WorldWideScience

Sample records for butterfly species richness

  1. Butterfly Species Richness Patterns in Canada: Energy, Heterogeneity, and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Kerr

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of most pollinator species are poorly documented despite their importance in providing ecosystem services. While these and other organisms are threatened by many aspects of the human enterprise, anthropogenic climate change is potentially the most severe threat to pollinator biodiversity. Mounting evidence demonstrates that there have already been biotic responses to the relatively small climate changes that have occurred this century. These include wholesale shifts of relatively well-documented butterfly and bird species in Europe and North America. Although studies of such phenomena are supported by circumstantial evidence, their findings are also consistent with predictions derived from current models of spatial patterns of species richness. Using new GIS methods that are highly precise and accurate, I document spatial patterns of Canadian butterfly diversity. These are strongly related to contemporary climate and particularly to potential evapotranspiration. An even more noteworthy finding is the fact that, for the first time, habitat heterogeneity, measured as the number of land cover types in each study unit, is proven to be an equally strong predictor of butterfly richness in a region where energy alone was thought to be the best predictor of diversity. Although previous studies reveal similar relationships between energy and diversity, they fail to detect the powerful link between richness and habitat heterogeneity. The butterflies of Canada provide a superb baseline for studying the effects of climate on contemporary patterns of species richness and comprise the only complete pollinator taxon for which this sort of analysis is currently possible.

  2. Landscape heterogeneity and butterflies: effects on species richness and community composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Beneš, Jiří; Fric, Zdeněk

    Berlin : Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica, 2007. s. 23-23. [European Congress of Lepidopterology /15./. 08.09.2007-12.09.2007, Erkner near Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterflies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ► These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ► The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

  4. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. These...

  5. Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul D N; Penton, Erin H; Burns, John M; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2004-10-12

    Astraptes fulgerator, first described in 1775, is a common and widely distributed neotropical skipper butterfly (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). We combine 25 years of natural history observations in northwestern Costa Rica with morphological study and DNA barcoding of museum specimens to show that A. fulgerator is a complex of at least 10 species in this region. Largely sympatric, these taxa have mostly different caterpillar food plants, mostly distinctive caterpillars, and somewhat different ecosystem preferences but only subtly differing adults with no genitalic divergence. Our results add to the evidence that cryptic species are prevalent in tropical regions, a critical issue in efforts to document global species richness. They also illustrate the value of DNA barcoding, especially when coupled with traditional taxonomic tools, in disclosing hidden diversity. PMID:15465915

  6. Species composition and seasonal variation of butterflies in Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Verma

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary is located 10km from Jamshedpur in Jharkhand, India. The species composition and seasonal variation of butterflies was analyzed in this sanctuary over the course of 2 years. A total of 39 species belonging to 31 genera and 4 families were identified. Of these, Nymphalidae and Pieridae were found to be the dominant families, in comparison to Lycaenidae and Papilionidae. The monthly diversity was calculated by using the Shannon-Weiner diversity index. The highest diversity was found during late winter and spring while a comparatively low diversity was observed during the rainy season and summer. Nymphalidae showed the greatest variation with respect to distribution of species richness throughout the year. Nymphalidae and Lycaenidae showed greatest species richness and relative abundance during the rainy season. Little seasonal variation in species richness was observed in case of families Pieridae and Papilionidae

  7. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D; Chen, Xue Dong; Johnson, Catherine S

    2012-05-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24-36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. PMID:22310058

  8. Lantana Camara and Butterfly Abundance in an Urban Landscape: Benefits for Conservation or Species Invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Swarnali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes host a range of diverse plants that, in turn, facilitate maintenance of different species of pollinators, including butterflies. In this context, the importance of Lantana camara, an invasive plant species, was assessed highlighting its role in maintenance of butterfly diversity, using Kolkata, India as a study area. Initial study revealed consistent presence of L. camara in both urban and rural sites with at least 25 different butterfly species association. The proportional relative load and the preferences of butterfly species for the each plant species were inclined towards L. camara. Irrespective of the sites, the diurnal and seasonal variations in the butterfly species abundance varied with the flowering pattern of L. camara. A positive correlation of different butterfly species with the flowering time and number of L. camara was for all the sites. The segregation of the L. camara associated butterfly species was made following discriminant function analysis using the extent of flower density of L. camara as explanatory variable. Despite being an invasive species, it is apparent that L. camara can be a prospective host plant that facilitates sustenance of butterflies in both urban and rural sites. Thus, existence of L. camara in urban gardens and forests may prove beneficial in sustenance of the butterflies.

  9. Changing biodiversity scenario in the Himalayan ecosystem: Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India, as revealed by the study of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Sidhu

    2011-01-01

    Any change in the population of butterflies is an early warning of pollution or other kinds of habitat degradation. An area rich in butterfly diversity has its own significance in the ecosystem. The current status of butterflies in Mussoorie (Uttarakhand) is reviewed. The degradation of the butterfly-rich spots of Mussoorie is discussed. A comparative chart of 66 species of Lycaenid butterflies compares species collected by earlier authors from Mussoorie with current observations. Some of the...

  10. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  11. Butterfly abundance is determined by food availability and is mediated by species traits

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Robin J.; Brereton, Tom M.; Roger L H Dennis; Carbone, Chris; Isaac, Nick J. B.

    2015-01-01

    1. Understanding the drivers of population abundance across species and sites is crucial for effective conservation management. At present, we lack a framework for predicting which sites are likely to support abundant butterfly communities. 2. We address this problem by exploring the determinants of abundance among 1111 populations of butterflies in the UK, spanning 27 species on 54 sites. Our general hypothesis is that the availability of food resources is a strong predictor of population...

  12. Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert, Paul D. N.; Penton, Erin H.; Burns, John M.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2004-01-01

    Astraptes fulgerator, first described in 1775, is a common and widely distributed neotropical skipper butterfly (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). We combine 25 years of natural history observations in northwestern Costa Rica with morphological study and DNA barcoding of museum specimens to show that A. fulgerator is a complex of at least 10 species in this region. Largely sympatric, these taxa have mostly different caterpillar food plants, mostly distinctive caterpillars, and somewhat different eco...

  13. Anaho Island: Mammalian species richness report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study assessed the mammalian species richness on Anaho Island using live trapping between July 18th and July 23rd 2005. The last mammalian species richness...

  14. Palaearctic butterfly ecology model for Oriental species conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fric, Zdeněk; Pech, Pavel

    Hong Kong: Kadoorie Farm & Botainc Garden Corporation, 2007 - (Kendrick, R.), s. 63-69 ISBN 978-962-8869-49-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034; GA AV ČR KJB600070601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : palaearctic butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryrholm, N.

    2003-01-01

    Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)? In order to assess the influence of climatic changes on the distribution of insects, the ranges of nonmigratory European butterfly species have been studied. This study

  16. Extreme spectral richness in the eye of the Common Bluebottle butterfly, Graphium sarpedon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ju eChen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Butterfly eyes are furnished with a variety of photoreceptors of different spectral sensitivities often in species-specific manner. We have conducted an extensive comparative study to address the question of how their spectrally complex retinas evolved. Here we investigated the structure and function of the eye of the common bluebottle butterfly (Graphium sarpedon, using electrophysiological, anatomical and molecular approaches. Intracellular electrophysiology revealed that the eye contains photoreceptors of fifteen distinct spectral sensitivities. These can be divided into six spectral receptor classes: ultraviolet- (UV, violet- (V, blue- (B, blue-green- (BG, green- (G, and red- (R sensitive. The B, G and R classes respectively contain three, four and five subclasses. Fifteen is the record number of spectral receptors so far reported in a single insect eye. We localized these receptors by injecting dye into individual photoreceptors after recording their spectral sensitivities. We thus found that four of them are confined to the dorsal region, eight to the ventral, and three exist throughout the eye; the ventral eye region is spectrally richer than the dorsal region. We also identified mRNAs encoding visual pigment opsins of one ultraviolet, one blue and three long wavelength-absorbing types. Localization of these mRNAs by in situ hybridization revealed that the dorsal photoreceptors each express a single opsin mRNA, but more than half of the ventral photoreceptors coexpress two or three L opsin mRNAs. This expression pattern well explains the spectral organization of the Graphium compound eye.

  17. Butterfly species diversity, relative abundance and status in Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Tiple

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to record the butterfly diversity, status and occurrence of butterfly species in the Tropical Forest Research Institute campus area of 109 hectare within Jabalpur city from June 2008 to May 2009. A total of 62 species of butterflies belonging to 47 genera of 5 families viz., Papilionidae (5 species, Pieridae (9 species, Nymphalidae (25 species, Lycaenidae (16 species and Hesperiidae (7 species were recorded. Of the total 65 species, 24 (37% were commonly occurring, 16 (26% were very common, 2 (3% were not rare, 17 (26% were rare and 6 (8% were very rarely occurring. Of these eight species are listed in the Indian Wildlife (protection Act 1972. The observations support the importance of the Tropical Forest Research Institute campus which provides a habitat and valuable resources for butterflies.

  18. Ecological impacts of tropical forest fragmentation: how consistent are patterns in species richness and nestedness?

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jane K.; Gray, Michael A; Khen, Chey Vun; Benedick, Suzan; Tawatao, Noel; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    Large areas of tropical forest now exist as remnants scattered across agricultural landscapes, and so understanding the impacts of forest fragmentation is important for biodiversity conservation. We examined species richness and nestedness among tropical forest remnants in birds (meta-analysis of published studies) and insects (field data for fruit-feeding Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and ants). Species–area relationships were evident in all four taxa, and avian and insect assemblages ...

  19. DNA barcode analysis of butterfly species from Pakistan points towards regional endemism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Khan, Arif M; Adamowicz, Sarah J; Hebert, Paul D N

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcodes were obtained for 81 butterfly species belonging to 52 genera from sites in north-central Pakistan to test the utility of barcoding for their identification and to gain a better understanding of regional barcode variation. These species represent 25% of the butterfly fauna of Pakistan and belong to five families, although the Nymphalidae were dominant, comprising 38% of the total specimens. Barcode analysis showed that maximum conspecific divergence was 1.6%, while there was 1.7–14.3% divergence from the nearest neighbour species. Barcode records for 55 species showed <2% sequence divergence to records in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), but only 26 of these cases involved specimens from neighbouring India and Central Asia. Analysis revealed that most species showed little incremental sequence variation when specimens from other regions were considered, but a threefold increase was noted in a few cases. There was a clear gap between maximum intraspecific and minimum nearest neighbour distance for all 81 species. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that members of each species formed a monophyletic cluster with strong bootstrap support. The barcode results revealed two provisional species that could not be clearly linked to known taxa, while 24 other species gained their first coverage. Future work should extend the barcode reference library to include all butterfly species from Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries to gain a better understanding of regional variation in barcode sequences in this topographically and climatically complex region. PMID:23789612

  20. The relationship between total cholinesterase activity and mortality in four butterfly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between total cholinesterase activity (TChE) and mortality in four butterfly species (great southern white [Ascia monuste], common buckeye [Junonia coenia], painted lady [Vanessa cardui], and julia butterflies [Dryas julia]) was investigated. Acute contact toxicity studies were conducted to evaluate the response (median lethal dose [LD50] and TChE) of the four species following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide naled. The LD50 for these butterflies ranged from 2.3 to 7.6 µg/g. The average level of TChE inhibition associated with significant mortality ranged from 26 to 67%, depending on the species. The lower bounds of normal TChE activity (2 standard deviations less than the average TChE for reference butterflies) ranged from 8.4 to 12.3 µM/min/g. As a percentage of the average reference TChE activity for the respective species, the lower bounds were similar to the inhibition levels associated with significant mortality, indicating there was little difference between the dose resulting in significant TChE inhibition and that resulting in mortality. PMID:22740147

  1. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 in Bulgaria.

  2. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria) and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-01-01

    At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) in Bulgaria.

  3. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  4. Two new butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) from Mount Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Highlands, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfián, Szabolcs; Tropek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A field survey of Mount Cameroon, South-West Province, Cameroon, revealed two butterfly species new to science. Lepidochrysops liberti sp. nov. (Lycaenidae) flies in the extensive mosaic of natural clearings in sub-montane forest above 1100 m a.s.l., whereas Ceratrichia fako sp. nov. (Hesperiidae) locally inhabits the forested narrow gullies in the same vegetation zone. Observations on the habitat and behaviour of both species are also presented. PMID:27515650

  5. Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010 Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conducted by standard walk methods. Host plant and larval food plant was recorded during butterfly survey. Public perception on the development plan of butterfly garden was examined by questionnaire. The results showed that 26 species of butterfly was found in Bosscha area and Delias belisama belisama was the most dominant species. Public perceptions consider that the development plan of butterfly garden will give benefit to the community; not only providing new insight (40.41%, additional tourism object (23.97% and will gave aesthetical value (17.12%. Twelve local species should be considered for development plan of butterfly garden: Papilio agamemnon, P. demoleus, P. memnon, P. sarpedon, Delias belisama, Eurema hecabe, Danaus chrysippus, Argynis hiperbius, Cethosia penthesilea, Hypolimnas missipus, Melanitis phedima and Euthalia Adonijah. Host plant: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Citrus aurantium, Lantana camara, Macaranga tanarius and food plants: Citrus aurantium, Cosmos caudatus, Eupatorium inulifolium, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana camara, and Tithonia diversifolia.

  6. Species richness and relative species abundance of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in three forests with different perturbations in the North-Central Caribbean of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Carolyn; Sánchez, Ragde

    2014-09-01

    Measurements of species richness and species abundance can have important implications for regulations and conservation. This study investigated species richness and abundance of butterflies in the family Nymphalidae at undisturbed, and disturbed habitats in Tirimbina Biological Reserve and Nogal Private Reserve, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Traps baited with rotten banana were placed in the canopy and the understory of three habitats: within mature forest, at a river/forest border, and at a banana plantation/forest border. In total, 71 species and 487 individuals were caught and identified during May and June 2011 and May 2013. Species richness and species abundance were found to increase significantly at perturbed habitats (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). The edge effect, in which species richness and abundance increase due to greater complementary resources from different habitats, could be one possible explanation for increased species richness and abundance. PMID:25412524

  7. Species richness, area and climate correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Aim Species richness-area theory predicts that more species should be found if one samples a larger area. To avoid biases from comparing species richness in areas of very different sizes, area is often controlled by counting the numbers of co-occupying species in near-equal area grid cells....... The assumption is that variation in grid cell size accrued from working in a three-dimensional world is negligible. Here we provide a first test of this idea. We measure the surface area of c. 50 × 50 km and c. 220 × 220 km grid cells across western Europe. We then ask how variation in the area of grid cells...... affects: (1) the selection of climate variables entering a species richness model; and (2) the accuracy of models in predicting species richness in unsampled grid cells. Location Western Europe. Methods Models are developed for European plant, breeding bird, mammal and herptile species richness using...

  8. Cars, Cows, and Checkerspot Butterflies: Nitrogen Deposition and Management of Nutrient-Poor Grasslands for a Threatened Species

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Stuart B.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrient-poor, serpentinitic soils in the San Francisco Bay area sustain a native grassland that supports many rare species, including the Bay checkerspot butterfly ( Euphydryas editha bayensis). Nitrogen (N) deposition from air pollution threatens biodiversity in these grasslands because N is the primary limiting nutrient for plant growth on serpentinitic soils. I investigated the role of N deposition through surveys of butterfly and plant populations across different grazing regimes, by lit...

  9. Inferring the Provenance of an Alien Species with DNA Barcodes: The Neotropical Butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Noah A.; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M.; Morban, Emely Z.; Zhen, Erica W.; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful. PMID:25119899

  10. A preliminary checklist of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera) of Mendrelgang, Tsirang District, Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    I.J. Singh; M. Chib

    2014-01-01

    The survey was conducted to prepare a preliminary checklist of butterflies of Mendrelgang, Bhutan. Butterflies were sampled from February 2012 to February 2013 to assess the species richness in a degraded forest patch of a sub-tropical broadleaf forest. This short-term study recorded 125 species of butterflies in 78 genera from five families. Of these, Sordid Emperor Apatura sordida Moore, Black-veined Sergeant Athyma ranga ranga Moore, Sullied Sailor Neptis soma soma Linnaeus, Blue Duke Euth...

  11. External Morphology of Adult Citrus Butterfly, Papilio memnon (Linnaeus, 1758) and Seasonal Abundance of the Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexual dimorphism is obvious in Papilio memnon. The female adult resembles that of Papilio polytes another citrus butterfly species. However, marked difference is observed in the size and red spots on the base of the forewing. The adult male P. memnon is blue black in colour and red spots are present on the base of the underside of both for and hind wings. The win span of sexes ranges from 120mm to 150mm. The breeding season is from end of June to early part of January, the peak being in the month of November. The recorded diagnostic external features of this studied species are described supported by scaled photographs. Seasonal abundance of this species is also mentioned. It is learnt through the internet that a mounted specimen of this species fetched $2.95 in Malaysia. It is therefore concluded that successful rearing of this species in captivity could be of benefit to the country.

  12. Would species richness estimators change the observed species area relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo A. V.; Hortal, Joaquín; Gabriel, Rosalina; Homem, Nídia

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate whether the description of the species area relationship (SAR) can be improved by using richness estimates instead of observed richness values. To do this, we use three independent datasets gathered with standardized survey methods from the native laurisilva forest of the Azorean archipelago, encompassing different distributional extent and biological groups: soil epigean arthropods at eight forest fragments in Terceira Island, canopy arthropods inhabiting Juniperus brevifolia at 16 forest fragments of six different islands, and bryophytes of seven forest fragments from Terceira and Pico islands. Species richness values were estimated for each forest fragment using seven non-parametric estimators (ACE, ICE, Chao1, Chao2, Jackknife1, Jackknife2 and Bootstrap; five in the case of bryophytes). These estimates were fitted to classical log-log species-area curves and the intercept, slope and goodness of fit of these curves were compared with those obtained from the observed species richness values to determine if significant differences appear in these parameters. We hypothesized that the intercepts would be higher in the estimated data sets compared with the observed data, as estimated richness values are typically higher than observed values. We found partial support for the hypothesis - intercepts of the SAR obtained from estimated richness values were significantly higher in the case of epigean arthropods and bryophyte datasets. In contrast, the slope and goodness of fit obtained with estimated values were not significantly different from those obtained from observed species richness in all groups, although a few small differences appeared. We conclude that, although little is gained using these estimators if data come from standardized surveys, their estimations could be used to analyze macroecological relationships with non-standardized observed data, provided that survey incompleteness and/or unevenness are also taken into account.

  13. Ecological impacts of tropical forest fragmentation: how consistent are patterns in species richness and nestedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jane K; Gray, Michael A; Khen, Chey Vun; Benedick, Suzan; Tawatao, Noel; Hamer, Keith C

    2011-11-27

    Large areas of tropical forest now exist as remnants scattered across agricultural landscapes, and so understanding the impacts of forest fragmentation is important for biodiversity conservation. We examined species richness and nestedness among tropical forest remnants in birds (meta-analysis of published studies) and insects (field data for fruit-feeding Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and ants). Species-area relationships were evident in all four taxa, and avian and insect assemblages in remnants typically were nested subsets of those in larger areas. Avian carnivores and nectarivores and predatory ants were more nested than other guilds, implying that the sequential loss of species was more predictable in these groups, and that fragmentation alters the trophic organization of communities. For butterflies, the ordering of fragments to achieve maximum nestedness was by fragment area, suggesting that differences among fragments were driven mainly by extinction. In contrast for moths, maximum nestedness was achieved by ordering species by wing length; species with longer wings (implying better dispersal) were more likely to occur at all sites, including low diversity sites, suggesting that differences among fragments were driven more strongly by colonization. Although all four taxa exhibited high levels of nestedness, patterns of species turnover were also idiosyncratic, and thus even species-poor sites contributed to landscape-scale biodiversity, particularly for insects. PMID:22006967

  14. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  15. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  16. Differences in the aerobic capacity of flight muscles between butterfly populations and species with dissimilar flight abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve Rauhamäki

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and climate change are rapidly converting natural habitats and thereby increasing the significance of dispersal capacity for vulnerable species. Flight is necessary for dispersal in many insects, and differences in dispersal capacity may reflect dissimilarities in flight muscle aerobic capacity. In a large metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly in the Åland Islands in Finland, adults disperse frequently between small local populations. Individuals found in newly established populations have higher flight metabolic rates and field-measured dispersal distances than butterflies in old populations. To assess possible differences in flight muscle aerobic capacity among Glanville fritillary populations, enzyme activities and tissue concentrations of the mitochondrial protein Cytochrome-c Oxidase (CytOx were measured and compared with four other species of Nymphalid butterflies. Flight muscle structure and mitochondrial density were also examined in the Glanville fritillary and a long-distance migrant, the red admiral. Glanville fritillaries from new populations had significantly higher aerobic capacities than individuals from old populations. Comparing the different species, strong-flying butterfly species had higher flight muscle CytOx content and enzymatic activity than short-distance fliers, and mitochondria were larger and more numerous in the flight muscle of the red admiral than the Glanville fritillary. These results suggest that superior dispersal capacity of butterflies in new populations of the Glanville fritillary is due in part to greater aerobic capacity, though this species has a low aerobic capacity in general when compared with known strong fliers. Low aerobic capacity may limit dispersal ability of the Glanville fritillary.

  17. Differences in the Aerobic Capacity of Flight Muscles between Butterfly Populations and Species with Dissimilar Flight Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhamäki, Virve; Wolfram, Joy; Jokitalo, Eija; Hanski, Ilkka; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat loss and climate change are rapidly converting natural habitats and thereby increasing the significance of dispersal capacity for vulnerable species. Flight is necessary for dispersal in many insects, and differences in dispersal capacity may reflect dissimilarities in flight muscle aerobic capacity. In a large metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly in the Åland Islands in Finland, adults disperse frequently between small local populations. Individuals found in newly established populations have higher flight metabolic rates and field-measured dispersal distances than butterflies in old populations. To assess possible differences in flight muscle aerobic capacity among Glanville fritillary populations, enzyme activities and tissue concentrations of the mitochondrial protein Cytochrome-c Oxidase (CytOx) were measured and compared with four other species of Nymphalid butterflies. Flight muscle structure and mitochondrial density were also examined in the Glanville fritillary and a long-distance migrant, the red admiral. Glanville fritillaries from new populations had significantly higher aerobic capacities than individuals from old populations. Comparing the different species, strong-flying butterfly species had higher flight muscle CytOx content and enzymatic activity than short-distance fliers, and mitochondria were larger and more numerous in the flight muscle of the red admiral than the Glanville fritillary. These results suggest that superior dispersal capacity of butterflies in new populations of the Glanville fritillary is due in part to greater aerobic capacity, though this species has a low aerobic capacity in general when compared with known strong fliers. Low aerobic capacity may limit dispersal ability of the Glanville fritillary. PMID:24416122

  18. Correlates of species richness in the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Padial, J M; Castroviejo-Fisher, S; de la Riva, I; Vilà, C

    2011-05-01

    Although tropical environments are often considered biodiversity hotspots, it is precisely in such environments where least is known about the factors that drive species richness. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative analyses to study correlates of species richness for the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation: New World direct-developing frogs. Clade-age and species richness were nonsignificantly, negatively correlated, suggesting that clade age alone does not explain among-clade variation in species richness. A combination of ecological and morphological traits explained 65% of the variance in species richness. A more vascularized ventral skin, the ability to colonize high-altitude ranges, encompassing a large variety of vegetation types, correlated significantly with species richness, whereas larger body size was marginally correlated with species richness. Hence, whereas high-altitude ranges play a role in shaping clade diversity in the Neotropics, intrinsic factors, such as skin structures and possibly body size, might ultimately determine which clades are more speciose than others. PMID:21401771

  19. Diversification of clearwing butterflies with the rise of the Andes

    OpenAIRE

    De-Silva, D. L.; Ellias, M.; Wilmott, K.; Mallet, J; Day, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Despite the greatest butterfly diversity on Earth occurring in the Neotrop- ical Andes and Amazonia, there is still keen debate about the origins of this exceptional biota. A densely sampled calibrated phylogeny for a widespread butterfly subtribe, Oleriina (Nymphalidae: Ithomiini) was used to estimate the origin, colonization history and diversification of this species-rich group. Location Neotropics. Methods Ancestral elevation and biogeographical ranges were reconstructed using data ge...

  20. Timing major conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear genes in species relationships of Polygonia butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Andrew D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear genes in estimating species relationships is an increasingly common finding in animals. Usually this is attributed to incomplete lineage sorting, but recently the possibility has been raised that hybridization is important in generating such phylogenetic patterns. Just how widespread ancient and/or recent hybridization is in animals and how it affects estimates of species relationships is still not well-known. Results We investigate the species relationships and their evolutionary history over time in the genus Polygonia using DNA sequences from two mitochondrial gene regions (COI and ND1, total 1931 bp and four nuclear gene regions (EF-1α, wingless, GAPDH and RpS5, total 2948 bp. We found clear, strongly supported conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences in estimating species relationships in the genus Polygonia. Nodes at which there was no conflict tended to have diverged at the same time when analyzed separately, while nodes at which conflict was present diverged at different times. We find that two species create most of the conflict, and attribute the conflict found in Polygonia satyrus to ancient hybridization and conflict found in Polygonia oreas to recent or ongoing hybridization. In both examples, the nuclear gene regions tended to give the phylogenetic relationships of the species supported by morphology and biology. Conclusion Studies inferring species-level relationships using molecular data should never be based on a single locus. Here we show that the phylogenetic hypothesis generated using mitochondrial DNA gives a very different interpretation of the evolutionary history of Polygonia species compared to that generated from nuclear DNA. We show that possible cases of hybridization in Polygonia are not limited to sister species, but may be inferred further back in time. Furthermore, we provide more evidence that Haldane's effect might not be as

  1. Does tropical forest fragmentation increase long-term variability of butterfly communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Allison K; Haddad, Nick M; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Yet, the overall effects of fragmentation on biodiversity may be obscured by differences in responses among species. These opposing responses to fragmentation may be manifest in higher variability in species richness and abundance (termed hyperdynamism), and in predictable changes in community composition. We tested whether forest fragmentation causes long-term hyperdynamism in butterfly communities, a taxon that naturally displays large variations in species richness and community composition. Using a dataset from an experimentally fragmented landscape in the central Amazon that spanned 11 years, we evaluated the effect of fragmentation on changes in species richness and community composition through time. Overall, adjusted species richness (adjusted for survey duration) did not differ between fragmented forest and intact forest. However, spatial and temporal variation of adjusted species richness was significantly higher in fragmented forests relative to intact forest. This variation was associated with changes in butterfly community composition, specifically lower proportions of understory shade species and higher proportions of edge species in fragmented forest. Analysis of rarefied species richness, estimated using indices of butterfly abundance, showed no differences between fragmented and intact forest plots in spatial or temporal variation. These results do not contradict the results from adjusted species richness, but rather suggest that higher variability in butterfly adjusted species richness may be explained by changes in butterfly abundance. Combined, these results indicate that butterfly communities in fragmented tropical forests are more variable than in intact forest, and that the natural variability of butterflies was not a buffer against the effects of fragmentation on community dynamics. PMID:20224772

  2. Testing species distribution models across space and time: high latitude butterflies and recent warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Anne; LeRoux, Peter C.; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Høye, Toke Thomas; Kissling, W. Daniel; Pöyry, Juha; Wisz, Mary; Luoto, Miska

    2013-01-01

    changes at expanding range margins can be predicted accurately. Location. Finland. Methods. Using 10-km resolution butterfly atlas data from two periods, 1992–1999 (t1) and 2002–2009 (t2), with a significant between-period temperature increase, we modelled the effects of climatic warming on butterfly...

  3. The Impact of Landscape Heterogeneity on the Composition of Local Communities: Butterflies in the Steppe Reserves of South Moravia

    OpenAIRE

    ŠLANCAROVÁ, Jana

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to answer the question whether heterogeneity of agricultural landscapes affects the richness of species, and looks at community composition of butterflies inhabiting 38 insular steppe grassland reserves situated in Southern Moravia, Czech Republic, using quantitative butterfly records and digitised data on landscape composition within the reserves and in surrounding perimeters.

  4. Green Roof Performance Towards Good Habitat for Butterflies in the Compact City

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Hsueh Lee; Jun-Cheng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Urban ecology is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation due to increasing urbanization. Green roofs may act as habitats to compensate for loss of green space at the ground level. Here, we assessed greening variables of 11 green roofs for butterflies in Taipei City. Butterfly number, species, and richness on green roofs were lower than parks, but some less common species were observed on green roofs. The nectar plant area, number of nectar plant species and age of green roof were the mai...

  5. Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: one or several species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Blandin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eryphanis zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877 is a rare Andean endemic butterfly, described from Bolivia, which has been historically classified either as a unique species, or as part of a group of three allopatric species from Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia. In this paper, the group is revised using more than 200 specimens housed in 34 European, and North and South American public and private collections. For the first time, the presence of the group in Western Ecuador and Venezuela is confirmed, and important data on Peruvian populations are provided. In some populations, individual variations of genitalia are observed. Nevertheless, male genitalia allow the distinction of four geographical groups. Considering also habitus characters, eight taxa are distinguished and considered to be subspecies, of which five are new: Eryphanis zolvizora inca ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora chachapoya ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora casagrande ssp. nov.., Eryphanis zolvizora reyi ssp. nov., and Eryphanis zolvizora isabelae ssp. nov.  In the present state of knowledge, these taxa are allopatric, except for a possible geographic overlap in central Peru, where data are insufficient to prove sympatry. The “several subspecies vs. several species” dilemma is discussed, considering its impact for conservation action and policies.

  6. Butterfly fauna in Mount Gariwang-san, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Min Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to elucidate butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, Korea. A field survey was conducted from 2010 to 2015 using the line transect method. A literature survey was also conducted. A total of 2,037 butterflies belonging to 105 species were recorded. In the estimation of species richness of butterfly, 116 species were estimated to live in Mt. Gariwang-san. In butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, the percentage of northern species was very high and the percentage of grassland species was relatively higher than that of forest edge species and forest interior species. Sixteen red list species were found. In particular, Mimathyma nycteis was only recorded in Mt. Gariwang-san. When comparing the percentage of northern species and southern species including those recorded in previous studies, the percentage of northern species was found to have decreased significantly whereas that of southern species increased. We suggest that the butterfly community, which is distributed at relatively high altitudes on Mt. Gariwang-san, will gradually change in response to climate change.

  7. Signatures of selection in loci governing major colour patterns in Heliconius butterflies and related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joron Mathieu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-coding change is one possible genetic mechanism underlying the evolution of adaptive wing colour pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies. Here we determine whether 38 putative genes within two major Heliconius patterning loci, HmYb and HmB, show evidence of positive selection. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes (ω were used to test for selection, as a means of identifying candidate genes within each locus that control wing pattern. Results Preliminary analyses using 454 transcriptome and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC sequences from three Heliconius species highlighted a cluster of genes within each region showing relatively higher rates of sequence evolution. Other genes within the region appear to be highly constrained, and no ω estimates exceeded one. Three genes from each locus with the highest average pairwise ω values were amplified from additional Heliconius species and races. Two selected genes, fizzy-like (HmYb and DALR (HmB, were too divergent for amplification across species and were excluded from further analysis. Amongst the remaining genes, HM00021 and Kinesin possessed the highest background ω values within the HmYb and HmB loci, respectively. After accounting for recombination, these two genes both showed evidence of having codons with a signature of selection, although statistical support for this signal was not strong in any case. Conclusions Tests of selection reveal a cluster of candidate genes in each locus, suggesting that weak directional selection may be occurring within a small region of each locus, but coding changes alone are unlikely to explain the full range of wing pattern diversity. These analyses pinpoint many of the same genes believed to be involved in the control of colour patterning in Heliconius that have been identified through other studies implementing different research methods.

  8. Nitrogen deposition threatens species richness of grasslands across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence from an international survey in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is reducing plant species richness in acid grasslands. Across the deposition gradient in this region (2-44 kg N ha-1 yr-1) species richness showed a curvilinear response, with greatest reductions in species richness when deposition increased from low levels. This has important implications for conservation policies, suggesting that to protect the most sensitive grasslands resources should be focussed where deposition is currently low. Soil pH is also an important driver of species richness indicating that the acidifying effect of nitrogen deposition may be contributing to species richness reductions. The results of this survey suggest that the impacts of nitrogen deposition can be observed over a large geographical range. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is reducing biodiversity in grasslands across Europe.

  9. Nitrogen deposition threatens species richness of grasslands across Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.J. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Gowing, D.J.G. [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Dupre, C.; Diekmann, M. [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Dorland, E. [Section of Landscape Ecology, Department of Geobiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80084, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Gaudnik, C.; Alard, D.; Corcket, E. [University of Bordeaux 1. UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Bleeker, A. [Department of Air Quality and Climate Change, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bobbink, R. [B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fowler, D. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Mountford, J.O. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, MacLean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Vandvik, V. [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Aarrestad, P.A. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, NO-7485 Trondheim (Norway); Muller, S. [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite et Ecosystemes LIEBE, UMR CNRS 7146, U.F.R. Sci. F.A., Campus Bridoux, Universite Paul Verlaine, Avenue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Dise, N.B. [Department of Environmental and Geographical Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Evidence from an international survey in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is reducing plant species richness in acid grasslands. Across the deposition gradient in this region (2-44 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) species richness showed a curvilinear response, with greatest reductions in species richness when deposition increased from low levels. This has important implications for conservation policies, suggesting that to protect the most sensitive grasslands resources should be focussed where deposition is currently low. Soil pH is also an important driver of species richness indicating that the acidifying effect of nitrogen deposition may be contributing to species richness reductions. The results of this survey suggest that the impacts of nitrogen deposition can be observed over a large geographical range. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is reducing biodiversity in grasslands across Europe.

  10. Nitrogen deposition threatens species richness of grasslands across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence from an international survey in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is reducing plant species richness in acid grasslands. Across the deposition gradient in this region (2-44 kg N ha-1 yr-1) species richness showed a curvilinear response, with greatest reductions in species richness when deposition increased from low levels. This has important implications for conservation policies, suggesting that to protect the most sensitive grasslands resources should be focussed where deposition is currently low. Soil pH is also an important driver of species richness indicating that the acidifying effect of nitrogen deposition may be contributing to species richness reductions. The results of this survey suggest that the impacts of nitrogen deposition can be observed over a large geographical range. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is reducing biodiversity in grasslands across Europe.

  11. How to assess species richness along single environmental gradients? Implications of potential versus realized species distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying relationships between species richness and single environmental factors is challenging as species richness typically depends on multiple environmental factors. Recently, various methods have been proposed to tackle this challenge. Using a dataset comprising field observations of grassland vegetation and measured pH values, we compared three methods for deriving species richness response curves. One of the methods estimates species richness close to the maximum species richness observed at the sites, whereas the other two provide estimates of the potential species richness along the environmental gradient. Our response curves suggest that potential species richness of grasslands is slightly more sensitive to acidification than realized plant species richness. However, differences in corresponding environmental quality standards (EQS) for acidification were small compared to intrinsic spatial differences in natural soil pH, indicating that natural background values are more important to consider in the derivation of EQS for pH than methodological differences between the three approaches. - Highlights: • We compared three methods to derive species richness response curves from field data. • The methods quantified species richness of grasslands in relation to soil pH. • Potential species richness appeared most sensitive to acidification. • Differences in corresponding environmental quality standards for were small. • Background pH is more important in deriving the standards than the choice in method. - We compared three methods to derive field-based species sensitivity distributions (f-SSDs) from presence-absence data

  12. Species richness, equitability, and abundance of ants in disturbed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J.H.; Krzysik, A.J.; Kovacic, D.A.; Duda, J.J.; Freeman, D.C.; Emlen, J.M.; Zak, J.C.; Long, W.R.; Wallace, M.P.; Chamberlin-Graham, C.; Nutter, J.P.; Balbach, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ants are used as indicators of environmental change in disturbed landscapes, often without adequate understanding of their response to disturbance. Ant communities in the southeastern United States displayed a hump-backed species richness curve against an index of landscape disturbance. Forty sites at Fort Benning, in west-central Georgia, covered a spectrum of habitat disturbance (military training and fire) in upland forest. Sites disturbed by military training had fewer trees, less canopy cover, more bare ground, and warmer, more compact soils with shallower A-horizons. We sampled ground-dwelling ants with pitfall traps, and measured 15 habitat variables related to vegetation and soil. Ant species richness was greatest with a relative disturbance of 43%, but equitability was greatest with no disturbance. Ant abundance was greatest with a relative disturbance of 85%. High species richness at intermediate disturbance was associated with greater within-site spatial heterogeneity. Species richness was also associated with intermediate values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a correlate of net primary productivity (NPP). Available NPP (the product of NDVI and the fraction of days that soil temperature exceeded 25 ??C), however, was positively correlated with species richness, though not with ant abundance. Species richness was unrelated to soil texture, total ground cover, and fire frequency. Ant species richness and equitability are potential state indicators of the soil arthropod community. Moreover, equitability can be used to monitor ecosystem change. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Protected species of butterflies (Lepidoptera in the National Nature Park “Velyky Lug”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Goloborodko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Velyky Lug is a unique natural complex which has a large biogeographical, ecological, environmental, historical and recreational value. The National Nature Park “Velyky Lug” was only created as recently as 2006.The park is located in Zaporizhzhya region, 15–18 km south of the city Zaporizhzhya, within the limits of floodplain area of the Dnepr river, which broadens to a width of over 20 kmbetween Bilen’ke and Vasilivka (north-eastern part of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. This enormous expansion of the floodplain (about 80,000 ha which is situated between the Dnepr river and its tributary the Kins’ka was in historical times was called the Kin’ski Floodplain or Great Meadow. In modern times this territory is almost completely flooded by the waters of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. Remnants of natural habitats have been preserved along the river banks – in the form of little valleys and ravines which extend all the shore and also islands which appeared in 1956 when the reservoir was flooded. The overall area of the park “Velyky Lug” is 16,756 ha. Within the territory of the park “Velyky Lug” we have recorded 27 species of Lepidoptera which have various levels of conservation status. The taxonomical structure of the complex varies and included representatives of all basic families of moth and day butterflies which have species that are protected by law. In a taxonomical relation this complex is formed by the representatives of 11 families (Zygaenidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, Lycaenidae. Zoogeographical analysis of the species that are protected in the territory of the park can be classified into 5 basic groups (Palearctic – 26%, Pontokazach – 26%, Mediterranean– 22%, Eurosiberian – 15%, European – 11%. Analysis of the biotopic advantages of the protected Lepidoptera species present in the territory of the park showed representatives from all

  14. Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java

    OpenAIRE

    TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR; ANNISA YULIANA

    2010-01-01

    Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010) Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conduct...

  15. Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta Diversity from Different Sites of Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidoptera is the second largest order in the class Insecta. Some of the butterfly species were identified as indicators of disturbance in any area. The present study conducted in three sites of taluka Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat. In the present study a total of 484 individuals belonging to 58 species of 9 families were identified. Among which Pieridae was found to be the most dominant family. The area of study having rich diversity of butterflies, therefore it should be of great importance for conservation.

  16. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  17. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kleckova

    Full Text Available Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of

  18. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  19. Butterflies of Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document talks about species and habits of Myanmar butterflies that were mentioned by the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division of the Forest Department under the Ministry of Forestry in Myanmar

  20. Why do cryptic species tend not to co-occur? A case study on two cryptic pairs of butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Vodă

    Full Text Available As cryptic diversity is being discovered, mostly thanks to advances in molecular techniques, it is becoming evident that many of these taxa display parapatric distributions in mainland and that they rarely coexist on islands. Genetic landscapes, haplotype networks and ecological niche modeling analyses were performed for two pairs of non-sister cryptic butterfly species, Aricia agestis-A. cramera and Polyommatus icarus-P. celina (Lycaenidae, to specifically assess non-coexistence on western Mediterranean islands, and to test potential causes producing such chequered distribution patterns. We show that the morphologically and ecologically equivalent pairs of species do not coexist on any of the studied islands, although nearly all islands are colonized by one of them. According to our models, the cryptic pairs displayed marked climatic preferences and 'precipitation during the driest quarter' was recovered as the most important climatic determinant. However, neither dispersal capacity, nor climatic or ecological factors fully explain the observed distributions across particular sea straits, and the existence of species interactions resulting in mutual exclusion is suggested as a necessary hypothesis. Given that the studied species are habitat generalists, feeding on virtually unlimited resources, we propose that reproductive interference, together with climatic preferences, sustain density-dependent mechanisms like "founder takes all" and impede coexistence on islands. Chequered distributions among cryptic taxa, both sister and non-sister, are common in butterflies, suggesting that the phenomenon revealed here could be important in determining biodiversity patterns.

