Goiás State, Brazil. In this study, 304 HBV-susceptible individuals enrolled in two schools were interviewed, and the HBV vaccine was offered. Only 195 (64% of adolescents accepted the first dose of vaccine. On the other hand, 182/195 (93.3% received the full HBV vaccine scheme. School factors played a role in vaccine acceptance, as School B and night classes were independently associated with non-acceptance of hepatitis B vaccination. The findings of this study ratify the low acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine among adolescents, highlighting the need for health education programs aiming at this group for hepatitis B vaccinations, while buttressing the importance of school-based vaccination strategies for attaining full HBV immunization of this target population.

  10. The Project for Developing Countermeasures against Landslides in the Abay River Gorge, Ethiopia (United States)

    Guta, H. E.


    , buttress fill works and surface drainage works are designed countermeasures in the first stage. Furthermore, improvement of safety factor in the landslides by steep pile works or horizontal drainage borings are suitable countermeasures to be adopted in the second stage. Key words: Blue Nile Gorge, Landslide, Slope stability analysis, Countermeasure works

  11. New lakes in de-glaciating high-mountain regions - a challenge for integrative research about hazard protection and sustainable use (United States)

    Haeberli, W.


    glacier/runoff models can be directly built into models of hydropower operation and economics to test the suitability and feasibility of potential projects. Assessments of hazards and risks must consider the entire chain of processes from slope instability in icy or potentially de-buttressed rock walls via impact waves, breaching of moraine dams, floods and debris flows in river channels and, especially, vulnerability and potential damage to people and infrastructure. High-mountain slope stability under conditions of climate change still constitutes the main weakness in the related knowledge basis and represents a corresponding challenge for focused research.

  12. Framing Nicotine Addiction as a "Disease of the Brain": Social and Ethical Consequences. (United States)

    Dingel, Molly J; Karkazis, Katrina; Koenig, Barbara A


    In this article, we seek to better understand how a genomic vision of addiction may influence drug prevention and treatment. Though social influences on substance use and abuse (e.g., peer and family influence, socioeconomic status) are well documented, biomedical intervention is becoming increasingly technoscientific in nature. We wish to elucidate how emphasizing biological influences on substance use may lead to a vision of addiction as a phenomenon isolated within our bodies and neurochemistry, not lived daily within a complex social web of relationships and a particular political economy, including the tobacco industry, which aggressively markets products known to cause harm. We explore the emerging view of addiction as a "disease of the brain" in open-ended interviews with 86 stakeholders from the fields of nicotine research and tobacco control. Interview data were analyzed using standard qualitative techniques. Most stakeholders hold a medicalized view of addiction. Though environmental variables are understood to be a primary cause of smoking initiation, the speed and strength with which addiction occurs is understood to be a largely biological process. Though stakeholders believe that an increased focus on addiction as a disease of the brain is not likely to lead to widespread unrealistic expectations for cessation therapies, they remain concerned that it may reinforce teenagers' expectations that quitting is not difficult. Finally, stakeholder responses indicate that genetic and neuroscientific research is unlikely to increase or decrease stigmatization, but will be used by interest groups to buttress their existing views of the stigma associated with smoking. We argue that the main potential harms of focusing on biological etiology stem from a concept of addiction that is disassociated from social context. Focusing on genetic testing and brain scans may lead one to overemphasize pharmaceutical "magic bullet cures" and underemphasize, and underfund, more

  13. From sermons in stone to studies in science: The transformation of 19th-century juvenile natural history (United States)

    Dyson, Jon-Paul Charles

    encouraged children's interactions with nature as means of buttressing the values, goals, and property of the middle-class. In the process of doing this, male cultural authorities emphasized the importance of children's contact with (and conquest of) nature, even as they marginalized older religious and feminine approaches to nature that had focused on getting children to see meanings and messages that supposedly inhered in nature.

  14. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica (United States)

    Berger, Sophie; Drews, Reinhard; Helm, Veit; Sun, Sainan; Pattyn, Frank


    Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB), i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique - based on satellite observations - to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation). Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from -14.7 to 8.6 m a-1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km) lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a-1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks). However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing) toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite-based BMB values remain uncertain, we have

  15. Reducing risks from hazardous glacier lakes in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru): Six decades of experience and perspectives for the future (United States)

    Portocarrero, Cesar; Cochachin, Alejo; Frey, Holger; González, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Huggel, Christian


    Outbursts from glacier lakes at various spatial and temporal scales have had marked geomorphological effects in many mountain ranges. In many glacierized Andean mountain regions substrates of human settlements made out of flood and debris-flow deposits are testimonies of such events. Examples in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, are the towns of Caraz, Carhuaz or parts of Huaraz. Continued glacier shrinking since the end of the Little Ice Age caused the formation or enlargement of numerous lakes. The outburst of Laguna Palcacocha, destroying the centre of Huaraz and causing more than 1800 losses of life in December 1941, marked the beginning of systematic risk reduction work in Peru. Corresponding efforts included glacier and lake inventories, hazard assessments, definition of high-risk situations, and completion of engineering work for lake-level lowering in more than 30 cases. The latter comprises outlet reinforcements on morainic dams as well as artificial tunnels in bedrock thresholds. This work has been remarkably efficient as documented in the latest case of the Laguna Huallcacocha (Carhuaz-Ancash), where the earlier made installations withstood the erosive power of an impact wave from an ice avalanche in 2015. In the case of the Laguna 513, the impact wave and far-reaching flood caused by a rock/ice avalanche from Nevado Hualcán in April 2010 showed that the risk had been essentially reduced by the preventive lake-level lowering in the early 1990s but not to zero. Risk assessments, planning, construction and non-structural risk reduction efforts continue. Work is in progress to increase the safety of Laguna Palcacocha where extensive assessments and model calculations had been carried out. Risks related to rock/ice avalanches into lakes from steep icy slopes and related to de-buttressing processes as well as long-term permafrost degradation increases. Based on morphological indications and numerical modelling (GlabTop) an inventory of possible future lakes

  16. Tradición y reacción en el Sesquicentenario: La escuela sevillana mendocina Tradition and reaction in the sesquicentennial: The Sevillian school of Mendoza

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    María Celina Fares


    on the refraction of other schools of thought, interpretative theories that see May as a reaffi rmation of Spanishness and a negation of its emancipatory sense -as well as their authors' biographical trajectories- they reveal an intellectual sociability that under the rubric of nationalism, veiled many internal differences, just as they at the same time revealed strong connections with the Sevillian school of historiography, then an intellectual engine of Francoism and a buttress of the conservative, authoritarian Nationalist thought of the Nineteensixties.

