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Sample records for buttresses

  1. Patterns of tree buttressing at Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Abu Hanifa Mehedi; Chandan Kundu; Md. Qumruzzaman Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    We describe patterns of buttress formation and development in eleven tree species at Lawachara National Park,Bangladesh.Forty-five percent of trees of these 11 species had buttresses.Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb.showed maximum (87%) buttress formation,whereas Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.did not show any buttress.Buttresses were recorded in 20%-40% of trees of six species and 40%-60% of trees in three species.Mean length and height of buttress varied among the species and ranged from 0.37-1.37 m and 0.71-2.13 m,respectively.Buttress height,mean buttress length,total buttress length,and total length plus length of secondaries increased with DBH (diameter at breast height) and tree height.Buttress number did not increase with DBH or tree height.Under-storey and mid-canopy trees produced less developed buttresses than did emergent trees (p<0.01).Wood density showed moderate effects on buttress characters (p<0.05),while the slope of the land did not.Canopy category was a primary regulating factor for tree buttressing,suggesting that buttresses are mechanical adaptations of trees to counter physical stresses.

  2. Femoral neck buttressing: a radiographic and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To examine the incidence, radiographic and histologic findings of medial femoral neck buttressing in a consecutive group of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.Design. Biomechanical parameters were evaluated on standard anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 113 patients prior to hip replacement surgery. Demographic information on all patients was reviewed and histologic evaluation was performed on specimens obtained at the time of surgery.Results. The incidence of medial femoral neck buttressing was found to be 50% in a consecutive series of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The incidence was slightly higher in women (56% vs 41%). Patients with buttressing had increased neck-shaft angles and smaller femoral neck diameters than were seen in patients without buttressing. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that the buttress resulted from deposition bone by the periosteum on the femoral neck in the absence of any evidence of femoral neck fracture.Conclusion. It would appear that femoral neck buttressing occurs in response to increased joint reactive forces seen at the hip being transmitted through the femoral neck. The increased joint reactive force can be related to the increased neck shaft angle seen in patients with buttressing. (orig.)

  3. Dorsal Buttress Plate Fixation of Ulnar Carpometacarpal Joint Fracture Dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, En Si; Chao, Tay Shian

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method for open reduction and internal fixation of early and unstable ulnar (fourth and/or fifth) carpometacarpal joint (CMCJ) fracture subluxations or dislocations using a dorsal buttress plate. In ulnar CMCJ fracture dislocations, the metacarpal has a tendency to displace dorsally and proximally when there is an axial load. Using the dorsal buttress plate method of fixation, a plate is fixed proximally to the hamate, aligned parallel and dorsal to the metacarpal to act as a buttress, to resist this movement. To preserve the fourth and the fifth CMCJ mobility, the distal end of the plate is not fixed to the metacarpal base. We illustrate the use of this technique on 4 patients who had different patterns of injury at the ulnar CMCJ. All patients regained excellent range of motion and function. None of the patients had redisplacement or nonunion of fracture. The dorsal buttress plate is a viable option for fixation of early and unstable ulnar CMCJ fracture subluxations or dislocations. PMID:27077465

  4. The flying buttress construct for posterior spinopelvic fixation: a technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ooij Bas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posterior fusion of the spine to the pelvis in paediatric and adult spinal deformity is still challenging. Especially assembling of the posterior rod construct to the iliac screw is considered technically difficult. A variety of spinopelvic fixation techniques have been developed. However, extreme bending of the longitudinal rods or the use of 90-degree lateral offset connectors proved to be difficult, because the angle between the rod and the iliac screw varies from patient to patient. Methods We adopted a new spinopelvic fixation system, in which iliac screws are side-to-side connected to the posterior thoracolumbar rod construct, independent of the angle between the rod and the iliac screw. Open angled parallel connectors are used to connect short iliac rods from the posterior rod construct to the iliac screws at both sides. The construct resembles in form and function an architectural Flying Buttress, or lateral support arches, used in Gothic cathedrals. Results and discussion Three different cases that illustrate the Flying Buttress construct for spinopelvic fixation are reported here with the clinical details, radiographic findings and surgical technique used. Conclusion The Flying Buttress construct may offer an alternative surgical option for spinopelvic fixation in circumstances wherein coronal or sagittal balance cannot be achieved, for example in cases with significant residual pelvic obliquity, or in revision spinal surgery for failed lumbosacral fusion.

  5. Outcome of open reduction and internal fixation of volar barton fracture treated with buttress plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the outcome of volar Barton fracture treated with T-plate and locking plate. Methodology: From December 2011 to August 2014, prospective case series study was conducted at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences/Civil Hospital, Karachi and included 45 patient of volar Barton fracture treated with buttress plate and locking plate. Colles fracture, dorsal barton and comminuted intraarticular fractures were excluded from the study. Results: Out of 45 patients, 33(73%) were male and 12(27%) female, Age ranged from 20 to 50 years. 17(38%) had fall and 28(62%) road traffic accident. 7(16%) patients were treated with locking plates and 38(84%) with T- buttress plate. Functional outcome was assessed on the basis of modified clinical staging system of Green and O'Brien, which showed excellent result in 20(44%) patient, good in 16(36%), fair in 7(16%), and poor in 2(4%) patients. Volar Barton fracture was associated with concomitant injuries, especially in trauma patients, 4(27%) had mid shaft femur fracture, 2(13%) scaphoid fracture, 4(27%) metacarpals and 5(33%) ulnar styloid fractures. With 9 months follow up, union was observed in all patients within 8 to 12 weeks. Conclusion: volar Barton fractures are unstable injuries; chances of displacement after closed reduction are high. So we recommend open reduction and internal fixation with T- buttress plate or locking plate to get the excellent functional outcome. (author)

  6. Internal fixation with headless compression screws and back buttress plate for treatment of old Hoffa fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Tu Chongqi; Wang Guanglin; Fang Yue; Duan Hong; Liu Lei; Zhang Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the early clinical and radiographic outcomes of Hoffa fractures treated by a standard protocol of open reduction and internal fixation using headless compression screws combined with back buttress plate in a consecutive series of 8 Chinese patients.Methods:Open reduction and internal fixation was performed on all patients.The fractures were anatomically reduced and held temporarily by K-wire.If the ends of fractures were atrophic,autologous bone graft from the ipsilateral iliac crest was packed between the ends.Then the fracture fragments were fixed with AO 6.5 mm headless compression cannulated screws.At least two screws were used to provide rotational stability.One pre-contoured reconstruction plate was placed on the nonarticular surface posteromedially or posterolaterally as back buttress plate.Results:All the patients were followed up for at least 12 months (range 12-25 months).All fractures achieved anatomical reduction and healed clinically and radiographically.At recent follow-up,the mean flexion degree was 120.6° (range 110°-135°) and the mean extension degree was 2.5° (range 0°-5°).The average visual analogue scale score was 1.6 points (range 0-3).Six patients were assessed as excellent and 2 as good according to the hospital for special surgery knee score system.There were no superficial or deep infections,or hardware breakages.No patient had giving way or locking of the knee,though some had intermittent pain and swelling after strenuous exercise.Injury mechanism had significant influence on the functional outcome (P=0.046).Conclusion:Headless compression screws combined with back buttress plate and/or autologous bone grafting to treat old Hoffa fracture is one of effective measures.It would be conducive to not only fracture healing but also early exercise and functional recovery.

  7. Internal fixation with headless compression screws and back buttress plate for treatment of old Hoffa fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the early clinical and radiographic outcomes of Hoffa fractures treated by a standard protocol of open reduction and internal fixation using headless compression screws combined with back buttress plate in a consecutive series of 8 Chinese patients. Methods: Open reduction and internal fixation was performed on all patients. The fractures were anatomically reduced and held temporarily by K-wire. If the ends of fractures were atrophic, autologous bone graft from the ipsilateral iliac crest was packed between the ends. Then the fracture fragments were fixed with AO 6.5 mm headless compression cannulated screws. At least two screws were used to provide rotational stability. One pre-contoured reconstruction plate was placed on the nonarticular surface posteromedially or posterolaterally as back buttress plate. Results: All the patients were followed up for at least 12 months (range 12-25 months. All fractures achieved anatomical reduction and healed clinically and radiographically. At recent follow-up, the mean flexion degree was 120.6° (range 110°-135° and the mean extension degree was 2.5° (range 0°-5°. The average visual analogue scale score was 1.6 points (range 0-3. Six patients were assessed as excellent and 2 as good according to the hospital for special surgery knee score system. There were no superficial or deep infections, or hardware breakages. No patient had giving way or locking of the knee, though some had intermittent pain and swelling after strenuous exercise. Injury mechanism had significant influence on the functional outcome (P=0.046.Conclusion: Headless compression screws combined with back buttress plate and/or autologous bone grafting to treat old Hoffa fracture is one of effective measures. It would be conducive to not only fracture healing but also early exercise and functional recovery. Key words: Fractures, bone; Fracture fixation, internal; Intra-articular fractures

  8. The relevance of buttressing for Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronja; Gudmundsson, Hilmar; Levermann, Anders; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2016-04-01

    Sub-shelf melting is an important component of Antarctica's mass budget. Although thinning of ice shelves does not directly contribute to sea-level rise, it may have a significant indirect impact through the potential of ice shelves to buttress their adjacent ice sheet. This is clearly seen in recent observations, e.g. in the Amundsen region (Pritchard et al., 2012) or at the Southern Antarctic Peninsula (Wouters et al, 2015) where increased ice loss of the adjacent upstream drainage basins is attributed to enhanced sub-shelf melting. In the extreme case, the complete disintegration of an ice shelf, e.g. during the calving events of Larsen A and B in 1995 and 2002, respectively, the adjacent ice streams subsequently accelerated significantly (Scambos et al., 2014). Here, we investigate the importance of buttressing using the finite-element, shallow-stream approximation numerical model Úa. We derive transfer functions for an idealized setup (Gudmundsson et al. 2012) and the Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf. They allow for the computation of instantaneous changes in velocities to thickness perturbation patterns. Based on the transfer functions, we calculate the sensitivity of flux across the grounding line to regional varying melting patterns for the idealized setup and for Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf. We find that the immediate response of velocities in the ice shelf-ice sheet system to changes in sub-shelf melting can be understood as the interaction of two effects: On the one hand, the spreading rate is a function of local ice thickness, indicating that a thinning of the ice shelf reduces velocities. On the other hand, ice shelf thinning weakens its ability to buttress, and thus enhances velocities. These two processes compete, leading to a complex pattern of velocity changes within the ice shelf. We find - both in the idealized setup and for Ross and Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelves - that the reduction in buttressing is dominating the velocity changes in the

  9. Buttress plating for a rare case of comminuted medial condylar Hoffa fracture associated with patellar fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashwani Soni; Ramesh K Sen; Uttam Chand Saini; Dajjit Singh; Sushil Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Hoffa fracture is an uncommon injury.In the literature,lateral condylar Hoffa fracture is mentioned as a more common injury pattern than medial condylar Hoffa fracture.The mechanism of injury and method of treatment is not very well described in the literature.We are presenting a rare case of comminuted medial condylar Hoffa fracture with ipsitateral patellar fracture.The mechanism of injury has not been described in the literature.Lag screw fixation,which is the most acceptable method of treatment,is not possible due to comminution.We explain the possible mechanism of injury and fix the fracture with L-buttress plate.

  10. Buttressing staples with cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) reinforces staple lines in an ex vivo peristaltic inflation model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2008-11-01

    Staple line leakage and bleeding are the most common problems associated with the use of surgical staplers for gastrointestinal resection and anastomotic procedures. These complications can be reduced by reinforcing the staple lines with buttressing materials. The current study reports the potential use of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) in non-crosslinked (NCEM) and crosslinked (XCEM) forms, and compares their mechanical performance with clinically available buttress materials [small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and bovine pericardium (BP)] in an ex vivo small intestine model.

  11. On the geometry and allometry of big-buttressed trees - a challenge for forest monitoring: new insights from 3D-modeling with terrestrial laser scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nölke N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In many old-growth natural and close-to-natural forest types, notably in humid tropical forests, a relatively small number of very tall trees contribute considerably to stand basal area and biomass. Such trees often show distinct buttress roots with irregular non-convex shapes. Buttresses are complex structures in the lowest stem section, where most tree biomass is located. The methods used to assess the diameter of buttressed trees have a large impact on the determination of volume and biomass, as well as on the resulting estimates of the aboveground carbon stock in tropical forests. As the measurement of diameter at breast height (DBH at 1.3 m is not feasible in such conditions, the diameter above buttress (DAB, where the cylindrical bole of the tree begins, is usually measured and included as an independent variable in biomass models. We conducted a methodological study aimed at determining the volume and biomass of individual buttressed trees belonging to several tropical species by the application of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. The geometry and allometry of the buttresses, as well as the change with height along the stem in buttress volume and cross-sectional area were analyzed. Our results suggest that the relationship between cross-sectional areas at DAB height (ADAB and the actual tree basal area measured at 1.3 m height is relatively strong (R² = 0.87 across a range of different species, buttress morphologies and tree dimensions. Furthermore, the change in stem cross-sectional area with tree height was surprisingly similar and smooth. Despite the small number of trees sampled, the methodological approach used in this study provided new insights on the very irregular geometry of buttressed trees. Our results may help improving the volume and biomass models for buttressed trees, that are crucial contributors to carbon stocks in tropical forests.

  12. Treatment of Displaced Sacroiliac Fracture Using the Lateral Window for Short Plate Buttress Reduction and Percutaneous Sacroiliac Screw Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colin G.; Gill, James R.; Carrothers, Andrew D.; Hull, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Fractures through the sacroiliac joint are very challenging to treat, technically difficult to reduce through closed methods on account of the multiaxial displacement of fractures fragments, frequently occur in very unwell patients, and have poor outcomes if malreduction is present. We describe a technique utilising the lateral window and a short buttress plate to reduce and stabilize the fragments prior to percutaneous fixation with sacroiliac screws. PMID:27200398

  13. Buttressing and reverse reactivation of a normal fault in the Jurassic rocks of the Asturian Basin, NW Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzkeda, H.; Bulnes, M.; Poblet, J.; García-Ramos, J. C.; Piñuela, L.

    2013-06-01

    A detailed structural analysis was carried out on the Jurassic rocks cropping out along the cliffs of La Conejera Inlet (Asturias, Spain). It includes a geological map and a distortion-free cross-section constructed via photogrammetric methods. La Conejera Inlet is located within the Asturian Basin, a Permian-Mesozoic extensional basin partially formed during the opening of the Bay of Biscay. It suffered selective basin inversion during a Cenozoic contraction responsible for the Pyrenees and its western prolongation along the north margin of the Iberian Peninsula. The study of the structures (folds, faults, joints and veins) of the hangingwall of two normal faults with opposite dip senses reveals that it underwent a later compressional stage in which one fault block acted as a buttress. The contractional deformation in the hangingwall, interpreted as a deformed rollover anticline with an associated antithetic fault, diminishes on moving away from one of the main faults. The positive inversion tectonics produced not only a buttressing effect, but it also involved a certain amount of reverse reactivation of one of the main faults that still preserves a normal displacement. The original normal motion would have taken place during the Middle?-Late Jurassic, related to an embryonic stage of the opening of the Bay of Biscay. The later contractional stage would have been caused by the Cenozoic Alpine shortening. The good outcrop quality allows a relative chronology for the observed structures to be established. Employing all the available information we tried to reconstruct the structure at depth and predict the detachment depth, and to estimate the amounts of extension (the present-day value and that before the compression) and compression.

  14. The Use of Bovine Pericardial Buttress on Linear Stapler Fails to Reduce Pancreatic Fistula Incidence in a Porcine Pancreatic Transection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maciver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effectiveness of buttressing the surgical stapler to reduce postoperative pancreatic fistulae in a porcine model. As a pilot study, pigs (n=6 underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy using a standard stapler. Daily drain output and lipase were measured postoperative day 5 and 14. In a second study, pancreatic transection was performed to occlude the proximal and distal duct at the pancreatic neck using a standard stapler (n=6, or stapler with bovine pericardial strip buttress (n=6. Results. In pilot study, 3/6 animals had drain lipase greater than 3x serum on day 14. In the second series, drain volumes were not significantly different between buttressed and control groups on day 5 (55.3 ± 31.6 and 29.3 ± 14.2 cc, resp., nor on day 14 (9.5 ± 4.2 cc and 2.5 ± 0.8 cc, resp., P=0.13. Drain lipase was not statistically significant on day 5 (3,166 ± 1,433 and 6,063 ± 1,872 U/L, resp., P=0.25 or day 14 (924 ± 541 and 360 ± 250 U/L. By definition, 3/6 developed pancreatic fistula; only one (control demonstrating a contained collection arising from the staple line. Conclusion. Buttressed stapler failed to protect against pancreatic fistula in this rigorous surgical model.

  15. The role of pinning-points, marine ice and subglacial channeling in defining the buttressing strength of the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Reinhard; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Berger, Sophie; Callens, Denis; Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Within the coastal belt of Dronning Maud Land, many ice shelves, which are freely floating otherwise, reattach to localized highs in the bathymetry on the ice-shelf front. These localized pinning-points exert a buttressing force, which typically slows down the ice shelves farther upstream. Our interest is to quantify this buttressing effect, and to determine as to whether or not, the comparatively small pinning-points can play a decisive role in defining the mass balance of tributary glaciers. We consider the Roi Baudouin ice shelf, which is laterally confined by two large ice rises, and pinned on the ice-shelf front by a small ice rumple. It buttresses the western Ragnhild glacier. On the ice-shelf surface, satellite imagery reveals a number of elongated surface depressions, which are aligned along-flow and which correspond to a sub-ice shelf channeling system. We present the results of two consecutive field seasons which were geared at unraveling the combined effect of ice rumple and subice-shelf channels on the ice shelf's buttressing strength. Around 130 km of multi-frequency radar profiles map the channeling as well as the basal interface of the pinning-point. We observe strongly dipping internal layers within the surface depressions and a firmly grounded ice rumple. Data from a 20 x 25 km wide GNSS strain net is extended spatially on a 50 m grid with the help of satellite derived surface velocities. Six wide-angle radar surveys within the research grid show that the depth-averaged density varies spatially on scales that are smaller than the grid size in commonly applied Antarctic-wide firn densification models. The density variations are significant, and need to be taken into account when comparing the hydrostatically inverted GPS thickness with the measured radar thickness. Notwithstanding the ice-rumple's small extent (1-2 km), the combined strain rates show a shear zone which extends all the way back to the grounding line and emphasizes the importance of

  16. CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES MANAGED BY LIGAMENTOTAXIS AND/OR PERCUTANEOUS PINNING VERSUS OPEN REDUCTION & INTERNAL FIXATION BY BUTTRESS PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: We studied the clinical and functional outcome of distal radius fractures managed by ligamentotaxis and/or percutaneous pinning versus open reduction & internal fixation by buttress plates. METHODS : This prospective study was conducted during Aug 2012 to October 2014. All skeletally matured patients were having both Intra articular and extra articular Closed Distal Radius fractures were studied. Treatment was done either external fixator supplemented with k wires or internal fixation with plate and screws. The radiographic evaluation included radial length, palmar tilt, any evidence of jointincongruity and radio ulnar joint instability and arthritis. The assessments that were made includes Subjective assessment – pain, numbness, weakness of hand, stiffness, OBJECTIVE : R ange of motion measured by hand held goniometer, Measurement of grip strength done by commercially available hand dynamometer. Unaffected hand served as control. RESULTS : Male patients (85.46% outnumbered female patients (14.54% in incidence. The incidence of distal ra dius fractures was common between the ages of 20 to 40 years. Left sided fractures were more common (52.73%. Type III was most common type of fracture (Frykman’s Classification, accounting for 29% of all fractures.25 cases were treated by external fixati on and 30 cases were treated by open reduction and buttress plating. The results were evaluated by using STEWART ET AL anatomical and functional scoring system. The average range of movement at the knee joint was Dorsiflexion 70*, Palmar Flexion 65*, Ulnar Deviation 25*, Radial Deviation 15*, Supination 70*, Pronation 65*. Most common early complication was pin tract infection. Based on the stewar et al scoring, 4(7.27% had excellent, 43(78.18% had good, 7(12.72% had fair, 1(1.81% had poor results. CONC LUSION : We observed that both fixations were equally same, there is no superiority with over the other. The incidence of complications in

  17. The use of a subfascial vicryl mesh buttress to aid in the closure of massive ventral hernias following damage-control laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Adam M; Low, David W

    2003-09-01

    Damage control laparotomy for life-threatening abdominal conditions has gained wide acceptance in the management of exsanguinating trauma patients as well as septic patients with acute abdomen. Survivors considered too ill to undergo definitive abdominal wall closure are temporized, often with skin grafting on granulated viscera. These maneuvers compromise the integrity of the anterior abdominal wall and result in a subset of patients with loss of abdominal domain and massive, debilitating ventral hernias. A retrospective review was conducted of 21 such patients (16 men, five women) who underwent elective abdominal wall reconstruction at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between November of 1998 and October of 2000. The purpose of this study was to report the authors' experience with these complex abdominal wall reconstructions. A double-layer, subfascial Vicryl mesh buttress was used in all repairs to aid in reestablishing abdominal wall integrity. The mean hernia size was 813 cm2 (range, 75 to 1836 cm2), and the average interval to definitive repair was 24.4 months (range, 3 weeks to 11 years). Mean follow-up was 13.5 months (range, 1 month to 40 months). Twenty patients (95 percent) had successful ventral hernia repair. Four patients with massive hernias (924 to 1836 cm2) required submuscular Marlex mesh implantation. Two patients (10 percent) developed abdominal compartment syndrome that required surgical decompression. One patient (5 percent) developed an incisional hernia at a prior colostomy site. Four patients (19 percent) had superficial skin dehiscence that healed secondarily with daily wound care. There were no mesh infections. In most cases, successful single-stage repair of large ventral hernias following damage control laparotomy can be achieved using a subfascial Vicryl mesh buttress in combination with other established reconstructive techniques. Massive defects exceeding 900 cm2 typically require permanent mesh implantation to achieve

  18. 'Extra-regional' strike-slip fault systems in Chile and Alaska: the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream vs. Beck's Buttress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, T. F.; Scholl, D. W.; Fitzgerald, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    us to speculate towards the role of obliquity of plate tectonic convergence for the along-strike evolution of extra-regional strike-slip systems. Highly-oblique initiation of the DFS encourages detachment of fault-bounded terranes and provides a driver that encourages a westward-fanning pattern of extrusion towards the free face of the Beringian margin. Plausibly, its less-oblique central segment promotes vertical pathway exhumation observed at (for example) Denali itself. A more orthogonal regime drives the entire LOFZ, precluding slivering at its initiation and promoting upstream buttressing (Beck et al., 1993). The convergent plate boundary setting opens a window through time and space on the evolution of large-magnitude fault-systems. Escape, or not to escape ~ what best answers the question ? Citations Redfield, T. F., Scholl, D. W., Fitzgerald, P. G., and Beck, M. E., & 2007. Escape tectonics and the extrusion of Alaska: past, present, and future. Geology. 35, 11, 1039-1042 Beck, M.E., Rojas, C. and Cembrano, J. (1993). “On the nature of buttressing in margin-parallel strike-fault systems.” Geology, Vol. 21, pp. 755-758.

  19. 非API规格偏梯形螺纹接头套管连接强度计算%Calculation on Tension Strength of Non API Size Casing with Buttress Thread Connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬丙寅; 吕拴录; 张宏

    2011-01-01

    通过对塔里木油田250.83 mm套管使用情况调研,发现目前使用的250.83 mm套管采用API 244.48 mm偏梯形螺纹接头,其连接强度远低于管体.设计了与250.83 mm套管管体匹配的250.83 mm非API规格偏梯形螺纹套管接头.通过力学计算和有限元分析,证实250.83 mm管体配250.83 mm非API规格偏梯形螺纹接头套管比现有250.83 mm管体配API 244.48 mm标准偏梯形螺纹接头的套管连接强度大幅度提高.通过对API标准套管接头连接强度公式进行分析,得出了既可满足API套管连接强度计算,又可满足非API标准套管接头连接强度计算的公式.%An investigation on 250.83 mm casing used in Tarim oil field is given,and it was found that the tension strength of 250.83 mm casing with API 244.48 mm buttress thread connection was far less than that of its pipe body.The new 250.83 mm buttress thread connection was designed for 250.83 mm casing.It is proved that the tension strength of 250.83 mm casing with 250.83 mm buttress thread connection was far more than that of 250.83 mm casing with API 244.48 mm buttress thread connection per carrying out calculation and FEA.The new formula was devised via analysis API tension strength formula of casing connection,which is not only satisfied to calculation tension strength of API casing connection,but also to non API casing connection.

  20. Effect Analysis of Thread Tolerance Zone on Seal of Buttress Thread%螺纹公差带对偏梯形螺纹密封性的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭泉霖; 何世明; 郭元恒; 段玲

    2014-01-01

    For the reason of the influence of the tolerance zone,there exist a gap between the API buttress casing thread,and the formation of spiral shape space gap.This gap is influenced by the height of thread tolerance zone,tooth type angle tolerance zone,taper tolerance zone and the tip of thread,thread root arc radius tolerance zone.From the view of the gap area caused by the toler-ance zone,the effect on the sealing of the buttress thread is analyzed,and the calculation results show that the high tolerance zone effect the most,the second is the tooth,tooth bottom arc radius tolerance zone effect,and the tooth type angle tolerance effect is the least,the effect of the taper tolerance zone is controlled by the button on the site.At last,some reasonable measures are pro-posed to improve the connection sealing.The results provide the technical supports for the de-sign,machining,and on-site evaluation of fit-for-service of buttress thread casing.%API 套管偏梯形螺纹由于公差带的影响,使螺纹牙之间存在间隙,形成螺旋状的空间间隙带,并受到螺纹牙高公差带、牙型角公差带、锥度公差带和牙顶、牙底弧半径公差带的影响。依据公差带产生的最大间隙,分析了4个公差带对螺纹密封性的影响大小。计算结果表明:牙高公差带影响最大,牙顶、牙底弧半径公差带影响次之,牙型角公差带影响最小,锥度公差带的影响受现场上扣情况的控制。提出了合理改善密封性的措施,有助于优化偏梯形螺纹设计和加工控制,为现场检查判断偏梯形螺纹的适用性提供了依据。

  1. Operations buttressed by research - and everything works smoothly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Ahtikari, J.; Repo, A. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The central Finnish town of Jyvaeskylae is home to an IVO energy generation facility which is regarded as one of the most successful power-plant configurations in the world. During its ten years of operation, the Rauhalahti Power Plant, which produces 140 megawatts of district heat, 65 megawatts of industrial steam and 87 megawatts of electricity, has proved successful in terms of both profitability and technology

  2. Effect of load flank angle modifications on the structural integrity of buttress threaded connections

    OpenAIRE

    Galle, Timothy; Van Wittenberghe, Jeroen; Jula, Felicia Camelia; De Waele, Wim; DE BAETS, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    One of the main requirements of threaded & coupled connections used in oil-producing wells is the ability to resist high tensile loads. In order to ensure integrity under ever-increasing loads, the geometric parameters of the connection can be modified. In this paper, an FEA study of a 4.5 inch casing connection is reported to examine the effects of a modified load angle in combination with high tensile forces. The focus is on two failure mechanisms: jump-out and plastically deformed zones. F...

  3. Salter-Harris II forearm fracture reduction and fixation using a buttress plate

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Jonathan; Webb, Mark; Fearon, Paul V

    2014-01-01

    Distal radius fractures are common injuries in children. Those that affect the growth plate (physis) need to be managed carefully as inadequate management may lead to long-term deformity and a reduction in function. However, different management strategies all have drawbacks and controversy exists over how best to manage these cases. This is the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with a Salter Harris II fracture, which was managed using a novel approach of utilising a T plate in a buttr...

  4. Buttress plating for a rare case of comminuted medial condylar Hoffa fracture associated with patellar fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Ashwani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Hoffa fracture is an uncommon injury. In the literature, lateral condylar Hoffa fracture is mentioned as a more common injury pattern than medial condylar Hoffa fracture. The mechanism of injury and method of treatment is not very well described in the literature. We are present- ing a rare case of comminuted medial condylar Hoffa frac- ture with ipsilateral patellar fracture. The mechanism of in- jury has not been described in the literature. Lag screw fixation, which is the most acceptable method of treatment, is not possible due to comminution. We explain the pos- sible mechanism of injury and fix the fracture with L-but- tress plate. Key words: Fractures, bone; Knee joint; Femur; Pa- tella

  5. Are seasonal calving dynamics forced by buttressing from ice mélange or undercutting by melting? Outcomes from full-Stokes simulations of Store Gletscher, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Todd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use a full-Stokes 2-D model (Elmer/Ice to investigate the flow and calving dynamics of Store Gletscher, a fast flowing outlet glacier in West Greenland. Based on a new, subgrid-scale implementation of the crevasse depth calving criterion, we perform two sets of simulations; one to identify the primary forcing mechanisms and another to constrain future stability. We find that the mixture of icebergs and sea-ice, known as ice mélange or sikussak, is principally responsible for the observed seasonal advance of the ice front, whereas submarine melting plays a secondary role. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the glacier's calving dynamics are sensitive to seasonal perturbation, but are stable on interannual timescales due to the glacier's topographic setting. Our results shed light on the dynamics of calving glaciers while explaining why neighbouring glaciers do not necessarily respond synchronously to changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing.

  6. 弯矩载荷作用下偏梯形套管连接螺纹参量敏感性分析%THE PARAMETER SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF BUTTRESS CASING CONNECTING THREAD UNDER ACTION OF BENDING LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝效华; 高原; 贾彦杰

    2012-01-01

    井眼弯曲段的套管在承受常规载荷的同时还要承受弯矩载荷作用,因此导致弯曲段套管连接螺纹失效率较直井段要高,然而目前对套管连接螺纹在弯矩载荷作用下的力学行为认识尚不明确。针对该问题,该文基于虚功原理、接触非线性理论及Von Mises屈服准则,运用有限元分析软件建立并计算了弯矩载荷作用下套管连接螺纹的三维力学模型,获得了套管连接螺纹的应力分布规律,并用实验结果与数值模拟结果对比验证了模型的有效性;在此基础上对螺纹锥度、承载面角度、导向面角度、齿高及螺距五个螺纹参量进行了敏感性分析,最后总结了弯矩载荷作用下各螺纹参量对其应力分布的影响规律。该文的研究工作为套管偏梯形连接螺纹的优化设计提供了科学依据,对减少套管连接螺纹失效具有重要的工程价值。%The casing connecting thread bears both bending load and conventional load in the curved portion,which cause the casing connecting thread with higher failure rate in the curved portion than in the straight well.However,at present the mechanical behavior of casing connecting thread under bending load is indeterminate.Aiming at this issue,a 3-D mechanical model of the connecting thread is established and calculated by the finite-element analysis software based on the principle of virtual work,contact nonlinear theory and Von Mises elastic-plastic criteria,to obtain stress distribution of the casing connection thread.The comparison of numerical simulations and experimental results illustrates the validity of the model.On that basis,the parameter sensitivity of the taper,angle of bearing surface,angle of oriented surface,tooth depth and screw pitch are analyzed,and the influence of each parameters to the stress distribution under bending load is concluded.This paper provides the science basis to optimal designing,and it has important project significance on reducing the failure rate of casing connecting thread.

  7. Autobuttressing of colorectal anastomoses using a mesenteric flap.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H M

    2013-12-01

    Anastomotic leakage is a common and dreaded complication of colorectal surgery. Many different approaches have been tried to attempt to reduce leakage and associated morbidity. The concept of reinforcement of an anastomosis by buttressing is well established. Techniques described include using sutures, native omentum, animal or synthetic material. We report a technique for buttressing using a mesenteric flap to envelope the anastomosis. The primary rationale is to reduce clinical sequelae of anastomotic leakage by promoting local containment, as well as providing a scaffold for healing. Using autologous tissue provides a safe, time-efficient and cost-effective buttress without the risks of infection or reaction associated with foreign material. A mesenteric flap is particularly useful in patients in whom omentum is not available due to previous surgery, or to fill the dead space posterior to a low anastomosis within the pelvis.

  8. Citizen Participation Through Communicative Action: Towards a New Framework and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The paper addresses public involvement in transport planning and introduces the concepts of communicative action to buttress and complement technical rationality, currently used in the transport planning process. A real-life case study is presented to demonstrate how communicative action was succ......The paper addresses public involvement in transport planning and introduces the concepts of communicative action to buttress and complement technical rationality, currently used in the transport planning process. A real-life case study is presented to demonstrate how communicative action...

  9. The Limits of Learning: Homelessness and Educating the Employable Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Across national contexts, in the attempt to develop and buttress "knowledge economies", increasing pressure is placed on the need for flexible lifelong learners capable of constant knowledge and skills renewal. In this paper, I explore the impact of this broader sociopolitical context on the policy approach to poverty and, in particular,…

  10. Reliability of Children's Testimony in the Era of Developmental Reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

    2012-01-01

    A hoary assumption of the law is that children are more prone to false-memory reports than adults, and hence, their testimony is less reliable than adults'. Since the 1980s, that assumption has been buttressed by numerous studies that detected declines in false memory between early childhood and young adulthood under controlled conditions.…

  11. Teachers Unions in Turbulent Times: Maintaining Their Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tamara V.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on niche theory, I describe the resource dimensions that compose teachers unions' niche and explain how aspects of the current political landscape buttress or undermine teachers unions' realization of those resources. I also discuss teachers unions' strategies to oppose any threats that undermine the realization of the resource arrays that…

  12. Public Pedagogy and the Politics of Neo-Liberalism: Making the Political More Pedagogical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2004-01-01

    Neo-liberalism has reached a new stage in the United States, buttressed largely by the almost seamless alliances formed among the Bush administration, religious fundamentalists, neo-conservative extremists, the dominant media, and corporate elites. This article explores the various ways in which neo-liberal cultural politics works as a form of…

  13. Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malaysia - IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    The Securities Commission Malaysia (SC), as the supervisor of the capital markets, has developed a robust supervisory framework that exhibits high levels of implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation (IOSCO Principles) in most areas. The SC's independence will be buttressed by some changes to the legal provi...

  14. Exposure in and out of School: A Black Bermudian Male's Successful Educational Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ty-Ron M. O.; Arnold, Noelle Witherspoon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The influence of non-school based venues has been historically significant for people of African descent who have often had to buttress their schoolhouse experiences with support from community-based influences. For example, Black churches, barbershops and athletic environments like basketball courts, and soccer and cricket…

  15. Citizen Participation Through Communicative Action: Towards a New Framework and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The paper addresses public involvement in transport planning and introduces the concepts of communicative action to buttress and complement technical rationality, currently used in the transport planning process. A real-life case study is presented to demonstrate how communicative action was succ...

  16. The energy situation and the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in oil price is discussed in the context of the reduction in economic growth. It is argued that energy saving must be buttressed by diversification into other sources of supply. The contribution of nuclear power is considered from the points of view of economics, technology and employment and objections to nuclear power are discussed. (U.K.)

  17. 75 FR 69061 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., Stephanie H Brown, Thomas E Bryan, Paul F Bryan, William N Burch, Linda C Burrows, Charles W Buttress, Larry..., Jeffrey M Amaral, David M Anderson, Cynthia V Anderson, Margot H Aoki, Steven Nmn Ascanio, Xavier Nmn... Boulden Iii, John S Boyd, David O Boyd, Gerald G Boyko, Thomas R Boyle, William J Brese, Robert F...

  18. On the Distance Dependence of the Price Elasticity of Telecommunications Demand; Meta-analysis, and Alternative Theoretical Backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwersloot, Hans; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    The positive correlation between the absolute price elasticity of telecommunications demand and the distance of the calling relation is well known. In this paper we first present a meta-analysis of existing studies to buttress the distance dependence empirically. The analysis confirms the existence

  19. The Places and Spaces of News Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Historically, or so we would like to believe, the story of everyday life for many people included regular, definitive moments of news consumption. Journalism, in fact, was distributed around these routines: papers were delivered before breakfast, the evening news on TV buttressed the transition...

  20. Life Skills Yield Stronger Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Tommie, Jr.; Mabie, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    After one failed attempt to buttress the prospects of black males at a racially diverse high school, teachers fashioned a life skills class that was heavy on racial pride and personal insight. In so doing they borrowed liberally from the Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching by Margery Ginsberg and Raymond Wlodkowski that leans…

  1. Following In Darwin’s Footsteps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chinese paleontologists’ remarkable fossil findings buttress and expand Darwin’s theory Fossil discoveries across China are contributing, as well as offering new insights, to the ever-evolving theories presented by English naturalist Charles Darwin a century and a half ago.

  2. Design and Strength Analysis of A Spherical Connector for Lifting Subsystem in Deep Sea Mining System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ya-li; ZHANG Wen-ming; FENG Fu-zhang

    2006-01-01

    A flexible connector of lifting pipes in a deep sea mining system is designed. The buttress thread (based on API standard) is used and foreign experience in connector design is referred to. With this kind of connector, the lifting pipe will only bear the axial force, free of moment. The strength of the connector is analyzed in detail, including the connecting strength of the buttress thread, the dynamic load of the pipe system, pressures inside and outside of the pipe, the lateral stress of the pipe wall and so on. Especially, a geometric model is built for 3-D contact stress analysis. The distribution graph of contact stress is presented. It is indicated that the strength of the spherical connector meets the demand.

  3. Clinical Use of Deferoxamine in Distraction Osteogenesis of Irradiated Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Arash; Rapp, Scott; Donneys, Alexis; Buchman, Steven R; Wan, Derrick C

    2016-06-01

    The deleterious effects of radiotherapy, including hypovascularity and hypocellularity, have made distraction of irradiated bones challenging. Animal studies, however, have demonstrated adjunctive measures such as the administration of deferoxamine to significantly improve bone regeneration across irradiated distraction gaps. In this report, the authors demonstrate, for the first time, enhanced bone formation following deferoxamine application in a patient following distraction of a previously irradiated maxilla. Computed tomography imaging of the pterygomaxillary buttress on the side of administration revealed significantly increased bone area and density relative to the contralateral buttress. This is the first presentation of clinical deferoxamine use to promote bone formation following irradiated bone distraction and highlights the promise for this adjunctive measure to make outcomes after distraction of irradiated bone more reliable. PMID:27171947

  4. Instrumentalizing Szeklerland Autonomy Through Szekler Memory Sites and Rites in post-1989 Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Szedlacsek

    2015-01-01

    In post-communist Romania, Szekler political and intellectual elites have taken advantage of a long discursive tradition on Szekler autonomy, which developed throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries within the nationalizing states (Brubaker 1996) of Hungary and Romania. As part of the interwar ideology of Transylvanianism, a particular Szekler identity-construction mechanism was developed, buttressed by a rhetoric on geographical remoteness in relation to the centers of power of Buda...

  5. The Eastern Partnership Initiative: A New Opportunity for Neighbours?

    OpenAIRE

    Korosteleva, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The EU's relationship with its neighbours to the east has long been founded on the aspiration to build a kind of partnership that does not automatically offer the prospect of membership to former Soviet republics apart from the Baltic States. The mechanism for this was initially the European Neighbourhood Policy, embracing a wider range of countries, which has been further buttressed by the Eastern Partnership initiative (EaP) in an effort to revitalize the partnership-building process in the...

  6. The molecular biology revolution and the rise of bioscience megacentres in North America and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Cooke

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on 'triple helix' effects in biosciences. Scientific change can have profound socioeconomic effects. The molecular biology revolution tilted pharmaceuticals production away from its fine chemistry path dependence into microbiology and biotechnology. The key to any triple helix effects has thus shifted to universities and spinouts buttressed with burgeoning public funding, leaving 'big pharma' increasingly playing the role of licenser and marketer of bought-in therapeutic tr...

  7. The mechanisms of corporate governance in the United States: an assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrighi Dante Mendes

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the mechanisms of corporate governance currently at work in the United States. Section 1 turns its focus to the reasons accounting for the still relative scarceness of large shareholders in American publicly held companies. The analysis thereafter concentrates on assessing the efficacy of each of the pillars purportedly buttressing the American system of corporate control. The paper argues that the evidence provided by the existing corporate governance literature...