  1. Kin selection, species richness and community

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    Can evolutionary and ecological dynamics operating at one level of the biological hierarchy affect the dynamics and structure at other levels? In social insects, strong hostility towards unrelated individuals can evolve as a kin-selected counter-adaptation to intraspecific social parasitism. This aggression in turn might cause intraspecific competition to predominate over interspecific competition, permitting coexistence with other social insect species. In other words, kin selection—a form o...

  2. Multiscale perspectives of species richness in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Said, M.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation describes and analyses animal species richness in East Africa from a multi-scale perspective. We studied diversity patterns at sub-continental, national and sub-national level. The study demonstrated that species diversity patterns were scale-dependent. Diversity patterns varied wi

  3. Progress report: baseline monitoring of indicator species (butterflies) at tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Larry; Vidrine, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    This project provides baseline data of butterfly populations at two coastal prairie restoration sites in Louisiana, the Duralde Unit of Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge (hereafter, the Duralde site) and the Cajun Prairie Restoration Project in Eunice (hereafter, the Eunice site). In all, four distinct habitat types representing different planting methods were sampled. These data will be used to assess biodiversity and health of native grasslands and also provide a basis for adaptive management.

  4. Microsatellite markers for the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae) and their amplification in other Maculinea species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeisset, I; Als, Thomas Damm; Settele, J;

    2005-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon, two of five species of endangered large blue butterflies found in Europe. Two separate microsatellite libraries were constructed. Eleven markers were developed for M. nausithous and one for M. alcon. The primers were...... tested on both species as well as on the three other European Maculinea species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 14. These markers will be useful tools for population genetic studies of Maculinea species....

  5. Functional identity versus species richness: herbivory resistance in plant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Scherber, Christoph; Heimann, Juliane; Köhler, Günter; Mitschunas, Nadine; Weisser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The resistance of a plant community against herbivore attack may depend on plant species richness, with monocultures often much more severely affected than mixtures of plant species. Here, we used a plant–herbivore system to study the effects of selective herbivory on consumption resistance and recovery after herbivory in 81 experimental grassland plots. Communities were established from seed in 2002 and contained 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 60 plant species of 1, 2, 3 or 4 functional groups. In 2004, ...

  6. The vegetation of three localities of the threatened butterfly species Chrysoritis aureus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Terblanche

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation and habitat characteristics of three localities of Chrysoritis aureus at theAlice Glockner Nature Reserve, Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and Malanskraal farmnear Heidelberg in South Africa, were compared. A numerical classification technique,TWINSPAN, was used and refined by using Braun Blanquet procedures to classify thevegetation at the different localities. A DCA ordination was applied to confirm theresults of the classification. Although the general vegetation structure at the three habitats of Chrysoritis aureus were found to be similar, marked differences in the floristiccomposition were evidenced. A different sub-community, compared to the vegetation atSuikerbosrand and Alice Glockner Nature Reserve, was recorded at the Malanskraalhabitat of Chrysoritis aureus. These differences in floristic composition, but with similarities in vegetation structure, indicate the possible importance of fire for the ultimatesurvival of these butterflies in the Rocky Highveld Grassland. The host plant ofChrysoritis aureus, Clutia pulchella, collected at Malanskraal differed markedly andconsistently in their morphology, compared to the individuals from the habitats atSuikerbosrand and Alice Glockner Nature Reserve. These differences in the floristiccomposition of one of the habitats compared to the others, raise research questions concerning the butterfly metapopulation structure, since the subpopulations seem to beadapted to slightly different habitat conditions. The variation in the habitat suggests thatthe “last remaining locality scenario” for other localised butterflies in South Africa, suchas  Orachrysops niobe, needs to be redressed. Management strategies are addressedwhile the importance of conserving rare, localised ecosystems are highlighted by thephytosociological study

  7. Species richness at continental scales is dominated by ecological limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2015-05-01

    Explaining variation in species richness among provinces and other large geographic regions remains one of the most challenging problems at the intersection of ecology and evolution. Here we argue that empirical evidence supports a model whereby ecological factors associated with resource availability regulate species richness at continental scales. Any large-scale predictive model for biological diversity must explain three robust patterns in the natural world. First, species richness for evolutionary biotas is highly correlated with resource-associated surrogate variables, including area, temperature, and productivity. Second, species richness across epochal timescales is largely stationary in time. Third, the dynamics of diversity exhibit clear and predictable responses to mass extinctions, key innovations, and other perturbations. Collectively, these patterns are readily explained by a model in which species richness is regulated by diversity-dependent feedback mechanisms. We argue that many purported tests of the ecological limits hypothesis, including branching patterns in molecular phylogenies, are inherently weak and distract from these three core patterns. We have much to learn about the complex hierarchy of processes by which local ecological interactions lead to diversity dependence at the continental scale, but the empirical evidence overwhelmingly suggests that they do. PMID:25905501

  8. Drivers of species richness in European Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone; Ulrich, Werner

    2012-08-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) and the latitudinal gradient in species richness are the most widespread and best-documented patterns in ecology, yet few studies have explored how the two patterns are interrelated. We used tenebrionid beetles as a species rich invertebrate group to investigate how area, habitat heterogeneity, climate, and ecological history act together in shaping species richness across Europe. We tested the effects of various climatic gradients on tenebrionid richness, with separate analyses for endemics and non-endemics. To take into account differences in area size among geographical units, we included species-area relationships using simultaneous autoregressive models. Although area had a significant effect on richness, the signal associated with temperature is so strong that it is still evident as a major driver. Also, the effect of area was only apparent when the effect of spatial coordinates had been accounted for, which has important implications for the use of SARs to locate diversity hotspots. The influence of latitude was mainly explained by a temperature gradient. Our findings support a postglacial European colonisation mainly from glacial southern refuges. Large Mediterranean islands were also important refugial areas.

  9. Abundance of common species, not species richness, drives delivery of a real-world ecosystem service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Rachael; Fox, Jeremy W; Williams, Neal M; Reilly, James R; Cariveau, Daniel P

    2015-07-01

    Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments have established that species richness and composition are both important determinants of ecosystem function in an experimental context. Determining whether this result holds for real-world ecosystem services has remained elusive, however, largely due to the lack of analytical methods appropriate for large-scale, associational data. Here, we use a novel analytical approach, the Price equation, to partition the contribution to ecosystem services made by species richness, composition and abundance in four large-scale data sets on crop pollination by native bees. We found that abundance fluctuations of dominant species drove ecosystem service delivery, whereas richness changes were relatively unimportant because they primarily involved rare species that contributed little to function. Thus, the mechanism behind our results was the skewed species-abundance distribution. Our finding that a few common species, not species richness, drive ecosystem service delivery could have broad generality given the ubiquity of skewed species-abundance distributions in nature. PMID:25959973

  10. Environmental heterogeneity–species richness relationships from a global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial environmental heterogeneity (EH is considered one of the most important factors promoting species richness, but no general consent about the EH–richness relationship exists so far. This is because research methods and study settings vary widely, and because non-significant and negative associations have also been reported. My thesis provides a comprehensive review of the different measurements and terminologies of EH used in the literature, and presents strong quantitative evidence of a generally positive relationship between biotic and abiotic EH and species richness of terrestrial plants and animals from landscape to global extents. In a meta-analysis and a subsequent case study comparing multiple EH measures and their association with mammal species richness worldwide, I furthermore reveal that the outcome of EH–richness studies depends strongly on study design, including both the EH measure chosen and spatial scale. My research contributes to a better understanding of the EH–richness relationship, while identifying future research needs.

  11. Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, C; Graves, G R

    2001-01-01

    -250% greater than those recorded at equivalent latitudes in the central Amazon basin. These findings reflect the extraordinary abundance of species associated with humid montane regions at equatorial latitudes and the importance of orography in avian speciation. In a broader context, our data reinforce......The search for a common cause of species richness gradients has spawned more than 100 explanatory hypotheses in just the past two decades. Despite recent conceptual advances, further refinement of the most plausible models has been stifled by the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases...... at continental scales. We used a database of the geographic ranges of 2,869 species of birds breeding in South America (nearly a third of the world's living avian species) to explore the influence of climate, quadrat area, ecosystem diversity, and topography on species richness gradients at 10 spatial scales...

  12. How to describe species richness patterns for bryophyte conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol, Helena; Cezón, Katia; Felicísimo, Ángel M; Muñoz, Jesús; Mateo, Rubén G

    2015-12-01

    A large amount of data for inconspicuous taxa is stored in natural history collections; however, this information is often neglected for biodiversity patterns studies. Here, we evaluate the performance of direct interpolation of museum collections data, equivalent to the traditional approach used in bryophyte conservation planning, and stacked species distribution models (S-SDMs) to produce reliable reconstructions of species richness patterns, given that differences between these methods have been insufficiently evaluated for inconspicuous taxa. Our objective was to contrast if species distribution models produce better inferences of diversity richness than simply selecting areas with the higher species numbers. As model species, we selected Iberian species of the genus Grimmia (Bryophyta), and we used four well-collected areas to compare and validate the following models: 1) four Maxent richness models, each generated without the data from one of the four areas, and a reference model created using all of the data and 2) four richness models obtained through direct spatial interpolation, each generated without the data from one area, and a reference model created with all of the data. The correlations between the partial and reference Maxent models were higher in all cases (0.45 to 0.99), whereas the correlations between the spatial interpolation models were negative and weak (-0.3 to -0.06). Our results demonstrate for the first time that S-SDMs offer a useful tool for identifying detailed richness patterns for inconspicuous taxa such as bryophytes and improving incomplete distributions by assessing the potential richness of under-surveyed areas, filling major gaps in the available data. In addition, the proposed strategy would enhance the value of the vast number of specimens housed in biological collections. PMID:27069596

  13. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  14. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Loos

    Full Text Available European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation

  15. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  16. Multiscale perspectives of species richness in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Said, M.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation describes and analyses animal species richness in East Africa from a multi-scale perspective. We studied diversity patterns at sub-continental, national and sub-national level. The study demonstrated that species diversity patterns were scale-dependent. Diversity patterns varied with spatial and temporal scales of observation. Processes and parameters important at one scale were not as relevant at another. At sub-continental level large herbivore assemblages revealed maximum...

  17. Direct and indirect responses of tallgrass prairie butterflies to prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Debinski, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important tool in the conservation and restoration of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. We investigated how both the vegetation composition and butterfly community of tallgrass prairie remnants changed in relation to the elapsed time (in months) since prescribed fire. Butterfly richness and butterfly abundance were positively correlated with the time since burn. Habitat-specialist butterfly richness recovery time was greater than 70 months post-fire and habitat-specialist butterfly abundance recovery time was approximately 50 months post-fire. Thus, recovery times for butterfly populations after prescribed fires in our study were potentially longer than those previously reported. We used Path Analysis to evaluate the relative contributions of the direct effect of time since fire and the indirect effects of time since fire through changes in vegetation composition on butterfly abundance. Path models highlighted the importance of the indirect effects of fire on habitat features, such as increases in the cover of bare ground. Because fire return intervals on managed prairie remnants are often less than 5 years, information on recovery times for habitat-specialist insect species are of great importance. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. Analysis of the parasitic copepod species richness among Mediterranean fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibaut, André; Combes, Claude; Benoit, Françoise

    1998-06-01

    The Mediterranean ichthyofauna is composed of 652 species belonging to 405 genera and 117 families. Among these, 182 were studied for their parasitic copepods. The analysis of all the works conducted on these crustacea yielded 226 species distributed in 88 genera and 20 families. For each fish species we have established a file providing the species name of the fish, its family, its geographical distribution within the Mediterranean and some of its bio-ecological characteristics. Within each file, all the parasitic copepod species reported on each host species were listed. This allowed to know the species richness (SR) of these hosts. We thus produced 182 files within which 226 copepod species are distributed. A program was created under the Hypercard software, in order to analyse our data. Two parameters were studied. The first one is the mean species richness (MSR), which corresponds to the mean of the different SR found on the different host species. The second is the parasite-host ratio (P/H), which is the ratio of the number of copepod species by the number of host species. These parameters are calculated by our program for all the 182 species of Mediterranean fishes retained in our investigation, on the first hand, and, on the second hand, for one particular group of fish species. We used the following variables to investigate their correlations with copepod species richness: taxonomy—fish families, genera and species; biometry—maximal size of the adult fish; eco-ethology—mode of life (benthic, pelagic or nectonic), displacements (sedentary, migratory with environmental change, or migratory without environmental change), behaviour (solitary or gregarious). Other variables (colour, food, reproduction, abundance, distribution area) were also analysed but did not reveal any clear correlation. Providing that our study does not rely on quantitative (prevalence, intensity) but qualitative basis our aim was only to reveal some tendencies. These tendencies are

  19. Effect of widespread agricultural chemical use on butterfly diversity across Turkish provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekin, Burak K

    2013-12-01

    Although agricultural intensification is thought to pose a significant threat to species, little is known about its role in driving biodiversity loss at regional scales. I assessed the effects of a major component of agricultural intensification, agricultural chemical use, and land-cover and climatic variables on butterfly diversity across 81 provinces in Turkey, where agriculture is practiced extensively but with varying degrees of intensity. I determined butterfly species presence in each province from data on known butterfly distributions and calculated agricultural chemical use as the proportion of agricultural households that use chemical fertilizers and pesticides. I used constrained correspondence analyses and regression-based multimodel inference to determine the effect of environmental variables on species composition and richness, respectively. The variation in butterfly species composition across the provinces was largely explained (78%) by the combination of agricultural chemical use, particularly pesticides, and climatic and land-cover variables. Although overall butterfly richness was primarily explained by climatic and land-cover variables, such as the area of natural vegetation cover, threatened butterfly richness and the relative number of threatened butterfly species decreased substantially as the proportion of agricultural households using pesticides increased. These findings suggest that widespread use of agricultural chemicals, or other components of agricultural intensification that may be collinear with pesticide use, pose an imminent threat to the biodiversity of Turkey. Accordingly, policies that mitigate agricultural intensification and promote low-input farming practices are crucial for protecting threatened species from extinction in rapidly industrializing nations such as Turkey. Efectos del Uso Extensivo de Agroquímicos sobre la Diversidad de Mariposas en Provincias Turcas. PMID:23869856

  20. The taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of the myrmecophilous Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Terblanche

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance and integration of scientific knowledge to conservation management of the locally popular and highly endemic butterfly genus Chrysoritis are investigated within the research fields of taxonomy and biogeography. The butterfly genus Chrysoritis contains at least 41 species endemic to South Africa. The taxonomy of Chrysoritis has reached a state where revisions could easily result in a plethora of names between “lumping and splitting”. In practice, the state of the taxonomy of these butterflies on species level may alter their conservation priority. The two most species rich species groups in Chrysoritis have different centres of endemism, however, a butterfly atlas becomes a necessity to reveal more about their biogeography. There is an absence of butterfly species lists in many of our National Parks and Nature Reserves. Legislation should facilitate rather than limit the valuable role of the amateur lepidopterist to add distribution records. In turn, the amateur lepidopterists should adapt and make an effort to explore unknown localities, apart from monitoring butterflies at their well-known localities. The red listing of localised butterflies in South Africa, including a number of Chrysoritis species, is in need of an urgent review in the light of the most recent IUCN categories. A species such as Chrysoritis dicksoni should be protected by law - but at its known localities. The scenario that real conservation action is only needed if the last known locality of a butterfly is threatened, should be abolished. A paradigm shift to conserve the metapopulations of the highly endemic Chrysoritis genus and not merely a few of its species as items that appear on lists, seems necessary.

  1. Random processes and geographic species richness patterns : why so few species in the north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, F; Bokma, J; Monkkonen, M

    2001-01-01

    In response to the suggestion that the latitudinal gradient in species richness is the result of stochastic processes of species distributions, we created a computer simulation program that enabled us to study random species distributions over irregularly shaped areas. Our model could not explain la

  2. Wolbachia infections mimic cryptic speciation in two parasitic butterfly species, Phengaris teleius and P. nausithous (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Ritter

    Full Text Available Deep mitochondrial divergence within species may result from cryptic speciation, from phylogeographic isolation or from endosymbiotic bacteria like Wolbachia that manipulate host reproduction. Phengaris butterflies are social parasites that spend most of their life in close relationship with ants. Previously, cryptic speciation has been hypothesised for two Phengaris species based on divergent mtDNA sequences. Since Phengaris species are highly endangered, the existence of cryptic species would have drastic consequences for conservation and management. We tested for cryptic speciation and alternative scenarios in P. teleius and P. nausithous based on a comprehensive sample across their Palaearctic ranges using COI gene sequences, nuclear microsatellites and tests for Wolbachia. In both species a deep mitochondrial split occurring 0.65-1.97 myrs ago was observed that did not correspond with microsatellite data but was concordant with Wolbachia infection. Haplotypes previously attributed to cryptic species were part of the Wolbachia-infected clades. In both species remaining phylogeographic structure was largely consistent between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. In P. teleius several mitochondrial and nuclear groups were observed in East Asia while a single haplogroup and nuclear cluster prevailed across continental Eurasia. Neutrality tests suggested rapid demographic expansion into that area. In contrast, P. nausithous had several mitochondrial and nuclear groups in Europe, suggesting a complex phylogeographic history in the western part of the species range. We conclude that deep intraspecific divergences found in DNA barcode studies do not necessarily need to represent cryptic speciation but instead can be due to both infection by Wolbachia and phylogeographic structure.

  3. Species richness and abundance of hesperioidea and papilionoidea (lepidoptera) in Las Delicias natural reserve, Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, are formations of dry tropical secondary forest hosting a fauna representative of lepidoptera, which can be used as an indicator of group condition, because of their sensitivity to intervention and specificity in the use of resources; in the present study the changes in richness and abundance of butterflies hesperioidea papilionoidea in nature reserve Las Delicias were evaluated. Two sampling sites with different degrees of intervention were selected. The first site is located between 400- 550 over sea level, while the second at 200 m. We performed four samples, from April to July 2008; using two networks lepidopterist and 10 van someren rydon traps baited with macerated fruit and fish. We captured 432 individuals belonging to 66 species, distributed in 52 genera. Nymphalidae were the most rich family (42) and abundance (250); highlighting the species mechanitis lysimnia fabricius (41 specimens), typical in forest with very good coverage. Site 2, was the most diverse (48) and abundance (236), because in this place there was a greater stratification and tree coverage, and the presence of water resources during the sampling. With the arrival of rain in June and July, there was greater flowering and fruiting of vegetation in the area, increasing the availability of resources and therefore a greater richness and abundance of papilionoidea and hesperioidea in the study area.

  4. Comparative tests of ectoparasite species richness in seabirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Roderic DM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diversity of parasites attacking a host varies substantially among different host species. Understanding the factors that explain these patterns of parasite diversity is critical to identifying the ecological principles underlying biodiversity. Seabirds (Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes and Procellariiformes and their ectoparasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera are ideal model groups in which to study correlates of parasite species richness. We evaluated the relative importance of morphological (body size, body weight, wingspan, bill length, life-history (longevity, clutch size, ecological (population size, geographical range and behavioural (diving versus non-diving variables as predictors of louse diversity on 413 seabird hosts species. Diversity was measured at the level of louse suborder, genus, and species, and uneven sampling of hosts was controlled for using literature citations as a proxy for sampling effort. Results The only variable consistently correlated with louse diversity was host population size and to a lesser extent geographic range. Other variables such as clutch size, longevity, morphological and behavioural variables including body mass showed inconsistent patterns dependent on the method of analysis. Conclusion The comparative analysis presented herein is (to our knowledge the first to test correlates of parasite species richness in seabirds. We believe that the comparative data and phylogeny provide a valuable framework for testing future evolutionary hypotheses relating to the diversity and distribution of parasites on seabirds.

  5. Edges within farmland: Management implications of taxonspecific species richness correlates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Kučera, T.; Zimmermann, Kamil; Bartůšková, I.; Plátek, Michal; Grill, S.; Konvička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 8 (2015), s. 714-725. ISSN 1439-1791 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Forest-farmland edges * Biodiversity conservation * Carabids * Butterflies * Birds * Small mammals * Floristic composition * Agricultural landscape Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.942, year: 2014

  6. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Adler, Peter B.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M. H.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Smith, Melinda D.

    2016-01-01

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  7. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided. PMID:26446545

  8. The butterflies of Turquino National Park, Sierra Maestra, Cuba (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Between February and November 2011, we conducted a species inventory, created a natural history database and a made a first approach to the composition and structure of the butterfly communities present at several vegetation types in the Turquino National Park. The inventory included 83 species, 29 of them endemic. We recorded 57 species (18 endemic in transects along main vegetation pathways. In disturbed vegetation, species richness was higher (48 and abundance was better distributed, but the proportion of endemism was lower (23%. Species richness decreased and the dominance and proportion of endemism increased with altitude. Numbers of species and the proportions of endemism at natural habitats sampled were: 19 and 58% for evergreen forest, 10 and 60% for rainforest, eight and 100% for cloud forest, and four and 100% for the elfin thicket. Flowers of 27 plants were recorded as nectar sources for 30 butterfly species, and host plants were recorded for nine species.

  9. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šašić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.

  10. Restoration of species-rich grasslands on reconstructed river dikes

    OpenAIRE

    Liebrand, C.I.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Up until 30 years ago an extensive, flower-rich grassland vegetation containing many species rare in the Netherlands used to be common on Dutch river dikes. However, the deterioration of the flora on dikes was already being reported at the end of the 1960s. At that time too, ecologists warned that the planned reinforcement of the dikes along the Rhine, Waal, Lek and IJssel would adversely affect the flora. Their gloomy forecasts have proved to be correct. Between 1968 and 1992 as much as 89% ...

  11. Butterfly, seedling, sapling and tree diversity and composition in a fire-affected Bornean rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, D.F.R.; Priadjati, A.; Suryokusumo, B.K.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fire-affected forests are becoming an increasingly important component of tropical landscapes. The impact of wildfires on rainforest communities is, however, poorly understood. In this study the density, species richness and community composition of seedlings, saplings, trees and butterflies were as

  12. Butterfly, seedling, sapling and tree diversity and composition is a fire-affected Bornean rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F.R. Cleary; A. Priadjati; B.K. Suryokusumo; S.B.J. Menken

    2006-01-01

    Fire-affected forests are becoming an increasingly important component of tropical landscapes. The impact of wildfires on rainforest communities is, however, poorly understood. In this study the density, species richness and community composition of seedlings, saplings, trees and butterflies were as

  13. Separation possibilities and genital measurement variations in two cryptic species of European pierid butterflies, Leptidea juvernica Williams, 1946 and L. sinapis (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachanowicz, Konrad

    2013-08-01

    Of the three recently separated cryptic butterfly species of the Leptidea sinapis complex, the two species L. sinapis and L. juvernica occur sympatrically and syntopically in central Europe. As the separation of these species requires genital or genetic characters, their correct identification is a fundamental problem to be solved prior to any biological and distributional studies. In the present study a morphometric approach was applied to test for separation possibilities and to examine genital measurement variations based on large population samples of the two species (347 females and 636 males). Butterflies were collected at 456 localities distributed across Poland. Specimens of both sexes could be separated using either the shape or the length of the antrum bursae (females), phallus and saccus (males). Intraspecific seasonal differences in these measurements may affect the discrimination of males only. Genital characters were significantly larger in butterflies of the spring brood than in those of the second brood. In females, antrum bursae length ranges were separated by an interval, allowing for the exact identification of each specimen. In males, no such intervals were found between phallus and saccus length ranges, which slightly overlapped. Discriminant analysis resulted in 100% of males correctly classified. The present study confirmed the validity of interspecific differences in the shape of phallus and saccus for species identification without measurements. The length of these two characters discriminates the two species when separation is limited to specimens from the same generations. As an alternative for discriminant analysis, either phallus length and vinculum width or phallus length and the ratio of the ventral edge of genital capsule length and saccus length (VEL/SL ratio) is recommended for the practical separation of the two species. The differences in the shape and size of the copulatory organs of the two species seem to indicate reproductive

  14. Foraminifera Species Richness, Abundance, and Diversity Research in Bolinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunwin, N.; Ingram, Z.; Mendez, M.; Sandoval, K.

    2015-12-01

    Foraminifera are abundant, diverse, respond rapidly to environmental change, and are present in all marine and estuarine environments, making them important indicator species. A survey of occurrence and distribution of foraminifera in the Bolinas Lagoon, Marin County, California was carried out by Hedman in 1975, but no study since has focused on foraminiferal composition within this important ecosystem. In July 2015, the Careers in Science (CiS) Intern Program collected samples at 12 sites previously examined in the 1975 study. Thirty-six samples were collected from the upper few centimeters of sediment from a variety of intertidal and subtidal environments within the lagoon. Foraminifera from each sample were isolated, identified and species richness, abundance and diversity quantified. Furthermore, comparisons of faunal composition represented in our recent collection and that of Hedman's 1975 report are made.

  15. Vascular plant and vertebrate species richness in national parks of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Myrick, Kaci E.; Huston, Michael A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Green, M. Clay

    2013-01-01

    Given the estimates that species diversity is diminishing at 50-100 times the normal rate, it is critical that we be able to evaluate changes in species richness in order to make informed decisions for conserving species diversity. In this study, we examined the potential of vascular plant species richness to be used as a surrogate for vertebrate species richness in the classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Vascular plants, as primary producers, represent the biotic starting point for ecological community structure and are the logical place to start for understanding vertebrate species associations. We used data collected by the United States (US) National Park Service (NPS) on species presence within parks in the eastern US to estimate simple linear regressions between plant species richness and vertebrate richness. Because environmental factors may also influence species diversity, we performed simple linear regressions of species richness versus natural logarithm of park area, park latitude, mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and human population density surrounding the parks. We then combined plant species richness and environmental variables in multiple regressions to determine the variables that remained as significant predictors of vertebrate species richness. As expected, we detected significant relationships between plant species richness and amphibian, bird, and mammal species richness. In some cases, plant species richness was predicted by park area alone. Species richness of mammals was only related to plant species richness. Reptile species richness, on the other hand, was related to plant species richness, park latitude and annual precipitation, while amphibian species richness was related to park latitude, park area, and plant species richness. Thus, plant species richness predicted species richness of different vertebrate groups to varying degrees and should not be used exclusively as a surrogate for vertebrate

  16. Natural hybridization in heliconiine butterflies: the species boundary as a continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Margarita

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand speciation and the maintenance of taxa as separate entities, we need information about natural hybridization and gene flow among species. Results Interspecific hybrids occur regularly in Heliconius and Eueides (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the wild: 26–29% of the species of Heliconiina are involved, depending on species concept employed. Hybridization is, however, rare on a per-individual basis. For one well-studied case of species hybridizing in parapatric contact (Heliconius erato and H. himera, phenotypically detectable hybrids form around 10% of the population, but for species in sympatry hybrids usually form less than 0.05% of individuals. There is a roughly exponential decline with genetic distance in the numbers of natural hybrids in collections, both between and within species, suggesting a simple "exponential failure law" of compatibility as found in some prokaryotes. Conclusion Hybridization between species of Heliconius appears to be a natural phenomenon; there is no evidence that it has been enhanced by recent human habitat disturbance. In some well-studied cases, backcrossing occurs in the field and fertile backcrosses have been verified in insectaries, which indicates that introgression is likely, and recent molecular work shows that alleles at some but not all loci are exchanged between pairs of sympatric, hybridizing species. Molecular clock dating suggests that gene exchange may continue for more than 3 million years after speciation. In addition, one species, H. heurippa, appears to have formed as a result of hybrid speciation. Introgression may often contribute to adaptive evolution as well as sometimes to speciation itself, via hybrid speciation. Geographic races and species that coexist in sympatry therefore form part of a continuum in terms of hybridization rates or probability of gene flow. This finding concurs with the view that processes leading to speciation are continuous, rather than

  17. The seasonality of butterflies in a semi-evergreen forest: Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study spanning 3.7 years on the butterflies of Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary GWS (21km2, a semi-evergreen forest, in Jorhat District of Assam, northeastern India revealed 211 species of butterflies belonging to 115 genera including 19 papilionids and seven ‘rare’ and ‘very rare’ species as per Evans list of the Indian sub-continent (Great Blue Mime Papilio paradoxa telearchus; Brown Forest BobScobura woolletti; Snowy Angle Darpa pteria dealbatahas; Constable Dichorragia nesimachus; Grey Baron Euthalia anosia anosia; Sylhet Oakblue Arhopala silhetensis; Branded Yamfly Yasoda tripunctata. The butterflies showed a strong seasonality pattern in this forest with only one significant peak during the post monsoon (September-October when 118 species were in flight inside the forest which slowly declined to 92 species in November-December. Another peak (102 species was visible after winter from March to April. Species composition showed least similarity between pre-monsoon (March-May and post-monsoon (October-November seasons. The number of papilionid species were greater from July to December as compared from January to June. The findings of this study suggest that the pattern of seasonality in a semi-evergreen forest in northeastern India is distinct from that of the sub-tropical lowland forest in the Himalaya. Favourable logistics and rich diversity in GWS points to its rich potential in promoting ‘butterfly inclusive ecotourism’ in this remnant forest.

  18. Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Verovnik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Albania has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. However, due to its political isolation, it has never been studied in great depth, and consequently, the existing list of butterfly species is outdated and in need of radical amendment. In addition to our personal data, we have studied the available literature, and can report a total of 196 butterfly species recorded from the country. For some of the species in the list we have given explanations for their inclusion and made other annotations. Doubtful records have been removed from the list, and changes in taxonomy have been updated and discussed separately. The purpose of our paper is to remove confusion and conflict regarding published records. However, the revised checklist should not be considered complete: it represents a starting point for further research.

  19. Ecology and evolution of mountain butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with speciation processes, thermal ecology and habitat use in Holarctic mountain and arctic butterflies. It demonstrates a crucial role of environmental heterogeneity for speciation, survival of butterfly lineages, coexistence of closely related species and, finally, for resource use of sexes with different habitats demands at the level of individual species.

  20. The definition of species richness used by species sensitivity distributions approximates observed effects of salinity on stream macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of chemicals for ecological communities is often forecast with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) which are used to predict the concentration which will protect p% of species (PCp value). However, at the PCp value, species richness in nature would not necessary be p% less than at uncontaminated sites. The definition of species richness inherent to SSDs (contaminant category richness) contrasts with species richness typically measured in most field studies (point richness). We determine, for salinity in eastern Australia, whether these definitions of stream macroinvertebrate species richness are commensurable. There were strong relationships (r2 ≥ 0.87) between mean point species, family and Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera species richness and their respective contamination category richness. Despite differences in the definition of richness used by SSDs and field biomonitoring, their results in terms of relative species loss from salinity in south-east Australia are similar. We conclude that in our system both definitions are commensurable. - Definitions of species richness inherit in SSDs and biomonitoring are for salinity in south-east Australia commensurable.

  1. The definition of species richness used by species sensitivity distributions approximates observed effects of salinity on stream macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@uts.edu.a [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Victoria (Australia); Centre for Environmental Sustainability, Department of Environmental Science, University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Marchant, Richard [Department of Entomology, Museum of Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Schaefer, Ralf B. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Victoria (Australia); Metzeling, Leon [EPA Victoria, Macleod, Victoria (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management, Indooroopilly, Queensland (Australia); National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Queensland (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management, Indooroopilly, Queensland (Australia); Goonan, Peter [South Australia Environment Protection Authority, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    The risk of chemicals for ecological communities is often forecast with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) which are used to predict the concentration which will protect p% of species (PC{sub p} value). However, at the PC{sub p} value, species richness in nature would not necessary be p% less than at uncontaminated sites. The definition of species richness inherent to SSDs (contaminant category richness) contrasts with species richness typically measured in most field studies (point richness). We determine, for salinity in eastern Australia, whether these definitions of stream macroinvertebrate species richness are commensurable. There were strong relationships (r{sup 2} {>=} 0.87) between mean point species, family and Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera species richness and their respective contamination category richness. Despite differences in the definition of richness used by SSDs and field biomonitoring, their results in terms of relative species loss from salinity in south-east Australia are similar. We conclude that in our system both definitions are commensurable. - Definitions of species richness inherit in SSDs and biomonitoring are for salinity in south-east Australia commensurable.

  2. The local species richness of Dragonflies in mountain waterbodies: an indicator of climate warming?

    OpenAIRE

    Beat Oertli

    2010-01-01

    With climate warming, many Odonata species are extending their geographical area. In Switzerland, as in many parts of the world, this phenomenon may lead to a regional increase in species richness. The local richness (the richness of individual waterbodies) is also expected to increase, particularly in the alpine or subalpine areas where the waterbodies are particularly species–poor. Based on the species richness recorded in 109 waterbodies scattered all across Switzerland, a model is p...

  3. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seasons (winter, spring, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon lasting 18 days from January 2009 to March 2010. Pollard walk method was used to assess the diversity on four-line transects within 10-12 km radius of the proposed dam site. Two hundred and thirteen species, including 22 papilionids, were thus sampled. Eleven species amongst these are listed in Schedules I and II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972, of which 10 taxa (Pareronia avatar avatar, Nacaduba pactolus continentalis, Porostas aluta coelestis, Elymnias vasudeva vasudeva, Mycalesis mestra retus, Melanitis zitenius zitenius, Charaxes marmax, Athyma ranga ranga, Neptis manasa manasa and Neptis soma soma are of conservation priority as they are ‘rare’ in occurrence across their distribution range in the region. The maximum number of species (128 were recorded during the spring season (March and lowest (66 during July (monsoon. The seasonal pattern of variation in diversity was very typical of the pattern found in other areas of the lower foothills and adjoining plains of the Himalaya. Relative abundances of butterflies during spring varied significantly (p<0.05 as compared to winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. However, species composition changed with every season as Sorensen’s similarity index varied between 0.3076 to 0.5656. All these findings suggest that the lowland forests of Bhutan hold a rich and unique diversity of butterflies during every season of the year thus having

  4. Monitoring of butterflies within a landscape context

    OpenAIRE

    Jonason, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring of butterflies is most often only directed towards the grassland fauna. Species associated with other vegetation types, as well as the impact of the surrounding landscape, often become neglected. The aim with this study was, in contrast, to perform a novel landscape-based monitoring method for butterflies in diverse vegetation types and more specifically (i) evaluate the impact of environmental variables on butterfly abundance, (ii) compare the distribution...

  5. The local species richness of Dragonflies in mountain waterbodies: an indicator of climate warming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Oertli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With climate warming, many Odonata species are extending their geographical area. In Switzerland, as in many parts of the world, this phenomenon may lead to a regional increase in species richness. The local richness (the richness of individual waterbodies is also expected to increase, particularly in the alpine or subalpine areas where the waterbodies are particularly species–poor. Based on the species richness recorded in 109 waterbodies scattered all across Switzerland, a model is presented here relating the local species richness (adult dragonflies to environmental variables, including the mean annual air temperature. This model predicts a sharp increase in species richness for alpine or subalpine waterbodies, which is expected to double or even treble before the end of this century. This increase would mainly be the consequence of the immigration of eurythermal species extending their geographical range, together with potential local extinctions of the cold stenothermal species.

  6. Estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wathen

    Full Text Available Evidence for significant losses of species richness or biodiversity, even within protected natural areas, is mounting. Managers are increasingly being asked to monitor biodiversity, yet estimating biodiversity is often prohibitively expensive. As a cost-effective option, we estimated the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness for four taxonomic groups (birds, mammals, herpetofauna (reptiles and amphibians, and plants within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks using only existing biological studies undertaken within the Parks and the Parks' long-term wildlife observation database. We used a rarefaction approach to model species richness for the four taxonomic groups and analyzed those groups by habitat type, elevation zone, and time period. We then mapped the spatial distributions of species richness values for the four taxonomic groups, as well as total species richness, for the Parks. We also estimated changes in species richness for birds, mammals, and herpetofauna since 1980. The modeled patterns of species richness either peaked at mid elevations (mammals, plants, and total species richness or declined consistently with increasing elevation (herpetofauna and birds. Plants reached maximum species richness values at much higher elevations than did vertebrate taxa, and non-flying mammals reached maximum species richness values at higher elevations than did birds. Alpine plant communities, including sagebrush, had higher species richness values than did subalpine plant communities located below them in elevation. These results are supported by other papers published in the scientific literature. Perhaps reflecting climate change: birds and herpetofauna displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at low and middle elevations and mammals displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at all elevations.

  7. Species richness and distribution of chondrichthyan fishes in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynghammar, A.; Christiansen, J. S.; Mecklenburg, C. W.;

    2013-01-01

    poorly sampled, 49 chondrichthyan species have been reported from the AOAS. Skates and rays are the most species-rich taxon, represented by 27 species in family Rajidae and one species in family Dasyatidae. The sharks comprise 20 species in 13 families and the chimaeras one species in family Chimaeridae...

  8. Distribution of Vascular Plant Species Richness Along an Elevational Gradient in the Dongling Mountains, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness and determining the processes that give rise to these patterns are core problems In blodlveralty theory. The aim of the present paper was to more accurately detect patterns of vascular species richness at different scales along altitudinal gradients in order to further our understanding of biodlverslty patterns and to facilitate studies on relationships between biodiversity and environmental factors. Species richness patterns of total vascular plants species, including trees, shrubs, and herbs, were measured along an altitudinal gradient on one transect on a shady slope in the Dongling Mountains, near Beijing,China. Direct gradient analysis, regression analysis, and geostatistics were applied to describe the spatial patterns of species richness. We found that total vascular species richness did not exhibit a linear pattern of change with altitude, although species groups with different ecological features showed strong elevational patterns different from total species richness. In addition to total vascular plants, analysis of trees, shrubs, and herbs demonstrated remarkable hierarchical structures of species richness with altitude (i.e. patchy structures at small scales and gradients at large scales). Species richness for trees and shrubs had similar spatial characteristics at different scales, but differed from herbs. These results indicated that species groups with similar ecological features exhibit similar biodlveraity patterns with altitude, and studies of biodiversity based on species groups with similar ecological properties or life forms would advance our understanding of variations in species diversity. Furthermore, the gradients or trends appeared to be due mainly to local variations in species richness means with altitude. We also found that the range of spatial scale dependencies of species richness for total vascular plants, trees, shrubs, and herbs was relatively large. Thus, to detect the

  9. Determinants of species richness patterns in the Netherlands across multiple taxonomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Barendrecht, A.; Kleukers, R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the species richness patterns of five different species groups (mosses, reptiles and amphibians, grasshoppers and crickets, dragonflies, and hoverflies) in the Netherlands (41,500 km2) using sampling units of 5 × 5 km. We compared the spatial patterns of species richness of the five grou

  10. Extended season for northern butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  11. Evaluating the performance of species richness estimators: sensitivity to sample grain size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hortal, Joaquín; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Gaspar, Clara

    2006-01-01

    different sampling units on species richness estimations. 2.  Estimated species richness scores depended both on the estimator considered and on the grain size used to aggregate data. However, several estimators (ACE, Chao1, Jackknife1 and 2 and Bootstrap) were precise in spite of grain variations. Weibull...... that species richness estimations coming from small grain sizes can be directly compared and other estimators could give more precise results in those cases. We propose a decision framework based on our results and on the literature to assess which estimator should be used to compare species richness...

  12. Landscape variation in tree species richness in northern Iran forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P-A Bourque

    Full Text Available Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area's unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i three topographic variables generated directly from the area's digital terrain model; (ii four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content, yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ≥ 33% of all trees in a plot, than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species. This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently

  13. Population dynamics of species-rich ecosystems: the mixture of matrix population models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Frédéric; Rossi, Vivien; Guillot, Gilles;

    2013-01-01

    Matrix population models are widely used to predict population dynamics, but when applied to species-rich ecosystems with many rare species, the small population sample sizes hinder a good fit of species-specific models. This issue can be overcome by assigning species to groups to increase the size...... group species with similar population dynamics....