  17. The role of backstop shape during inversion tectonics physical models

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    Caroline J.S. Gomes


    Full Text Available The style of deformation of rocks from basin-infilling sequences in positively inverted natural basins was discussed upon the results of laboratory experiments carried out in sandboxes with sand packs laid down in the space between two wooden blocks. The space simulated stages of crustal extension leading to (1 a half graben due to extension above a listric extensional detachment, with the blocks simulating the footwall and hanging wall, or (2 a graben, with the blocks simulating the external margins that drifted apart above a horizontal detachment. Combinations of two different angles were used to simulate the dip of curved normal faults along the internal face of the wooden blocks. Backstops in the half graben had a convex up internal face. Backstops in the graben had a concave up internal face. Shortening as partitioned in forward and backward movements within the sand packs, and the kinematics of contraction was largely influenced by the convex or concave internal faces. A buttress effect characterized by rotation of the sand pack close to the footwall was stronger for footwall with steeper-dipping internal faces. The results were compared to other physical experiments and applied to an inverted basin found in nature.O estilo da deformação de sequências sedimentares de bacias submetidas a uma inversão tectônica positiva foi discutido a partir da análise de modelos laboratoriais, desenvolvidos em caixas de experimentos, com camadas de areia depositadas no espaço entre dois blocos de madeira. O espaço simulava estágios de extensão crustal que conduziram à formação de (1 um hemi-graben, gerado sobre um descolamento basal lístrico, com os blocos simulando o teto e o muro; e (2 um graben, com os blocos representando as margens externas que se distanciaram ao longo de um descolamento horizontal. Combinações de dois ângulos diferentes foram usadas para simular o mergulho das falhas normais curvas ao longo da face interna dos blocos

  18. Aerial extent, composition, bio-optics and biogeochemistry of a massive under-ice algal bloom in the Arctic (United States)

    Balch, W. M.; Bowler, B. C.; Lubelczyk, L. C.; Stevens, M. W.


    almost 2 m-1), likely due to the high abundance of large diatoms. Backscattering probabilities in the bloom were ~1%, again characteristic of diatom-dominated populations with few calcifiers. PIC standing stock in the under-ice bloom was low but measurable while biogenic silica molar concentrations were 150 times greater. POC:PON molar ratios were 6-10, characteristic of healthy, rapidly growing phytoplankton, observations further buttressed by carbon:chlorophyll mass ratios of 50-100. Coccolithophore calcification was low but measurable, reaching 1.75 mg C m-3 d-1 in the under-ice bloom, only 0.4% of the photosynthesis. However, the intrinsic carbon-specific growth rate was 0.4 per day for bulk POC and ~1 per day for bulk PIC, close to maximal growth rates expected at these temperatures. SEM and light microscopy results showed mostly diatoms in the bloom. The coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, was observed, providing unequivocal evidence of the presence of coccolithophores in the under-ice algal bloom.

  19. Les peintures murales de l’église de Mălâncrav. Notes avant la restauration

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    Dana Jenei


    architectonic and spatial expression between the basilica and the Gothic choir decorated in the elaborated forms of “international style” was highlighted by the researchers and Vasile Drăguț’s theory concerning the rebuilding of the sanctuary in the late fourteenth century remains relevant, being sustained by our observation on the different heights of the dados, lower in the choir than in the church, as well as the compaction of masonry on the north, hidden by the first buttress. The scientific investigations from 2001–2002 also showed that a “Baroque restoration” or other repaintings in the choir ensemble didn’t exist, while the most important information after removing the lime in 2013 is related to the identification of certain figures, such as “Johel Propheta” and, in the newly stripped area, St. Elizabeth of Thuringia. Near the right margin of the Crucifixion appeared the damaged fragments of the Laying into the Tomb and, hypothetically, the figure of the donor. The style of the Master of the Mălâncrav sanctuary and of his team, derived from the illuminated manuscripts from the Court in Prague, can also be found in the newly discovered representations from Ighișu Nou and in the fragments of the Dârjiu Crucifixion, extracted and preserved at Budapest Szépművészeti Múzeum.

  20. Provenance of granites used to build the Santa Maria de Valdeiglesias Monastery, Pelayos de la Presa (Madrid, Spain), and conservation state of the monumental complex (United States)

    Fort, R.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.; Perez-Monserrat, E. M.; Varas-Muriel, M. J.; Lopez-Arce, P.


    The construction of the Cistercian Monastery began at 1180, in an initial Late Romanesque style in which the Church was erected; later on, in 1258, the church underwent a severe fire, only the apse stood standing. The church was reconstructed at the end of the 13th century in Mudejar style. Gothic style was used later on, in the 16th century, for the reconstruction of the funerary chapel, and Renaissance style for the Plateresque door in between the church and the sacristy. At the end of the 16th century, the main door to access the church was built in Baroque style. In 1836, the Ecclesiastical Confiscations resulted on transfer the Monastery into particular owners. This fact favoured its abandon and ruin state until 1979, when architect Mariano Garcia Benito purchased the property and started the conservation and consolidation of the complex, beginning with the Bell Tower. Natural stone materials used in the Monastery are igneous (granite) and metamorphic rocks (gneiss and schist), and artificial stone materials are bricks and mortars, both joint and rendering ones. Granite is the most abundant material used in the complex, with a structural/reinforcing role in elements such as lintels, jambs, buttresses, or bottom areas of the walls with greater sizes and better dimensioned. Some pillars are granite built, from the large ashlars of the sacristy, to the rubble-work of the Mozarab chapel. Two types of monzogranite can be differentiated in relation to distinct constructive stages: the coarse texture monzogranite is used in the first building stages, while the fine texture monzogranite was employed mainly from 17th century on. Petrophysical characteristics of these granites are different but show a good quality to be used in construction. Nevertheless, the abandon and partial ruin of the complex, the devastating fire events (the second one in 1743) leaded to the decay acceleration of the monumental complex, being nowadays the church in ruin, with no roofs and walls

  1. Protein covalent immobilization via its scarce thiol versus abundant amine groups: Effect on orientation, cell binding domain exposure and conformational lability. (United States)