  8. Relative Resources: Inequality in Ethnic Wars, Revolutions, and Genocides

    OpenAIRE

    Marie L. Besançon

    2005-01-01

    Political scientists and economists have exhaustively examined the nexus between economic inequality and political conflict (EI-PC nexus) in aggregated civil wars. This article revisits the nexus and its related theories, empirically and parsimoniously testing the effects of inequality on disaggregated intrastate conflicts. The results buttress the notion that traditionally deprived identity groups are more likely to engage in conflict under more economically equal conditions, while class or ...

  9. American Indians, American Imperialism, and Defying Empire at Home and Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Robert

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, American Indians defended their communities by challenging the racial and moral assumptions that buttressed Euro-American claims of superiority. Native writers understood how the rhetoric of civilization and progress cast American Indians as backward, helping to justify the federal government's violation of tribal sovereignty, the division of tribal lands, and the suppression of Native cultures. American Indians were fully cognizant of the deleterious con...

  10. Radio Spectrum and the Disruptive Clarity OF Ronald Coase.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas W. Hazlett; David Porter; Smith, Vernon L.

    2009-01-01

    In the Federal Communications Commission, Ronald Coase (1959) exposed deep foundations via normative argument buttressed by astute historical observation. The government controlled scarce frequencies, issuing sharply limited use rights. Spillovers were said to be otherwise endemic. Coase saw that Government limited conflicts by restricting uses; property owners perform an analogous function via the "price system." The government solution was inefficient unless the net benefits of the alternat...

  11. The medicalization of beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Poli Neto; Sandra N.C. Caponi; Silvana Polchlopek

    2007-01-01

    Concern with body image and medical interventions related to physical beauty has greatly increased in the past few years. The purpose of this study is to investigate how medicine is dealing with the theme of beauty. The 2003/2004 editions of the periodicals Aesthetic Surgery Journal and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery were analyzed, in order to investigate the rationality buttressing their discourse. Three categories were prioritized for this study: definition of aesthetic plastic surgery's study o...

  12. On the Distance Dependence of the Price Elasticity of Telecommunications Demand; Meta-analysis, and Alternative Theoretical Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ouwersloot, Hans; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    The positive correlation between the absolute price elasticity of telecommunications demand and the distance of the calling relation is well known. In this paper we first present a meta-analysis of existing studies to buttress the distance dependence empirically. The analysis confirms the existence of distance dependence, and gives insight into the size of the effect.Next we look for various explanations of the distance dependence. We analyse the roles of the functional form of demand functio...

  13. Contraceptive medicalisation, fear of infertility and teenage pregnancy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Helen; Souza, Ana D.; Tavares, Patrícia A.; Cruz, Suélen H.; Béhague, Dominique P.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, as in many other countries, teenage pregnancy is widely recognised as a public health problem. Buttressed by a public health science of the economics of teenage pregnancy that emphasises the postponement of parenthood as key to poverty reduction, young people's lack of appreciation for medical knowledge of contraceptives is most often credited for failed attempts to reduce teenage pregnancy. Based on a longitudinal ethnographic study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil, with young people ...

  14. Parental Resistance to Child Rights: The case of Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Brown

    2001-01-01

    Janet Brown explores the perceived roots of some of the resistance of Jamaican parents to the concept of child rights, on the assumption that this understanding can guide strategies in either tackling or buttressing parents' defenses. She draws on Caribbean research related to child-rearing and child-caring practices and on recent focus groups with parents and children in which the intersection of child-rearing culture and concepts of child rights has been explored. Development (2001) 44, 28–...

  15. L'autorité comme base normative de l'organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, James R.

    2012-01-01

    International audience From authority to authorization The authority of established governments has recently been challenged to an extent that is exceptional: the "arab spring," for example, leading to the overthrow or challenge to régimes that have exercised power for decades, in tunisia, libya, egypt, Bahrain, Syria; in europe the populist response to official efforts to buttress the Euro; in America, the "Occupy Wall Street" movement and its numerous look-alikes. in my talk i will explo...

  16. The evolving instability of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Khazendar, A; Borstad, CP; Scheuchl, B.; E. Rignot; H. Seroussi

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Following the 2002 disintegration of the northern and central parts of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, the tributary glaciers of the southern surviving part initially appeared relatively unchanged and hence assumed to be buttressed sufficiently by the remnant ice shelf. Here, we modify this perception with observations from IceBridge altimetry and InSAR-inferred ice flow speeds. Our analyses show that the surfaces of Leppard and Flask glaciers directly upstream from their groundi...

  17. Floating Knee Injury Associated with Patellar Tendon Rupture: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Singaravadivelu Vaidyanathan; Jagannath Panchanathan Ganesan; Mugundhan Moongilpatti Sengodan

    2012-01-01

    Floating knee injuries are frequently associated with other concomitant injuries to the ipsilateral limb or other parts of body of which injury to the ipsilateral knee ligaments carries significance for various reasons. A middle-aged man sustained a floating knee injury following RTA. DCS fixation by bridge plating technique for the distal femur and lateral buttress plating by MIPO technique for proximal tibia were planned and executed under spinal anesthesia with image intensifier. In additi...

  18. Technology Corner: Dating of Electronic Hardware for Prior Art Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Sellam Ismail

    2012-01-01

    In many legal matters, specifically patent litigation, determining and authenticating the date of computer hardware or other electronic products or components is often key to establishing the item as legitimate evidence of prior art. Such evidence can be used to buttress claims of technologies available or of events transpiring by or at a particular date.In 1945, the Electronics Industry Association published a standard, EIA 476-A, standardized in the reference Source and Date Code Marking (E...

  19. Mechanics of masonry vaults: The equilibrium approach

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta Fernández, Santiago

    2001-01-01

    The theory of masonry structures should take into account the essentials of the material "masonry": heterogeneity, good compressive strength, almost no resistance to tension, and a high friction coefficient. Besides, it should be appropriated to the usual structural type of old masonry buildings, i.e., vaulted structures with massive buttresses. Finally, it should consider that cracks are present in most masonry buildings and that these cracks may vary with time. From the end of the seventee...

  20. Public Sphere, Politics and The Internet in Mainland China

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every communication medium – from pamphlets, newspapers, radio to television – has two-sided influences in politics. On the one side, they can buttress authoritarian governments. On the other side, their potential in democracy promotion is also magnificent and undeniable. Especially in digital age, the improvement in freedom of expression has been more and more associated with the impact of the Internet, new media and mobile phone communication. For China, while its economic development and m...

  1. Social Interaction and Urban Sprawl

    OpenAIRE

    Brueckner, Jan Keith; Ann G. Largey

    2006-01-01

    Various authors, most notably Putnam (2000), have argued that low-density living reduces social capital and thus social interaction, and this argument has been used to buttress criticisms of urban sprawl. If low densities in fact reduce social interaction, then an externality arises, validating Putnam’s critique. In choosing their own lot sizes, consumers would fail to consider the loss of interaction benefits for their neighbors when lot size is increased. Lot sizes would then be inefficient...

  2. Teflon strip pneumostasis for excision of giant emphysematous bullae.

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, J M; Hubbard, W G; Matthews, H. R.

    1987-01-01

    Excision of giant emphysematous bullae commonly results in a persistent air leak that requires prolonged intercostal drainage and delays recovery. To minimise this we have used Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) strips to buttress the suture line and secure pneumostasis. During 1976-84 eight bullae were excised in seven patients. One patient had bilateral staged thoracotomies. All chest drains were removed within eight days (mean 4.5 days) and no patient developed pulmonary complications. At lo...

  3. Republic of San Marino; 2010 Article IV Consultation — Staff Report; Supplement to the Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for San Marino

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the economic development and growth of San Marino are discussed. For liquidity management, the Central Bank of San Marino was commended. Different measures have been taken to enhance the operational autonomy of the Central Bank of San Marino (CBSM), buttress supervisory functions, and strengthen Antimoney Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT). The goals to reduce the fiscal deficit are encouraged, but counseled that the credibility of fiscal plans would ...

  4. Church of Saint-James at leuven (B) - Structural Assessment and Consolidation Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Schueremans, Luc; Van Balen, Koenraad; Brosens, Kris; VAN GEMERT, Dionys; Smars, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The construction of the church dates back from 1220. During several subsequent building phases, the wooden roofs in the central and side naves were replaced with masonry vaults, and flying buttresses were added. The structure itself is located on a former swamp, resulting in large differential settlements. In the past, restoration works took place. However, due to the excessive cracks observed, it was decided in 1963 to close the church for service, to remove the severely cracked masonry vaul...

  5. Shear-induced reorganization of renal proximal tubule cell actin cytoskeleton and apical junctional complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yi; Gotoh, Nanami; Yan, Qingshang; Du, Zhaopeng; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2008-08-12

    In this study, we demonstrate that fluid shear stress (FSS)-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization and junctional formation in renal epithelial cells are nearly completely opposite the corresponding changes in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) [Thi MM et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16483-16488]. Mouse proximal tubule cells (PTCs) were subjected to 5 h of FSS (1 dyn/cm(2)) to investigate the dynamic responses of the cytoskeletal distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin), ZO-1, E-cadherin, vinculin, and paxillin to FSS. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that FSS caused basal stress fiber disruption, more densely distributed peripheral actin bands (DPABs), and the formation of both tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). A dramatic reinforcement of vinculin staining was found at the cell borders as well as the cell interior. These responses were abrogated by the actin-disrupting drug, cytochalasin D. To interpret these results, we propose a "junctional buttressing" model for PTCs in which FSS enables the DPABs, TJs, and AJs to become more tightly connected. In contrast, in the "bumper-car" model for ECs, all junctional connections were severely disrupted by FSS. This "junctional buttressing" model explains why a FSS of only 1/10 of that used in the EC study can cause a similarly dramatic, cytoskeletal response in these tall, cuboidal epithelial cells; and why junctional buttressing between adjacent cells may benefit renal epithelium in maximizing flow-activated, brush border-dependent, transcellular salt and water reabsorption. PMID:18685100

  6. Imaging of high-energy midfacial trauma: what the surgeon needs to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment goals in severe midfacial trauma are restoration of function and appearance. Restoration of function is directed at multiple organ systems, which support visual acuity, airway patency, mastication, lacrimation, smelling, tasting, hearing, and facial expression. Victims of blunt facial trauma expect to look the same after surgical treatment as before injury. Delicate soft tissues of the midface often make cosmetic reconstructive surgery technically challenging. Generally, clinical evaluation alone does not suffice to fully characterize facial fractures associated with extensive swelling, and the deeper midface is not accessible to physical examination. Properly performed computed tomography (CT) overcomes most limitations of presurgical examination. Thus, operative approaches and sequencing of surgical repair are guided by imaging information displayed by CT. Restoration of function and appearance relies on recreating normal maxillofacial skeletal anatomy, with particular attention to position of the malar eminences, mandibular condyles, vertical dimension and orbital morphology. Due to its pivotal role in surgical planning, CT scans obtained for the evaluation of severe midfacial trauma should be designed to easily depict the imaging information necessary for clinical decision making. Learning objectives: 1. Understand the facial skeletal buttress system; 2. Understand how the pattern of derangement of the buttress system determines the need for and choice of operative approach for repair of fractures in the middle third of the face; 3. Understand the role and importance of CT and CT reformations in the detection and classification of the pattern of buttress system derangement

  7. 浅谈尼日利亚Minna games city体育场结构设计%On Structural Design of Minna Games City Stadium in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆向晓

    2014-01-01

    以尼日利亚Minna Games City体育场结构设计为例,介绍该体育场看台Y型柱设计、空间复杂屋盖选型、建模、抗风设计、钢屋盖支撑墩设计等关键问题的处理思路和方法,以供同类工程参考。%This paper discusses on structural design of Minna Games City Stadium in Nigeria by stand foundation, steel roof buttress, concrete frame structure and steel-structure canopy for reference.

  8. Limousin: Is the Cogema judged?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association Springs and Rivers of the Limousin (S.R.L.) informs for more than ten years, against the pollution provoked in the department of Haute Vienne by the rehabilitation of the Cogema old uranium mines. It is from 1994 that the Criirad expert 's report comes to buttress up the allegations of S.R.L. The laboratory notes the lack of storage centers adapted to the radioactive nature of mine residues as well as an important radioactive and chemical contamination of sediments in several rivers and exposes the negligence of the Cogema and the Drire. (N.C.)

  9. Endoscopic repair of transsellar transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele; case report and review of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalessi, M.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an extremely rare case of transsellar transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele in a 36-year-old woman with pituitary dwarfism complaining of nasal obstruction. Imaging studies showed a bony defect in the sellar floor and sphenoid sinus with huge nasopharyngeal mass and 3rd ventricle involvement. Using endoscopic endonasal approach the sac was partially removed and the defect was reconstructed with fat and fascial graft, and buttressed with titanium mesh and septal flap. Visual field improvement was noticed post-operatively and no complication was encountered during follow-up. So, endoscopic endonasal approach with partial resection of the sac is a safe and effective treatment for this disease

  10. Tower of Babel: A special report on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the report was to reveal the scope of the nuclear industry in the south and the importance of the region to the nuclear dream/nightmare. The report was divided into three sections: the first detailed the south's involvement in each phase of the fuel cycle, from uranium mining to waste disposal. The second section focused on the region's private electric utility companies, which use their entrenched political and financial connections to buttress the crumbling support for nuclear power. The third section explored public power agencies purchasing a share of privately built nuclear reactors

  11. Ice rises: The double role of imprinting and archiving ice-dynamics at the sheet-shelf boundary of Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Drews, Reinhard; Eisen, Olaf; Martin, Carlos; Steinhage, Daniel; Pattyn, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Almost three-quarters of the Antarctic ice-sheet boundary is in contact with the ocean. Floating ice shelves extend the continental ice seawards and provide an interface for the interaction of ice and ocean. Ice rises are grounded features embedded within ice-shelves. They typically develop a local ice-flow regime which on the one hand buttresses the large-scale ice flow from the Antarctic continent, and on the other hand may stabilize the grounding-line position on a inland facing bedrock sl...

  12. Technology Corner: Dating of Electronic Hardware for Prior Art Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellam Ismail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In many legal matters, specifically patent litigation, determining and authenticating the date of computer hardware or other electronic products or components is often key to establishing the item as legitimate evidence of prior art. Such evidence can be used to buttress claims of technologies available or of events transpiring by or at a particular date.In 1945, the Electronics Industry Association published a standard, EIA 476-A, standardized in the reference Source and Date Code Marking (Electronic Industries Association, 1988.(see PDF for full tech corner

  13. Syllable parsing in English and French

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, M

    1995-01-01

    In this paper I argue that Optimality Theory provides for an explanatory model of syllabic parsing in English and French. The argument is based on psycholinguistic facts that have been mysterious up to now. This argument is further buttressed by the computational implementation developed here. This model is important for several reasons. First, it provides a demonstration of how OT can be used in a performance domain. Second, it suggests a new relationship between phonological theory and psycholinguistics. (Code in Perl is included and a WWW-interface is running at http://mayo.douglass.arizona.edu.)

  14. Control and cost accounting practices in the Spanish royal tobacco facfory

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, Salvador; Ezzamel, Mahmoud; Gutiérrez, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the cost accounting system implemented in 1773 by a large Spanish tobacco company which operated as a monopolist. Drawing on data extracted from original archives, the paper examines the characteristics of the cost system within the broader context of a strict control system. The paper argues that there was a connection between the two systems. One of the main roles of the cost accounting system was to buttress a set of structural measures instituted in the...

  15. No fifth force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Hopes that geophysicists might be able to document a fifth force of nature have diminished, as new measurements and analyses of earlier geodetic experiments have yielded no solid evidence of a non-Newtonian component of gravity.Modern physics recognizes four fundamental forces with distinct spheres of influence: The strong and weak nuclear forces operate over the range of one atom, while gravity and electromagnetism have an infinite range. Gravity measurements over a few centimeters in laboratories and over millions of kilometers in space continue to buttress Issac Newton's conclusion that the gravitational force between two objects decreases as the square of the distance between them.

  16. The surgical management of spontaneous esophageal perforation (Boerhaave's syndrome) ‒ 20 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzetta, Edgardo; Kokudo, Takashi; Uldry, Emilie; Yamaguchi, Takamune; Kudo, Hiroki; Ris, Hans-Beat; Christodoulou, Michel; Vuilleumier, Henri; Halkic, Nermin

    2016-05-23

    Spontaneous esophageal perforation (Boerhaave's syndrome) is an uncommon and challenging condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment is indicated in the large majority of cases and different procedures have been described in this respect. We present the results of a mono-institutional evaluation of the management of spontaneous esophageal perforation over a 20-year period. The charts of 25 patients with spontaneous esophageal perforation treated at the Surgical Department of the University Hospital of Lausanne were retrospectively studied. In the 25 patients, 24 patients were surgically treated and one was managed with conservative treatment. Primary buttressed esophageal repair was performed in 23 cases. Nine postoperative complications were recorded, and the overall mortality was 32%. Despite prompt treatment postoperative morbidity and mortality are still relevant. Early diagnosis and definitive surgical management are the keys for successful outcome in the management of spontaneous esophageal perforation. Primary suture with buttressing should be considered as the procedure of choice. Conservative approach may be applied in very selected cases. PMID:27052150

  17. Grounding-line migration in plan-view marine ice-sheet models: results of the ice2sea MISMIP3d intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Frank; Perichon, Laura; Durand, Gaël; Gagliardini, Olivier; Favier, Lionel; Hindmarsh, Richard; Zwinger, Thomas; Participants, Mismip3d

    2013-04-01

    Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models able to simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison experiment for plan-view marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no buttressing effects from lateral drag). A unique steady state grounding line position exists for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed under those simplified conditions. Perturbation experiments specifying spatial (lateral) variation in basal sliding parameters permitted the evolution of curved grounding lines, generating buttressing effects. The experiments showed regions of compression and extensional flow across the grounding line, thereby invalidating the boundary layer theory. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which neither resolve membrane stresses, nor reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line, are invalid. Steady-state grounding line positions were found to be dependent on the level of physical model approximation. Models that only include membrane stresses result in ice sheets with a larger span than those that also incorporate vertical shearing at the grounding line, such as higher-order and full-Stokes models. From a numerical perspective, resolving grounding lines requires a sufficiently small grid size (

  18. Grounding line transient response in marine ice sheet models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Drouet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine ice-sheet stability is mostly controlled by the dynamics of the grounding line, i.e. the junction between the grounded ice sheet and the floating ice shelf. Grounding line migration has been investigated within the framework of MISMIP (Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, which mainly aimed at investigating steady state solutions. Here we focus on transient behaviour, executing short-term simulations (200 yr of a steady ice sheet perturbed by the release of the buttressing restraint exerted by the ice shelf on the grounded ice upstream. The transient grounding line behaviour of four different flowline ice-sheet models has been compared. The models differ in the physics implemented (full Stokes and shallow shelf approximation, the numerical approach, as well as the grounding line treatment. Their overall response to the loss of buttressing is found to be broadly consistent in terms of grounding line position, rate of surface elevation change and surface velocity. However, still small differences appear for these latter variables, and they can lead to large discrepancies (> 100% observed in terms of ice sheet contribution to sea level when cumulated over time. Despite the recent important improvements of marine ice-sheet models in their ability to compute steady state configurations, our results question the capacity of these models to compute short-term reliable sea-level rise projections.

  19. Analogue modelling of the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice sheets grounded below sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Zeoli, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The sudden breakup of ice shelves is expected to result in significant acceleration of inland glaciers, a process related to the removal of the buttressing effect exerted by the ice shelf on the tributary glaciers. This effect has been tested in previous analogue models, which however applied to ice sheets grounded above sea level (e.g., East Antarctic Ice Sheet; Antarctic Peninsula and the Larsen Ice Shelf). In this work we expand these previous results by performing small-scale laboratory models that analyse the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice streams draining an ice sheet grounded below sea level (e.g., the West Antarctic Ice Sheet). The analogue models, with dimensions (width, length, thickness) of 120x70x1.5cm were performed at the Tectonic Modelling Laboratory of CNR-IGG of Florence, Italy, by using Polydimethilsyloxane (PDMS) as analogue for the flowing ice. This transparent, Newtonian silicone has been shown to well approximate the rheology of natural ice. The silicone was allowed to flow into a water reservoir simulating natural conditions in which ice streams flow into the sea, terminating in extensive ice shelves which act as a buttress for their glaciers and slow their flow. The geometric scaling ratio was 10(-5), such that 1cm in the models simulated 1km in nature; velocity of PDMS (a few mm per hour) simulated natural velocities of 100-1000 m/year. Instability of glacier flow was induced by manually removing a basal silicone platform (floating on water) exerting backstresses to the flowing analogue glacier: the simple set-up adopted in the experiments isolates the effect of the removal of the buttressing effect that the floating platform exerts on the flowing glaciers, thus offering insights into the influence of this parameter on the flow perturbations resulting from a collapse event. The experimental results showed a significant increase in glacier velocity close to its outlet following ice shelf breakup, a process similar to what

  20. The effect of quality attributes in determination of price for plantation-grown Teak (Tectona grandis logs in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K.P.C. Jayawardhane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the highly demanded timber species in Sri Lanka. When buying teak logs, customers assess their quality by visual appraisal of surface characteristics such as visible defects. Hence, the buyers’ preference for logs with desired attributes is reflected by the price achieved in the market. In this study, we examined the influence of visually observable quality attributes of plantation grown teak logs on their market price. A set of 650 randomly selected teak logs were assessed for dimensions, shape defects, surface defects and end-defects. Length of the log, mid-circumference (under bark, diameter at top-end and butt-end, number of knots per meter, average diameter of the knots, bend fraction, percentage of heartwood, shape of the log, presence of buttress, position of the hollows, presence of felling damages, splits and heart rot were recorded using standard methods. Selling prices of logs were obtained from the records of log storing facilities. By using the multiple linear regressions, a price-quality model was developed to explain the impact of quality attributes on sellingprice. The regression model achieved a strong coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.87. Accordingly, the length, mid-circumference, number of knots per meter, bend fraction, hollow position, presence of buttresses and presence of heart rot were found to have a significant influence on the price. The relative price reduction due to presence of a specific log defect was further examined using the derived price-quality model. The presence of high number of knots had the highest detrimental impact on price, followed by the higher bend fraction, presence of hollows at top end and/or middle of the log, presence of heart rot and presence of buttresses respectively. These findings have implications in the improved management of teak plantations.

  1. Heterochronic processes in human evolution: an ontogenetic analysis of the hominid pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, C

    1998-04-01

    Changes in pelvic shape in human ontogeny and hominid phylogeny suggest that the heterochronic processes involved differ greatly from the neotenic process traditionally described in the evolution of the skull. The morphology of 150 juvenile and adult pelves of African apes, 60 juvenile and adult pelves of modern humans, two adult pelves and a juvenile hip bone of australopithecines (Sts 14, AL 288, MLD 7) was studied. Multivariate results, ontogenetic allometries, and growth curves confirm that the pelvic growth pattern in humans differs markedly from those of the African apes. The results permit the following conclusions. First, the appearance of a new feature (acetabulo-cristal buttress and cristal tubercle) at the time of human birth allows the addition of traits, such as the attainment of a proportionally narrower pelvis, with more sagittally positioned iliac blades. Pelvic proportions and orientation change progressively in early childhood as bipedalism is practiced. Other changes in pelvic proportions occur later with the adolescent growth spurt. Second, comparison of juvenile and adult australopithecines to modern humans indicates that 1) some pelvic traits of adult Australopithecus resemble those of neonate Homo; 2) the pelvic growth of Australopithecus was probably closer to that of apes, than to that of humans; and 3) prolonged growth in length of hindlimb and pelvis after sexual maturity seems to be a unique feature of Homo. The position of the acetabulo-cristal buttress and of the cristal tubercle on the ilium are similar in adult Australopithecus and neonate Homo suggesting that this feature may have been displaced later during hominid evolution. Progressive displacement of the acetabulo-cristal buttress on the ilium occurs both during hominid evolution (from Australopithecus to Homo sapiens) and human growth (from neonate to adult). This suggests peramorphic evolution of the pelvic morphology of hominids combining three processes of recapitulation

  2. The 11th Century Collapse of Aqaba on the North Coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Fault System, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Tina; Allison, Alivia; Rucker, John

    2010-05-01

    The city of Aqaba is situated at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba along the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform Fault. Based both on the historical accounts and archaeological excavations, it is clear that earthquakes have played a significant role in the history of the region. The early Islamic city of Ayla was probably founded around 650 A.D., suffered some damage as a result of the 748 A.D. earthquake, and saw extensive reconstruction around the beginning of the Abbasid period (Whitcomb, 1994). Among other evidence of earthquake destruction at the Islamic city of Ayla is the leaning city Sea wall. Stratified pottery collections from our February 2009 excavation of the buttress of the city wall of Ayla strongly suggest a date for revetment construction in the early 11th Century. Based on the fact that the most recent pottery from sealed loci inside the buttress wall is late Abbasid - Fatimid and the absence of handmade pottery often found in the abandonment phases, the buttress was likely constructed after liquefaction damage from the 1033 earthquake. Damage from distant source earthquakes (748 and 1033) in the ancient city was repaired in antiquity. The destruction and loss of life (accounts claim that all but 12 residents who had been out fishing were killed) caused by the 1068 earthquake may account for the relative ease with which Baldwin I of Jerusalem took over when he arrived with a small retinue in 1116 A.D. Paleoseismic trenches in the modern city of Aqaba indicate that at least two earthquakes have occurred after deposits dated to 1045-1278 A.D. A preliminary analysis of the stratigraphy in new trenches in the Taba sabkha north of Aqaba shows at least three separate faulting events, with the most recent event located at a depth of 70 cm below the ground surface. This finding supports the initial ground penetrating radar survey conducted at the southern end of the Taba sabkha by Abueladas (2005). These data document a long period of quiescence

  3. "Reclaiming the white daughter's purity": Afrikaner nationalism, racialized sexuality, and the 1975 Abortion and Sterilization Act in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the struggle over abortion law reform that preceded the enactment in 1975 of the first statutory law on abortion in South Africa. The ruling National Party government produced legislation intended to eliminate access to doctors willing to procure abortions in an attempt to prevent young, unmarried white women from engaging in premarital (hetero) sexual activity. It was also aimed at strictly regulating the medical profession’s actions with regards to abortion. The production of the abortion legislation was directly influenced by international struggles for accessible abortion and, more broadly, sexual liberation. The regime believed South Africa was being infiltrated by Western "immorality" and the abortion law was an attempt to buttress racist heteropatriarchal apartheid culture. Examining the abortion controversy highlights the global circulation of ideas about reproduction in the twentieth century and foregrounds a neglected dimension of the history of sexual regulation in apartheid South Africa: the disciplining and regulation of white female reproductive sexuality. PMID:20857591

  4. Community Engaged Leadership to Advance Health Equity and Build Healthier Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisha Holden

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Health is a human right. Equity in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Addressing the multi-faceted health needs of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in the United States is a complex issue that requires inventive strategies to reduce risk factors and buttress protective factors to promote greater well-being among individuals, families, and communities. With growing diversity concerning various ethnicities and nationalities; and with significant changes in the constellation of multiple of risk factors that can influence health outcomes, it is imperative that we delineate strategic efforts that encourage better access to primary care, focused community-based programs, multi-disciplinary clinical and translational research methodologies, and health policy advocacy initiatives that may improve individuals’ longevity and quality of life.

  5. Stem diameter and bark surface area of the fluted trunk of Balanites maughamii (Balanitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Williams

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanites maughamii Sprague (Balanitaceae is a woodland tree used and harvested for bark products in the traditional medicine trade o f South Africa. The tree has a distinctively fluted and buttressed stem, especially in mature individuals. This short communication quantifies the relationship between two diameter measurements D1 and D2 that respectively exclude and include the bark surface contained in the convolutions of the flutes at five height intervals up the stem to 2 m. Regressions show D1 to be an accurate predictor of D2 (r^ =0.97-0.99 over a range of tree sizes, hence obviating the necessity to measure both D1 and D2. The circumference and bark surface area on the stem was determined to estimate the quantity of bark that can potentially be harvested. At least 69% of the stem circumference and bark surface area was estimated to be contained within the convolutions of the flutes.

  6. New directions in electric power financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author)

  7. Interned Minds: Issues of Historical Interpretation in Michelle Malkin's In Defense of Internment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEGE, R. Paul

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the controversial work by Michelle Malkin (2004 entitled In Defense of Internment. Malkin is an ex-FOX news commentator in the United States who supports racial profiling in the war on terrorism. Malkin explores historical questions related to Japanese-American internment during World War II as a justification for a new policy on racial profiling. Her book offers us a chance to look at how history can be used to buttress anti-democratic policies. Sharply rebuked by many American historians, this treatise possesses problematic methodological issues and raises serious questions in terms of the direction that democracy should take with civil liberties. As part of the open debate that she promotes, this paper addresses some of the more critical errors in her historical analysis and polemical work, which she continues to promulgate on her personal website in rationalizing the concept of objective discrimination.

  8. Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Kaban, L B; Vargervik, K; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    Twelve adults with maxillary width discrepancy of greater than 5 mm were treated by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The procedure consisted of bilateral zygomatic buttress and midpalatal osteotomies combined with the use of a tooth-borne orthopedic device postoperatively. Mean palatal expansion of 7.5 mm (range of 6 to 13 mm), measured in the first molar region, was achieved within 3 weeks in all patients. Expansion remained stable during the 12-month study period, with a mean relapse for the entire group of 0.88 +/- 0.48 mm. Morbidity was limited to mild postoperative discomfort. The results of this preliminary study indicated that surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion is a safe, simple, and reliable procedure for achieving a permanent increase in skeletal maxillary width in adults. Further study is necessary to document the three-dimensional movements of the maxillary segments and long-term stability of the skeletal and dental changes. PMID:1453038

  9. Optimizing Stability in Femoral Neck Fracture Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ye; Hao, Jiandong; Mauffrey, Cyril; Hammerberg, E Mark; Stahel, Philip F; Hak, David J

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing stability of femoral neck fracture fixation is important in obtaining a successful outcome. The mechanical problems and strategies for achieving optimal stability differ depending on patients' age and degree of osteoporosis. Femoral neck fractures in younger adults usually result from high-energy trauma and have a vertical fracture pattern. Strategies for optimizing fixation stability in this group include placing additional screws at right angles to the fracture plane and medial buttress plate augmentation. In elderly patients, screw position relative to the intact cortical femoral neck bone is of critical importance. Additional strategies for optimizing fixation stability in this group include the concept of length stable fixation, use of adjunctive calcium phosphate cement, and use of novel fixed angle fixation implants. PMID:26488776

  10. Treatment of midfacial fractures; Therapie von Mittelgesichtsfrakturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. [Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik fuer Mund-, Kiefer- und Plastische Gesichtschirurgie, Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany). Universitaetsklinikum Kroellwitz

    2007-07-15

    Fractures of the midface constitute half of all traumas involving facial bones. Computed tomography is very useful in primary diagnosis. Isolated fractures of the nasal bone and lateral midfacial structures may be diagnosed sufficiently by conventional X-rays. An exact description of the fracture lines along the midfacial buttresses is essential for treatment planning. For good aesthetics and function these have to be reconstructed accurately, which can be checked with X-rays. The treatment of midfacial fractures has been revolutionized over the last two decades. A stable three-dimensional reconstruction of the facial shape is now possible and the duration of treatment has shortened remarkably. The frequently occurring isolated fractures in the lateral part of the midface may be treated easily and effectively by semisurgical methods such as the Gillies procedure or hook-repositioning. (orig.)

  11. AMERICAN SHARE INSURANCE: THE SOLE SURVIVING PRIVATE DEPOSIT INSURER IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie O. Crofton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Founded in 1974, American Share Insurance (ASI is an insurer for deposits in credit unions and it is the sole surviving private primary deposit insurer in the US. We assess reasons why ASI survived when numerous other deposit insurance systems did not. These reasons include ASI’s policy of insuring only credit unions, its geographic diversification, its efforts to shed the quasi-governmental nature of other nonfederal deposit insurers, its covering only stronger depositories, its ability to draw funding from stronger insured institutions as needed, and its use of incentives for improved performance among its insured institutions. While the severity of the effects of the housing, financial, and economic crises on depositories and their insurers is yet to become fully clear, ASI’s performance up to the Summer of 2009 points to a set of practices that could help buttress other government and private deposit insurers in the US and abroad.

  12. Observations of fracture of the anconeal process of the ulna of swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures of the anconeal process of 5 pigs ranging in age from 4 to 8 months were studied radiographically and histologically. Clinically, animals with a fracture of the anconeal process had a ''tight'', restricted gait. In pigs at 4.5 months of age, a radiolucent line through the base of the anconeal process was composed of fibrocartilage, fibrous connective tissue, and hyaline cartilage. Subperiosteal proliferation of woven bone was located along the cranial surface of the olecranon, adjacent to the base of the anconeal process. In older animals, the radiolucent line through the anconeal process contained variable amounts of fibrous connective tissue and fibrocartilage. The proliferation of subperiosteal bone at the base of the anconeal process formed a ''buttress callus'' which retained a radiolucent area between the callus and the proximal surface of the anconeal process. The latter region of radiolucency was continuous with the transversely oriented line that traversed the base of the anconeal process

  13. Energy consumption indicators and CHP technical potential in the Brazilian hospital sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity demands in hospitals are characterized by their need for high quality, guaranteed supplies. The existence of captive electricity uses and the size and regularity of the electrical and heat loads required by hospitals are aspects that could well buttress the possibility of installing cogeneration plants fired by natural gas (CHP). The purpose of this paper is to estimate the CHP technical potential in Brazilian hospitals. Based on a classification of Brazilian hospitals by specific energy consumption indicators, this potential is assessed, taking into consideration gas fueled engines associated with absorption cooling systems. A potential figure of approximately 500 MWe was obtained, whose effective implementation runs up against the obstacles inherent to Brazil's hospital sector, listed at the end of this paper. Consequently, some actions are proposed for surmounting these barriers

  14. Aquifer parameter estimation from surface resistivity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwas, Sri; de Lima, Olivar A L

    2003-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the additional use, other than ground water exploration, of surface geoelectrical sounding data for aquifer hydraulic parameter estimation. In a mesoscopic framework, approximated analytical equations are developed separately for saline and for fresh water saturations. A few existing useful aquifer models, both for clean and shaley sandstones, are discussed in terms of their electrical and hydraulic effects, along with the linkage between the two. These equations are derived for insight and physical understanding of the phenomenon. In a macroscopic scale, a general aquifer model is proposed and analytical relations are derived for meaningful estimation, with a higher level of confidence, of hydraulic parameter from electrical parameters. The physical reasons for two different equations at the macroscopic level are explicitly explained to avoid confusion. Numerical examples from existing literature are reproduced to buttress our viewpoint. PMID:12533080

  15. Autopoiesis and nonlinear modeling methods: an empirical approach to psychotherapy process research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunátegui, L Felipe; Dowd, E Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Psychotherapy process research needs a paradigm capable of integrating activity across biological, affective, linguistic and social domains into one causal model. It also needs a methodology capable of measuring complex deterministic activity spontaneously generated by the therapy participants. Here we articulate a model based on Autopoietic theory and nonlinear quantitative analysis that stands to provide a method and a metric to explore how psychotherapy processes lead to a measurable outcome. Perturbations are the unit of study within the autopoietic framework. Lyapunov exponents are the quantitative tools for the analysis of phase portraits generated by cardiac activity. We propose that these phase portraits can be used to measure the perturbational activity of psychotherapy participants. We buttress this argument with results from a preliminary application of this method in a psychotherapy analogue situation. PMID:16519868

  16. A probabilistic interpretation of US hydrocarbon supply shortfall, 1990-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten results of assessments of hydrocarbon supply shortfall over the next decade are considered using a cumulative probabilistic framework. Within resolution of the results, it is shown that, at a 90% confidence level, it is most likely (2/3 chance) that the shortfall supply will be less than about 2.2 million barrels per day by the year 2000, it is unlikely (90% chance) that the shortfall supply will exceed about 3.7 million barrels per day, but it is equally unlikely (90% chance) that the shortfall supply will be less than about 1 million barrels per day. The probabilistic method for addressing model uncertainties then permits corporate and government decisions to be buttressed by a firmer footing than might have been thought to be the case based solely on the extreme ranges of the 10 individuals results. (Author)

  17. The History of Education Institutions in Developed Countries has Lessons for the Reform of the System of Higher Education in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2007-01-01

    Universities in African countries are widely considered to be a colonial relic that is in desperate need of reform. This article argues that useful lessons for such a reform may be drawn from the developed countries' own education institution policy debates and history, especially as those relate...... to development. In that history, innovation-oriented industrial employers that advocate adjustment and institutional change at universities often clash with the vested interests of the educated elite and its desire to buttress its privileged social position with restrictions on entry into various...... of development and continued as useful complements to the stock of the technically educated in later stages of development. It is therefore suggested that the proper basis for university reform in Africa is to ask first whether the range and quality of educational institutions is appropriate to the...

  18. Cross-sectional morphology of the SK 82 and 97 proximal femora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, C B; McHenry, H M; Thackeray, J F

    1999-08-01

    Computed tomography scans of the proximal femoral shaft of the South African "robust" australopithecine, A. robustus, reveal a total morphological pattern that is similar to the specimen attributed to A. boisei in East Africa but unlike that of Homo erectus or modern human femora. Like femora attributed to H. erectus, SK 82 and 97 have very thick cortices, although they do not have the extreme increase in mediolateral buttressing that is so characteristic of H. erectus. And unlike H. erectus or modern humans, their femoral heads are very small relative to shaft strength. These features are consistent with both increased overall mechanical loading of the postcranial skeleton and a possibly slightly altered pattern of bipedal gait relative to that of H. erectus and modern humans. PMID:10423266

  19. Human Elephant Conflict in the Waza-Logone Region of Northern Cameroon: An Assessment of Management Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchamba, MN.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the current level of humanelephant conflicts in the Waza Logone region was carried out during the 2005 rainy season to assess the effectiveness of conflict management. This was done by talking mainly to wildlife authorities, the local agricultural service, the local communities and consulting sequential reports from the nearest enumerators. The number of villages affected was declining in the dry season compared to the rainy season crop raiding. However, general pattern indicates a decline in the number of villages impacted by elephants since the 1992 to 1993 surveys, but comparatively more damaging as shown by the estimated costs. Therefore, the improve in ecological management of the Waza National Park and its elephant population has had a positive impact in the number of villages crop raided but has not definitely resolved the conflicts between man and elephant. Other approaches are needed to buttress the effort been undertaken in the region to date.

  20. Radiosensitivity and in vitro mutagenesis in African accessions of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutagenesis holds promise for the subtle manipulation of traits of interest in crop plants. For a vegetatively propagated crop like cassava with severe constraints posed on its genetic improvement by inherent biological systems, the adoption of this methodology seems even the more appealing. However, there is scant information on protocols for inducing mutations in this crop. We present in this report the preliminary data on the determination of radiosensitivities for some African cassava accessions. The optimal doses of gamma ray irradiation varied from as low 12 Gy to 25 Gy. The probable implication of genotypic variation in response to gamma irradiation as was found in this study buttresses the need to carry out this larger scale study in order to avail cassava scientists intending to adopt induced mutagenesis of requisite information in this regard. A modified in vitro culture medium, half strength MS without growth hormones, was also shown to greatly enhance the growth of the plantlets without producing callus. (author)

  1. From Radical Translation to Radical Interpretation and Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Zilhão

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Quine and Davidson put forth programs of empirical semantics satisfying the conditions that characterize the so-called “standpoint of interpretation.” Quine’s less ambitious program of radical translation rests upon two buttresses: causality and empathy. Davidson’s more ambitious program of radical interpretation replaces causality with truth and empathy with rationality. Although the replacement of causality with intersubjective truth seems to me to be a fully justified move, I nevertheless contend that it is more realistic to develop the work of interpretation drawing upon Quine’s less ambitious requirement of empathy than upon Davidson’s view of human agency as rational agency. In order to substantiate this contention, I present an argument to the effect that Davidson’s characterization of human agency as rational is not compatible with his other requirement that truth should pro-vide the essential link connecting speech with environment and action.