  14. Diurnal behavior and habitat preferences of Erebia aethiops, an aberrant lowland species of a mountain butterfly clade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slámová, Irena; Klečka, Jan; Konvička, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2011), s. 230-246. ISSN 0892-7553 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GAP505/10/2248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly activity * habitat preferences * diurnal behavior Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2011

  15. Explaining the species richness of birds along a subtropical elevational gradient in the Hengduan Mountains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yongjie; Colwell, Robert K.; Rahbek, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    AimTo document the species richness pattern of birds in the Hengduan Mountains and to understand its causes. LocationHengduan Mountains, China. MethodsSpecies richness of 738 breeding bird species was calculated for each 100-m elevational band along a gradient from 100 to 6000m a.s.l. Climate data...... were compiled based on monthly records from 182 meteorological stations in the Hengduan Mountains from 1959 to 2004. We calculated the planimetric area, predicted richness under geometric constraints, three-year average NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and EVI (enhanced vegetation index......-shaped, with the peak occurring at 800-1800m elevation. Endemic and non-endemic species, as well as four elevational range size categories of birds, also showed the general hump-shaped patterns of species richness, but with peaks at different elevations. In most data sets, species richness correlated well with...

  16. Diversity pattern of Butterfly Lepidoptera (Papilio demoleus in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dheri Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAROON

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In ecosystem the butterflies ply dual role as pollinators, silk producers and indicators of environmental quality. The present study was conducted in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri during the period July 2012 to August 2012. The collection of butterflies was done randomly by using the sweep net. A total of 32 specimens of Papilio demoleus were collected from different villages of the said area. The high number of specimen was collected from Aratt Kally (21.88%. The wing span is 9.8±0.40 cm and body length 2.9±0.16 cm. From the present investigation it was concluded that the Papilio demoleus species is common in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri. The area has rich fauna of butterflies and recommended further studies.

  17. Teaching and Learning with Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Saul

    1996-01-01

    Presents butterflies as an introduction to natural history. Describes observation tips and metamorphosis of butterflies in the classroom. Includes butterfly resources for naturalists and educators. (AIM)

  18. Diversification of tanagers, a species rich bird group, from lowlands to montane regions of South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldså, Jon; Rahbek, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The process of diversification since the late Tertiary was studied by linking together well-resolved phylogenies and species distributions for tanagers (Aves, Thraupini). Species richness patterns reveal very high densities of range-restricted species in the Andes, and to a lesser extent in the A...... high persistence of lineages in specific areas, something that may be related to how climatic changes are moderated by local topography....... Atlantic forests of south-eastern Brazil, and moderate densities of widespread species in the tropical lowlands. Contemporary climate explains well the variation in species richness for the 25% most widespread species; for the remaining 75% of species with more restricted distributions, variation can only...

  19. Comment on "Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredennick, Andrew T; Adler, Peter B.; Grace, James B.; Harpole, W Stanley; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Collins, Scott L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Hillebrand, Helmut; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Laungani, Ramesh; Lind, Eric M.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Peri, Pablo L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Speziale, Karina L.; Standish, Rachel J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Wardle, Glenda M.; Williams, Ryan J.; Yang, Louie H.

    2016-01-01

    Fraser et al. (Reports, 17 July 2015, p. 302) report a unimodal relationship between productivity and species richness at regional and global scales, which they contrast with the results of Adler et al. (Reports, 23 September 2011, p. 1750). However, both data sets, when analyzed correctly, show clearly and consistently that productivity is a poor predictor of local species richness.

  20. Biogeography of species richness gradients : linking adaptive traits, demography and diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Brotons, Lluis; Stefanescu, Constanti; Penuelas, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Here we review how adaptive traits contribute to the emergence and maintenance of species richness gradients through their influence on demographic and diversification processes. We start by reviewing how demographic dynamics change along species richness gradients. Empirical studies show that geogr

  1. Mutant butterflies discovered at Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese study has shown that malformations are more and more common in butterflies (Zizeeria maha specie) leaving near the damaged nuclear plant of Fukushima Daiichi. A population of 144 butterflies were caught in 10 villages in a radius of 200 km around Fukushima in may 2011, the ratio of malformations was 12.4%. Obvious malformations were withered antennas and wings. In september 2011 a population of 238 butterflies were caught in the same places and the ratio of malformations was then 28.1%. The increase of the malformation ratio could be explained by a cumulative effect of the radiation exposition. In a second experiment, a population of butterflies was caught in a region non-affected by the radioactive contamination and was submitted in laboratory to radiations similar to that of the contamination around Fukushima and similar malformations appeared. The conclusion of the study is that radionuclides released during the Fukushima accident have caused genetic and physiological damages to this butterfly specie. (A.C.)

  2. The role of spatial scale and the perception of large-scale species-richness patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    scale effects (extent and grain size) can influence our perception of patterns and processes. For example, a hump-shaped altitudinal species-richness pattern is the most typical (c. 50%), with a monotonic decreasing pattern (c. 25%) also frequently reported, but the relative distribution of patterns......Despite two centuries of exploration, our understanding of factors determining the distribution of life on Earth is in many ways still in its infancy. Much of the disagreement about governing processes of variation in species richness may be the result of differences in our perception of species......-richness patterns. Until recently, most studies of large-scale species-richness patterns assumed implicitly that patterns and mechanisms were scale invariant. Illustrated with examples and a quantitative analysis of published data on altitudinal gradients of species richness (n = 204), this review discusses how...

  3. Determinants of Mammal and Bird Species Richness in China Based on Habitat Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Xu

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial patterns in species richness is a central issue in macroecology and biogeography. Analyses that have traditionally focused on overall species richness limit the generality and depth of inference. Spatial patterns of species richness and the mechanisms that underpin them in China remain poorly documented. We created a database of the distribution of 580 mammal species and 849 resident bird species from 2376 counties in China and established spatial linear models to identify the determinants of species richness and test the roles of five hypotheses for overall mammals and resident birds and the 11 habitat groups among the two taxa. Our result showed that elevation variability was the most important determinant of species richness of overall mammal and bird species. It is indicated that the most prominent predictors of species richness varied among different habitat groups: elevation variability for forest and shrub mammals and birds, temperature annual range for grassland and desert mammals and wetland birds, net primary productivity for farmland mammals, maximum temperature of the warmest month for cave mammals, and precipitation of the driest quarter for grassland and desert birds. Noteworthily, main land cover type was also found to obviously influence mammal and bird species richness in forests, shrubs and wetlands under the disturbance of intensified human activities. Our findings revealed a substantial divergence in the species richness patterns among different habitat groups and highlighted the group-specific and disparate environmental associations that underpin them. As we demonstrate, a focus on overall species richness alone might lead to incomplete or misguided understanding of spatial patterns. Conservation priorities that consider a broad spectrum of habitat groups will be more successful in safeguarding the multiple services of biodiversity.

  4. Butterflies of Vidarbha region, Maharashtra State, central India

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Tiple

    2011-01-01

    Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State, India, is gifted with diverse butterfly habitats. A comprehensive review of various studies on butterflies from this region was carried out. Based on all previous studies, approximately 167 species of butterflies, belonging to 90 genera representing five families were reported. Besides this, seven species reported from the region by previous workers appear to be unusual records for the Vidarbha region. These are treated separately. Out of the 167 species ...

  5. The Distribution and Abundance of Bird Species: Towards a Satellite, Data Driven Avian Energetics and Species Richness Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the fundamental question of why birds occur where and when they do, i.e., what are the causative factors that determine the spatio-temporal distributions, abundance, or richness of bird species? In this paper we outline the first steps toward building a satellite, data-driven model of avian energetics and species richness based on individual bird physiology, morphology, and interaction with the spatio-temporal habitat. To evaluate our model, we will use the North American Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count data for species richness, wintering and breeding range. Long term and current satellite data series include AVHRR, Landsat, and MODIS.

  6. Microsatellite markers for the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and their amplification in other Maculinea species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeisset, Inga; Damm Als, Thomas; Settele, Josef; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2005-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon, two of five species of endangered large blue butterflies found in Europe. Two separate microsatellite libraries were constructed. Eleven markers were developed for M. nausithous and one for M. alcon. The primers were...

  7. Geography, topography, and history affect realized-to-potential tree species richness patterns in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Normand, Signe;

    2010-01-01

    Environmental conditions and biotic interactions are generally thought to influence local species richness. However, immigration and the evolutionary and historical factors that shape regional species pools should also contribute to determining local species richness because local communities arise...... by assembly from regional species pools. Using the European tree flora as our study system, we implemented a novel approach to assess the relative importance of local and regional mechanisms that control local species richness. We first identified species pools that tolerate particular local...... variation among the three R/P richness ratio estimates, but we found consistent support for a negative effect of regional geographic fragmentation and a positive topographic effect. We also identified fairly broad support for the predicted effect of accessibility. We conclude that local tree assemblages in...

  8. Habitat availability does not explain the species richness patterns of European lentic and lotic freshwater animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehling, D.M.; Hof, C.; Brandle, M.;

    2010-01-01

    species richness. We tested whether habitat availability can account for the differences in species richness patterns between European lentic and lotic freshwater animals. Location Europe. Methods We compiled occurrence data of 1959 lentic and 2445 lotic species as well as data on the amount of lentic and......Aim In Europe, the relationships between species richness and latitude differ for lentic (standing water) and lotic (running water) species. Freshwater animals are highly dependent on suitable habitat, and thus the distribution of available habitat should strongly influence large-scale patterns of...... latitude. Main conclusions Habitat availability and diversity are poor predictors of species richness of the European freshwater fauna across large scales. Our results indicate that the distributions of European freshwater animals are probably not in equilibrium and may still be influenced by history...

  9. Tree species richness decreases while species evenness increases with disturbance frequency in a natural boreal forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Daniel; Chen, Han Y H; Kingston, Steve

    2016-02-01

    Understanding species diversity and disturbance relationships is important for biodiversity conservation in disturbance-driven boreal forests. Species richness and evenness may respond differently with stand development following fire. Furthermore, few studies have simultaneously accounted for the influences of climate and local site conditions on species diversity. Using forest inventory data, we examined the relationships between species richness, Shannon's index, evenness, and time since last stand-replacing fire (TSF) in a large landscape of disturbance-driven boreal forest. TSF has negative effect on species richness and Shannon's index, and a positive effect on species evenness. Path analysis revealed that the environmental variables affect richness and Shannon's index only through their effects on TSF while affecting evenness directly as well as through their effects on TSF. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that species richness and Shannon's index decrease while species evenness increases with TSF in a boreal forest landscape. Furthermore, we show that disturbance frequency, local site conditions, and climate simultaneously influence tree species diversity through complex direct and indirect effects in the studied boreal forest. PMID:26865971

  10. A phylogenetic perspective on elevational species richness patterns in Middle American treefrogs: why so few species in lowland tropical rainforests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah A; de Oca, Adrian Nieto Montes; Reeder, Tod W; Wiens, John J

    2007-05-01

    Differences in species richness at different elevations are widespread and important for conservation, but the causes of these patterns remain poorly understood. Here, we use a phylogenetic perspective to address the evolutionary and biogeographic processes that underlie elevational diversity patterns within a region. We focus on a diverse but well-studied fauna of tropical amphibians, the hylid frogs of Middle America. Middle American treefrogs show a "hump-shaped" pattern of species richness (common in many organisms and regions), with the highest regional diversity at intermediate elevations. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among 138 species by combining new and published sequence data from 10 genes and then used this phylogeny to infer evolutionary rates and patterns. The high species richness of intermediate elevations seems to result from two factors. First, a tendency for montane clades to have higher rates of diversification. Second, the early colonization of montane regions, leaving less time for speciation to build up species richness in lowland regions (including tropical rainforests) that have been colonized more recently. This "time-for-speciation" effect may explain many diversity patterns and has important implications for conservation. The results also imply that local-scale environmental factors alone may be insufficient to explain the high species richness of lowland tropical rainforests, and that diversification rates are lower in earth's most species-rich biome. PMID:17492971

  11. Spatial association between malaria vector species richness and malaria in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Douglas O; Alimi, Temitope; Herrera, Socrates; Beier, John C; Quiñones, Martha L

    2016-06-01

    Malaria transmission in Colombia is highly variable in space and time. Using a species distribution model, we mapped potential distribution of five vector species including Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles neivai, and Anopheles nuneztovari in five Departments of Colombia where malaria transmission remains problematic. We overlaid the range maps of the five species to reveal areas of sympatry and related per-pixel species richness to mean annual parasite index (API) for 2011-2014 mapped by municipality (n = 287). The relationship between mean number of vector species per municipality and API was evaluated using a Poisson regression, which revealed a highly significant relationship between species richness and API (p = 0 for Wald Chi-Square statistic). The results suggest that areas of relatively high transmission in Colombia typically contain higher number of vector species than areas with unstable transmission and that future elimination strategies should account for vector species richness. PMID:26970373

  12. Scaling species richness and endemism of tropical dry forests on oceanic islands

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, T. W.; Keppel, G.(INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro, 35020 Padova, Italy); Pau, S.; Price, J P; Jaffre, Tanguy; O'Neill, K.

    2013-01-01

    Aim We examine variation in woody plant species richness and endemism within tropical dry forest on oceanic islands and determine what climatic and biogeographic metrics best explain native species richness and endemism across archipelagos, islands and plots. Location Oceanic islands in the Pacific. Methods Stand-level sampling (0.1ha) at 35 different dry forest sites across 16 islands, and five archipelagos (New Caledonia, Fiji, Marquesas, Marianas and Hawaii). Descriptors of native species ...

  13. Parasite and viral species richness of Southeast Asian bats: Fragmentation of area distribution matters

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, Noellie; Kevin J Olival; Bumrungsri, Sara; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Morand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Interest in bat-borne diseases and parasites has grown in the past decade over concerns for human health. However, the drivers of parasite diversity among bat host species are understudied as are the links between parasite richness and emerging risks. Thus, we aimed at exploring factors that explain macro and microparasite species richness in bats from Southeast Asia, a hotspot of emerging infectious diseases. First, we identified bat species that need increased sampling effort for pathogen d...

  14. Estimating Species Richness and Modelling Habitat Preferences of Tropical Forest Mammals from Camera Trap Data

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Rovero; Emanuel Martin; Melissa Rosa; Jorge A Ahumada; Daniel Spitale

    2014-01-01

    Medium-to-large mammals within tropical forests represent a rich and functionally diversified component of this biome; however, they continue to be threatened by hunting and habitat loss. Assessing these communities implies studying species' richness and composition, and determining a state variable of species abundance in order to infer changes in species distribution and habitat associations. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) network fills a chronic gap in standardized ...

  15. Predicting Understory Species Richness from Stand and Management Characteristics Using Regression Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Escobedo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing forests for multiple ecosystem services such as timber, carbon, and biodiversity requires information on ecosystem structure and management characteristics. National forest inventory data are increasingly being used to quantify ecosystem services, but they mostly provide timber management and overstory data, while data on understory shrub and herbaceous diversity are limited. We obtained species richness and stand management data from relevant literature to develop a regression tree model that can be used to predict understory species richness from forest inventory data. Our model explained 57% of the variation in herbaceous species richness in the coastal plain pine forests of the southeastern USA. Results were verified using field data, and important predictors of herbaceous richness included stand age, forest type, time since fire, and time since herbicide-fertilizer application. This approach can make use of available forest inventories to rapidly and cost-effectively estimate understory species richness for subtropical pine forests.

  16. Species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: associations with grassland plant richness and biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiiesalu, Inga; Pärtel, M.; Davison, J.; Gerhold, P.; Metsis, M.; Moora, M.; Öpik, M.; Vasar, M.; Zobel, M.; Wilson, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 1 (2014), s. 233-244. ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : belowground plant richness * diversity * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.373, year: 2013

  17. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  18. Habitat preferences of butterflies in the Bumbuna Forest, Northern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundufu, Abu James; Dumbuya, Rashida

    2008-01-01

    The habitat preferences of the butterfly fauna were studied in the Bumbuna Forest Reserve in northern Sierra Leone. The intact forest reserve and a secondary forest regrowth, disturbed as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, were compared to savanna habitats. Of the 290 specimens collected, 195 butterfly species were included, of which significant proportion were Nymphalidae. Of the 147 forest species, 111 (75.5%) showed preferences for the forest habitats, while 70 (47.6%) and 34 (23.1%) preferred disturbed and savannah habitats, respectively. Numerically, a comparable proportion of savannah species were recorded in the 18 disturbed (73.9%) and 16 savannah habitats (63.2%). Accumulated species richness and diversity indices were lower in the disturbed habitats compared to the forest reserve, but lowest in the savanna habitats. However, a large proportion of forest species, especially those with either a more restricted geographic range or species for which no information on geographic distribution was available, were exclusively captured in the forest patches. The survey indicated the presence of a rich butterfly fauna, which should be systematically collected for further research and study in order to build a good taxonomic database for Sierra Leone. PMID:20302525

  19. Limited sampling hampers “big data” estimation of species richness in a tropical biodiversity hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engemann, Kristine; Enquist, Brian J.; Sandel, Brody Steven;

    2015-01-01

    Macro-scale species richness studies often use museum specimens as their main source of information. However, such datasets are often strongly biased due to variation in sampling effort in space and time. These biases may strongly affect diversity estimates and may, thereby, obstruct solid infere...... methods, and Hill numbers and rarefaction. Species richness was heavily correlated with sampling effort, and only rarefaction was able to remove this effect, and we recommend this method for estimation of species richness with “big data” collections....

  20. Midpoint attractors and species richness: Modelling the interaction between environmental drivers and geometric constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Robert K; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ashton, Louise A; Beck, Jan; Brehm, Gunnar; Fayle, Tom M; Fiedler, Konrad; Forister, Matthew L; Kessler, Michael; Kitching, Roger L; Klimes, Petr; Kluge, Jürgen; Longino, John T; Maunsell, Sarah C; McCain, Christy M; Moses, Jimmy; Noben, Sarah; Sam, Katerina; Sam, Legi; Shapiro, Arthur M; Wang, Xiangping; Novotny, Vojtech

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a novel framework for conceptualising, quantifying and unifying discordant patterns of species richness along geographical gradients. While not itself explicitly mechanistic, this approach offers a path towards understanding mechanisms. In this study, we focused on the diverse patterns of species richness on mountainsides. We conjectured that elevational range midpoints of species may be drawn towards a single midpoint attractor - a unimodal gradient of environmental favourability. The midpoint attractor interacts with geometric constraints imposed by sea level and the mountaintop to produce taxon-specific patterns of species richness. We developed a Bayesian simulation model to estimate the location and strength of the midpoint attractor from species occurrence data sampled along mountainsides. We also constructed midpoint predictor models to test whether environmental variables could directly account for the observed patterns of species range midpoints. We challenged these models with 16 elevational data sets, comprising 4500 species of insects, vertebrates and plants. The midpoint predictor models generally failed to predict the pattern of species midpoints. In contrast, the midpoint attractor model closely reproduced empirical spatial patterns of species richness and range midpoints. Gradients of environmental favourability, subject to geometric constraints, may parsimoniously account for elevational and other patterns of species richness. PMID:27358193

  1. Does avian species richness in natural patch mosaics follow the forest fragmentation paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, D.C., Jr.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    As one approaches the north-eastern limit of pinyon (Pinus spp.) juniper (Juniperus spp.) vegetation on the Colorado Plateau, USA, woodland patches become increasingly disjunct, grading into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-dominated landscapes. Patterns of avian species richness in naturally heterogeneous forests may or may not respond to patch discontinuity in the same manner as bird assemblages in fragmented agricultural systems. We used observational data from naturally patchy woodlands and predictions derived from studies of human-modified agricultural forests to estimate the effects of patch area, shape, isolation and distance to contiguous woodland on avian species richness. We predicted that patterns of species richness in naturally patchy juniper woodlands would differ from those observed in fragmented agricultural systems. Our objectives were to (1) estimate the effect of naturally occurring patch structure on avian species richness with respect to habitat affinity and migratory strategy and (2) assess the concordance of the effects to predictions from agricultural forest systems. We used the analogy between populations and communities to estimate species richness, where species are treated as individuals in the application of traditional capture-recapture theory. Information-theoretic model selection showed that overall species richness was explained primarily by the species area relationship. There was some support for a model with greater complexity than the equilibrium theory of island biogeography where the isolation of large patches resulted in greater species richness. Species richness of woodland-dwelling birds was best explained by the equilibrium hypothesis with partial landscape complementation by open-country species in isolated patches. Species richness within specific migratory strategies showed concomitant increases and no shifts in species composition along the patch area gradient. Our results indicate that many patterns of species richness

  2. Rapid diversification and not clade age explains high diversity in neotropical Adelpha butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, Sean P.; Savage, Wesley K.; Wahlberg, Niklas; Willmott, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    Latitudinal gradients in species richness are among the most well-known biogeographic patterns in nature, and yet there remains much debate and little consensus over the ecological and evolutionary causes of these gradients. Here, we evaluated whether two prominent alternative hypotheses (namely differences in diversification rate or clade age) could account for the latitudinal diversity gradient in one of the most speciose neotropical butterfly genera (Adelpha) and its close relatives. We ge...

  3. Plant Size as Determinant of Species Richness of Herbivores, Natural Enemies and Pollinators across 21 Brassicaceae Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella Schlinkert

    Full Text Available Large plants are often more conspicuous and more attractive for associated animals than small plants, e.g. due to their wider range of resources. Therefore, plant size can positively affect species richness of associated animals, as shown for single groups of herbivores, but studies usually consider intraspecific size differences of plants in unstandardised environments. As comprehensive tests of interspecific plant size differences under standardised conditions are missing so far, we investigated effects of plant size on species richness of all associated arthropods using a common garden experiment with 21 Brassicaceae species covering a broad interspecific plant size gradient from 10 to 130 cm height. We recorded plant associated ecto- and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies and pollinators on and in each aboveground plant organ, i.e. flowers, fruits, leaves and stems. Plant size (measured as height from the ground, the number of different plant organ entities and their biomass were assessed. Increasing plant size led to increased species richness of associated herbivores, natural enemies and pollinating insects. This pattern was found for ectophagous and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies, as well as for herbivores associated with leaves and fruits and their natural enemies, independently of the additional positive effects of resource availability (i.e. organ biomass or number of entities and, regarding natural enemies, herbivore species richness. We found a lower R2 for pollinators compared to herbivores and natural enemies, probably caused by the high importance of flower characteristics for pollinator species richness besides plant size. Overall, the increase in plant height from 10 to 130 cm led to a 2.7-fold increase in predicted total arthropod species richness. In conclusion, plant size is a comprehensive driver of species richness of the plant associated arthropods, including pollinators, herbivores and their

  4. Exploring Spatial Scale, Autocorrelation and Nonstationarity of Bird Species Richness Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Holloway

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore relationships between bird species richness and environmental factors in New York State, focusing particularly on how spatial scale, autocorrelation and nonstationarity affect these relationships. We used spatial statistics, Getis-Ord Gi*(d, to investigate how spatial scale affects the measurement of richness “hot-spots” and “cold-spots” (clusters of high and low species richness, respectively and geographically weighted regression (GWR to explore scale dependencies and nonstationarity in the relationships between richness and environmental variables such as climate and plant productivity. Finally, we introduce a geovisualization approach to show how these relationships are affected by spatial scale in order to understand the complex spatial patterns of species richness.

  5. Species richness of motile cryptofauna across a gradient of reef framework erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, I. C.; Manzello, D. P.

    2012-09-01

    Coral reef ecosystems contain exceptionally high concentrations of marine biodiversity, potentially encompassing millions of species. Similar to tropical rainforests and their insects, the majority of reef animal species are small and cryptic, living in the cracks and crevices of structural taxa (trees and corals). Although the cryptofauna make up the majority of a reef's metazoan biodiversity, we know little about their basic ecology. We sampled motile cryptofaunal communities from both live corals and dead carbonate reef framework across a gradient of increasing erosion on a reef in Pacific Panamá. A total of 289 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) from six phyla were identified. We used species-accumulation models fitted to individual- and sample-based rarefaction curves, as well as seven nonparametric richness estimators to estimate species richness among the different framework types. All procedures predicted the same trends in species richness across the differing framework types. Estimated species richness was higher in dead framework (261-370 OTUs) than in live coral substrates (112-219 OTUs). Surprisingly, richness increased as framework structure was eroded: coral rubble contained the greatest number of species (227-320 OTUs) and the lowest estimated richness of 47-115 OTUs was found in the zone where the reef framework had the greatest vertical relief. This contradicts the paradigm that abundant live coral indicates the apex of reef diversity.

  6. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban environments, such as parks and gardens, may offer many alimentary resources, besides shelter and favorable conditions, for butterfly survival. This study aimed to make an inventory of butterflies visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM. From March 2006 to March 2007, the floral visitors were observed weekly for 2h. After 108 hours’ observations, 1114 visits by 39 butterfly species, associated with 43 plant species (21 families, were confirmed. Among the butterflies, Nymphalidae had the highest richness of species (S= 18, followed by Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 and Lycaenidae (S= 2. The pierid Phoebis philea philea was the most frequent species (188 visits, followed by hesperiids Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 and the nymphalid Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae were the most visited plants. The Botanical Garden of UFSM is an example of an urban park that seems to provide floral resources for the feeding of many butterfly species, being also a potential refuge for species from forest areas nearby.

  7. Predicting continental-scale patterns of bird species richness with spatially explicit models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Colwell, Robert K;

    2007-01-01

    the extraordinary diversity of avian species in the montane tropics, the most species-rich region on Earth. Our findings imply that correlative climatic models substantially underestimate the importance of historical factors and small-scale niche-driven assembly processes in shaping contemporary species......The causes of global variation in species richness have been debated for nearly two centuries with no clear resolution in sight. Competing hypotheses have typically been evaluated with correlative models that do not explicitly incorporate the mechanisms responsible for biotic diversity gradients....... Here, we employ a fundamentally different approach that uses spatially explicit Monte Carlo models of the placement of cohesive geographical ranges in an environmentally heterogeneous landscape. These models predict species richness of endemic South American birds (2248 species) measured...

  8. Responses of predatory invertebrates to seeding density and plant species richness in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Helzer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations have restored thousands of hectares of former cropland in the central United States with native grasses and forbs. However, the ability of these grassland restorations to attract predatory invertebrates has not been well documented, even though predators provide an important ecosystem service to agricultural producers by naturally regulating herbivores. This study assessed the effects of plant richness and seeding density on the richness and abundance of surface-dwelling (ants, ground beetles, and spiders) and aboveground (ladybird beetles) predatory invertebrates. In the spring of 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m-plots were planted to six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Natural Resources Conservation Service Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. Ants, ground beetles, and spiders were sampled using pitfall traps and ladybird beetles were sampled using sweep netting in 2007–2009. The abundance of ants, ground beetles, and spiders showed no response to seed mix richness or seeding density but there was a significant positive effect of richness on ladybird beetle abundance. Seeding density had a significant positive effect on ground beetle and spider species richness and Shannon–Weaver diversity. These results may be related to differences in the plant species composition and relative amount of grass basal cover among the treatments rather than richness.

  9. Nested species-rich networks of scavenging vertebrates support high levels of interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-González, Esther; Moleón, Marcos; Gibert, Jean P; Botella, Francisco; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P; Guimarães, Paulo R; Sánchez-Zapata, José A

    2016-01-01

    Disentangling the processes that shape the organization of ecological assemblages and its implications for species coexistence is one of the foremost challenges of ecology. Although insightful advances have recently related community composition and structure with species coexistence in mutualistic and antagonistic networks, little is known regarding other species assemblages, such as those of scavengers exploiting carrion. Here we studied seven assemblages of scavengers feeding on ungulate carcasses in mainland Spain. We used dynamical models to investigate if community composition, species richness and structure (nestedness) affect species coexistence at carcasses. Scavenging networks showed a nested pattern in sites where highly efficient, obligate scavengers (i.e., vultures) were present and a non-nested pattern everywhere else. Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) and certain meso-facultative mammalian scavengers (i.e., red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and stone marten, Martes foina) were the main species contributing to nestedness. Assemblages with vultures were also the richest ones in species. Nested species-rich assemblages with vulture presence were associated with high carcass consumption rates, indicating higher interspecific competition at the local scale. However, the proportion of species stopping the consumption of carrion (as derived from the competitive dynamic model) stabilized at high richness and nestedness levels. This suggests that high species richness and nestedness may characterize scavenging networks that are robust to high levels of interspecific competition for carrion. Some facilitative interactions driven by vultures and major facultative scavengers could be behind these observations. Our findings are relevant for understanding species' coexistence in highly competitive systems. PMID:27008779

  10. Climate and landscape explain richness patterns depending on the type of species' distribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsianou, Mariana A.; Koutsias, Nikolaos; Mazaris, Antonios D.; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the patterns of species richness and their environmental drivers, remains a central theme in ecological research and especially in the continental scales where many conservation decisions are made. Here, we analyzed the patterns of species richness from amphibians, reptiles and mammals at the EU level. We used two different data sources for each taxon: expert-drawn species range maps, and presence/absence atlases. As environmental drivers, we considered climate and land cover. Land cover is increasingly the focus of research, but there still is no consensus on how to classify land cover to distinct habitat classes, so we analyzed the CORINE land cover data with three different levels of thematic resolution (resolution of classification scheme ˗ less to more detailed). We found that the two types of species richness data explored in this study yielded different richness maps. Although, we expected expert-drawn range based estimates of species richness to exceed those from atlas data (due to the assumption that species are present in all locations throughout their region), we found that in many cases the opposite is true (the extreme case is the reptiles where more than half of the atlas based estimates were greater than the expert-drawn range based estimates). Also, we detected contrasting information on the richness drivers of biodiversity patterns depending on the dataset used. For atlas based richness estimates, landscape attributes played more important role than climate while for expert-drawn range based richness estimates climatic variables were more important (for the ectothermic amphibians and reptiles). Finally we found that the thematic resolution of the land cover classification scheme, also played a role in quantifying the effect of land cover diversity, with more detailed thematic resolution increasing the relative contribution of landscape attributes in predicting species richness.

  11. Simkin et al. 2016 PNAS data on herbaceous species richness and associated plot and covariate information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the geographic location (lat/lon) for 15,136 plots, as well as the herbaceous species richness, climate, soil pH, and other variables related...

  12. Species richness pattern along altitudinal gradient in Central European beech forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrivnák, R.; Gömöry, D.; Slezák, M.; Ujházy, K.; Hédl, Radim; Jarčuška, B.; Ujházyová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2014), s. 425-441. ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : altitude * beech-dominated forest * species richness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  13. Plant Trait Assembly Affects Superiority of Grazer's Foraging Strategies in Species-Rich Grasslands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mládek, J.; Mladonický, P.; Hejcmanová, P.; Dvorský, M.; Pavlů, V.; de Bello, Francesco; Duchoslav, M.; Hejcman, M.; Pakeman, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), e69800. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species-rich grasslands * plant functional traits * grazing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  14. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon;

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism....... Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography......, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding of the...

  15. Predicting spatial variations of tree species richness in tropical forests from high-resolution remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Geoffrey A; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Saatchi, Sassan S; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying theories, empirical data sets, and remote-sensing metrics that can quantify tropical forest alpha diversity at a landscape scale. Quantifying patterns of tree species richness in the field is time consuming, especially in regions with over 100 tree species/ha. We examine species richness in a 50-ha plot in Barro Colorado Island in Panama and test if biophysical measurements of canopy reflectance from high-resolution satellite imagery and detailed vertical forest structure and topography from light detection and ranging (lidar) are associated with species richness across four tree size classes (>1, 1-10, >10, and >20 cm dbh) and three spatial scales (1, 0.25, and 0.04 ha). We use the 2010 tree inventory, including 204,757 individuals belonging to 301 species of freestanding woody plants or 166 ± 1.5 species/ha (mean ± SE), to compare with remote-sensing data. All remote-sensing metrics became less correlated with species richness as spatial resolution decreased from 1.0 ha to 0.04 ha and tree size increased from 1 cm to 20 cm dbh. When all stems with dbh > 1 cm in 1-ha plots were compared to remote-sensing metrics, standard deviation in canopy reflectance explained 13% of the variance in species richness. The standard deviations of canopy height and the topographic wetness index (TWI) derived from lidar were the best metrics to explain the spatial variance in species richness (15% and 24%, respectively). Using multiple regression models, we made predictions of species richness across Barro Colorado Island (BCI) at the 1-ha spatial scale for different tree size classes. We predicted variation in tree species richness among all plants (adjusted r² = 0.35) and trees with dbh > 10 cm (adjusted r² = 0.25). However, the best model results were for understory trees and shrubs (dbh 1-10 cm) (adjusted r² = 0.52) that comprise the majority of species richness in tropical forests. Our results indicate that high

  16. Are parasite richness and abundance linked to prey species richness and individual feeding preferences in fish hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Stouffer, Daniel B; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

    2016-01-01

    Variations in levels of parasitism among individuals in a population of hosts underpin the importance of parasites as an evolutionary or ecological force. Factors influencing parasite richness (number of parasite species) and load (abundance and biomass) at the individual host level ultimately form the basis of parasite infection patterns. In fish, diet range (number of prey taxa consumed) and prey selectivity (proportion of a particular prey taxon in the diet) have been shown to influence parasite infection levels. However, fish diet is most often characterized at the species or fish population level, thus ignoring variation among conspecific individuals and its potential effects on infection patterns among individuals. Here, we examined parasite infections and stomach contents of New Zealand freshwater fish at the individual level. We tested for potential links between the richness, abundance and biomass of helminth parasites and the diet range and prey selectivity of individual fish hosts. There was no obvious link between individual fish host diet and helminth infection levels. Our results were consistent across multiple fish host and parasite species and contrast with those of earlier studies in which fish diet and parasite infection were linked, hinting at a true disconnect between host diet and measures of parasite infections in our study systems. This absence of relationship between host diet and infection levels may be due to the relatively low richness of freshwater helminth parasites in New Zealand and high host-parasite specificity. PMID:26573385

  17. What species-specific traits make a bird a better surrogate of native species richness? A test with insular avifauna

    OpenAIRE

    Carrascal, L. M.; Cayuela, L.; Palomino, D. (Desirée); Seoane, Javier

    2012-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Biological Conservation. Carrascal, L.M. et al. What species-specific traits make a bird a better surrogate of native species richness? A test with insular avifauna. Biological Conservation 152 (2012): 204-211

  18. Impacts of forest fragmentation on species richness: a hierarchical approach to community modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; DeWan, Amielle; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    1. Species richness is often used as a tool for prioritizing conservation action. One method for predicting richness and other summaries of community structure is to develop species-specific models of occurrence probability based on habitat or landscape characteristics. However, this approach can be challenging for rare or elusive species for which survey data are often sparse. 2. Recent developments have allowed for improved inference about community structure based on species-specific models of occurrence probability, integrated within a hierarchical modelling framework. This framework offers advantages to inference about species richness over typical approaches by accounting for both species-level effects and the aggregated effects of landscape composition on a community as a whole, thus leading to increased precision in estimates of species richness by improving occupancy estimates for all species, including those that were observed infrequently. 3. We developed a hierarchical model to assess the community response of breeding birds in the Hudson River Valley, New York, to habitat fragmentation and analysed the model using a Bayesian approach. 4. The model was designed to estimate species-specific occurrence and the effects of fragment area and edge (as measured through the perimeter and the perimeter/area ratio, P/A), while accounting for imperfect detection of species. 5. We used the fitted model to make predictions of species richness within forest fragments of variable morphology. The model revealed that species richness of the observed bird community was maximized in small forest fragments with a high P/A. However, the number of forest interior species, a subset of the community with high conservation value, was maximized in large fragments with low P/A. 6. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the responses of both individual, and groups of species, to environmental heterogeneity while illustrating the utility

  19. Species richness and composition assessment of spiders in a Mediterranean scrubland

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Pedro; Henriques, Sérgio; Gaspar, Clara; Crespo, Luis; Carvalho, Rui; Schmidt, Jesper; Sousa, Pedro; Szuts, Tamás

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Intensive fieldwork has been undertaken in Portugal in order to develop a standardized and optimized sampling protocol for Mediterranean spiders. The present study had the objectives of testing the use of semi-quantitative sampling for obtaining an exhaustive species richness assessment of spiders and testing the effects of day, time of day, collector and sampling method on the collected species richness and composition of a Mediterranean scrubland. The collecting summed 224 samples...

  20. Seed dispersal in agricultural habitats and the restoration of species-rich meadows.

    OpenAIRE

    Dorp, van, C.T.

    1996-01-01

    The restoration of species-rich meadows on former agricultural land in the Netherlands has a high priority, because these ecosystems have been disappearing rapidly due to eutrophication and acidification and falling water tables. In order to be able to restore such ecosystems on wet nutrient-poor soils, the suitability and accessibility of target sites have to be improved.The starting point for the restoration of species-rich meadows is frequently a soil that has been drained and enriched wit...

  1. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Arnaud; Selma, Maloufi; Mouillot, David; Troussellier, Marc; Bernard, Cécile

    2016-07-15

    Local species richness (SR) is a key characteristic affecting ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity in freshwater ecosystems are not fully understood, especially in peri-urban environments where anthropogenic pressures strongly impact the quality of aquatic ecosystems. To address this issue, we sampled the phytoplankton communities of 50 lakes in the Paris area (France) characterized by a large gradient of physico-chemical and catchment-scale characteristics. We used large phytoplankton datasets to describe phytoplankton diversity patterns and applied a machine-learning algorithm to test the degree to which species richness patterns are potentially controlled by environmental factors. Selected environmental factors were studied at two scales: the lake-scale (e.g. nutrients concentrations, water temperature, lake depth) and the catchment-scale (e.g. catchment, landscape and climate variables). Then, we used a variance partitioning approach to evaluate the interaction between lake-scale and catchment-scale variables in explaining local species richness. Finally, we analysed the residuals of predictive models to identify potential vectors of improvement of phytoplankton species richness predictive models. Lake-scale and catchment-scale drivers provided similar predictive accuracy of local species richness (R(2)=0.458 and 0.424, respectively). Both models suggested that seasonal temperature variations and nutrient supply strongly modulate local species richness. Integrating lake- and catchment-scale predictors in a single predictive model did not provide increased predictive accuracy; therefore suggesting that the catchment-scale model probably explains observed species richness variations through the impact of catchment-scale variables on in-lake water quality characteristics. Models based on catchment characteristics, which include simple and easy to obtain variables, provide a meaningful way of predicting phytoplankton species

  2. Understory species richness in an urban forest fragment, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ramos de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the floristic composition of the understory of Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, (08°01’15.1”S and 34°56’3.2”W, an area of about 370ha characterized as a lowland ombrophilous dense forest. The study included individuals with heights of up to 4.0m, such as treelets, shrubs, sub-bushes and terricolous herb plants, in fertile conditions. The collections were made every two weeks along a period of 24 months. A total of 108 species, belonging to 86 genera and 49 families, were recorded. The families with the highest number of species were Rubiaceae (14, Fabaceae (9 Melastomataceae (8, Asteraceae (8, Myrtaceae (6, and Poaceae (4. The Fabaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae presented the highest number of understory species in this fragment. Generally, among the studies made in the Atlantic forest areas in Pernambuco, the presence of a set of tree species common to these forests is evidenced.

  3. Can temporal and spatial NDVI predict regional bird-species richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Nieto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of the species and its controls over biogeographic scales is still a major challenge in ecology. National Park Networks provide an opportunity to assess the relationship between ecosystem functioning and biodiversity in areas with low human impacts. We tested the productivity–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the available energy, and the ​variability–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the diversity of habitats. The available energy and habitat heterogeneity estimated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was shown as a good predictor of bird-species richness for a diverse set of biomes in previously published studies. However, there is not a universal relationship between NDVI and bird-species richness. Here we tested if the NDVI can predict bird species richness in areas with low human impact in Argentina. Using a dataset from the National Park Network of Argentina we found that the best predictor of bird species richness was the minimum value of NDVI per year which explained 75% of total variability. The inclusion of the spatial heterogeneity of NDVI improved the explanation power to 80%. Minimum NDVI was highly correlated with precipitation and winter temperature. Our analysis provides a tool for assessing bird-species richness at scales on which land-use planning practitioners make their decisions for Southern South America.

  4. Deficit in community species richness as explained by area and isolation of sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The potential community species richness was predicted for 85 patches of seminatural grassland in an agricultural landscape in Denmark. The basis of the prediction was a very large dataset on the vegetation, soil pH and topography in Danish grasslands and related communities. Species were inserted...... into potential species pools according to their preferences regarding soil acidity and water availability (expressed as potential solar irradiation), and to the ranges in these two factors observed in each grassland patch. The difference between the predicted and the observed patch-level species richness...