    Ba, O M; Hindie, M; Marmey, P; Gallet, O; Anselme, K; Ponche, A; Duncan, A C


    to the covalent grafting immobilization methods. However no differences in exposure of the cell binding domains were observed (ELISA results) before SDS rinsing, suggesting that pFN protein grafting to the surface is initially kinetically driven be a stochastic random adsorption phenomenon. Covalent grafting acts in the final stage as a process that simply tethers and stabilizes (or freezes) the initial conformation/orientation of the adsorbed protein on the surface. In addition covalent linkage via the SSMPB approach is likely favored by surface-induce exposure of one of the normally hidden free thiol group pair, thus optimizing covalent linkage to the surface. However after SDS rinsing, this "tethering"/"freezing" effect was significantly more prominent for the GA grafting approach (due to greater number of potential covalent links between the protein and the surface) compared to that for the SSMPB approach. This hypothesis was buttressed by the improved resistance to denaturation (smaller conformational lability) for the GA compared to the SMPB approach and improved exposure of the cell binding domain for the former (>50%) even after SDS rinsing. These results are promising in that they suggest covalent tethering of fibronectin to PS substrate in a monolayer range, with significantly improved irreversible protein surface bonding via both approaches (compared to that for mere adsorption). The latter are likely applicable to a wide range of proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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    series of 15 patients with complex tibial plateau injuries with associated posterior shear fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This prospective study included 15 cases of patients with mean age of 30 years ( Age range 20 to 40 yr who sustained high velocity posterior tibial plateau fracture - subluxations with or without associated Bicondylar fractures ( Duparc, revised classification, Group – V: Postero - medial fracture and its associations. Surgical management includes by direct, dorsal approach and stabilisation with buttress plating and or also postero medial and or antero lateral approach as needed. The patients were followed up at six week, three month, six month and one year postoperatively and assessed using Oxford Knee Score and Lyshom Score. RESULTS:The mean OKS score was 40 (range 36 to 44 at the end of one year. The main clinical measures were early post - operative non weight bearing ROM, post - operative complication & functional outcome. The time to full weight bearing, t he rate of post - operative complications & functional outcome was significantly better as evident by over 94 % showing good to excellent OKS and Lyshom scores. CONCLUSION : Fractures of the postero - medial tibial plateau are challenging to treat, owing to the ir complexity and unfamiliar surgical approach. Several recent anatomic and biomechanical studies have shown that a locked plate placed from the lateral side of the proximal tibia does not capture and stabilise a typical posteromedial fragment. A direct po sterior (Medial Gastrocnemius or posterior medial approach for these unstable posterior medial tibial plateau subluxations (which are otherwise irreducible by conventional approaches and antiglide plate are usually needed to reduce the fractures anatomic ally, achieving absolute stability and mobilise early NWB, ROM of the knee joint to optimize the functional outcomes and minimise the complications, without the need for revision surgery

  3. Successes and Failures of a Freedom™ Constrained Cup Used in a Major Salvage Procedure

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    Thomas Donaldson


    depression in the ablated rim. The contra-rim featured the large Arcom fragment and the underlying liner wall was less than 1mm thick. Comparison to exemplar liners showed that the large fragment had separated along the lower edge of the constraint groove. Exemplars demonstrated a substantial rim buttress spanning 13mm, which had been ablated in our retrieval. Discussion and Conclusion: Although this was not a high-demand patient, the considerable hip-impingement forces in a flail limb likely levered the head repeatedly against the liner’s constrained rim. Neck impingement was clearly evident in the damaged liner. A subluxing femoral head would also thin the contra-wall, as would backside wear. We do not know if the eccentric ring image in Feb-2016 radiographs depicted failure. The liner may have escaped from the shell’s locking-ring and with activity, ablated the Arcom contours and led to rim fracture. It is also possible that the liner constraint was damaged when the patient fell, thereby allowing the liner to mobilize.

  4. Silver Furnishings of Medieval Altar of St. Stanislaus in Cracow Cathedral

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    Krzysztof Czyżewski


    Full Text Available The article looks at these elements of St. Stanislaus’ tomb in the Gothic Cathedral on the Wawel Hill which were made of silver. Except for one (a reliquary diptych all were destroyed and are known only from written records. The basic issue is to establish the date and the founder of a wooden coffin covered with gilded silver plates, in which the relics of the Martyr were placed. The literature on the subject attributed the foundation of the reliquary to St. Kunegunda (1234-1292, Elizabeth of Poland (1305-1380, St. Jadwiga, Hedvig of Anjou (1374-1399 and Ladislaus the Short (1260 or 1261-1333. Thanks to the records written in 1631 by a priest Jan Wielewicki which mention the renovation of the medieval coffin, we know that it had an inscription which unequivocally pointed to the person of Elizabeth of Poland, wife of a Hungarian king Charles I Robert and mother of a king of Hungary and Poland Louis d’Anjou, as the founder. A detailed description included in the records of an inspection of the Cracow Cathedral in 1670 allows an approximate reconstruction of this work of art, which was a box-reliquary of approximate measurements: 175, 8x87, 9x43, 95 cm, closed with a ridge roof cover of unknown height. It had cast decoration. The longer sides were each interspersed with 6 and the shorter with 2 pictures with the scenes from St. Stanislaus’s life. Likenesses of 18 bishops adorned both patches of the corners and axes of the shorter sides were accentuated with buttresses. Top rims of the cover were decorated with an open-work comb (tracery. Iconographic programme cannot be reconstructed on the basis of the existing sources. After a new coffin for the remains of the Saint was funded by Sigismund III, the old one was used as a reliquary for the hand and placed in St. Peter and Paul’s chapel, which - according to tradition - originally housed the tomb. After the cathedral was looted by the Swedes in 1657, the medieval reliquary was put back in

  5. The ecology, distribution, conservation and management of large old trees. (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Laurance, William F


    Large old trees are some of the most iconic biota on earth and are integral parts of many terrestrial ecosystems including those in tropical, temperate and boreal forests, deserts, savannas, agro-ecological areas, and urban environments. In this review, we provide new insights into the ecology, function, evolution and management of large old trees through broad cross-disciplinary perspectives from literatures in plant physiology, growth and development, evolution, habitat value for fauna and flora, and conservation management. Our review reveals that the diameter, height and longevity of large old trees varies greatly on an inter-specific basis, thereby creating serious challenges in defining large old trees and demanding an ecosystem- and species-specific definition that will only rarely be readily transferable to other species or ecosystems. Such variation is also manifested by marked inter-specific differences in the key attributes of large old trees (beyond diameter and height) such as the extent of buttressing, canopy architecture, the extent of bark micro-environments and the prevalence of cavities. We found that large old trees play an extraordinary range of critical ecological roles including in hydrological regimes, nutrient cycles and numerous ecosystem processes. Large old trees strongly influence the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of individuals of the same species and populations of numerous other plant and animal species. We suggest many key characteristics of large old trees such as extreme height, prolonged lifespans, and the presence of cavities - which confer competitive and evolutionary advantages in undisturbed environments - can render such trees highly susceptible to a range of human influences. Large old trees are vulnerable to threats ranging from droughts, fire, pests and pathogens, to logging, land clearing, landscape fragmentation and climate change. Tackling such diverse threats is challenging because they often

  6. Development of a multidisciplinary method for mapping spatial extent and C-content of tropical ombrotrophic peatlands (United States)

    Illés, Gábor; Kristijono, Agus; Pfeifer, Norbert; Pásztor, László; Shandhyavitri, Ari; Szatmári, Gábor; Sutikno, Sigit; Molnár, Gábor; László, Péter; Árvai, Mátyás; Mészáros, János; Koós, Sándor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Takács, Katalin; Király, Géza; Székely, Balázs