  2. Poročanje o sporu glede otočja Diaoyu/Diaoyutai/Senkaku v izbranih slovenskih medijih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa ISTENIČ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The dispute over the sovereignty of the Diaoyu/Diaoyutai/Senkaku islands remains a source of significant international tension. Given that any miscalculation could lead to a war with unimaginable consequences, the issue has gained media attention across the world. Buttressed with the general newsworthiness of an international conflict, Slovene media has also been attentive to report on the islands’ controversy. Although the remote East Asian region is far down the list of Slovenia’s priorities and ambitions of its politicians, national commercial considerations are connected with a stable and secure environment in East Asia. By applying a combined quantitative and qualitative content analysis of the news stories on the dispute published in Slovene major print and online daily newspapers between 2010 and 2013, the present paper examines Slovene media’s coverage of the islands’ dispute.

  3. Structural Heterogeneities in Southeast Tibet: Implications for Regional Flow in the Lower Crust and Upper Mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our seismic study together with the MT analysis reveal a “R-shape” flow existing in both the lower crust and uppermost mantle, which suggests the crustal deformation along the deep, large sutures (such as the Longmen Shan fault and the Anninghe Fault under the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is maintained by dynamic pressure from the regional flow intermingled with the hot upwelling asthenosphere. The material in the lower crust and uppermost mantle flowing outward from the center of the plateau is buttressed by the old, strong lithosphere that underlies the Sichuan basin, pushing up on the crust above and maintaining steep orogenic belt through dynamic pressure. We therefore consider that the “R-shape” regional flow played a key role in the crustal deformation along the deep suture zones of the Bangong-Nujiang, the Longmen-Shan faults, and other local heavily faulted zones beneath the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Analysis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT with multiplanar reconstruction (CT/MPR) was used to assess 25 adolescents with known or suspected slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). CT/MPR localizes the epiphysis in three planes, establishing its relationship to the acetabulum and the metaphyseal neck. MPR facilitates measurements of head-neck angles, residusal head-neck contact, and relative retrovision. CT/MPR may establish the true age of the epiphyseal failure and can reveal subtle SCFE in the face of normal plain films. Patients often present with confusing histories; clues to the true age of failure include subtle signs of healing, remodeling, or new bone buttressing. Characterization of acute versus chronic conditions influences preoperative planning. Postoperatively, CT/MPR confirms early results and follows epiphyseal fusion and remodelling. It also detects complications, such as pin or graft migration avascular necrosis (AVN), or chondrolysis

  5. Positive affect and age as predictors of exercise compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is linked to individuals whose affect profiles are invariably positive and it induces anti-apoptotic and anti-excitotoxic effects, buttressing blood–brain barrier intactness in both healthy individuals and those suffering from disorders accompanying overweight and obesity. In this regard, exercise offers a unique non-pharmacologic, non-invasive intervention that incorporates different regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance, or resistance. In this brief report we present a self-reported study carried out on an adolescent and adult population (N = 280, 144 males and 136 females, which indicated that the propensity and compliance for exercise, measured as the “Archer ratio”, was predicted by a positive affect. This association is discussed from the perspective of health, well-being, affect dimensions, and age.

  6. 福州市螺洲大桥主桥钢箱梁顶推施工技术%Fuzhou Beaufort Bridge Pushing steel box girder construction technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强

    2011-01-01

    Bridge project with Fuzhou Beaufort introduced Pushing walker pan features and construction techniques of process equipment,and the use of centralized control system.At the same time according to the actual situation of this project,analysis of the top platform and push the design of temporary buttress will not rationality and economy.%结合福州市螺洲大桥工程介绍步履式平移顶推施工技术的特点和工艺设备,以及采用的集中控制系统。同时根据本工程实际情况,分析顶推平台与临时支墩的布置与设计的合理性以及经济性。

  7. Preventing staple-line leak in sleeve gastrectomy: reinforcement with bovine pericardium vs. oversewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hajj, Georges Nabih; Haddad, Johnny

    2013-11-01

    One of the most serious, potentially life-threatening complications of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is staple-line leakage. Oversewing the LSG staple line vs buttressing it with bovine pericardial strips (BPS) to reduce perioperative bleeding and postoperative gastric leak was evaluated. From 2006 through 2011, 160 patients underwent LSG with suturing as the only staple-line reinforcement (Group A). From March 2010 through August 2012, 84 LSG patients had BPS incorporated into their last two stapler firings (Group B). Staple lines were evaluated perioperatively for bleeding, and patients were monitored for indications of staple-line leaks (peritonitis, abnormal output from the drain). In preoperative Group A and B, there were 117 (73.1%) vs. 56 (66.7%) females; mean age, 35.2 years (18.0-68.0) vs. 33.8 years (15.0-64.0); mean body mass index (BMI, kilograms per square meter), 42.5 (27.0-76.0) vs. 42.0 (30.0-58.0). Three months after surgery, mean BMI for Group A was 37.3 (-5.9); Group B, 35.2 (-7.3); at 6 months, 32.7 (-10.8) and 31.5 (-11.3; p barium swallow, occurred in eight Group A patients (5.0%); in Group B, one (1.2%; p = 0.17). Relative to oversewing, staple-line buttressing with bovine pericardium was readily accomplished, safe, and associated with a lower staple-line leak rate. PMID:23975327

  8. A comparative study of "plasmacup" and "porous-coated" acetabular components: survival after 10 to 12 years of follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Negreiros Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our primary aim was to compare the long-term survivorship rates and the rates of successful osseointegration between two different types of uncemented acetabular components. INTRODUCTION: Two types of alloys have primarily been used for the manufacture of the uncemented acetabular components: titanium-based and cobalt-based alloys. A titanium-based alloy appears to be more effective with regard to interface stress transfer to the host bone because of its lower elastic modulus relative to a cobalt-based alloy. This supposed mechanical advantage of a titanium-based alloy component motivated this comparative study. METHODS: Two uncemented acetabular components, a porous-coated acetabulum and a Plasmacup®, were compared with a focus on long-term prosthesis survivorship and the development of acetabular osseointegration. Five radiographic signs of osseointegration were evaluated at the last follow-up appointment: (1 absence of radiolucent lines, (2 presence of a superolateral buttress, (3 medial stress-shielding, (4 radial trabeculae, and (5 an inferomedial buttress. We considered the presence of any three of these radiographic signs, in the absence of acetabular dislocation or symptoms, to be indicative of successful acetabular osseointegration. RESULTS: Among 70 patients implanted with the porous-coated acetabulum, 80% achieved osseointegration over a mean follow-up time of 11.9 years versus 75.3% of the 73 patients who received a Plasmacup insert over a mean of 10.7 years. Prosthesis survivorship rates were not different between the two groups. Revision surgery due to mild or severe acetabular osteolysis, polyethylene wear, and aseptic loosening occurred in eight patients (11.4% with a PCA versus nine (12.3% with a Plasmacup. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, during the first ten years after surgery, there is no significant difference between these two types of uncemented cups with regard to either prosthesis survivorship or successful

  9. The evolving instability of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazendar, Ala; Borstad, Christopher P.; Scheuchl, Bernd; Rignot, Eric; Seroussi, Helene

    2015-06-01

    Following the 2002 disintegration of the northern and central parts of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, the tributary glaciers of the southern surviving part initially appeared relatively unchanged and hence assumed to be buttressed sufficiently by the remnant ice shelf. Here, we modify this perception with observations from IceBridge altimetry and InSAR-inferred ice flow speeds. Our analyses show that the surfaces of Leppard and Flask glaciers directly upstream from their grounding lines lowered by 15 to 20 m in the period 2002-2011. The thinning appears to be dynamic as the flow of both glaciers and the remnant ice shelf accelerated in the same period. Flask Glacier started accelerating even before the 2002 disintegration, increasing its flow speed by ∼55% between 1997 and 2012. Starbuck Glacier meanwhile did not change much. We hypothesize that the different evolutions of the three glaciers are related to their dissimilar bed topographies and degrees of grounding. We apply numerical modeling and data assimilation that show these changes to be accompanied by a reduction in the buttressing afforded by the remnant ice shelf, a weakening of the shear zones between its flow units and an increase in its fracture. The fast flowing northwestern part of the remnant ice shelf exhibits increasing fragmentation, while the stagnant southeastern part seems to be prone to the formation of large rifts, some of which we show have delimited successive calving events. A large rift only 12 km downstream from the grounding line is currently traversing the stagnant part of the ice shelf, defining the likely front of the next large calving event. We propose that the flow acceleration, ice front retreat and enhanced fracture of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf presage its approaching demise.

  10. Contributions of inner and outer coordination sphere bonding in determining the strength of substituted phenolic pyrazoles as copper extractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mary R; Roebuck, James W; Doidge, Euan D; Emeleus, Lucy C; Bailey, Philip J; Campbell, John; Fischmann, Adam J; Love, Jason B; Morrison, Carole A; Sassi, Thomas; White, David J; Tasker, Peter A

    2016-02-21

    Alkyl-substituted phenolic pyrazoles such as 4-methyl-2-[5-(n-octyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]phenol (L2H) are shown to function as Cu-extractants, having similar strength and selectivity over Fe(iii) to 5-nonylsalicylaldoxime which is a component of the commercially used ACORGA® solvent extraction reagents. Substitution in the phenol ring of the new extractants has a major effect on their strength, e.g. 2-nitro-4-methyl-6-[5-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]phenol (L4H) which has a nitro group ortho to the phenolic hydroxyl group unit and has an extraction distribution coefficient for Cu nearly three orders of magnitude higher than its unsubstituted analogue 4-methyl-6-[5-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]phenol (L8H). X-ray structure determinations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm that inter-ligand hydrogen bonding between the pyrazole NH group and the phenolate oxygen atom stabilise the Cu-complexes, giving pseudomacrocyclic structures. Electron-accepting groups ortho to the phenol oxygen atoms buttress the inter-ligand H-bonding, enhancing extractant strength but the effectiveness of this is very dependent on steric factors. The correlation between the calculated energies of formation of copper complexes in the gas phase and the observed strength of comparably substituted reagents in solvent extraction experiments is remarkable. Analysis of the energies of formation suggests that big differences in strength of extractants arise principally from a combination of the effects of the substituents on the ease of deprotonation of the proligands and, for the ortho-substituted ligands, their propensity to buttress inter-ligand hydrogen bonding. PMID:26763168

  11. Quantifying the Jakobshavn Effect: Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, compared to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hughes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Jakobshavn Effect is a series of positive feedback mechanisms that was first observed on Jakobshavn Isbrae, which drains the west-central part of the Greenland Ice Sheet and enters Jakobshavn Isfjord at 69°10'. These mechanisms fall into two categories, reductions of ice-bed coupling beneath an ice stream due to surface meltwater reaching the bed, and reductions in ice-shelf buttressing beyond an ice stream due to disintegration of a laterally confined and locally pinned ice shelf. These uncoupling and unbuttressing mechanisms have recently taken place for Byrd Glacier in Antarctica and Jakobshavn Isbrae in Greenland, respectively. For Byrd Glacier, no surface meltwater reaches the bed. That water is supplied by drainage of two large subglacial lakes where East Antarctic ice converges strongly on Byrd Glacier. Results from modeling both mechanisms are presented here. We find that the Jakobshavn Effect is not active for Byrd Glacier, but is active for Jakobshavn Isbrae, at least for now. Our treatment is holistic in the sense it provides continuity from sheet flow to stream flow to shelf flow. It relies primarily on a force balance, so our results cannot be used to predict long-term behavior of these ice streams. The treatment uses geometrical representations of gravitational and resisting forces that provide a visual understanding of these forces, without involving partial differential equations and continuum mechanics. The Jakobshavn Effect was proposed to facilitate terminations of glaciation cycles during the Quaternary Ice Age by collapsing marine parts of ice sheets. This is unlikely for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, based on our results for Byrd Glacier and Jakobshavn Isbrae, without drastic climate warming in high polar latitudes. Warming would affect other Antarctic ice streams already weakly buttressed or unbuttressed by an ice shelf. Ross Ice Shelf would still protect Byrd Glacier.

  12. P-wave velocity structure of the southern Ryukyu margin east of Taiwan: Results from the ACTS wide-angle seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Berthet, T.; Lallemand, S.; Schnurle, P.; Lee, C.-S.; Liu, C.-S.; McIntosh, K.; Theunissen, T.

    2012-11-01

    An active seismic experiment has been conducted across the southern Ryukyu margin east of Taiwan over the whole trench-arc-backarc system in May 2009. Twenty-four ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed from the Ryukyu trench to the southern Okinawa trough over the Ryukyu arc and forearc. Wide angle seismic data were recorded by the OBS array while coincident reflection seismic data were acquired using a 6 km long streamer and a 6600 cubic inch seismic airgun array. Results from tomographic inversion of 21091 travel time picks along this line allowed us to image crustal structures of the Ryukyu margin down to a depth of 25 km. The transect has been designed to provide a better seismic velocity structure of the subduction zone in a highly deformed area that has produced an M8 earthquake in 1920. The line crosses a seismic cluster of earthquakes which source mechanisms are still poorly understood. The subducting oceanic crust of the Huatung Basin is about 5-6 km thick. The underlying mantle exhibits low seismic velocities around 7.8 km/s suggesting some hydrothermal alterations or alteration of the upper mantle through faults generated by the flexure of the subducting plate as it enters the subduction. Low velocities, up to 4.5 km/s, associated with the accretionary wedge are well imaged from the trench back to the Nanao forearc. A major result concerns the abrupt termination of the buttress at the rear of the accretionary wedge. Despite the low resolution of the tomographic inversion near the subduction interface, several lines of evidence supporting the presence of a low velocity zone beneath the toe of the forearc buttress could be established. The Moho beneath the Ryukyu non-volcanic arc is located at a depth around 25 km depth.

  13. Structural geometry, strain distribution, and mechanical evolution of eastern Umtanum Ridge and a comparison with other selected localities within Yakima fold structures, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yakima fold system of south-central Washington and north-central Oregon is a series of megascopic anticlinal ridge of multilayered basalt. Cross-sectional strain analyses were performed at five localities within three anticlines. The analyses show that the strain is consistent both laterally along a fold and within different folds. Folding strain is localized layer-internal faulting, extensive shattering, and limited layer-parallel faulting. Most strain is cataclastic, but glassy flow tops appear to have been more ductile. The strain distributions and structural geometries accord well with a flexural flow buckle model; however, the internal cataclastic flow is not inherently penetrative and limited flexural slip has occurred. This fold model suggests that most strain in the fold is by simple shear and it took place above the topographic surface of adjacent synclinal valleys. Large reverse faults associated with the anticlines are interpreted to be folding strain required by the concentric folding and their displacement is interpreted to have reached the surface late in the folding process. Therefore, the observed strain and its distribution are interpreted to be not directly the result of regional plateau shortening, but of local stresses and resultant strains related to fold geometry. A mechanical analysis of the Umtanum structure termination geometry, combined with slickenside striae movement directions from the study areas suggests that the Palouse slope has behaved as a rigid buttress around which the basalt has rotated clockwise into the folds from the southeast. Compression-box clay modeling of the Yakima fold system within the Pasco Basin shows that the buttress edge orientations control the localization and orientations of buckle folds. Fold orientations and three-dimensional shapes remarkably resembling the Yakima fold system in the Pasco Basin were produced under north-south compression

  14. The Analysis of Force State and Emphasis of Health Monitoring about the Anchor of Existing Bridge and Tunnel%既有桥梁隧道锚受力状态分析及健康监测重点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕曹炯; 黄贵明; 张望胜; 叶梦君

    2015-01-01

    采用有限元软件对坝陵河大桥隧道锚进行受力状态分析,表明隧道锚整体是稳定的,需对局部区域加强监控。根据应力计算结果,需加强监控的区域是前锚室空腔上部、后锚室空腔上部和支墩远离锚体一侧的下部;根据位移计算结果,需加强监控的区域是支墩及前锚室区域处围岩、主缆护室和后锚室围岩。根据计算结果确定隧道锚运营期健康监测测点的布设,并指导实测数据分析。%Numerical analysis about force state of the anchor of Balinghe Bridge and tunnel by using fi-nite element software has been performed in this paper.The results show that the anchor of tunnel is stable and partial location needs strengthening monitoring.According to the stress calculating results, the parts which need strengthening monitoring are the upside of former anchor chamber and behind anchor chamber and one side of lower part of buttress which is far from anchor.According to the dis-placement calculating results,the parts which need strengthening monitoring are the surrounding rock around buttress and former anchor chamber and behind anchor chamber,the protection chamber of main cable.The results of this paper have guiding significance to the measuring point arrangement of health monitoring in operation period and the analysis of measured data of tunnel anchor.

  15. Geologic setting, sedimentary architecture, and paragenesis of the Mesoproterozoic sediment-hosted Sheep Creek Cu-Co-Ag deposit, Helena embayment, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth; Hitzman, Murray W.; Zieg, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The northern margin of the Helena Embayment contains extensive syngenetic to diagenetic massive pyrite horizons that extend over 25 km along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone and extend up to 8 km basinward (south) within the Mesoproterozoic Newland Formation. The Sheep Creek Cu-Co deposit occurs within a structural block along a bend in the fault system, where replacement-style chalcopyrite mineralization is spatially associated mostly with the two stratigraphically lowest massive pyrite zones. These mineralized pyritic horizons are intercalated with debris flows derived from synsedimentary movement along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone. Cominco American Inc. delineated a geologic resource of 4.5 Mt at 2.5% Cu and 0.1% Co in the upper sulfide zone and 4 Mt at 4% Cu within the lower sulfide zone. More recently, Tintina Resources Inc. has delineated an inferred resource of 8.48 Mt at 2.96% Cu, 0.12% Co, and 16.4 g/t Ag in the upper sulfide zone. The more intact upper sulfide zone displays significant thickness variations along strike thought to represent formation in at least three separate subbasins. The largest accumulation of mineralized sulfide in the upper zone occurs as an N-S–trending body that thickens southward from the generally E trending Volcano Valley Fault and probably occupies a paleograben controlled by normal faults in the hanging wall of the Volcano Valley Fault. Early microcrystalline to framboidal pyrite was accompanied by abundant and local barite deposition in the upper and lower sulfide zones, respectively. The sulfide bodies underwent intense (lower sulfide zone) to localized (upper sulfide zone) recrystallization and overprinting by coarser-grained pyrite and minor marcasite that is intergrown with and replaces dolomite. Silicification and paragenetically late chalcopyrite, along with minor tennantite in the upper sulfide zone, replaces fine-grained pyrite, barite, and carbonate. The restriction of chalcopyrite to inferred

  16. DESIGN AND STUDY OF ONLINE FUZZY RISK SCORE ANALYZER FOR DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SunithaKarnam Anantha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the risks of various subjects to type 2 Diabetes and its dependence on the different subject records. A Fuzzy based system was designed to find the risk scores for diabetes based on risk score derived from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. The risk score that has been adapted into the system is referred to as Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS. The variables employed in it are age, gender, waist, exercise and history of diabetes. A database of subject records was collected from hundred random individuals from southern regions of India. A comparative study was performed on these records between the normal and fuzzified risk score based on IDRS. The program has been designed using Lab VIEW with Fuzzy System Designer being used for fuzzy rule execution. The details are transmitted online through web page to the physicians who can provide assistance in prevention of diabetes. The obtained risk scores of the subjects are used to improve the lifestyle and delay the onset of diabetes to the maximum possible. This system can be implemented in rural regions where experienced medical assistance may not be available. This system would form an ideal part of the current developments in medicine where physical physician presence is not required due to the buttress provided by advancements in computer technology. The aim of this study is to determine the risks of various subjects to type 2 Diabetes and its dependence on the different subject records. A Fuzzy based system was designed to find the risk scores for diabetes based on risk score derived from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. The risk score that has been adapted into the system is referred to as Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS. The variables employed in it are age, gender, waist, exercise and history of diabetes. A database of subject records was collected from hundred random individuals from southern regions of India. A comparative study

  17. Classification of zygomatic fractures based on operation art type and an experimental study on the mechanical stability of additional Kirschner wire fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contemporary treatment of the zygoma includes an open reduction and internal fixation of at least three articulations, frontozygomatic suture, infraorbital rim, and zygomaticomaxillary buttress. But the authors believe many of the fractures could adequately be stabilized with only an intraoral approach and a single plate at the zygomaticomaxillary buttress. CT scans now identify the exact fracture pattern in a specific area. Some zygoma fractures demonstrate little or no displacement. They are incomplete through at least one articulation, with stability provided by the incomplete fracture. Frequently, the incomplete (greenstick) fracture is at the frontozygomatic suture and/or the zygomatic arch. Minor degrees of displacement do not justify a standard operation. In isolated fractures of the zygomatic arch, miniplate fixation at one site of the zygoma alone cannot provide adequate stability for the zygoma to be maintained at the correct position. In these cases, we use Kirschner wire fixation as an additional zygoma fixation technique. The purpose of this article is to classify fracture patterns for treatment of zygoma and to verify the effectiveness of Kirschner wire fixation. The study groups were assembled by reviewing medical records of patients who had undergone zygomatic repair at Teikyo University Hospital, Tokyo between the January of 2003 and December of 2007. Ninety-one malar fractures were divided into eight different types according to their malar tripod dislocation, especially frontozygomatic suture, maxillozygomatic suture and temporozygomatic suture (zygomatic arch). We then matched these types of malar fracture to a corresponding treatment strategy. Noncomminuted zygomatic fracture models were simulated by osteotomy. Each model was fixed with miniplates, microplates and Kirschner wires in the 6 different ways. A static force was loaded onto each model from three dictions. 58 patients (64%) were classified type 2. In the experimental study, additional

  18. Arctic indigenous peoples as representations and representatives of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Marybeth Long

    2008-06-01

    Recent scientific findings, as presented in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), indicate that climate change in the Arctic is happening now, at a faster rate than elsewhere in the world, and with major implications for peoples of the Arctic (especially indigenous peoples) and the rest of the planet. This paper examines scientific and political representations of Arctic indigenous peoples that have been central to the production and articulation of these claims. ACIA employs novel forms and strategies of representation that reflect changing conceptual models and practices of global change science and depict indigenous peoples as expert, exotic, and at-risk. These portrayals emerge alongside the growing political activism of Arctic indigenous peoples who present themselves as representatives or embodiments of climate change itself as they advocate for climate change mitigation policies. These mutually constitutive forms of representation suggest that scientific ways of seeing the global environment shape and are shaped by the public image and voice of global citizens. Likewise, the authority, credibility, and visibility of Arctic indigenous activists derive, in part, from their status as at-risk experts, a status buttressed by new scientific frameworks and methods that recognize and rely on the local experiences and knowledges of indigenous peoples. Analyses of these relationships linking scientific and political representations of Arctic climate change build upon science and technology studies (STS) scholarship on visualization, challenge conventional notions of globalization, and raise questions about power and accountability in global climate change research. PMID:19069077

  19. Dynamic Compression of the Spinal Cord by Paraspinal Muscles following Cervical Laminectomy: Diagnosis Using Flexion-Extension MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linton T; Lollis, S Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Flexion-extension, or kinematic, MRI has been used to identify dynamic spondylotic spinal cord compression not seen with traditional static MRI. The use of kinematic MRI to diagnose postoperative complications, specifically dynamic compression, is not as well documented. The authors describe a case of dynamic spinal cord compression by the paraspinal muscles causing worsening myelopathy following cervical laminectomy. This was only diagnosed with flexion-extension MRI. Methods. The patient was a 90-year-old male presenting to the neurosurgery clinic with functional decline and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Results. A multilevel laminectomy was performed. Following surgery the patient had progressive weakness and worsening myelopathy. No active cord compression was seen on multiple MRIs obtained in a neutral position, and flexion-extension X-rays did not show instability. A kinematic MRI demonstrated dynamic compression of the spinal cord only during neck extension, by the paraspinal muscles. To relieve the compression, the patient underwent an instrumented fusion, with cross-links used to buttress the paraspinal muscles away from the cord. This resulted in neurologic improvement. Conclusions. We describe a novel case of spinal cord compression by paraspinal muscles following cervical laminectomy. In individuals with persistent myelopathy or delayed neurologic decline following posterior decompression, flexion-extension MRI may prove useful in diagnosing this potential complication. PMID:25984378

  20. Dynamic Compression of the Spinal Cord by Paraspinal Muscles following Cervical Laminectomy: Diagnosis Using Flexion-Extension MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linton T. Evans

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Flexion-extension, or kinematic, MRI has been used to identify dynamic spondylotic spinal cord compression not seen with traditional static MRI. The use of kinematic MRI to diagnose postoperative complications, specifically dynamic compression, is not as well documented. The authors describe a case of dynamic spinal cord compression by the paraspinal muscles causing worsening myelopathy following cervical laminectomy. This was only diagnosed with flexion-extension MRI. Methods. The patient was a 90-year-old male presenting to the neurosurgery clinic with functional decline and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Results. A multilevel laminectomy was performed. Following surgery the patient had progressive weakness and worsening myelopathy. No active cord compression was seen on multiple MRIs obtained in a neutral position, and flexion-extension X-rays did not show instability. A kinematic MRI demonstrated dynamic compression of the spinal cord only during neck extension, by the paraspinal muscles. To relieve the compression, the patient underwent an instrumented fusion, with cross-links used to buttress the paraspinal muscles away from the cord. This resulted in neurologic improvement. Conclusions. We describe a novel case of spinal cord compression by paraspinal muscles following cervical laminectomy. In individuals with persistent myelopathy or delayed neurologic decline following posterior decompression, flexion-extension MRI may prove useful in diagnosing this potential complication.

  1. Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconto, Robert M.; Pollard, David

    2016-03-01

    Polar temperatures over the last several million years have, at times, been slightly warmer than today, yet global mean sea level has been 6–9 metres higher as recently as the Last Interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) and possibly higher during the Pliocene epoch (about three million years ago). In both cases the Antarctic ice sheet has been implicated as the primary contributor, hinting at its future vulnerability. Here we use a model coupling ice sheet and climate dynamics—including previously underappreciated processes linking atmospheric warming with hydrofracturing of buttressing ice shelves and structural collapse of marine-terminating ice cliffs—that is calibrated against Pliocene and Last Interglacial sea-level estimates and applied to future greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Antarctica has the potential to contribute more than a metre of sea-level rise by 2100 and more than 15 metres by 2500, if emissions continue unabated. In this case atmospheric warming will soon become the dominant driver of ice loss, but prolonged ocean warming will delay its recovery for thousands of years.

  2. Linear sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of major West Antarctic ice basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, M.; Feldmann, J.; Levermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise has recently been increasing. Whether its ice discharge will become unstable and decouple from anthropogenic forcing or increase linearly with the warming of the surrounding ocean is of fundamental importance. Under unabated greenhouse-gas emissions, ocean models indicate an abrupt intrusion of warm circumpolar deep water into the cavity below West Antarctica's Filchner-Ronne ice shelf within the next two centuries. The ice basin's retrograde bed slope would allow for an unstable ice-sheet retreat, but the buttressing of the large ice shelf and the narrow glacier troughs tend to inhibit such instability. It is unclear whether future ice loss will be dominated by ice instability or anthropogenic forcing. Here we show in regional and continental-scale ice-sheet simulations, which are capable of resolving unstable grounding-line retreat, that the sea-level response of the Filchner-Ronne ice basin is not dominated by ice instability and follows the strength of the forcing quasi-linearly. We find that the ice loss reduces after each pulse of projected warm water intrusion. The long-term sea-level contribution is approximately proportional to the total shelf-ice melt. Although the local instabilities might dominate the ice loss for weak oceanic warming, we find that the upper limit of ice discharge from the region is determined by the forcing and not by the marine ice-sheet instability.

  3. Deciphering emerging Zika and dengue viral epidemics: Implications for global maternal-child health burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Chuisseu, Pascal D; Ngogang, Jeanne Y; Khater, Emad I M

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda and control and eradication efforts have aimed at its vectors (Aedes mosquitoes) in Latin America in the 1950s, an absolute neglect of Zika programs and interventions has been documented in Aedes endemic and epidemic-prone countries. The current unprecedented Zika viral epidemics and rapid spread in the Western hemisphere pose a substantial global threat, with associated anxiety and consequences. The lack of safe and effective drugs and vaccines against Zika or dengue epidemics further buttresses the realization from the West Africa Ebola outbreak that most emerging disease-prone countries are still poorly prepared for an emergency response. This paper examines knowledge gaps in both emerging and neglected arthropod-borne flavivirus infectious diseases associated with poverty and their implications for fostering local, national and regional emerging disease preparedness, effective and robust surveillance-response systems, sustained control and eventual elimination. Strengthening the regional and Global Health Flavivirus Surveillance-Response Network (GHFV-SRN) with other models of socio-economic, climatic, environmental and ecological mitigation and adaptation strategies will be necessary to improve evidence-based national and global maternal-child health agenda and action plans. PMID:27052794

  4. Revisiting cytogenetic paradigms armed with new tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It could be argued that most of the fundamental tenets of radiation biology were either discovered, or subsequently confirmed, by observing eukaryotic chromosomes under the microscope. These include, but are certainly not limited to, dose-response relationships with respect to intensity (dose rate/dose fractionation) and radiation quality (LET/track structure). Chromosome aberrations are exquisitely sensitive indicators of radiation damage, and provide quantitative information of biological effect on a cell-by-cell-basis. As such, they have long been a favored endpoint for theoreticians, thereby figuring prominently in the development of generalized models of radiation action. Most of these seminal contributions to radiation biology occurred over a period of time when cytogenetic techniques were, of course, less refined than today. Considering the increasing rate at which technological advances have been made available to the researcher over the past few years, a reexamination of some of the radiological principles that cytogenetics helped to found seems in order. As an example of such effort, this talk will center around improvements to the use of whole chromosome painting by FISH- principally combinatorial painting techniques like mFISH and SKY- for the purposes of examining in greater detail structural aberrations to chromosomes produced following exposure to ionizing radiations of differing quality and intensity. This and related approaches by various laboratories around the world have turned up a few surprise discoveries that do not always fit established paradigms, and which serve to sharpen arguments that have been used to buttress existing models of aberration formation

  5. Evidence for role-neutral initial processing of metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, P; Gentner, D

    2000-03-01

    Two models of metaphor processing are contrasted. The structure-mapping model postulates an initially role-neutral alignment process, followed by directional projection of inferences. The attributive categorization model postulates role-specific processing throughout comprehension. To test between these models, the early stages of metaphor comprehension were probed using a technique based on S. Glucksberg, P. Gildea, and H. Bookin's (1982) finding that metaphorical meaning interferes with literal truthfulness judgments. In Experiment 1, interference effects did not differ between normal metaphors and metaphors with reversed terms, suggesting that initial processing is role-neutral. In Experiment 2, we again found no role dependence in interference effects, even for highly conventional metaphors. In Experiment 3, it was verified that (a) full comprehension is role-sensitive and (b) full comprehension reaction times (RTs) are far longer than interference RTs, buttressing the claim that interference is an early-stage effect. Overall, the results support the structure-mapping model of metaphor processing. PMID:10764110

  6. Structural Change in the Dynein Stalk Region Associated with Two Different Affinities for the Microtubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Yosuke; Inatomi, Momoko; Iwasaki, Haruka; Kurisu, Genji

    2016-05-01

    Dynein is a large microtubule-based motor complex that requires tight coupling of intra-molecular ATP hydrolysis with the generation of mechanical force and track-binding activity. However, the microtubule-binding domain is structurally separated by about 15nm from the nucleotide-binding sites by a coiled-coil stalk. Thus, long-range two-way communication is necessary for coordination between the catalytic cycle of ATP hydrolysis and dynein's track-binding affinities. To investigate the structural changes that occur in the dynein stalk region to produce two different microtubule affinities, here we improve the resolution limit of the previously reported structure of the entire stalk region and we investigate structural changes in the dynein stalk and strut/buttress regions by comparing currently available X-ray structures. In the light of recent crystal structures, the basis of the transition from the low-affinity to the high-affinity coiled-coil registry is discussed. A concerted movement model previously reported by Carter and Vale is modified more specifically, and we proposed it as the open zipper model. PMID:26585405

  7. Structure of human cytoplasmic dynein-2 primed for its power stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Helgo; Zalyte, Ruta; Urnavicius, Linas; Carter, Andrew P

    2015-02-19

    Members of the dynein family, consisting of cytoplasmic and axonemal isoforms, are motors that move towards the minus ends of microtubules. Cytoplasmic dynein-1 (dynein-1) plays roles in mitosis and cellular cargo transport, and is implicated in viral infections and neurodegenerative diseases. Cytoplasmic dynein-2 (dynein-2) performs intraflagellar transport and is associated with human skeletal ciliopathies. Dyneins share a conserved motor domain that couples cycles of ATP hydrolysis with conformational changes to produce movement. Here we present the crystal structure of the human cytoplasmic dynein-2 motor bound to the ATP-hydrolysis transition state analogue ADP.vanadate. The structure reveals a closure of the motor's ring of six AAA+ domains (ATPases associated with various cellular activites: AAA1-AAA6). This induces a steric clash with the linker, the key element for the generation of movement, driving it into a conformation that is primed to produce force. Ring closure also changes the interface between the stalk and buttress coiled-coil extensions of the motor domain. This drives helix sliding in the stalk which causes the microtubule binding domain at its tip to release from the microtubule. Our structure answers the key questions of how ATP hydrolysis leads to linker remodelling and microtubule affinity regulation. PMID:25470043

  8. Malthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available T.R. Malthus' "An Essay on the Principle of Population" (1798 was one of the first systematic studies of the problem of population in relation to resources. It was the first such study to stress the fact that, in general, powerful checks operate at all times to keep human populations from increasing beyond the available food supply. In a later edition, published in 1803, he buttressed this assertion with carefully collected demographic and sociological data from many societies at various periods of their histories. The debate between Malthus and his contemporaries closely parallels current discussions of optimal global population in relation to the carrying capacity of the earth's environment. This essay will discuss not only the historical debate on the ideas of Malthus, but also its relevance to the 21st century. In particular, the essay will discuss the danger that a famine of unprecedented scale may occur during the present century, caused by prohibitively high prices of fossil fuels (on which modern agriculture depends compounded by the effects of climate change.

  9. Triple plating of tibia in a complex bicondylar tibial plateau fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Atin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High-energy tibial plateau fracture poses a significant challenge and difficulty for orthopaedic surgeons. Fracture of tibial plateau involves major weight bearing joint and may alter knee kinematics. Anatomic reconstruction of the proximal tibial articular surfaces, restoration of the limb axis (limb alignment and stable fixation permitting early joint motion are the goals of the treatment. In cases of complex bicondylar tibial plateau fractures, isolated lateral plating is frequently associated with varus malalignment and better results have been obtained with bilateral plating through dual incisions. However sometimes a complex type of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is encountered in which medial plateau has a biplaner fracture in posterior coronal plane as well as sagittal plane. In such fractures it is imperative to fix the medial plateau with buttressing in both planes. One such fracture pattern of the proximal tibia managed by triple plating through dual posteromedial and anterolateral incisions is discussed in this case report with emphasis on mechanisms of this type of injury, surgical approach and management. Key words: Tibial fractures; Bone plates; Knee

  10. Bimodal pattern of seismicity detected at the ocean margin of an Antarctic ice shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Denis; Benoit, Lionel; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Martin, Olivier; Meynard, Christophe; Thom, Christian

    2016-08-01

    In Antarctica, locally grounded ice, such as ice rises bordering floating ice shelves, plays a major role in the ice mass balance as it stabilizes the ice sheet flow from the hinterland. When in direct contact with the ocean, the ice rise buttressing effect may be altered in response of changing ocean forcing. To investigate this vulnerable zone, four sites near the boundary of an ice shelf with an ice rise promontory in Dronning Maud Land, East-Antarctica were monitored for a month in early 2014 with new instruments that include both seismic and GPS sensors. Our study indicated that this transition zone experiences periodic seismic activity resulting from surface crevassing during oceanic tide-induced flexure of the ice shelf. The most significant finding is the observation of apparent fortnightly tide-modulated low-frequency, long-duration seismic events at the seaward front of the ice rise promontory. A basal origin of these events is postulated with the ocean water surge at each new spring tide triggering basal crevassing or basal slip on a local bedrock asperity. Detection and monitoring of such seismicity may help identifying ice rise zones vulnerable to intensified ocean forcing.

  11. The Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept for the Years 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept provides details within the framework set by the Swiss Parliament and the Swiss Federal Council (Government). It maps out how publicly supported research shall be used to achieve politically decided energy goals. Information is provided on the manner in which energy education, research and technology developments will be supported during the period from 2000-2003. The concept facilitates coordination among federal and cantonal decision makers as well as municipal authorities. Swiss energy research is dedicated to sustainable development, including the massive reduction of CO2 emissions. This is also implicit in the concept of the '2000 W society'. A two-pronged approach strives to reduce pollution by energy systems and increase system efficiencies. Technical progress is buttressed by socio-economic measures. Priorities for publicly funded energy research have been set in the context of long-term perspectives, harmonized with European and worldwide goals. Swiss energy research must be high-level research and this requires adequate means being made available to assure both quality and continuity. It is important that the attractiveness and competitiveness of Switzerland as a home for science and technology be maintained, indeed strengthened. It has been proved worldwide that energy research needs public funding. Particularly favored is application oriented research, including pilot and demonstration projects. (author)

  12. Reconstructing masculinity? A qualitative evaluation of the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures interventions in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Willan, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows the importance of working with men to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV-risk. Two claims dominate this work. The first is that interventions 'reconstruct' masculinities--these new formations of masculinity exist in opposition to existing ones and are healthier for men and less harmful for women. The second is that to be successful, such interventions need to address men's exclusion from the economy. Using a qualitative longitudinal cohort study of young men who participated in a gender transformative and livelihood strengthening intervention, as well as dyadic interviews with men's main female partners, we explore these claims. Data suggests men saw some improvements in livelihoods and relationships. However, challenging social contexts, including high rates of unemployment, peer networks and a dominant youth masculinity, limited change. Rather than reconstructing masculinity, a more subtle shift was seen with men moving away from 'harmful' aspects of a dominant youth masculinity towards a form of masculinity whereby male power is buttressed by economic provision and attempting to form and support 'households'. Working with men on their livelihoods at an instrumental level encouraged participation in the intervention. Beyond encouragement, men's improving livelihoods afforded men the opportunity to materially demonstrate the social changes - in the form of shifts in masculinity--they were seeking to enact. PMID:25335905

  13. The internal barriers of rotation for the 209 polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, P L; Haglund, P; Tysklind, M

    1997-01-01

    The internal barrier of rotation (Erot) was calculated for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by using a semi-empirical method, viz. the Austin Model 1 (AMI) Hamiltonian. The difference in total energy between a forced planar state and an optimised twisted structure was defined as Erot. The Erot values were in the range of 8.33 to 483 kJ/mol, and were significantly influenced by the number of chlorine atoms in ortho position. An additional structural characteristic of the PCBs influencing Erot of ortho substituted congeners was substitution by chlorine atoms in vicinal meta positions, which is assumed to prevent outward bending of ortho substituents. This so-called buttressing effect contributed with 4 to 31 kJ/mol per added chlorine atom. In conclusion, the internal barrier of rotation, calculated for all 209 PCBs, provides an important structure dependent physico-chemical parameter for multivariate modelling of future quantitative structure-activity and structure-property relationships (QSARs/QSPRs). PMID:19005788

  14. Comparative Cost Structure and Yield Performance Anzlysis of Upland and Mangrove Fish Farms in Southwest, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafimisebi Taiwo Ejiola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The bias against mangrove areas in siting fish farmsprompted a comparison of the cost structure and yieldperformance in upland and mangrove locations. Tools utilizedincluded descriptive statistics, budgetary and cash flow analysesand profitability ratios. Empirical results revealed that substantialrevenue could be realized from both farms. While the uplandfarms yielded average gross revenue per hectare per year of$9,183.53, the mangrove farms made $8,135.93 revealing aslight difference. Results of combined cash flow and sensitivityanalysis buttressed that of budgetary analysis. NPVs were$10,888.11 and $10,375.84, B/Cs were 1.28 and 1.29 and IRRwere 48.55% and 48.51% for the upland and mangrove farms,respectively. Profitability ratios were also comparable butslightly higher in the upland farms. The conclusion is thatthere was little or no difference in yield performance. However,the high risk of investment loss in years of excessive floodshould prompt investors in mangrove farms to compulsorilyinsure their farms.