  5. Revisiting spatial scale in the productivity-species richness relationship: fundamental issues and global change implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Paul D; Cusens, Jarrod; Gillman, Len N

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and species richness has been the subject of long-running debate. A changing climate gives added impetus to resolving this debate, as it becomes increasingly necessary to predict biodiversity responses that might arise from shifts in productivity or its climatic correlates. It has become increasingly clear that at small scales productivity-species richness relationships (PSRs) are variable, while at macro scales relationships are typically positive. We demonstrate the importance of explicitly considering scale in discussions on PSRs even at large scales by showing that distinct patterns emerge in a global dataset of terrestrial ecoregions when ecoregions are binned into size classes. At all sizes, PSRs in ecoregions are positive, but the strength of the PSR scales positively with ecoregion size. In small ecoregions (10(3)-10(4) km(2)), factors correlating with productivity play only a minor role in species richness patterns, while in large ecoregions (>10(5) km(2)), NPP modelled from remotely sensed data is able to explain most of the variation in species richness. Better understanding the effects of scale on PSRs contributes to the debate on the relationship between species richness and productivity, which in turn allows us to better predict how both long- and short-term biodiversity patterns and ecosystem functioning might be altered under global change scenarios. This gives focus on future research to clarify causal pathways between species richness and productivity with appropriate attention to scale as an important focusing element. PMID:25249265

  6. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Myczko

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  7. Urbanization Level and Woodland Size Are Major Drivers of Woodpecker Species Richness and Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myczko, Łukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M.; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species. PMID:24740155

  8. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Boch

    Full Text Available Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin, the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2 comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging, various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks. We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1 conserving unmanaged forests, (2 promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3 conserving old trees in managed forests, (4 promoting stands of native deciduous

  9. Species richness of vertebrates in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Šímová, P.; Šálek, M.; Anděra, M.; Bejček, V.; Hanák, V.; Hanel, L.; Lusk, Stanislav; Mikátová, B.; Moravec, J.; Šťastný, K.; Zima, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 452-464. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mapping squares * species numbers * environmental variables * PCA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/4/452-464_MS1417.pdf

  10. Patterns of Species Richness and Turnover for the South American Rodent Fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, Renan; Patterson, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of species sheds light on the group's biogeographical history, offers clues to the drivers of diversity, and helps to guide conservation strategies. Here, we compile geographic range information for South America's diverse rodents, whose 14 families comprise ~50% of the continent's mammalian species. The South American rodent fauna is dominated by independent and temporally staggered radiations of caviomorph and sigmodontine groups. We mapped species richness and turnover of all rodents and the principal clades to identify the main predictors of diversity patterns. Species richness was highest in the Andes, with a secondary hotspot in Atlantic Forest and some regions of considerable richness in Amazonia. Differences in richness were evident between the caviomorphs and sigmodontines, the former showing the greatest richness in tropical forests whereas the latter show-and largely determine-the all-rodent pattern. Elevation was the main predictor of sigmodontine richness, whereas temperature was the principal variable correlated with richness of caviomorphs. Across clades, species turnover was highest along the Andes and was best explained by elevational relief. In South America, the effects of the familiar latitudinal gradient in species richness are mixed with a strong longitudinal effect, triggered by the importance of elevation and the position of the Andes. Both latitudinal and elevational effects help explain the complicated distribution of rodent diversity across the continent. The continent's restricted-range species-those seemingly most vulnerable to localized disturbance-are mostly distributed along the Andes and in Atlantic Forest, with the greatest concentration in Ecuador. Both the Andes and Atlantic Forest are known hotspots for other faunal and floral components. Contrasting patterns of the older caviomorph and younger sigmodontine radiations underscore the interplay of both historical and ecological factors in

  11. A structural equation model of plant species richness and its application to a coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Pugesek, B.H.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of plant species richness have often emphasized the role of either community biomass (as an indicator of density effects) or abiotic factors. In this article we present a general model that simultaneously examines the relative importance of abiotic and density effects. General and specific models were developed to examine the importance of abiotic conditions, disturbance, and community biomass on plant species richness. Models were evaluated using structural equation modeling based on data from 190 plots across a coastal marsh landscape. The accepted model was found to explain 45% of the observed variation in richness, 75% of biomass, and 65% of light penetration. Model results indicate that abiotic conditions have both direct effects on the species pool and indirect effects on richness mediated through effects on biomass and shading. Effects of disturbance were found to be indirect via biomass. Strong density effects on richness were indicated by the results, and canopy light penetration was found to be a better predictor of richness than was biomass. Overall, it appears that richness in this coastal landscape is controlled in roughly equal proportions by abiotic influences on the species pool and density effects, with disturbance playing a lesser role. The structure of the general model presented should be applicable to a wide variety of herbaceous plant communities.

  12. Global assessment of the effects of terrestrial acidification on plant species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimates the potential losses of vascular plant species richness due to terrestrial acidification for different world's biomes. We used empirical occurrence data of 2409 species from 140 studies and estimated the relative species richness – pH response curves using logistic regressions. The regressions were then used to quantify the fraction of species that are potentially lost due to soil pH changes. Although we found considerable variability within biomes, out results show that the pH at which species richness was maximized was found to be the lowest in (sub)tropical forests (pH = 4.1) and the highest in deserts (pH = 7.4). We also found that (sub)tropical moist forests are highly sensitive to decreases of in soil pH below 4.1. This study can be coupled with existing atmospheric deposition models to quantify the risk of species richness loss following soil acidification. Highlights: ► We compare the sensitivity of four biomes to soil acidification. ► We develop logistic regressions using observational field data. ► Sub(tropical) moist forests are highly affected by pH decreases. ► Logistic regressions can be linked to global scale atmospheric and soil fate models. -- Relationships of potential species richness loss along a soil pH gradient are proposed

  13. Species richness and soil properties in Pinus ponderosa forests: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, D.C.; Abella, S.R.; Covington, W.W.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Question: How are the effects of mineral soil properties on understory plant species richness propagated through a network of processes involving the forest overstory, soil organic matter, soil nitrogen, and understory plant abundance? Location: North-central Arizona, USA. Methods: We sampled 75 0.05-ha plots across a broad soil gradient in a Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) forest ecosystem. We evaluated multivariate models of plant species richness using structural equation modeling. Results: Richness was highest at intermediate levels of understory plant cover, suggesting that both colonization success and competitive exclusion can limit richness in this system. We did not detect a reciprocal positive effect of richness on plant cover. Richness was strongly related to soil nitrogen in the model, with evidence for both a direct negative effect and an indirect non-linear relationship mediated through understory plant cover. Soil organic matter appeared to have a positive influence on understory richness that was independent of soil nitrogen. Richness was lowest where the forest overstory was densest, which can be explained through indirect effects on soil organic matter, soil nitrogen and understory cover. Finally, model results suggest a variety of direct and indirect processes whereby mineral soil properties can influence richness. Conclusions: Understory plant species richness and plant cover in P. ponderosa forests appear to be significantly influenced by soil organic matter and nitrogen, which are, in turn, related to overstory density and composition and mineral soil properties. Thus, soil properties can impose direct and indirect constraints on local species diversity in ponderosa pine forests. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  14. Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host-ant-dependent o......Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host...

  15. Regional and local species richness in an insular environment: Serpentine plants in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S.; Safford, H.D.; Grace, J.B.; Viers, J.H.; Davies, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    We asked how the richness of the specialized (endemic) flora of serpentine rock outcrops in California varies at both the regional and local scales. Our study had two goals: first, to test whether endemic richness is affected by spatial habitat structure (e.g., regional serpentine area, local serpentine outcrop area, regional and local measures of outcrop isolation), and second, to conduct this test in the context of a broader assessment of environmental influences (e.g., climate, soils, vegetation, disturbance) and historical influences (e.g., geologic age, geographic province) on local and regional species richness. We measured endemic and total richness and environmental variables in 109 serpentine sites (1000-m2 paired plots) in 78 serpentine-containing regions of the state. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to simultaneously relate regional richness to regionalscale predictors, and local richness to both local-scale and regional-scale predictors. Our model for serpentine endemics explained 66% of the variation in local endemic richness based on local environment (vegetation, soils, rock cover) and on regional endemic richness. It explained 73% of the variation in regional endemic richness based on regional environment (climate and productivity), historical factors (geologic age and geographic province), and spatial structure (regional total area of serpentine, the only significant spatial variable in our analysis). We did not find a strong influence of spatial structure on species richness. However, we were able to distinguish local vs. regional influences on species richness to a novel extent, despite the existence of correlations between local and regional conditions. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Effects of trophic skewing of species richness on ecosystem functioning in a diverse marine community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L Reynolds

    Full Text Available Widespread overharvesting of top consumers of the world's ecosystems has "skewed" food webs, in terms of biomass and species richness, towards a generally greater domination at lower trophic levels. This skewing is exacerbated in locations where exotic species are predominantly low-trophic level consumers such as benthic macrophytes, detritivores, and filter feeders. However, in some systems where numerous exotic predators have been added, sometimes purposefully as in many freshwater systems, food webs are skewed in the opposite direction toward consumer dominance. Little is known about how such modifications to food web topology, e.g., changes in the ratio of predator to prey species richness, affect ecosystem functioning. We experimentally measured the effects of trophic skew on production in an estuarine food web by manipulating ratios of species richness across three trophic levels in experimental mesocosms. After 24 days, increasing macroalgal richness promoted both plant biomass and grazer abundance, although the positive effect on plant biomass disappeared in the presence of grazers. The strongest trophic cascade on the experimentally stocked macroalgae emerged in communities with a greater ratio of prey to predator richness (bottom-rich food webs, while stronger cascades on the accumulation of naturally colonizing algae (primarily microalgae with some early successional macroalgae that recruited and grew in the mesocosms generally emerged in communities with greater predator to prey richness (the more top-rich food webs. These results suggest that trophic skewing of species richness and overall changes in food web topology can influence marine community structure and food web dynamics in complex ways, emphasizing the need for multitrophic approaches to understand the consequences of marine extinctions and invasions.

  17. The influence of trap density and sampling duration on the detection of small mammal species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, J.M.; Baumgardt, J.A.; Gipson, P.S.; Althoff, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing species richness of small mammal communities is an important research objective for many live-trapping studies designed to assess or monitor biological diversity. We tested the effectiveness and efficiency of various trap densities for determining estimates and counts of small mammal species richness. Trapping was conducted in grassland habitats in northeastern Kansas during spring and fall of 2002 and 2003. Estimates and counts of species richness were higher at increased trap densities. This effect appeared to be primarily due to the higher number of individuals sampled at higher trap densities. At least 3 nights duration was needed to produce a stable estimate of species richness for the range of trap densities tested (9-144 trap stations/ha). Higher trap densities generally reached stable richness estimates in fewer nights than low density trapping arrangements. Given that counts and estimates of species richness were influenced by trap density and sampling duration, it is critical that these parameters are selected to most effectively meet research objectives.

  18. Disentangling the Role of Climate, Topography and Vegetation in Species Richness Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario R Moura

    Full Text Available Environmental gradients (EG related to climate, topography and vegetation are among the most important drivers of broad scale patterns of species richness. However, these different EG do not necessarily drive species richness in similar ways, potentially presenting synergistic associations when driving species richness. Understanding the synergism among EG allows us to address key questions arising from the effects of global climate and land use changes on biodiversity. Herein, we use variation partitioning (also know as commonality analysis to disentangle unique and shared contributions of different EG in explaining species richness of Neotropical vertebrates. We use three broad sets of predictors to represent the environmental variability in (i climate (annual mean temperature, temperature annual range, annual precipitation and precipitation range, (ii topography (mean elevation, range and coefficient of variation of elevation, and (iii vegetation (land cover diversity, standard deviation and range of forest canopy height. The shared contribution between two types of EG is used to quantify synergistic processes operating among EG, offering new perspectives on the causal relationships driving species richness. To account for spatially structured processes, we use Spatial EigenVector Mapping models. We perform analyses across groups with distinct dispersal abilities (amphibians, non-volant mammals, bats and birds and discuss the influence of vagility on the partitioning results. Our findings indicate that broad scale patterns of vertebrate richness are mainly affected by the synergism between climate and vegetation, followed by the unique contribution of climate. Climatic factors were relatively more important in explaining species richness of good dispersers. Most of the variation in vegetation that explains vertebrate richness is climatically structured, supporting the productivity hypothesis. Further, the weak synergism between topography and

  19. Reef flattening effects on total richness and species responses in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Steven P; Meesters, Erik H; Dryden, Charlie S; Williams, Stacey M; Sanchez, Cristina; Mumby, Peter J; Polunin, Nicholas V C

    2015-11-01

    There has been ongoing flattening of Caribbean coral reefs with the loss of habitat having severe implications for these systems. Complexity and its structural components are important to fish species richness and community composition, but little is known about its role for other taxa or species-specific responses. This study reveals the importance of reef habitat complexity and structural components to different taxa of macrofauna, total species richness, and individual coral and fish species in the Caribbean. Species presence and richness of different taxa were visually quantified in one hundred 25-m(2) plots in three marine reserves in the Caribbean. Sampling was evenly distributed across five levels of visually estimated reef complexity, with five structural components also recorded: the number of corals, number of large corals, slope angle, maximum sponge and maximum octocoral height. Taking advantage of natural heterogeneity in structural complexity within a particular coral reef habitat (Orbicella reefs) and discrete environmental envelope, thus minimizing other sources of variability, the relative importance of reef complexity and structural components was quantified for different taxa and individual fish and coral species on Caribbean coral reefs using boosted regression trees (BRTs). Boosted regression tree models performed very well when explaining variability in total (82·3%), coral (80·6%) and fish species richness (77·3%), for which the greatest declines in richness occurred below intermediate reef complexity levels. Complexity accounted for very little of the variability in octocorals, sponges, arthropods, annelids or anemones. BRTs revealed species-specific variability and importance for reef complexity and structural components. Coral and fish species occupancy generally declined at low complexity levels, with the exception of two coral species (Pseudodiploria strigosa and Porites divaricata) and four fish species (Halichoeres bivittatus, H

  20. Effects of 'target' plant species body size on neighbourhood species richness and composition in old-field vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Schamp

    Full Text Available Competition is generally regarded as an important force in organizing the structure of vegetation, and evidence from several experimental studies of species mixtures suggests that larger mature plant size elicits a competitive advantage. However, these findings are at odds with the fact that large and small plant species generally coexist, and relatively smaller species are more common in virtually all plant communities. Here, we use replicates of ten relatively large old-field plant species to explore the competitive impact of target individual size on their surrounding neighbourhoods compared to nearby neighbourhoods of the same size that are not centred by a large target individual. While target individuals of the largest of our test species, Centaurea jacea L., had a strong impact on neighbouring species, in general, target species size was a weak predictor of the number of other resident species growing within its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the number of resident species that were reproductive. Thus, the presence of a large competitor did not restrict the ability of neighbouring species to reproduce. Lastly, target species size did not have any impact on the species size structure of neighbouring species; i.e. they did not restrict smaller, supposedly poorer competitors, from growing and reproducing close by. Taken together, these results provide no support for a size-advantage in competition restricting local species richness or the ability of small species to coexist and successfully reproduce in the immediate neighbourhood of a large species.

  1. Clade age and not diversification rate explains species richness among animal taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Mark A; Brown, Jonathan M

    2007-04-01

    Animal taxa show remarkable variability in species richness across phylogenetic groups. Most explanations for this disparity postulate that taxa with more species have phenotypes or ecologies that cause higher diversification rates (i.e., higher speciation rates or lower extinction rates). Here we show that clade longevity, and not diversification rate, has primarily shaped patterns of species richness across major animal clades: more diverse taxa are older and thus have had more time to accumulate species. Diversification rates calculated from 163 species-level molecular phylogenies were highly consistent within and among three major animal phyla (Arthropoda, Chordata, Mollusca) and did not correlate with species richness. Clades with higher estimated diversification rates were younger, but species numbers increased with increasing clade age. A fossil-based data set also revealed a strong, positive relationship between total extant species richness and crown group age across the orders of insects and vertebrates. These findings do not negate the importance of ecology or phenotype in influencing diversification rates, but they do show that clade longevity is the dominant signal in major animal biodiversity patterns. Thus, some key innovations may have acted through fostering clade longevity and not by heightening diversification rate. PMID:17427118

  2. Seed Density Significantly Affects Species Richness and Composition in Experimental Plant Communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2012), e46704. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species richness * seed rain * species composition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  3. Changes in nectar supply: A possible cause of widespread butterfly decline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michiel F.WALLISDEVRIES; Chris A.M.Van SWAAY; Calijn L.PLATE

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have documented declining trends of various groups of flower-visiting insects,even common butterfly species.Causes of these declines are still unclear but the loss of habitat quality across the wider countryside is thought to be a major factor.Nectar supply constitutes one of the main resources determining habitat quality.Yet,data on changes in nectar abundance are lacking.In this study,we provide the first analysis of changes in floral nectar abundance on a national scale and link these data to trends in butterfly species richness and abundance.We used transect data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme to compare two time periods:1994-1995 and 2007-2008.The results show that butterfly decline can indeed be linked to a substantial decline in overall flower abundance and specific nectar plants,such as thistles.The decline is as severe in reported flower generalists as in flower specialists.We suggest that eutrophication is a main cause of the decline of nectar sources.

  4. Global and Regional Patterns in Riverine Fish Species Richness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Oberdorff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We integrate the respective role of global and regional factors driving riverine fish species richness patterns, to develop a synthetic model of potential mechanisms and processes generating these patterns. This framework allows species richness to be broken down into different components specific to each spatial extent and to establish links between these components and the processes involved. This framework should help to answer the questions that are currently being asked by society, including the effects of species invasions, habitat loss, or fragmentation and climate change on freshwater biodiversity.

  5. The relationship between species richness and productivity in four typical grasslands of northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wenhong

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between plant species richness and primary productivity has long been acentral topic in biodiversity research.In this paper,we examine the relationship between species richness and productivity in four typical grasslands of Northern China at different spatial scales.At the community scale,a positive correlation was found for six of seven communities.A unimodal pattern was found only for one community (Stipa glareosa community),while at a large scale (vegetation type or landscape/region),the relationship was also found significantly positive.Species richness ranged from 4 to 35 species,and community aboveground productiand aboveground productivity were found in alpine meadow,followed by meadow steppe,typical steppe and desert steppe.

  6. Environmental changes define ecological limits to species richness and reveal the mode of macroevolutionary competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezard, Thomas H G; Purvis, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Co-dependent geological and climatic changes obscure how species interact in deep time. The interplay between these environmental factors makes it hard to discern whether ecological competition exerts an upper limit on species richness. Here, using the exceptional fossil record of Cenozoic Era macroperforate planktonic foraminifera, we assess the evidence for alternative modes of macroevolutionary competition. Our models support an environmentally dependent macroevolutionary form of contest competition that yields finite upper bounds on species richness. Models of biotic competition assuming unchanging environmental conditions were overwhelmingly rejected. In the best-supported model, temperature affects the per-lineage diversification rate, while both temperature and an environmental driver of sediment accumulation defines the upper limit. The support for contest competition implies that incumbency constrains species richness by restricting niche availability, and that the number of macroevolutionary niches varies as a function of environmental changes. PMID:27278857

  7. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam;

    2014-01-01

    species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales...... the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After...... identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size = 0.2109, P,0...

  8. Unprecedented within-species chromosome number cline in the Wood White butterfly Leptidea sinapis and its significance for karyotype evolution and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Species generally have a fixed number of chromosomes in the cell nuclei while between-species differences are common and often pronounced. These differences could have evolved through multiple speciation events, each involving the fixation of a single chromosomal rearrangement. Alternatively, marked changes in the karyotype may be the consequence of within-species accumulation of multiple chromosomal fissions/fusions, resulting in highly polymorphic systems with the subsequent extinction of intermediate karyomorphs. Although this mechanism of chromosome number evolution is possible in theory, it has not been well documented. Results We present the discovery of exceptional intraspecific variability in the karyotype of the widespread Eurasian butterfly Leptidea sinapis. We show that within this species the diploid chromosome number gradually decreases from 2n = 106 in Spain to 2n = 56 in eastern Kazakhstan, resulting in a 6000 km-wide cline that originated recently (8,500 to 31,000 years ago). Remarkably, intrapopulational chromosome number polymorphism exists, the chromosome number range overlaps between some populations separated by hundreds of kilometers, and chromosomal heterozygotes are abundant. We demonstrate that this karyotypic variability is intraspecific because in L. sinapis a broad geographical distribution is coupled with a homogenous morphological and genetic structure. Conclusions The discovered system represents the first clearly documented case of explosive chromosome number evolution through intraspecific and intrapopulation accumulation of multiple chromosomal changes. Leptidea sinapis may be used as a model system for studying speciation by means of chromosomally-based suppressed recombination mechanisms, as well as clinal speciation, a process that is theoretically possible but difficult to document. The discovered cline seems to represent a narrow time-window of the very first steps of species formation linked to multiple chromosomal

  9. Unprecedented within-species chromosome number cline in the Wood White butterfly Leptidea sinapis and its significance for karyotype evolution and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dincă Vlad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species generally have a fixed number of chromosomes in the cell nuclei while between-species differences are common and often pronounced. These differences could have evolved through multiple speciation events, each involving the fixation of a single chromosomal rearrangement. Alternatively, marked changes in the karyotype may be the consequence of within-species accumulation of multiple chromosomal fissions/fusions, resulting in highly polymorphic systems with the subsequent extinction of intermediate karyomorphs. Although this mechanism of chromosome number evolution is possible in theory, it has not been well documented. Results We present the discovery of exceptional intraspecific variability in the karyotype of the widespread Eurasian butterfly Leptidea sinapis. We show that within this species the diploid chromosome number gradually decreases from 2n = 106 in Spain to 2n = 56 in eastern Kazakhstan, resulting in a 6000 km-wide cline that originated recently (8,500 to 31,000 years ago. Remarkably, intrapopulational chromosome number polymorphism exists, the chromosome number range overlaps between some populations separated by hundreds of kilometers, and chromosomal heterozygotes are abundant. We demonstrate that this karyotypic variability is intraspecific because in L. sinapis a broad geographical distribution is coupled with a homogenous morphological and genetic structure. Conclusions The discovered system represents the first clearly documented case of explosive chromosome number evolution through intraspecific and intrapopulation accumulation of multiple chromosomal changes. Leptidea sinapis may be used as a model system for studying speciation by means of chromosomally-based suppressed recombination mechanisms, as well as clinal speciation, a process that is theoretically possible but difficult to document. The discovered cline seems to represent a narrow time-window of the very first steps of species formation

  10. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seas...

  11. Patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness along elevational gradients in Mt. Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, Patrick Kinyatta

    2015-11-18

    Faunal species richness is traditionally assumed to decrease with increasing elevation and decreasing primary productivity. Species richness is reported to peak at mid-elevation. This survey examines the herpetofaunal diversity and distribution in Mt. Kenya (central Kenya) by testing the hypothesis that changes in species richness with elevation relate to elevation-dependent changes in climate. Sampling along transects from an elevation of approximately 1 700 m in Chogoria forest block (wind-ward side) and approximately 2 600 m in Sirimon block (rain shadow zone) upwards in March 2009. This starts from the forest to montane alpine zones. Sampling of reptiles and amphibians uses pitfall traps associated with drift fences, time-limited searches and visual encounter surveys. The results show that herpetofaunal richness differs among three vegetation zones along the elevation gradient. Chogoria has higher biodiversity than Sirimon. More species occur at low and middle elevations and few exist at high elevations. The trends are consistent with expected optimum water and energy variables. The lower alpine montane zone has high species richness but low diversity due to dominance of some high elevations species. Unambiguous data do not support a mid-domain effect (mid-elevation peak) because the observed trend better fits a model in which climatic variables (rainfall and temperature) control species richness, which indirectly measures productivity. It is important to continue protection of all indigenous forests, especially at low to mid elevations. These areas are vulnerable to human destruction yet are home to some endemic species. Firebreaks can limit the spread of the perennial wildfires, especially on the moorlands. PMID:26646571

  12. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass...... and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and...... determined species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this...

  13. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic analysis with Sanger and next-generation sequencing shows that, in Área de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, the skipper butterfly named Urbanus belli (family Hesperiidae) comprises three morphologically cryptic species

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Claudia; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Burns, John M.; Gibson, Joel F; Shokralla, Shadi; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Background Skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) are a relatively well-studied family of Lepidoptera. However, a combination of DNA barcodes, morphology, and natural history data has revealed several cryptic species complexes within them. Here, we investigate three DNA barcode lineages of what has been identified as Urbanus belli (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) in Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. Results Although no morphological traits appear to distinguish among the thre...

  14. Limited sampling hampers “big data” estimation of species richness in a tropical biodiversity hotspot:Sampling Hampers Species Richness Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Engemann, Kristine; Enquist, Brian J.; Sandel, Brody Steven; Boyle, Brad; Jørgensen, Peter M.; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K.; Violle, Cyrille; Svenning, J.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Macro-scale species richness studies often use museum specimens as their main source of information. However, such datasets are often strongly biased due to variation in sampling effort in space and time. These biases may strongly affect diversity estimates and may, thereby, obstruct solid inference on the underlying diversity drivers, as well as mislead conservation prioritization. In recent years, this has resulted in an increased focus on developing methods to correct for sampling bias. In...

  15. Testing the Effectiveness of Environmental Variables to Explain European Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Richness across Biogeographical Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Mouchet

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of environmental variables, and in particular of land-use indicators, to explain species richness patterns across taxonomic groups and biogeographical scales (i.e. overall pan-Europe and ecoregions within pan-Europe. Using boosted regression trees that handle non-linear relationships, we compared the relative influence (as a measure of effectiveness of environmental variables related to climate, landscape (or habitat heterogeneity, land-use intensity or energy availability to explain European vertebrate species richness (birds, amphibians, and mammals at the continental and ecoregion scales. We found that dominant land cover and actual evapotranspiration that relate to energy availability were the main correlates of vertebrate species richness over Europe. At the ecoregion scale, we identified four distinct groups of ecoregions where species richness was essentially associated to (i seasonality of temperature, (ii actual evapotranspiration and/or mean annual temperature, (iii seasonality of precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and land cover and (iv and an even combination of the environmental variables. This typology of ecoregions remained valid for total vertebrate richness and the three vertebrate groups taken separately. Despite the overwhelming influence of land cover and actual evapotranspiration to explain vertebrate species richness patterns at European scale, the ranking of the main correlates of species richness varied between regions. Interestingly, landscape and land-use indicators did not stand out at the continental scale but their influence greatly increased in southern ecoregions, revealing the long-lasting human footprint on land-use-land-cover changes. Our study provides one of the first multi-scale descriptions of the variability in the ranking of correlates across several taxa.

  16. Plant species richness and composition in the arable land of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmeti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates today’s plant species richness and composition in cultivated and recently abandoned arable land of Kosovo. Relationships between these aspects of vegetation and both environmental features and agricultural management measures are studied at the regional and plot scale. In 2006, 432 vegetation relevés with a standard plot size of 25 m² were recorded in cultivated fields. In 2007, data collection focussed on 41 plots in arable fields that had been abandoned the year before. With respect to the environment, data analysis accounts for topography, soil base-richness and moisture, and geographic location. As to the management, crops and weed control are considered. A total number of 235 species was documented. In comparison to literature dating back to about 1980, the regional weed flora considerably changed. At the plot scale, today’s weed flora of Kosovo is fairly species-poor and species composition is rather uniform between plots. According to General Regression Model analyses, Indicator Species Analyses and Detrended Correspondence Analyses, species richness and composition mainly differ between crops and weed management, with highest mean species richness in recently abandoned and lowest in herbicide-treated maize fields.

  17. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha; Igor Soares de Oliveira; Marilia Teresinha Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2), Bufonidae (2), Centrolenidae (1), Cycloramphidae (1), Hemiphractidae (1), Hylidae (18), Hylodidae (1), Leiuperidae (2), Leptodactylidae (3), and Microhylidae (1). Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while ...

  18. Richness of Ancient Forest Plant Species Indicates Suitable Habitats for Macrofungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, J.; Hošek, J.; Brabec, Marek; Dvořák, D.; Beran, M.; Deckerová, H.; Burel, J.; Kříž, M.; Borovička, Jan; Běťák, J.; Vašutová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 8 (2014), s. 2015-2031. ISSN 0960-3115 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/146/08 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : diversity * forest continuity * forest management * Herb-layer plant species * red-listed species * species richness * surrogacy Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (GLU-S); EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  19. [Geographic patterns and ecological factors correlates of snake species richness in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bo; Huang, Yong; Chen, Yue-Ying; Hu, Jun-Hua; Guo, Xian-Guang; Wang, Yue-Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Understanding large-scale geographic patterns of species richness as well its underlying mechanisms are among the most significant objectives of macroecology and biogeography. The ecological hypothesis is one of the most accepted explanations of this mechanism. Here, we studied the geographic patterns of snakes and investigated the relationships between species richness and ecological factors in China at a spatial resolution of 100 km×100 km. We obtained the eigenvector-based spatial filters by Principal Coordinates Neighbor Matrices, and then analyzed ecological factors by multiple regression analysis. The results indicated several things: (1) species richness of snakes showed multi-peak patterns along both the latitudinal and longitudinal gradient. The areas of highest richness of snake are tropics and subtropical areas of Oriental realm in China while the areas of lowest richness are Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the grasslands and deserts in northern China, Yangtze-Huai Plain, Two-lake Plain, and the Poyang-lake Plain; (2) results of multiple regression analysis explained a total of 56.5% variance in snake richness. Among ecological factors used to explore the species richness patterns, we found the best factors were the normalized difference vegetation index, precipitation in the coldest quarter and temperature annual range ; (3) our results indicated that the model based on the significant variables that (Psnake richness in China. This finding demonstrates that different ecological factors work together to affect the geographic distribution of snakes in China. Studying the mechanisms that underlie these geographic patterns are complex, so we must carefully consider the choice of impact-factors and the influence of human activities. PMID:22855440

  20. The combined influence of the local environment andregional enrichment on bird species richness

    OpenAIRE

    White, Ethan P.; Hurlbert, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that local species richness at a site reflects the combined influence of local and regional processes. However, most empirical studies evaluate the influence of either local environmental variables or regional enrichment but not both simultaneously. Here we demonstrate the importance of combining these processes to understand continental scale richness patterns in breeding birds. We show that neither regional enrichment nor the local environment in isolation is suffic...

  1. Species richness of limestone grasslands increases with trait overlap: evidence from within- and between-species functional diversity partitioning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y.; de Bello, Francesco; Vandewalle, M.; Lepš, J.; Sykes, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 2 (2014), s. 466-474. ISSN 0022-0477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : functional diversity * species richness * trait overlap Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2014

  2. Subtropical reservoir shorelines have reduced plant species and functional richness compared with adjacent riparian wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam construction has large negative effects on biodiversity in river and riparian ecosystems worldwide. This study aimed to determine whether reservoir shorelines had lower plant species diversity and functional diversity than unregulated or lightly regulated riparian wetlands and to examine the responses of plant diversity and functional traits to reservoir shoreline environmental gradients. We surveyed 146, 44, and 67 plots on reservoir shorelines and in mainstem and tributary riparian wetlands, respectively, in a subtropical river–reservoir system. Species richness, functional richness, evenness, and divergence were calculated to reflect the species and functional diversity of plant communities. Environmental factors including elevation above water level, slope, landform type, substrate, disturbance, and cover were measured. The results showed that both species and functional richness were significantly lower on reservoir shorelines than in riparian wetlands. The relative species number of clonal plants and relative cover of annual plants were both negatively related to slope and elevation. Structural equation modeling and other statistical analyses indicated that most environmental factors had significant effects on species and functional richness on reservoir shorelines but had no significant effect on functional evenness and divergence. Our findings suggest that reservoir shoreline wetlands formed by damming rivers and inundating pre-existing riparian wetlands can be a biodiversity coldspot in regulated rivers at the plot level. Topographic factors are important in determining the plant diversity and vegetation establishment on reservoir shorelines in the Yangtze River basin. (letter)

  3. Freshwater fishes in Greek lakes: Species richness and body size patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Oikonomou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems are widely recognised as hotspots of biodiversity and endemism; thus they are of great value for conservation biogeography. Amongst the taxa found in freshwater ecosystems, fish are the ideal biological model for testing biogeographical patterns and have often been used in large-scale ecological and biogeographical analyses. Lakes of Greece provide a unique opportunity to test biogeographical theories, however, biogeographical studies in Greece at broader, regional, scales, based on the distribution of freshwater species, species richness and endemism, are scarce. The aim of the current study is to test the effect of key environmental factors and spatial variables on species richness of lacustrine fishes and to test their effect on species’ size distributions. We assembled datasets of species richness and body size and environmental (predictor factors for 13 Greek lakes. Model selection procedures revealed that fish species richness increased with ecosystem area and decreased with altitude. In addition, our results showed that latitude per se is a good predictor of body size. Indeed, the mean size of lacustrine communities in the northern and southern lake ecosystems differed significantly. These patterns reflect the biogeographical history of these areas and highlight the crucial role connectivity plays in communities’ species composition.

  4. High tropical net diversification drives the New World latitudinal gradient in palm (Arecaceae) species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Borchsenius, Finn; Bjorholm, Stine Wendelboe;

    2008-01-01

    Aim Species richness exhibits striking geographical variation, but the processes that drive this variation are unresolved. We investigated the relative importance of two hypothesized evolutionary causes for the variation in palm species richness across the New World: time for diversification and...... evolutionary (net diversification) rate. Palms have a long history in the region, with the major clades diversifying during the Tertiary (65-2 Ma). Location Tropical and subtropical America (34° N-34° S; 33-120° W). Methods Using range maps, palm species richness was estimated in a 1° × 1° grid. Mean lineage...

  5. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  6. Tree species and functional traits but not species richness affect interrill erosion processes in young subtropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, S.; Goebes, P.; Song, Z.; Bruelheide, H.; Härdtle, W.; Kühn, P.; Li, Y.; Scholten, T.

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is seriously threatening ecosystem functioning in many parts of the world. In this context, it is assumed that tree species richness and functional diversity of tree communities can play a critical role in improving ecosystem services such as erosion control. An experiment with 170 micro-scale run-off plots was conducted to investigate the influence of tree species and tree species richness as well as functional traits on interrill erosion in a young forest ecosystem. An interrill erosion rate of 47.5 Mg ha-1 a-1 was calculated. This study provided evidence that different tree species affect interrill erosion differently, while tree species richness did not affect interrill erosion in young forest stands. Thus, different tree morphologies have to be considered, when assessing soil erosion under forest. High crown cover and leaf area index reduced interrill erosion in initial forest ecosystems, whereas rising tree height increased it. Even if a leaf litter cover was not present, the remaining soil surface cover by stones and biological soil crusts was the most important driver for soil erosion control. Furthermore, soil organic matter had a decreasing influence on interrill erosion. Long-term monitoring of soil erosion under closing tree canopies is necessary, and a wide range of functional tree traits should be considered in future research.

  7. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  8. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Heim

    Full Text Available Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany. Using spatial analysis (GIS, we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water. In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers. Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the

  9. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb. DC. (Rubiaceae, a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March-April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15-18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the non-essential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. The inflorescences with clusters of flowers provide an excellent platform for foraging by butterflies. The flowers are long-lived and attractive to butterflies. A variety of butterflies visit the flowers for nectar and in doing so, they pollinate them. Nymphalids are very diverse and utilize the flowers until exhausted. The flowers being small in size with a small amount of nectar compel the butterflies to do a more laborious search for nectar from a greater number of flowers. But, the clustered state of the flowers is energetically profitable for butterflies to reduce search time and also flight time to collect a good amount of nectar; such a probing behaviour is advantageous for the plant to achieve self- and cross-pollination. Therefore, the study shows that the association between W. tinctoria and butterflies is mutual and such an association is referred to as psychophilous. This plant serves as a key nectar source for butterflies at the study site where floral nectar sources are scarce during the summer season.

  10. Richness and species composition of ants in the recovery process of a gully erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Biagiotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine how the richness and composition of ant species behaves with changes in the recovery process of a gully erosion. The study area has 0.9 hectares subdivided into three sections called sector: "A", "B" and "C". For the definition of the sectors, erosive and natural restoring were taken as the base level of activity. Four transects were laid systematically throughout the area and surrounding compound with forest and grassland. Each transect had three "pitfall trap" ten meters apart from each other, with catches of ants were held in rainy and dry seasons. Analysis of variance was applied to compare the number of ant species per plot captured and Scott-Knott test 5% for comparison of means. To verify the similarity of species between environments it was performed an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM and ordering of environments a "Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling" (NMDS. We captured 74 species of ants inside and around the gully erosion. The more degraded environment and initial stage of regeneration, showed greater richness of ant species. The composition of ant species was different between the recovery environments and around. The parameters of ant communities analyzed, richness and composition species were influenced by the regeneration of the area, indicating that ants can be used as bioindicators of gullies recovery.

  11. Biomass production in experimental grasslands of different species richness during three years of climate warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. De Boeck

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on the single and combined impacts of climate warming and species richness on the biomass production in experimental grassland communities. Projections of a future warmer climate have stimulated studies on the response of terrestrial ecosystems to this global change. Experiments have likewise addressed the importance of species numbers for ecosystem functioning. There is, however, little knowledge on the interplay between warming and species richness. During three years, we grew experimental plant communities containing one, three or nine grassland species in 12 sunlit, climate-controlled chambers in Wilrijk, Belgium. Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient air temperatures (unheated, while the other half were warmed by 3°C (heated. Equal amounts of water were added to heated and unheated communities, so that warming would imply drier soils if evapotranspiration was higher. Biomass production was decreased due to warming, both aboveground (−29% and belowground (−25%, as negative impacts of increased heat and drought stress in summer prevailed. Increased resource partitioning, likely mostly through spatial complementarity, led to higher shoot and root biomass in multi-species communities, regardless of the induced warming. Surprisingly, warming suppressed productivity the most in 9-species communities, which may be attributed to negative impacts of intense interspecific competition for resources under conditions of high abiotic stress. Our results suggest that warming and the associated soil drying could reduce primary production in many temperate grasslands, and that this will not necessarily be mitigated by efforts to maintain or increase species richness.

  12. Functional diversity supports the physiological tolerance hypothesis for plant species richness along climatic gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Marko J.; Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman

    2013-01-01

    1. The physiological tolerance hypothesis proposes that plant species richness is highest in warm and/or wet climates because a wider range of functional strategies can persist under such conditions. Functional diversity metrics, combined with statistical modeling, offer new ways to test whether diversity-environment relationships are consistent with this hypothesis. 2. In a classic study by R. H. Whittaker (1960), herb species richness declined from mesic (cool, moist, northerly) slopes to xeric (hot, dry, southerly) slopes. Building on this dataset, we measured four plant functional traits (plant height, specific leaf area, leaf water content and foliar C:N) and used them to calculate three functional diversity metrics (functional richness, evenness, and dispersion). We then used a structural equation model to ask if ‘functional diversity’ (modeled as the joint responses of richness, evenness, and dispersion) could explain the observed relationship of topographic climate gradients to species richness. We then repeated our model examining the functional diversity of each of the four traits individually. 3. Consistent with the physiological tolerance hypothesis, we found that functional diversity was higher in more favorable climatic conditions (mesic slopes), and that multivariate functional diversity mediated the relationship of the topographic climate gradient to plant species richness. We found similar patterns for models focusing on individual trait functional diversity of leaf water content and foliar C:N. 4. Synthesis. Our results provide trait-based support for the physiological tolerance hypothesis, suggesting that benign climates support more species because they allow for a wider range of functional strategies.