    One of the world's most worrying environmental problems is the peat land CO2 emission problem of Indonesia: peat lands developed during the Quaternary are now under strong human influence; the artificial lowering of the natural water table leads to rapid drying and compaction of the peat layer, which then becomes vulnerable to subsurface fire. The emitted CO2 of this process is assessed to be 0.5 billion tonnes from Indonesia that is slightly higher than total emission of e.g. United Kingdom in 2014 (0.42 billion tonnes). To cope with the problem it is inevitable to assess the extents of peat lands and volumetric estimation of the potentially affected layers. Methods suitable for mapping of the peat lands (current situation and as far as possible retrospectively), thickness determination and partly thickness estimation of the peat layer are integrated in an advanced geostatistical approach building upon geomorphic, ecological, remote sensing, and geophysical methods to provide information on peat matrix attributes such as peat thickness of organo-mineral horizons between peat and underlying substrate, the presence of buried wood, buttressed trees or tip-up pools and soil type. In order to cope with the problem, our research group is developing a multidisciplinary methodology making use of our experience in soil science, GIS, remote sensing for forestry and ecology, geomorphometry, geophysics, LiDAR remote sensing, parameter estimation and geostatistical methods. The methodology is based largely on GIS data integration, but also applies technologies of 'big data' processing. Our integrative attitude ensures the holistic consideration of the problem, analyzing its origins, temporal development and varying spatial extent, its subprocesses in a multi-scale, inter- and transdisciplinary approach. At the same time practical problems, feasibility, costs, and human resource need consideration in order to design a viable solution. In the development of the solution

  7. Novel chlorambucil-conjugated anionic linear-globular PEG-based second-generation dendrimer: in vitro/in vivo improved anticancer activity

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    Assadi A


    CBL alone (P<0.005. In vivo studies showed that tumor treatment by CBL–G2 dendrimer conjugate outstrips the efficacy of treatment compared with CBL alone. The evaluation was based on reduction in tumor volume and tumor growth inhibition of murine 4T1 mammary tumor cells. Tumor volume of 140%±8% was measured in the treatment with CBL–G2 dendrimer, whereas 152%±13.5% was calculated in the treatment with free CBL (P<0.05. However, there were no significant differences in histological assay among the three groups. In conclusion, tumor growth suppression potential of CBL–G2 dendrimer, which was assessed in both in vitro and in vivo experiments, has provided empirical evidence to buttress the fact that this compound could be considered for functional cancer treatment with low side effects. Keywords: anionic linear-globular dendrimer, G2, chlorambucil, CBL, in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo efficacy

  8. Further experimental analysis of the social learning and transmission of foraging information amongst Norway rats. (United States)

    Laland, K N; Plotkin, H C


    suggests that the stability of social transmission may, under some circumstances, be bolstered by individual reinforcement of socially learned and enhanced patterns of behaviour. It also lends support to the hypothesis, proposed to account for the findings of our earlier study, that motivational factors such as fatigue, may detract from subjects' performance as demonstrators when this demonstration follows closely after the additional period of individual experience, but that a 24 h period is sufficient to allow such motivational factors to decay. If individual experience can buttress socially learned traits then this interaction may act so as to prolong the period of time that a socially transmitted trait remains in a population. It is conceivable that an additional period of foraging longer than 10 min may further enhance subjects' subsequent performance as demonstrators. The complex relationship between individual and social learning has received little attention. It is not clear how, if at all, social learning is different from other forms of learning (Plotkin, 1988), apart from the obvious requirement that another animal somehow be involved in the social learning process. Boyd and Richerson (1985) argue that social and individual learning are, at least in humans, alternative ways of acquiring a particular behavioural variant. Most recent studies of animal social learning, on the other hand, tend to emphasize the stimulus enhancing role of the demonstrator animal (Galef, 1988a), thereby suggesting that social learning is a sub-category of individual learning. This study shows that individual learning can reinforce the acquisition and expression of socially acquired behavioural variants. Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Ice stream dynamics: A transition between sheet flow and shelf flow (United States)

    Hofstede, Coen Matthijs


    A problem ice sheet models using the shallow ice approximation have, is that they react slowly to a warmer atmosphere simply because it takes a long time for a large ice mass to warm up. Quite contrary to ice sheet model predictions, the Greenland Ice Sheet underwent dramatic changes in the last decade. Ice surfaces lowered in the lower parts of the ice sheet and some major outlet glaciers increased their outlet velocities dramatically. This was a incredibly quick reaction for such a big ice sheet to the present climate warming. Ice sheet models were lacking an important mechanism, a mechanism that enables ice sheets to react quickly to physical changes around the perimeter of the ice sheet. The most dramatic changes happened at three large ice streams in the southern part of Greenland. Ice streams are highly dynamic parts of an ice sheet where ice moves considerably faster that the surrounding ice sheet. They can accelerate, decelerate, shut off or start on short time intervals. Something makes the ice dynamics of ice streams very different from the major part of the ice sheet. In this thesis I develop a simple flow line model that simulates the ice dynamics of an ice stream. The model provides a gradual transition between sheet flow described by the shallow ice approximation to shelf flow. This is done by the introduction of the floating fraction φ that quantifies a flotation height of an ice column along the flow line. This flotation height gradually varies between zero at the ice sheet, to the height of the entire ice column at the ice shelf. This has consequences for the force balance the model uses. Because of the flotation height there is, next to the basal shear stress, a tensile stress and a water buttressing stress. This force balance enables the glacier to react quickly to small force perturbation changes around the marine perimeter of the ice sheet. The model is tested against Held data of Jakobshavn Isbrae, a very fast ice stream on the west coast of

  10. Ensuring Credibility of NASA's Earth Science Data (Invited) (United States)

    Maiden, M. E.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Mitchell, A. E.; Berrick, S. W.; Walter, J.; Murphy, K. J.


    Program has been improving its data management practices for over twenty years to assure permanence of data utility through reliable preservation of bits, readability, understandability, usability and reproducibility of results. While NASA has focused on the Earth System Science research community as the primary data user community, broad interest in the data due to climate change and how it is affecting people everywhere (e.g. sea level rise) by environmental managers, public policymakers and citizen scientists has led the Program to respond with new tools and ways to improve ease of access and use of the data. NASA's standard Earth observation data will soon be buttressed with the long tail of federally-funded research data created or analyzed by grantees, in response to John Holdren's OSTP Memorandum to federal departments and agencies entitled 'Increasing Access to the Results of Federally-Funded Scientific Research'. We fully expect that NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Program will be able to work with our grantees to comply early, and flexibly improve the openness of this source of scientific data to a best practice for NASA and the grantees

  11. Geologic map of the Hogback Mountain quadrangle, Lewis and Clark and Meagher Counties, Montana (United States)

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.