  15. Imagining Critical Cosmic Pedagogy nested within Critical Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs Tracey I.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The infinite problems attendant with mass public schooling requires evermore resilient and innovative theories to buttress an account of education that is socially defensible. While educational inequality could previously be attributed to developing nations due to their economic underdevelopment, developed nations too, with growing rapidity have to confront their internal burgeoning crises in education. It is against this backdrop that I focus on the possibility of expanding a notion of critical pedagogy by nesting the concept of cosmic pedagogy therein. As such, I draw on the Montessorian theory of cosmic education;Bazalukan theory of the formation of a planetary and cosmic personality; and Freireian critical pedagogy to discover the resonance and disharmony between these conceptual positions. Of the three theoretical frames, each can in their own right be considered a methodological approach to address particular problems in education and society at large. So it is with these theories and methods in mind that I suggest and reflect upon the ways that education might nudge us along in our attempt to be fully human and to occupy the space of intelligent matter in an ever expanding universe.

  16. Health Literacy as a Complex Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Hunter

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As attention to health literacy grows as an area for policy intervention, policy discourse continues to draw on skills deficit and patient compliance, buttressed by the dominant political discourse of individual responsibility. But for patients, the health domain is interwoven with linguistic challenges, significant affective issues, underlying cultural dimensions, political and economic exigencies, variable access to resources, and cognitive and situated complexity. From these perspectives, this article reports on findings of an ongoing study of health literacy demands in the Midlands region of the North Island of New Zealand, an area of high ethnic and socio-economic diversity. The study focuses on patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease - two chronic areas strongly associated with ‘failure to care’ and identifed as having reached epidemic proportions. It analyses work to date: health professionals’ conceptions of and responses to perceived patients’ health literacy needs, and health information documents for patients. Implications of the study support the need for improvement in language and literacy skills among patients, but also the recognition of complexity and a collective responsibility for effective health communication.

  17. Puente sobre el río Guadalete de tablero de vigas pretensadas prefabricadas de hormigón de alta resistencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue, F.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Project and construction of a bridge across Guadalete river which construction project is based on the use of prefabricated prestressed beams of High Strength Concrete (HSC. Starting from the different project solutions, the description develops aspects such as foundations, piles, buttresses, beams, slabs, etc., and continues with prefabrication, calculus and construction. It also describes the tests carried out on the beams, and the concrete that has been used in this work.

    Se describe el proyecto y la construcción de un puente sobre el río Guadalete, cuya realización y cálculo se basan en el empleo de vigas pretensadas prefabricadas, concretamente de Hormigón de Alta Resistencia (HAR. Partiendo de diversas soluciones de proyecto, se van definiendo aspectos tales como la cimentación, pilas y estribos, vigas, losas, etc. Se continúa con la prefabricación, construcción y cálculo, así como los ensayos realizados sobre el hormigón y las vigas de dicha obra.

  18. Subtitling in the Nigerian Film Industry, Informative or Misleading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ali Ibbi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subtitles are captions displayed at the bottom of a cinema or television screen that translate or transcribe the dialogue or narrative. Nigeria and indeed Africa should be a major beneficiary of the subtitles considering the number of ethnic groups in the continent. The emergence of different film industries in countries around Africa has helped in showcasing Africa to the international community. Hence, subtitles came in handy, considering the fact that most viewers cannot understand the language with which the movies were produced. This paper explores the battle for meaning by English subtitles to movies produced in African languages especially the Nigerian film industry. The paper will look at the Hermaneutic Theory of Mass Communication to buttress the relevance of deriving meaning out of movie subtitles. The Hausa and the Yoruba film industries are the subjects of this study because of the large viewership they enjoy by people even outside Nigeria. The research came up as a result of the persistent errors which I have noticed while watching Yoruba and Hausa films with subtitles. Subtitles convey a summary of the dialogues taking place in a movie. Viewers who cannot understand the language used for the dialogue rely on the subtitles to make meaning out of the movie. If they are unable to make meaning out of the subtitles because of some inadequacies as a result of carelessness in the process of production, the aim of having the subtitles is defeated.

  19. Leaf micromorphology of some Phyllanthus L. species (Phyllanthaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solihani, N. S., E-mail: noorsolihani@gmail.com; Noraini, T., E-mail: norainitalip@gmail.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Azahana, A., E-mail: bell-azahana@yahoo.com [Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Nordahlia, A. S., E-mail: nordahlia@frim.gov.my [Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Comparative leaf micromorphological study was conducted of five chosen Phyllanthus L. (Phyllanthaceae) species, namely P. acidus L., P. elegans Wall. ex Müll. Arg., P. emblica L., P. urinaria L. and P. pulcher Wall. ex Müll. Arg. The objective of this study is to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification. The procedures involve examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings of this study have demonstrated variations in the leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in the types of waxes present on adaxial and abaxial epidermis surfaces, in the stomata and types of trichome. Common character present in all species studied are the presence of a thin film layer and buttress-like waxes on epidermal leaf surfaces. Diagnostics characters found in this study are the presence of papilla in P. elegens, amphistomatic stomata in P. urinaria and flaky waxes in P. pulcher. The result of this study has shown that leaf micromorphological characters have some taxonomic significance and can be used in identification of species in the genus Phyllanthus.

  20. The origins of altruism in offspring care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D

    2013-11-01

    The current review aims to unify existing views of altruism through an examination of the biological bases of a fundamental form of giving: altruistic responding. Altruistic responding is most salient during heroic acts of helping but is also observed any time one perceives another's distress or need, which in turn motivates one to help at a current cost to the self. Such aid is simple, observable across species, and rooted in the instincts and circuits that evolved to maximize inclusive fitness through the care of helpless offspring. By design, the system already biases aid to both kin and nonkin under conditions that are largely adaptive. These inherent benefits are also buttressed in primates and humans by known, later-arriving benefits to helping in group-living animals. Evidence for the proposed homology between altruistic responding and offspring retrieval is presented through 10 key shared factors. Conceptually, both require (a) participation by nonmothers, (b) motor competence and expertise, (c) an adaptive opponency between avoidance and approach, and a facilitating role of (d) neonatal vulnerability, (e) salient distress, and (f) rewarding close contact. Physiologically, they also share neurohormonal support from (g) oxytocin, (h) the domain-general mesolimbocortical system, (i) the cingulate cortex, and (j) the orbitofrontal cortex. The framework intermixes ultimate and proximate levels of analysis and unifies existing views by assuming that even complex human behaviors reflect ancient mammalian neural systems that evolved to solve key problems in adaptive ways, with far-reaching consequences for even our most venerated human traits. PMID:23458432

  1. Indications on continued nitrogen uptake in Scots pine roots after clear-felling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrektson, A.; Valinger, E.; Leijon, B.; Sjoegren, H.; Sonesson, J.

    1997-11-01

    A study was performed in a 150 years old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand situated on a sandy moor in northern Sweden. Two plots were to be compared, and in June 1993 one was clear-felled. Even if reduced with approximately 50%, a significant fine root (diameter < 2 mm) growth was noticed at least up to one year after the clear-felling. For medium roots (diameters 2-4 and 4-6 mm) nitrogen content in root-wood and root-bark samples from the clear-felling, as compared to the reference plot, were 30-50% higher two months after the clear-felling. The difference did not increase in later comparisons. N-content in bark and wood buttress did not differ during the period studied, except for a higher percentage in bark at the clear-felling after two summers. This was believed to be a result of decomposition. The results indicate a maintained physiological activity in the stump-root system of Scots pine at least for one year at this site. An active uptake of N in roots of cut trees may influence leaching after clear-felling, the forage value of roots, and root decomposition rate and also maintain root competition with standing trees after thinning. 40 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  2. Dire necessity and transformation: entry-points for modern science in Islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Furber, Steven W; Kholwadia, Mohammad A; Moosa, Ebrahim

    2014-02-01

    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a 'good' that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived components by referencing opinions of several Islamic authorities. In the Islamic ethico-legal tradition controversy surrounds the use of proteins from an animal (pig) that is considered to be impure by Islamic law. As we discuss the Islamic ethico-legal constructs used to argue for or against the use of porcine-based vaccines we will call attention to areas where modern medical data may make the arguments more precise. By highlighting areas where science can buttress and clarify the ethico-legal arguments we hope to spur an enhanced applied Islamic bioethics discourse where religious scholars and medical experts use modern science in a way that remains faithful to the epistemology of Islamic ethics to clarify what Islam requires of Muslim patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23445524

  3. 'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2014-04-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  4. What goes up, can come down: Novel brain stimulation paradigms may attenuate craving and craving-related neural circuitry in substance dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Colleen A; Dowdle, Logan T; Austelle, Christopher W; DeVries, William; Mithoefer, Oliver; Badran, Bashar W; George, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Vulnerability to drug related cues is one of the leading causes for continued use and relapse among substance dependent individuals. Using drugs in the face of cues may be associated with dysfunction in at least two frontal-striatal neural circuits: (1) elevated activity in medial and ventral areas that govern limbic arousal (including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and ventral striatum) or (2) depressed activity in dorsal and lateral areas that govern cognitive control (including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and dorsal striatum). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is emerging as a promising new tool for the attenuation of craving among multiple substance dependent populations. To date however, nearly all repetitive TMS studies in addiction have focused on amplifying activity in frontal-striatal circuits that govern cognitive control. This manuscript reviews recent work using TMS as a tool to decrease craving for multiple substances and provides a theoretical model for how clinical researchers might approach target and frequency selection for TMS of addiction. To buttress this model, preliminary data from a single-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study of 11 cocaine-dependent individuals is also presented. These results suggest that attenuating MPFC activity through theta burst stimulation decreases activity in the striatum and anterior insula. It is also more likely to attenuate craving than sham TMS. Hence, while many TMS studies are focused on applying LTP-like stimulation to the DLPFC, the MPFC might be a new, efficacious, and treatable target for craving in cocaine dependent individuals. PMID:25770818

  5. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders

  6. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  7. Generating dam construction material from tailings sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, H. [Northgate Minerals Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Northgate Minerals is a leading gold and copper producer with mining operations, development projects and exploration properties in Canada and Australia. This presentation provided background information on the Northgate Minerals Corp. Kemess Mines and how to generate dam construction material from tailings sand. Specifically, the objectives of the program are to generate construction material from tailings sand and replace earth fill construction with tailings sand from which sulphur has been removed. This presentation reviewed environmental specifications such as producing a construction material that does not generate poor water quality. It also reviewed engineering specifications such as producing a material suitable for d/s buttress zone placement. The presentation discussed the evaluation of source material as well as analysis challenges. The evaluation of Kemess ore was also outlined. along with other topics such as environmental testing and verification of sand plant beta testing; criteria and communication; operational procedures including sand plant operation and fail safe procedures; placement of sulphur-free sand; and benefits. It was concluded that the tailings cyclone plant was constructed at a cost of 5.4 million dollars. tabs., figs.

  8. Reducing gastrointestinal anastomotic leak rates: review of challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips BR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin R Phillips Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Various techniques and interventions have been developed in an effort to obviate gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks. This review is intended to delineate potential modifications that can be made to reduce the risk of anastomotic leaks following gastrointestinal surgery. It may also serve to aid in identifying patients who are at increased risk of anastomotic leak. Modifiable risk factors for leak discussed include malnutrition, smoking, steroid use, bowel preparation, chemotherapy, duration of surgery, use of pressors, intravenous fluid administration, blood transfusion, and surgical anastomotic technique. Based upon literature review, operative techniques should include minimizing operative time, reducing ischemia, and utilizing stapled anastomoses. Buttressing of anastomoses with omentum has proven utility for esophageal surgery. Further recommendations include 5–7 days of immune-modifying nutritional supplementation for malnourished patients, discontinuation of smoking in the perioperative period, limiting steroid use, utilization of oral antibiotic preparation for colorectal surgery, avoidance of early operations (<4 weeks following chemotherapy, limiting pressor use, and the utilization of goal-directed fluid management. Keywords: anastomosis, anastomotic, leak, dehiscence, gastrointestinal, complications

  9. The medicalization of beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Poli Neto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern with body image and medical interventions related to physical beauty has greatly increased in the past few years. The purpose of this study is to investigate how medicine is dealing with the theme of beauty. The 2003/2004 editions of the periodicals Aesthetic Surgery Journal and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery were analyzed, in order to investigate the rationality buttressing their discourse. Three categories were prioritized for this study: definition of aesthetic plastic surgery's study object; beauty patterns guiding interventions; and understanding popular demand for aesthetic corrections. Discourse is sustained by biomedical rationality, structured around a disease theory and a dual construction between normal and pathological, with emphasis on biology. In the articles, the beauty patterns guiding therapeutic practices are anchored in biological norms defined through several anthropometric measures, which refer to abstract concepts of beauty, harmony, proportionality and symmetry. In this discourse, there are no references to patterns or to social norms of beauty; motivation for aesthetic intervention appears to be rooted in low self-esteem related to the aging process or to some bodily nonconformity. As per the meaning of 'medicalization' adopted herein, biomedical rationality appropriates variations or anomalies of physical appearance, thus allowing the theme to be dealt with in terms of health and disease, normal and pathological.

  10. Fauna of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Acandi (Choco, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geographic region called Choco - Darien - Caribe is a tropical forest ecosystem considered of great diversity but still a poorly known region. The current study focuses on some phlebotominae species collected in a geographic area where it has been documented cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission. An entomological study was conducted at the natural reserve El Aguacate, in Acandi municipality, Choco. Sampling methods included light traps such as CDC and collections of adult sand flies in resting sites such as tree buttresses using mouth aspirators devices. the collection findings comprise a total of 1205 phlebotominae adults, with some species of note such as Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor and Lutzomyia hartmanni which are recognized as potential vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the new world. Sixteen species of the genus Lutzomyia fran Cedillata and two species of the genus Brumptomyia sherlock are recorded for the Colombian Darien - Caribe Region. The species Lutzomyia atroclavata (Knab) and Brumptomyia mesai (Sherlock) are new findings in Choco. This study is a contribution to the phlebotominae species of Acandi municipality in Choco.

  11. The study of confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency of the Nature Relatedness Scale in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Badrigargari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the validity and reliability of The Nature Relatedness Scale (NR- scale by analyzing the responses made to it by 300 students from agriculture faculty of Tabriz University. The confirmatory analyses were used to compute the validity. The goodness of fit for each model was assessed using the Satorra–Bentler scaled chi-square, the Incremental Fit Index (IFI, and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI. A non-significant chi-square, and values greater than 0.90 for the GFI, IFI and CFI, are considered to reflect acceptable model fit. The internal consistency was used to determine reliability of NR- Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the three-factor model of NR- scale demonstrated a superior fit to the data. The Cronbach alpha values showed that NR-Scale has a good reliability. The results buttressed the notion that the NR- scale is a valid and reliable measurement instrument in predicting environmentally responsible behavior (ERB.

  12. Leaf micromorphology of some Phyllanthus L. species (Phyllanthaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative leaf micromorphological study was conducted of five chosen Phyllanthus L. (Phyllanthaceae) species, namely P. acidus L., P. elegans Wall. ex Müll. Arg., P. emblica L., P. urinaria L. and P. pulcher Wall. ex Müll. Arg. The objective of this study is to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification. The procedures involve examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings of this study have demonstrated variations in the leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in the types of waxes present on adaxial and abaxial epidermis surfaces, in the stomata and types of trichome. Common character present in all species studied are the presence of a thin film layer and buttress-like waxes on epidermal leaf surfaces. Diagnostics characters found in this study are the presence of papilla in P. elegens, amphistomatic stomata in P. urinaria and flaky waxes in P. pulcher. The result of this study has shown that leaf micromorphological characters have some taxonomic significance and can be used in identification of species in the genus Phyllanthus

  13. Adaptive evolution of cytochrome c oxidase: Infrastructure for a carnivorous plant radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Richard W.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Laakkonen, Liisa; Wikström, Mårten; Albert, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    Much recent attention in the study of adaptation of organismal form has centered on developmental regulation. As such, the highly conserved respiratory machinery of eukaryotic cells might seem an unlikely target for selection supporting novel morphologies. We demonstrate that a dramatic molecular evolutionary rate increase in subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from an active-trapping lineage of carnivorous plants is caused by positive Darwinian selection. Bladderworts (Utricularia) trap plankton when water-immersed, negatively pressured suction bladders are triggered. The resetting of traps involves active ion transport, requiring considerable energy expenditure. As judged from the quaternary structure of bovine COX, the most profound adaptive substitutions are two contiguous cysteines absent in ≈99.9% of databased COX I sequences from Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria. This motif lies directly at the docking point of COX I helix 3 and cytochrome c, and modeling of bovine COX I suggests the possibility of an unprecedented helix-terminating disulfide bridge that could alter COX/cytochrome c dissociation kinetics. Thus, the key adaptation in Utricularia likely lies in molecular energetic changes that buttressed the mechanisms responsible for the bladderworts' radical morphological evolution. Along with evidence for COX evolution underlying expansion of the anthropoid neocortex, our findings underscore that important morphological and physiological innovations must often be accompanied by specific adaptations in proteins with basic cellular functions. PMID:15596720

  14. Combination chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis in reducing the incidence of leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Balagon, Marivic F

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a complex infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that is a leading cause of nontraumatic peripheral neuropathy. Current control strategies, with a goal of early diagnosis and treatment in the form of multidrug therapy, have maintained new case reports at ~225,000 per year. Diagnostic capabilities are limited and even with revisions to multidrug therapy regimen, treatment can still require up to a year of daily drug intake. Although alternate chemotherapies or adjunct immune therapies that could provide shorter or simpler treatment regimen appear possible, only a limited number of trials have been conducted. More proactive strategies appear necessary in the drive to elimination. As a prevention strategy, most chemoprophylaxis campaigns to date have provided about a 2-year protective window. Vaccination, in the form of a single bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunization, generally provides ~50% reduction in leprosy cases. Adapting control strategies to provide both chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis has distinct appeal, with chemoprophylaxis theoretically buttressed by vaccination to generate immediate protection that can be sustained in the long term. We also discuss simple assays measuring biomarkers as surrogates for disease development or replacements for invasive, but not particularly sensitive, direct measures of M. leprae infection. Such assays could facilitate the clinical trials required to develop these new chemoprophylaxis, immunoprophylaxis strategies, and transition into wider use. PMID:27175099

  15. Centennial inventory: the changing face of orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Joseph G

    2015-11-01

    The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics celebrates its centennial, safeguarded by the nearly 115-year-old American Association of Orthodontists. This journey witnessed the rise and demise of various developments, concepts, and procedures, while basic knowledge is still needed. Various periods can be defined in the past century, but the goals remain to obtain more accurate diagnosis through precise anatomic imaging, more controlled and faster tooth movement, more discreet appliances, and the balance of esthetics, function, and stability. The most recent technologic advances have buttressed these goals. Cone-beam computed tomography has brought 3-dimensional assessment to daily usage, albeit the original enthusiasm is tempered by the risk of additional radiation. Temporary anchorage devices or miniscrews have revolutionized orthodontic practice and loom as a solid cornerstone of orthodontic science. Decortication and microperforation promise to speed up tooth displacement by stimulating vascularization. The concept of the regional acceleratory phenomenon has touched upon even the timing of orthognathic surgery. The burden of esthetic appliances remains, with the demand for "cosmetic" appliances and clear aligners. Have these developments changed the face of orthodontics? Have we engaged in another turn wherein certain treatment modalities may fade, while others join mainstream applications? These questions are addressed in this essay on the challenges, promises, and limitations of current orthodontic technology, enhancement of biologic response, and personalized treatment approaches. PMID:26522032

  16. Pains and Gains from China’s Experiences with Emerging Epidemics: From SARS to H7N9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent decades, China experienced several emerging virus outbreaks including those caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome- (SARS- coronavirus (Cov, H5N1 virus, and H7N9 virus. The SARS tragedy revealed faults in China’s infectious disease prevention system, propelling the Chinese government to enact reforms that enabled better combating of the subsequent H1N1 and H7N9 avian flu epidemics. The system is buttressed by three fundamental, mutually reinforcing components: (1 enduring government administration reforms, including legislation establishing a unified public health emergency management system; (2 prioritized funding for biotechnology and biomedicine industrialization, especially in the areas of pathogen identification, drug production, and the development of vaccines and diagnostics; and (3 increasing investment for public health and establishment of a rapid-response infectious diseases prevention and control system. China is now using its hard-gained experience to support the fight against Ebola in Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in its own country.

  17. A will to youth: the woman's anti-aging elixir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Michelle Hannah

    2012-10-01

    The logic and cultural myths that buttress the cosmeceutical industry construct the older woman as a victim of old age, part of an "at-risk" population who must monitor, treat and prevent any markers of old age. A content and discourse analysis of 124 advertisements from the US More magazine between 1998 and 2008, revealed three major themes working together to produce this civic duty: (1) the inclusion of scientific and medical authorities in order to define the cosmeceutical as a 'drug' curing a disease, (2) descriptions of the similarities (and differences) between the abilities of cosmeceuticals and cosmetic surgery to restore one's youth, and (3) the logic equating youth with beauty, femininity and power and older age with the absence of these qualities. Together these intersecting logics produce the "will to youth"-the imperative of the aging woman to promote her youthful appearance by any and all available means. Further, by using images and references to fantasies and traditional fairytales, cosmeceutical advertisements both promise and normalize expectations of eternal youth of the aging woman. PMID:22742924

  18. Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pattyn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models that are able to robustly simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison exercise for marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no effects of lateral buttressing. Unique steady state grounding line positions exist for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed, while hysteresis occurs across an overdeepened bed, and stable steady state grounding line positions only occur on the downward-sloping sections. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which does not resolve extensional stresses, do not reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line. For extensional-stress resolving "shelfy stream" models, differences between model results were mainly due to the choice of spatial discretization. Moving grid methods were found to be the most accurate at capturing grounding line evolution, since they track the grounding line explicitly. Adaptive mesh refinement can further improve accuracy, including fixed grid models that generally perform poorly at coarse resolution. Fixed grid models, with nested grid representations of the grounding line, are able to generate accurate steady state positions, but can be inaccurate over transients. Only one full-Stokes model was included in the intercomparison, and consequently the accuracy of shelfy stream models as approximations of full-Stokes models remains to be determined in detail, especially during transients.

  19. Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pattyn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models that are able to robustly simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison exercise for marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no effects of lateral buttressing. Unique steady-state grounding line positions exist for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed, while hysteresis occurs across an overdeepened bed, and stable steady state grounding line positions only occur on the downward-sloping sections. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which does not resolve extensional stresses, do not reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line. For extensional-stress resolving "shelfy stream" models, differences between model results were mainly due to the choice of spatial discretization. Moving grid methods were found to be the most accurate at capturing grounding line evolution, since they track the grounding line explicitly. Adaptive mesh refinement can further improve accuracy, including in fixed-grid models that generally perform poorly at coarse resolution. Fixed grid models with nested grid representations of the grounding line are able to generate accurate steady-state positions, but can be inaccurate over transients. Only one full Stokes model was included in the intercomparison, and consequently the accuracy of shelfy stream models as approximations of full Stokes models remains to be determined in detail, especially during transients.

  20. One-year results from cryopreserved mitral allograft transplantation into the tricuspid position in a sheep experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokracek, A; Canadyova, J; Simunkova, Z; Fiala, R; Hmirak, M; Sulda, M; Burkert, J; Tintera, J; Kobylka, P; Spatenka, J

    2015-01-01

    Mitral allografts are still used only exceptionally in the mitral or tricuspid position. The main indication remains infectious endocarditis of atrioventricular valves for its flexibility and low risk of infection. The aim of our study was to evaluate 1-year results of mitral allografts transplantation into the tricuspid position in a sheep model. Mitral allografts were processed, cryopreserved, and transplanted into the tricuspid position anatomically (Group I - 11 animals) or antianatomically (Group II - 8 animals). All survivors (4 from Group I, and 3 from Group II) were checked at 3, 6, and 12 months by echocardiography with the exception of one survivor from Group II (which was examinated only visually). Examination throughout follow-up included for mitral allograft regurgitation and annuli dilatation. At postmortem, the papillary muscles were healed and firmly anchored to the right ventricular wall in all subjects. Transventricular fixation of the papillary muscles with buttressed sutures was proven to be a stable, reproducible, and safe method for anchoring mitral allograft leaflets. There were no significant differences between the two implantation methods. Annulus support of mitral allografts might be very useful in this type of operation and could prevent annular dilatation. PMID:26047374

  1. College Student Leadership Development: Transformational Leadership as a Theoretical Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneisha Ingleton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The fast-paced growth of organizations in the world requires more leaders who are equipped with the requisite skills and competencies to bring about positive change in society. Essentially, contemporary society demands a set of leaders who are able to provide adaptive and creative solutions for the challenges that confront the modern world. The development of leadership competencies has therefore become critical at virtually every level of society. Accordingly, various organizations and institutions have employed various approaches to develop the requisite skills and competencies in their leaders. However, given the subtlety and range of skills demanded for leadership in contemporary society, leadership educators are challenged to select and synthesize appropriate concepts and methods consistent with the features of the new millennium that can buttress and give significance to student leadership experience. Otherwise, leadership development could be premised on theoretical approaches to leadership that may have been effective for past centuries “premised on physical production” (Uhl-Bien, Marion & McKelvy, 2007, Rost, 1993. The purpose of this paper, then, is to explore the impact of leadership education on college students and to propose transformational leadership as a theoretical foundation on which to build a formal student leadership development program that can adequately prepare college students for leadership for positive change.

  2. Unsweetened Natural Cocoa Powder Has the Potential to Attenuate High Dose Artemether-Lumefantrine-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Non-Malarious Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac Julius; Edem Kukuia, Kennedy Kwami; Seidu, Abdulai Mahmood; Antwi-Boasiako, Charles; N'guessan, Benoit Banga; Frimpong-Manso, Samuel; Adjei, Samuel; Zobi, Jonathan; Tettey, Abraham Terkpertey; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study investigated the elemental composition of unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), its effect on nitric oxide, and its hepatoprotective potential during simultaneous administration with high-dose artemether/lumefantrine (A/L). Method. Macro- and microelements in UNCP were analyzed with EDXRF spectroscopy. Thirty (30) male guinea-pigs were then divided into five groups. For groups 3 (low-dose), 4 (medium-dose), and 5 (high-dose), the animals received oral UNCP prophylactically for 14 days. Group 1 received distilled water (14 days) and group 2 A/L for the last 3 days (days 12 to 14). After euthanisation, biochemical and histopathological examinations were carried out in all groups. Results. Phytochemical analysis of UNCP showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. Thirty-eight (38) macro- and microelements were found. UNCP produced significant decreases in ALT, ALP, GGT, and AST levels. A significant increase in total protein levels was observed during A/L+UNCP administration in comparison to 75 mg/kg A/L group. Histopathological examinations buttressed the protective effects of cocoa administration. UNCP administration increased nitric oxide levels 149.71% (P < 0.05) compared to controls. Conclusion. UNCP increases nitric oxide levels and has hepatoprotective potential during A/L administration. A high level of copper was observed which may be detrimental during high daily consumptions of UNCP. PMID:27493672

  3. Triple plating of tibia in a complex bicondylar tibial plateau fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atin Jaiswal; Naiman Deepak Kachchhap; Yashwant S Tanwar; Birendra Kumar; Sachin K Yadav

    2014-01-01

    High-energy tibial plateau fracture poses a significant challenge and difficulty for orthopaedic surgeons.Fracture of tibial plateau involves major weight bearing joint and may alter knee kinematics.Anatomic reconstruction of the proximal tibial articular surfaces,restoration of the limb axis (limb alignment) and stable fixation permitting early joint motion are the goals of the treatment.In cases of complex bicondylar tibial plateau fractures,isolated lateral plating is frequently associated with varus malalignment and better results have been obtained with bilateral plating through dual incisions.However sometimes a complex type of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is encountered in which medial plateau has a biplaner fracture in posterior coronal plane as well as sagittal plane.In such fractures it is imperative to fix the medial plateau with buttressing in both planes.One such fracture pattern of the proximal tibia managed by triple plating through dual posteromedial and anterolateral incisions is discussed in this case report with emphasis on mechanisms of this type of injury,surgical approach and management.

  4. Ipsilateral fracture dislocations of the hip and knee joints with contralateral open fracture of the leg: a rare case and its management principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Ramesh Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】This paper discussed the injury mecha- nism and management of a patient who had concomitant ipsilateral hip and knee dislocations and contralateral open leg fracture. A 32-year-old man presented with ipsilateral fracture- dislocations of the left hip (Pipkin’s type IV and knee (Moore II joints and contralateral open fracture of the leg bones after a car accident. After emergency resuscitative measures, the hip joint was reduced and Pipkin’s fracture was fixed using Ganz approach with lag screws; knee joint was reduced closely and tibial plateau fracture was stabi- lized with lateral buttress plate and a transarticular span- ning fixator. The open fracture on the other leg was de- brided and fixed with an external fixator. There was no insta- bility in both joints after fixation when he was examined under anesthesia. The fractures united after 3 months and the patient had no residual instability of hip and knee. There was no clinical or radiological evidence of osteonecrosis in the hip joint after 6 months. At one-year follow-up, he had satisfactory functional outcome with almost normal range of motion at both joints. Ipsilateral hip and knee dislocations are rare injuries and more caution is needed for early diagnosis. A timely appro- priate intervention can provide good functional outcome to the patient in this situation. Key words: Hip dislocation; Knee dislocation; Fractures, bone

  5. Ipsilateral fracture dislocations of the hip and knee joints with contralateral open fracture of the leg: a rare case and its management principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh Kumar Sen; Sujit Kumar Tripathy; Vibhu Krishnan; Tarun Goyal; Vanyambadi Jagadeesh

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the injury mechanism and management of a patient who had concomitant ipsilateral hip and knee dislocations and contralateral open leg fracture.A 32-year-old man presented with ipsilateral fracturedislocations of the left hip (Pipkin's type Ⅳ) and knee (Moore Ⅱ)joints and contralateral open fracture of the leg bones after a car accident. After emergency resuscitative measures, the hip joint was reduced and Pipkin's fracture was fixed using Ganz approach with lag screws; knee joint was reduced closely and tibial plateau fracture was stabilized with lateral buttress plate and a transarticular spanning fixator. The open fracture on the other leg was debrided and fixed with an external fixator. There was no instability in both joints after fixation when he was examined under anesthesia. The fractures united after 3 months and the patient had no residual instability of hip and knee. There was no clinical or radiological evidence of osteonecrosis in the hip joint after 6 months. At one-year follow-up, he had satisfactory functional outcome with almost normal range of motion at both joints.Ipsilateral hip and knee dislocations are rare injuries and more caution is needed for early diagnosis. A timely appropriate intervention can provide good functional outcome to the patient in this situation.

  6. Bony outgrowths on the jaws of an extinct sperm whale support macroraptorial feeding in several stem physeteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier; Bianucci, Giovanni; Beatty, Brian L.

    2014-06-01

    Several extinct sperm whales (stem Physeteroidea) were recently proposed to differ markedly in their feeding ecology from the suction-feeding modern sperm whales Kogia and Physeter. Based on cranial, mandibular, and dental morphology, these Miocene forms were tentatively identified as macroraptorial feeders, able to consume proportionally large prey using their massive teeth and robust jaws. However, until now, no corroborating evidence for the use of teeth during predation was available. We report on a new specimen of the stem physeteroid Acrophyseter, from the late middle to early late Miocene of Peru, displaying unusual bony outgrowths along some of the upper alveoli. Considering their position and outer shape, these are identified as buccal maxillary exostoses. More developed along posterior teeth and in tight contact with the high portion of the dental root outside the bony alveoli, the exostoses are hypothesized to have developed during powerful bites; they may have worked as buttresses, strengthening the teeth when facing intense occlusal forces. These buccal exostoses further support a raptorial feeding technique for Acrophyseter and, indirectly, for other extinct sperm whales with a similar oral apparatus ( Brygmophyseter, Livyatan, Zygophyseter). With a wide size range, these Miocene stem physeteroids were major marine macropredators, occupying ecological niches nowadays mostly taken by killer whales.

  7. The Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP Pathway in Organ Transplantation: Critical Role in Successful Lung Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, David J.; Naka, Yoshifumi; Chowdhury, Nepal C.; Liao, Hui; Oz, Mehmet C.; Michler, Robert E.; Kubaszewski, Eugeniusz; Malinski, Tadeusz; Stern, David M.

    1994-12-01

    Reestablishment of vascular homeostasis following ex vivo preservation is a critical determinant of successful organ transplantation. Because the nitric oxide (NO) pathway modulates pulmonary vascular tone and leukocyte/endothelial interactions, we hypothesized that reactive oxygen intermediates would lead to decreased NO (and hence cGMP) levels following pulmonary reperfusion, leading to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and leukostasis. Using an orthotopic rat model of lung transplantation, a porphyrinic microsensor was used to make direct in vivo measurements of pulmonary NO. NO levels measured at the surface of the transplanted lung plummeted immediately upon reperfusion, with levels moderately increased by topical application of superoxide dismutase. Because cGMP levels declined in preserved lungs after reperfusion, this led us to buttress the NO pathway by adding a membrane-permeant cGMP analog to the preservation solution. Compared with grafts stored in its absence, grafts stored with supplemental 8-Br-cGMP and evaluated 30 min after reperfusion demonstrated lower pulmonary vascular resistances with increased graft blood flow, improved arterial oxygenation, decreased neutrophil infiltration, and improved recipient survival. These beneficial effects were dose dependent, mimicked by the type V phosphodiesterase inhibitor 2-o-propoxyphenyl-8-azapurin-6-one, and inhibited by a cGMP-dependent protein kinase antagonist, the R isomer of 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate. Augmenting the NO pathway at the level of cGMP improves graft function and recipient survival following lung transplantation.

  8. Dynamic and steady state performance comparison of line-start permanent magnet synchronous motors with interior and surface rotor magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuka Cosmas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive comparison of the dynamic and steady state performance characteristics of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with interior and surface rotor magnets for line-start operation is presented. The dynamic model equations of the PMSM, with damper windings, are utilized for dynamic studies. Two typical loading scenarios are examined: step and ramp loading. The interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM showed superior asynchronous performance under no load, attaining faster synchronism compared to the surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM. With step load of 10 Nm at 2 s the combined effect of the excitation and the reluctance torque forced the IPMSM to pull into synchronism faster than the SPMSM which lacks saliency. The ability of the motors to withstand gradual load increase, in the synchronous mode, was examined using ramp loading starting from zero at 2 s. SPMSM lost synchronism at 12 s under 11 Nm load while the IPMSM sustained synchronism until 41 seconds under 40 Nm load. This clearly suggests that the IPMSM has superior load-withstand capability. The superiority is further buttressed with the steady state torque analysis where airgap torque in IPMSM is enhanced by the reluctance torque within 90° to 180° torque angle.

  9. Longitudinal stability of the folding pattern of the anterior cingulate cortex during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachia, A; Borst, G; Tissier, C; Fisher, C; Plaze, M; Gay, O; Rivière, D; Gogtay, N; Giedd, J; Mangin, J-F; Houdé, O; Raznahan, A

    2016-06-01

    Prenatal processes are likely critical for the differences in cognitive ability and disease risk that unfold in postnatal life. Prenatally established cortical folding patterns are increasingly studied as an adult proxy for earlier development events - under the as yet untested assumption that an individual's folding pattern is developmentally fixed. Here, we provide the first empirical test of this stability assumption using 263 longitudinally-acquired structural MRI brain scans from 75 typically developing individuals spanning ages 7 to 32 years. We focus on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - an intensely studied cortical region that presents two qualitatively distinct and reliably classifiable sulcal patterns with links to postnatal behavior. We show - without exception-that individual ACC sulcal patterns are fixed from childhood to adulthood, at the same time that quantitative anatomical ACC metrics are undergoing profound developmental change. Our findings buttress use of folding typology as a postnatally-stable marker for linking variations in early brain development to later neurocognitive outcomes in ex utero life. PMID:26974743

  10. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate. PMID:22741420

  11. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  12. Protein-RNA and Protein-Protein Recognition by Dual KH1/2 Domains of the Neuronal Splicing Factor Nova-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Teplova; L Malinina; J Darnell; J Song; M Lu; R Abagyan; K Musunuru; A Teplov; S Burley; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Nova onconeural antigens are neuron-specific RNA-binding proteins implicated in paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (POMA) syndrome. Nova harbors three K-homology (KH) motifs implicated in alternate splicing regulation of genes involved in inhibitory synaptic transmission. We report the crystal structure of the first two KH domains (KH1/2) of Nova-1 bound to an in vitro selected RNA hairpin, containing a UCAG-UCAC high-affinity binding site. Sequence-specific intermolecular contacts in the complex involve KH1 and the second UCAC repeat, with the RNA scaffold buttressed by interactions between repeats. Whereas the canonical RNA-binding surface of KH2 in the above complex engages in protein-protein interactions in the crystalline state, the individual KH2 domain can sequence-specifically target the UCAC RNA element in solution. The observed antiparallel alignment of KH1 and KH2 domains in the crystal structure of the complex generates a scaffold that could facilitate target pre-mRNA looping on Nova binding, thereby potentially explaining Nova's functional role in splicing regulation.

  13. Pre-arthroplasty simultaneous maxillomandibular distraction osteogenesis for the correction of post-ankylotic dentofacial deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, D; Vishwakarma, K; Chellapa, A L; Mahajan, N

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hard and soft tissue changes after pre-arthroplasty simultaneous maxillomandibular distraction osteogenesis for the correction of post-ankylotic dentofacial deformities. This prospective study included 10 patients with unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis who presented with a facial deformity and a maxillary cant. Informed patient consent was obtained for participation. Simultaneous maxillomandibular distraction was planned based on clinical and radiographic examinations. A horizontal mandibular osteotomy was performed in the ramus and the distractor device was fixed. A bilateral Le Fort I osteotomy was then performed and a four-hole straight plate was fixed on the contralateral zygomatic buttress to act as a fulcrum. After a latency period of 5 days, the distractor was activated twice daily by 0.5mm until the required vertical lengthening was achieved. Intermaxillary fixation was maintained during the entire distraction period. After a consolidation period of 8-12 weeks, the distractor was removed. The TMJ ankylosis was released and a temporal fascia interpositional arthroplasty was performed as second surgery, along with a genioplasty if needed. All patients were followed up for a period of 12-24 months. A marked improvement in the facial asymmetry was noted in all cases. The occlusal cant and mandibular retrusion improved satisfactorily, and the average postoperative inter-incisal opening was 35.6mm. Pre-arthroplasty simultaneous maxillomandibular distraction offers a good treatment outcome, as it allows improvements in facial aesthetics as well as function. PMID:26780926

  14. Consequences of urban pollution on Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedeji, A. [Lagos state Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA), (Nigeria)

    2000-07-01

    In most urban areas, the major air pollutants as earlier highlighted are CO, PbO. SO{sub 2}. NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons, particulate matters and even excess CO{sub 2}. Some of these have direct effects on health while some are of indirect effects. Other common gaseous emissions from industries are toxic waste fumes and dust/ fluff from spinning, weaving and other processes. In most cases when not properly taken care of may lead to human and plant lives being endangered. For instance it is an established fact that prolonged inhalation of fluff can also lead to Prysinosis with attendant symptoms of chest tightening and pain. In advanced stage, the situation could lead to tuberculosis. Similarly, heavy air pollution leads to acute and chronic harmful effects such as chronic bronchitis, asthma. dermatitis allergy and hypersensitivity. The processing houses produce substantial quantity of volatile chemicals. which pollute the air and could result in health impairment in human beings. It is sad to note that most African Countries including Nigeria still use leaded gasoline. The air quality degradation by these pollutants causes or aggravates most of the respiratory and air-borne diseases like asthma. tuberculosis etc which are rampant in a typical urban city like Lagos. The chart below buttresses this fact. (author)

  15. Unsweetened Natural Cocoa Powder Has the Potential to Attenuate High Dose Artemether-Lumefantrine-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Non-Malarious Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the elemental composition of unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP, its effect on nitric oxide, and its hepatoprotective potential during simultaneous administration with high-dose artemether/lumefantrine (A/L. Method. Macro- and microelements in UNCP were analyzed with EDXRF spectroscopy. Thirty (30 male guinea-pigs were then divided into five groups. For groups 3 (low-dose, 4 (medium-dose, and 5 (high-dose, the animals received oral UNCP prophylactically for 14 days. Group 1 received distilled water (14 days and group 2 A/L for the last 3 days (days 12 to 14. After euthanisation, biochemical and histopathological examinations were carried out in all groups. Results. Phytochemical analysis of UNCP showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. Thirty-eight (38 macro- and microelements were found. UNCP produced significant decreases in ALT, ALP, GGT, and AST levels. A significant increase in total protein levels was observed during A/L+UNCP administration in comparison to 75 mg/kg A/L group. Histopathological examinations buttressed the protective effects of cocoa administration. UNCP administration increased nitric oxide levels 149.71% (P<0.05 compared to controls. Conclusion. UNCP increases nitric oxide levels and has hepatoprotective potential during A/L administration. A high level of copper was observed which may be detrimental during high daily consumptions of UNCP.