  13. Beneath the veil: Plant growth form influences the strength of species richness-productivity relationships in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, B.; Grace, J.B.; Chase, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Species richness has been observed to increase with productivity at large spatial scales, though the strength of this relationship varies among functional groups. In forests, canopy trees shade understorey plants, and for this reason we hypothesize that species richness of canopy trees will depend on macroclimate, while species richness of shorter growth forms will additionally be affected by shading from the canopy. In this study we test for differences in species richness-productivity relationships (SRPRs) among growth forms (canopy trees, shrubs, herbaceous species) in small forest plots. Location: We analysed 231 plots ranging from 34.0?? to 48.3?? N latitude and from 75.0?? to 124.2?? W longitude in the United States. Methods: We analysed data collected by the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis program for plant species richness partitioned into different growth forms, in small plots. We used actual evapotranspiration as a macroclimatic estimate of regional productivity and calculated the area of light-blocking tissue in the immediate area surrounding plots for an estimate of the intensity of local shading. We estimated and compared SRPRs for different partitions of the species richness dataset using generalized linear models and we incorporated the possible indirect effects of shading using a structural equation model. Results: Canopy tree species richness increased strongly with regional productivity, while local shading primarily explained the variation in herbaceous plant richness. Shrub species richness was related to both regional productivity and local shading. Main conclusions: The relationship between total forest plant species richness and productivity at large scales belies strong effects of local interactions. Counter to the pattern for overall richness, we found that understorey herbaceous plant species richness does not respond to regional productivity gradients, and instead is strongly influenced by canopy density, while shrub species

  14. A phenomenological spatial model for macro-ecological patterns in species-rich ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Peruzzo, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, ecologists have come to appreciate that key ecological patterns, which describe ecological communities at relatively large spatial scales, are not only scale dependent, but also intimately intertwined. The relative abundance of species, which informs us about the commonness and rarity of species, changes its shape from small to large spatial scales. The average number of species as a function of area has a steep initial increase, followed by decreasing slopes at large scales. Finally, if we find a species in a given location, it is more likely we find an individual of the same species close-by, rather than farther apart. Such spatial turnover depends on the geographical distribution of species, which often are spatially aggregated. This reverberates on the abundances as well as the richness of species within a region, but so far it has been difficult to quantify such relationships. Within a neutral framework, which considers all individuals competitively equivalent, we introduce a s...

  15. Phylogenetic diversity of plants alters the effect of species richness on invertebrate herbivory

    OpenAIRE

    Russell Dinnage

    2013-01-01

    Long-standing ecological theory proposes that diverse communities of plants should experience a decrease in herbivory. Yet previous empirical examinations of this hypothesis have revealed that plant species richness increases herbivory in just as many systems as it decreases it. In this study, I ask whether more insight into the role of plant diversity in promoting or suppressing herbivory can be gained by incorporating information about the evolutionary history of species in a community. In ...

  16. Effects of Trophic Skewing of Species Richness on Ecosystem Functioning in a Diverse Marine Community

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Pamela L.; Bruno, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread overharvesting of top consumers of the world’s ecosystems has “skewed” food webs, in terms of biomass and species richness, towards a generally greater domination at lower trophic levels. This skewing is exacerbated in locations where exotic species are predominantly low-trophic level consumers such as benthic macrophytes, detritivores, and filter feeders. However, in some systems where numerous exotic predators have been added, sometimes purposefully as in many freshwater systems,...

  17. Relationships between Duck and Grassland Bird Relative Abundance and Species Richness in Southern Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P. Skinner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital map products that integrate long-term duck population and land-use data are currently being used to guide conservation program delivery on the Canadian Prairies. However, understanding the inter-relationships between ducks and other grassland bird species would greatly enhance program planning and delivery. We hypothesized that ducks, and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta in particular, may function as an umbrella guild for the overall breeding habitat quality for other grassland bird species. We compared grassland bird species richness and relative abundance among areas of low, moderate, and high predicted waterfowl breeding densities (i.e., duck density strata in the southern Missouri Coteau, Saskatchewan. We conducted roadside point counts and delineated habitats within a 400 m radius of each point. The duck high-density stratum supported greater avian species richness and abundance than did the duck low-density stratum. Overall, duck and other grassland bird species richness and abundance were moderately correlated, with all r between 0.37 and 0.69 (all P < 0.05. Although the habitat requirements of Northern Pintail may overlap with those of other grassland endemics, priority grassland bird species richness was only moderately correlated with total pintail abundance in both years, and the abundances of pintail and grassland songbirds listed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada were not correlated. No differences in the mean number of priority grassland species were detected among the strata. Adequate critical habitat for several priority species may not be protected if conservation is focused only in areas of moderate to high wetland density because large tracts of contiguous, dry grassland habitat (e.g., pasture occur infrequently in high-quality duck habitat.

  18. TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION AS PREDICTORS OF SPECIES RICHNESS IN NORTHERN ANDEAN AMPHIBIANS FROM COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Yusty Carlos Eduardo; Páez Vivian; Zapata Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the spatial distribution patterns of amphibian speciesrichness in Antioquia, as model for the tropical Andes, and determine how annualmean temperature, annual precipitation, and elevation range influence it. We alsobriefly compare local and global regression models for estimating the relationbetween environmental variables and species richness. Distribution maps for 223amphibian species and environmental variables were generalized onto grid mapsof 752 blocks each ...

  19. Temporal comparison and predictors of fish species abundance and richness on undisturbed coral reef patches

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Elena L.E.S.; Roche, Dominique G.; Binning, Sandra A.; Wismer, Sharon; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-01-01

    Large disturbances can cause rapid degradation of coral reef communities, but what baseline changes in species assemblages occur on undisturbed reefs through time? We surveyed live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness in 1997 and again in 2007 on 47 fringing patch reefs of varying size and depth at Mersa Bareika, Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. No major human or natural disturbance event occurred between these two survey periods in this remote protected area. In the a...

  20. Seasonal Variation in the NDVI–Species Richness Relationship in a Prairie Grassland Experiment (Cedar Creek)

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Wang; Gamon, John A.; Rebecca A. Montgomery; Philip A. Townsend; Arthur I. Zygielbaum; Keren Bitan; David Tilman; Jeannine Cavender-Bares

    2016-01-01

    Species richness generally promotes ecosystem productivity, although the shape of the relationship varies and remains the subject of debate. One reason for this uncertainty lies in the multitude of methodological approaches to sampling biodiversity and productivity, some of which can be subjective. Remote sensing offers new, objective ways of assessing productivity and biodiversity. In this study, we tested the species richness–productivity relationship using a common remote sensing index, th...

  1. Species Richness Patterns in Space and Time in the Himalayan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Baniya, Chitra Bahadur

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The Himalayan Mountains are highly sensitive to current global climate changes and their local impacts. Potentially more sensitive are lichens growing throughout the Himalaya and species living in the alpine zones of the world. In this synthesis I examine the variation in species composition and richness patterns at different scales of spatio-temporal gradients from mountainous areas in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) and the Nepalese Himalaya. Methods: This thesis i...

  2. Does residence time affect responses of alien species richness to environmental and spatial processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Dainese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most robust emerging generalisations in invasion biology is that the probability of invasion increases with the time since introduction (residence time. We analysed the spatial distribution of alien vascular plant species in a region of north-eastern Italy to understand the influence of residence time on patterns of alien species richness. Neophytes were grouped according to three periods of arrival in the study region (1500–1800, 1800–1900, and > 1900. We applied multiple regression (spatial and non-spatial with hierarchical partitioning to determine the influence of climate and human pressure on species richness within the groups. We also applied variation partitioning to evaluate the relative importance of environmental and spatial processes. Temperature mainly influenced groups with speciesa longer residence time, while human pressure influenced the more recently introduced species, although its influence remained significant in all groups. Partial regression analyses showed that most of the variation explained by the models is attributable to spatially structured environmental variation, while environment and space had small independent effects. However, effects independent of environment decreased, and spatially independent effects increased, from older to the more recent neophytes. Our data illustrate that the distribution of alien species richness for species that arrived recently is related to propagule pressure, availability of novel niches created by human activity, and neutral-based (dispersal limitation processes, while climate filtering plays a key role in the distribution of species that arrived earlier. This study highlights the importance of residence time, spatial structure, and environmental conditions in the patterns of alien species richness and for a better understanding of its geographical variation.

  3. On the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shnirelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The term "butterfly effect" means an extreme sensitivity of a dynamical system to small perturbations: "The beating of a butterfly wing in South America can result in the considerable change of positions and force of a tropical cyclon in Atlantic 2 weeks later". Numerical simulations of R.Robert show the absence of the butterfly effect in some simple flows of 2-d ideal incompressible fluid which is a model of the atmosphere. In this work a more complicated flow is considered. Numerical simulation demonstrates the butterfly effect in the strongest form. The effect is robust, and the experiment is 100% reproducible.

  4. Tree species identity and functional traits but not species richness affect interrill erosion processes in young subtropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, S.; Goebes, P.; Song, Z.; Bruelheide, H.; Härdtle, W.; Kühn, P.; Li, Y.; Scholten, T.

    2015-06-01

    Soil erosion is seriously threatening ecosystem functioning in many parts of the world. In this context, it is assumed that tree species richness and functional diversity of tree communities can play a critical role in improving ecosystem services such as erosion control. An experiment with 170 micro-scale runoff plots was conducted to investigate the influence of tree species richness and identity as well as tree functional traits on interrill erosion in a young forest ecosystem. An interrill erosion rate of 47.5 t ha-1 a-1 was calculated. This study provided evidence that different tree species affect interrill erosion, but higher tree species richness did not mitigate soil losses in young forest stands. Thus, different tree morphologies have to be considered, when assessing erosion under forest. High crown cover and leaf area index reduced soil losses in initial forest ecosystems, whereas rising tree height increased them. Even if a leaf litter cover was not present, remaining soil surface cover by stones and biological soil crusts was the most important driver for soil erosion control. Furthermore, soil organic matter had a decreasing influence on soil loss. Long-term monitoring of soil erosion under closing tree canopies is necessary and a wide range of functional tree traits should be taken into consideration in future research.

  5. Changes in biomass allocation in species rich meadow after abandonment: Ecological strategy or allometry?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušková, Alena; Doležal, Jiří; Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, V.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2015), s. 379-387. ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Biomass allocation * species-rich meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.606, year: 2014

  6. Patterns in species richness and distribution of vascular epiphytes in Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.D. Wolf; A. Flamenco-S.

    2003-01-01

    Aim We aim to assess regional patterns in the distribution and species richness of vascular epiphytes with an emphasis on forests that differ in altitude and the amount of rainfall. Location Tropical America, in particularly the 75000 km2 large state of Chiapas in southern Mexico at 14.5-18.0º N. Ch

  7. Habitat fragmentation and effects of herbivore (howler monkey) abundances on bird species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Terborgh, John W

    2006-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation can alter herbivore abundances, potentially causing changes in the plant community that can propagate through the food web and eventually influence other important taxonomic groups such as birds. Here we test the relationship between the density of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) and bird species richness on a large set of recently isolated land-bridge islands in Lago Guri, Venezuela (n = 29 islands). Several of these islands host relict populations of howler monkeys at densities up to more than 30 times greater than those on the mainland. These "hyperabundant" herbivores previously have been shown to have a strong positive influence on aboveground plant productivity. We predicted that this should lead to a positive, indirect effect of howler monkey density on bird species richness. After accounting for passive sampling (the tendency for species richness to be positively associated with island area, regardless of differences in habitat quality) we found a significant positive correlation between howler monkey density and bird species richness. A path analysis incorporating data on tree growth rates from a subset of islands (n = 9) supported the hypothesis that the effect of howler monkeys on the resident bird communities is indirect and is mediated through changes in plant productivity and habitat quality. These results highlight the potential for disparate taxonomic groups to be related through indirect interactions and trophic cascades. PMID:16634305

  8. Seed dispersal in agricultural habitats and the restoration of species-rich meadows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van D.

    1996-01-01

    The restoration of species-rich meadows on former agricultural land in the Netherlands has a high priority, because these ecosystems have been disappearing rapidly due to eutrophication and acidification and falling water tables. In order to be able to restore such ecosystems on wet nutrient-poor so

  9. A global evaluation of metabolic theory as an explanation for terrestrial species richness gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, Bradford A.; Albuquerque, Fabio S.; Araújo, Miguel B.;

    2007-01-01

    We compiled 46 broadscale data sets of species richness for a wide range of terrestrial plant, invertebrate, and ectothermic vertebrate groups in all parts of the world to test the ability of metabolic theory to account for observed diversity gradients. The theory makes two related predictions: (...

  10. Species richness and composition assessment of spiders in a Mediterranean scrubland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel; Henriques, Sérgio S.; Gaspar, Clara;

    2009-01-01

    Intensive fieldwork has been undertaken in Portugal in order to develop a standardized and optimized sampling protocol for Mediterranean spiders. The present study had the objectives of testing the use of semi-quantitative sampling for obtaining an exhaustive species richness assessment of spider...

  11. Effects of reforestation and intensified land use on vascular plant species richness in traditionally managed hay meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Myklestad, Åse; Sætersdal, Magne

    2003-01-01

    In this study of 130 sites with different management we investigated whether vascular plant species richness is significantly reduced when traditionally managed hay meadows are abandoned and reforested. We also compared the effects of reforestation with those of intensified land-use to see which have the largest effects on species richness. Finally, we investigated the relative importance of relevant ecological factors for species richness. While the use of artificial fertilizers in tradition...

  12. Non-woody life-form contribution to vascular plant species richness in a tropical American forest

    OpenAIRE

    Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Cardona, Victor; Hennig, Ernest; Hensen, Isabell; Hoffmann, Doreen; Lendzion, Jasmin; Soto, Daniel; Herzog, Sebastian; Kessler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We provide total vascular plant species counts for three 1-ha plots in deciduous, semi-deciduous and evergreen forests in central Bolivia. Species richness ranged from 297 species and 22,360 individuals/ha in the dry deciduous forest to 382 species and 31,670 individuals/ha in the evergreen forest. Orchidaceae, Pteridophyta and Leguminosae were among the most species-rich major plant groups in each plot, and Peperomia (Piperaceae), Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae) and Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae), al...

  13. Species richness, abundance and phenology of fungal fruit bodies over 21 years in a Swiss forest plot

    OpenAIRE

    Straatsma, G.; Ayer, F.; Egli, S.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal fruit bodies were surveyed on a plot area of 1500 m2 from 1975¿99 (excluding 1980¿83) in the fungal reserve La Chaneaz in western Switzerland. Fruit bodies were identified and counted on a weekly basis. Species richness and abundances varied strongly between years. More than 400 species were encountered. Many species were transient; particularly rich years showed species occurring for only one year. This indicates that the number of species will substantially increase if the survey is ...

  14. Plant DNA barcodes can accurately estimate species richness in poorly known floras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Costion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Widespread uptake of DNA barcoding technology for vascular plants has been slow due to the relatively poor resolution of species discrimination (∼70% and low sequencing and amplification success of one of the two official barcoding loci, matK. Studies to date have mostly focused on finding a solution to these intrinsic limitations of the markers, rather than posing questions that can maximize the utility of DNA barcodes for plants with the current technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we test the ability of plant DNA barcodes using the two official barcoding loci, rbcLa and matK, plus an alternative barcoding locus, trnH-psbA, to estimate the species diversity of trees in a tropical rainforest plot. Species discrimination accuracy was similar to findings from previous studies but species richness estimation accuracy proved higher, up to 89%. All combinations which included the trnH-psbA locus performed better at both species discrimination and richness estimation than matK, which showed little enhanced species discriminatory power when concatenated with rbcLa. The utility of the trnH-psbA locus is limited however, by the occurrence of intraspecific variation observed in some angiosperm families to occur as an inversion that obscures the monophyly of species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate for the first time, using a case study, the potential of plant DNA barcodes for the rapid estimation of species richness in taxonomically poorly known areas or cryptic populations revealing a powerful new tool for rapid biodiversity assessment. The combination of the rbcLa and trnH-psbA loci performed better for this purpose than any two-locus combination that included matK. We show that although DNA barcodes fail to discriminate all species of plants, new perspectives and methods on biodiversity value and quantification may overshadow some of these shortcomings by applying barcode data in new ways.

  15. Estimating species richness and modelling habitat preferences of tropical forest mammals from camera trap data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovero, Francesco; Martin, Emanuel; Rosa, Melissa; Ahumada, Jorge A; Spitale, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Medium-to-large mammals within tropical forests represent a rich and functionally diversified component of this biome; however, they continue to be threatened by hunting and habitat loss. Assessing these communities implies studying species' richness and composition, and determining a state variable of species abundance in order to infer changes in species distribution and habitat associations. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) network fills a chronic gap in standardized data collection by implementing a systematic monitoring framework of biodiversity, including mammal communities, across several sites. In this study, we used TEAM camera trap data collected in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, an area of exceptional importance for mammal diversity, to propose an example of a baseline assessment of species' occupancy. We used 60 camera trap locations and cumulated 1,818 camera days in 2009. Sampling yielded 10,647 images of 26 species of mammals. We estimated that a minimum of 32 species are in fact present, matching available knowledge from other sources. Estimated species richness at camera sites did not vary with a suite of habitat covariates derived from remote sensing, however the detection probability varied with functional guilds, with herbivores being more detectable than other guilds. Species-specific occupancy modelling revealed novel ecological knowledge for the 11 most detected species, highlighting patterns such as 'montane forest dwellers', e.g. the endemic Sanje mangabey (Cercocebus sanjei), and 'lowland forest dwellers', e.g. suni antelope (Neotragus moschatus). Our results show that the analysis of camera trap data with account for imperfect detection can provide a solid ecological assessment of mammal communities that can be systematically replicated across sites. PMID:25054806

  16. Estimating species richness and modelling habitat preferences of tropical forest mammals from camera trap data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rovero

    Full Text Available Medium-to-large mammals within tropical forests represent a rich and functionally diversified component of this biome; however, they continue to be threatened by hunting and habitat loss. Assessing these communities implies studying species' richness and composition, and determining a state variable of species abundance in order to infer changes in species distribution and habitat associations. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM network fills a chronic gap in standardized data collection by implementing a systematic monitoring framework of biodiversity, including mammal communities, across several sites. In this study, we used TEAM camera trap data collected in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, an area of exceptional importance for mammal diversity, to propose an example of a baseline assessment of species' occupancy. We used 60 camera trap locations and cumulated 1,818 camera days in 2009. Sampling yielded 10,647 images of 26 species of mammals. We estimated that a minimum of 32 species are in fact present, matching available knowledge from other sources. Estimated species richness at camera sites did not vary with a suite of habitat covariates derived from remote sensing, however the detection probability varied with functional guilds, with herbivores being more detectable than other guilds. Species-specific occupancy modelling revealed novel ecological knowledge for the 11 most detected species, highlighting patterns such as 'montane forest dwellers', e.g. the endemic Sanje mangabey (Cercocebus sanjei, and 'lowland forest dwellers', e.g. suni antelope (Neotragus moschatus. Our results show that the analysis of camera trap data with account for imperfect detection can provide a solid ecological assessment of mammal communities that can be systematically replicated across sites.

  17. Impact of Forest Management on Species Richness: Global Meta-Analysis and Economic Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Burivalova, Zuzana; Koh, Lian Pin; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2016-04-01

    Forests managed for timber have an important role to play in conserving global biodiversity. We evaluated the most common timber production systems worldwide in terms of their impact on local species richness by conducting a categorical meta-analysis. We reviewed 287 published studies containing 1008 comparisons of species richness in managed and unmanaged forests and derived management, taxon, and continent specific effect sizes. We show that in terms of local species richness loss, forest management types can be ranked, from best to worse, as follows: selection and retention systems, reduced impact logging, conventional selective logging, clear-cutting, agroforestry, timber plantations, fuelwood plantations. Next, we calculated the economic profitability in terms of the net present value of timber harvesting from 10 hypothetical wood-producing Forest Management Units (FMU) from around the globe. The ranking of management types is altered when the species loss per unit profit generated from the FMU is considered. This is due to differences in yield, timber species prices, rotation cycle length and production costs. We thus conclude that it would be erroneous to dismiss or prioritize timber production regimes, based solely on their ranking of alpha diversity impacts.

  18. Impact of Forest Management on Species Richness: Global Meta-Analysis and Economic Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Burivalova, Zuzana; Koh, Lian Pin; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Forests managed for timber have an important role to play in conserving global biodiversity. We evaluated the most common timber production systems worldwide in terms of their impact on local species richness by conducting a categorical meta-analysis. We reviewed 287 published studies containing 1008 comparisons of species richness in managed and unmanaged forests and derived management, taxon, and continent specific effect sizes. We show that in terms of local species richness loss, forest management types can be ranked, from best to worse, as follows: selection and retention systems, reduced impact logging, conventional selective logging, clear-cutting, agroforestry, timber plantations, fuelwood plantations. Next, we calculated the economic profitability in terms of the net present value of timber harvesting from 10 hypothetical wood-producing Forest Management Units (FMU) from around the globe. The ranking of management types is altered when the species loss per unit profit generated from the FMU is considered. This is due to differences in yield, timber species prices, rotation cycle length and production costs. We thus conclude that it would be erroneous to dismiss or prioritize timber production regimes, based solely on their ranking of alpha diversity impacts. PMID:27040604

  19. Species richness and biomass explain spatial turnover in ecosystem functioning across tropical and temperate ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew D; Weigelt, Patrick; Jochum, Malte; Ott, David; Hodapp, Dorothee; Haneda, Noor Farikhah; Brose, Ulrich

    2016-05-19

    Predicting ecosystem functioning at large spatial scales rests on our ability to scale up from local plots to landscapes, but this is highly contingent on our understanding of how functioning varies through space. Such an understanding has been hampered by a strong experimental focus of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research restricted to small spatial scales. To address this limitation, we investigate the drivers of spatial variation in multitrophic energy flux-a measure of ecosystem functioning in complex communities-at the landscape scale. We use a structural equation modelling framework based on distance matrices to test how spatial and environmental distances drive variation in community energy flux via four mechanisms: species composition, species richness, niche complementarity and biomass. We found that in both a tropical and a temperate study region, geographical and environmental distance indirectly influence species richness and biomass, with clear evidence that these are the dominant mechanisms explaining variability in community energy flux over spatial and environmental gradients. Our results reveal that species composition and trait variability may become redundant in predicting ecosystem functioning at the landscape scale. Instead, we demonstrate that species richness and total biomass may best predict rates of ecosystem functioning at larger spatial scales. PMID:27114580

  20. Patterns and causes of species richness: a general simulation model for macroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Anderson, Marti J; Arita, Hector T;

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the causes of spatial variation in species richness is a major research focus of biogeography and macroecology. Gridded environmental data and species richness maps have been used in increasingly sophisticated curve-fitting analyses, but these methods have not brought us much closer...... theoretical models in macroecology do not make quantitative predictions, and they do not incorporate interactions among multiple forces. As an alternative, we propose a mechanistic modelling approach. We describe computer simulation models of the stochastic origin, spread, and extinction of species...... framework for investigating the effects of contemporary climate, evolutionary history and geometric constraints on global biodiversity gradients. With further development, the GSM has the potential to provide a conceptual bridge between macroecology and historical biogeography....

  1. Higher taxa as surrogates of species richness of spiders in insect-resistant transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Lin; Min-Sheng You; Liette Vasseur; Guang Yang; Feng-Jing Liu; Feng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity assessments can often be time- and resource-consuming.Several alternative approaches have been proposed to reduce sampling efforts,including indicator taxa and surrogates.In this study,we examine the reliability of higher taxon surrogates to predict species richness in two experimental rice fields of Fujian Province,southeastern China during 2005 and 2009.Spider samples in transgenic and nontransgenic plots were collected using a suction sampler.Both the genus and family surrogates had significant and positive linear relationships with species richness in the transgenic and nontransgenic rice fields.The rice varieties did not significantly influence the linear relationships.Our findings suggest that higher-taxon surrogacy could be a useful alternative to complete species inventory for risk assessments of transgenic rice.

  2. Energy, water and large-scale patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Miguel Á.; Belmontes, Juan Alfonso; Hawkins, Bradford A.

    2005-07-01

    We used regression analyses to examine the relationships between reptile and amphibian species richness in Europe and 11 environmental variables related to five hypotheses for geographical patterns of species richness: (1) productivity; (2) ambient energy; (3) water-energy balance, (4) habitat heterogeneity; and (5) climatic variability. For reptiles, annual potential evapotranspiration (PET), a measure of the amount of atmospheric energy, explained 71% of the variance, with variability in log elevation explaining an additional 6%. For amphibians, annual actual evapotranspiration (AET), a measure of the joint availability of energy and water in the environment, and the global vegetation index, an estimate of plant biomass generated through satellite remote sensing, both described similar proportions of the variance (61% and 60%, respectively) and had partially independent effects on richness as indicated by multiple regression. The two-factor environmental models successfully removed most of the statistically detectable spatial autocorrelation in the richness data of both groups. Our results are consistent with reptile and amphibian environmental requirements, where the former depend strongly on solar energy and the latter require both warmth and moisture for reproduction. We conclude that ambient energy explains the reptile richness pattern, whereas for amphibians a combination of water-energy balance and productivity best explain the pattern.

  3. Higher subsoil carbon storage in species-rich than species-poor temperate forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest soils contribute ca. 70% to the global soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and thus are an important element of the global carbon cycle. Forests also harbour a large part of the global terrestrial biodiversity. It is not clear, however, whether tree species diversity affects SOC. By measuring the carbon concentration of different soil particle size fractions separately, we were able to distinguish between effects of fine particle content and tree species composition on the SOC pool in old-growth broad-leaved forest plots along a tree diversity gradient (1-, 3- and 5-species). Variation in clay content explained part of the observed SOC increase from monospecific to mixed forests, but we show that the carbon concentration per unit clay or fine silt in the subsoil was by 30–35% higher in mixed than monospecific stands indicating a significant species identity or species diversity effect on C stabilization. Underlying causes may be differences in fine root biomass and turnover, in leaf litter decomposition rate among the tree species, and/or species-specific rhizosphere effects on soil. Our findings may have important implications for forestry offering management options through preference of mixed stands that could increase forest SOC pools and mitigate climate warming. (paper)

  4. Does plant species richness guarantee the resilience of local medical systems? A perspective from utilitarian redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rosa Santoro

    Full Text Available Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding

  5. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Díaz-Reviriego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  6. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon;

    2014-01-01

    network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the mainland, possibly because surrounding oceans buffer against strong climate oscillations and because geography is a strong....... Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography...... determinant of island richness, endemism and network roles....

  7. Mammal predator and prey species richness are strongly linked at macroscales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandom, Christopher James; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Kissling, W. Daniel; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody Steven; Nielsen, Kristian Trøjelsgaard; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Svenning, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    between them (e.g., large prey to small predators), suggesting that mass-related energetic and physiological constraints influence broad-scale richness links, especially for large-bodied mammals. Overall, our results support the idea that trophic interactions can be important drivers of large...... databases of dietary preferences and body masses of all terrestrial, non-volant mammals worldwide, to test whether (1) prey-bottom-up or predator- top-down relationships are important drivers of broad-scale species richness gradients once the environment and human influence has been accounted for, (2...

  8. Functional redundancy patterns reveal non-random assembly rules in a species-rich marine assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillemot

    Full Text Available The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species.

  9. BUTTERFLIES OF THE VLASINA REGION IN SOUTHEAST SERBIA (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tot, Ivan Stevica; Slacki, Anja; Đurić, Milan; Popović, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Although the Vlasina plateau has proved to be an interesting area hosting diverse and unique flora and fauna, its butterflies have not been thoroughly studied. Consolidating several known records and our field observations, a total of 101 butterfly species were listed for this region. The area hosts a number of important species to be conserved under Natura 2000 and Emerald networks and a significant number of nationally important species. The most interesting record is Colias caucasica, a bu...

  10. Rich and rare—First insights into species diversity and abundance of Antarctic abyssal Gastropoda (Mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Michael Bohn, Jens; Engl, Winfried; Linse, Katrin; Schrödl, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The abyssal depths of the polar oceans are thought to be low in diversity compared with the shallower polar shelves and temperate and tropical deep-sea basins. Our recent study on the gastropod fauna of the deep Southern Ocean gives evidence of the existence of a rich gastropod assemblage at abyssal depths. During the ANDEEP I and II expeditions to the southern Drake Passage, Northwestern Weddell Sea, and South Sandwich Trench, gastropods were collected by bottom and Agassiz trawls, epibenthic sledge, and multicorer, at 40 stations in depths between 127 and 5194 m. On the whole, 473 specimens, corresponding to 93 species of 36 families, were obtained. Of those, 414 specimens were caught below 750 m depth and refer to 84 (90%) benthic species of 32 (89%) families. Most families were represented by a single species only. The numerically dominant families were Skeneidae and Buccinidae (with 10 and 11 species, respectively), Eulimidae and Trochidae (with 9 species each), and Turridae (6 species). Thirty-Seven benthic deep-sea species (44%) were represented by a single specimen, and another 20 species (24%) were found at a single station, suggesting that more than two thirds of Antarctic deep-sea gastropod species are very rare or have a very scattered distribution. Of the 27 species occurring at two or more deep-sea stations, 14 were collected with different gear. Approximately half of the deep-water species are new to science or have been recently described. The present investigation increases the total number of recorded benthic Antarctic deep-sea gastropods (below 750 m) from 115 to 177. The previously known depth ranges have been extended, often considerably, for 31 species. The collected deep-sea gastropods comprise both eurybathic shelf species (29%) and apparently true deep-sea species (58%); some of the latter may belong to a so far unknown Antarctic abyssal fauna. Geographical ranges of the collected Antarctic benthic deep-sea gastropod species appear limited

  11. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation.

  12. Testing Dragonflies as Species Richness Indicators in a Fragmented Subtropical Atlantic Forest Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S; Sahlén, G; Périco, E

    2016-06-01

    We surveyed 15 bodies of water among remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil for adult dragonflies and damselflies to test whether an empirical selection method for diversity indicators could be applied in a subtropical ecosystem, where limited ecological knowledge on species level is available. We found a regional species pool of 34 species distributed in a nested subset pattern with a mean of 11.2 species per locality. There was a pronounced difference in species composition between spring, summer, and autumn, but no differences in species numbers between seasons. Two species, Homeoura chelifera (Selys) and Ischnura capreolus (Hagen), were the strongest candidates for regional diversity indicators, being found only at species-rich localities in our surveyed area and likewise in an undisturbed national forest reserve, serving as a reference site for the Atlantic Forest. Using our selection method, we found it possible to obtain a tentative list of diversity indicators without having detailed ecological information of each species, providing a reference site is available for comparison. The method thus allows for indicator species to be selected in blanco from taxonomic groups that are little known. We hence argue that Odonata can already be incorporated in ongoing assessment programs in the Neotropics, which would also increase the ecological knowledge of the group and allow extrapolation to other taxa. PMID:26686194

  13. Early positive effects of tree species richness on herbivory in a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment influence tree growth

    OpenAIRE

    Schuldt, Andreas; Bruelheide,Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; Ying LI; Ma, Keping; von Oheimb, Goddert; Zhang, Jiayong

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of herbivory for the structure and functioning of species-rich forests, little is known about how herbivory is affected by tree species richness, and more specifically by random vs. non-random species loss. We assessed herbivore damage and its effects on tree growth in the early stage of a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment in subtropical China that features random and non-random extinction scenarios of tree mixtures numbering between one and 24 species. In cont...

  14. Contrasting structure and composition of the understory in species-rich tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrankie, James V; Ashton, Peter S; Chuyong, George B; Co, Leonardo; Condit, Richard; Davies, Stuart J; Foster, Robin; Hubbell, Stephen P; Kenfack, David; Lagunzad, Daniel; Losos, Elizabeth C; Nor, Noor Supardi Md; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Duncan W; Valencia, Renato; Villa, Gorky

    2006-09-01

    In large samples of trees > or = 1 cm dbh (more than 1 million trees and 3000 species), in six lowland tropical forests on three continents, we assigned species with >30 individuals to one of six classes of stature at maturity (SAM). We then compared the proportional representation of understory trees (1-2 cm dbh) among these classes. The understory of the three Asian sites was predominantly composed of the saplings of large-canopy trees whereas the African and American sites were more richly stocked with trees of the smaller SAM classes. Differences in class representation were related to taxonomic families that were present exclusively in one continent or another. Families found in the Asian plots but not in the American plot (e.g., Dipterocarpaceae, Fagaceae) were predominantly species of the largest SAM classes, whereas families exclusive to the American plots (e.g., Melastomataceae sensu stricto, Piperaceae, and Malvaceae [Bombacacoidea]) were predominantly species of small classes. The African plot was similar to Asia in the absence of those American families rich in understory species, while similar to America in lacking the Asian families rich in canopy species. The numerous understory species of Africa were chiefly derived from families shared with Asia and/or America. The ratio of saplings (1-2 cm dbh) to conspecific canopy trees (>40 cm dbh) was lower in American plots than in the Asian plots. Possible explanations for these differences include phenology, moisture and soil fertility regimes, phyletic constraints, and the role of early successional plants in forest development. These results demonstrate that tropical forests that appear similar in tree number, basal area, and the family taxonomy of canopy trees nonetheless differ in ecological structure in ways that may impact the ecology of pollinators, dispersers, and herbivores and might reflect fundamental differences in canopy tree regeneration. PMID:16995630

  15. Colchicum autumnale - Control strategies and their impact on vegetation composition of species-rich grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seither, Melanie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The meadow saffron Colchicum autumnale occurs on agricultural land predominantly in extensively managed grassland, often underlying nature preservation regulations. Due to its high toxicity if fresh or conserved (hay and silage, there is a need of control measures to ensure the future management and sward utilization of sites with occurrence of C. autumnale. Until now it is unclear, to what extent common management recommendations affect the vegetation composition of species-rich grassland. In this study, the effect of different management measures (late hay cut with or without rolling, early hay cut, late mulching in May, early mulching in April, herbicide application with or without reseeding on the number of C. autumnale and the vegetation composition of a moderately species-rich Dauco-Arrhenatheretum elatioris (31 ± 4 species per m², mean ± standard deviation was examined since 2006. The number of C. autumnale was first significantly reduced three years after the start of the experiment in the early and late mulching treatments; in the next three experimental years treatment differences in C. autumnale reduction did not increase significantly. With respect to vegetation composition, herbicide application had the overriding effect, as it decreased the plant species number and proportions of forbs significantly. The late hay cut preserved the original plant diversity, no negative effect of rolling or the early hay cut was observed. Early mulching resulted in an increase in Dactylis glomerata and Trisetum flavescens and in the decrease of Crepis biennis, Vicia sepium, Tragopogon pratense and Trifolium pratense; it had no negative effect on the total proportion of high nature value (HNV species. Late mulching resulted in a significantly lower yield proportion of high nature value species in 2012 and less similar in vegetation composition compared to the late hay cut treatment than early mulching; therefore it seems not to be a suitable

  16. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia

    OpenAIRE

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregu...

  17. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, James S.; Carvalho, Tiago P.; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A.; Maxime, Emmanuel L.; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The immense rainforest ecosystems of tropical America represent some of the greatest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet. Prominent among these are evolutionary radiations of freshwater fishes, including electric eels, piranhas, stingrays, and a myriad of small-bodied and colorful tetras, cichlids, and armored catfishes. In all, the many thousands of these forms account for nearly 10% of all the vertebrate species on Earth. This article explores the complimentary roles that ecological and geographic filters play in limiting dispersal in aquatic species, and how these factors contribute to the accumulation of species richness over broad geographic and evolutionary time scales. Abstract The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200–500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient

  18. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world’s land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world’s total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200–500 m above sea level rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa, Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient, predating the Late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 4 Ma uplift that isolated its several headwater basins. The results also suggest that habitat specialization (phylogenetic niche conservatism and geographic isolation (dispersal limitation have contributed to the maintenance of high species richness in this region of the Amazon Basin.

  19. Predicting effects of ecosystem engineering on species richness along primary productivity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Ernesto Iván; Marquet, Pablo Angel; Cavieres, Lohengrin Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Physical ecosystem engineering is the process by which some species change the distribution of materials and energy in ecosystems. Although several studies have shown that this process is a driver of local species diversity, the current challenge is predicting when and where ecosystem engineering will have large or small impacts on communities, while also explaining why impacts vary in magnitude across engineer species and environments. This study addresses this issue and proposes a series of predictions for these effects at the three spatial scales (the patch, the habitat and the landscape) along environmental gradients of physical stress. The integrative prediction of this study was that the difference in species diversity between engineered and unmodified situations (patches, habitats or landscapes) will increase as the difference in physical stress between engineered and unmodified patches becomes larger. To test the prediction, the effects of two well known high-Andean ecosystem engineers, the cushion plants Azorella madreporica and Laretia acaulis, were assessed on plant species richness in central Chile. The results support the main prediction, showing that ecosystem engineers have negative effects on species diversity at sites when the environmental modifications they perform increase physical stress for other species, while they have positive effects at sites where these habitat changes mitigate physical stress. Then, the effects of the ecosystem engineers on species diversity seem to depend on the environmental context, where larger environmental modifications are reflected in greater impacts, either positive or negative, on species diversity.

  20. Large river floodplain restoration: predicting species richness and trait responses to the restoration of hydrological connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Paillex, Amael; Dolédec, Sylvain; Castella, Emmanuel; Mérigoux, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    1. Floodplains are species-rich environments often strongly impacted by human activities. In particular, the negative effects of progressive and rapid disconnection of secondary channels have led to restoration programmes and a growing interest in restoration ecology. 2. Current restoration strategies in large river floodplains focus on the macroinvertebrate response related to the increases in lateral connectivity of the secondary channels. We constructed a framework to assess a gradient of ...

  1. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Díaz-Reviriego; Lara González-Segura; Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares; Patricia L. Howard; José Luis Molina; Victoria Reyes-García

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in ho...

  2. Richness and species composition of ants in the recovery process of a gully erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Biagiotti; José Aldo Alves Pereira; Carla Rodrigues Ribas; Vanesca Korasaki; Ronald Zanetti; Antônio César Medeiros de Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how the richness and composition of ant species behaves with changes in the recovery process of a gully erosion. The study area has 0.9 hectares subdivided into three sections called sector: "A", "B" and "C". For the definition of the sectors, erosive and natural restoring were taken as the base level of activity. Four transects were laid systematically throughout the area and surrounding compound with forest and grassland. Each transect had three "pitfall trap" ...

  3. PYRENE MORPHOLOGY OF THREE SPECIES OF Byrsonima Rich. ex Kunth (Malpighiaceae)1

    OpenAIRE

    Cylles Zara dos Reis Barbosa; Maria Silvia de Mendonça; Rodrigo Schütz Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The species of the genus Byrsonima Rich. ex Kunth are of great medicinal and economic importance, but they are still poorly studied with respect to their propagules. This study describes, illustrates and comparse morphological aspects of the pyrenes of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth, Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) DC. and Byrsonima coccolobifolia Kunth occurring in areas of savannah of Boa Vista, Roraima. The pyrenes are globoid, obovoid to ovoid, with endocarp dark brown in color, w...

  4. Projected impacts of climate change on regional capacities for global plant species richness

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Jan Henning; Kreft, Holger; Kier, Gerold; Jetz, Walter; Mutke, Jens; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Climate change represents a major challenge to the maintenance of global biodiversity. To date, the direction and magnitude of net changes in the global distribution of plant diversity remain elusive. We use the empirical multi-variate relationships between contemporary water-energy dynamics and other non-climatic predictor variables to model the regional capacity for plant species richness (CSR) and its projected future changes. We find that across all analysed Intergovernmental Panel on Cli...

  5. Scale effects and human impact on the elevational species richness gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Araújo, M B; Romdal, T;

    2008-01-01

    highlands to warm lowlands, mirroring the latitudinal increase in species richness from cool to warm latitudes. However, since the more recent general acceptance of altitudinal gradients as model templates for testing hypotheses behind large-scale patterns of diversity, these gradients have been used in......, hampering our ability to detect universal patterns and impeding the search for universal diversity gradients to discover the mechanisms determining the distribution of biological diversity on Earth....

  6. Bat species richness and activity over an elevation gradient in mediterranean shrublands of Crete

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis Georgiakakis; Paraskevas Vasilakopoulos; Moysis Mylonas; Danilo Russo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract
    The effect of elevation on bat species richness and activity was investigated in shrublands of central Crete (Greece) using broad-band acoustic surveys. Recordings of echolocation calls were made in 15 transects equally distributed in three distinct elevation zones (500, 1000 and 1500 m a.s.l.) during spring and autumn 2007-2008. Time-expanded calls were subsequently identified with the use of quadratic discriminant functions.
    Out ...

  7. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Sony; P. R. Arun

    2015-01-01

     Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 speci...

  8. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz F.S. Magnago; Sebastião V. Martins; Carlos E. G. R. Schaefer; Andreza V. Neri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were...