    The geologic map of the Hogback Mountain quadrangle, scale 1:24,000, was made as part of the Montana Investigations Project to provide new information on the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic history of an area in the geologically complex southern part of the Montana disturbed belt. In the Hogback Mountain area, rocks ranging in age from Middle Proterozoic through Cretaceous are strongly folded within and under thrust plates of equivalent rocks. Continental rocks of successive thrust plates have been telescoped eastward over a buttress of the stable continent. Erosional remnants of Oligocene andesitic basalt lie on highest surfaces eroded across the strongly deformed older rocks; younger erosion has dissected the terrain deeply, producing Late Tertiary and Quaternary deposits of alluvium, colluvium, and local landslide debris in the valleys and canyons. Different stratigraphic successions are exposed at different structural levels across the quadrangle. In the northeastern part of the quadrangle at the lowest structural level, rocks of the Upper Mississippian Big Snowy Group, including the Kibbey Formation and the undivided Otter and Heath Formations, the overlying Pennsylvanian Amsden and undivided Quadrant and Phosphoria Formations, the Ellis Group, and the Kootenai Formation, are folded and broken by thrust faults. The next higher structural level, the Avalanche Butte thrust plate, exposes strongly folded and, in places, attenuated strata of Cambrian (Flathead Sandstone, Wolsey Shale, Meagher Limestone, and undivided Pilgrim Formation and Park Shale), Devonian (Maywood Formation, Jefferson Formation, and most of the Three Forks Formation), and Mississippian (uppermost part of the Three Forks Formation and Lodgepole and Mission Canyon Limestones) ages. The overlying Hogback Mountain thrust plate contains strongly folded rocks ranging in age from the Middle Proterozoic Greyson Formation to the Upper and Lower Mississippian Mission Canyon Limestone and

  12. Femoral neck trabecular bone: loss with aging and role in preventing fracture. (United States)

    Thomas, C David L; Mayhew, Paul M; Power, Jon; Poole, Kenneth Es; Loveridge, Nigel; Clement, John G; Burgoyne, Chris J; Reeve, Jonathan


    Hip fracture risk rises 100- to 1000-fold over six decades of age, but only a minor part of this increase is explained by declining BMD. A potentially independent cause of fragility is cortical thinning predisposing to local crushing, in which bone tissue's material disintegrates at the microscopic level when compressed beyond its capacity to maintain integrity. Elastic instability or buckling of a much thinned cortex might alternatively occur under compression. In a buckle, the cortex moves approximately at right angles to the direction of load, thereby distorting its microstructure, eventually to the point of disintegration. By resisting buckling movement, trabecular buttressing would protect the femoral neck cortex against this type of failure but not against crushing. We quantified the effect of aging on trabecular BMD in the femoral neck and assessed its contribution to cortical elastic stability, which determines resistance to buckling. Using CT, we measured ex vivo the distribution of bone in the midfemoral necks of 35 female and 33 male proximal femurs from cases of sudden death in those 20-95 yr of age. We calculated the critical stress sigma(cr), at which the cortex was predicted to buckle locally, from the geometric properties and density of the cortical zone most highly loaded in a sideways fall. Using long-established engineering principles, we estimated the amount by which stability or buckling resistance was increased by the trabecular bone supporting the most stressed cortical sector in each femoral neck. We repeated these measurements and calculations in an age- and sex-matched series of femoral necks donated by women who had suffered intracapsular hip fracture and controls, using histological measurements of cortical thickness to improve accuracy. With normal aging, trabecular BMD declined asymmetrically, fastest in the supero-lateral one-half (in antero-posterior projection) of the trabecular compartment. When viewed axially with respect to the

  13. Rotura ventricular após substituição da valva mitral Ventricular disruption after mitral valve replacement

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    Marcelo Campos Christo


    combined operations. All patients were elderly women (mean age 58 with predominant mitral insufficiency. Complications occurred after isolated MVR in 3 patients and in 1 patient after MVR combined with coronary artery by-pass. Damage appeared to have been caused by rhythmical pulling exerted by sorrounding myocardium against a hypocinetic ventricular wall locally ischemic by compression of a viciously positioned prosthesis. The mis-evaluation of the mitral annulus was induced by the usage of innadequate sizers used in profoundly relaxed heart under cardioplegia. The profile of the prosthesis probably influenced the type of lesion. Modifications in the sizer's head and the usage of flexible and malleable sizer-holders, that could permit a more accurate position of sizer's head in the mitral annulus are suggested. Possible etiological co-factors are: elderly patients, particularly women, with myocardial lesions secondary to overzealous resection of papillary posterior muscle or of the mitral cusp, and the loss of the internal buttress of the myocardium after resection of subvalvar apparatus (untethered ventricle. Preserving chordae tendinae of the annulus of mural leaflet could help the prevention of these complications.

  14. The Rise and Fall of the Soufriere Hills Volcano Lava Dome, Montserrat, BWI, July 2001-July 2003: Science, Hazards, and Volatile Public Perceptions (United States)

    Dunkley, P.; Voight, B.; Edmonds, M.; Herd, R.; Strutt, M.; Thompson, G.; Bass, V.; Aspinall, W. P.; Neuberg, J.; Sparks, R.; Mattioli, G.; Hidayat, D.; Elsworth, D.; Widiwijayanti, C.


    Days after the major collapse (45 x 106 m3) of the eastern flank of the lava dome on 29 July 2001, new dome growth was observed within the 200-m deep collapse amphitheatre. accompanied by cyclic seismicity. By January 2002 the summit was broad with an altitude of 990m. A switch in dome activity occurred in April, but Growth nearly stagnated in June and part of July, with the top of the extrusion lobe at 1048m. but GPS monitoring suggested that the magma reservoir continued to inflate, and growth resumed in late July. In August, a lobe grew toward the north and buried the northern buttress and an important drainage channel that formerly led to the east. One of the regular six-monthly meetings of the Risk Assessment Panel (RAP) took place on 3-4 Sept 02 and concluded that if a NW switch in dome growth were to occur, the margins of the Belham Valley on the west could be at high risk; a flow and surge hazard line was provided to officials, crossing the populated area near Salem. Shortly after the RAP Report was finalized, a switch in growth direction toward the northwest in fact occurred. On 7 Oct, the RAP were asked to re-appraise Belham Valley risks given the altered but not unanticipated circumstances; they judged that a potential existed for a hazardous flow down Belham Valley, although RAP emphasized that their assessment did not predict that a large flow would occur soon, nor in that sector. On 8 Oct the Governor ordered an evacuation of an exclusion zone defined by the RAP's hazard line as adjusted to permit administrative control, and the boundary remained in force until Aug 03, with growing public discontent toward the Governor's exercise of Emergency Powers, and toward MVO, as expressed by a caustic vocal minority with provocative exacerbation by the local newspaper and some politicians. Meanwhile, dome growth continued with some switches in direction, a collapse of 5 x 106 m3 occurred eastward on 8 Dec to Spanish Point, and pyroclastic flows occurred in

  15. A modeling experiment on the grounding of an ice shelf in the central Arctic Ocean during MIS 6 (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.; Siegert, M.; Paton, M.