  16. Hard-object feeding in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys and interpretation of early hominin feeding ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Daegling

    Full Text Available Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods.

  17. Effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms and biomarkers in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Josefsson, Torbjorn; Lindwall, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical exercise/activity has been shown repeatedly to promote positive benefits in cognitive, emotional and motor domains concomitant with reductions in distress and negative affect. It exerts a preventative role in anxiety and depressive states and facilitates psychological well-being in both adolescents and adults. Not least, several meta-analyses attest to improvements brought about by exercise. In the present treatise, the beneficial effects of exercise upon cognitive, executive function and working memory, emotional, self-esteem and depressed mood, motivational, anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, and somatic/physical, sleep disturbances and chronic aches and pains, categories of depression are discussed. Concurrently, the amelioration of several biomarkers associated with depressive states: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis homeostasis, anti-neurodegenerative effects, monoamine metabolism regulation and neuroimmune functioning. The notion that physical exercise may function as "scaffolding" that buttresses available network circuits, anti-inflammatory defences and neuroreparative processes, e.g. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), holds a certain appeal. PMID:25470398

  18. The mechanisms of corporate governance in the United States: an assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrighi Dante Mendes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the mechanisms of corporate governance currently at work in the United States. Section 1 turns its focus to the reasons accounting for the still relative scarceness of large shareholders in American publicly held companies. The analysis thereafter concentrates on assessing the efficacy of each of the pillars purportedly buttressing the American system of corporate control. The paper argues that the evidence provided by the existing corporate governance literature supports the following propositions: 1 the legal and regulatory framework actually restrains the scope for expropriating minority shareholders, though at the cost of inhibiting institutional investor activism; 2 as a rule, the board of directors do not comply with their mandatory duty of overseeing management, although some progress has recently been made, with directors in several companies becoming less submissive to chief executive officers; 3 the market for corporate control encounters a great number of difficulties (ranging from legal hurdles to high transaction costs and to serious free-riding problems, which are sufficient to cast a cloud on its reliability as a means of repressing managerial inefficiencies and rent-seeking; 4 competition in the product and capital markets is likely to produce effects only in the long-run.

  19. Extending research on parenting in mothers diagnosed with BPD: commentary on Stepp et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J

    2012-01-01

    Comments on an article Children of mothers with borderline personality disorder: Identifying parenting behaviors as potential targets for intervention by Stepp, Whalen, Pilkonis, Hipwell, and Levine (see record 2011-05873-001). With this review, Stepp and colleagues have advanced our understanding of parenting and child development within the context of maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD). It is commendable that these authors have initiated the first theoretical description of how a diagnosis of BPD may affect the quality of parenting. At the same time, this article highlights the disheartening lack of research in this area. Given the paucity of prior theoretical and empirical work exploring parenting in mothers diagnosed with BPD, advances in this area could be buttressed by current conceptualizations of parenting and empirical evidence from related parenting research. In this commentary, we highlight two main concerns and provide suggestions for moving the research in this area forward. First, we raise questions about how some of the identified parenting deficits thought to be specific to mothers with BPD will be operationalized in future basic research. Second, we suggest that the use of a behavioral approach to examining parenting in this population will facilitate both basic research and future intervention work. PMID:22448866

  20. Effects of benzoic acid and cadmium toxicity on wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzoic acid (BA and Cd exhibit cumulative effects on plants due to their accumulation in the soil. The present study reports the effects of BA an allelochemical, Cd and their combinations on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical parameters, and response of antioxidant enzymes in Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted in sand supplemented with Hoagland nutrient solution. Benzoic acid was applied at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM with or without Cd (7 mg L-1 to observe effects of allelochemical and Cd alone and in combination on wheat. Both stresses exhibited inhibitory effect on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings. The allelochemical in single and combined treatments with Cd decreased seedling growth as compared to Cd stress. The two stresses significantly enhanced malondialdehyde content of wheat seedlings. The activity of other antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were also recorded. SOD increased in seedlings under the two stresses. CAT more prominently ameliorates the toxic effects of H2O2 as compared with APX and POX and protected wheat seedlings from oxidative stress. Allelochemical buttressed the toxic effect of Cd on wheat seedlings.

  1. Sustained eruptions on Enceladus explained by turbulent dissipation in tiger stripes

    CERN Document Server

    Kite, Edwin S

    2016-01-01

    Spacecraft observations suggest that the plumes of Saturn's moon Enceladus draw water from a subsurface ocean, but the sustainability of conduits linking ocean and surface is not understood. Observations show sustained (though tidally modulated) fissure eruptions throughout each orbit, and since the 2005 discovery of the plumes. Peak plume flux lags peak tidal extension by $\\sim$1 radian, suggestive of resonance. Here we show that a model of the tiger stripes as tidally-flexed slots that puncture the ice shell can simultaneously explain the persistence of the eruptions through the tidal cycle, the phase lag, and the total power output of the tiger stripe terrain, while suggesting that the eruptions are maintained over geological timescales. The delay associated with flushing and refilling of \\emph{O}(1) m-wide slots with ocean water causes erupted flux to lag tidal forcing and helps to buttress slots against closure, while tidally pumped in-slot flow leads to heating and mechanical disruption that staves off ...

  2. Deterioration problems for concrete and masonry dams in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolina, R.; Appendino, M.; Baldovin, E.; Berra, M.; Bianchini, A.; Carabelli, E.; Posta, U.; Vielmo, I.

    1990-01-01

    In this report the most important problems relative to the deterioration affecting concrete and masonry dams in Italy are presented. The first topic is the deterioration of the body of the dam by the watertightness properties of the older dams, where the original permeability of the body initiates the deterioration phenomena, especially in masonry dams. The sonic tomography techniques are employed in diagnostic; repair measures are mainly based on renewal of upstream faces. The second problem is cracking in the concrete blocks of many dams of buttress and hollow gravity type. Important stabilizing interventions have to be adopted only when the deformability of the foundation rocks became prominent. A third topic covers the loosening phenomenon which occurs in the rock at upstream toe of some archgravity dams with a subsequent deterioration of the curtain. The repair measures consist in regrouping the curtain under conditions of maximum water level and in integrating the drainage system. In the most delicate cases grouting injections carried out for stepped up water levels has been considered to be more effective.

  3. Morphology and taxonomy of Isognomon spathulatus (Reeve, 1858), a cryptic bivalve from the mangroves of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tëmkin, Ilya; Printrakoon, Cheewarat

    2016-01-01

    Isognomon spathulatus (Reeve, 1858) is redescribed based on type material and original collections from Kungkrabaen Bay, Thailand. The species agrees with previously described isognomonids in most conchological and anatomical features, but possesses a suite of diagnostic characters, including a comma-shaped outline of the nacreous border, an uncoiled ventral diverticulum of the stomach, and the thickened mantle lobes with granulated cells. This study is the most comprehensive morphological analysis to date for any species of Isognomonidae Woodring, 1925 (1828). It describes and illustrates a number of previously unrecognized or underutilized anatomical characters of potential phylogenetic significance: the morphology of the byssal threads (cross-sectional shape, plumate rootlets, and the shape of adhesive disks), the presence and extent of the interdemibranchial buttresses, the presence of secretory cells in the central zone of the mantle, the shape of the ventral diverticulum of the gastric chamber, the presence of the typhlosolar guard ridge, and the position of the renal pore. A comparison is made between I. spathulatus and morphologically similar Isognomon ephippium (Linnaeus, 1758) with which it has been previously synonymized. Pearls of both species are described and illustrated. Individuals of I. spathulatus inhabit mangroves, where they attach by byssus to prop roots, typically in parapatry with individuals of I. ephippium that occupy adjacent mudflats. The spacial distribution and diverging adaptive strategies (pertaining to physical stabilization and response to predation) displayed by the two isognomonid species are considered in the light of the ecological speciation theory. PMID:27394812

  4. Diasteromeric Effect on the Homolysis of the C–ON Bond in Alkoxyamines: A DFT Investigation of 1,3-Diphenylbutyl-TEMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Roubaud

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The rate constants kd of the homolysis of the C–ON bond in styryl dyads TEMPO-based alkoxyamines have recently been published (Li et al. Macromolecules 2006, 39, 9201. The diastereoisomers exhibited different values which were higher than for the unimer TEMPO-styryl alkoxyamine 1. At a first glance, the localization of the steric strain was not obvious. To decipher this problem, diastereoisomer models 2 (RR/SS and 3 (RS/SR, as well as the released alkyl radicals, were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d level. It was revealed that the increase in kd from 1 to 3 was due to the compression (buttressing effect of the reactive center by the second styryl moiety. The difference in kd for the diastereoisomer was clearly an activation entropy effect DS≠ because the alkyl fragment of the RS/SR diastereoismer exhibited the same conformation as the released radical whereas the conformation for the RR/SS diastereoisomer was quite different and thus required the rotation of several bonds to reach the correct TS, which cost DS≠, and thus lowers kd.

  5. Memory for serial order across domains: An overview of the literature and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlstone, Mark J; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2014-03-01

    From vocabulary learning to imitating sequences of motor actions, the ability to plan, represent, and recall a novel sequence of items in the correct order is fundamental for many verbal and nonverbal higher level cognitive activities. Here we review phenomena of serial order documented across the verbal, visual, and spatial short-term memory domains and interpret them with reference to the principles of serial order and ancillary assumptions instantiated in contemporary computational theories of memory for serial order. We propose that functional similarities across domains buttress the notion that verbal, visual, and spatial sequences are planned and controlled by a competitive queuing (CQ) mechanism in which items are simultaneously active in parallel and the strongest item is chosen for output. Within the verbal short-term memory CQ system, evidence suggests that serial order is represented via a primacy gradient, position marking, response suppression, and cumulative matching. Evidence further indicates that output interference operates during recall and that item similarity effects manifest during both serial order encoding and retrieval. By contrast, the principles underlying the representation of serial order in the visual and spatial CQ systems are unclear, largely because the relevant studies have yet to be performed. In the spatial domain, there is some evidence for a primacy gradient and position marking, whereas in the visual domain there is no direct evidence for either of the principles of serial order. We conclude by proposing some directions for future research designed to bridge this and other theoretical gaps in the literature. PMID:24079725

  6. Effects of Lexico-syntactic Errors on Teaching Materials: A Study of Textbooks Written by Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peace Chinwendu Israel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined lexico-syntactic errors in selected textbooks written by Nigerians. Our focus was on the educated bilinguals (acrolect who acquired their primary, secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria and the selected textbooks were textbooks published by Vanity Publishers/Press. The participants (authors cut across the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria – Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba and the selection of the textbooks covered the major disciplines of study. We adopted the descriptive research design and specifically employed the survey method to accomplish the purpose of our exploratory research.  The lexico-syntactic errors in the selected textbooks were identified and classified into various categories. These errors were not different from those identified over the years in students’ essays and exam scripts. This buttressed our argument that students are merely the conveyor belt of errors contained in the teaching material and that we can analyse the students’ lexico-syntactic errors in tandem with errors contained in the material used in teaching. 

  7. The moral foundation of collective action against economic crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Vicary Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, economic and financial crimes have been increasing at a fast pace. No country, society, culture or community has been immune from its ravages, yet the international community has failed to cooperate in finding a solution. The main reason for failure may be the lack of a clearly articulated moral foundation. A universal moral principle that could serve as the foundation must be concerned with “harm” and its prevention, and attract universal “consent.” We argue that the Golden Rule satisfies these requirements. The golden rule of “no harm” buttressed by the specificity of the four categories of “generic rights” and “basic good,” i.e. human dignity, trust, contract, and property, could emerge as a consensual global moral principle and allow the development of legislations, laws, standards, codes and conventions that would be accepted and respected by the entire international community in the fight against economic crimes.

  8. The Mackenzie River magnetic anomaly, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada-Evidence for Early Proterozoic magmatic arc crust at the edge of the North American craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the nature of the source of the high-amplitude, long-wavelength, Mackenzie River magnetic anomaly (MRA), Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada, based on magnetic field data collected at three different altitudes: 300??m, 3.5??km and 400??km. The MRA is the largest amplitude (13??nT) satellite magnetic anomaly over Canada. Within the extent of the MRA, source depth estimates (8-12??km) from Euler deconvolution of low-altitude aeromagnetic data show coincidence with basement depths interpreted from reflection seismic data. Inversion of high-altitude (3.5??km) aeromagnetic data produces an average magnetization of 2.5??A/m within a 15- to 35-km deep layer, a value typical of magmatic arc complexes. Early Proterozoic magmatic arc rocks have been sampled to the southeast of the MRA, within the Fort Simpson magnetic anomaly. The MRA is one of several broad-scale magnetic highs that occur along the inboard margin of the Cordillera in Canada and Alaska, which are coincident with geometric changes in the thrust front transition from the mobile belt to stable cratonic North America. The inferred early Proterozoic magmatic arc complex along the western edge of the North American craton likely influenced later tectonic evolution, by acting as a buttress along the inboard margin of the Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. Crown Copyright ?? 2008.

  9. Regional magnetic anomalies, crustal strength, and the location of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    The northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt in Canada and Alaska is at the boundary between the broad continental margin mobile belt and the stable North American craton. The fold-and-thrust belt is marked by several significant changes in geometry: cratonward extensions in the central Yukon Territory and northeastern Alaska are separated by marginward re-entrants. These geometric features of the Cordilleran mobile belt are controlled by relations between lithospheric strength and compressional tectonic forces developed along the continental margin. Regional magnetic anomalies indicate deep thermal and compositional characteristics that contribute to variations in crustal strength. Our detailed analysis of one such anomaly, the North Slope deep magnetic high, helps to explain the geometry of the fold-and-thrust front in northern Alaska. This large magnetic anomaly is inferred to reflect voluminous mafic magmatism in an old (Devonian?) extensional domain. The presence of massive amounts of malic material in the lower crust implies geochemical depletion of the underlying upper mantle, which serves to strengthen the lithosphere against thermal erosion by upper mantle convection. We infer that deep-source magnetic highs are an important indicator of strong lower crust and upper mantle. This stronger lithosphere forms buttresses that play an important role in the structural development of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Is Zaynab Alkali Merely A Feminist Writer? An Appraisal Of The Stillborn And The Virtuous Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amase, Emmanuel Lanior

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many African literary critics seem to have some preconceived notions about female writers. Consequently, there has been indiscriminate branding of some female writers either as feminists or female chauvinists. This portrays them as incapable of addressing other topical issues of national interest other than those that affect the women directly. In this paper therefore, we have undertaken an appraisal of Zainab Alkali’s The Stillborn and The Virtuous Woman to buttress our position that the issues in her novels transcend gender imbalance. The paper examines Alkal’s treatment of the clash of westernisation, tradition and city life, political mal-administration, poor infrastructure as well as the challenging environment of the emerging cities. These are issues, which we believe, affect both male and female. The paper advocates a broader look at texts rather than the emphasis on the feminist angle in the interpretation of works by female authors at the expense of probably more important issues.Keywords: Feminism, Feminists, gender, culture

  11. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A PERSONAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM ON ANDROID MOBILE PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT SOWAH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ignorance and lack of easy access to basic health information such as Body Mass Index (BMI, standard amounts of food calorie intake and nutritional semantics on a daily basis is a problem that has been prevalent in developing countries such as Ghana for the past decade. Adverse detrimental health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, etc. have been statistically recorded and it has been proven that these result out of poor diet and sedentariness.A solution to this problem can be attained with the application of the principles of mobile web application development, coupled with an adequate comprehension of human biology, physiology and dietetics. Individuals are privileged to have a personal way of addressing health issues and habits, based on daily interactivity with thesystem. Currently, mobile phones equipped with Android Operating System (OS and Java are widespread thus utilising existing infrastructure and resources to meet health needs. This paper implements strategic algorithms that enable mobile devices, running on the Android (OS to be utilized maximally for data collection and analysis via user-system interactivity. Positive results were obtainedafter system tests were carried out. Its impact on the healthy development of society and individuals was coherently established, buttressing how indisputable its relevance is to personal health monitoring.

  12. A study of the disciplinary structure of mechanics based on the titles of published journal articles in mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Lixin; LIU; Zeyuan; LIANG; Liming

    2010-01-01

    Scientometrics is an emerging academic field for the exploration of the structure of science through journal citation relations.However,this article aims to study those subject-relevant journals’contents rather than studying their citations contained therein with the purpose of discovering a given disciplinary structure of science such as mechanics in our case.Based on the title wordings of 68,075 articles published in 66 mechanics journals,and using such research tools as the word frequency analysis,multidimensional scaling analysis and factor analysis,this article analyzes similarity and distinctions of those journals’contents in the subject field of mechanics.We first convert complex internal relations of these mechanics journals into a small number amount of independent indicators.The group of selected mechanics journals is then classified by a cluster analysis.This article demonstrates that the relations of the research contents of mechanics can be shown in an intuitively recognizable map,and we can have them analyzed from a perspective by taking into account about how those major branches of mechanics,such as solid mechanics,fluid mechanics,rational mechanics(including mathematical methods in mechanics),sound and vibration mechanics,computational mechanics,are related to the main thematic tenet of our study.It is hoped that such an approach,buttressed with this new perspective and approach,will enrich our means to explore the disciplinary structure of science and technology in general and mechanics in specific.

  13. Combination chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis in reducing the incidence of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Balagon, Marivic F

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a complex infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that is a leading cause of nontraumatic peripheral neuropathy. Current control strategies, with a goal of early diagnosis and treatment in the form of multidrug therapy, have maintained new case reports at ~225,000 per year. Diagnostic capabilities are limited and even with revisions to multidrug therapy regimen, treatment can still require up to a year of daily drug intake. Although alternate chemotherapies or adjunct immune therapies that could provide shorter or simpler treatment regimen appear possible, only a limited number of trials have been conducted. More proactive strategies appear necessary in the drive to elimination. As a prevention strategy, most chemoprophylaxis campaigns to date have provided about a 2-year protective window. Vaccination, in the form of a single bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization, generally provides ~50% reduction in leprosy cases. Adapting control strategies to provide both chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis has distinct appeal, with chemoprophylaxis theoretically buttressed by vaccination to generate immediate protection that can be sustained in the long term. We also discuss simple assays measuring biomarkers as surrogates for disease development or replacements for invasive, but not particularly sensitive, direct measures of M. leprae infection. Such assays could facilitate the clinical trials required to develop these new chemoprophylaxis, immunoprophylaxis strategies, and transition into wider use. PMID:27175099

  14. Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The situation of the island archipelago nation of Papua New Guinea is reviewed in terms of its geography, people, history, government, politics economy and foreign relations. Papua New Guinea consists of the eastern half of the main island of New Guinea (the western portion is Indonesia), and several island groups, all located northeast of Australia. The island has extreme geographical variations, ranging from precipitous mountains to extensive swamps and river valleys, all in a monsoon cimate. As a result, there are hundreds of small groups each with unique cultures and languages; over 650 languages, many unrelated to each other. The population is estimated at 3.5 million, growing at about 2.5% per year. Historically, the region has been occupied by Germany, Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The country came under the international trusteeship system in 1949, and now has a vigorous parliamentary government. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, but is buttressed by resources such as gold, copper, and other metals, oil, timber, tropical agricultural products, fish. The only indusry is local production, since the minimum wage is too high to compete with Asian labor. PMID:12177935

  15. Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeConto, Robert M; Pollard, David

    2016-03-31

    Polar temperatures over the last several million years have, at times, been slightly warmer than today, yet global mean sea level has been 6-9 metres higher as recently as the Last Interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) and possibly higher during the Pliocene epoch (about three million years ago). In both cases the Antarctic ice sheet has been implicated as the primary contributor, hinting at its future vulnerability. Here we use a model coupling ice sheet and climate dynamics-including previously underappreciated processes linking atmospheric warming with hydrofracturing of buttressing ice shelves and structural collapse of marine-terminating ice cliffs-that is calibrated against Pliocene and Last Interglacial sea-level estimates and applied to future greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Antarctica has the potential to contribute more than a metre of sea-level rise by 2100 and more than 15 metres by 2500, if emissions continue unabated. In this case atmospheric warming will soon become the dominant driver of ice loss, but prolonged ocean warming will delay its recovery for thousands of years. PMID:27029274

  16. Reduction of assaultive behavior following anger treatment of forensic hospital patients with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaco, Raymond W; Taylor, John L

    2015-02-01

    Anger is related to violence prior to hospitalization, during hospitalization, and after discharge. Meta-analyses have established treatment efficacy in reducing anger, but few studies have addressed whether reduced anger leads to lowered aggressive behavior. This study concerns individually-delivered anger treatment, specialized for offenders with intellectual disabilities, delivered twice weekly for 18 sessions to 50 forensic hospital patients. Assessments involved patient self-report of anger, staff ratings of anger and aggression, and case records of assaultive incidents. Physical assault data were obtained from records 12 months pre-treatment and 12 months post-treatment. Significant reductions in assaults following treatment were found by GEE analyses, controlling for age, gender, length of stay, IQ, and pre-hospital violence. Following treatment, physical attacks reduced by more than half, dropping from approximately 3.5 attacks per patient 6 months prior to treatment, versus approximately 1 attack per patient in the 6-12 month interval post-treatment. In hierarchical regressions, controlling for IQ, reduction in physical assaults was associated with pre-to post-treatment change in anger level. These findings buttress the efficacy of anger treatment for patients having histories of violence and have significance for patient mental health, hospital staff well-being, therapeutic milieu, hospital management, and service delivery costs. PMID:25569340

  17. Grips and hand movements of chimpanzees during feeding in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Mary W; Marchant, Linda F; McGrew, William C; Reece, Sandra P

    2015-03-01

    It has long been assumed that stone tool making was a major factor in the evolution of derived hominin hand morphology. However, stresses on the hand associated with food retrieval and processing also have been recognized as relevant early hominin behaviors that should be investigated. To this end, chimpanzee food manipulation was videotaped in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Grips and hand movements by 39 chimpanzees were analyzed for arboreal and terrestrial feeding involving 10 food-types and associated vegetation. It was predicted that (1) new grips would be found that had not been observed in captivity, (2) forceful precision grips would be absent from the repertoire, as in captivity, and (3) precision handling would be observed. New grips involving the full thumb and buttressed index finger, and a new integrated pattern of grips and forceful hand movements were discovered, associated with feeding on large fruits and meat. Participation of the full thumb in these grips, rather than the distal thumb and fingers, throws light on feeding behaviors that may have become increasingly significant factors in the evolution of derived hominin thumb morphology. The proximal thumb stabilizes food with the flexed index finger against the pull of the teeth and provides leverage in breaking food into portions. Isolated qualitative observations of possibly forceful pinch by the thumb and side of the index finger highlight the need for comparative quantitative data to test whether humans are unique in forceful precision gripping capability. Precision handling was not seen. PMID:25363236

  18. Vast Hole- and Electron-Polaron Spatial Extent in Oligomeric π-Conjugated Porphyrin Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul; Rawson, Jeff; Therien, Michael

    meso-Ethyne bridged π-conjugated zinc porphyrin oligomers (PZnn compounds) have been demonstrated to evince lowest excited singlet states that are globally delocalized. It has also previously been shown that hole-polaron states of these oligomers exhibit delocalization lengths that mirror the molecular spatial dimension, 7.5 nm in the case of the heptamer. Here we demonstrate that the electron-polaron states in PZnn compounds also feature vast areal delocalization. This finding is evidenced by concurrent optical and electron spin resonance measurements, coupled with electronic structure calculations that suggest atypically small reorganization energies for one-electron reduction of these materials. These results are buttressed by electron spin relaxation measurements of PZnn electron polarons that show that both T1 and T2 relaxation times are unusually large, on the order of 103 ns and 102 ns, respectively. Since rapid charge delocalization defines an important mechanism that mitigates Coulombic stabilization of photogenerated electron-hole pairs to create separated free charge carriers, and spin polarization lifetimes feature prominently in spin currents, these findings identify conjugated materials with exceptional optical, electronic, and spintronic properties.

  19. Sunlight mediated seasonality in canopy structure and photosynthetic activity of Amazonian rainforests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resolving the debate surrounding the nature and controls of seasonal variation in the structure and metabolism of Amazonian rainforests is critical to understanding their response to climate change. In situ studies have observed higher photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates, increased litterfall and leaf flushing during the Sunlight-rich dry season. Satellite data also indicated higher greenness level, a proven surrogate of photosynthetic carbon fixation, and leaf area during the dry season relative to the wet season. Some recent reports suggest that rainforests display no seasonal variations and the previous results were satellite measurement artefacts. Therefore, here we re-examine several years of data from three sensors on two satellites under a range of sun positions and satellite measurement geometries and document robust evidence for a seasonal cycle in structure and greenness of wet equatorial Amazonian rainforests. This seasonal cycle is concordant with independent observations of solar radiation. We attribute alternative conclusions to an incomplete study of the seasonal cycle, i.e. the dry season only, and to prognostications based on a biased radiative transfer model. Consequently, evidence of dry season greening in geometry corrected satellite data was ignored and the absence of evidence for seasonal variation in lidar data due to noisy and saturated signals was misinterpreted as evidence of the absence of changes during the dry season. Our results, grounded in the physics of radiative transfer, buttress previous reports of dry season increases in leaf flushing, litterfall, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration in well-hydrated Amazonian rainforests. (letter)

  20. Quantitatively probing propensity for structural transitions in engineered virus nanoparticles by single-molecule mechanical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Milagros; Carrillo, Pablo J. P.; Mateu, Mauricio G.

    2015-03-01

    Viruses are increasingly being studied from the perspective of fundamental physics at the nanoscale as biologically evolved nanodevices with many technological applications. In viral particles of the minute virus of mice (MVM), folded segments of the single-stranded DNA genome are bound to the capsid inner wall and act as molecular buttresses that increase locally the mechanical stiffness of the particle. We have explored whether a quantitative linkage exists in MVM particles between their DNA-mediated stiffening and impairment of a heat-induced, virus-inactivating structural change. A series of structurally modified virus particles with disrupted capsid-DNA interactions and/or distorted capsid cavities close to the DNA-binding sites were engineered and characterized, both in classic kinetics assays and by single-molecule mechanical analysis using atomic force microscopy. The rate constant of the virus inactivation reaction was found to decrease exponentially with the increase in elastic constant (stiffness) of the regions closer to DNA-binding sites. The application of transition state theory suggests that the height of the free energy barrier of the virus-inactivating structural transition increases linearly with local mechanical stiffness. From a virological perspective, the results indicate that infectious MVM particles may have acquired the biological advantage of increased survival under thermal stress by evolving architectural elements that rigidify the particle and impair non-productive structural changes. From a nanotechnological perspective, this study provides proof of principle that determination of mechanical stiffness and its manipulation by protein engineering may be applied for quantitatively probing and tuning the conformational dynamics of virus-based and other protein-based nanoassemblies.Viruses are increasingly being studied from the perspective of fundamental physics at the nanoscale as biologically evolved nanodevices with many technological

  1. Vanishing glaciers, degrading permafrost, new lakes and increasing probability of extreme floods from impact waves - a need for long-term risk reduction concerning high-mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian; Boeckli, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    As a consequence of continued global warming, rapid and fundamental changes are taking place in high-mountain regions. Within decades only, many still existing glacier landscapes will probably transform into new and strongly different landscapes of bare bedrock, loose debris, numerous lakes and sparse vegetation. These new landscapes are then likely to persist for centuries if not millennia to come. During variable but mostly extended parts of this future time period, they will be characterised by pronounced disequilibria within their geo- and ecosystems. Such disequilibria include a long-term stability reduction of steep/icy mountain slopes as a slow and delayed reaction to stress redistribution following de-buttressing by vanishing glaciers and to changes in strength and hydraulic permeability caused by permafrost warming and degradation. With the formation of many new lakes in close neighbourhood to, or even directly at the foot of, so-affected slopes, the probability of far-reaching flood waves from large rock falls into lakes is likely to increase for extended time periods. Quantitative information for anticipating possible developments exists in the European Alps. The present (2011) glacier cover is some 1800 km2, the still existing total ice volume 80 ± 20 km3 and the average loss rate about -2 km3 ice per year. The permafrost area has recently been estimated at some 3000 km2 with a total subsurface ice volume of 25 ± 2 km3; loss rates are hardly known but are certainly much smaller than for glaciers - probably by at least a factor of 10. Based on a detailed study for the Swiss Alps, total future lake volume may be assumed to be a few percent of the presently remaining glacier volume, i.e., a few km3 for the entire Alps. Forward projection of such numbers into the future indicates that glacier volumes tend to much more rapidly vanish than volumes of subsurface ice in permafrost, and lake volumes are likely to steadily increase. Already during the second

  2. Velódromo Olímpico de Montreal – Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taillibert, Roger

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available This stadium is one of the most interesting ones that have been constructed lately. It has the following basic conditions: harmonious integration with the other Olympic installations; possibilities for future enlargements; total absence of supports; perfect permeability for the natural daylight; and perfect insulations in view of the hard climate of Montreal. Bearing these features in mind, the building consists of two parts: — The velodrome itself with lawn; 285.70 m long and 7.50 m wide courses with a slope varying between 18° and 48° with regard to the horizontal line; gallery for the public; auxiliary premises; dressing rooms, etc. — And the regular spheric roof the plan form of which represents three segments beginning with one buttress in the northeast end and increasing to three buttresses in the southeast end. This entirely self-supporting dome is 172 m long with a maximum height of 32 m. The total surface is 15,000 m2. The work was calculated by means of computers and was carried out with prefabricated pieces of concrete so as to achieve a better quality control of the concrete, and above all, a greater exactness of the prefabricated members. This was an indispensable factor in this case, where the maximum admissible error in most of the pieces was only 1.5 mm.Es uno de los estadios más interesantes de los últimos tiempos, con las siguientes condiciones básicas: armónica integración con las restantes instalaciones olímpicas; posibilidad de transformación para futuras aplicaciones; total ausencia de soportes; amplia permeabilidad a la luz natural; y perfecta estanquidad ante las duras condiciones climáticas de Montreal. Partiendo de estas premisas, el edificio consta de dos partes: — El velódromo propiamente dicho, con: césped; pista de carreras de 285,70 m de desarrollo, 7,50 m de anchura e inclinación variable entre 18° y 48° respecto a la horizontal; gradas para el público; locales auxiliares

  3. Resposta imune humoral de cães à vacina inativada, de cérebro de camundongos lactentes, utilizada nas campanhas anti-rábicas no Brasil Humoral immune response of dogs to the inactivated suckling mouse brain vaccine utilized in anti-rabies campaigns in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene F. Almeida

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A campanha anti-rábica no Brasil é realizada anualmente utilizando a vacina de cérebro de camundongos lactentes Fuenzalida-Palacios. A resposta imune humoral de cães vacinados durante as campanhas foi analisada objetivando avaliar se os cães apresentavam título protetor (0,5 UI/ml, 12 meses após a vacinação, e quantos deles alcançam esse título 30 dias após o reforço vacinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisadas 341 amostras de soro de cães domiciliados (259 do Município de São Paulo e 82 do Município de Paulínia, através da Técnica de Inibição de Focos de Fluorescência Rápida. A resposta imune foi avaliada considerando o estado nutricional do animal e o número de vacinações anteriores. RESULTADO: A maioria dos cães não tinha título de 0,5 UI/ml após 12 meses, independentemente do estado nutricional, e a resposta humoral ao reforço vacinal mostrou-se melhor em cães com duas ou mais vacinações prévias. DISCUSSÃO: São discutidos o referencial de 0,5 Ul/ml como título protetor para a espécie canina e a influência do estado nutricional e condição de saúde do animal como responsável pela resposta imune humoral.INTRODUCTION: An anti-rabies campaign is undertaken annually in Brazil with of the Fuenzalida & Palacios vaccine. The humoral immune response of dogs vaccinated during the campaigns was researched with the objective of evaluating whether the dogs presented a protective titer (0.5 UI/ml 12 months after vaccination and how many of these achieved this titer 30 days after a buttressing vaccination. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Three hundred and forty-one specimens of serum of dogs domicilied, 259 in the S. Paulo and 82 in the Paulinia counties, were analyzed utilizing the Rapid Fluorescence Focus Inhibition Test. The immune response was evaluated taking into consideration the nutritional state of the animal and the number of previous vaccinations. RESULTS: The larger number of the dogs had not

  4. Electrical Resistivity Tomography in the characterisation of wetting patterns of historical masonry

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Laura; Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Ortiz de Cosca, Raquel Otero; García-Morales, Soledad

    2016-04-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is a geophysical technique widely used to identify subsurface structures based on electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface. In recent years this technique has been used for surveying historic buildings and characterise the subsurface of walls by using non-invasive EKG electrodes. This methods is used to locate wet areas based on the lower electrical resistivity wet materials have in relation to dry ones. A good knowledge of the wetting patterns of historic buildings during, for example, rainfalls is crucial to understand the decay processes that take place in the building and plan interventions. This paper presents results of transects of Electric Resistivity Tomography of walls of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Mave (Palencia, Spain), a 9th century Romanesque building, during rainfall. ERT transects were performed with a GeoTom device (Geolog2000) in areas with and without buttresses to understand how this architectural detail affected the wetting dynamics of the building. The ERT results were integrated with other resistivity-based techniques and Thermohygrometric survey in a GIS and showed how lower resistivity surface measurements ERT correspond with areas of higher humidity. Resistivity-based techniques measured and evaporation focal points take in the interior of the building mark the outer ground level. The highest moisture content measurements do not always correspond to the visibly most damaged areas of the wall. The consecutive ERT transects show the wall getting wetter as rainfall progresses. The comparison of the measurements obtained of a wall affected by water obtained with GIS mapping, allowed to quickly studying the development of moisture in the wall over time, which is essential for a correct diagnosis of the building. Research funded by Madrid's Regional Government project Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914

  5. The Iranian petroleum crisis and United States national security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. case against Iran is based on Iran's deceptions regarding nuclear weapons development. This case is buttressed by assertions that a state so petroleum-rich cannot need nuclear power to preserve exports, as Iran claims. The U.S. infers, therefore, that Iran's entire nuclear technology program must pertain to weapons development. However, some industry analysts project an Irani oil export decline [e.g., Clark JR (2005) Oil Gas J 103(18):34-39]. If such a decline is occurring, Iran's claim to need nuclear power could be genuine. Because Iran's government relies on monopoly proceeds from oil exports for most revenue, it could become politically vulnerable if exports decline. Here, we survey the political economy of Irani petroleum for evidence of this decline. We define Iran's export decline rate (edr) as its summed rates of depletion and domestic demand growth, which we find equals 10-12%. We estimate marginal cost per barrel for additions to Irani production capacity, from which we derive the "standstill" investment required to offset edr. We then compare the standstill investment to actual investment, which has been inadequate to offset edr. Even if a relatively optimistic schedule of future capacity addition is met, the ratio of 2011 to 2006 exports will be only 0.40-0.52. A more probable scenario is that, absent some change in Irani policy, this ratio will be 0.33-0.46 with exports declining to zero by 2014-2015. Energy subsidies, hostility to foreign investment, and inefficiencies of its state-planned economy underlie Iran's problem, which has no relation to "peak oil." PMID:17190820

  6. The Politics of Muslim Identity and the Nature of Public Imagination in India: Media and Films as Potential Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Kazmi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental epistemic question that this paper seeks to examine is how the Hindutva discourse is increasingly getting mainstreamlined within India’s socio-cultural milieu, buttressed by the economic transitions in the country. Due to the advent of globalisation, India has witnessed the twin phenomena of Hindutva and economic liberalisation, moving centre stage. In this connection, the paper seeks to argue that the place of Islam in the Indian ethos and the very identity of Muslims as citizens, has gained negative connotations in the current scenario which is propelled by the process of globalization. The central claim of the paper is that as left liberal policy in the economic sphere, the Nehruvian consensus in the political sphere and a sense of a composite tradition or shared heritage adored as the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb began to crumble in front of the juggernaut of a mythical Hindu nation, the public imagination got increasingly reified into the sense of majoritarianism and ‘hate- the- other’ impulse. Media and films, benefited by the virtues of globalisation, appear to have emerged as crucial factors in nurturing this majoritarian logic, largely among the expanding Hindu middle class by projecting the minority Muslims as a distinct ‘other’ and as potential threats to the security of Hindus. In this regard, the paper aims at understanding the ways in which they have demonised Islamic culture and projected the identity of Muslims pejoratively. It thus contends that such an approach is primarily geared to validate the hegemonic designs embedded in Hindutva majoritarianism

  7. Plan curvature and landslide probability in regions dominated by earth flows and earth slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmacher, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Damaging landslides in the Appalachian Plateau and scattered regions within the Midcontinent of North America highlight the need for landslide-hazard mapping and a better understanding of the geomorphic development of landslide terrains. The Plateau and Midcontinent have the necessary ingredients for landslides including sufficient relief, steep slope gradients, Pennsylvanian and Permian cyclothems that weather into fine-grained soils containing considerable clay, and adequate precipitation. One commonly used parameter in landslide-hazard analysis that is in need of further investigation is plan curvature. Plan curvature is the curvature of the hillside in a horizontal plane or the curvature of the contours on a topographic map. Hillsides can be subdivided into regions of concave outward plan curvature called hollows, convex outward plan curvature called noses, and straight contours called planar regions. Statistical analysis of plan-curvature and landslide datasets indicate that hillsides with planar plan curvature have the highest probability for landslides in regions dominated by earth flows and earth slides in clayey soils (CH and CL). The probability of landslides decreases as the hillsides become more concave or convex. Hollows have a slightly higher probability for landslides than noses. In hollows landslide material converges into the narrow region at the base of the slope. The convergence combined with the cohesive nature of fine-grained soils creates a buttressing effect that slows soil movement and increases the stability of the hillside within the hollow. Statistical approaches that attempt to determine landslide hazard need to account for the complex relationship between plan curvature, type of landslide, and landslide susceptibility. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustained eruptions on Enceladus explained by turbulent dissipation in tiger stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Rubin, Allan M.

    2016-04-01

    Spacecraft observations suggest that the plumes of Saturn’s moon Enceladus draw water from a subsurface ocean, but the sustainability of conduits linking ocean and surface is not understood. Observations show eruptions from “tiger stripe” fissures that are sustained (although tidally modulated) throughout each orbit, and since the 2005 discovery of the plumes. Peak plume flux lags peak tidal extension by ˜1 rad, suggestive of resonance. Here, we show that a model of the tiger stripes as tidally flexed slots that puncture the ice shell can simultaneously explain the persistence of the eruptions through the tidal cycle, the phase lag, and the total power output of the tiger stripe terrain, while suggesting that eruptions are maintained over geological timescales. The delay associated with flushing and refilling of O(1)-m-wide slots with ocean water causes erupted flux to lag tidal forcing and helps to buttress slots against closure, while tidally pumped in-slot flow leads to heating and mechanical disruption that staves off slot freezeout. Much narrower and much wider slots cannot be sustained. In the presence of long-lived slots, the 106-y average power output of the tiger stripes is buffered by a feedback between ice melt-back and subsidence to O(1010) W, which is similar to observed power output, suggesting long-term stability. Turbulent dissipation makes testable predictions for the final flybys of Enceladus by Cassini. Our model shows how open connections to an ocean can be reconciled with, and sustain, long-lived eruptions. Turbulent dissipation in long-lived slots helps maintain the ocean against freezing, maintains access by future Enceladus missions to ocean materials, and is plausibly the major energy source for tiger stripe activity.