  9. Biogeographic and species richness patterns of Gastropoda on the southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOETER S. R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of richness and biogeography of Gastropoda molluscs were determined based on lists of species from five sites along the southwestern Atlantic. The analysis of the distribution patterns of these sites confirmed the existence of a broader transition zone between southern Espírito Santo State (21°S and Rio Grande do Sul State (32°S. This zone is very heterogeneous, presenting a low endemism rate and a significant number of species common to the near provinces, and does not show enough consistency to be considered as an independent biogeographic province as proposed by Palacio (1980. Observing the distribution of species along the southwestern Atlantic we find an increase in the proportion of species with greatest latitudinal ranges (occurring from the tropics to Patagonia from lowest to highest latitudes, following Rappoport's rule.

  10. The mid-domain effect and species richness patterns:what have we learned so far?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colwell, Robert K; Rahbek, Carsten; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2004-01-01

    If species' ranges are randomly shuffled within a bounded geographical domain free of environmental gradients, ranges overlap increasingly toward the center of the domain, creating a "mid-domain" peak of species richness. This "mid-domain effect" (MDE) has been controversial both in concept and in...... application. Empirical studies assess the degree to which the evolutionary, ecological, and historical processes that undeniably act on individual species and clades produce geographical patterns that resemble those produced by MDE models. MDE models that resample empirical range size frequency distributions...... (RSFDs) balance the risk of underestimating and overestimating the role of MDE, whereas theoretical RSFDs are generally biased toward underestimating MDE. We discuss the inclusion of nonendemic species in MDE models, rationales for setting domain limits, and the validity of one- and two-dimensional MDE...

  11. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnago, Luiz F S; Martins, Sebastião V; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Neri, Andreza V

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm) in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes. PMID:22886165

  12. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oldén

    Full Text Available Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L. retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old

  13. Rapid diversification and not clade age explains high diversity in neotropical Adelpha butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Sean P; Savage, Wesley K; Wahlberg, Niklas; Willmott, Keith R

    2011-06-22

    Latitudinal gradients in species richness are among the most well-known biogeographic patterns in nature, and yet there remains much debate and little consensus over the ecological and evolutionary causes of these gradients. Here, we evaluated whether two prominent alternative hypotheses (namely differences in diversification rate or clade age) could account for the latitudinal diversity gradient in one of the most speciose neotropical butterfly genera (Adelpha) and its close relatives. We generated a multilocus phylogeny of a diverse group of butterflies in the containing tribe Limenitidini, which has both temperate and tropical representatives. Our results suggest there is no relationship between clade age and species richness that could account for the diversity gradient, but that instead it could be explained by a significantly higher diversification rate within the predominantly tropical genus Adelpha. An apparent early larval host-plant shift to Rubiaceae and other plant families suggests that the availability of new potential host plants probably contributed to an increase in diversification of Adelpha in the lowland Neotropics. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that the equatorial peak in species richness observed within Adelpha is the result of increased diversification rate in the last 10-15 Myr rather than a function of clade age, perhaps reflecting adaptive divergence in response to the dramatic host-plant diversity found within neotropical ecosystems. PMID:21106589

  14. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  15. Inferring species richness and turnover by statistical multiresolution texture analysis of satellite imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Convertino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The quantification of species-richness and species-turnover is essential to effective monitoring of ecosystems. Wetland ecosystems are particularly in need of such monitoring due to their sensitivity to rainfall, water management and other external factors that affect hydrology, soil, and species patterns. A key challenge for environmental scientists is determining the linkage between natural and human stressors, and the effect of that linkage at the species level in space and time. We propose pixel intensity based Shannon entropy for estimating species-richness, and introduce a method based on statistical wavelet multiresolution texture analysis to quantitatively assess interseasonal and interannual species turnover. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We model satellite images of regions of interest as textures. We define a texture in an image as a spatial domain where the variations in pixel intensity across the image are both stochastic and multiscale. To compare two textures quantitatively, we first obtain a multiresolution wavelet decomposition of each. Either an appropriate probability density function (pdf model for the coefficients at each subband is selected, and its parameters estimated, or, a non-parametric approach using histograms is adopted. We choose the former, where the wavelet coefficients of the multiresolution decomposition at each subband are modeled as samples from the generalized Gaussian pdf. We then obtain the joint pdf for the coefficients for all subbands, assuming independence across subbands; an approximation that simplifies the computational burden significantly without sacrificing the ability to statistically distinguish textures. We measure the difference between two textures' representative pdf's via the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KL. Species turnover, or [Formula: see text] diversity, is estimated using both this KL divergence and the difference in Shannon entropy. Additionally, we predict species

  16. Unimodal latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across northern Eurasian lowlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Horsák

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns of species richness and their causes are still poorly understood for most terrestrial invertebrates, although invertebrates can add important insights into the mechanisms that generate regional and global biodiversity patterns. Here we explore the general plausibility of the climate-based "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis using the latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across extensive topographically homogeneous lowlands of northern Eurasia. We established a 1480-km long latitudinal transect across the Western Siberian Plain (Russia from the Russia-Kazakhstan border (54.5°N to the Arctic Ocean (67.5°N, crossing eight latitudinal vegetation zones: steppe, forest-steppe, subtaiga, southern, middle and northern taiga, forest-tundra, and tundra. We sampled snails in forests and open habitats each half-degree of latitude and used generalized linear models to relate snail species richness to climatic variables and soil calcium content measured in situ. Contrary to the classical prediction of latitudinal biodiversity decrease, we found a striking unimodal pattern of snail species richness peaking in the subtaiga and southern-taiga zones between 57 and 59°N. The main south-to-north interchange of the two principal diversity constraints, i.e. drought stress vs. cold stress, explained most of the variance in the latitudinal diversity pattern. Water balance, calculated as annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, was a single variable that could explain 81.7% of the variance in species richness. Our data suggest that the "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis can apply not only at the global scale but also at subcontinental scales of higher latitudes, as water availability was found to be the primary limiting factor also in this extratropical region with summer-warm and dry climate. A narrow zone with a sharp south-to-north switch in the two main diversity constraints seems to constitute the dominant and

  17. Hotspots of species richness, threat and endemism for terrestrial vertebrates in SW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, López-López; Luigi, Maiorano; Alessandra, Falcucci; Emilio, Barba; Luigi, Boitani

    2011-09-01

    The Mediterranean basin, and the Iberian Peninsula in particular, represent an outstanding "hotspot" of biological diversity with a long history of integration between natural ecosystems and human activities. Using deductive distribution models, and considering both Spain and Portugal, we downscaled traditional range maps for terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians, breeding birds, mammals and reptiles) to the finest possible resolution with the data at hand, and we identified hotspots based on three criteria: i) species richness; ii) vulnerability, and iii) endemism. We also provided a first evaluation of the conservation status of biodiversity hotspots based on these three criteria considering both existing and proposed protected areas (i.e., Natura 2000). For the identification of hotspots, we used a method based on the cumulative distribution functions of species richness values. We found no clear surrogacy among the different types of hotspots in the Iberian Peninsula. The most important hotspots (considering all criteria) are located in the western and southwestern portions of the study area, in the Mediterranean biogeographical region. Existing protected areas are not specifically concentrated in areas of high species richness, with only 5.2% of the hotspots of total richness being currently protected. The Natura 2000 network can potentially constitute an important baseline for protecting vertebrate diversity in the Iberian Peninsula although further improvements are needed. We suggest taking a step forward in conservation planning in the Mediterranean basin, explicitly considering the history of the region as well as its present environmental context. This would allow moving from traditional reserve networks (conservation focused on "patterns") to considerations about the "processes" that generated present biodiversity.

  18. Associations of forest bird species richness with housing and landscape patterns across the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, A M; Radeloff, V C; Flather, C H; Lepczyk, C A; Clayton, M K; Hawbaker, T J; Hammer, R B

    2007-10-01

    In the United States, housing density has substantially increased in and adjacent to forests. Our goal in this study was to identify how housing density and human populations are associated with avian diversity. We compared these associations to those between landscape pattern and avian diversity, and we examined how these associations vary across the conterminous forested United States. Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the U.S. Census, and the National Land Cover Database, we focused on forest and woodland bird communities and conducted our analysis at multiple levels of model specificity, first using a coarse-thematic resolution (basic models), then using a larger number of fine-thematic resolution variables (refined models). We found that housing development was associated with forest bird species richness in all forested ecoregions of the conterminous United States. However, there were important differences among ecoregions. In the basic models, housing density accounted for ecoregion, where 29% of variation in richness of the permanent resident guild was associated with housing density. Model improvements due to regional stratification were most pronounced for cavity nesters and short-distance migrants, suggesting that these guilds may be especially sensitive to regional processes. The varying patterns of association between avian richness and attributes associated with landscape structure suggested that landscape context was an important mediating factor affecting how biodiversity responds to landscape changes. Our analysis suggested that simple, broadly applicable, land use recommendations cannot be derived from our results. Rather, anticipating future avian response to land use intensification (or reversion to native vegetation) has to be conditioned on the current landscape context and the species group of interest. Our results show that housing density and residential land cover were significant predictors of forest bird species

  19. Deep mitochondrial divergence within a Heliconius butterfly species is not explained by cryptic speciation or endosymbiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Astrid G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptic population structure can be an indicator of incipient speciation or historical processes. We investigated a previously documented deep break in the mitochondrial haplotypes of Heliconius erato chestertonii to explore the possibility of cryptic speciation, and also the possible presence of endosymbiont bacteria that might drive mitochondrial population structure. Results Among a sample of 315 individuals from 16 populations of western Colombia, two principal mtDNA clades were detected with 2.15% divergence and we confirmed this structure was weakly associated with geography. The first mtDNA clade included 87% of individuals from northern populations and was the sister group of H. erato members of Andes western, while the second clade contained most individuals from southern populations (78%, which shared haplotypes with an Ecuadorian race of H. erato. In contrast, analysis using AFLP markers showed H. e. chestertonii to be a genetically homogeneous species with no association between mitochondrial divergence and AFLP structure. The lack of congruence between molecular markers suggests that cryptic speciation is not a plausible explanation for the deep mitochondrial divergence in H. e chestertonii. We also carried out the first tests for the presence of endosymbiontic bacteria in Heliconius, and identified two distinct lineages of Wolbachia within H. e. chestertonii. However, neither of the principal mitochondrial clades of H. e. chestertonii was directly associated with the patterns of infection. Conclusions We conclude that historical demographic processes are the most likely explanation for the high mitochondrial differentiation in H. e. chestertonii, perhaps due to gene flow between Cauca valley H. e. chestertonii and west Pacific slope populations of H. erato.

  20. A high local species richness and biodiversity within high-latitude calcareous aggregates of tube-building polychaetes

    OpenAIRE

    Haanes, Hallvard; Gulliksen, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    In general, biodiversity and species richness follow the latitudinal diversity gradient and decrease from the tropics towards the poles. Exceptions have however been recorded, as for deep coldwater coral reefs at high latitudes, which comprise biodiversity hotspots. Here we assess and characterise the high-latitude (69 degrees N) species richness and diversity of a local shallow-water fauna associated with small calcareous aggregations of a serpulid polychaete. A dense and very species r...

  1. Plant species richness and functional traits affect community stability after a flood event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Felícia M; Wright, Alexandra J; Eisenhauer, Nico; Ebeling, Anne; Roscher, Christiane; Wagg, Cameron; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Pillar, Valério D

    2016-05-19

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events. It is therefore of major importance to identify the community attributes that confer stability in ecological communities during such events. In June 2013, a flood event affected a plant diversity experiment in Central Europe (Jena, Germany). We assessed the effects of plant species richness, functional diversity, flooding intensity and community means of functional traits on different measures of stability (resistance, resilience and raw biomass changes from pre-flood conditions). Surprisingly, plant species richness reduced community resistance in response to the flood. This was mostly because more diverse communities grew more immediately following the flood. Raw biomass increased over the previous year; this resulted in decreased absolute value measures of resistance. There was no clear response pattern for resilience. We found that functional traits drove these changes in raw biomass: communities with a high proportion of late-season, short-statured plants with dense, shallow roots and small leaves grew more following the flood. Late-growing species probably avoided the flood, whereas greater root length density might have allowed species to better access soil resources brought from the flood, thus growing more in the aftermath. We conclude that resource inputs following mild floods may favour the importance of traits related to resource acquisition and be less associated with flooding tolerance. PMID:27114578

  2. Experimental factors affecting PCR-based estimates of microbial species richness and evenness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Zvenigorodsky, Natasha; Chen, Feng; Ochman, Howard; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for microbial community profiling can, for equivalent costs, yield greater than two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than traditional PCR-cloning and Sanger sequencing. With this increased sensitivity and the ability to analyze multiple samples in parallel, it has become possible to evaluate several technical aspects of PCRbased community structure profiling methods. We tested the effect of amplicon length and primer pair on estimates of species richness number of species and evenness relative abundance of species by assessing the potentially tractable microbial community residing in the termite hindgut. Two regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced from one of two common priming sites, spanning the V1-V2 or V8 regions, using amplicons ranging n length from 352 to 1443 bp. Our results demonstrate that both amplicon length and primer pair markedly influence estimates of richness and evenness. However, estimates of species evenness are consistent among different primer pairs targeting the same region. These results highlight the importance of experimental methodology when comparing diversity estimates across communities.

  3. Vector species richness increases haemorrhagic disease prevalence through functional diversity modulating the duration of seasonal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrew W; Cleveland, Christopher A; Dallas, Tad A; Corn, Joseph L

    2016-06-01

    Although many parasites are transmitted between hosts by a suite of arthropod vectors, the impact of vector biodiversity on parasite transmission is poorly understood. Positive relationships between host infection prevalence and vector species richness (SR) may operate through multiple mechanisms, including (i) increased vector abundance, (ii) a sampling effect in which species of high vectorial capacity are more likely to occur in species-rich communities, and (iii) functional diversity whereby communities comprised species with distinct phenologies may extend the duration of seasonal transmission. Teasing such mechanisms apart is impeded by a lack of appropriate data, yet could highlight a neglected role for functional diversity in parasite transmission. We used statistical modelling of extensive host, vector and microparasite data to test the hypothesis that functional diversity leading to longer seasonal transmission explained variable levels of disease in a wildlife population. We additionally developed a simple transmission model to guide our expectation of how an increased transmission season translates to infection prevalence. Our study demonstrates that vector SR is associated with increased levels of disease reporting, but not via increases in vector abundance or via a sampling effect. Rather, the relationship operates by extending the length of seasonal transmission, in line with theoretical predictions. PMID:26206418

  4. Predicting species richness and distribution ranges of centipedes at the northern edge of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Djursvoll, Per; Simaiakis, Stylianos M.

    2016-07-01

    In recent decades, interest in understanding species distributions and exploring processes that shape species diversity has increased, leading to the development of advanced methods for the exploitation of occurrence data for analytical and ecological purposes. Here, with the use of georeferenced centipede data, we explore the importance and contribution of bioclimatic variables and land cover, and predict distribution ranges and potential hotspots in Norway. We used a maximum entropy analysis (Maxent) to model species' distributions, aiming at exploring centres of distribution, latitudinal spans and northern range boundaries of centipedes in Norway. The performance of all Maxent models was better than random with average test area under the curve (AUC) values above 0.893 and True Skill Statistic (TSS) values above 0.593. Our results showed a highly significant latitudinal gradient of increased species richness in southern grid-cells. Mean temperatures of warmest and coldest quarters explained much of the potential distribution of species. Predictive modelling analyses revealed that south-eastern Norway and the Atlantic coast in the west (inclusive of the major fjord system of Sognefjord), are local biodiversity hotspots with regard to high predictive species co-occurrence. We conclude that our predicted northward shifts of centipedes' distributions in Norway are likely a result of post-glacial recolonization patterns, species' ecological requirements and dispersal abilities.

  5. Low species richness of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Neotropical artificial urban water bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Ladislav; Jacobsen, Dean; Brodersen, Klaus Peter

    2011-01-01

    Chironomid assemblages of 22 artificial water bodies, mainly fountains, in two South American cities were surveyed. We found surprisingly low diversities, with a total of 11 taxa, averaging two taxa per site. The typical fountain assemblages mainly consisted of common species that have a wide...... distribution pattern and are tolerant to organic pollution. Also taxa independent of the natural aquatic sources, such as tap-water and semi-terrestrial species were represented. There was no significant difference between the taxa richness of the two S. American regions, however, the assemblage structures of...... the water bodies of Quito and Bogota differed significantly. There was no correlation between sample similarities and distances among the sites either. The low number of taxa recorded can be attributed to the combination of naturally limited species pool and the heavy pollution in natural water bodies...

  6. Predators reduce abundance and species richness of coral reef fish recruits via non-selective predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, J. M.; Stier, A. C.; Steele, M. A.

    2010-06-01

    Predators have important effects on coral reef fish populations, but their effects on community structure have only recently been investigated and are not yet well understood. Here, the effect of predation on the diversity and abundance of young coral reef fishes was experimentally examined in Moorea, French Polynesia. Effects of predators were quantified by monitoring recruitment of fishes onto standardized patch reefs in predator-exclosure cages or uncaged reefs. At the end of the 54-day experiment, recruits were 74% less abundant on reefs exposed to predators than on caged ones, and species richness was 42% lower on reefs exposed to predators. Effects of predators varied somewhat among families, however, rarefaction analysis indicated that predators foraged non-selectively among species. These results indicate that predation can alter diversity of reef fish communities by indiscriminately reducing the abundance of fishes soon after settlement, thereby reducing the number of species present on reefs.

  7. Effect of different mowing regimes on butterflies and diurnal moths on road verges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtonen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Europe road verges offer alternative habitats for declining plant and invertebrate species of semi-natural grasslands. The quality of road verges as habitats depends on several factors, of which the mowing regime is one of the easiest to modify. In this study we compared the Lepidoptera communities on road verges that underwent three different mowing regimes regarding the timing and intensity of mowing; mowing in mid-summer, mowing in late summer, and partial mowing (a narrow strip next to the road. A total of 12,174 individuals and 107 species of Lepidoptera were recorded. The mid-summer mown verges had lower species richness and abundance of butterflies and lower species richness and diversity of diurnal moths compared to the late summer and partially mown verges. By delaying the annual mowing until late summer or promoting mosaic-like mowing regimes, such as partial mowing, the quality of road verges as habitats for butterflies and diurnal moths can be improved.

  8. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  9. Both Palatable and Unpalatable Butterflies Use Bright Colors to Signal Difficulty of Capture to Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L; Campos, V C; DeVries, P J; Penz, C M

    2016-04-01

    Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of capture to predators is a widespread phenomenon in butterflies, and this ability may not be limited to palatable butterflies. The possibility that both palatable and unpalatable species signal difficulty of capture has not been fully explored, but helps explain the existence of aposematic coloration and escape mimicry in butterflies lacking defensive chemicals. This possibility may also change the role that putative Müllerian and Batesian mimics play in a variety of classical mimicry rings, thus opening new perspectives in the evolution of mimicry in butterflies. PMID:26911159

  10. Chasing the Hofstadter Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Indu

    2014-03-01

    The experimental observation of the Hofstadter butterfly, the fascinating quantum fractal that also encodes the Chern numbers associated with quantum Hall state, continues to remain a challenging task. It may be possible to observe the fine structure of the butterfly, consisting of small gaps of the spectrum characterized by topological invariants greater than unity, with a resolution matching that of the Chern-1 gaps that form the skeleton of the butterfly. The tiny gaps of the butterfly emanating from a rational flux p / q are found to be associated with infinity of possible solutions (of Diophantine equation)for the rational flux. Not supported by the simple square lattice nearest-neighbor hopping model of the Hofstadter system, these solutions are found to be hiding in neighborhood of these fluxes. By perturbing this simple system, it is possible to ``amplify'' these small gaps corresponding to higher Chern states where they replace the Chern 1 gap of the Hofstadter butterfly. In other words, by tuning a parameter, it is possible to induce topological quantum phase transitions where the finer gaps become the new major gaps that dominate the spectrum. This may provide a possible pathway to see the topological landscape of the Hofstadter butterfly fractal in its entirety.

  11. Chytrid fungus acts as a generalist pathogen infecting species-rich amphibian families in Brazilian rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Aguilar, Anyelet; Ruano-Fajardo, Gustavo; Lambertini, Carolina; da Silva Leite, Domingos; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Mott, Tamí

    2015-05-11

    The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is among the main causes of declines in amphibian populations. This fungus is considered a generalist pathogen because it infects several species and spreads rapidly in the wild. To date, Bd has been detected in more than 100 anuran species in Brazil, mostly in the southern portion of the Atlantic forest. Here, we report survey data from some poorly explored regions; these data considerably extend current information on the distribution of Bd in the northern Atlantic forest region. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that Bd is a generalist pathogen in this biome. We also report the first positive record for Bd in an anuran caught in the wild in Amazonia. In total, we screened 90 individuals (from 27 species), of which 39 individuals (from 22 species) were Bd-positive. All samples collected in Bahia (2 individuals), Pernambuco (3 individuals), Pará (1 individual), and Minas Gerais (1 individual) showed positive results for Bd. We found a positive correlation between anuran richness per family and the number of infected species in the Atlantic forest, supporting previous observations that Bd lacks strong host specificity; of 38% of the anuran species in the Atlantic forest that were tested for Bd infection, 25% showed positive results. The results of our study exemplify the pandemic and widespread nature of Bd infection in amphibians. PMID:25958806

  12. Contrasting impacts of different-sized herbivores on species richness of Mediterranean annual pastures differing in primary productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; García-Salgado, Gonzalo

    2013-06-01

    Vertebrate herbivores can be key determinants of grassland plant species richness, although the magnitude of their effects can largely depend on ecosystem and herbivore characteristics. It has been demonstrated that the combined effect of primary productivity and body size is critical when assessing the impact of herbivores on plant richness of perennial-dominated grasslands; however, the interaction of site productivity and herbivore size as determinants of plant richness in annual-dominated pastures remains unknown. We experimentally partitioned primary productivity and herbivore body size (sheep and wild rabbits) to study the effect of herbivores on the plant species richness of a Mediterranean semiarid annual plant community in central Spain over six years. We also analyzed the effect of grazing and productivity on the evenness and species composition of the plant community, and green cover, litter, and plant height. We found that plant richness was higher where the large herbivore was present at high-productivity sites but barely changed at low productivity. The small herbivore did not affect species richness at either productivity site despite its large effects on species composition. We propose that adaptations to resource scarcity and herbivory prevented plant richness changes at low-productivity sites, whereas litter accumulation in the absence of herbivores decreased plant richness at high productivity. Our results are consistent with predictions arising from a long history of grazing and highlight the importance of both large and small herbivores to the maintenance of plant diversity of Mediterranean annual-dominated pastures. PMID:23090759

  13. Climate change velocity since the Last Glacial Maximum and its importance for patterns of species richness and range size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Arge, Lars Allan; Svenning, J.-C.

    fully occupy suitable habitat, or when local diversification rates are depressed by local population extinctions and changing selective regimes. Locations with long-term climate instability should therefore show reduced species richness with small-ranged species particularly missing from the community...... predictions using global data on mammal and amphibian distributions. Consistent with our predictions, richness of small-ranged species of both groups was negatively associated with velocity. Velocity generally explained more variation in richness than did the simple climate anomaly. Climate velocity appears...

  14. Lista de espécies de borboletas (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea da região do vale do rio Maquiné, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Butterfly species list (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea in a region at valley of Maquiné river, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Agra Iserhard

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Procurando contribuir para o levantamento sistemático e o conhecimento das borboletas da Mata Atlântica do Rio Grande do Sul, foram realizadas saídas bimestrais em quatro localidades no vale do rio Maquiné, entre junho de 2001 e agosto de 2002. Foi elaborada uma listagem com 292 espécies de borboletas, sendo destas 42 registros novos para o Rio Grande do Sul e sete espécies raras e/ou indicadoras de ambiente preservado.To add to the knowledge on the diversity of the butterflies from Atlantic Rainforest of Rio Grande do Sul State, a systematic survey was carried out at the valley of Maquiné river, from june 2001 to august 2002, in four sampling localities. A list resulted with 292 butterfly species, with 42 new registers for Rio Grande do Sul and seven rare and/or environmental quality indicator butterfly species.

  15. Relationship between species richness and biomass on environmental gradient in natural forest communities on Mt. Xiaolongshan, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between species richness and biomass in natural forest communities at two similar sites on Mt. Xiaoiongshan, northwest China. At both sites, a wide range of tree layer biomass levels was available by local biomass estima-tion models. In order to identify underlying mechanism of the species richness-biomass relationship, we included different water resource levels and number of individuals in each plot in our analysis. We sampled 15 and 20 plots (20 m x 20 m), respectively, at both two sites. These plots were sampled equally on the sunny slope and the shady slope. Species richness, number of individuals of each species and diameter at breast height (DBH) as a substitute of biomass of tree layer were recorded in each sample. At one site,the relationship between species richness and biomass was significant on the sunny slope, and this relationship disappeared on the shady slope due to more environmental factors. The relations between species richness and number of individuals and between num-ber of individuals and biomass paralleled the species richness-biomass relation on both slopes. The difference in number of individu-als-biomass relationships on the sunny slope and the shady slope revealed "interspecific competitive exclusion" even though the species richness-biomass relationships were not hump-shaped. At the other site, species richness was not related to biomass or to number of individuals. Our study demonstrated the importance of environmental stress and succession of community in the under-standing of species diversity-productivity patterns.

  16. Local and Landscape Correlates of Spider Activity Density and Species Richness in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, Michelle D; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2015-08-01

    Urbanization is a major threat to arthropod biodiversity and abundance due to reduction and loss of suitable natural habitat. Green spaces and small-scale agricultural areas may provide habitat and resources for arthropods within densely developed cities. We studied spider activity density (a measure of both abundance and degree of movement) and diversity in urban gardens in Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, and Monterey counties in central California, USA. We sampled for spiders with pitfall traps and sampled 38 local site characteristics for 5 mo in 19 garden sites to determine the relative importance of individual local factors. We also analyzed 16 landscape variables at 500-m and 1-km buffers surrounding each garden to determine the significance of landscape factors. We identified individuals from the most common families to species and identified individuals from other families to morphospecies. Species from the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae composed 81% of total adult spider individuals. Most of the significant factors that correlated with spider activity density and richness were local rather than landscape factors. Spider activity density and richness increased with mulch cover and flowering plant species, and decreased with bare soil. Thus, changes in local garden management have the potential to promote diversity of functionally important spiders in urban environments. PMID:26314049

  17. Seasonal Variation in the NDVI–Species Richness Relationship in a Prairie Grassland Experiment (Cedar Creek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Species richness generally promotes ecosystem productivity, although the shape of the relationship varies and remains the subject of debate. One reason for this uncertainty lies in the multitude of methodological approaches to sampling biodiversity and productivity, some of which can be subjective. Remote sensing offers new, objective ways of assessing productivity and biodiversity. In this study, we tested the species richness–productivity relationship using a common remote sensing index, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, as a measure of productivity in experimental prairie grassland plots (Cedar Creek. Our study spanned a growing season (May to October, 2014 to evaluate dynamic changes in the NDVI–species richness relationship through time and in relation to environmental variables and phenology. We show that NDVI, which is strongly associated with vegetation percent cover and biomass, is related to biodiversity for this prairie site, but it is also strongly influenced by other factors, including canopy growth stage, short-term water stress and shifting flowering patterns. Remarkably, the NDVI-biodiversity correlation peaked at mid-season, a period of warm, dry conditions and anthesis, when NDVI reached a local minimum. These findings confirm a positive, but dynamic, productivity–diversity relationship and highlight the benefit of optical remote sensing as an objective and non-invasive tool for assessing diversity–productivity relationships.

  18. Responses of Cryptofaunal Species Richness and Trophic Potential to Coral Reef Habitat Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Manzello

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are declining worldwide as a result of many anthropogenic disturbances. This trend is alarming because coral reefs are hotspots of marine biodiversity and considered the ‘rainforests of the sea. As in the rainforest, much of the diversity on a coral reef is cryptic, remaining hidden among the cracks and crevices of structural taxa. Although the cryptofauna make up the majority of a reef’s metazoan biodiversity, we know little about their basic ecology or how these communities respond to reef degradation. Emerging research shows that the species richness of the motile cryptofauna is higher among dead (framework vs. live coral substrates and, surprisingly, increases within successively more eroded reef framework structures, ultimately reaching a maximum in dead coral rubble. Consequently, the paradigm that abundant live coral is the apex of reef diversity needs to be clarified. This provides guarded optimism amidst alarming reports of declines in live coral cover and the impending doom of coral reefs, as motile cryptic biodiversity should persist independent of live coral cover. Granted, the maintenance of this high species richness is contingent on the presence of reef rubble, which will eventually be lost due to physical, chemical, and biological erosion if not replenished by live coral calcification and mortality. The trophic potential of a reef, as inferred from the abundance of cryptic organisms, is highest on live coral. Among dead framework substrates, however, the density of cryptofauna reaches a peak at intermediate levels of degradation. In summary, the response of the motile cryptofauna, and thus a large fraction of the reef’s biodiversity, to reef degradation is more complex and nuanced than currently thought; such that species richness may be less sensitive than overall trophic function.

  19. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth’s ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future. PMID:26717517

  20. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Violeta Ardelean

    Full Text Available Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth's ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future.

  1. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth's ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future. PMID:26717517

  2. Correlation between the habitats productivity and species richness (amphibians and reptiles) in Portugal through remote sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, A. C.; Sillero, N.; Alves, S.; Duarte, L.

    2013-10-01

    Several biogeographic theories propose that the species richness depends on the structure and ecosystems diversity. The habitat productivity, a surrogate for these variables, can be evaluated through satellite imagery, namely using vegetation indexes (e.g. NDVI). We analyzed the correlation between species richness (from the Portuguese Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles) and NDVI (from Landsat, MODIS, and Vegetation images). The species richness database contains more than 80000 records, collected from bibliographic sources (at 1 or 10 km of spatial resolution) and fieldwork sampling stations (recorded with GPS devices). Several study areas were chosen for Landsat images (three subsets), and all Portugal for MODIS and Vegetation images. The Landsat subareas had different climatic and habitat characteristics, located in the north, center and south of Portugal. Different species richness datasets were used depending on the image spatial resolution: data with metric resolution were used for Landsat, and with 1 km resolution, for MODIS and Vegetation images. The NDVI indexes and all the images were calculated/processed in an open source software (Quantum GIS). Several plug-ins were applied in order to automatize several procedures. We did not find any correlation between the species richness of amphibians and reptiles (not even after separating both groups by species of Atlantic and Mediterranean affinity) and the NDVI calculated with Landsat, MODIS and Vegetation images. Our results may fail to find a relationship because as the species richness is not correlated with only one variable (NDVI), and thus other environmental variables must be considered.

  3. PYRENE MORPHOLOGY OF THREE SPECIES OF Byrsonima Rich. ex Kunth (Malpighiaceae1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cylles Zara dos Reis Barbosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The species of the genus Byrsonima Rich. ex Kunth are of great medicinal and economic importance, but they are still poorly studied with respect to their propagules. This study describes, illustrates and comparse morphological aspects of the pyrenes of Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth, Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC. and Byrsonima coccolobifolia Kunth occurring in areas of savannah of Boa Vista, Roraima. The pyrenes are globoid, obovoid to ovoid, with endocarp dark brown in color, with a corrugated and reticulate surface and corneous consistency. They possess distinctly septate locules with or without seeds, the outer wall of which are dark brown in color with corneous consistency and thin black inner walls also with corneous consistency. The number of locules and seeds per pyrene among the species varies. The seeds are exalbuminous, globoid, obovoid to ovoid, with a thin, smooth integument and are light-brown in color. They have radicular lobes and hypostasis. The embryo is continuous and axial with cylindrical spirally rolled cotyledons. The diameter of pyrenes of Byrsonima crassifolia is greater than in the other two species. The pyrenes of B. coccolobifolia are longer and heavier, while those of B. verbascifolia are lighter and the seeds have greater lengths, widths and thickness compared to the other two species studied. The three species have similar morphologies, differing in the size and weight of pyrenes and seeds.

  4. Two common species dominate the species-rich Euglossine bee fauna of an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Pinto, C E; Schlindwein, C

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the northern part of the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil is largely destroyed and forest remnants rarely exceed 100 ha. In a 118 ha forest fragment within a state nature reserve of Pernambuco (Reserva Ecológica Gurjaú), we surveyed the orchid bee fauna (Apidae, Euglossini) using eight different scent baits to attract males. Once a month during one year, the bees were actively collected with entomological nets, from November 2002 to October 2003 by two collectors. We collected 2,908 orchid bee males belonging to 23 species, one of the highest richness values of the Northern Atlantic Rainforest. Bees of only two species, Euglossa carolina (50%) and Eulaema nigrita (25%), which occurred throughout the year, accounted for three quarter of the collected individuals. Both species are typical for open or disturbed areas. Rainforest remnants like those of Gurjaú within the predominant sugar cane monocultures in the coastal plains of the northern Atlantic Rainforest play an important role in orchid bee conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. PMID:26602351

  5. (macro- Evolutionary ecology of parasite diversity: From determinants of parasite species richness to host diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Morand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarized the factors or determinants that may explain parasite diversity among host species and the consequences of this parasite diversity on the evolution of host-life history traits. As host–parasite interactions are asymmetrical exploited–exploiter relationships, ecological and epidemiological theories produce hypotheses to find the potential determinants of parasite species richness, while life-history theory helps for testing potential consequences on parasite diversity on the evolution of hosts. This review referred only to studies that have specifically controlled or took into account phylogenetic information illustrated with parasites of mammals. Several points needing more investigation were identified with a special emphasis to develop the metabolic theory of epidemiology.

  6. Plant species richness and shrub cover attenuate drought effects on ecosystem functioning across Patagonian rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Juan J; Bran, Donaldo; Oliva, Gabriel; Maestre, Fernando T; Aguiar, Martín R; Jobbágy, Esteban; Buono, Gustavo; Ferrante, Daniela; Nakamatsu, Viviana; Ciari, Georgina; Salomone, Jorge; Massara, Virginia

    2014-10-01

    Drought is an increasingly common phenomenon in drylands as a consequence of climate change. We used 311 sites across a broad range of environmental conditions in Patagonian rangelands to evaluate how drought severity and temperature (abiotic factors) and vegetation structure (biotic factors) modulate the impact of a drought event on the annual integral of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI-I), our surrogate of ecosystem functioning. We found that NDVI-I decreases were larger with both increasing drought severity and temperature. Plant species richness (SR) and shrub cover (SC) attenuated the effects of drought on NDVI-I. Grass cover did not affect the impacts of drought on NDVI-I. Our results suggest that warming and species loss, two important imprints of global environmental change, could increase the vulnerability of Patagonian ecosystems to drought. Therefore, maintaining SR through appropriate grazing management can attenuate the adverse effects of climate change on ecosystem functioning. PMID:25339654

  7. Species Richness and Community Structure on a High Latitude Reef: Implications for Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Houston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wealth of research on the Great Barrier Reef, few detailed biodiversity assessments of its inshore coral communities have been conducted. Effective conservation and management of marine ecosystems begins with fine-scale biophysical assessments focused on diversity and the architectural species that build the structural framework of the reef. In this study, we investigate key coral diversity and environmental attributes of an inshore reef system surrounding the Keppel Bay Islands near Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia, and assess their implications for conservation and management. The Keppels has much higher coral diversity than previously found. The average species richness for the 19 study sites was ~40 with representatives from 68% of the ~244 species previously described for the southern Great Barrier Reef. Using scleractinian coral species richness, taxonomic distinctiveness and coral cover as the main criteria, we found that five out of 19 sites had particularly high conservation value. A further site was also considered to be of relatively high value. Corals at this site were taxonomically distinct from the others (representatives of two families were found here but not at other sites and a wide range of functionally diverse taxa were present. This site was associated with more stressful conditions such as high temperatures and turbidity. Highly diverse coral communities or biodiversity ‘hotspots’ and taxonomically distinct reefs may act as insurance policies for climatic disturbance, much like Noah’s Arks for reefs. While improving water quality and limiting anthropogenic impacts are clearly important management initiatives to improve the long-term outlook for inshore reefs, identifying, mapping and protecting these coastal ‘refugia’ may be the key for ensuring their regeneration against catastrophic climatic disturbance in the meantime.

  8. Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the species richness of stream macro-invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, C.; Fritz, Susanne; Marini, L.;

    2010-01-01

    surprising as EPT are bio-indicators of stream pollution and most local studies report higher species richness of these macro-invertebrates where human influences on water quality are lower. Using a newly collated taxonomic dataset, we studied whether the species richness of EPT is related to human...... species–people relationship disappears and turns into a negative one. Our findings suggest a challenge also for the conservation of regional EPT diversity....

  9. A meta-analysis of fauna and flora species richness and abundance in plantations and pasture lands

    OpenAIRE

    Felton, Adam; Knight, Emma; Wood, Jeff; Zammit, Charlie; Lindenmayer, David

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a systematic global review of differences between timber plantations and pasture lands in terms of animal and plant species richness and abundance, and assessed the results using meta-analysis techniques. Our principal aim was to test the hypothesis that plantations contain higher species richness or abundance than pasture. Of the 1967 studies of potential relevance, 66 provided biological monitoring information and 36 met the requirements for meta-analyses. Sufficient data were ...

  10. Flora of heavy metal-rich soils in NW Iran and some potential hyper-accumulator and accumulator species

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiboland, Roghieh; Manafi, Mir H.

    2007-01-01

    In the northwestern part of Iran (Azerbaijan province), there are numerous, active mining areas with heavymetal-rich soils. The plant vegetation growing on these soils could represent a specific flora having potential hyperaccumulators, accumulators and excluder species. In this work, soils rich in Ni, Zn, Cu andMn and plants were identified during April to September in 2002–2003. Plant species belonging to 39 families were collected and the heavy metals in the above-ground parts of specimens...

  11. Species richness, alpha and beta diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants in the woodlands of swat, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation in species richness and diversity of trees, shrubs and herbs in the mountains of Miandam, Swat, North Pakistan, along an elevation gradient between 1600 m and 3400 m was explored. Field data were collected in 18 altitudinal intervals of 100 m each. Polynomial regression was used to find relations of the different growth forms with elevation. The Shannon index was used for calculating α-diversity and the Simpson index for β-diversity. Species richness and α-diversity of herbs were unrelated to elevation. Herbaceous species turnover was high, ranging between 0.46 and 0.89, with its maximum between 2700 and 3000 m. Hump-shaped relationship was observed for shrubs with maximum richness between 2000 and 2200 m; and α-diversity decreased monotonically. Turnover of shrub species was highest between 2000 and 2500 m. Tree species richness was highest at low elevations, and α-diversity was relatively low along the entire gradient. Tree species turnover was also high in the lower zone and again at 2600-2800 m. Species richness of all vascular plants was highest at 2200-2500 m, and α-diversity was highest in the lower part of the gradient. Beta diversity of all growth forms was quite high ranging between 0.53 and 0.87 along the entire gradient reflecting high species and structural turnover. (author)

  12. Positive selection in the leucine-rich repeat domain of Gro1 genes in Solanum species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Valentino Ruggieri; Angelina Nunziata; Amalia Barone

    2014-12-01

    In pathogen resistant plants, solvent-exposed residues in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are thought to mediate resistance by recognizing plant pathogen elicitors. In potato, the gene Gro1-4 confers resistance to Globodera rostochiensis. The investigation of variablity in different copies of this gene represents a good model for the verification of positive selection mechanisms. Two datasets of Gro1 LRR sequences were constructed, one derived from the Gro1-4 gene, belonging to different cultivated and wild Solanum species, and the other belonging to paralogues of a resistant genotype. Analysis of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates $(K_{a}/K_{s})$ highlighted 14 and six amino acids with $K_{a}/K_{s} \\gt 1$ in orthologue and paralogue datasets, respectively. Selection analysis revealed that the leucine-rich regions accumulate variability in a very specific way, and we found that some combinations of amino acids in these sites might be involved in pathogen recognition. The results confirm previous studies on positive selection in the LRR domain of R protein in Arabidopsis and other model plants and extend these to wild Solanum species. Moreover, positively selected sites in the Gro1 LRR domain show that coevolution mainly occurred in two regions on the internal surface of the three-dimensional horseshoe structure of the domain, albeit with different evolutionary forces between paralogues and orthologues.