    across the section of the ridge where there is evidence for grounding. Second, even with ultra low rates of basal melting, the ice shelf thickness was always less than 200 m over the ridge. We conclude that grounding of the Lomonosov Ridge by a free-flowing ice shelf is not possible. When the strain rate was reduced to zero, however, the shelf thickness increased substantially. Such conditions are likely only to have occurred during periods of large-scale glaciation across the Eurasian Arctic such as in the Saalian, and if a substantial stagnant thickened sea ice was present in the ocean, buttressing the shelf flowing from the Barents Sea. Our results are interpreted using new techniques for dynamic 3D-visualization. Jakobsson, M., Lovlie, R., Arnold, E. M., Backman, J., Polyak, L., Knutsen, JO., and Musatov, E.,, Pleistocene stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental variation from Lomonosov Ridge sediments, central Arctic Ocean, Global and Planetary Change, 31(1-4), 1-21, 2001. Jakobsson, M., First high-resolution chirp sonar profiles from the central Arctic Ocean reveal erosion of Lomonosov Ridge sediments, Marine Geology, 158, 111-123, 1999. Polyak, L., Edwards, M. H., Coakley, B. J. and Jakobsson, M., Ice shelves in the Pleistocene Artic Ocean inferred from glaciogenic deep-sea bedforms, Nature, 410, 453-457, 2001. Svendsen, J.I. et al, Late Quaternary ice sheet history of Nortern Eurasia, submitted to Quaternay Science Reviews, in press.

  16. Implant survival, adverse events, and bone remodeling of osseointegrated percutaneous implants for transhumeral amputees. (United States)

    Tsikandylakis, Georgios; Berlin, Örjan; Brånemark, Rickard


    (three), avascular skin flap necrosis (three), and one deep implant infection. The most common radiologic finding was proximal trabecular buttressing (10 of 20 implants) followed by endosteal bone resorption and cancellization (seven of 20), cortical thinning (five of 20), and distal bone resorption (three of 20). The implant system presented a survivorship of 83% at 5 years and a 38% 5-year incidence of infectious complications related to the skin penetration site that were easily managed with nonoperative treatment, which make it a potentially attractive alternative to conventional socket arm prostheses. Osseointegrated arm prostheses have so far only been used in transhumeral amputations resulting from either trauma or tumor. Their use has not been tested and is therefore not recommended in transhumeral amputations resulting from vascular disease. This method could theoretically be superior to socket prostheses, especially in transhumeral amputees with very short residual humerus in which the suspension of a conventional prosthesis is difficult. Comparative studies are needed to support its potential superiority. Moreover, the radiological findings in this study need to be followed over time because some of them are of uncertain long-term clinical relevance.

  17. "I have a connection!": The situated sense-making of an elementary student about the role of water in modeled vs. experienced ecosystems (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa Elisabeth N.

    Current policy and research have led the field of science education towards a model of "science as practice." In the past decade, several research programs on model-based reasoning practices in education have articulated key dimensions of practice, including constructing and defending models, comparing models to empirical data, using representations to identify patterns in data and use those as inscriptions to buttress arguments. This study presents a detailed case of how the use of a physical microcosm and children's self-directed representations of an ecosystem constrained and afforded student sense-making in an urban elementary classroom. The case analyzed the experiences of a 10-year old fifth grade student, Jorge, and the variation in his expressed understanding of ecosystems as he interacted with academic tasks, along with models and representations, to design, observe and explain an ecological microcosm. The study used a conceptual framework that brings together theories of situated cognition and Doyle's work on academic task to explain how and why Jorge's perception and communication of dimensions of ecosystem structure, function, and behavior appear to "come in and out of focus," influenced by the affordances of the tools and resources available, the academic task as given by the teacher, and Jorge's own experiences and knowledge of phenomena related to ecosystems. Findings from this study suggest that elementary students' ability or inability to address particular ecological concepts in a given task relate less to gaps in their understanding and more to the structure of academic tasks and learning contexts. The process of a student interacting with curriculum follows a dynamic trajectory and leads to emergent outcomes. As a result of the complex interactions of task, tools, and his own interests and agency, Jorge's attunement to the role of water in ecosystems comes in and out of focus throughout the unit. The instructional constraint of needing to

  18. Derecho y orden social. Los presupuestos teóricos de la teoría jurídica de Carl Schmitt

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    Serrano G., Enrique


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to pick up a thesis from Schmitt, according to which law is not totally contained in its norms, but requires a concrete order besides these. I claim that by following such a principle, the theory of law increases his descriptive and explicative power. In particular, one can thus go beyond the day-to-day, technical knowledge of lawyers and judges, and render a proper explanation of the genesis and dynamical change of legal systems in general. Among other things, the said principle enables the theorist to construe the process that made it possible for the legal systems of modern societies to become autonomous. Yet, on the other hand, I make a critical remark against Schmitt’s belief that by thus explaining the relationship between a concrete order and its legal norms the latter are justified. Against this, I claim that they most comply with some kind of universal principle of justice. I support my claim against Schmitt on an argument of his own-one that he uses to buttress his view that the acknowledgment of the diversity of the human world is a prerequisite for keeping social conflict from becoming violent, and for turning it into a strictly political practice.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es recuperar la tesis de Schmitt en la que afirma que el derecho no se agota en las normas, sino que implica un orden concreto. Ello se debe a que dicha tesis permite ampliar la capacidad descriptiva y explicativa de la teoría jurídica. Especialmente, permite ir más allá del conocimiento técnico que requiere el trabajo cotidiano de los abogados y jueces, para dar cuenta de la génesis y dinámica de los sistema jurídicos. Entre otras cosas permite reconstruir el proceso que hizo posible la autonomía de los sistemas jurídicos propios de las sociedades modernas. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, se crítica la creencia de Schmitt respecto a que conceptualizar la relación entre el orden concreto y las normas jur

  19. Expansão rápida da maxila cirurgicamente assistida: estudo preliminar Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expasion: a preliminar study

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    Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito Vasconcelos


    absence of detachment of the pterygoid plate. Furthermore, osteotomies of the bilateral zygomatic buttress and the intermaxillary suture were done in both groups. The transverse discrepancy was measured in study models, a posterior-anterior cephalometric radiograph evaluated the superior and inferior zygomatic plane and the inter-tuber distance and an occlusal radiograph evaluated the intermaxillary dysjunction in the pre-operative period and 30 days post-operatively. A 7-day period of rest was given after corticotomy before starting expansion with quarter turns once a day. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between pre- and post-operative measurements. CONCLUSION: There are few randomized control trials in literature comparing the two techniques for surgically maxillary expansion. Further studies with a larger sample are required.

  20. Geocomposite with Superabsorbent as an Element Improving Water Availability for Plants on Slopes (United States)

    Pawlowski, A.; Lejcus, K.; Garlikowski, D.; Orzeszyna, H.