  9. Neutron Absorption Measurements Constrain Eucrite-Diogenite Mixing in Vesta's Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Feldman, W. C.; Hendricks, J. S.; Lawrence, D. J.; Peplowski, P. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Yamashita, N.; Beck, A.; LeCorre, L.; McCoy, T. J.; McSween, H. Y.; Reedy, R. C.; Titus, T. N.; Mizzon, H.; Reddy, V.; Joy, S. P.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Dawn Mission s Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1] acquired mapping data during 5 months in a polar, low altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) with approx.460-km mean radius around main-belt asteroid Vesta (264-km mean radius) [2]. Neutrons and gamma rays are produced by galactic cosmic ray interactions and by the decay of natural radioelements (K, Th, U), providing information about the elemental composition of Vesta s regolith to depths of a few decimeters beneath the surface. From the data acquired in LAMO, maps of vestan neutron and gamma ray signatures were determined with a spatial resolution of approx.300 km full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM), comparable in scale to the Rheasilvia impact basin (approx.500 km diameter). The data from Vesta encounter are available from the NASA Planetary Data System. Based on an analysis of gamma-ray spectra, Vesta s global-average regolith composition was found to be consistent with the Howardite, Eucrite, and Diogenite (HED) meteorites, reinforcing the HED-Vesta connection [2-7]. Further, an analysis of epithermal neutrons revealed variations in the abundance of hydrogen on Vesta s surface, reaching values up to 400 micro-g/g [2]. The association of high concentrations of hydrogen with equatorial, low-albedo surface regions indicated exogenic delivery of hydrogen by the infall of carbonaceous chondrite (CC) materials. This finding was buttressed by the presence of minimally-altered CC clasts in howardites, with inferred bulk hydrogen abundances similar to that found by GRaND, and by studies using data from Dawn s Framing Camera (FC) and VIR instruments [8-10]. In addition, from an analysis of neutron absorption, spatial-variations in the abundance of elements other than hydrogen were detected [2].

  10. Combination chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis in reducing the incidence of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duthie MS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malcolm S Duthie,1 Marivic F Balagon2 1Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Cebu Skin Clinic, Leonard Wood Memorial Center for Leprosy Research, Cebu City, the Philippines Abstract: Leprosy is a complex infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that is a leading cause of nontraumatic peripheral neuropathy. Current control strategies, with a goal of early diagnosis and treatment in the form of multidrug therapy, have maintained new case reports at ~225,000 per year. Diagnostic capabilities are limited and even with revisions to multidrug therapy regimen, treatment can still require up to a year of daily drug intake. Although alternate chemotherapies or adjunct immune therapies that could provide shorter or simpler treatment regimen appear possible, only a limited number of trials have been conducted. More proactive strategies appear necessary in the drive to elimination. As a prevention strategy, most chemoprophylaxis campaigns to date have provided about a 2-year protective window. Vaccination, in the form of a single bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG immunization, generally provides ~50% reduction in leprosy cases. Adapting control strategies to provide both chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis has distinct appeal, with chemoprophylaxis theoretically buttressed by vaccination to generate immediate protection that can be sustained in the long term. We also discuss simple assays measuring biomarkers as surrogates for disease development or replacements for invasive, but not particularly sensitive, direct measures of M. leprae infection. Such assays could facilitate the clinical trials required to develop these new chemoprophylaxis, immunoprophylaxis strategies, and transition into wider use. Keywords: mycobacteria, treatment, antibiotics, T-cell, vaccine, prevention Hansen's disease

  11. Descending projections of the hamster intergeniculate leaflet: relationship to the sleep/arousal and visuomotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.

    2005-01-01

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), homolog of the primate pregeniculate nucleus, modulates circadian rhythms. However, its extensive anatomical connections suggest that it may regulate other systems, particularly those for visuomotor function and sleep/arousal. Here, descending IGL-efferent pathways are identified with the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, with projections to over 50 brain stem nuclei. Projections of the ventral lateral geniculate are similar, but more limited. Many of the nuclei with IGL afferents contribute to circuitry governing visuomotor function. These include the oculomotor, trochlear, anterior pretectal, Edinger-Westphal, and the terminal nuclei; all layers of the superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the optic tract, the inferior olive, and raphe interpositus. Other target nuclei are known to be involved in the regulation of sleep, including the lateral dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmentum. The dorsal raphe also receives projections from the IGL and may contribute to both sleep/arousal and visuomotor function. However, the locus coeruleus and medial vestibular nucleus, which contribute to sleep and eye movement regulation and which send projections to the IGL, do not receive reciprocal projections from it. The potential involvement of the IGL with the sleep/arousal system is further buttressed by existing evidence showing IGL-efferent projections to the ventrolateral preoptic area, dorsomedial, and medial tuberal hypothalamus. In addition, the great majority of all regions receiving IGL projections also receive input from the orexin/hypocretin system, suggesting that this system contributes not only to the regulation of sleep, but to eye movement control as well.

  12. Instrumentalizing Szeklerland Autonomy Through Szekler Memory Sites and Rites in post-1989 Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Szedlacsek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In post-communist Romania, Szekler political and intellectual elites have taken advantage of a long discursive tradition on Szekler autonomy, which developed throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries within the nationalizing states (Brubaker 1996 of Hungary and Romania. As part of the interwar ideology of Transylvanianism, a particular Szekler identity-construction mechanism was developed, buttressed by a rhetoric on geographical remoteness in relation to the centers of power of Budapest and Bucharest. More precisely, the Szekler-ization of geography was enabled by imagining and cultivating sites and rites of memory in the Szeklerland – from pilgrimages to the funerary monuments of Szekler cultural elites and the sanctifying of Hungarian and Szekler flags in public squares. Drawing on this context, my paper explores the post-1989 revival of Szekler commemoration narratives that have attempted to construct a Szekler life-world within Romania by linking memory to territory. Since minority rituals of memory, parallel to the official state ones, are no longer silenced in Szekler public spaces after the fall of communism, interwar realms of memory have been reframed and popularized. On the line suggested by Katherine Verdery in The Political Lives of Dead Bodies (1999, this analysis also looks at how funeral ceremonies shape the relationship between the Szekler community and “its” territory with the Romanian Other. In this respect, this study focuses on the attempt to rebury the Szekler pro-Nazi writer József Nyirő on Szekler (yet Romanian soil. Apart from triggering a huge diplomatic incident between Hungary and Romania in the summer of 2012, it also pinpoints the reformulation of Szekler identity discourse within the Romanian post-communist context. In short, I will address questions regarding the practices of memory production permitted in present, the aims of Szekler elites in popularizing such practices and the way  these aims

  13. Building better boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, David A

    2004-05-01

    Companies facing new requirements for governance are scrambling to buttress financial-reporting systems, overhaul board structures--whatever it takes to comply. But there are limits to how much good governance can be imposed from the outside. Boards know what they ought to be: seats of challenge and inquiry that add value without meddling and make CEOs more effective but not all-powerful. A board can reach that goal only if it functions as a high-performance team, one that is competent, coordinated, collegial, and focused on an unambiguous goal. Such entities don't just evolve; they must be constructed to an exacting blueprint--what the author calls board building. In this article, Nadler offers an agenda and a set of tools that boards can use to define and achieve their objectives. It's important for a board to conduct regular self-assessments and to pay attention to the results of those analyses. As a first step, the directors and the CEO should agree on which of the following common board models best fits the company: passive, certifying, engaged, intervening, or operating. The directors and the CEO should then analyze which business tasks are most important and allot sufficient time and resources to them. Next, the board should take inventory of each director's strengths to ensure that the group as a whole possesses the skills necessary to do its work. Directors must exert more influence over meeting agendas and make sure they have the right information at the right time and in the right format to perform their duties. Finally, the board needs to foster an engaged culture characterized by candor and a willingness to challenge. An ambitious board-building process, devised and endorsed both by directors and by management, can potentially turn a good board into a great one. PMID:15146740

  14. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  15. Human genetics: lessons from Quebec populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriver, C R

    2001-01-01

    The population of Quebec, Canada (7.3 million) contains approximately 6 million French Canadians; they are the descendants of approximately 8500 permanent French settlers who colonized Nouvelle France between 1608 and 1759. Their well-documented settlements, internal migrations, and natural increase over four centuries in relative isolation (geographic, linguistic, etc.) contain important evidence of social transmission of demographic behavior that contributed to effective family size and population structure. This history is reflected in at least 22 Mendelian diseases, occurring at unusually high prevalence in its subpopulations. Immigration of non-French persons during the past 250 years has given the Quebec population further inhomogeneity, which is apparent in allelic diversity at various loci. The histories of Quebec's subpopulations are, to a great extent, the histories of their alleles. Rare pathogenic alleles with high penetrance and associated haplotypes at 10 loci (CFTR, FAH, HBB, HEXA, LDLR, LPL, PAH, PABP2, PDDR, and SACS) are expressed in probands with cystic fibrosis, tyrosinemia, beta-thalassemia, Tay-Sachs, familial hypercholesterolemia, hyperchylomicronemia, PKU, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, pseudo vitamin D deficiency rickets, and spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay, respectively) reveal the interpopulation and intrapopulation genetic diversity of Quebec. Inbreeding does not explain the clustering and prevalence of these genetic diseases; genealogical reconstructions buttressed by molecular evidence point to founder effects and genetic drift in multiple instances. Genealogical estimates of historical meioses and analysis of linkage disequilibrium show that sectors of this young population are suitable for linkage disequilibrium mapping of rare alleles. How the population benefits from what is being learned about its structure and how its uniqueness could facilitate construction of a genomic map of linkage disequilibrium are discussed

  16. Livestock Production in the UK in the 21(st) Century: A Perfect Storm Averted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, Christopher M; Buller, Henry; Maggs, Heather; Campbell, Madeleine L

    2013-01-01

    There is a school of thought that future demand for meat and other farm animal products is unsustainable for several reasons, including greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants; standards of farm animal health and welfare, especially when farm animals are kept intensively; efficiency of conversion by livestock of solar energy into (human) food, particularly by pigs and poultry; water availability and usage for all types of agricultural production, including livestock; and human health and consumption of meat, eggs and milk. Demand for meat is forecast to rise as a result of global population growth and increasing affluence. These issues buttress an impending perfect storm of food shortages, scarce water and insufficient energy, which is likely to coincide with global population reaching about 9 billion people in 2030 (pace Beddington). This paper examines global demand for animal products, the narrative of 'sustainable intensification' and the implications of each for the future of farm animal welfare. In the UK, we suggest that, though non-ruminant farming may become unsustainable, ruminant agriculture will continue to prosper because cows, sheep and goats utilize grass and other herbage that cannot be consumed directly by humans, especially on land that is unsuitable for other purposes. However, the demand for meat and other livestock-based food is often for pork, eggs and chicken from grain-fed pigs and poultry. The consequences of such a perfect storm are beginning to be incorporated in long-term business planning by retailers and others. Nevertheless, marketing sustainable animal produce will require considerable innovation and flair in public and private policies if marketing messages are to be optimized and consumer behaviour modified. PMID:26479522

  17. Hyper-stasis as opposed to hyper-activism: the politics of health policy in the USA set against England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Calum

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers health policy-making in the USA with England as comparator. It contrasts policy inertia in US healthcare despite crisis with hyper-activity in perpetual 'reform' in England despite absence of crisis in the NHS. It does so from the standpoint of political science and political economy. I suggest that 'path-dependency', the view that past policy constrains future policy, lacks explanatory power and that wider and deeper explanations must be sought. The USA's apparent path dependency is in fact a story of political economy and power, buttressed by institutions. England's apparent lack of path-dependency in promulgating NHS reform is in fact a story of executive hyper-activism which is oblivious to how implementation will obviate its prescriptions. This failure of 'reform' in the NHS is not a symptom of concealed path-dependency but a sign of pragmatism by those charged with implementation. In the USA, the durability of its various systems of healthcare is by contrast a sign of pragmatism not being adequate to achieve health sector reform. In the USA, a weak state is unable to manage healthcare reform which would actually benefit US capitalism as a whole. In the UK, a strong state has created and developed the NHS to the benefit of capital through the economical provision of healthcare to the workforce. Such an 'investment state' is a testimony to the continuing validity of the neo-Marxist argument that social investment and social expenses are an important and functional component of the capitalist state. PMID:23737380

  18. The Role of Confucian Ideology in the Construction of the National State in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Visočnik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The very ideas of searching for an identity of people living in Japan entails a process of having them explaining themselves and their country. Many new concepts were constructed within this process, and research into ethnogenesis on Japanese islands was under the great influence of nationalist discourses in Japanese culture, thus triggering a number of diverse assumptions which are still present today. The process of constructing identities, especially Japanese national identity, was intense during the Meiji period (1868–1912, i.e. when Japan opened up to the world and tried to form a national state under external influence. The politicians of this period adopted the sense of a national belongingness that was to function as the foundation stone for the modern national state. They formed the idea of a family state (kazoku kokka, 家族国 家 which contained traditional familism buttressed by Confucian ethics; however, it is still somehow different than the Japanese interpretation of the group. Familism, which included the extended family system, was expanded to cover the entire nation in a way that included the imperial family as the main family of all Japanese families. This paper thus tries to answer the question of how Confucianism was integrated within the Japanese context of the modernizing nation-states of the late nineteenth century and how it came to define one of the major or even the dominant layer of early-modern and modern worldviews. In doing so, the paper also critically questions the concept used in these processes and also looks into the way these concepts were constructed and were changing in accordance with social changes.

  19. Measurements of the Balance of Subsidence and Sedimentation in the Coastal Zone of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Davis, J. L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Bulbul, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the face of rising sea levels, the balance of land subsidence, sea level rise and sedimentation is critical for low-lying deltaic regions. Deltas commonly experience subsidence due to compaction of their thick sediment accumulations and other processes. Many are susceptible to growth faulting and seaward collapse of the sediment pile on detachment layers (salt and/or shales) leading to even greater subsidence. We present evidence for moderate subsidence rates and continuing active sedimentation at the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta in Bangladesh. Subsidence rates are based on continuous GPS, including three new coastal stations established in 2012, hourly tide gauge data for 1977-2012 at 16 sites, two historical sites with ages of 300 years (salt-making kilns) and 400 years (Hindu temple), and sedimentation accumulation rates of near-sea-level deposits from hand-drilled tube wells. Results so far suggest that most sites are subsiding at 3-4 mm/y, although some higher rates are recorded. Updated estimates for subsidence will be presented. Two sets of vertical optical strainmeters record sediment compaction and inform its variation with depth. Sedimentation estimates based on sedimentation plots, marker horizons, and surface elevation tables (SETs) suggest that accumulation rates in natural areas near the coast currently compensate for relative subsidence, whereas human-modified areas farther inland receive insufficient sediment and are at risk. We hypothesize that the moderate subsidence rate of the delta is due to buttressing of the margin by the continental rise. The slope-rise break is shallow at 1 km water depth due to the high sediment supply feeding the Bengal Fan. Thus the thick wedge of continental rise sediments rise higher than the top of the weak overpressured sediments in the delta that could act as a décollement surface. This prevents the seaward collapse of the delta and associated higher rates of subsidence.

  20. A CLINICAL STUDY ON SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURES - FUNCTIONAL AND RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tremendous advance in mechanization and fastness of travel have been accompanied by steep increase in number and severity of fractures and those of tibial plateau are no exception. Knee being one of the major weight bearing joints of the body, fractures around it will be of paramount importance. AIM OF STUDY: This study is to analyze the functional outcome of CRIF or ORIF with or without bone grafting in tibial plateau fractures in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 30 cases of tibial plateau fractures treated by various modalities were studied from 1 - 8 - 2012 to 31 - 1 - 2014 at our institution and followed for a minimum of 6 months. Fractures were evaluated using Modified Rasmussen’s Clinical, Radiological grading system. RESULTS : The selected patients were evaluated thoroughly and after the relevant investigations, were taken for surgery. The fractures were classified as per the SCHATZKER’S types and operated accordingly with CRIF with Percutaneous cannulated cancellous screws, ORIF with buttress plate/LCP with or without bone grafting. Immobilization of fractures continued for 3 weeks by POP slab. Early range of motion was then started. Weight bearing up to 6 - 8 weeks was not allowed. The full weight bearing deferred until 12 weeks or complete fracture union . The knee range of motion was excellent to very good, gait and weight bearing after complete union was satisfactory, knee stiffness in 3 cases , wound dehiscence and infection in 1 case and non - union in none of our cases was noted. CONCLUSION: Functional outcome is better in operatively treated tibial plateau fractures in adults, because it gives excellent anatomical reduction and rigid fixation to restore articular congruity and early motion thereby preventing knee stiffness.

  1. Research and design of aqueduct structure over-passing Qingdao-Lanzhou Highway in South-to-North Water Diversion%南水北调中线青兰高速交叉渡槽结构设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑光俊; 张传健; 吕国梁; 刘磊

    2014-01-01

    The aqueduct over-passing Qingdao-Lanzhou Highway is a large type crossing structure on the main canal of Mid-dle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion. Because an additional water head was not designed in the planning stage and the approach road of built highway should be considered, the aqueduct design has encountered great difficulties. This paper innovatively puts forward the trapezoidal cross section with separated buttress and a flow-direction asymmetric slant parallelogram in plane. This structure layout is unique and original, and successfully solves the technical difficulties, which can be referred by similar projects.%南水北调中线青兰高速交叉渡槽工程是总干渠上的大型交叉建筑物。由于规划阶段未对其分配额外水头,且需兼顾已建高速公路引线工程布置,给渡槽的设计带来了极大困难。为此,设计创新性地提出了过水断面为梯形、槽身结构为分离式扶壁梯形、在顺流向平面上呈不对称斜平行四边形布置的渡槽结构。结构布置和设计新颖而独特,成功解决了相关技术难题,可为类似渡槽工程设计提供借鉴。

  2. Feedbacks between ice and ocean dynamics at the West Antarctic Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf in future global warming scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeller, Sebastian; Timmermann, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    The ice flow at the margins of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is moderated by large ice shelves. Their buttressing effect substantially controls the mass balance of the WAIS and thus its contribution to sea level rise. The stability of these ice shelves results from the balance of mass gain by accumulation and ice flow from the adjacent ice sheet and mass loss by calving and basal melting due to the ocean heat flux. Recent results of ocean circulation models indicate that warm circumpolar water of the Southern Ocean may override the submarine slope front of the Antarctic Continent and boost basal ice shelf melting. In particular, ocean simulations for several of the IPCC's future climate scenarios demonstrate the redirection of a warm coastal current into the Filchner Trough and underneath the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf within the next decades. In this study, we couple the finite elements ocean circulation model FESOM and the three-dimensional thermomechanical ice flow model RIMBAY to investigate the complex interactions between ocean and ice dynamics at the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. We focus on the impact of a changing ice shelf cavity on ocean dynamics as well as the feedback of the resulting sub-shelf melting rates on the ice shelf geometry and implications for the dynamics of the adjacent marine-based Westantarctic Ice Sheet. Our simulations reveal the high sensitivity of grounding line migration to ice-ocean interactions within the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and emphasize the importance of coupled model studies for realistic assessments of the Antarctic mass balance in future global warming scenarios.

  3. RESULT OF PRE-CONTOURED DISTAL RADIUS INDIAN LOCKING PLATES IN DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaleen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fractures of the distal radius are common, open reduction and internal fixation using an interlocking plate system has gained popularity for the treatment of dorsally displaced distal radius fractures. The aim of the study was to assess how adequately distal radial fracture reduction was reproduced and maintained with the pre-contoured distal radius Indian locking plates and to evaluate the functional and radiological results of treating unstable distal radius fractures with the volar locking plate. PATIENTS AND METHODS: It was conducted on 20 patients with distal radius fractures who underwent open reduction, internal fixation using the pre-contoured distal radius Indian locking plates between May 2012 and September 2013 at the our Hospital. The preoperative, intra-operative, and postoperative films were reviewed. The AO classification was recorded. The volar angulation, radial tilt, radial height and step-off in joint incongruity were measured on intra-operative X-rays and compared with final follow-up X-rays. The last recorded range of motion at follow-up and a functional assessment using Gartland and Werley criteria. RESULTS: Radiological review showed bone healing in 20 patients and good articular congruity for all intrarticular fractures with less than 1 mm step-off. Complications were few with two wound infection and one neuropraxia of the superficial radial nerve. Wrist function was excellent in seven (35% patients, good in 10 (50% and fair in three (15%. CONCLUSION: The pre-contoured distal radius Indian locking plates with its distal buttressing ability are an effective treatment method in patients with distal radius fractures.

  4. Communities, Boundaries and New Neighbours: the Discursive Construction of EU Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta Caliendo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The institutional discourse of the European Union (EU is undergoing important changes that are also reflected by new initiatives in its communication policy. Against a background of widespread scepticism towards EU enlargement among the public, this change is driven by the need to promote the widening of its borders in a more effective way in order to prompt popular endorsement. Through the use of its textual and visual communicative strategies, the EU is thus finding new ways to buttress its legitimacy and raise consensus around its political actions. The node of interaction between citizens and institutions is represented by the informative publications of the EU (also made available on the europa website, which become a constitutive element in building Union-to-citizen communication. The analysis of textual and visual formulations of the European Commission’s key booklets on EU enlargement in the period from 2004 to 2007 - in terms of their content and pragmatic aims - reveals the emergence of new consensus-building strategies. Results show that a sense of allegiance and belonging attributed to a deepening of European integration is now increasingly linked to the practical advantages of EU enlargement, as expressed through the use of ‘promotional’ and strategic discursive practices. Moving away from a merely informative content, communication modes ‘migrate’ towards a more direct and ‘commodified’ type of message, while an increase in visual elements plays a complementing role in promoting legitimacy and a feeling of mutual belonging between ‘old’ and ‘new’ members of the European family.

  5. 铁路营业线桥涵施工测斜技术研究及变形机制分析*%Study on Inclinometer Technology for Bridge and Culvert Construction on Operating Railway Line and Analysis of Deformation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任高峰; 张卅卅; 胡仲春; 刘永成

    2014-01-01

    在铁路营业线桥涵施工中,采用人工挖孔桩上架设便梁作为施工加固体系,通过在南京宁启线某标段的下穿顶进涵施工中的实际运用,介绍了测斜仪的工作原理及应用,总结了测斜技术在铁路营业线桥涵施工中出现的若干关键问题,并分别从测斜管的布置、埋设、精度分析、采集频率、数据处理、预警预报等方面进行探讨,总结人工挖孔桩在土体开挖过程中及列车静、动荷载影响下的变形机制及位移规律,优化开挖施工方案,提高铁运及施工的安全性。%In the bridge and culvert construction on operating railway line, the buttress-girder temporary support system is used as the construction reinforcement. This paper introduces the application and working principle of portable digital inclinometer through the practical application in culvert jacking construction under somewhere on Nanjing Ningqi existing railway line. This paper summarizes a number of key issues of inclinometer technology in bridge and culvert construction on operating railway line and discusses from the aspects of the layout of inclinometer tube, laying design, accuracy analysis, collection frequency, data processing, early warning and forecasting;analyzes the deformation mechanism and displacement rule of manual hole digging pile under the impact of soil excavation and trains’ static and dynamic load, which optimizes the excavation and construction program, improves the safety of railway transportation.

  6. Influence of deposit architecture on intrastratal deformation, slope deposits of the Tres Pasos Formation, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchter, Neal C.; Romans, Brian W.; Hubbard, Stephen M.

    2016-07-01

    Slope sediments on passive and active margins deform and fail across a broad range of scales ranging from loading and sediment remobilization near the sediment-water interface to submarine landslides and mass movements that incorporate significant volumes of slope deposits. Deformational styles are characterized by updip extension and downdip compressional features that occur above a detachment surface. Conditions for failure and deformation include the presence of weak layer(s) that serve as a detachment surface, competency contrasts that allow for detachment and downslope movement, deformation above a detachment surface, and a triggering mechanism(s) that initiates failure. Slope failure processes and products are well documented at scales resolvable by seismic-reflection surveys and in instances of extensive downslope failure, but the processes and products associated with intermediate-scale slope deformation are poorly understood. Intrastratal deformation is defined as stratigraphically isolated zones of deformation bounded above and below by concordant and undeformed strata. In this study, outcrop examples of intrastratal deformation from the Upper Cretaceous Tres Pasos Formation are used to elucidate the influence of depositional architecture on slope deformation. The facies distribution associated with compensational stacking of lobe deposits is shown to have a first-order control on the location and style of deformation. Detachment planes that form in mudstone deposits associated with lobe fringe and interlobe deposits are spatially limited and deformation is restricted to interbedded sandstone and mudstone associated with off-axial lobe positions. Downslope translation was arrested by stratigraphic buttresses associated with more sandstone-prone axial deposits. Emplacement of a regionally extensive mass transport deposit is interpreted as the triggering mechanism for contemporaneous intrastratal deformation of > 60 m of underlying stratigraphy. A vertical

  7. Characterisation of Radioactive Waste located at Shelter Industrial Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the accident at the unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on the 26 April 1986 there was widespread radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. The area immediately surrounding Unit 4, referred to as the Industrial Site, was very heavily contaminated with fuel and core debris ejected from the reactor. Immediate action was undertaken to reduce the local radiation hazard and mitigate the potential of secondary contamination of the environment. This action involved (a) the removal and collection of fuel fragments (b) removal of the top layer of soil around unit 4 and (c) preparation of a new surface over the Industrial Site. This new surface is referred to colloquially as the Techno-genic Layer. This report provides an overview of a project undertaken for DG-Environment of European Commission by a Consortium consisting of SGN (France) and AEA Technology (UK) working in collaboration with the Organisation, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; the Interdisciplinary Scientific and Technical Centre Shelter''. The project consisted of 3 Phases and a total of 14 Tasks. The main purpose of Phase 1 was to review previous work and available information and data on the contamination of the Industrial Site, construction of the Techno-genic Layer, Buttress and Pioneer Walls. Phase 2 was directed at additional measurements being carried out on existing boreholes and core samples to improve and/or substantiate existing information and data. Estimation of likely radioactive waste arisings, recovery procedures and a generalised strategy with indicative costs for the management of the waste was also covered by Phase 2. In Phase 3 new boreholes (3 off) were drilled and subsequently investigated. The justification behind Phase 3 was the desire/need to obtain more reliable information on the so-called high-active waste buried in the Industrial Site. (author)

  8. The influence of dexamethasone treatment and successive road transport stress on the occurrence of caprine pneumonia in a hot humid tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yussof Sabri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The information on the effect of multiple stress and caprine pneumonia especially in a hot humid environment is limited in literature. Material and Methods: Sixteen goats were divided into 4 groups. Group A were subjected to 8 hours and 3 hours transportation, group B to 8 hours transport stress once and dexamethasone injection, group C to 8 hours transport only while group D was the control. All goats were observed for respiratory signs while temperature was monitored daily. Dead ones were necropsied while the survivors and the goats in group D were sacrificed on day 21. The clinical, gross, histopathological, immunohistochemical scores were according to standard methods. Results: The mean total clinical score was higher in group B than group A, C and D. Two goats of the groups A, B and C goats died 21, 14 and 7 days post treatment. The dead goats in groups A, B, C had lung lesions typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. An average of the lung consolidation of dead animals in group A was 15%, in group B, 8.5% and group C, 6.5% mostly involving the anterior and ventral parts of the lungs of the lung. The immunostaining results was also similar with all the lung samples positive for both P. multocida and M. haemolytica especially in the groups A, B, C with enhanced severity in A > B > C. Conclusions: This further buttress the need to reduce stress in farm animals and the emergence of P. multocida over M. haemolytica in the epidemiology of bacterial caprine pneumonia in stressed goats in Malaysia. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 497-501

  9. Seismic and wind upgrade of buildings 707A and 779 at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural upgrade of two existing facilities at the US Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant site has recently been completed. Two existing critical buildings were strengthened to enable them to withstand the design basis earthquake (DBE) forces and the design basis wind (DBW) forces without breach of containment. These buildings were constructed in the 1960s, with minimal seismic considerations. Building 707A is a two-story structure of precast concrete elements with cast-in-place topping slabs with 27,000 sq. feet of floor space. Building 779 is a two-story original structure and several additions, with floor space of 64,000 sq. feet. The original structure consists of cast-in-place concrete with masonry infill shear walls. The additions are primarily precast concrete with unreinforced masonry infill walls. The DBE was the maximum credible event with a magnitude of 6.0 occurring 16 miles from the site. The evaluation criteria was generated spectra at bedrock with a horizontal zero period acceleration of 0.14g. Bedrock-to-ground soil amplification factors were used to evaluate the buildings. The buildings were also required to withstand the DBW of 161 mph. Because of constraints associated with working inside, the structural upgrades were mostly confined to exterior work. The modifications utilized the existing roof and floor diaphragms, and primarily consisted of large exterior concrete buttresses and associated steel chords and collectors. A system of steel strongbacks was also used in some locations. Connections between precast elements of Building 707A had to be strengthened for ductility and shear transfer. The significance of this work is the successful implementation of a highly complex and comprehensive design retrofit of two very critical and important facilities, allowing for continued operation and minimal impact, and using practical and overall cost-effective strengthening schemes

  10. Seismic upgrade of building 776/777 at Rocky Flats Plant using latest edition of UCRL-15910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building 776/777 is a large two-story structure used in the processing and decontamination of radioactively contaminated materials, tools, and equipment. Originally constructed in the 1950s, the building has been expanded several times and, following a major fire, was provided with a second structural roof to enclose the building envelope. Overall building dimensions are approximately 300 by 600 feet. It uses steel-frame construction with partially restrained joints for transverse moment resistance and diagonal braces for longitudinal stability. The second floor is a formed slab on steel framing, and the roof is a metal deck system. Exterior enclosures include poorly reinforced concrete-block masonry and cement-asbestos siding. Rigid concrete elements, forming vaults for materials with high radiation hazard, are present in some areas. The building was previously identified as having low resistance to both seismic and high-wind/tornado loads. A structural seismic upgrade was designed for the building, according to the provisions of US Department of Energy criteria document UCRL-15910, for high-hazard facilities. This design is intended to prevent substantial breach of the building envelope. The design supplements the lateral capacity of the existing semirigid steel frames with a series of steel buttress frames and exterior drag elements. This feature minimizes the extent of construction within secure and hazardous areas of the building but induces significant thermal stresses. Unique aspects of the design include provision for thermal relief as well as development of strengthening and anchorage of masonry walls that can accommodate large expected inelastic building drifts. This design illustrates the Department of Energy's newly adopted criteria, as applied to existing structures. It also indicates methods that may be used for strengthening hazardous and sensitive structures without significant work within the building envelope

  11. Livestock Production in the UK in the 21st Century: A Perfect Storm Averted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine L. Campbell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a school of thought that future demand for meat and other farm animal products is unsustainable for several reasons, including greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants; standards of farm animal health and welfare, especially when farm animals are kept intensively; efficiency of conversion by livestock of solar energy into (human food, particularly by pigs and poultry; water availability and usage for all types of agricultural production, including livestock; and human health and consumption of meat, eggs and milk. Demand for meat is forecast to rise as a result of global population growth and increasing affluence. These issues buttress an impending perfect storm of food shortages, scarce water and insufficient energy, which is likely to coincide with global population reaching about 9 billion people in 2030 (pace Beddington. This paper examines global demand for animal products, the narrative of ‘sustainable intensification’ and the implications of each for the future of farm animal welfare. In the UK, we suggest that, though non-ruminant farming may become unsustainable, ruminant agriculture will continue to prosper because cows, sheep and goats utilize grass and other herbage that cannot be consumed directly by humans, especially on land that is unsuitable for other purposes. However, the demand for meat and other livestock-based food is often for pork, eggs and chicken from grain-fed pigs and poultry. The consequences of such a perfect storm are beginning to be incorporated in long-term business planning by retailers and others. Nevertheless, marketing sustainable animal produce will require considerable innovation and flair in public and private policies if marketing messages are to be optimized and consumer behaviour modified.

  12. Structural mechanism of transcription regulation of the Staphylococcus aureus multidrug efflux operon mepRA by the MarR family repressor MepR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukou, Ivan; Seo, Susan M; Schindler, Bryan D; Kaatz, Glenn W; Brennan, Richard G

    2014-02-01

    The multidrug efflux pump MepA is a major contributor to multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. MepR, a member of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family, represses mepA and its own gene. Here, we report the structure of a MepR-mepR operator complex. Structural comparison of DNA-bound MepR with 'induced' apoMepR reveals the large conformational changes needed to allow the DNA-binding winged helix-turn-helix motifs to interact with the consecutive major and minor grooves of the GTTAG signature sequence. Intriguingly, MepR makes no hydrogen bonds to major groove nucleobases. Rather, recognition-helix residues Thr60, Gly61, Pro62 and Thr63 make sequence-specifying van der Waals contacts with the TTAG bases. Removing these contacts dramatically affects MepR-DNA binding activity. The wings insert into the flanking minor grooves, whereby residue Arg87, buttressed by Asp85, interacts with the O2 of T4 and O4' ribosyl oxygens of A23 and T4. Mutating Asp85 and Arg87, both conserved throughout the MarR family, markedly affects MepR repressor activity. The His14':Arg59 and Arg10':His35:Phe108 interaction networks stabilize the DNA-binding conformation of MepR thereby contributing significantly to its high affinity binding. A structure-guided model of the MepR-mepA operator complex suggests that MepR dimers do not interact directly and cooperative binding is likely achieved by DNA-mediated allosteric effects. PMID:24293644

  13. Phosphorus Redox on the Early Earth: First Identification of Low-Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds in Terrestrial Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, K. M.; Pasek, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the key elements in biochemical systems, playing an important role in metabolism as ATP and other coenzymes, in replication as DNA and RNA, and in cellular structure as phospholipids. The geochemical cycling of phosphorus on the Earth is usually confined to the rock cycle- redox reactions of phosphorus are never considered. However, it has been proposed that redox reactions of phosphorus were important on the early Earth (Pasek, PNAS 2008). Indeed, such a suggestion is buttressed by the discovery of condensed phosphate formation linked to the oxidation of reduced P compounds. However, prior to the present work, there has been no report of these P compounds in geologic samples. Here we report the first occurrence of reduced P in samples of fulgurites, the glassy material resulting from the fusion of sand, soil, or rock during a lightning strike. On average, lightning strikes the Earth's surface at a rate of approximately 65 times per second (Krider et al., J. Geophys. Res.,1968) exposing target areas to extreme energy dissipation and temperatures. Through electron microprobe analyses and NMR we have identified naturally formed metal droplets containing Fe and P within several fulgurite samples and Ca-phosphite compounds. These droplets are highly reduced compared to the original material and are not naturally present in the target area, rather they were formed through the rapid, intense heating and quenching experienced during fulgurite formation. This process provides a natural means to create localized environments with greater than normal abundances of reduced Fe and P, less commonly found on Earth's surface than their oxidized counterparts. In particular, small areas that receive repeated lightning strikes due to topography or local weather patterns (e.g. hilltops) could potentially house unique microhabitats with reduced elements available for biological use.

  14. What factors predict recurrence of a spontaneous pneumothorax?

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    Uramoto Hidetaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify the risk factors for postoperative recurrence for the patients with a spontaneous pneumothorax (SP. A total of 214 patients were studied over a period of five years. Of these patients, 189 (88.3% and 25 (11.7% underwent video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS and an open approach for treatment, respectively. There were 35 (16.4% postoperative recurrences. Methods The data on patient characteristics, surgical details, and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics between recurrent and non-recurrent cases, and used logistic regression models to predict the risk factors for postoperative recurrence. Results The differences in the age, gender, lesion site, location, ipsilateral SP (ISP, and contralateral SP (CSP did not reach statistical significance between the two groups. However, the incidence of recurrence was higher in the subjects without any smoking history, and who had comorbidities, and a history of surgery for ISP. Concerning intraoperative factors, there were no significant differences with regard to the approach, buttress stapling, covering, surgeon, or length of the operation. The postoperative recurrence rate was higher in the patients who had been hand-stitched compared to those who had undergone instrument-based repair for blebs. There were no significant differences in the perioperative outcomes. The logistic regression models indicated that non smokers, those with comorbidities, and those who had previously undergone surgery for ISP had a higher rate of postoperative recurrence. Conclusions We conclude that a history of no smoking, the existence of comorbidities, previous surgery for ISP, and hand stitching increase the risk of postoperative recurrence. Therefore, surgeons must be aware of these risk factors, and more carefully monitor such patients for recurrence.

  15. Keith Ward’s soft panentheism

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    Raymond Potgieter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to assess the general approach to a Christian interpretation of reality as popularly applied by Keith Ward. It is suggested that he employs panentheist criteria in his attempts to buttress a theological accommodation of both material and spiritual interpretations of reality. This assessment will take a general reformational theological approach. Suggestions will be included as to why panentheism has made such an impact amongst some Christians and why a bipolar approach to God appeals to some in the Christian community. Recommendations will then be made to be considered by those who may find the lure of Christian generic panentheism in different forms tempting enough to consider its interpretation replacing the traditional view of God.Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die algemene benadering tot ’n Christelike interpretasie van die werklikheid, soos algemeen toegepas deur Keith Ward, te evalueer. Dit word voorgestel dat hy panenteïstiese kriteria toepas in sy pogings om teologiese akkommodasie van ’n materiële en geestelike interpretasie van die werklikheid te steun. Hierdie evaluering volg ’n algemene reformatoriese teologiese perspektief. Voorstelle word gemaak om te verduidelik waarom panenteïsme so ’n impak op sommige Christene het dat hulle ’n bipolêre benadering tot God verkies. Verder word aanbevelings gemaak vir diegene wat ’n Christelike generiese panenteïsme in verskillende vorme aanloklik genoeg vind om dit sodoende as ’n alternatiewe interpretasie vir die tradisionele siening van God te oorweeg.

  16. Profile and retrospective analysis of the use of preventive strategies in patients with cervical cancer in South-South Nigeria

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    Bassey Goddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of the female genital tract in developing countries, with a global burden of 530,000 new cases annually. This study aims to review the current situation of this important malignancy and to assess the previous use of preventive measures in patients with cervical cancer at the Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of all cases of cervical cancer managed at the UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between 1 January 2008 and 31 December, 2012. Results: The prevalence of cervical cancer was 3.53% of all gynaecological admissions. The peak age of incidence was 50-59 years, accounting for 40% of the study population. Women with high parity contributed to 93.3% of the study population. Early coitarche was observed in 78.7% and a history of multiple sexual partners in 65.3%. Vaginal bleeding was the commonest clinical feature seen in all the women studied, followed by pelvic pain in 84% of cases. Advanced-stage cervical cancer was seen in 93.4%. None of the women studied had been previously vaccinated against human papilloma virus (HPV, and only 1.3% had had any form of screening methods for early detection of cervical cancer. Conclusion: Cervical cancer remains an important cancer in our environment, and late presentation with advance disease is still the norm despite advances in screening and preventive modalities. The reason for this is buttressed on the finding that despite the availability of these preventive strategies, women in the South-South of Nigeria did not partake of these measures. There is an urgent need to develop programmes to re-sensitise women on the need for screening and vaccination to reduce cancer-associated morbidity and mortality in Port Harcourt, South-South Nigeria.