  13. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  14. Butterfly valves for seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently in thermal and nuclear power stations and chemical plants which have become large capacity, large quantity of cooling water is required, and mostly seawater is utilized. In these cooling water systems, considering thermal efficiency and economy, the pipings become complex, and various control functions are demanded. For the purpose, the installation of shut-off valves and control valves for pipings is necessary. The various types of valves have been employed, and in particular, butterfly valves have many merits in their function, size, structure, operation, maintenance, usable period, price and so on. The corrosion behavior of seawater is complicated due to the pollution of seawater, therefore, the environment of the valves used for seawater became severe. The structure and the features of the butterfly valves for seawater, the change of the structure of the butterfly valves for seawater and the checkup of the butterfly valves for seawater are reported. The corrosion of metallic materials is complicatedly different due to the locating condition of plants, the state of pipings and the condition of use. The corrosion countermeasures for butterfly valves must be examined from the synthetic viewpoints. (K.I.)

  15. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Island: Local extinction rates since the 1930's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island ...

  16. Generalised Linear Spatial Model for Tree Species Richness in Eastern US Forest using FIA plot data and Climate variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale patterns of woody plant species diversity have long been studied yet it is still one of the most controversial issues in biogeography. At continental to global scale, energy availability measured by potential evapotranspiration (PET) (i.e. PET-only model) and related water-energy dynamics model (i.e. Wang's model based on China's woody plant richness) has been two primary determinants for species richness. We identified several issues in existing modeling approaches that 1) species richness are derived from species range map not a plot data, 2) they over-predicted richness in Florida peninsular at the cost of R square values for better overall model fit and 3) they lack thorough examination for spatial autocorrelation of residuals. The plot-level forest inventory and analysis (FIA) program data set (total 2,745,363 tally trees from 79,145 ground plots in the eastern US forest) used for species richness showed different pattern to range-map based richness. We applied Elastic-Net regularization for variable selections then used spatial Poisson Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and to handle spatial autocorrelations. Elastic-Net approach produced Frost frequency days (FRS), PET, AET, and seasonality of precipitation (PSN, defined as the coefficient of variation of monthly mean precipitation) as best explanatory variables and produced good model fit (R2 of 0.67) without over-prediction for Florida peninsular. Partial regression revealed that PSN successfully accounted for very low species richness in Florida. The seasonality of precipitation as climatic variability explained climatic stability permitted species specialization than greater seasonality. Also, we compared our best model with two other richness models (i.e. PET-only and Wang's model) and demonstrated that spatial autocorrelation was highest for the use of just PET-only, intermediate for Wang's model, and lowest for ours.

  17. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-01-01

    Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp.), Pieridae (17 spp), Lycaenidae (47 spp.), Nymphalidae (40 spp.) and Hesperiidae (28 spp.). The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  18. Evidence for positive density-dependent emigration in butterfly metapopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicki, Piotr; Vrabec, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    A positive effect of (meta)population density on emigration has been predicted by many theoretical models and confirmed empirically in various organisms. However, in butterflies, the most popular species for dispersal studies, the evidence for its existence has so far been equivocal, with negative relationships between density and emigration being reported more frequently. We analysed dispersal in sympatric metapopulations of two Maculinea butterflies, intensively surveyed with mark–release–r...

  19. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp., Pieridae (17 spp, Lycaenidae (47 spp., Nymphalidae (40 spp. and Hesperiidae (28 spp.. The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  20. Using Butterflies to Measure Biodiversity Health in Wazo Hill Restored Quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ngongolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study butterflies were used in assessing re-vegetation as a way of biodiversity restoration at Wazo hill quarry. The Butterflies were used as indicator species because of their high sensitivity in ecosystems alteration. The study was done in two different areas each 4.8 acre, namely the re-vegetated and un-quarried areas. Butterfly sweep nets and Butterfly traps baited were used for Butterflies capturing. Thirty six (36 species of Butterflies were identified and voucher specimens were preserved in Kingupira Museum. Variation in species diversity was evaluated using diversity indices and tested using special t-test. Variation in Butterfly abundance in two study sites and in different habitats was determined using Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistic and Mann-Whitney U test statistic. The diversity of Butterflies was significant higher in re-vegetated site than in un-quarried site while the abundance difference in the two sites were insignificance The two sites varied in plants species diversity and level of succession, a condition attributed to variation in Butterfly diversity. The re-vegetated sites were recommended for aesthetic, education purposes and further studies on organisms.

  1. [Ant diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from capões in Brazilian Pantanal: relationship between species richness and structural complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Michele M; Fernandes, Wedson D; Leal, Inara R

    2006-01-01

    Species richness of epigeic ants was surveyed in forest islands named capões of Brazilian Pantanal and related with their structural complexity. The ants were collected using pitfall traps in 28 capões from Rio Negro Farm, in Aquidauana municipality, Mato-Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. The structural complexity of capões was evaluated by measuring vegetation density and litter quantity near the pit-fall traps. Seventy-one species, distributed in 26 genera and seven sub-families were found. Ectatomma edentatum Roger (Formicidae: Ectatomminae) and one species of Pheidole were the most frequent species. Species richness was positively correlated only with herbaceous vegetation density of capões, supporting the idea that the increase in environmental heterogeneity diminishes species competition, allowing species co-occurrence. PMID:17273701

  2. An assessment of riparian environmental quality by using butterflies and disturbance susceptibility scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S. Mark; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    The butterfly community at a revegetated riparian site on the lower Colorado River near Parker, Arizona, was compared to that found in a reference riparian site. Data indicated that the herbaceous plant community, which was lacking at the revegetated site, was important to several butterfly taxa. An index using butterfly sensitivity to habitat change (species classified into risk groups) and number of taxa was developed to monitor revegetation projects and to determine restoration effectiveness.

  3. A gene-based linkage map for Bicyclus anynana butterflies allows for a comprehensive analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Beldade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopterans (butterflies and moths are a rich and diverse order of insects, which, despite their economic impact and unusual biological properties, are relatively underrepresented in terms of genomic resources. The genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been fully sequenced, but comparative lepidopteran genomics has been hampered by the scarcity of information for other species. This is especially striking for butterflies, even though they have diverse and derived phenotypes (such as color vision and wing color patterns and are considered prime models for the evolutionary and developmental analysis of ecologically relevant, complex traits. We focus on Bicyclus anynana butterflies, a laboratory system for studying the diversification of novelties and serially repeated traits. With a panel of 12 small families and a biphasic mapping approach, we first assigned 508 expressed genes to segregation groups and then ordered 297 of them within individual linkage groups. We also coarsely mapped seven color pattern loci. This is the richest gene-based map available for any butterfly species and allowed for a broad-coverage analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome. Based on 462 pairs of mapped orthologous markers in Bi. anynana and Bo. mori, we observed strong conservation of gene assignment to chromosomes, but also evidence for numerous large- and small-scale chromosomal rearrangements. With gene collections growing for a variety of target organisms, the ability to place those genes in their proper genomic context is paramount. Methods to map expressed genes and to compare maps with relevant model systems are crucial to extend genomic-level analysis outside classical model species. Maps with gene-based markers are useful for comparative genomics and to resolve mapped genomic regions to a tractable number of candidate genes, especially if there is synteny with related model species. This is discussed in relation to the identification of

  4. Bryophyte species richness and composition along an altitudinal gradient in Gongga Mountain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qin Sun

    Full Text Available An investigation of terrestrial bryophyte species diversity and community structure along an altitudinal gradient from 2,001 to 4,221 m a.s.l. in Gongga Mountain in Sichuan, China was carried out in June 2010. Factors which might affect bryophyte species composition and diversity, including climate, elevation, slope, depth of litter, vegetation type, soil pH and soil Eh, were examined to understand the altitudinal feature of bryophyte distribution. A total of 14 representative elevations were chosen along an altitudinal gradient, with study sites at each elevation chosen according to habitat type (forests, grasslands and accessibility. At each elevation, three 100 m × 2 m transects that are 50 m apart were set along the contour line, and three 50 cm × 50 cm quadrats were set along each transect at an interval of 30 m. Species diversity, cover, biomass, and thickness of terrestrial bryophytes were examined. A total of 165 species, including 42 liverworts and 123 mosses, are recorded in Gongga mountain. Ground bryophyte species richness does not show any clear elevation trend. The terrestrial bryophyte cover increases with elevation. The terrestrial bryophyte biomass and thickness display a clear humped relationship with the elevation, with the maximum around 3,758 m. At this altitude, biomass is 700.3 g m(-2 and the maximum thickness is 8 cm. Bryophyte distribution is primarily associated with the depth of litter, the air temperature and the precipitation. Further studies are necessary to include other epiphytes types and vascular vegetation in a larger altitudinal range.

  5. Stream salamander species richness and abundance in relation to environmental factors in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E.H.C.; Jung, R.E.; Rice, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Stream salamanders are sensitive to acid mine drainage and may be sensitive to acidification and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a watershed. Streams in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, are subject to episodic acidification from precipitation events. We surveyed 25 m by 2 m transects located on the stream bank adjacent to the water channel in Shenandoah National Park for salamanders using a stratified random sampling design based on elevation, aspect and bedrock geology. We investigated the relationships of four species (Eurycea bislineata, Desmognathus fuscus, D. monticola and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) to habitat and water quality variables. We did not find overwhelming evidence that stream salamanders are affected by the acid-base status of streams in Shenandoah National Park. Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola abundance was greater both in streams that had a higher potential to neutralize acidification, and in higher elevation (>700 m) streams. Neither abundance of E. bislineata nor species richness were related to any of the habitat variables. Our sampling method preferentially detected the adult age class of the study species and did not allow us to estimate population sizes. We suggest that continued monitoring of stream salamander populations in SNP will determine the effects of stream acidification on these taxa.

  6. Plant species richness in continental southern Siberia: effects of pH and climate in the context of the species pool hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytrý, M.; Danihelka, Jiří; Ermakov, N.; Hájek, Michal; Hájková, Petra; Kočí, M.; Kubešová, S.; Lustyk, P.; Otýpková, Z.; Popov, D.; Roleček, J.; Řezníčková, M.; Šmarda, P.; Valachovič, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 5 (2007), s. 668-678. ISSN 1466-822X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6163303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : species richness * steppe * species pool hypothesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.435, year: 2007

  7. Assemblage structure, species richness, abundance, and distribution of fungal fruit bodies in a seven year plot based survey near Vienna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, G.; Krisai - Greilhuber, I.

    2003-01-01

    Almost 900 species were encountered during a seven year survey of fungal fruit bodies in 13 forests and grasslands plots measuring about 1 ha. The data were comparable to those from a Swiss forest plot monitored for 21 years. Species richness and abundance were almost linearly correlated on a log/lo

  8. Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer; painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury; species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar. In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus; yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus; small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

  9. Tectonics, climate, and the rise and demise of continental aquatic species richness hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas A; Harzhauser, Mathias; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Kroh, Andreas; Mandic, Oleg

    2015-09-15

    Continental aquatic species richness hotspots are unevenly distributed across the planet. In present-day Europe, only two centers of biodiversity exist (Lake Ohrid on the Balkans and the Caspian Sea). During the Neogene, a wide variety of hotspots developed in a series of long-lived lakes. The mechanisms underlying the presence of richness hotspots in different geological periods have not been properly examined thus far. Based on Miocene to Recent gastropod distributions, we show that the existence and evolution of such hotspots in inland-water systems are tightly linked to the geodynamic history of the European continent. Both past and present hotspots are related to the formation and persistence of long-lived lake systems in geological basins or to isolation of existing inland basins and embayments from the marine realm. The faunal evolution within hotspots highly depends on warm climates and surface area. During the Quaternary icehouse climate and extensive glaciations, limnic biodiversity sustained a severe decline across the continent and most former hotspots disappeared. The Recent gastropod distribution is mainly a geologically young pattern formed after the Last Glacial Maximum (19 ky) and subsequent formation of postglacial lakes. The major hotspots today are related to long-lived lakes in preglacially formed, permanently subsiding geological basins. PMID:26305934

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of tocopherol-rich extracts of natural origin, tocopherol-rich extracts of natural origin/delta rich, synthetic tocopherol for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The additive tocopherol-rich extracts of natural origin is a mixture of the active substances alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol. Tocopherol-rich extracts of natural origin/delta rich is a mixture of the active substances alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol with a high concentration (>70 % of delta-tocopherol. Synthetic tocopherol consists of pure all-rac-alpha-tocopherol. The FEEDAP Panel, in a previous opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin E for all animal species, has already assessed the safety of RRR-alpha-tocopherol and the acetate ester of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol for all animal species, the consumer, the user and the environment. The FEEDAP Panel is not aware of any scientific findings in the meantime that would modify its previous conclusions. The FEEDAP Panel extended the conclusions drawn in its opinion on the safety of vitamin E (including RRR-alpha-tocopherol and all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate to tocopherol-rich extracts and all-rac-alpha-tocopherol. Tocopherol-rich extracts and all-rac-alpha-tocopherol at use levels are safe for all animal species and the consumer. No concern for user safety is expected from the use of tocopherol-rich extracts and all-rac-alpha-tocopherol in feed. The use of tocopherol-rich extracts and all-rac-alpha-tocopherol in animal nutrition will not result in a substantial increase in concentration in the environment. Since tocopherol-rich extracts and all-rac-alpha-tocopherol are used as antioxidants in food and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  11. Bat species richness and activity over an elevation gradient in mediterranean shrublands of Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Georgiakakis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The effect of elevation on bat species richness and activity was investigated in shrublands of central Crete (Greece using broad-band acoustic surveys. Recordings of echolocation calls were made in 15 transects equally distributed in three distinct elevation zones (500, 1000 and 1500 m a.s.l. during spring and autumn 2007-2008. Time-expanded calls were subsequently identified with the use of quadratic discriminant functions.
    Out of 13 species recorded, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus kuhlii and Tadarida teniotis were the most common and abundant. Many Rhinolophus hipposideros were also recorded in all elevation zones. Thirteen species were recorded in the lower elevation zone, 7 species in the mid one and 8 species in the 1500 m a.s.l. sites. Species richness, the number of bat passes of the most abundant species, as well as the total number of bat passes were not significantly affected by elevation. In spring both species richness and bat activity were higher than in autumn, although the corresponding difference in temperature was not significant.
    The high variability in both bat activity and the number of species found per transect in each elevation zone probably depended on the presence of other habitat types in the close vicinity, while roost availability and location might also have played an important role.
    We suggest that the ability of bats to perform regular movements along the elevational gradient has to be taken in account when assessing elevational patterns in bat diversity and activity. The geology of the study area is also of considerable importance through its effect on foraging and roosting opportunities for bats.

    Riassunto
    Ricchezza specifica e attività dei chirotteri lungo un gradiente altitudinale nella macchia mediterranea di Creta
    L’effetto della quota su ricchezza in specie e

  12. Species richness and abundance of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete sporocarps on a moisture gradient in the Tsuga heterophylla zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Thomas E.; Ammirati, Joseph F.; Schreiner, Edward G.

    1999-01-01

    Sporocarps of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungi and vegetation data were collected from eight Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. - Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco stands along a wet to dry gradient in Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A. One hundred and fifty species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were collected from a total sample area of 2.08 ha. Over 2 years, fungal species richness ranged from 19 to 67 taxa per stand. Sporocarp standing crop ranged from 0 to 3.8 kg/ha, averaging 0.58 kg/ha, 0.06 kg/ha in spring and 0.97 kg/ha in fall. Sporocarp standing crop and fungal species richness were correlated with precipitation. These results demonstrated that ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarp abundance and species richness can be partly explained in terms of an environmental gradient.

  13. Determinants of parasite species richness on small taxonomical and geographical scales: Lamellodiscus monogeneans of northwestern Mediterranean sparid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desdevises, Y

    2006-09-01

    Determinants of parasite species richness have been investigated in a host-parasite system comprising fish of the family Sparidae and their monogenean gill ectoparasites of the genus Lamellodiscus. This study was carried out on a small geographical scale in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Host phylogenetic relationships were taken into account by phylogenetic eigenvector regression which required the reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree for the sparid fish species using mtDNA sequences. Several ecological variables potentially acting on Lamellodiscus species richness were considered. Host body size and host migratory behaviour appeared to be the main determinants of parasite species richness in this system. It is concluded that structuring of monogenean communities is controlled more by ecological than evolutionary factors. PMID:16923265

  14. [History and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe and related development strategies for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Jun; Xu, Hai-Gen; Guan, Jian-Ling

    2013-09-01

    Butterfly is an important bio-indicator for biodiversity monitoring and ecological environment assessment. In Europe, the species composition, population dynamics, and distribution pattern of butterfly have been monitored for decades, and many long-term monitoring schemes with international effects have been implemented. These schemes are aimed to assess the regional and national variation trends of butterfly species abundance, and to analyze the relationships of this species abundance with habitat, climate change, and other environmental factors, providing basic data for researching, protecting, and utilizing butterfly resources and predicting environmental changes, and playing important roles in the division of butterfly' s threatened level, the formulation of related protection measures, and the protection and management of ecological environment. This paper reviewed the history and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe, with the focus on the well-known long-term monitoring programs, e. g. , the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and the Germany and European Union Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Some specific proposals for conducting butterflies monitoring in China were suggested. PMID:24417131

  15. Species richness of Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra and Goa (India, with biogeographical comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer M. Padhye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the species richness of Cladocera of the Western Ghats and surrounding areas of Maharashtra and Goa. Data of 230 samples from about 80 localities collected between 2009 and 2013 revealed 51 species in six families. Non-parametric estimators of species richness, Chao 2 and Jackknife 2, estimated the real total at 58 and 63 species, suggesting a coverage of 80% of the total species of the area. This fauna was compared with that of other countries from the Oriental region and found to be relatively species-poor, which is not in line with the biodiversity rich area status of the Western Ghats. Reasons for this are unclear. Complementarity among the cladoceran faunas of different countries belonging to the Oriental region increased with latitude and altitude. Along with the complementarity index, a comparison of family and generic occurrences of Cladocera revealed that family-level representation was similar between countries but species occurrences (like Daphnia species varied. The subgenus Daphnia was reported only from Nepal while Ctenodaphnia was common in all countries of the Indian region. Biogeographically, the fauna was mainly composed of wide-ranging tropical species, mixed with some rare Palaearctic elements. Only two species were endemic to India. Of another one, the closest relative lives in Yucatan, Mexico, and thus has a tropical Amphi-Pacific distribution.

  16. Do the rich get richer? Varying effects of tree species identity and diversity on the richness of understory taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Juilette; Paine, C. E. Timothy; Schoolmaster, Donald; Stejskal, Robert; Volařík, Daniel; Šebesta, Jan; Trnka, Filip; Koutecký, Tomáš; Švarc, Petr; Svátek, Martin; Hector, Andy; Matula, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Understory herbs and soil invertebrates play key roles in soil formation and nutrient cycling in forests. Studies suggest that diversity in the canopy and in the understory are positively associated, but these studies often confound the effects of tree species diversity with those of tree species identity and abiotic conditions. We combined extensive field sampling with structural equation modeling to evaluate the simultaneous effects of tree diversity on the species diversity of understory herbs, beetles, and earthworms. The diversity of earthworms and saproxylic beetles was directly and positively associated with tree diversity, presumably because species of both these taxa specialize on certain species of trees. Tree identity also strongly affected diversity in the understory, especially for herbs, likely as a result of interspecific differences in canopy light transmittance or litter decomposition rates. Our results suggest that changes in forest management will disproportionately affect certain understory taxa. For instance, changes in canopy diversity will affect the diversity of earthworms and saproxylic beetles more than changes in tree species composition, whereas the converse would be expected for understory herbs and detritivorous beetles. We conclude that the effects of tree diversity on understory taxa can vary from positive to negative and may affect biogeochemical cycling in temperate forests. Thus, maintaining high diversity in temperate forests can promote the diversity of multiple taxa in the understory.

  17. Life history correlates of fecal bacterial species richness in a wild population of the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benskin, Clare McW H; Rhodes, Glenn; Pickup, Roger W; Mainwaring, Mark C; Wilson, Kenneth; Hartley, Ian R

    2015-02-01

    Very little is known about the normal gastrointestinal flora of wild birds, or how it might affect or reflect the host's life-history traits. The aim of this study was to survey the species richness of bacteria in the feces of a wild population of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus and to explore the relationships between bacterial species richness and various life-history traits, such as age, sex, and reproductive success. Using PCR-TGGE, 55 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in blue tit feces. DNA sequencing revealed that the 16S rRNA gene was amplified from a diverse range of bacteria, including those that shared closest homology with Bacillus licheniformis, Campylobacter lari, Pseudomonas spp., and Salmonella spp. For adults, there was a significant negative relationship between bacterial species richness and the likelihood of being detected alive the following breeding season; bacterial richness was consistent across years but declined through the breeding season; and breeding pairs had significantly more similar bacterial richness than expected by chance alone. Reduced adult survival was correlated with the presence of an OTU most closely resembling C. lari; enhanced adult survival was associated with an OTU most similar to Arthrobacter spp. For nestlings, there was no significant change in bacterial species richness between the first and second week after hatching, and nestlings sharing the same nest had significantly more similar bacterial richness. Collectively, these results provide compelling evidence that bacterial species richness was associated with several aspects of the life history of their hosts. PMID:25750710

  18. Chemistry and distribution of daughter species in the circumstellar envelopes of O-rich AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Millar, Tom J.; Heays, Alan N.; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Context. Thanks to the advent of Herschel and ALMA, new high-quality observations of molecules present in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are being reported that reveal large differences from the existing chemical models. New molecular data and more comprehensive models of the chemistry in circumstellar envelopes are now available. Aims: The aims are to determine and study the important formation and destruction pathways in the envelopes of O-rich AGB stars and to provide more reliable predictions of abundances, column densities, and radial distributions for potentially detectable species with physical conditions applicable to the envelope surrounding IK Tau. Methods: We use a large gas-phase chemical model of an AGB envelope including the effects of CO and N2 self-shielding in a spherical geometry and a newly compiled list of inner-circumstellar envelope parent species derived from detailed modeling and observations. We trace the dominant chemistry in the expanding envelope and investigate the chemistry as a probe for the physics of the AGB phase by studying variations of abundances with mass-loss rates and expansion velocities. Results: We find a pattern of daughter molecules forming from the photodissociation products of parent species with contributions from ion-neutral abstraction and dissociative recombination. The chemistry in the outer zones differs from that in traditional PDRs in that photoionization of daughter species plays a significant role. With the proper treatment of self-shielding, the N → N2 and C+→ CO transitions are shifted outward by factors of 7 and 2, respectively, compared with earlier models. An upper limit on the abundance of CH4 as a parent species of (≲2.5 × 10-6 with respect to H2) is found for IK Tau, and several potentially observable molecules with relatively simple chemical links to other parent species are determined. The assumed stellar mass-loss rate, in particular, has an impact on the

  19. Comparison of species-rich cover crop mixtures in Hungarian vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkó, Adam; Miglécz, Tamas; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Peter; Deák, Balazs; Kelemen, Andras; Zanathy, Gabor; Drexler, Dora

    2014-05-01

    In case of vine growing, agricultural practices of the past decades - as mechanical cultivation on steep vineyard slopes - can endanger the soil of vineyards. Moreover, climate change scenarios predict heavier rainstorms, which can also promote the degradation of the soil. These are some of the reasons why sustainable floor management plays an increasingly important role in viticulture recently. The use of cover crops in the inter-row has a special importance, especially on steep slopes and in case of organic farming to provide conditions for environmental friendly soil management. Species-rich cover crop seed mixtures may help to prevent erosion and create easier cultivation circumstances. Furthermore they have a positive effect on soil structure, soil fertility and ecosystem functions. However, it is important to find suitable seed mixtures for specific production sites, consisting ideally of native species from local provenance, adapted to the local climate/vine region/vineyard. Requirements for suitable cover crop species are as follows: they should save the soil from erosion and also from compaction caused by the movement of workers and machines, they should not compete significantly with the grapevines, or influence produce quality. We started to develop and apply several species-rich cover crop seed mixtures in spring 2012. During the experiments, three cover crop seed mixtures (Biocont-Ecovin mixture, mixture of legumes, mixture of grasses and herbs) were compared in vineyards of the Tokaj and Szekszárd vine regions of Hungary. Each mixture was sown in three consecutive inter-rows at each experimental site (all together 10 sites). Besides botanical measurements, yield, must quality, and pruning weight was studied in every treatment. The botanical survey showed that the following species of the mixtures established successfully and prospered during the years 2012 and 2013: Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago lupulina, Onobrychis viciifolia

  20. Species richness and relative abundance of breeding birds in forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the Vicksburg Field Research Station of the National Wetlands Research Center initiated research on the ecology of migratory birds within forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The MAV was historically a nearly contiguous bottomland hardwood forest, however, only remnants remain. These remnants are fragmented and often influenced by drainage projects, silviculture, agriculture, and urban development. Our objectives are to assess species richness and relative abundance, and to relate these to the size, quality, and composition of forest stands. Species richness and relative abundance were estimated for 53 randomly selected forest sites using 1 to 8 point counts per site, depending on the size of the forest fragment. However, statistical comparisons among sites will be restricted to an equal number ofpoint counts within the sites being compared. Point counts, lasting five minutes, were conducted from 11 May to 29 June 1992, foltowing Ralph, Sauer, and Droege (Point Count Standards; memo dated 9 March 1992). Vegetation was measured at the first three points on each site using a modification of the methods employed by Martin and Roper (Condor 90: 5 1-57; 1988). During 252 counts, 7 1 species were encountered, but only 62 species were encountered within a 50-m radius of point center. The mean number of species encountered within 50 m of a point, was 7.3 (s.d. = 2.7) and the mean number of individuals was 11.2 (s.d. = 4.2). The mean number of species detected at any distance was 9.6 (s.d, = 2.8) and the mean number of individuals was 15.6 (s.d. = 7.9). The most frequently encountered warblers in the MAV were Prothonotary Warbler and Northern Parula. Rarely encountered warblers were American Redstart and Worm-eating Warbler. The genera, Quercus, Ulmus, Carya, and Celtis were each encountered at 80 or more of the 152 points at which vegetation was sampled. Species most frequentlyencountered were: sugarberry (Celtis laevagata), water hickory (Caqa

  1. Toward a better understanding of the subtropical Atlantic Forest in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil: tree sampling accuracy, species richness and frequency of rare species

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Leite Rezende; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; André Luís de Gasper; Alexander Christian Vibrans; Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of floristic composition is crucial when planning and designing research projects and public policies. In this study, our goal was to assess tree sampling accuracy and to identify sites with higher concentrations of rare tree species, as well as those with the highest tree species richness, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We determined sampling accuracy using the first-order jackknife and Chao 2 estimators, calculated the number of rare species (singletons and doubl...

  2. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the collapse of anuran species richness and abundance in the Upper Manu National Park, Southeastern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Lehr, Edgar; Rodriguez, Lily O; Vredenburg, Vance T

    2011-04-01

    Amphibians are declining worldwide, but these declines have been particularly dramatic in tropical mountains, where high endemism and vulnerability to an introduced fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is associated with amphibian extinctions. We surveyed frogs in the Peruvian Andes in montane forests along a steep elevational gradient (1200-3700 m). We used visual encounter surveys to sample stream-dwelling and arboreal species and leaf-litter plots to sample terrestrial-breeding species. We compared species richness and abundance among the wet seasons of 1999, 2008, and 2009. Despite similar sampling effort among years, the number of species (46 in 1999) declined by 47% between 1999 and 2008 and by 38% between 1999 and 2009. When we combined the number of species we found in 2008 and 2009, the decline from 1999 was 36%. Declines of stream-dwelling and arboreal species (a reduction in species richness of 55%) were much greater than declines of terrestrial-breeding species (reduction of 20% in 2008 and 24% in 2009). Similarly, abundances of stream-dwelling and arboreal frogs were lower in the combined 2008-2009 period than in 1999, whereas densities of frogs in leaf-litter plots did not differ among survey years. These declines may be associated with the infection of frogs with Bd. B. dendrobatidis prevalence correlated significantly with the proportion of species that were absent from the 2008 and 2009 surveys along the elevational gradient. Our results suggest Bd may have arrived at the site between 1999 and 2007, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this pathogen is spreading in epidemic waves along the Andean cordilleras. Our results also indicate a rapid decline of frog species richness and abundance in our study area, a national park that contains many endemic amphibian species and is high in amphibian species richness. PMID:21054530

  3. How many dinosaur species were there? Fossil bias and true richness estimated using a Poisson sampling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfelt, Jostein; Liow, Lee Hsiang

    2016-04-01

    The fossil record is a rich source of information about biological diversity in the past. However, the fossil record is not only incomplete but has also inherent biases due to geological, physical, chemical and biological factors. Our knowledge of past life is also biased because of differences in academic and amateur interests and sampling efforts. As a result, not all individuals or species that lived in the past are equally likely to be discovered at any point in time or space. To reconstruct temporal dynamics of diversity using the fossil record, biased sampling must be explicitly taken into account. Here, we introduce an approach that uses the variation in the number of times each species is observed in the fossil record to estimate both sampling bias and true richness. We term our technique TRiPS (True Richness estimated using a Poisson Sampling model) and explore its robustness to violation of its assumptions via simulations. We then venture to estimate sampling bias and absolute species richness of dinosaurs in the geological stages of the Mesozoic. Using TRiPS, we estimate that 1936 (1543-2468) species of dinosaurs roamed the Earth during the Mesozoic. We also present improved estimates of species richness trajectories of the three major dinosaur clades: the sauropodomorphs, ornithischians and theropods, casting doubt on the Jurassic-Cretaceous extinction event and demonstrating that all dinosaur groups are subject to considerable sampling bias throughout the Mesozoic. PMID:26977060

  4. Vascular plant species richness in relation to altitudinal and slope gradients in mountain landscapes of central norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten, Jarle I.

    Local plant ecological investigations in the central Norwegian mountains in 1992-1997 have shown some interesting features regarding the variability of vascular plant species richness along altitudinal gradients. The material reveals two peaks of vascular plant species richness with increasing elevation, a lowland peak at 0-400 m a.s.l. and a peak at the timberline area (upper part of the northern boreal zone), around the inflection line. Mountains with highly acidic bedrock have a vegetation discontinuity around the transition between discontinuous and continuous permafrost (1500 m in the Dovrefjell area), with a change from dwarf shrubs to more graminoid life forms. The angle of slope is decisive for soil-forming processes. The instability of steep slopes prevents the formation and accumulation of organic top-soils. The data show a high, positive correlation between the slope of habitat plots and the richness of vascular plant species, in both the forested and the alpine zones. A working hypothesis is put forward that, due to high substratum instability, steep terrain encourages high species richness due to the greater openness of habitats and the higher pH of the top-soils. It is suggested that this effect of local topography on species richness is strongest around the inflection line.

  5. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general. PMID:23949748

  6. A brachypterous butterfly?

    OpenAIRE

    Viloria, Angel L; Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Wojtusiak, Janusz; Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Beccaloni, George W; Sattler, Klaus; Lees, David C

    2003-01-01

    Butterflies of the genus Redonda Adams & Bernard (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) are endemic to the Andes of Venezuela. They comprise a monophyletic group of five allopatric taxa, females of which show various degrees of wing reduction and ability to fly. The female of Redonda bordoni Viloria & Pyrcz sp. nov. appears to be brachypterous and incapable of sustained flight, a phenomenon previously unknown within the Rhopalocera.

  7. Bonjour Papillon (Hello Butterfly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Donald G.; Ogrydziak, Dan

    This story in French about a butterfly who talks to children is presented in comic-book style and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Words and expressions peculiar to the Franco-American idiom are marked and translated into standard French. The drawings are in black and white. (AMH)

  8. The IBS Butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Lomolino, Mark V.

    2009-01-01

    cover: Butterfly logo designed by Mark V. Lomolino for the original Frontiers of Biogeography book , which we are adopting as the logo of this new journal. See the editorial From the Foundations to the Frontiers of Biogeography for further details.

  9. The real butterfly effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical evidence is reviewed to show that what Ed Lorenz meant by the iconic phrase ‘the butterfly effect’ is not at all captured by the notion of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in low-order chaos. Rather, as presented in his 1969 Tellus paper, Lorenz intended the phrase to describe the existence of an absolute finite-time predicability barrier in certain multi-scale fluid systems, implying a breakdown of continuous dependence on initial conditions for large enough forecast lead times. To distinguish from ‘mere’ sensitive dependence, the effect discussed in Lorenz's Tellus paper is referred to as ‘the real butterfly effect’. Theoretical evidence for such a predictability barrier in a fluid described by the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations is discussed. Whilst it is still an open question whether the Navier–Stokes equation has this property, evidence from both idealized atmospheric simulators and analysis of operational weather forecasts suggests that the real butterfly effect exists in an asymptotic sense, i.e. for initial-time atmospheric perturbations that are small in scale and amplitude compared with (weather) scales of interest, but still large in scale and amplitude compared with variability in the viscous subrange. Despite this, the real butterfly effect is an intermittent phenomenon in the atmosphere, and its presence can be signalled a priori, and hence mitigated, by ensemble forecast methods. (invited article)

  10. The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Sun, Mindy; Zolkos, Scott; Hansen, Andy; Dubayah, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species

  11. Species Richness, Community Organization, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Earthworms in the Pineapple Agroecosystems of Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact that plant communities may have on underground faunal diversity is unclear. Therefore, understanding the links between plants and organisms is of major interest. Earthworm population dynamics were studied in the pineapple agroecosystems of Tripura to evaluate the impact of monoculture plantation on earthworm communities. A total of thirteen earthworm species belonging to four families and five genera were collected from different sampling sites. Application of sample-based rarefaction curve and nonparametric richness estimators reveal 90–95% completeness of sampling. Earthworm community of pineapple agroecosystems was dominated by endogeic earthworms and Drawida assamensis was the dominant species with respect to its density, biomass, and relative abundance. Vertical distribution of earthworms was greatly influenced by seasonal variations. Population density and biomass of earthworms peaked during monsoon and postmonsoon period, respectively. Overall density and biomass of earthworms were in increasing trend with an increase in plantation age and were highest in the 30–35-year-old plantation. Significant decrease in the Shannon diversity and evenness index and increase in Simpson’s dominance and spatial aggregation index with an increase in the age of pineapple plantation were recorded. Soil temperature and soil moisture were identified as the most potent regulators of earthworm distribution in the pineapple plantation.

  12. Geographical Gradients in Argentinean Terrestrial Mammal Species Richness and Their Environmental Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the main geographical trends of terrestrial mammal species richness (SR in Argentina, assessing how broad-scale environmental variation (defined by climatic and topographic variables and the spatial form of the country (defined by spatial filters based on spatial eigenvector mapping (SEVM influence the kinds and the numbers of mammal species along these geographical trends. We also evaluated if there are pure geographical trends not accounted for by the environmental or spatial factors. The environmental variables and spatial filters that simultaneously correlated with the geographical variables and SR were considered potential causes of the geographic trends. We performed partial correlations between SR and the geographical variables, maintaining the selected explanatory variables statistically constant, to determine if SR was fully explained by them or if a significant residual geographic pattern remained. All groups and subgroups presented a latitudinal gradient not attributable to the spatial form of the country. Most of these trends were not explained by climate. We used a variation partitioning procedure to quantify the pure geographic trend (PGT that remained unaccounted for. The PGT was larger for latitudinal than for longitudinal gradients. This suggests that historical or purely geographical causes may also be relevant drivers of these geographical gradients in mammal diversity.

  13. Using species distribution modeling to delineate the botanical richness patterns and phytogeographical regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Gang; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2016-03-01

    The millions of plant specimens that have been collected and stored in Chinese herbaria over the past ~110 years have recently been digitized and geo-referenced. Here we use this unique collection data set for species distribution modeling exercise aiming at mapping & explaining the botanical richness; delineating China’s phytogeographical regions and investigating the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We modeled distributions of 6,828 woody plants using MaxEnt and remove the collection bias using null model. The continental China was divided into different phytogeographical regions based on the dissimilarity patterns. An ordination and Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics were used to analysis the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the annual precipitation and temperature stability were responsible for observed species diversity. The mechanisms causing dissimilarity pattern seems differ among biogeographical regions. The identified environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns for southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast are annual precipitation, topographic & temperature stability, water deficit and temperature instability, respectively. For effective conservation of China’s plant diversity, identifying the historical refuge and protection of high diversity areas in each of the identified floristic regions and their subdivisions will be essential.

  14. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chemical Species in Silicon and Silicon-Rich Nitride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill O. Bugaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational properties of hydrogenated silicon-rich nitride (SiN:H of various stoichiometry (0.6≤≤1.3 and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H films were studied using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furnace annealing during 5 hours in Ar ambient at 1130∘C and pulse laser annealing were applied to modify the structure of films. Surprisingly, after annealing with such high-thermal budget, according to the FTIR data, the nearly stoichiometric silicon nitride film contains hydrogen in the form of Si–H bonds. From analysis of the FTIR data of the Si–N bond vibrations, one can conclude that silicon nitride is partly crystallized. According to the Raman data a-Si:H films with hydrogen concentration 15% and lower contain mainly Si–H chemical species, and films with hydrogen concentration 30–35% contain mainly Si–H2 chemical species. Nanosecond pulse laser treatments lead to crystallization of the films and its dehydrogenization.

  15. Projected impacts of climate change on regional capacities for global plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jan Henning; Kreft, Holger; Kier, Gerold; Jetz, Walter; Mutke, Jens; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2010-08-01

    Climate change represents a major challenge to the maintenance of global biodiversity. To date, the direction and magnitude of net changes in the global distribution of plant diversity remain elusive. We use the empirical multi-variate relationships between contemporary water-energy dynamics and other non-climatic predictor variables to model the regional capacity for plant species richness (CSR) and its projected future changes. We find that across all analysed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios, relative changes in CSR increase with increased projected temperature rise. Between now and 2100, global average CSR is projected to remain similar to today (+0.3%) under the optimistic B1/+1.8 degrees C scenario, but to decrease significantly (-9.4%) under the 'business as usual' A1FI/+4.0 degrees C scenario. Across all modelled scenarios, the magnitude and direction of CSR change are geographically highly non-uniform. While in most temperate and arctic regions, a CSR increase is expected, the projections indicate a strong decline in most tropical and subtropical regions. Countries least responsible for past and present greenhouse gas emissions are likely to incur disproportionately large future losses in CSR, whereas industrialized countries have projected moderate increases. Independent of direction, we infer that all changes in regional CSR will probably induce on-site species turnover and thereby be a threat to native floras. PMID:20335215

  16. Effects of Climate and Land Use on Herbaceous Species Richness and Vegetation Composition in West African Savanna Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Issouf Zerbo; Markus Bernhardt-Römermann; Oumarou Ouédraogo; Karen Hahn; Adjima Thiombiano

    2016-01-01

    West African Savanna ecosystems are undergoing severe changes in their vegetation composition due to the impact of human land use and changes in climatic conditions. This study aims to examine the effect of climate, land use, and their interaction on species richness and composition of West African herbaceous vegetation. Plot based vegetation sampling was done in Burkina Faso. Specific richness and diversity indices were used to determine the effect of land use, climate, and their interaction...

  17. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the signifi...

  18. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    OpenAIRE

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly...

  19. Butterflies of the agricultural experiment station of tropical roots and tubers, and Santa Ana, Camagüey, Cuba: an annotated list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Manuel Fernández-Hernández

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During six years (Nov. 1993 - Nov. 1998, Dec. 2000 - Nov. 2001 monthly occurrence of butterflies, habitats, phenology, adult behaviour, flowers visited, larvae or ovipositions on host plants, and predators were recorded at two sites in Camagüey municipality, Camagüey province, Cuba (The Agricultural Experiment Station of Tropical Roots and Tubers, and Santa Ana, with the purpose of determining the fauna of these localities and discussing aspects of the natural history of each species. Of 111 species recorded only 41 (37% were permanent residents (18 Hesperiidae, 9 Nymphalidae, 7 Lycaenidae, 6 Pieridae, and 1 Papilionidae. Among the butterflies with insufficient information on distribution was found the skipper Achlyodes munroei, which only occurred as a temporary colonizer, and it had not been collected in Cuba for over half a century. Three of the non-resident species (Junonia evarete, Vanessa cardui and V. atalanta rubria were new province records. Peaks of abundance and species diversity occurred from June through September in correspondence with the wettest period, however, a small peak also took place in January (the second driest month when habitats conditions were still favorable and rich seasonal nectar source and larval hosts were available. About 83% (182 species of the plants present in the localities served as adult or larval resources for butterflies. Acacia farnesiana, Cardiospermum microcarpum and Carica papaya were new host plant records for Ministrymon azia, Cyclargus a. amon and Ascia monuste, respectively.