    Water availability for plants on a slope is usually worse, then on a plane surface. Exposure on sun radiation makes these conditions even more difficult. The key problem is how to supply plants with water. Frequently watering is good but expensive solution. To avoid often repeating of such action and/or to use as much as possible water from precipitation, it has to be retained in soil. One of the ways to increase soil water retention is superabsorbents (SAP), called often hydrogel addition to the soil. They can absorb 300 - 1000 times more water, then theirs own weight. This water can be later taken by roots system. Addition to the soil small amount of dry superabsorbent, which, after absorbing water, forms gel can affect stability of the slope top layer, diminishing soil strength parameters. Part of the strength lose can be recompensed by reinforcing action of better developed roots system, which, according to the tests are increasing soil shear strength. However because it is a living system still rest some uncertainty about its functioning over many vegetation seasons. From engineering point of view, these strength parameters are very difficult for precise calculation, control and determination of long term behaviour. Important factor of superabsorbent influence on soil shear parameters is its dosage and, as a result, final volume and properties after water absorption. If the volume of superabsorbent is not greater then available pore volume of soil, this influence is not decisive. By bigger dosage, when volume of superabsorbent with retained water is much greater then pore space volume. The soil form a suspension in hydrogel and in laboratory condition one can observe sedimentation of soil fraction at the early stage of saturation. After longer time gel's density is already high enough to support grains of soils and stop sedimentation process. By highly permeable soils, which are sometimes used in embankment construction, eg. for buttress, gel, just after

  1. Geologic map of the northeast flank of Mauna Loa volcano, Island of Hawai'i, Hawaii (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Lockwood, John P.


    SummaryMauna Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, has erupted 33 times since written descriptions became available in 1832. Some eruptions were preceded by only brief seismic unrest, while others followed several months to a year of increased seismicity.The majority of the eruptions of Mauna Loa began in the summit area (>12,000-ft elevation; Lockwood and Lipman, 1987); yet the Northeast Rift Zone (NERZ) was the source of eight flank eruptions since 1843 (table 1). This zone extends from the 13,680-ft-high summit towards Hilo (population ~60,000), the second largest city in the State of Hawaii. Although most of the source vents are farther than 30 km away, the 1880 flow from one of the vents extends into Hilo, nearly reaching Hilo Bay. The city is built entirely on flows erupted from the NERZ, most older than that erupted in 1843.Once underway, Mauna Loa's eruptions can produce lava flows that reach the sea in less than 24 hours, severing roads and utilities in their path. For example, lava flows erupted from the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) in 1950 advanced at an average rate of 9.3 km per hour, and all three lobes reached the ocean within approximately 24 hours (Finch and Macdonald, 1953). The flows near the eruptive vents must have traveled even faster.In terms of eruption frequency, pre-eruption warning, and rapid flow emplacement, Mauna Loa poses an enormous volcanic-hazard threat to the Island of Hawai‘i. By documenting past activity and by alerting the public and local government officials of our findings, we can anticipate the volcanic hazards and substantially mitigate the risks associated with an eruption of this massive edifice.From the geologic record, we can deduce several generalized facts about the geologic history of the NERZ. The middle to the uppermost section of the rift zone were more active in the past 4,000 years than the lower part, perhaps due to buttressing of the lower east rift zone by Mauna Kea and Kīlauea volcanoes. The historical flows

  2. Community health promotion and medical provision for neonatal health—CHAMPION cluster randomised trial in Nagarkurnool district, Telangana (formerly Andhra Pradesh), India (United States)

    Boone, Peter; Eble, Alex; Frost, Chris; Mann, Vera; Reddy, Padmanabh


    behaviour, buttressing existing health services, and contracting out important areas of maternal and child healthcare led to a reduction in neonatal mortality of almost the hypothesized 25% in small villages in an Indian state with high mortality rates. The intervention can be strongly justified in much of rural India, and is of potential use in other similar settings. Ongoing changes in maternal and child health programmes make it imperative that a similar intervention that establishes ties between the community and health facilities is tested in different settings. Trial registration ISRCTN registry ISRCTN24104646 PMID:28678849

  3. Anuloplastia sem suporte para tratamento da insuficiência mitral reumática Non-supported mitral annuloplasty technique for treatment of rheumatic mitral insufficiency

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    Renato A. K Kalil


    sem suporte anular profético, com resultados tardios comparáveis àqueles obtidos por técnicas mais complexas. Isto tem importância no tratamento de crianças e adultos jovens, especialmente no sexo feminino, quando se deseja evitar implante de próteses mecânicas.Since 1974 a non-supported mitral annuloplasty technique has been employed for treatment of pure mitral regurgitation (PMR, in a population that was predominantly young and of rheumatic ethnology. An evaluation of late results forms the basis of this report. There were 154 patients operated on for PMR, 55 (36% male and 99 (64% female. Mean age was 36 ± 16 (5 to 73 years. Associated lesions were: 47 aortic, 21 tricuspid and 2 ASDs (atrial aptal defects. Cases with concomitant mitral stenosis were not included. Properative functional class was I-II in 19% and III-IV in 81%. The cardiothoracic ratio was 0.61 ± 0.10. All patients were submitted to an unsupported mitral annuloplastic procedure, similar to that described by WOOLER, that consisted in reduction of the mural portion of the annulus obtained with the application of two buttressed mattress sutures at the comissures without compromisse to the width of the septal leaflet. When necessary, additional chordal procedures were performed. No patients received ring or posterior annular support. Residual late systolic murmur was present in 48%. Late complications were: systemic thromboembolism 5.8% (1/3 with aortic prosthesis, infective endocardites 1.3% and pulmonary thromboembolism 0.7%. Postoperative functional class was I-II in 84% and III-IV in 16%. Cardiothoracic ratio was 0.58 ± 0.10. Actuarial probability of late survival was 79.5 ± 5.3% at 10 years and 71.0 ± 7.4% at 14 years. Event free survival was 67.9 ± 8.9% at 10 years and 56.1 ± 11.7% at 14 years. Rheumatic mitral regurgitation can be effectively treated by annuloplasty without prosthetic annular support with late results comparable to those obtained with more complicated procedures

  4. If the Dark Ages solar peak c.525CE caused a c.5m sea-level rise 50-100y later ("ocean memory"), the stronger 1958 solar "Grand maximum" presages a >5m rise by 2058: literature review by an impartial geologist (United States)