  17. The effect of protest zeros on estimates of willingness to pay in healthcare contingent valuation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonta, William M; Ichoku, H Eme; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane

    2010-01-01

    'Protest zeros' occur when respondents reject some aspect of the contingent valuation (CV) market scenario by reporting a zero value even though they place a positive value on the amenity being valued. This is inevitable even in the best-designed CV study, and, when excluded on an ad hoc basis, may cause a selection bias problem. This could affect the reliability of the willingness to pay (WTP) estimates obtained for preference assessment. Treatment of 'protest zeros' in general, and particularly in the context of developing countries, has been rather unsatisfactory. Most case studies employ the Heckman 2-step approach, which is much less robust to co-linearity problems than the Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) estimator. The main objective of this article is to illustrate a sequential procedure to simultaneously deal with co-linearity and selectivity bias resulting from excluding 'protest zeros' in CV analysis. The sequential procedure involves different levels of estimation and diagnostics with the 2-step and FIML estimators; the duration of the procedure depends on the diagnostic test results at each stage of the estimations. The data used for the analysis were elicited using the conventional dichotomous choice buttressed with an open-ended follow-up question. The survey was designed to elicit households' WTP for a proposed community-based malaria control scheme in rural Cameroon. In the application context, we found that the different levels of estimation and diagnostics resulted in reliable WTP estimates from the FIML approach, which would obviously have been overlooked in the absence of such diagnostics. PMID:20578778

  18. A test of the universal applicability of a commonly used principle of hoof balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M N; Allan, L A; Pinchbeck, G L; Clegg, P D; Kissick, K E; Milner, P I

    2016-01-01

    This study used a UK trimming protocol to determine whether hoof balance is achieved (as defined by equivalence of geometric proportions) in cadaver limbs (n = 49) and two cohorts of horses (shod, n = 6, and unshod, n = 20; three trimming cycles). To determine equivalence, dorsal hoof wall length (DHWL), distance from the heel buttress to the centre of pressure (HBUT-COP) and distance from dorsal toe to centre of rotation (DT-COR) were calculated as a proportion of bearing border length (BBL) using digital photography. Geometric proportions were tested using Fieller's test of equivalence with limits of difference of 2.8%. In 22 cadaver limbs the location of external COR and COP was also mapped radiographically to the extensor process of the third phalanx and the centre of rotation of the distal interphalangeal joint. Equivalence of geometric proportions was not present following trimming in cadaver limbs or in the two cohorts. Although the dorsal hoof wall to heel wall ratio improved in cadaver and unshod horses after trimming, dorsal hoof wall and lateral heel parallelism was absent in all groups and COP was not consistently in line with the extensor process. Increased COP-COR distance occurred in shod horses and may relate to solar arch flattening. Palmar heel migration, however, occurred more in unshod horses. The study shows that equivalence of geometric proportions as a measure of static hoof balance was not commonly present and widely published measures and ratios of hoof balance rarely occurred in this sample population of horses. PMID:26639831

  19. Apparence et jeu, valeur cultuelle et valeur d’exposition chez Walter Benjamin

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    Anne Boissière

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available À travers le couple valeur cultuelle/valeur d’exposition présent dans son essai sur la reproductibilité technique, Walter Benjamin introduit une conception historique et dialectique de l’apparence. La valeur contemplative que l’esthétique philosophique accorde à la perception esthétique est relativisée au bénéfice d’une conception pratique de la perception, anciennement tangible dans l’activité magique mais possiblement redéployée avec la photographie et le cinéma. Ce texte veut rendre justice à la dimension pratique et politique qui sous-tend la réflexion de Benjamin sur la reproduction technique : la perception auratique est envisagée comme un moment historique indissociablement lié au développement de la technique.By way of the couple cult-value/exhibition-value as present in his essay on artwork and technical reproduction, Walter Benjamin introduces a historical as well as dialectical theory of appearance. The contemplative attitude often identified with aesthetic perception in philosophical aesthetics is thus deconstructed in favour of a practical mode of perception, formely tangible in magical activity but possibly recovered with photography and cinema. The present article proposes to do justice to the practical and political thought that buttresses Benjamin’s reflection on technical reproducibility: auratic perception is envisaged as a historical moment ineluctably linked to the development of technology.

  20. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF ANCHORAGE FOR SUPER SUSPENSION BRIDGE OVER LONGJIANG RIVER IN YUNNAN PROVINCE%云南龙江特大悬索桥锚碇稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭松峰; 祁生文; 李正熔; 马健; 柴建峰; 翟文龙

    2011-01-01

    重力式是悬索桥安全的关键结构之一,其支墩的偏移量对悬索桥的稳定性至关重要.拟建的云南龙江特大悬索桥保山岸地层复杂,岩性软弱,地基土力学参数较低.在工程设计中,需预测在施工运行过程中的锚碇支墩偏移量,以合理确定地基是否需要加固处理以及设定加固参数.为此,本文利用FLAC3D按照锚碇基坑开挖、锚碇主体施工、回填及二期构件完成、主缆索连接的施工步骤,依次建立较为精细的数值模型来模拟实际工况.数值分析结果表明:云南龙江特大斜拉桥锚碇保山岸锚碇支墩在回填压重和最大缆力工况下的水平偏移量小于5cm,在允许范围15cm内,锚碇基坑底部沉降量顺桥轴线方向自锚后到锚前逐渐减少,但梯度不大,锚碇略微后倾0.05°,不会发生倾倒翻转,也不需对地基加固.数值计算中发现,岩土参数的取值对计算结果影响有较大影响,为此,作者对变形模量、泊松比、黏聚力、内摩擦角、密度等5个参数进行了敏感性分析.结果表明,在研究区的岩土参数取值范围内,变形模量E敏感度较大,在工程勘察中通过足够的试验合理地确定其值十分重要.%As a style of anchoring the cable of suspension bridge, the gravity anchor is one of the most important elements for the safe of the bridge. The displacement of the anchorage buttress is the key factor for the stability. Thispaper examines the stability of the anchorage for a Super Cable-stayed Bridge planned to be built over Longjiang river in Yunnan Province. It is located in the place with complex stratum condition. The soil strength and modulus parameters are very small at the construction site. Therefore, predicting the displacement of anchorage buttresses under various conditions is very important to design the proposal of foundation treatment and determine treatment parameters reasonably. This paper presents the large-scale numerical models with

  1. Surgical strategies and clinical outcomes of Pilon fractures caused by two different injury mechanism (varus/valgus)%内外翻不同损伤机制导致胫骨Pilon骨折的手术策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏世隽; 蔡贤华; 黄继锋; 徐峰; 刘曦明; 王庆; 黄卫兵; 王华松; 兰生辉

    2014-01-01

    type C in group A and 15 type C in group B,with 3 cases of group B being Gustilo type Ⅱ open fractures.In group A,the buttress plate was placed on the medial aspect of distal tibia.However,the buttress plate was placed on the lateral aspect of distal tibia in group B.For those open fractures in group B,external fixation combined with limited internal fixation was performed.After the surgeries,the reduction quality of the joint surface was evaluated by Burwell-Charnley's radiological evaluation system.Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale.Results 32 cases were followed up for 12-24 months (average 16.9 months).There were statistic differences between group A and B according to both the AO/OTA classification and whether fibula fractures existed.In group A,2 cases developed wound infection.In group B,4 cases developed superficial wound infection,2 deep wound infection,1 delayed union of bone,and 4 needed flap transplantation to facilitate wound healing.The postoperative reductions were as follows:9 anatomic,7 good,and 1 fair in group A; 6 anatomic,8 good and 1 fair in group B.By 12 months postoperatively,there was no statistic difference between these two groups according to the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale,with the average scores of group A and B being 87.06±2.70 and 82.80±3.47 respectively.Conclusion Different injury mechanisms will result in different types of Pilon fractures.Different strategies should be used according to the characteristics of fracture to achieve better clinical outcomes and fewer complications,with the buttress plates being placed on the medial and lateral aspect of distal tibia in varus and valgus injury respectively.

  2. Safety reliability analysis of connection capability of non-API casing connection joints%特殊螺纹套管接头连接性能的安全可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志倩; 闫相祯; 杨秀娟

    2011-01-01

    建立套管接头内、外螺纹牙啮合物理力学模型,依据螺纹啮合对变形协调方程和单个螺纹牙轴向弹性变形分析,推导出套管接头螺纹牙承载分布不均性规律及其法向接触力计算方程组,并利用有限元计算结果验证了螺纹牙受力解析值的可参考性.结合弹性力学理论和API偏梯形螺纹计算准则,根据可靠度理论建立特殊螺纹套管接头三种连接失效形式的极限状态方程,利用Monte Carlo方法对服从正态分布的螺纹各项加工参数进行抽样,统计得出套管接头发生连接失效的概率及其相应可靠度.计算结果表明:特殊螺纹套管接头各连接失效形式的可靠度由大到小排序为螺纹跳扣〉管体屈服〉螺纹牙剪切〉接头抗拉.%A physical-mechanical model of casing connetion joints was bulit for the premium thread and then the axial deformation of a single thread tooth was analyzed. According to the deformation compatibility equation of meshing thread teeth, a set of equations for calculating the contact stress of the casing thread were deduced. Then the inhomogeneous stress distribution of the casing thread was obtained. The reference of the analytic method for connection capability analysis was verified by finite element calculation results. Combining the elasticity theory and the calculation criterion of the API buttress thread, the limit state equations of non-API casing connection' s failure modes were derived from the reliability theory. The random sampling of thread processing parameters was carried out with the Monte Carlo method, and then the failure probability and its corresponding reliability were obtained by statistics. The calculation results show that the failure modes' reliability values of non-API casing connection should be ordered below: thread thread slipping 〉 pipe yield 〉 shear failure 〉 joint rupture.

  3. Elastic-plastic FEA of the thread connection used in pre-tightened press frame and it’ s optimized design%预应力机架螺纹连接弹塑性有限元分析及优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林谢昭; 林秋伟

    2015-01-01

    针对液压机预应力机架拉杆螺纹第一承载牙根部出现了早期裂纹并发生断裂的问题,运用弹塑性接触有限元方法和Python语言,对拉杆连接螺纹进行参数化建模和分析,研究标准锯齿形螺纹的螺距和旋合圈数对牙根部最大等效应力以及牙间载荷分布的影响,并进行优化设计,得到不同螺距下的最优旋合圈数。结果表明,合理的螺距和旋合圈数能够有效地改善螺纹连接应力及载荷分布,进而提高螺纹的疲劳寿命,为大型压机螺纹连接结构设计提供理论参考。%The first tooth-root portion of the rod thread in a hydraulic press pre-stressed frame appeared early crack and tended to fatigue fracture.To solve this problem,a parameterized model of the thread connection was setup with Python and solved by the e -lastic-plastic contact finite element method .The effects of the different pitches and the number of turns for the standard buttress thread form on the peak of equivalent stress and axial load distribution was simulated and studied also .After that,the optimal turning-numbers for different screw pitches was obtained .The results indicate that a reasonable pitch and turning-numbers can ef-fectively reduce the maximum stress and homogenize the load distribution between the teeth .Therefore the fatigue life of the thread connection can be improved .The research findings can provide a useful theoretical guidance for the design of the thread connection of a large-scale hydraulic press frame .

  4. 济南铁路局经十路高层住宅项目结构设计要点分析%Structure Design of High-rise Residence Project of Ji'nan Railway Bureau at Jingshi Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐书晨

    2013-01-01

    Reinforced concrete shear wall structures are used in the high-rise residential buildings of Ji'nan Railway Bureau at Jingshi Road. Taking the building No. 1 as an example, the author expounds the key points of shear wall design, from some aspects such as the shear wall distribution, shear wall calculation, tie beam design and so on. Combining with the requirements of the design and the code, and through summarizing, the author points out that, the calculation results should be controlled in view of some factors such as the regularity judgment, global stability, rigidity ratio, lateral rigidity ratio of fixed end, period ratio, displacement ratio etc. In addition, the pile-raft foundation is employed. Furthermore, to enhance the structural integrity, several structural measures are adopted, such as adding tie beams at the groove of the architectural plane, thickening the floor slabs around the elevator shaft and the staircase, installing buttresses at the intersection point between the beam and the wall, and arranging the late-poured band at the junction between the main building and the podiums.%济南铁路局经十路职工高层住宅项目为现浇钢筋混凝土剪力墙结构,以1号楼为例,从剪力墙布置、剪力墙计算、剪力墙连梁设计等方面论述了剪力墙设计要点.结合设计及规范要求总结了需从规则性判断、整体稳定、刚度比、嵌固端侧向刚度比、周期比、位移比等几个主要方面进行计算结果控制.基础采用桩筏基础.并结合工程实际,采取了平面凹槽处增加连梁及厚板加强,电梯井、楼梯间周边楼板加厚,梁与墙相交处设扶壁柱,主楼与裙房设置沉降后浇带等结构措施加强结构的整体性.

  5. Urethral reconstruction with a 3D porous bacterial cellulose scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Wen; Lv, Xiang-Guo; Li, Zhe; Song, Lu-Jie; Feng, Chao; Xie, Min-Kai; Li, Chao; Li, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Chen, Shi-Yan; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Yue-Min

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of urethral reconstruction with a three-dimensional (3D) porous bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model. A novel 3D porous BC scaffold was prepared by gelatin sponge interfering in the BC fermentation process. Rabbit lingual keratinocytes were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto 3D porous BC. BC alone (group 1, N  =  10), 3D porous BC alone (group 2, N  =  10), and 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes (group 3, N  =  10) were used to repair rabbit ventral urethral defects (2.0   ×   0.8 cm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that BC consisted of a compact laminate while 3D porous BC was composed of a porous sheet buttressed by a dense outer layer. The average pore diameter and porosity of the 3D porous BC were 4.23   ±   1.14 μm and 67.00   ±   6.80%, respectively. At 3 months postoperatively, macroscopic examinations and retrograde urethrograms of urethras revealed that all urethras maintained wide calibers in group 3. Strictures were found in all rabbits in groups 1 and 2. Histologically, at 1 month postoperatively, intact epithelium occurred in group 3, and discontinued epithelium was found in groups 1 and 2. However, groups 2 and 3 exhibited similar epithelial regeneration, which was superior to that of group 1 at 3 months (p  <  0.05). Comparisons of smooth muscle content and endothelia density among the three groups revealed a significant increase at each time point (p  <  0.05). Our results demonstrated that 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes enhanced urethral tissue regeneration. 3D porous BC could potentially be used as an optimized scaffold for urethral reconstruction. PMID:26358641

  6. An outcome of surgical management of the tibial plateau fractures

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    Biju Ravindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advance in mechanization and acceleration of travel has been accompanied by an increase in number and severity of fractures and those of the tibial plateau are not an exception. As it is one of the major weight bearing joints of the body, fractures around it will be of at most importance. Aims: (1 To restore articular congruity and limb alignment by open reduction and rigid internal fixation. (2 To enable early knee motion and improve quadriceps and hamstring power. (3 To study the role of surgical treatment and functional outcome in tibial plateau fractures and its complications. Settings and Design: A prospective study was carried out, 32 cases of the tibial plateau fractures, which were admitted from August 2010 to April 2012 at Department of Orthopedics of our Hospital. Materials and Methods: 32 patients underwent surgical treatment for tibial plateau fractures. Fractures were classified according to the Schatzker′s system. The indications for surgery were defined as the presence of displacement, depression and instability being more than 4 mm, 10 mm and 10 degrees. The mean follow-up was 12 months. The selected patients were evaluated and were taken up for surgery. The indicated fractures were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with percutaneous cannulated cancellous screws, external fixator, open reduction and internal fixation with buttress plate with or without bone grafting. The range of motion was started soon after surgery. The patients were advised nonweight bearing up to 6-8 weeks. Total weight bearing deferred until 12 weeks or complete union of fracture. Statistical Analysis: All parameters before and after the treatment were expressed in mean ± standard deviation and analyzed by the Student′s t-test using SPSS version 16. Results: The knee range of motion was excellent to very good and weight bearing after complete union was satisfactory. Malunion in two cases, knee stiffness in three

  7. Dominant Capital and the New Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimshon Bichler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent shift from ‘global villageism’ to the ‘new wars’ revealed a deep crisis in heterodox political economy. The popular belief in neoliberal globalization, peace dividends, fiscal conservatism and sound finance that dominated the 1980s and 1990s suddenly collapsed. The early 2000s brought rising xenophobia, growing military budgets and policy profligacy. Radicals were the first to identify this transition, but their attempts to explain it have been bogged down by two major hurdles: (1 most writers continue to apply nineteenth century theories and concepts to twenty-first century realities; and (2 few seem to bother with empirical analysis. This paper offers a radical alternative that is both theoretically new and empirically grounded. We use the ‘new wars’ as a stepping stone to understand a triple transformation that altered the nature of capital, the accumulation of capital and the unit of capital. Specifically, our argument builds on a power understanding of capital that emphasizes differential accumulation by dominant capital groups. Accumulation, we argue, has little to do with the amassment of material things measured in ‘utils’ or ‘abstract labor.’ Instead, accumu-lation, or ‘capitalization,’ represents a commodification of power by leading groups in society. Over the past century, this power has been restructured and concentrated through two distinct regimes of differential accumulation—‘breadth’ and ‘depth.’ A breadth regime relies on proletarianization, on green-field investment and, particularly, on mergers and acquisitions. A depth regime builds on redistribution through stagflation—that is, on differential inflation in the midst of stagnation. In contrast to breadth which presupposes some measure of growth and stability, depth thrives on ‘accumulation through crisis.’ The past twenty years were dominated by breadth, buttressed by neoliberal rhetoric, globalization and capital mobility. This regime started

  8. Prenatal IV Cocaine: Alterations in Auditory Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Mactutus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One clue regarding the basis of cocaine-induced deficits in attentional processing is provided by the clinical findings of changes in the infants’ startle response; observations buttressed by neurophysiological evidence of alterations in brainstem transmission time. Using the IV route of administration and doses that mimic the peak arterial levels of cocaine use in humans, the present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine on auditory information processing via tests of the acoustic startle response (ASR, habituation, and prepulse inhibition (PPI in the offspring. Nulliparous Long-Evans female rats, implanted with an IV access port prior to breeding, were administered saline, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/injection of cocaine HCL (COC from gestation day (GD8-20 (1x/day-GD8-14, 2x/day-GD15-20. COC had no significant effects on maternal/litter parameters or growth of the offspring. At 18-20 days of age, one male and one female, randomly selected from each litter displayed an increased ASR (>30% for males at 1.0 mg/kg and >30% for females at 3.0 mg/kg. When reassessed in adulthood (D90-100, a linear dose-response increase was noted on response amplitude. At both test ages, within-session habituation was retarded by prenatal cocaine treatment. Testing the females in diestrus vs. estrus did not alter the results. Prenatal cocaine altered the PPI response function across interstimulus interval (ISI and induced significant sex-dependent changes in response latency. Idazoxan, an alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ASR, but less enhancement was noted with increasing doses of prenatal cocaine. Thus, in utero exposure to cocaine, when delivered via a protocol designed to capture prominent features of recreational usage, causes persistent, if not permanent, alterations in auditory information processing, and suggests dysfunction of the central noradrenergic circuitry modulating, if not mediating, these responses.

  9. Hemichannel-mediated and pH-based feedback from horizontal cells to cones in the vertebrate retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Fahrenfort

    experimentally, and its feasibility was buttressed by means of a quantitative computer model of the cone/horizontal cell synapse. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the data presented in this paper offers further support for physiologically relevant ephaptic interactions in the retina.

  10. Complex Paleotopography and Faulting near the Elsinore Fault, Coyote Mountains, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, M. J.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Coyote Mountains of southern California are bounded on the southwest by the Elsinore Fault, an active dextral fault within the San Andreas Fault zone. According to Axen and Fletcher (1998) and Dorsey and others (2011), rocks exposed in these mountains comprise a portion of the hanging wall of the east-vergent Salton Detachment Fault, which was active from the late Miocene-early Pliocene to Ca. 1.1-1.3 Ma. Detachment faulting was accompanied by subsidence, resulting in deposition of a thick sequence of marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks. Regional detachment faulting and subsidence ceased with the inception of the Elsinore Fault, which has induced uplift of the Coyote Mountains. Detailed geologic mapping in the central Coyote Mountains supports the above interpretation and adds some intriguing details. New discoveries include a buttress unconformity at the base of the Miocene/Pliocene section that locally cuts across strata at an angle so high that it could be misinterpreted as a fault. We thus conclude that the syn-extension strata were deposited on a surface with very rugged topography. We also discovered that locally-derived nonmarine gravel deposits exposed near the crest of the range, previously interpreted as part of the Miocene Split Mountain Group by Winker and Kidwell (1996), unconformably overlie units of the marine Miocene/Pliocene Imperial Group and must therefore be Pliocene or younger. The presence of such young gravel deposits on the crest of the range provides evidence for its rapid uplift. Additional new discoveries flesh out details of the structural history of the range. We mapped just two normal faults, both of which were relatively minor, thus supporting Axen and Fletcher's assertion that the hanging wall block of the Salton Detachment Fault had not undergone significant internal deformation during extension. We found abundant complex synthetic and antithetic strike-slip faults throughout the area, some of which offset Quaternary alluvial

  11. Preparing Scientists to be Community Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Many students, especially students from historically under-represented communities, leave science majors or avoid choosing them because scientific careers do not offer enough opportunity to contribute to their communities. Citizen science, or public participation in scientific research, may address these challenges. At its most collaborative, it means inviting communities to partner in every step of the scientific process from defining the research question to applying the results to community priorities. In addition to attracting and retaining students, this level of community engagement will help diversify science, ensure the use and usability of our science, help buttress public support of science, and encourage the application of scientific results to policy. It also offers opportunities to tackle scientific questions that can't be accomplished in other way and it is demonstrably effective at helping people learn scientific concepts and methods. In order to learn how to prepare scientists for this kind of intensive community collaboration, we examined several case studies, including a project on disease and public health in Africa and the professionally evaluated experience of two summer interns in Southern Louisiana. In these and other cases, we learned that scientific expertise in a discipline has to be accompanied by a reservoir of humility and respect for other ways of knowing, the ability to work collaboratively with a broad range of disciplines and people, patience and enough career stability to allow that patience, and a willingness to adapt research to a broader set of scientific and non-scientific priorities. To help students achieve this, we found that direct instruction in participatory methods, mentoring by community members and scientists with participatory experience, in-depth training on scientific ethics and communication, explicit articulation of the goal of working with communities, and ample opportunity for personal reflection were essential

  12. Il nuovo volto delle città umbre nella restaurazione pontificia: Antonio Mollari a Foligno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Belardi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Il «Concorso per la Decorazione della facciata, e ristauro della Torre», bandito nel febbraio del 1834 dal Comune di Foligno, inaugura la stagione umbra delle “facciate addossate”: vere e proprie maschere di pietra e stucco che non si sostituiscono alla facciate preesistenti, ma si giustappongono ad esse in guisa di contrafforte. In questo modo, nelle zone ad alto rischio sismico, l’esigenza di rinforzo strutturale si connette strettamente alle istanze di aggiornamento di gusto nell’ornato urbano. Antonio Mollari, autore del progetto prescelto dalla commissione deputata dalla Pontificia Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna, è un pioniere di tale strategia. Il suo progetto di concorso per la nuova facciata del Palazzo Comunale di Foligno lo inserisce a buon diritto nel novero degli architetti e degli ingegneri che, nella prima metà dell’Ottocento, cambiano radicalmente il volto delle città umbre con un lungo elenco di edifici pubblici di grande qualità: Pietro e Vincenzo Ghinelli, Luigi Poletti, Virginio Vespignani, Ireneo Aleandri. The “Concorso per la Decorazione della facciata, e ristauro della Torre” (contest for façade decoration and tower restoration announced in February 1834 by Foligno’s Municipality, inaugurates the Umbrian period of “leaned-against façade”: authentic stone and plaster masks that do not replace preexisting façades, but juxtapose to them as a buttress. Thus, in high seismic risk areas, the necessity of a structural support is strictly connected to the request of a revision of the urban decoration style. Antonio Mollari, author of the project selected by the appointed Bologna’s “Pontificia Accademia di Belle Arti” committee, is a pioneer of the above metioned strategy. His contest project for the new façade of Foligno’s Palazzo Comunale rightfully places him in that group of architects and engineers who, in the first half of the XIXth century, radically changed Umbrian cities aspect with

  13. Invertebrates on isolated peaks in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Armstrong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey to document and describe the alpine flora and various focal faunal taxa on six isolated inselberg-like peaks (total area of 31.9 ha, all 3000 m or higher, located in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa, was undertaken in early summer in 2005. Study of the fauna of these peaks should be informative because the impacts of controllable anthropogenic threats on the invertebrate communities on them should be minimal or absent in comparison with those on the main massif. A total of 341 invertebrate individuals representing 61 species were recorded from the focal taxa (Oligochaeta, Gastropoda and certain groups of Insecta, i.e. focal taxa within the Blattoidea, Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. The 61 species recorded consisted of two species from the Oligochaeta, one species from the Gastropoda and 58 species from the Insecta. Eleven species (one from the Oligochaeta, ten from the Insecta are endemic and 11 species (one from the Oligochaeta, ten from the Insecta are probably endemic to the Drakensberg Alpine Centre, constituting 36.1% of the total species recorded. The results suggest that the Drakensberg Alpine Centre (DAC, as for plants, is a centre of endemism for invertebrates. Cluster analysis showed that the species composition of the two northern peaks, Sentinel and Eastern Buttress, clustered together, separate from a cluster formed by the Outer Horn, Inner Horn and Dragon’s Back and from the cluster formed by the southernmost peak, Cathkin. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling results indicated that distance from the Sentinel, the most northerly peak sampled, and mean minimum temperature for July had the strongest correlations with the species data, reflecting change over a straight-line distance of nearly 60 km in a south-easterly direction.Conservation implications: Only a small proportion (ca. 5.5% of the DAC is conserved, the majority of which lies

  14. Assessment of a general methodology for the analysis of natural circulation stability with water at supercritical pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of the actual CIAE natural circulation loop at 25 MPa operating pressure was performed using RELAP5 and newly developed in-house codes (NCLoop for transient and linear analysis). The stability analyses carried out buttressed the find made with the idealized loop on the issue of heat structures, in which the heat structures stabilizes the loop. Transient analysis carried out with RELAP5 and NCLoop agreed very well with the NCLoop linear code with little deviations during short transients. (au)

  15. The Elementary Marine Ice Sheet Model (EMISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Ice sheet models become more and more components of global climate system modelling instead of stand-alone features to study cryospheric processes. Full coupling of ice sheet models to atmospheric and ocean models requires a standard for ice sheet models, and more precisely for marine ice sheet models, where complex feedbacks between ice and ocean, such as marine ice sheet instability, and the atmosphere, such as the elevation-mass balance feedback, operate at different time scales. Recent model intercomparisons (e.g., SeaRISE, MISMIP) have shown that basic requirements for marine ice sheet models are still lacking and that the complexity of many ice sheet models is focused on processes that are either not well captured numerically (spatial resolution issue) or are of secondary importance compared to the essential features of marine ice sheet dynamics. Here, we propose a new and fast computing ice sheet model, devoid of most complexity, but capturing the essential feedbacks when coupled to ocean or atmospheric models. Its computational efficiency guarantees to easily tests its advantages as well as limits through ensemble modelling. EMISM (Elementary Marine Ice Sheet Model) is a vertically integrated ice sheet model based on the Shallow-Ice Approximation extended a Weertman sliding law. Although vertically integrated, thermomechanical coupling is ensured through a simplified representation of ice sheet thermodynamics based on an analytical solution of the vertical temperature profile, enhanced with strain heating. The marine boundary is represented by a parameterized flux condition similar to Pollard & Deconto (2012), based on Schoof (2007). A simplified ice shelf is added to account for buttressing of ice shelves in this parameterization. The ice sheet model is solved on a finite difference grid and special care is taken to its numerical efficiency and stability. While such model has a series of (known) deficiencies with respect to short time effects, its overall

  16. Breeding without Mendelism: theory and practice of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive offspring. Some scientists had been making this claim since the beginning of the twentieth century. Why was it that their advice was apparently not heeded by breeders for so long? And what were the methods and beliefs that guided their practices? In this paper I intend to answer these questions by analysing the practical realities of dairy farming and stock breeding in The Netherlands between 1900 and 1950. Breeders continued to employ traditional breeding methods that had proven their effectiveness since the late eighteenth century. Their methods consisted in inbreeding--breeding in 'bloodlines,' as they called it--and selection on the basis of pedigree, conformation and milk recording data. Their aims were 'purity' and 'uniformity' of type. Progeny testing was not practiced due to practical difficulties. Before World War II, scientists acknowledged that genetic theory was of little practical use to breeders of livestock. Still, hereditary theory was considered to be helpful to assess the value of the breeders' methods. For instance, striving for purity was deemed to be consistent with Mendelian theory. Yet the term purity had different connotations for scientists and practical workers. For the former, it referred to homozygosity; for the latter, it rather buttressed the constancy of a distinct commercial 'brand.' Until the 1940s, practical breeders and most scientists were agreed that selecting animals purely for production was ill-advised. Cows of

  17. New lakes in de-glaciating high-mountain regions - a challenge for integrative research about hazard protection and sustainable use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, W.

    2012-12-01

    glacier/runoff models can be directly built into models of hydropower operation and economics to test the suitability and feasibility of potential projects. Assessments of hazards and risks must consider the entire chain of processes from slope instability in icy or potentially de-buttressed rock walls via impact waves, breaching of moraine dams, floods and debris flows in river channels and, especially, vulnerability and potential damage to people and infrastructure. High-mountain slope stability under conditions of climate change still constitutes the main weakness in the related knowledge basis and represents a corresponding challenge for focused research.

  18. Dueling Volcanoes: How Activity Levels At Kilauea Influence Eruptions At Mauna Loa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, F.

    2011-12-01

    Loa inflates its flank is not buttressed on the southeast. Consequently, asymmetrical spreading occurs resulting in dilation of the shallow magma storage centers, which ultimately culminates in decreased magma pressure and therefore lessened ability to erupt. Whether or not this hypothesis is accurate, there is growing geologic evidence for inverse activity levels at both volcanoes. This hypothesis is readily testable and can have profound implications on how we monitor shield volcanoes, which impacts our ability to forecast eruptions, conduct hazard assessments, and risk analysis.

  19. Zombie science: a sinister consequence of evaluating scientific theories purely on the basis of enlightened self-interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-09-01

    Although the classical ideal is that scientific theories are evaluated by a careful teasing-out of their internal logic and external implications, and checking whether these deductions and predictions are in-line-with old and new observations; the fact that so many vague, dumb or incoherent scientific theories are apparently believed by so many scientists for so many years is suggestive that this ideal does not necessarily reflect real world practice. In the real world it looks more like most scientists are quite willing to pursue wrong ideas for so long as they are rewarded with a better chance of achieving more grants, publications and status. The classic account has it that bogus theories should readily be demolished by sceptical (or jealous) competitor scientists. However, in practice even the most conclusive 'hatchet jobs' may fail to kill, or even weaken, phoney hypotheses when they are backed-up with sufficient economic muscle in the form of lavish and sustained funding. And when a branch of science based on phoney theories serves a useful but non-scientific purpose, it may be kept-going indefinitely by continuous transfusions of cash from those whose interests it serves. If this happens, real science expires and a 'zombie science' evolves. Zombie science is science that is dead but will not lie down. It keeps twitching and lumbering around so that (from a distance, and with your eyes half-closed) zombie science looks much like the real thing. But in fact the zombie has no life of its own; it is animated and moved only by the incessant pumping of funds. If zombie science is not scientifically-useable--what is its function? In a nutshell, zombie science is supported because it is useful propaganda to be deployed in arenas such as political rhetoric, public administration, management, public relations, marketing and the mass media generally. It persuades, it constructs taboos, it buttresses some kind of rhetorical attempt to shape mass opinion. Indeed, zombie

  20. Paleomagnetism and Tectonic Interpretations of the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to the late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigated using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chiron. Alternating field demagnetization, aided by principal component analysis, yields 55 sites with stable directions representing both normal and reversed polarities, and five sites indicating transitional fields. Mean direction of the normal and inverted reversed sites is I=49.3 deg. and D=356.7 deg. (alpha(sub 95)=3.6 deg). Angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic poles is 16.3 deg, which is consistent with paleosecular variation model G, fit to data from the past 5 m.y. Comparison with the expected direction indicates no azimuthal rotation of the Taos Plateau volcanic field; inclination flattening for the southern part of the plateau is 8.3 deg +/- 5.3 deg. Previous paleomagnelic data indicate 10 deg- 15 deg counterclockwise rotation of die Espanola block to the south over the past 5 m.y. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern

  1. A revised and dated phylogeny of cobweb spiders (Araneae, Araneoidea, Theridiidae): A predatory Cretaceous lineage diversifying in the era of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; May-Collado, Laura J; Pekár, Stano; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2016-01-01

    Cobweb spiders (Theridiidae) are highly diverse from the perspective of species richness, morphological diversity, variety of web architecture, and behavioral repertoires. The family includes over 50% of social spiders, a behavioral rarity among the order, and members of the family are furthermore the subject of research on venom, silk biomechanics, kleptoparasitism and web building, among other traits. Theridiidae is one of the most abundant groups of spiders, and thus key insect predators in many different ecosystems and is among relatively few spider families that show high degree of myrmecophagy. Modern comparative studies on all these fronts are best buttressed on a phylogenetic foundation. Our goal here is to offer a revised, dated, phylogenetic hypothesis for the family by summarizing previously published data from multiple molecular and morphological studies through data-mining, and adding novel data from several genera. We also test the hypothesis that the origin and diversification of cobweb spiders coincides with that of ants on which many species specialize as prey. The new phylogeny is largely congruent with prior studies and current taxonomy and should provide a useful tool for theridiid classification and for comparative analyses. Nevertheless, we also highlight the limitations of currently available data-the state of the art in Theridiidae phylogenetics-offering weak support for most of the deeper nodes in the phylogeny. Thus the need is clear for modern phylogenomic approaches to obtain a more solid understanding, especially of relationships among subfamilies. We recover the monophyly of currently recognized theridiid subfamilies with the exception of some enigmatic 'pholcommatines' (Styposis, Phoroncidia) and putative 'hadrotarsines' (Audifia, Tekellina) whose placement is uncertain in our analyses. Theridiidae dates back some 100 mya to the Cretaceous, a period of diversification in flowering plants and many groups of insects, including ants. The

  2. Quantum Locality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ (CQT) that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues, on the basis of his examination of certain arguments that claim to demonstrate the existence of such nonlocal influences, that such influences do not exist. However, his examination was restricted mainly to hidden-variable-based arguments that include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by attributing to the system properties alien to that system. Hence Griffiths’ rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his ‘consistent quantum theory’ shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive framework. This necessary existence, within the ‘consistent’ framework, of long range essentially instantaneous influences refutes the claim made by Griffiths that his ‘consistent’ framework is superior to the orthodox quantum theory of von Neumann because it does not entail instantaneous influences. An added section responds to Griffiths’ reply, which cites a litany of ambiguities that seem to restrict, devastatingly, the scope of his CQT formalism, apparently to buttress his claim that my use of that formalism to validate the nonlocality theorem is flawed. But the

  3. Análise de fatores associados à não aceitação da vacina contra hepatite B em adolescentes escolares de baixa renda Analysis of factors associated with non-acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine among low income adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dias da Silva Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar os fatores de predição da não adesão à vacina contra o vírus da hepatite B (VHB em adolescentes escolares de baixa renda da Região Metropolitana de Goiânia, Goiás, 304 indivíduos suscetíveis ao VHB, matriculados em duas escolas, foram entrevistados e a vacina contra hepatite foi oferecida. Somente 195 (64% adolescentes aceitaram a primeira dose da vacina. Por outro lado, 182/195 (93,3% receberam o esquema completo. Verificou-se que fatores escolares exerceram um papel na aceitação da vacina, uma vez que a escola B e turno noturno foram independentemente associados à não adesão à vacina. Os achados deste estudo ratificam a baixa aceitação da vacina contra hepatite B em adolescentes e evidenciam a necessidade de programas de educação em saúde para sensibilização desse grupo em relação à vacinação, e reforçam a importância de estratégias de imunização na escola para o cumprimento do esquema completo da vacina contra o VHB nesta população-alvo.To evaluate the predictor factors for non-acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine among low-income adolescent students in the Goiânia Metropolitan Region, Goiás State, Brazil. In this study, 304 HBV-susceptible individuals enrolled in two schools were interviewed, and the HBV vaccine was offered. Only 195 (64% of adolescents accepted the first dose of vaccine. On the other hand, 182/195 (93.3% received the full HBV vaccine scheme. School factors played a role in vaccine acceptance, as School B and night classes were independently associated with non-acceptance of hepatitis B vaccination. The findings of this study ratify the low acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine among adolescents, highlighting the need for health education programs aiming at this group for hepatitis B vaccinations, while buttressing the importance of school-based vaccination strategies for attaining full HBV immunization of this target population.

  4. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURES OF FEMUR MANAGED BY OPEN REDUCTION AND INTERNAL FIXATION WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Incidence of distal femur fractures is approximately 37 per 1 , 00,000 person - years.¹Distal femoral fractures has two different injury mechanisms, high energy trauma and low energy trauma. In high - energy trauma, the problem of restoring the function in a destroyed knee joint persists. Complex knee ligament injuries frequently occur additionally to extensive cartilage injuries. In elderly patients, extreme osteoporosis represents a particular problem for anchoring the implant. 2 Supracondylar and inter condylar fractures often are unstable and comminuted and tend to occur in the elderly or those with multiple injuries. Treatment options are many with varied results. The final outcome would depend upon the type of fracture, stabilization of fixation and and perhaps patient general condition. 3 The options for operative treatment are traditional plating techniques that require compression of the implant to the femoral shaft (blade plate, Dynamic Condylar Screw, non - locking condylar buttress plate, antegrade nailing fixation, retrograde nailing, sub muscular locked internal fixation and external fixation. 4 However, as the complexity of fractures needing treatment has changed from simple extra - articular supra - condylar types to inter - condylar and metaphyseal comminuted types, these implants may not be ideal. Double plating, and more recently, locked plating techniques have been advocated 5 . However with double plating there is often extensive soft tissue stripping on both sides of the femur, resulting in reduced blood supply and potential non - union and failure of the implants 6 . The LCP is a single beam construct where the strength of its fixation is equal to the sum of all screw - bone interfaces rather than a single screw’s axial stiffness or pullout resistance as seen in unlocked plates 7,8 . Its unique biomechanical function is based on splinting rather than compression resulting in flexible stabilization

  5. School-based model for preventing teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P

    1982-01-01

    . Buttressing these and other positive results, the students' enthusiastic feedback left little doubt that they enjoyed the group process and were interested in the training. Moreover, analyses of follow-up data on coital activity, the use of contraceptives, and family planning decisions revealed that the training had produced striking effects. Decision making tests, behavioral performance tests, follow-up questionnaires and videotaping of behavior during stressful interpersonal situations were among the evaluation techniques used. PMID:12266531

  6. Glacier dynamics after the disintegration of Wordie Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Anja; Bown, Francisca; Rivera, Andrés.; Wendt, Jens; Zamora, Rodrigo; Bravo, Claudio; Zenteno, Pablo; Casassa, Gino; Carrasco, Jorge; Quintana, Juan

    2010-05-01

    The retreat of Wordie Ice Shelf in the 1980s was the first recent episode in a series of ice-shelf collapse events which culminated in a substantial break-up of Wilkins Ice Shelf in April 2009. This widespread behaviour of ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula has been attributed to atmospheric and oceanic warming. While atmospheric warming leads to a prolonged melt season and increased melt ponding, oceanic warming increases bottom melting eroding ice shelves from below. Glaciers feeding into these ice shelves are known to accelerate because of the loss of the buttressing force the ice shelf exerted. Although the loss of the ice shelf itself does not contribute to sea level rise, the increased glacier outflow results in a surface lowering of the grounded glaciers associated with a mass loss and a positive contribution to sea level. Based on remote sensing, airborne and in-situ data collected during 3 recent field campaigns, we study the behaviour of glaciers flowing into Wordie Bay and its relationship to ice-shelf history and local meteorological conditions. Satellite images from different optical and radar sensors (ASTER, Landsat, ERS, and Envisat) were used to map the ice-shelf extent throughout recent years and show an almost complete disappearance of Wordie Ice Shelf. The comparison of surface elevations acquired by airborne laser scanning on Fleming Glacier in 2004 and 2008 reveals a surface elevation decrease of up to 4 m/yr at the grounding line. GPS measurements at sites first surveyed in the 1970s show that the glacier maintains higher ice flow velocities than before the retreat of Wordie Ice Shelf. A continuous GPS station deployed at the upper reaches of Fleming Glacier for one year allows studying changes in ice flow velocity throughout the year. In summary, high ice flow velocities together with the marked surface elevation at the grounding line indicate that the glaciers in Wordie Bay are still losing mass and have not attained a new equilibrium

  7. Measurements and modeling of deposition rates from a near supercritical aqueous sodium sulfate solution to a heated cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic organic wastes and mixed wastes, composed of toxic organic compounds and radioactive elements, are a major environmental management problem. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) shows promise for effective remediation of these wastes by destroying their organic constituents and, when necessary, concentrating their radioactive ingredients in forms suited to safe disposal. In the Supercritical Water oxidation process, organic compounds containing heteroatoms such as S, Cl or P are oxidized to the corresponding acid. In order to avoid corrosion, bases are therefore often injected into the reactor. The salts that are formed upon neutralization (sulfates, chlorides, phosphates, etc.) have low solubility in SCW and consequently precipitate as solid phases. These salts can form agglomerates and coat internal surfaces, leading to plugging of transport lines and inhibition of heat transfer. The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of salt deposition kinetics and nucleation phenomena in SCWO reactors. The authors provide experimental deposition rate data from a sodium sulfate-containing SCW stream to a heated cylinder and develop a predictive model which is buttressed by these data. They also discuss how the deposition rate is linked to the nucleation mechanism and what type of nucleation is most important in the experiments. For the experiments, the test section is a six-port chamber which is fashioned from a 1.91 cm (3/4 in.) diameter Swagelok cross. One port was used to mount a 5.08 mm diameter internally heated cylinder into the center of the chamber and the remaining ports provided fluid cross flow, visual observation capability and instrumentation access. Aqueous sodium sulfate solutions of 4 wt% salt concentration were pumped at about 250 bar through preheaters that brought the solution to a temperature close to that at which precipitation occurs. The heated cylinder raised the nearby solution above this temperature, thus limiting deposition

  8. The West Beverly Hills Lineament and Beverly Hills High School: Ethical Issues in Geo-Hazard Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, Eldon; Gonzalez, Tania; Roe, Joe; Buchiarelli, Philip; Kenny, Miles

    2014-05-01

    Results of geotechnical studies for the Westside Subway were disclosed in a public hearing on Oct. 19, 2011, showing new "active faults" of the Santa Monica fault and the West Beverly Hills Lineament (WBHL), identified as a northern extension of the Newport-Inglewood fault. Presentations made spoke of the danger posed by these faults, the possibility of killing people, and how it was good news that these faults had been discovered now instead of later. The presentations were live and are now memorialized as YouTube videos, (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Omx2BTIpzAk and others). No faults had been physically exposed or observed by the study; the faults were all interpreted from cone penetrometer probes, supplemented by core borings and geophysical transects. Several of the WBHL faults traversed buildings of the Beverly Hills High School (BHHS), triggering the school district to geologically map and characterize these faults for future planning efforts, and to quantify risk to the students in the 1920's high school building. 5 exploratory trenches were excavated within the high school property, 12 cone penetrometers were pushed, and 26-cored borings were drilled. Geologic logging of the trenches and borings and interpretation of the CPT data failed to confirm the presence of the mapped WBHL faults, instead showing an unfaulted, 3° NE dipping sequence of mid-Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits conformably overlying an ~1 Ma marine sand. Using 14C, OSL, and soil pedology for stratigraphic dating, the BHHS site was cleared from fault rupture hazards and the WBHL was shown to be an erosional margin of Benedict Canyon, partially buttressed by 40-200 ka alluvial deposits from Benedict Wash. The consequence of the Westside Subway's active fault maps has been the unexpected expenditure of millions of dollars for emergency fault investigations at BHHS and several other private properties within a densely developed urban highrise environment. None of these studies have found

  9. Modelled glacier dynamics over the last quarter of a century at Jakobshavn Isbræ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresan, Ioana S.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Aschwanden, Andy; Khroulev, Constantine; Van Dam, Tonie; Bamber, Jonathan; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Wouters, Bert; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2016-03-01

    Observations over the past 2 decades show substantial ice loss associated with the speed-up of marine-terminating glaciers in Greenland. Here we use a regional three-dimensional outlet glacier model to simulate the behaviour of Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI) located in western Greenland. Our approach is to model and understand the recent behaviour of JI with a physical process-based model. Using atmospheric forcing and an ocean parametrization we tune our model to reproduce observed frontal changes of JI during 1990-2014. In our simulations, most of the JI retreat during 1990-2014 is driven by the ocean parametrization used and the glacier's subsequent response, which is largely governed by bed geometry. In general, the study shows significant progress in modelling the temporal variability of the flow at JI. Our results suggest that the overall variability in modelled horizontal velocities is a response to variations in terminus position. The model simulates two major accelerations that are consistent with observations of changes in glacier terminus. The first event occurred in 1998 and was triggered by a retreat of the front and moderate thinning of JI prior to 1998. The second event, which started in 2003 and peaked in the summer 2004, was triggered by the final break-up of the floating tongue. This break-up reduced the buttressing at the JI terminus that resulted in further thinning. As the terminus retreated over a reverse bed slope into deeper water, sustained high velocities over the last decade have been observed at JI. Our model provides evidence that the 1998 and 2003 flow accelerations are most likely initiated by the ocean parametrization used but JI's subsequent dynamic response was governed by its own bed geometry. We are unable to reproduce the observed 2010-2012 terminus retreat in our simulations. We attribute this limitation to either inaccuracies in basal topography or to misrepresentations of the climatic forcings that were applied. Nevertheless, the

  10. FAUNA DE FLEBOTOMÍNEOS (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE EN ACANDÍ (CHOCÓ, COLOMBIA Fauna of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae in Acandí (Chocó, Colombia

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    RAFAEL J VIVERO

    Full Text Available La región geográfica denominada Chocó-Darién-Caribe es uno de los ecosistemas de bosque húmedo tropical de gran diversidad, pero aún poco explorado. El presente estudio documenta algunas especies de flebotomíneos colectados en un área de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea. Se realizó un estudio entomológico en la reserva natural el Aguacate, municipio de Acandí, Chocó. La metodología incluyó el uso de trampas de luz CDC y búsqueda activa en raíces tabulares, colectando con aspiradores bucales. Se recolectaron 1.205 individuos, de los cuales sobresalen Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor y Lutzomyia hartmanni reconocidos como vectores potenciales de leishmaniasis cutánea en el nuevo mundo. Se relata el hallazgo de 16 especies del género Lutzomyia França y dos especies del género Brumptomyia Sherlock para la costa del Darién-Caribe colombiano, destacando la presencia de las especies Lutzomyia atroclavata (Knab y Brumptomyia mesai (Sherlock como nuevos registros para el departamento del Chocó. Este estudio aporta al conocimiento de la fauna de flebotomíneos del municipio de Acandí, Chocó.The geographic region called Chocó-Darién-Caribe is a tropical forest ecosystem considered of great diversity but still a poorly known region. The current study focuses on some phlebotominae species collected in a geographic area where it has been documented cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission. An entomological study was conducted at the Natural Reserve El Aguacate, in Acandí municipality, Chocó. Sampling methods included light traps such as CDC and collections of adult sand flies in resting sites such as tree buttresses using mouth aspirators devices. The collection findings comprise a total of 1205 phlebotominae adults, with some species of note such as Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor

  11. Trinidadian capitalism

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    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and

  12. Optic Coherence Tomography Findings in Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients of the Northwest of Iran

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    Sasan Andalib

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a simple, high-resolution technique to quantify the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and macula volume, which provide an indirect measurement of axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS. This study aimed to evaluate OCT finding in relapsing-remitting MS patients of the northwest of Iran and compare them with a normal control group.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytic study, 60 patients with MS as case group and 60 patients as controls were studied. Total macular volume (TMV and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in perioptic disk area (3.4 millimeter around the disk and macula was measured using Stratus 3000 in circular form. These findings were compared between the two groups and their relationship with the duration and severity of MS [based on Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS] and history of optic neuritis were evaluated.Results: In total, 35 men and 85 women with a mean age of 34.8 years were evaluated. The mean RNFL in MS patients were 231.9 and 233.1 micrometers in right and left eyes; while they were 246.7 and 250.4 micrometers in right and left eyes of healthy subjects, respectively. This difference in thickness of RNFL in total measure and all quadrants around the optic disk and TMV between case and control groups was analytically meaningful (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001 for right and left eyes, respectively. The mean thickness of RNFL in patients with optic neuritis was significantly lower than other patients in right and left eyes (P = 0.042 and P = 0.005. There was a significant correlation between most of OCT findings and the MS disease duration and EDSS.Conclusion: Findings of the present study in the northwest of Iran buttress the idea that RNFL thickness can be greatly affected by MS. Our results also indicate that this effect is associated with ON and MS duration and severity.

  13. From sermons in stone to studies in science: The transformation of 19th-century juvenile natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Jon-Paul Charles

    encouraged children's interactions with nature as means of buttressing the values, goals, and property of the middle-class. In the process of doing this, male cultural authorities emphasized the importance of children's contact with (and conquest of) nature, even as they marginalized older religious and feminine approaches to nature that had focused on getting children to see meanings and messages that supposedly inhered in nature.

  14. Experimentación geométrica y constructiva en piedra: algunos casos especiales de escaleras de caracol

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    Sanjurjo, A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Stonecutting specialized literature often describes, specifically between the 16th and the 18th century, complex spiral staircases that, in many cases, have never been carried out practically. At the same time, hidden inside of towers and turrets or concealed in buttresses, there is a variety of built examples whose arrangements differentiate from those of the written treatises, showing an outstanding technical mastery, clear sign of experimentation and professional training. They are characterized by their complex geometry and complicated construction, which emphasizes their singularity in comparison to their small dimension and their irrelevant location. Both models, those conceived and drawn in the treatises, but not built, and those constructed in churches and cathedrals, but not considered in the treatises, are the objective of this paper. To this end, we will look at some of these stairs, analysing them and trying to find the source of their existence.La literatura técnica de la cantería describió, fundamentalmente entre el siglo XVI y el XVIII, complejos caracoles de piedra que, en algunos casos, no se llevaron nunca a la práctica. Asimismo, escondidos en torreones y disimulados en machones, estribos y contrafuertes encontramos ejemplos construidos, con soluciones distintas a las de los tratados escritos, de un gran virtuosismo técnico, testigos evidentes de procesos de experimentación y capacitación profesional. Su compleja geometría y difícil construcción las caracteriza, y acentúa aún más su singularidad en contraposición con su pequeña dimensión y su secundaria ubicación. Ambos modelos, los pensados y dibujados en los tratados, pero no construidos, y los construidos en iglesias y catedrales, pero no contemplados en los tratados, son el objeto de este artículo. En él, hacemos un recorrido por algunas de esas escaleras especiales, estudiándolas y tratando de encontrar el porqué de su existencia.

  15. Hydrogeological model of the territory of Kowsar hydraulic project

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    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2015-03-01

    consolidation curtain in its both banks, drainage structures. Underground waters of the territory are formed by infiltration. They unload in river Heirabad. In accordance with this circumstance, the northwest (the right bank and the south-east (the left bank hydro geological borders of the model are the borders with constant discharge seepage, entering from the area of the feeding in the area of unloading. The borders are distanced from the river on 2,5 km. In accordance with the regional direction of the flow of underground waters, the model is limited along the lines of the current (the impervious borders at northeast (upwards on river and south-west (down on river. Those borders are distanced from river on 2,2…2,3 km. As a result, the area of model is 28 km . Aroofing of almost watertight marls of the retinue Pb is the bottom border of the model. Theinternal borders are presented by the river Heirabad, the water reservoir and the drainage structures. The calibration of the model was conducted at the reservoir water mark of 580 m and 606…610 m. The correctness criterion of the decision had shown the convergence of the obtained values of discharge level of underground waters with the data of natural observations. In the process of calibration the revision of the input data was carried out - a seepage characteristic of thick limestone mass As and discharge, entering from the right and left bank borders of the model. The forecast calculation was performed for water reservoir level of 620 m. The creation of water reservoir has influenced the seepage regime of the territory by the area of more than 25 km . As a result of the buttress of the natural inflow there occurred the redistribution of the natural inflow and change of the direction of the natural inflow that has caused the appearance of springs in downstream of dam near the contact of the series As-Gs. The design inflow of underground waters in the river Heirabad on the area from dam up to the contact of the suites As

  16. Expansão rápida da maxila cirurgicamente assistida: estudo preliminar Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expasion: a preliminar study

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    Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito Vasconcelos

    2006-08-01

    absence of detachment of the pterygoid plate. Furthermore, osteotomies of the bilateral zygomatic buttress and the intermaxillary suture were done in both groups. The transverse discrepancy was measured in study models, a posterior-anterior cephalometric radiograph evaluated the superior and inferior zygomatic plane and the inter-tuber distance and an occlusal radiograph evaluated the intermaxillary dysjunction in the pre-operative period and 30 days post-operatively. A 7-day period of rest was given after corticotomy before starting expansion with quarter turns once a day. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between pre- and post-operative measurements. CONCLUSION: There are few randomized control trials in literature comparing the two techniques for surgically maxillary expansion. Further studies with a larger sample are required.

  17. Derecho y orden social. Los presupuestos teóricos de la teoría jurídica de Carl Schmitt

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    Serrano G., Enrique

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to pick up a thesis from Schmitt, according to which law is not totally contained in its norms, but requires a concrete order besides these. I claim that by following such a principle, the theory of law increases his descriptive and explicative power. In particular, one can thus go beyond the day-to-day, technical knowledge of lawyers and judges, and render a proper explanation of the genesis and dynamical change of legal systems in general. Among other things, the said principle enables the theorist to construe the process that made it possible for the legal systems of modern societies to become autonomous. Yet, on the other hand, I make a critical remark against Schmitt’s belief that by thus explaining the relationship between a concrete order and its legal norms the latter are justified. Against this, I claim that they most comply with some kind of universal principle of justice. I support my claim against Schmitt on an argument of his own-one that he uses to buttress his view that the acknowledgment of the diversity of the human world is a prerequisite for keeping social conflict from becoming violent, and for turning it into a strictly political practice.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es recuperar la tesis de Schmitt en la que afirma que el derecho no se agota en las normas, sino que implica un orden concreto. Ello se debe a que dicha tesis permite ampliar la capacidad descriptiva y explicativa de la teoría jurídica. Especialmente, permite ir más allá del conocimiento técnico que requiere el trabajo cotidiano de los abogados y jueces, para dar cuenta de la génesis y dinámica de los sistema jurídicos. Entre otras cosas permite reconstruir el proceso que hizo posible la autonomía de los sistemas jurídicos propios de las sociedades modernas. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, se crítica la creencia de Schmitt respecto a que conceptualizar la relación entre el orden concreto y las normas jur

  18. The Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone - early Palaeozoic strike-slip plate boundary or Ediacaran rifted margin of Baltica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Stanislaw; Krzywiec, Piotr; Malinowski, Michal; Lewandowski, Marek; Buffenmeyer, Vinton; Green, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ) is the longest European tectonic and geophysical lineament extending from the Baltic Sea in the northwest to the Black Sea in the southeast. This tectonic feature defines a transition between the thick crust of the East European Craton (EEC) and the thinner crust of the Palaeozoic Platform to the southwest. Being a profound zone of crustal and lithospheric thickness perturbation, the TTZ has usually been considered a Caledonian tectonic suture formed due to the closure of the Tornquist Ocean. The suture was hypothesised to originate from the collision between Baltica and Avalonia or large-scale strike-slip displacement along strike of the Caledonian Orogen. However, some minority views postulated the continuation of Baltica crystalline basement farther to the southwest up to the Elbe Lineament and the margin of the Variscan Belt. We studied the ION Geophysical PolandSPAN survey that consists of 10 regional, seismic depth profiles covering the SW margin of the EEC and the TTZ in Poland. Since the PolandSPAN profiles image to ~30 km depth their interpretation was integrated with the potential fields data and earlier results of refraction sounding to better image the deep structure of the TTZ. Our data show that the NW and central sections of the TTZ correspond, at the Moho level, to a relatively narrow crustal keel and a significant Moho step at the transition from the EEC to the Palaeozoic Platform. However, top of basement above the TTZ is smooth and moderately sloping towards the southwest. In the central part of the TTZ, top of Precambrian is covered by undisturbed lower Palaeozoic sediments. In contrast, the lower Palaeozoic sediments are involved in a latest Silurian, thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt along the NW section of the TTZ, where the sharply defined Caledonian Deformation Front adjoins a rigid basement buttress above the TTZ. Finally, the crustal keel is mostly missing from the SE section of the TTZ. Instead, this

  19. Silver Furnishings of Medieval Altar of St. Stanislaus in Cracow Cathedral

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    Krzysztof Czyżewski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at these elements of St. Stanislaus’ tomb in the Gothic Cathedral on the Wawel Hill which were made of silver. Except for one (a reliquary diptych all were destroyed and are known only from written records. The basic issue is to establish the date and the founder of a wooden coffin covered with gilded silver plates, in which the relics of the Martyr were placed. The literature on the subject attributed the foundation of the reliquary to St. Kunegunda (1234-1292, Elizabeth of Poland (1305-1380, St. Jadwiga, Hedvig of Anjou (1374-1399 and Ladislaus the Short (1260 or 1261-1333. Thanks to the records written in 1631 by a priest Jan Wielewicki which mention the renovation of the medieval coffin, we know that it had an inscription which unequivocally pointed to the person of Elizabeth of Poland, wife of a Hungarian king Charles I Robert and mother of a king of Hungary and Poland Louis d’Anjou, as the founder. A detailed description included in the records of an inspection of the Cracow Cathedral in 1670 allows an approximate reconstruction of this work of art, which was a box-reliquary of approximate measurements: 175, 8x87, 9x43, 95 cm, closed with a ridge roof cover of unknown height. It had cast decoration. The longer sides were each interspersed with 6 and the shorter with 2 pictures with the scenes from St. Stanislaus’s life. Likenesses of 18 bishops adorned both patches of the corners and axes of the shorter sides were accentuated with buttresses. Top rims of the cover were decorated with an open-work comb (tracery. Iconographic programme cannot be reconstructed on the basis of the existing sources. After a new coffin for the remains of the Saint was funded by Sigismund III, the old one was used as a reliquary for the hand and placed in St. Peter and Paul’s chapel, which - according to tradition - originally housed the tomb. After the cathedral was looted by the Swedes in 1657, the medieval reliquary was put back in

  20. "I have a connection!": The situated sense-making of an elementary student about the role of water in modeled vs. experienced ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa Elisabeth N.

    Current policy and research have led the field of science education towards a model of "science as practice." In the past decade, several research programs on model-based reasoning practices in education have articulated key dimensions of practice, including constructing and defending models, comparing models to empirical data, using representations to identify patterns in data and use those as inscriptions to buttress arguments. This study presents a detailed case of how the use of a physical microcosm and children's self-directed representations of an ecosystem constrained and afforded student sense-making in an urban elementary classroom. The case analyzed the experiences of a 10-year old fifth grade student, Jorge, and the variation in his expressed understanding of ecosystems as he interacted with academic tasks, along with models and representations, to design, observe and explain an ecological microcosm. The study used a conceptual framework that brings together theories of situated cognition and Doyle's work on academic task to explain how and why Jorge's perception and communication of dimensions of ecosystem structure, function, and behavior appear to "come in and out of focus," influenced by the affordances of the tools and resources available, the academic task as given by the teacher, and Jorge's own experiences and knowledge of phenomena related to ecosystems. Findings from this study suggest that elementary students' ability or inability to address particular ecological concepts in a given task relate less to gaps in their understanding and more to the structure of academic tasks and learning contexts. The process of a student interacting with curriculum follows a dynamic trajectory and leads to emergent outcomes. As a result of the complex interactions of task, tools, and his own interests and agency, Jorge's attunement to the role of water in ecosystems comes in and out of focus throughout the unit. The instructional constraint of needing to

  1. Geology, tectonics, and the 2002-2003 eruption of the Semeru volcano, Indonesia: Interpreted from high-spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhin, Akhmad; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Harris, Andy J. L.; Liew, Soo Chin

    2012-02-01

    The paper illustrates the application of high-spatial resolution satellite images in interpreting volcanic structures and eruption impacts in the Tengger-Semeru massif in east Java, Indonesia. We use high-spatial resolution images (IKONOS and SPOT 5) and aerial photos in order to analyze the structures of Semeru volcano and map the deposits. Geological and tectonic mapping is based on two DEMs and on the interpretation of aerial photos and four SPOT and IKONOS optical satellite images acquired between 1996 and 2002. We also compared two thermal Surface Kinetic Temperature ASTER images before and after the 2002-2003 eruption in order to delineate and evaluate the impacts of the pyroclastic density currents. Semeru's principal structural features are probably due to the tectonic setting of the volcano. A structural map of the Tengger-Semeru massif shows four groups of faults orientated N40, N160, N75, and N105 to N140. Conspicuous structures, such as the SE-trending horseshoe-shaped scar on Semeru's summit cone, coincide with the N160-trending faults. The direction of minor scars on the east flank parallels the first and second groups of faults. The Semeru composite cone hosts the currently active Jonggring-Seloko vent. This is located on, and buttressed against, the Mahameru edifice at the head of a large scar that may reflect a failure plane at shallow depth. Dipping 35° towards the SE, this failure plane may correspond to a weak basal layer of weathered volcaniclastic rocks of Tertiary age. We suggest that the deformation pattern of Semeru and its large scar may be induced by flank spreading over the weak basal layer of the volcano. It is therefore necessary to consider the potential for flank and summit collapse in the future. The last major eruption took place in December 2002-January 2003, and involved emplacement of block-and-ash flows. We have used the 2003 ASTER Surface Kinetic Temperature image to map the 2002-2003 pyroclastic density current deposits. We

  2. Post-test Analysis of a Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model (Ultimate Pressure Capacity of 1:4 scale PCCV) Phase 2. Analysis of 1:4 scale prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model subject to pressure and thermal loading Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers phase 2 and 3 of the International Standard Problem 48 (ISP48) benchmark on containment integrity. The first paper summarizes the post-test analysis results performed by Korea Power Engineering Company to simulate the structural responses accurately comparing the measured responses from SFMT (Structural Failure Mode Test) tested at Sandia National Laboratories. To simulate the failure loading as well as the failure mode of the pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model, a three-dimensional full model involves at least two critical features for the structural idealization: one is by geometry model considering the effects due to presence of the openings and the buttresses in the PCCV. The other is by material property models for concrete, reinforcement, tendon and liner plate. The computer program ABAQUS was used to analyze a three dimensional model of containment with nonlinear material properties of concrete, liner plate, reinforcing steel, and prestressing tendon by increasing the internal pressure to failure. Thereby, the final results including the failure mode and the corresponding internal pressure level are determined. The modeling approaches of geometry and materials and the analysis results with comparing the test results are summarized. The second paper describes the nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a PCCV which incorporates both pressure and temperature effects. The analyses are performed using the results of the heat transfer analyses provided as time and/or pressure dependent thermal gradients at representative cross-sections in the model. This paper is focused on the behavior of the NUPEC/NRC 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel under pressure and temperature loading beyond the design basis. In the nonlinear finite element analyses, the 1/4-scale PCCV including the axisymmetric cylindrical vessel, the spherical dome and the concrete base slab are idealized as an axisymmetric global model with

  3. Sedimentology and chronology of the advance and retreat of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet on the continental shelf west of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jared L.; Benetti, Sara; Dunlop, Paul; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Moreton, Steven G.; Wheeler, Andrew J.; Clark, Christopher D.

    2016-05-01

    The last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) had extensive marine-terminating margins and was drained by multiple large ice streams and is thus a useful analogue for marine-based areas of modern ice sheets. However, despite recent advances from investigating the offshore record of the BIIS, the dynamic history of its marine margins, which would have been sensitive to external forcing(s), remain inadequately understood. This study is the first reconstruction of the retreat dynamics and chronology of the western, marine-terminating, margin of the last (Late Midlandian) BIIS. Analyses of shelf geomorphology and core sedimentology and chronology enable a reconstruction of the Late Midlandian history of the BIIS west of Ireland, from initial advance to final retreat onshore. Five AMS radiocarbon dates from marine cores constrain the timing of retreat and associated readvances during deglaciation. The BIIS advanced without streaming or surging, depositing a bed of highly consolidated subglacial traction till, and reached to within ∼20 km of the shelf break by ∼24,000 Cal BP. Ice margin retreat was likely preceded by thinning, grounding zone retreat and ice shelf formation on the outer shelf by ∼22,000 Cal BP. This ice shelf persisted for ≤2500 years, while retreating at a minimum rate of ∼24 m/yr and buttressing a >150-km long, 20-km wide, bathymetrically-controlled grounding zone. A large (∼150 km long), arcuate, flat-topped grounding-zone wedge, termed here the Galway Lobe Grounding-Zone Wedge (GLGZW), was deposited below this ice shelf and records a significant stillstand in BIIS retreat. Geomorphic relationships indicate that the BIIS experienced continued thinning during its retreat across the shelf, which led to increased topographic influence on its flow dynamics following ice shelf break up and grounding zone retreat past the GLGZW. At this stage of retreat the western BIIS was comprised of several discrete, asynchronous lobes that underwent several

  4. The Fate of Failed Bank Material and Implications for Lateral Retreat: Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Thomas, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to deterministically predict the critical conditions for streambank failure in alluvial materials has improved markedly in recent years. Analytic tools such as the Bank-Stability and Toe-Erosion Model (BSTEM) account for a broad range of controlling processes and factors including hydraulic erosion of the bank toe, positive and negative pore-water pressures, layers of varying geotechnical resistance and root reinforcement. When failure is predicted, the failed mass is assumed to be transported away from the section by the flow, either as a single mass or as dispersed aggregates. Field observations indicate, however, that in cases where cohesive strength is high, either due to the effective cohesion of the soil skeleton or due to dense mats of fine roots, the failed block comes to rest in the vicinity of the bank toe. In this case, the resistance of the bank-toe region to hydraulic scour may be increased markedly and resistance to geotechnical failure may also be increased by buttressing. Conversely, deposition of blocks at bank toes may cause flow acceleration and scour landward of the block, resulting in further undercutting of the bank mass. Failure to account for these processes can lead to errors in predicting of rates of failure frequency, lateral retreat and streambank loadings.Once deposited at the bank toe, failed blocks can be eroded by hydraulic forces either as a mass and/or by erosion of aggregates comprising the block. Field research on the nature of hydraulic resistance and block erosion has been conducted along selected reaches of the Upper Truckee River (UTR) and Trout Creek, Lake Tahoe Basin, California. Block materials are generally characterized by lower apparent cohesive strength than their in situ counterparts due to the lower values of matric suction owing to their proximity to the water surface. Still, submerged jet-test device conducted in root-permeated blocks show critical shear stresses one to two orders of magnitude greater

  5. Tradición y reacción en el Sesquicentenario: La escuela sevillana mendocina Tradition and reaction in the sesquicentennial: The Sevillian school of Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celina Fares

    2011-06-01

    on the refraction of other schools of thought, interpretative theories that see May as a reaffi rmation of Spanishness and a negation of its emancipatory sense -as well as their authors' biographical trajectories- they reveal an intellectual sociability that under the rubric of nationalism, veiled many internal differences, just as they at the same time revealed strong connections with the Sevillian school of historiography, then an intellectual engine of Francoism and a buttress of the conservative, authoritarian Nationalist thought of the Nineteensixties.

  6. OPTIMAL SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF HIGH VELOCITY POSTERIOR TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURE SUBLUXATIONS (DUPARC, REVISED CLASSIFICATION, GROUP – V: POSTERO - MEDIAL FRACTURE BY DIRECT, DORSAL APPROACH – A CHANGING TREND: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhasaradhi

    2015-10-01

    series of 15 patients with complex tibial plateau injuries with associated posterior shear fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This prospective study included 15 cases of patients with mean age of 30 years ( Age range 20 to 40 yr who sustained high velocity posterior tibial plateau fracture - subluxations with or without associated Bicondylar fractures ( Duparc, revised classification, Group – V: Postero - medial fracture and its associations. Surgical management includes by direct, dorsal approach and stabilisation with buttress plating and or also postero medial and or antero lateral approach as needed. The patients were followed up at six week, three month, six month and one year postoperatively and assessed using Oxford Knee Score and Lyshom Score. RESULTS:The mean OKS score was 40 (range 36 to 44 at the end of one year. The main clinical measures were early post - operative non weight bearing ROM, post - operative complication & functional outcome. The time to full weight bearing, t he rate of post - operative complications & functional outcome was significantly better as evident by over 94 % showing good to excellent OKS and Lyshom scores. CONCLUSION : Fractures of the postero - medial tibial plateau are challenging to treat, owing to the ir complexity and unfamiliar surgical approach. Several recent anatomic and biomechanical studies have shown that a locked plate placed from the lateral side of the proximal tibia does not capture and stabilise a typical posteromedial fragment. A direct po sterior (Medial Gastrocnemius or posterior medial approach for these unstable posterior medial tibial plateau subluxations (which are otherwise irreducible by conventional approaches and antiglide plate are usually needed to reduce the fractures anatomic ally, achieving absolute stability and mobilise early NWB, ROM of the knee joint to optimize the functional outcomes and minimise the complications, without the need for revision surgery

  7. The role of backstop shape during inversion tectonics physical models

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    Caroline J.S. Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The style of deformation of rocks from basin-infilling sequences in positively inverted natural basins was discussed upon the results of laboratory experiments carried out in sandboxes with sand packs laid down in the space between two wooden blocks. The space simulated stages of crustal extension leading to (1 a half graben due to extension above a listric extensional detachment, with the blocks simulating the footwall and hanging wall, or (2 a graben, with the blocks simulating the external margins that drifted apart above a horizontal detachment. Combinations of two different angles were used to simulate the dip of curved normal faults along the internal face of the wooden blocks. Backstops in the half graben had a convex up internal face. Backstops in the graben had a concave up internal face. Shortening as partitioned in forward and backward movements within the sand packs, and the kinematics of contraction was largely influenced by the convex or concave internal faces. A buttress effect characterized by rotation of the sand pack close to the footwall was stronger for footwall with steeper-dipping internal faces. The results were compared to other physical experiments and applied to an inverted basin found in nature.O estilo da deformação de sequências sedimentares de bacias submetidas a uma inversão tectônica positiva foi discutido a partir da análise de modelos laboratoriais, desenvolvidos em caixas de experimentos, com camadas de areia depositadas no espaço entre dois blocos de madeira. O espaço simulava estágios de extensão crustal que conduziram à formação de (1 um hemi-graben, gerado sobre um descolamento basal lístrico, com os blocos simulando o teto e o muro; e (2 um graben, com os blocos representando as margens externas que se distanciaram ao longo de um descolamento horizontal. Combinações de dois ângulos diferentes foram usadas para simular o mergulho das falhas normais curvas ao longo da face interna dos blocos

  8. Reducing risks from hazardous glacier lakes in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru): Six decades of experience and perspectives for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portocarrero, Cesar; Cochachin, Alejo; Frey, Holger; González, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Outbursts from glacier lakes at various spatial and temporal scales have had marked geomorphological effects in many mountain ranges. In many glacierized Andean mountain regions substrates of human settlements made out of flood and debris-flow deposits are testimonies of such events. Examples in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, are the towns of Caraz, Carhuaz or parts of Huaraz. Continued glacier shrinking since the end of the Little Ice Age caused the formation or enlargement of numerous lakes. The outburst of Laguna Palcacocha, destroying the centre of Huaraz and causing more than 1800 losses of life in December 1941, marked the beginning of systematic risk reduction work in Peru. Corresponding efforts included glacier and lake inventories, hazard assessments, definition of high-risk situations, and completion of engineering work for lake-level lowering in more than 30 cases. The latter comprises outlet reinforcements on morainic dams as well as artificial tunnels in bedrock thresholds. This work has been remarkably efficient as documented in the latest case of the Laguna Huallcacocha (Carhuaz-Ancash), where the earlier made installations withstood the erosive power of an impact wave from an ice avalanche in 2015. In the case of the Laguna 513, the impact wave and far-reaching flood caused by a rock/ice avalanche from Nevado Hualcán in April 2010 showed that the risk had been essentially reduced by the preventive lake-level lowering in the early 1990s but not to zero. Risk assessments, planning, construction and non-structural risk reduction efforts continue. Work is in progress to increase the safety of Laguna Palcacocha where extensive assessments and model calculations had been carried out. Risks related to rock/ice avalanches into lakes from steep icy slopes and related to de-buttressing processes as well as long-term permafrost degradation increases. Based on morphological indications and numerical modelling (GlabTop) an inventory of possible future lakes

  9. Implications of Stratigraphic and Structural Data from the Bitter Spring Region, Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelle, A.; Goeden, J.; Hannon, M.; Hickson, T.; Holter, S.; Johnson, T.; Lamb, M.; Lindberg, J.

    2004-05-01

    red sandstone, gypsum, and carbonates (mainly oncolitic and peloidal limestone). These units show rapid lateral facies changes and thickness variation suggesting comparable changes in accommodation-space creation, possibly related to extensionally-induced subsidence. Paleocurrent data from the central portion of the mapping area indicate that flow was east- to southeast-directed, indicating that West Longwell Ridge may have been a topographic high during Thumb time. This interpretation is further supported by stratigraphic relationships near the basin margin, where conglomerate was deposited in buttress contact against Paleozoic limestones at the southern end of the ridge. Future work in this area includes continued mapping, Ar-Ar dating of ash mineral phases, and provenance analysis of sedimentary units.

  10. Surgical Treatment of Ankle Fracture with Posterior Malleolus Involved%累及后踝的踝关节骨折的手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏江霓; 黄中岳; 容可; 夏庆泉; 殷潇凡

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨累及后踝的踝关节骨折的损伤机制、手术方法和治疗效果。方法自2008年7月至2012年3月间,手术治疗累及后踝的踝关节骨折共42例,男30例,女12例,应用 Lauge_Hansen 分类,旋后外旋型21例,旋前外旋型12例,旋前外展型9例。后踝骨折根据 CT 分类,Ⅰ型22例,Ⅱ型12例,Ⅲ型8例。后踝骨折根据骨块大小和关节面的塌陷情况,采用后侧支撑钢板或多枚拉力螺钉固定。结果42例均获随访,随访时间12~24个月,骨折愈合时间10~18周。根据美国足与踝关节协会(American orthopaedic foot and ankle society,AOFAS)评分,优21例,良15例,可6例,优良率为85.7%。结论累及后踝的踝关节骨折,常伴有胫骨远端关节面塌陷和踝关节后脱位或半脱位,根据骨折类型选择手术方式和固定方法,可保证踝关节获得解剖复位,最大限度恢复踝关节功能。%Objective To investigate the mechanism of the injury,surgical treatment and the outcome of the anklebone fracture extended to posterior malleolus. Methods Between July 2008 to March 2012,42 patients with posterior malleolus fractures were surgical treated,including 30 males and 12 females. Fracture were classified with Lauge_Hansen classification system;supination_external rotation,pronation_external and pronation_abduction rotation accounted for 21,12 and 9 cases. Ac_cording to CT scan classification,the group was made up of 22 typeⅠ cases,12 typeⅡand 8 type Ⅲ cases. Internal fixation were accomplished by buttress plate and / or multiple_canulated screws which was decided upon the severity of osteochondral fragment impaction at posterior tibial platform. Results The postoperative follow_up period was 12 to 24 months. All the inci_sions were healed uneventfully,and fractures were healed in 10 to 18 weeks postoperatively. According to American Orthopae_dic Foot and Ankle Society(AOFAS),the results of ankle and

  11. Monitoring of glacial and periglacial landforms using terrestrial laser scanning.The case of the Col des Gentianes moraine (Valais, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazotti, B.; Oppikofer, T.; Riff, F.; Lambiel, C.; Loye, A.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2009-04-01

    . In this study, two types of movements have been identified: (1) Superficial movements, like the landslide, and (2) general creep movements. To explain these movements, two parameters are crucial: (1) The annual melting rate of the glacier below the moraine reached up to 4 m, which has certainly an impact on the stability of the moraine (important movements observed in the landslide zone). The glacier acted as a buttress stabilizing the moraine. The observed glacier retreat and shrinkage causes the destabilisation of the moraine and finally leads to the measured surface movements. (2) The degradation of permafrost (deduced from thermal profiles acquired in a borehole in the moraine), destabilizes the moraine and causes an increase of the creep displacements measured for the whole moraine. The acceleration of the movements is now actively monitored because they can influence the stability of man-made infrastructures. This study was also the opportunity to test the ability of TLS in monitoring of glacial and periglacial landforms like moraines.

  12. Deformation and stabilisation mechanisms of slow rock slides in crystalline bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerl, C.; Prager, C.

    2009-04-01

    changes which in turn may influence the slope deformation behaviour and stabilisation mechanisms. In order to study these processes for selected case studies in paragneissic rock masses the impact of the sliding mass geometry and sliding zone shape on the in-situ stresses has been investigated by applying the discrete element method. This numerical approach enables the simulation of large shear displacements and complex block assembly interactions. Results show that slope stabilisation can be achieved when the dip angle of the sliding zone flattens downslope. In this case and after a certain amount of displacement the lower part of the rock slide mass reaches stable slope conditions (shear strength of the sliding zone material exceeds the shear stress acting on the sliding zone) and acts as a resisting mass for the still unstable upper part of the slope. Furthermore numerical models show that secondary slides at the lower part of the slope have a similar effect. In both case cases the observed slope stabilisation can be clearly attributed to the formation of natural buttressing masses at the toe.

  13. 成年期双酚A暴露对小鼠行为的影响%Effects of Adulthood Exposure to Bisphenol-A on Behaviors in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田栋; 徐晓虹; 洪星; 陈蕾; 谢灵丹; 李涛

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), one of the well-known environmental endocrine disrupters with estrogen activity is a widely used industrial compound. With its expanded uses. BPA can be seen everywhere around us, and even has become an integral part of our daily life. As a result it makes more and more adult exposure to BPA in daily life.In recent years, many studies have focused on its toxicity to the reproductive system and development, but few studies on the adult brain and behaviors. It is reported that estrogen not only affects the development of the brain, but also participates in the adult brain plasticity and cognitive functions, so it is important to study the effects of adult exposure to BPA on brain. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether adulthood exposure to BPA affects behaviors in mice.After acclimatization for one week, adult male and female ICR mice were orally exposed to BPA dissolved in peanut oil (40, 400 μg/kg/day) or only peanut oil as a vehicle control from 5 weeks of age throughout 14 and a half weeks of age. At 13 weeks of age, open field, elevated plus-maze, Morris water maze, and step-down were respectively used to test spontaneous activity and exploratory behavior, anxiety, spatial learning and memory,and passive avoidance memory in mice.The results showed that adulthood exposure to BPA for 8 weeks significantly inhibited the growth of body weight of male and female mice (p<0.05). Sexual difference of the frequencies of rearing and buttress standing in open field was abolished by adulthood exposure to BPA. The frequency of open arms entrance, the staying time in the open arms, and unprotected head dips in the central area of elevated plus-maze were significantly decreased in male (p<0.05 or p<0.01) but were increased in female (p<0.05 or p<0.01), resulting in abolishment or reverse of sex difference in exploration and anxiety behavior in adult mice. The results of Morris water maze test showed that adulthood exposure to

  14. Dataciones radiometricas (14C y K/Ar del Teide y el Rift noroeste, Tenerife, Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen, A.

    2003-08-01

    unstable slopes of Teide, it took place without any apparent response of the volcano; on the contrary, these eruptions seemed to progressively buttress and enhance the stability of Teide Volcano. Conversely, the occurrence of these flank eruptions, combined with the Pico Viejo and NW rift eruptions, poses a very high lava-flow risk to the now densely populated areas in north and west Tenerife, which have been almost entirely resurfaced during the past 20,000 years.El Teide, el edificio volcánico más alto del planeta (3.718 m sobre el nivel del mar, > 7 km desde el fondo oceánico después del Mauna Loa y Mauna Kea en las islas Hawaii, forma un complejo volcánico en el centro de la isla de Tenerife. Su actividad eruptiva reciente (últimos 20 Ka está asociada con la rama NO del rift triple (120" que ha configurado la etapa reciente de construcción de la isla. La mayoría de las erupciones de Tenerife en este período se han localizado en estas estructuras volcánicas, generando frecuentes y extensas coladas máficas y félsicas, muchas alcanzado la costa e invadiendo lo que es ahora una de las zonas más densamente pobladas de Tenerife y, probablemente, de cualquier isla oceánica del planeta. Sin embargo, y a pesar de los numerosos estudios y proyectos previos, falta aún información geológica básica para este importante sistema volcánico, en particular la datación de las diferentes erupciones que lo componen, con objeto de reconstruir el marco geocronológico indispensable para conocer su evolución y determinar científicamente los riesgos volcánicos, de perentoria necesidad habida cuenta de su naturaleza y entidad, y de la población potencialmente afectada. Nuevas dataciones de Carbono-14 y K/Ar aportan ahora importante información a este respecto. La mayoría de las erupciones de los últimos 20 Ka no están relacionadas con el estratovolcán Teide, que sólo ha tenido una hace 1.240 f 60 años -entre 663 y 943 AD una vez calibrada la edad-, sino con el