    Higgs, Roger


    % confidence;8) the c.525CE GM(?) that caused a c.5m rise, but SL has risen just 0.3m since c.1700(1), so a further 4.7m+ is predictable by 2058. A viable cause is that whenever the sun exceeds the GM threshold(8), "superwarmed" downwelling Atlantic water eventually upwells at Antarctica, causing runaway retreat (ice-cliff collapse) of ice-sheet glaciers after melting the buttressing ice shelf. Thus the ocean "remembers" the 1958 solar GM; the Antarctic "time-bomb" is set. The forecast 5m+ SL rise should largely span 2038-2058, as the GM threshold was crossed c.20y before the GM apex(8). This implies catastrophic acceleration, in c.20y time, to an average rate >25cm/y (100x current trivial 2.5mm/y). The lookalike Dark Ages SL rise was perhaps c.50% slower (threshold possibly as much as c.45y before apex[8]). Lack of contemporary descriptions suggests that this SL rise of c.5m in c.45y (average 0.3mm/day) caused less concern than recurrent Justinian plague and frequent wars. The Dark-Ages event, preceding industrial CO2 emissions by >1ky, absolves mankind of causing climate and SL change, as does the >1.5ky solar/temperature correlation (mismatches reflect "sliding lag", proxy imperfections and volcanic aerosol/ash eruptions). Notes: 1/Jevrejeva et al.2008 GeophysResLett35Fig1; 2/Higgs2016a 35th IGC abstract; 3/Higgs2016b GSA Annual Meeting abstract; 4/Fairbridge1961 PhysicsAndChemistryOfTheEarth4Fig.15; 5/Siddall et al.2003 Nature423Fig1; 6/Mann et al.2009 Science326FigS5gAllProxy; 7/Ahmed et al.2013 NatureGeoscience6Fig4b; 8/Usoskin et al.2014 Astronomy&Astrophysics562 L10Fig2; 9/Svensmark2007 Astronomy&Geophysics48; 10/IPCC ClimateChange2014SynthesisReportFig1.1a.

  5. Community health promotion and medical provision for neonatal health-CHAMPION cluster randomised trial in Nagarkurnool district, Telangana (formerly Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Peter Boone


    November 2007. After randomisation on 18 February 2008, participants, data collectors, and data analysts were not masked to allocation. The intervention was initiated on 1 August 2008. After an inception period, the assessment start date was 1 December 2008. The intervention ended on 31 May 2011, and data collection was completed on 30 November 2011. Primary analyses followed the intention to treat principle. In all, 14,137 women were enrolled in 232 control villages, and 15,532 in 232 intervention villages. Of these, 4,885 control women had 5,474 eligible pregnancies and gave birth to 4,998 eligible children. The corresponding numbers in intervention villages were 5,664 women, 6,351 pregnancies, and 5,798 children. Of the live-born babies, 343 (6.9% in the control arm and 303 (5.2% in the intervention arm died in their first 28 days of life (risk ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.90, p = 0.0018; risk difference -1.59%, 95% CI -2.63% to -0.54%, suggesting that there were 92 fewer deaths (95% CI 31 to 152 as a result of the intervention. There were 9 (0.16% maternal deaths in the control arm compared to 13 (0.20% in the intervention arm (risk ratio 1.24, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.90, p = 0.6176; 1 death was reported as a serious adverse event. There was evidence of improved health knowledge and health practices including health service usage in the intervention arm compared to the control arm. Women in the intervention arm were more likely to rate their delivery and postnatal care as good or very good. The total cost of the CHAMPION interventions was US$1,084,955 ($11,769 per life saved, 95% CI $7,115 to $34,653. The main limitations of the study included that it could not be masked post-randomisation and that fetal losses were not divided into stillbirths and miscarriages because gestational age was not reliably reported.The CHAMPION trial showed that a package of interventions addressing health knowledge and health seeking behaviour, buttressing existing health services, and

  6. Lung volume reduction surgery for diffuse emphysema. (United States)

    van Agteren, Joseph Em; Carson, Kristin V; Tiong, Leong Ung; Smith, Brian J


    of bias across many studies, lack of blinding and low participant numbers for some outcomes. Eight of the studies compared LVRS versus standard medical care, one compared two closure techniques (stapling vs laser ablation), one looked at the effect of buttressing the staple line on the effectiveness of LVRS and one compared traditional 'resectional' LVRS with a non-resectional surgical approach. Participants completed a mandatory course of pulmonary rehabilitation/physical training before the procedure commenced. Short-term mortality was higher for LVRS (odds ratio (OR) 6.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.22 to 11.79; 1489 participants; five studies; moderate-quality evidence) than for control, but long-term mortality favoured LVRS (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.95; 1280 participants; two studies; moderate-quality evidence). Participants identified post hoc as being at high risk of death from surgery were those with particularly impaired lung function, poor diffusing capacity and/or homogenous emphysema. Participants with upper lobe-predominant emphysema and low baseline exercise capacity showed the most favourable outcomes related to mortality, as investigators reported no significant differences in early mortality between participants treated with LVRS and those in the control group (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.23 to 3.29; 290 participants; one study), as well as significantly lower mortality at the end of follow-up for LVRS compared with control (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.78; 290 participants; one study). Trials in this review furthermore provided evidence of low to moderate quality showing that improvements in lung function parameters other than forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), quality of life and exercise capacity were more likely with LVRS than with usual follow-up. Adverse events were more common with LVRS than with control, specifically the occurrence of (persistent) air leaks, pulmonary morbidity (e.g. pneumonia) and cardiovascular morbidity. Although LVRS

  7. Dataciones radiometricas (14C y K/Ar del Teide y el Rift noroeste, Tenerife, Islas Canarias

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    Hansen, A.


    unstable slopes of Teide, it took place without any apparent response of the volcano; on the contrary, these eruptions seemed to progressively buttress and enhance the stability of Teide Volcano. Conversely, the occurrence of these flank eruptions, combined with the Pico Viejo and NW rift eruptions, poses a very high lava-flow risk to the now densely populated areas in north and west Tenerife, which have been almost entirely resurfaced during the past 20,000 years.El Teide, el edificio volcánico más alto del planeta (3.718 m sobre el nivel del mar, > 7 km desde el fondo oceánico después del Mauna Loa y Mauna Kea en las islas Hawaii, forma un complejo volcánico en el centro de la isla de Tenerife. Su actividad eruptiva reciente (últimos 20 Ka está asociada con la rama NO del rift triple (120" que ha configurado la etapa reciente de construcción de la isla. La mayoría de las erupciones de Tenerife en este período se han localizado en estas estructuras volcánicas, generando frecuentes y extensas coladas máficas y félsicas, muchas alcanzado la costa e invadiendo lo que es ahora una de las zonas más densamente pobladas de Tenerife y, probablemente, de cualquier isla oceánica del planeta. Sin embargo, y a pesar de los numerosos estudios y proyectos previos, falta aún información geológica básica para este importante sistema volcánico, en particular la datación de las diferentes erupciones que lo componen, con objeto de reconstruir el marco geocronológico indispensable para conocer su evolución y determinar científicamente los riesgos volcánicos, de perentoria necesidad habida cuenta de su naturaleza y entidad, y de la población potencialmente afectada. Nuevas dataciones de Carbono-14 y K/Ar aportan ahora importante información a este respecto. La mayoría de las erupciones de los últimos 20 Ka no están relacionadas con el estratovolcán Teide, que sólo ha tenido una hace 1.240 f 60 años -entre 663 y 943 AD una vez calibrada la edad-, sino con el