  20. Foraging behavior of the Blue Morpho and other tropical butterflies: The chemical and electrophysiological basis of olfactory preferences and the role of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inside a live butterfly exhibit housing a variety of tropical butterfly species under north-central Florida ambient conditions, we conducted bioassays to determine whether the presence of color would facilitate the location of attractants by the butterflies. In two separate bioassays, the baits (hon...

  1. Diversity, richness, and vertical stratification of bat species in an Atlantic Forest remnant in the Brazilian southern region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Elena Fabián

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the diversity, richness, and composition of bat species in the canopy and understory of an Atlantic Forest remnant in the Brazilian southern region, in the municipally of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Between July 2010 and June 2011, bats were captured by means of 10 mist nets, 5 in the canopy and 5 in the understory. We calculated the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’, the expected richness (Chao 1 and Jackknife 2, and the constancy index of species for the entire area. We applied Fisher’s Exact test to check if the catches were different in the canopy and understory. We captured 107 chiropteran specimens, 20 individuals of 5 species in the canopy and 87 individuals of 7 species in the understory. The diversity index was 1,481 and the expected richness was 9 (Chao 1 and 10 (Jackknife 2. The constancy index showed that Sturnira lilium and Glossophaga soricina are relatively common in the study area. The registered richness represents about 22% of bat species listed for the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Vertical stratification analysis showed that some species are more frequent in the canopy and others in the understory.

  2. Variation in local abundance and species richness of stream fishes in relation to dispersal barriers: Implications for management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislow, K.H.; Hudy, M.; Letcher, B.H.; Smith, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    1.Barriers to immigration, all else being equal, should in principle depress local abundance and reduce local species richness. These issues are particularly relevant to stream-dwelling species when improperly designed road crossings act as barriers to migration with potential impacts on the viability of upstream populations. However, because abundance and richness are highly spatially and temporally heterogeneous and the relative importance of immigration on demography is uncertain, population- and community-level effects can be difficult to detect. 2.In this study, we tested the effects of potential barriers to upstream movements on the local abundance and species richness of a diverse assemblage of resident stream fishes in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia, U.S.A. Fishes were sampled using simple standard techniques above- and below road crossings that were either likely or unlikely to be barriers to upstream fish movements (based on physical dimensions of the crossing). We predicted that abundance of resident fishes would be lower in the upstream sections of streams with predicted impassable barriers, that the strength of the effect would vary among species and that variable effects on abundance would translate into lower species richness. 3.Supporting these predictions, the statistical model that best accounted for variation in abundance and species richness included a significant interaction between location (upstream or downstream of crossing) and type (passable or impassable crossing). Stream sections located above predicated impassable culverts had fewer than half the number of species and less than half the total fish abundance, while stream sections above and below passable culverts had essentially equivalent richness and abundance. 4.Our results are consistent with the importance of immigration and population connectivity to local abundance and species richness of stream fishes. In turn, these results suggest that when measured at

  3. The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species

  4. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F.S. Magnago

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m. Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes.O objetivo deste estudo foi o de determinar as mudanças na composição, abundância e riqueza de espécies ao longo de um gradiente de floresta com variações de solo e inundações. As florestas localizam-se na margem esquerda do Rio Jucu, no Parque Natural Municipal de Jacarenema, Espírito Santo. O levantamento das espécies arbustivo/arbóreas foi realizado em 80 parcelas de 5x25m, distribuídas equitativamente entre as florestas estudadas. Foram incluídos na amostragem todos os indivíduos com >3,2 cm diâmetro à altura do solo (1,30 m. Foram coletadas amostras de solo superficial (0-10 cm em cada parcela para análise química e física. Os resultados mostraram a existência de gradiente pedológico significativo, que

  5. Deconstructing the mammal species richness pattern in Europe - towards and understanding of the relative importance of climate, biogeographic history, habitat heterogeneity and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming;

    2011-01-01

    Aim  We deconstructed the mammal species richness pattern in Europe to assess the importance of large-scale gradients in current macroclimate relative to biogeographic history, habitat heterogeneity and human influence (HHH variables) as richness determinants for total species, and for widespread...... and endemic species separately. Location  Europe, west of 30° E. Methods  We deconstructed total species richness (50-km resolution) into its widespread and endemic species richness components. We used simultaneous autoregressive modelling (SAR) with information-theoretic model selection and variation...... variables (history, habitat heterogeneity and human influence) proved important predictors of species richness, but also difficult to disentangle. Notably, biogeographic history, in particular peninsular dynamics, is an important determinant of widespread and endemic species richness....

  6. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    . chihuahuana trees and P. chihuahuana tree community and but to specific spatial scales measured by the univariate L-function. The spatial distribution pattern of P. chihuahuana trees was found to be independent of patches of other tree species measured by the bivariate L-function. The spatial distribution was not significantly related to tree density, diameter distribution or tree species diversity. The index of Clark and Evans decreased significantly from the southern to northern plots containing all tree species. Self-thinning due to intra and inter-specific competition-induced mortality is probably the main cause of the decrease in aggregation intensity during the course of population development in this tree community. We recommend the use of larger sampling plots (> 0.25 ha) in uneven-aged and species-rich forest ecosystems to detect less obvious, but important, relationships between spatial tree pattern and functioning and diversity in these forests. PMID:26496189

  7. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    . chihuahuana trees and P. chihuahuana tree community and but to specific spatial scales measured by the univariate L-function. The spatial distribution pattern of P. chihuahuana trees was found to be independent of patches of other tree species measured by the bivariate L-function. The spatial distribution was not significantly related to tree density, diameter distribution or tree species diversity. The index of Clark and Evans decreased significantly from the southern to northern plots containing all tree species. Self-thinning due to intra and inter-specific competition-induced mortality is probably the main cause of the decrease in aggregation intensity during the course of population development in this tree community. We recommend the use of larger sampling plots (> 0.25 ha) in uneven-aged and species-rich forest ecosystems to detect less obvious, but important, relationships between spatial tree pattern and functioning and diversity in these forests. PMID:26496189

  8. Climatic Risk Atlas of European Butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Settele

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overarching aim of the atlas is to communicate the potential risks of climatic change to the future of European butterflies. The main objectives are to: (1 provide a visual aid to discussions on climate change risks and impacts on biodiversity and thus contribute to risk communication as a core element of risk assessment; (2 present crucial data on a large group of species which could help to prioritise conservation efforts in the face of climatic change; (3 reach a broader audience through the combination of new scientific results with photographs of all treated species and some straight forward information about the species and their ecology. The results of this atlas show that climate change is likely to have a profound effect on European butterflies. Ways to mitigate some of the negative impacts are to (1 maintain large populations in diverse habitats; (2 encourage mobility across the landscape; (3 reduce emissions of greenhouse gasses; (4 allow maximum time for species adaptation; (4 conduct further research on climate change and its impacts on biodiversity. The book is a result of long-term research of a large international team of scientists, working at research institutes and non-governmental organizations, many within the framework of projects funded by the European Commission. Each chapter may be browsed/downloaded from the links below: 0. COVER, TITLE PAGE, CONTENTS [PDF, 608 KB] A. CLIMATE CHANGE, BIODIVERSITY, BUTTERFLIES, AND RISK ASSESSMENT [PDF, 208 KB] B. METHODOLOGY [PDF, 516 KB] C. CLIMATE RISKS OF EUROPEAN BUTTERFLY SPECIES. Introduction and Hesperidae [PDF, 5.6 MB]; Papilionidae [PDF, 1.61 MB]; Pieridae [PDF, 5.0 MB]; Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Libytheidae [PDF, 12 MB]; Nymphalidae, Danaidae [PDF, 21.2 MB]; Non-modelled species and summary [PDF, 328 KB] D. DISCUSSION OF METHODOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS [PDF, 572 KB] E. OUTLOOK: CLIMATE CHANGE AND BUTTERFLY CONSERVATION [PDF, 228 KB] F. APPENDICES, REFERENCES AND INDEX [PDF, 424

  9. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  10. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  11. Floral resource limitation severely reduces butterfly survival, condition and flight activity in simplified agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural intensification has a strong negative impact on farmland biodiversity (including flower-visiting insects), but understanding the mechanisms involved in this requires experimental work. We document the impact of nectar limitation on the performance of a flower-visiting insect, the meadow brown butterfly Maniola jurtina. We conducted two types of experiments: a field experiment in agricultural landscapes with grasslands of different management intensity and an experiment in outdoor flight cages in which the nectar supply was simulated. For the field experiment, we introduced an array of nectar resources in intensively managed, nectar-poor meadows and in extensively managed, flower-rich grasslands and counted flower visitors. Despite higher butterfly abundance in the extensive meadows, our introduced nectar sources were more frequently visited in intensive meadows, indicating the lack of floral resources. The 48-h confinement under nectar-poor conditions in the flight cages had a strong negative effect on body condition, flight activity and lifetime survival compared to butterflies under nectar-rich conditions. Female lifespan was reduced by 22% and male lifespan even by 43%. Agricultural landscapes that provide limited amounts of floral nectar, and no high-quality, preferred nectar sources relative to the needs of the flower-visiting species, may create ecological sinks. Regards an insect's performance, the simple presence of nectar is not necessarily functionally adequate. The effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes for flower-visiting insects (e.g. flower strips) could be improved based on ecological and evolutionary insights on the effects of specific nectar quantities and qualities. PMID:26541442

  12. The Influence of Vegetation Height Heterogeneity on Forest and Woodland Bird Species Richness across the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Qiongyu Huang; Anu Swatantran; Ralph Dubayah; Goetz, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. However, the spatial arrangement of vegetation height has never been taken into consideration. Our goal was to examine the...

  13. Species richness and relative abundance of birds in natural and anthropogenic fragments of Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz dos Anjos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird communities were studied in two types of fragmented habitat of Atlantic forest in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil; one consisted of forest fragments that were created as a result of human activities (forest remnants, the other consisted of a set of naturally occurring forest fragments (forest patches. Using quantitative data obtained by the point counts method in 3 forest patches and 3 forest remnants during one year, species richness and relative abundance were compared in those habitats, considering species groups according to their general feeding habits. Insectivores, omnivores, and frugivores presented similar general tendencies in both habitats (decrease of species number with decreasing size and increasing isolation of forest fragment. However, these tendencies were different, when considering the relative abundance data: the trunk insectivores presented the highest value in the smallest patch while the lowest relative abundance was in the smallest remnant. In the naturally fragmented landscape, time permitted that the loss of some species of trunk insectivores be compensated for the increase in abundance of other species. In contrast, the remnants essentially represented newly formed islands that are not yet at equilibrium and where future species losses would make them similar to the patches.Comunidades de aves foram estudadas em duas regiões fragmentadas de floresta Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil; uma região é constituída de fragmentos florestais que foram criados como resultado de atividades humanas (remanescentes florestais e a outra de um conjunto de fragmentos florestais naturais (manchas de floresta. Usando dados quantitativos (o método de contagens pontuais previamente obtidos em 3 manchas de floresta e em 3 remanescentes florestais durante um ano, a riqueza e a abundância relativa de aves foram comparadas naqueles habitats considerando as espécies pelos seus hábitos alimentares. Inset

  14. Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Anssi; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O; Brown, Keith S

    2013-06-01

    We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus. PMID:23865963

  15. A Parallel Butterfly Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack

    2014-02-04

    The butterfly algorithm is a fast algorithm which approximately evaluates a discrete analogue of the integral transform (Equation Presented.) at large numbers of target points when the kernel, K(x, y), is approximately low-rank when restricted to subdomains satisfying a certain simple geometric condition. In d dimensions with O(Nd) quasi-uniformly distributed source and target points, when each appropriate submatrix of K is approximately rank-r, the running time of the algorithm is at most O(r2Nd logN). A parallelization of the butterfly algorithm is introduced which, assuming a message latency of α and per-process inverse bandwidth of β, executes in at most (Equation Presented.) time using p processes. This parallel algorithm was then instantiated in the form of the open-source DistButterfly library for the special case where K(x, y) = exp(iΦ(x, y)), where Φ(x, y) is a black-box, sufficiently smooth, real-valued phase function. Experiments on Blue Gene/Q demonstrate impressive strong-scaling results for important classes of phase functions. Using quasi-uniform sources, hyperbolic Radon transforms, and an analogue of a three-dimensional generalized Radon transform were, respectively, observed to strong-scale from 1-node/16-cores up to 1024-nodes/16,384-cores with greater than 90% and 82% efficiency, respectively. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B.; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D.; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923–1943) and a recent (1993–2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923–2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  17. Human impacts on forest structure and species richness on the edges of a. protected mountain forest in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, M.; Sheil, D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how local scale variation in human impacts influenced forest structure and tree species richness within Mt Elgon National Park, Uganda. We assessed basal area (BA), stem density, diameter at breast height (dbh) and indicators of human activity in 343 plots in four study sites, on tra

  18. What is the form of the productivity-animal-species-richness relationship? A critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusens, Jarrod; Wright, Shane D; McBride, Paul D; Gillman, Len N

    2012-10-01

    The nature of the relationship between productivity and species richness has remained controversial for at least two decades. Recently authors have favored the suggestion that the form of this relationship is highly variable and scale dependent. However, this conclusion is not universally accepted. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of animal productivity-species-richness relationships (PSRR) in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Initially, 374 separate cases from 273 published studies were identified as potential tests of the animal PSRR. After critically assessing each study, 115 cases were accepted as robust tests of the relationship, and of these 95 had data available for formal meta-analysis. Contrary to expectation, we found no support for the form of the relationship being scale dependent; positive relationships predominated at all scales (geographical extents and grains). Furthermore, positive relationships were the most common form of the animal PSRR in both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and among vertebrates, invertebrates, homeotherms and poikilotherms. Therefore, our results also contrast with previous reviews that suggest no particular form of the PSRR is predominant. We demonstrate that the method used for classifying the form of PSRRs is critical to the result and that previous reviews may have been too liberal toward classifying the form of relationships as unimodal. The tendency for positive relationships between productivity and species richness across diverse animal taxa has important implications for understanding the mechanisms behind the latitudinal gradient in species richness. PMID:23185885

  19. Food-web-based comparison of the drivers of helminth parasite species richness in coastal fish and bird definitive hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Poulin, R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the factors determining parasite richness in hosts are typically performedusing data compiled for various sets of species from disparate habitats. However, parasite transmissionis embedded within local trophic networks, and proper comparisons among host speciesof the drivers of parasite r

  20. Understanding the extreme species richness of semi-dry grasslands in east-central Europe: a comparative approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roleček, Jan; Čornej, I. I.; Tokarjuk, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2014), s. 13-34. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/0649 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species richness * environmental history * disjunct distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  1. Do biotic interactions shape both sides of the humped-back model of species richness in plant communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalet, Richard; Brooker, Robin W; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Kikvidze, Zaal; Lortie, Christopher J; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-07-01

    A humped-back relationship between species richness and community biomass has frequently been observed in plant communities, at both local and regional scales, although often improperly called a productivity-diversity relationship. Explanations for this relationship have emphasized the role of competitive exclusion, probably because at the time when the relationship was first examined, competition was considered to be the significant biotic filter structuring plant communities. However, over the last 15 years there has been a renewed interest in facilitation and this research has shown a clear link between the role of facilitation in structuring communities and both community biomass and the severity of the environment. Although facilitation may enlarge the realized niche of species and increase community richness in stressful environments, there has only been one previous attempt to revisit the humped-back model of species richness and to include facilitative processes. However, to date, no model has explored whether biotic interactions can potentially shape both sides of the humped-back model for species richness commonly detected in plant communities. Here, we propose a revision of Grime's original model that incorporates a new understanding of the role of facilitative interactions in plant communities. In this revised model, facilitation promotes diversity at medium to high environmental severity levels, by expanding the realized niche of stress-intolerant competitive species into harsh physical conditions. However, when environmental conditions become extremely severe the positive effects of the benefactors wane (as supported by recent research on facilitative interactions in extremely severe environments) and diversity is reduced. Conversely, with decreasing stress along the biomass gradient, facilitation decreases because stress-intolerant species become able to exist away from the canopy of the stress-tolerant species (as proposed by facilitation theory

  2. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. PMID:26743786

  3. Declines in abundance and species richness of birds following a major flood on the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Klaas, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the abundance and species richness of birds breeding in floodplain forests of the Upper Mississippi River in 1992 through 1994, and used a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures to identify effects of a 1993 flood on the bird community. Sixty-five study plots were divided into treatment and control plots based on whether they were flooded in 1993. Among 84 species observed on all plots, 41 species decreased in abundance from 1992 to 1994, 13 increased, 5 were unchanged. Sample sizes were inadequate to evaluate trends for 25 species. Species richness declined over the three-year period. Of 36 species tested with the ANOVA, 20 had a significant main effect of Year. Cool, wet conditions may have contributed to poor reproductive success in 1993, and resulted in widespread decline in floodplain bird abundance during the year following the flood. Bird abundance increased on most unflooded plots in 1993, probably because birds were displaced from flooded plots. This pattern was most striking for neotropical migrants, species preferring habitat edges, lower canopy nesters, and species that forage in the air. We suggest that periodic major flooding may maintain suitable floodplain habitat for Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in the face of competition from House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) for nest sites.

  4. A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David R; Als, Thomas Damm; Maile, Roland; Jones, Graeme R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry...... of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations...

  5. The influence of vegetation height heterogeneity on forest and woodland bird species richness across the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongyu Huang

    Full Text Available Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. However, the spatial arrangement of vegetation height has never been taken into consideration. Our goal was to examine the efficacies of three-dimensional forest structure, particularly the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation height in improving avian richness models across forested ecoregions in the U.S. We developed novel habitat metrics to characterize the spatial arrangement of vegetation height using the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the year 2000 (NBCD. The height-structured metrics were compared with other habitat metrics for statistical association with richness of three forest breeding bird guilds across Breeding Bird Survey (BBS routes: a broadly grouped woodland guild, and two forest breeding guilds with preferences for forest edge and for interior forest. Parametric and non-parametric models were built to examine the improvement of predictability. Height-structured metrics had the strongest associations with species richness, yielding improved predictive ability for the woodland guild richness models (r(2 = ∼ 0.53 for the parametric models, 0.63 the non-parametric models and the forest edge guild models (r(2 = ∼ 0.34 for the parametric models, 0.47 the non-parametric models. All but one of the linear models incorporating height-structured metrics showed significantly higher adjusted-r2 values than their counterparts without additional metrics. The interior forest guild richness showed a consistent low association with height-structured metrics. Our results suggest that height heterogeneity, beyond canopy height alone, supplements habitat

  6. The influence of vegetation height heterogeneity on forest and woodland bird species richness across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiongyu; Swatantran, Anu; Dubayah, Ralph; Goetz, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. However, the spatial arrangement of vegetation height has never been taken into consideration. Our goal was to examine the efficacies of three-dimensional forest structure, particularly the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation height in improving avian richness models across forested ecoregions in the U.S. We developed novel habitat metrics to characterize the spatial arrangement of vegetation height using the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the year 2000 (NBCD). The height-structured metrics were compared with other habitat metrics for statistical association with richness of three forest breeding bird guilds across Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes: a broadly grouped woodland guild, and two forest breeding guilds with preferences for forest edge and for interior forest. Parametric and non-parametric models were built to examine the improvement of predictability. Height-structured metrics had the strongest associations with species richness, yielding improved predictive ability for the woodland guild richness models (r(2) = ∼ 0.53 for the parametric models, 0.63 the non-parametric models) and the forest edge guild models (r(2) = ∼ 0.34 for the parametric models, 0.47 the non-parametric models). All but one of the linear models incorporating height-structured metrics showed significantly higher adjusted-r2 values than their counterparts without additional metrics. The interior forest guild richness showed a consistent low association with height-structured metrics. Our results suggest that height heterogeneity, beyond canopy height alone, supplements habitat characterization and

  7. Some notes on the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Tantirimale Archaeological Site, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D.C. Asela

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 243 species of butterflies which including 5 families in Sri Lanka and 20 of them are endemic. However out of the 243 species 37 butterfly species belonging to 4 families was discovered from Tanthirimale Archaeological Forest area. This forest is classified as a Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests and its situated dry zone in Anuradapura district of Sri Lanka. We select three habitat types such as: forests, Rock outcrops and scrublands for studding composition and structure of butterflies in Archaeological Forest area. However, this important forest is threatened by harmful human activities such as man made fire, illegal logging, chena cultivation and road kills.

  8. Combining projected changes in species richness and composition reveals climate change impacts on coastal Mediterranean fish assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albouy, Camille; Guilhaumon, François; Bastos Araujo, Miguel;

    2012-01-01

    future climatic niches of 288 coastal Mediterranean fish species based on a global warming scenario. We then aggregated geographically the species-level projections to analyse the projected changes in species richness and composition. Our results show that projected changes in assemblage composition are......Species Temporal Turnover (STT) is one of the most familiar metrics to assess changes in assemblage composition as a consequence of climate change. However, STT mixes two components in one metric, changes in assemblage composition caused by a process of species loss or gain (i.e. the nestedness...... caused by different processes (species replacement vs. nestedness) in several areas of the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, our mapping strategy highlights that the coastal fish fauna in several regions of the Mediterranean Sea could experience a ‘cul-de-sac’ effect if exposed to climate warming. Overall...

  9. Assessing lake typologies and indicator fish species for Italian natural lakes using past fish richness and assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Volta, Pietro; Alessandro OGGIONI; Roberta BETTINETTI; Jeppesen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish a fish-based typology of Italian lakes and identify possible reference and indicator fish species for each lake type, we analysed historical data on fish assemblages of all Italian natural lakes[0.5 km2 from the period prior to the major decline in water quality in the 1950s. General linear regression models showed the ecoregion and lake altitude being the best predictors of fish species richness. The number of species was significantly higher in the Alpine than in the M...

  10. Global species richness patterns and their drivers among the order Anseriformes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; McGill, Brian J.; Fox, Anthony David; Svenning, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    , such as annual mean temperature and topographic heterogeneity, explained little or none of the variation in richness among Anseriformes. We discuss several possible mechanisms for this pattern. We highlight the importance of using methods allowing for non-stationarity in the process driving richness...... patterns, especially on a global scale where the strength of the predictors are likely change....

  11. Bioengineer effects on understory species richness, diversity, and composition change along an environmental stress gradient: Experimental and mensurative evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Cortney A.; Scrosati, Ricardo A.

    2013-05-01

    Canopy-forming bioengineer species are commonly assumed to increase local species richness and diversity. We tested this notion by investigating the effects of fucoid seaweed canopies on understory communities along rocky intertidal elevation gradients in Atlantic Canada. Such gradients exhibit increasing thermal extremes and variation from low to high elevations, and are broadly used in stress gradient studies. A manipulative experiment created canopy and no-canopy treatments at the low, middle, and high intertidal zones, eliminating all species (except fucoid canopies) from replicate quadrats. After recolonization, overall richness and diversity (considering all primary producers and consumers) were higher under canopies than uncovered by canopies at the high and middle zones, but no effects occurred at the low zone. Similarly, species composition was affected by canopies at the high and middle zones, but not at the low zone. A mensurative study that surveyed the full range of canopy cover (0-100%) using nearly five times more quadrats from pristine areas yielded the same results: richness and diversity increased with canopy cover at the high and middle zones (approaching stabilization toward high cover values), but no effects occurred at the low zone. Lack of canopy effects at low elevations is related to mild habitat conditions, which canopies are unable to modify, while positive effects at higher elevations relate to the capacity of canopies to ameliorate harsh conditions. This is the first time that a combined experimental and mensurative approach shows that the same bioengineer species affect overall species richness, diversity, and composition differently along a stress gradient. Overall, protecting canopy-forming bioengineers to preserve local biodiversity should be most effective in stressful environments.

  12. An Example of How Barcodes Can Clarify Cryptic Species: The Case of the Calanoid Copepod Mastigodiaptomus albuquerquensis (Herrick)

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Angélica Gutiérrez-Aguirre; Adrián Cervantes-Martínez; Manuel Elías-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The freshwater calanoid Mastigodiaptomus is a genus with high richness in the Americas and is composed of nine species, seven recorded in Mexico and four that are apparently endemic to small areas. Mastigodiaptomus albuquerquensis is a common, widely distributed species ranging from the southern USA to Central America. This species can be easily identified by a notable butterfly-like sclerotization on the basis of the right fifth leg of males. Nevertheless, morphological differenc...

  13. Ohio USA stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera: species richness estimation, distribution of functional niche traits, drainage affiliations, and relationships to other states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. DeWalt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ohio is an eastern USA state that historically was >70% covered in upland and mixed coniferous forest; about 60% of it glaciated by the Wisconsinan glacial episode. Its stonefly fauna has been studied in piecemeal fashion until now. The assemblage of Ohio stoneflies was assessed from over 4,000 records accumulated from 18 institutions, new collections, and trusted literature sources. Species richness totaled 102 with estimators Chao2 and ICE Mean predicting 105.6 and 106.4, respectively. Singletons and doubletons totaled 18 species. All North American families were represented with Perlidae accounted for the highest number of species at 34. The family Peltoperlidae contributed a single species. Most species had univoltine–fast life cycles with the vast majority emerging in summer, although there was a significant component of winter stoneflies. Nine United States Geological Survey hierarchical drainage units level 6 (HUC6 were used to stratify specimen data. Species richness was significantly related to the number of unique HUC6 locations, but there was no relationship with HUC6 drainage area. A nonparametric multidimensional scaling analysis found that larger HUC6s in the western part of the state had similar assemblages with lower species richness that were found to align with more savanna and wetland habitat. Other drainagesricher assemblages were aligned with upland deciduous and mixed coniferous forests of the east and south where slopes were higher. The Ohio assemblage was most similar to the well–studied fauna of Indiana (88 spp. and Kentucky (108 spp., two neighboring states. Many rare species and several high quality stream reaches should be considered for greater protection.

  14. Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Corrie SCHOEMAN, F. P. D. (Woody COTTERILL, Peter J. TAYLOR, Ara MONADJEM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales, variables associated with climate, energy, and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity. Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens. The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS, simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR, conditional autoregressive models (CAR, spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. To test the assumption of stationarity, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used. Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa, particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique. We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/ energy hypotheses, and as we expected, support varied among bat families and model selection. Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families. Altitude range was the only independent variable that was sig­nificant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness. Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models, while those of SEVM models differed. Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationa­rity was violated, the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models. Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges, and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3: 279–293, 2013].

  15. Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Corrie SCHOEMAN; F.P.D.(Woody) COTTERILL; Peter J.TAYLOR; Ara MONADJEM

    2013-01-01

    We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales,variables associated with climate,energy,and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s) of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity.Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens.The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS),simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR),conditional autoregressive models (CAR),spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM),and Classification and Regression Trees (CART).To test the assumption of stationarity,Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used.Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa,particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique.We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/energy hypotheses,and as we expected,support varied among bat families and model selection.Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families.Altitude range was the only independent variable that was significant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness.Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models,while those of SEVM models differed.Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationarity was violated,the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models.Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges,and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3):279-293,2013].

  16. The evolution of movements and behaviour at boundaries in different landscapes: a common arena experiment with butterflies.

    OpenAIRE

    Merckx, Thomas; Van Dyck, Hans; Karlsson, Bengt; Leimar, Olof

    2003-01-01

    As landscapes change, mobility patterns of species may alter. Different mechanistic scenarios may, however, lead to particular patterns. Here, we tested conflicting predictions from two hypotheses on butterfly movements in relation to habitat fragmentation. According to the resource distribution hypothesis, butterflies in more fragmented landscapes would have higher levels of mobility as resources are more scattered. However, these butterflies could have lower levels of mobility as they exper...

  17. Elevational pattern of species richness in the Three Gorges region of the Yangtze River: effect of climate, geometric constraints, area and topographical heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyan Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore altitudinal richness of vascular plant species in the Three Gorges region of the Yangtze River and test several hypotheses concerning geographic diversity patterns. Multivariate regression and variation partitioning analyses were used to examine the relative effects of area, climate, geometric constraints and topographical heterogeneity on altitudinal richness patterns, and also the differences among ecological groups (including species with different range sizes, growth forms and biogeographic affinities. Our results show that, water–energy dynamics have the strongest total effect (>93% in explaining richness patterns for various species groups. However, for many species groups the effects of water–energy dynamics were largely shared with geometric constraints, topographical heterogeneity or area. Geometric constraints had strong effects on species with large ranges, but negligible effects on small-ranged species. Area showed relative strong correlation with species richness, but was excluded from multivariate models for most species groups, when other potential mechanisms were considered simultaneously. On the contrary, topographic heterogeneity showed weak correlation with richness patterns but was included in most of the final multivariate models. We concluded that water–energy dynamics were most important in explaining altitudinal richness patterns within the study region, while geometric constraints were important for species with large ranges. Topographic heterogeneity showed a weak but essential role in shaping altitudinal richness gradients, while the role of area on richness patterns requires further investigation because of the collinear relationships between area, geometric constraints and climatic gradients.

  18. A molecular phylogeny of Anopheles annulipes (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato: the most species-rich anopheline complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, D H; Wilkerson, R C; Cooper, R D; Volovsek, M E; Bryan, J H

    2007-04-01

    The Australasian Annulipes Complex is the most species-rich among Anopheles mosquitoes, with at least 15 sibling species suspected. Members of this complex are the most likely vectors of malaria in the past in southern Australia and are involved in the spread of myxomatosis among rabbits. In this, the first comprehensive molecular study of the Annulipes Complex, 23 ITS2 rDNA variants were detected from collections throughout Australia and Papua New Guinea, including diagnostic variants for the previously identified An. annulipes species A-G. Specimens of each ITS2 variant were sequenced for portions of the mitochondrial COI, COII and nuclear EF-1alpha genes. Partitioned Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony analyses confirmed the monophyly of the Annulipes Complex and revealed at least 17 clades that we designate species A-Q. These species belong to two major clades, one in the north and one mainly in the south, suggesting that climate was a driver of species radiation. We found that 65% (11) of the 17 sibling species recorded here had unique COI sequences, suggesting that DNA barcoding will be useful for diagnosing species within the Annulipes Complex. A comparison of the taxa revealed morphological characters that may be diagnostic for some species. Our results substantially increase the size of the subgenus Cellia in Australasia, and will assist species-level studies of the Annulipes Complex. PMID:17126567

  19. Estimating species richness and status of solitary bees and bumblebees in agricultural semi-natural habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    agricultural landscape, 72 solitary bee species and 19 species of bumblebees were recorded, several of which are considered vulnerable or endangered in neighbouring countries. Nesting conditions for rare cavity-nesting species and the possible role of the semi-natural habitats as corridors for species...

  20. Contrasting Holocene environmental histories may explain patterns of species richness and rarity in a Central European landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, Michal; Dudová, Lydie; Hájková, Petra; Roleček, Jan; Moutelíková, Jitka; Jamrichová, Eva; Horsák, Michal

    2016-02-01

    The south-western part of the White Carpathians (Czech Republic, Slovakia) is known for its exceptional grassland diversity and occurrence of many species with disjunct distribution patterns, including isolated populations of continental forest-steppe species. The north-eastern part of the mountain range lacks many of these species and has clearly lower maxima of grassland species richness. While climatic and edaphic conditions of both regions largely overlap, their specific environmental history has been hypothesized to explain the exceptional richness in the south-western part. We explored an entire-Holocene record (9650 BC onwards), the first one from the north-eastern part, to find out whether differences in history may explain regional patterns of species rarity and richness. We analysed pollen, macrofossils and molluscs and dated the sequence with 13 radiocarbon dates. We further reconstructed past human activities using available archaeological evidence. Based on this analysis, the Early-Holocene landscape was reconstructed as semi-open with broad-leaved trees (elm and lime) appearing already around 9500 BC. Lime reached a relative abundance of as much as 60% around 8700 BC. All analysed proxies support the existence of dense lime-dominated woodland during the forest optimum starting after climate moistening around 6800 BC, some 2200 years before the first signs of slight forest opening in the Late Neolithic. During the Bronze and Iron Ages, human pressure increased, which led to a decrease in lime and an increase in oak, hornbeam, grasses and grassland snails; nevertheless, forests still dominated the landscape and beech spread when human impact temporarily decreased. Colonisation after AD 1350 created the modern grassland-rich landscape. All available evidence confirmed an early post-Glacial expansion of broad-leaved trees, supporting the hypothesis on their glacial refugia in the Carpathians, as well as presence of closed-canopy forest well before the

  1. Borboletas (Lepidoptera) ameaçadas de extinção em Minas Gerais, Brasil Butterflies (Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande, Mirna M.; Olaf H.H. Mielke; Keith S Brown Jr

    1998-01-01

    The twenty species of butterflies (diurnal Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in the Minas Gerais (by statute) are described and discussed in relation to distribution, appearance and known records.

  2. Increasing species richness of the macrozoobenthic fauna on tidal flats of the Wadden Sea by local range expansion and invasion of exotic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukema, J. J.; Dekker, R.

    2011-06-01

    A 40-y series of consistently collected samples (15 fixed sampling sites, constant sampled area of 15 × 0.95 m2, annual sampling only in late-winter/early-spring seasons, and consistent sieving and sorting procedures; restriction to 50 easily recognizable species) of macrozoobenthos on Balgzand, a tidal flat area in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), revealed significantly increasing trends of species richness. Total numbers of species annually encountered increased from ~28 to ~38. Mean species density (number of species found per sampling site) increased from ~13 to ~18 per 0.95 m2. During the 40 years of the 1970-2009 period of observation, 4 exotic species invaded the area: (in order of first appearance) Ensis directus, Marenzelleria viridis, Crassostrea gigas, and Hemigrapsus takanoi. Another 5 species recently moved to Balgzand from nearby (subtidal) locations. Together, these 9 new species on the tidal flats explained by far most of the increase in total species numbers, but accounted for only one-third of the observed increase in species density (as a consequence of the restricted distribution of most of them). Species density increased particularly by a substantial number of species that showed increasing trends in the numbers of tidal flat sites they occupied. Most of these wider-spreading species were found to suffer from cold winters. During the 40-y period of observation, winter temperatures rose by about 2°C and cold winters became less frequent. The mean number of cold-sensitive species found per site significantly increased by almost 2 per 0.95 m2. Among the other species (not sensitive to low winter temperatures), 6 showed a rising and 2 a declining trend in number of occupied sites, resulting in a net long-term increase in species density amounting to another gain of 1.6 per 0.95 m2. Half of the 50 studied species did not show such long-term trend, nor were invaders. Thus, each of 3 groups (local or alien invaders

  3. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein lipolysis increases aggregation of endothelial cell membrane microdomains and produces reactive oxygen species

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Limin; Sapuri-Butti, Annapoorna R.; Aung, Hnin Hnin; Parikh, Atul N.; Rutledge, John C

    2008-01-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) lipolysis may provide a proinflammatory stimulus to endothelium. Detergent-resistant plasma membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) have a number of functions in endothelial cell inflammation. The mechanisms of TGRL lipolysis-induced endothelial cell injury were investigated by examining endothelial cell lipid rafts and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lipid raft microdomains in human aortic endothelial cells were visualized by confocal microscopy ...

  4. Lepidopteran species richness of alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mts.Effect of area and isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílá, Karolína; Kuras, T.; Šipoš, J.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2013), s. 257-267. ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Central Europe * Alpine habitats * Island biogeography * Incidence function model * Species–area relationship * Species richness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.789, year: 2013

  5. Butterfly Surveys at Harris Neck NWR (03 AUG 1993 - 25 JULY 1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data compiled from annual summer butterfly counts conducted at Harris Neck NWR by Mike Chapman and others. Data includes Lepidoptera species and abundance.

  6. Structural color of Morpho butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2009-11-01

    Structural color is caused by wavelength-selective scattering of light by microscopic features, such as those on the scales of some insects. The brilliant blue displayed by some male Morpho butterflies is a classic example of this phenomenon. In this paper, experiments used to distinguish structural color from color due to pigmentation are reviewed. A simple electromagnetic model is developed for the structural scattering from Morpho butterfly scales, and the blue color and iridescence normally seen for these butterflies are predicted by this model. The analysis is based on topics usually discussed in courses on electromagnetism and optics and can be used as an example to supplement classroom discussions of these topics.

  7. Effects of size and forest structure of old-growth forests on the species richness of saproxylic insects

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Many saproxylic insects are threatened by extinction, and a decline in the saproxylic species has been observed since the 1800s. The loss of areas of old-growth forest, fragmentation and the decline in volume of dead wood in managed boreal forests, have been found as important reasons for the observed decline. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the size of old-growth forest fragments affects the species richness of different saproxylic insect groups, and to find w...

  8. Effects of habitat-forming species richness, evenness, identity, and abundance on benthic intertidal community establishment and productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lemieux

    Full Text Available In a context of reduced global biodiversity, the potential impacts from the loss of habitat-forming species (HFS on ecosystem structure and functioning must be established. These species are often the main community primary producers and have a major role in the establishment of organisms through facilitation processes. This study focuses on macroalgae and mussels as HFS within an intertidal zone along the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada. Over a 16-week period, we manipulated the in situ diversity profile (richness, evenness, identity, and abundance of the dominant HFS (Fucus distichus edentatus, F. vesiculosus, and Mytilus spp. in order to define their role in both the establishment of associated species and community primary production. Contrary to expectation, no general change in HFS richness, evenness, abundance, or identity on associated species community establishment was observed. However, over the study period, the HFS diversity profile modified the structure within the trophic guilds, which may potentially affect further community functions. Also, our results showed that the low abundance of HFS had a negative impact on the primary productivity of the community. Our results suggest that HFS diversity profiles have a limited short-term role in our study habitat and may indicate that biological forcing in these intertidal communities is less important than environmental conditions. As such, there was an opportunistic establishment of species that ensured rapid colonization regardless of the absence, or the diversity profile, of facilitators such as HFS.

  9. Effects of habitat-forming species richness, evenness, identity, and abundance on benthic intertidal community establishment and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Julie; Cusson, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    In a context of reduced global biodiversity, the potential impacts from the loss of habitat-forming species (HFS) on ecosystem structure and functioning must be established. These species are often the main community primary producers and have a major role in the establishment of organisms through facilitation processes. This study focuses on macroalgae and mussels as HFS within an intertidal zone along the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada). Over a 16-week period, we manipulated the in situ diversity profile (richness, evenness, identity, and abundance) of the dominant HFS (Fucus distichus edentatus, F. vesiculosus, and Mytilus spp.) in order to define their role in both the establishment of associated species and community primary production. Contrary to expectation, no general change in HFS richness, evenness, abundance, or identity on associated species community establishment was observed. However, over the study period, the HFS diversity profile modified the structure within the trophic guilds, which may potentially affect further community functions. Also, our results showed that the low abundance of HFS had a negative impact on the primary productivity of the community. Our results suggest that HFS diversity profiles have a limited short-term role in our study habitat and may indicate that biological forcing in these intertidal communities is less important than environmental conditions. As such, there was an opportunistic establishment of species that ensured rapid colonization regardless of the absence, or the diversity profile, of facilitators such as HFS. PMID:25313459

  10. Wing coloration and pigment gradients in scales of pierid butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2008-01-01

    Depending on the species, the individual scales of butterfly wings have a longitudinal gradient in structure and reflectance properties, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. White scales of the male Small White, Pieris rapae crucivora, show a strong gradient in both t

  11. Airspeed adjustment and lipid reserves in migratory Neotropical butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that migrant fliers should reduce their speed of flight as endogenous energy reserves are gradually consumed. This prediction was tested for butterfly species that engage in annual rainy season migrations through central Panama. Direct airspeed measurements together wit...

  12. Richness and diversity of bacterioplankton species along an estuarine gradient in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2004-06-01

    Bacterioplankton community diversity was investigated in the subtropical Brisbane River-Moreton Bay estuary, Australia (27 degrees 25 minutes S, 153 degrees 5 minutes E). Bacterial communities were studied using automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), which amplifies 16S-23S ribosomal DNA internally transcribed spacer regions from mixed-community DNA and detects the separated products on a fragment analyzer. Samples were collected from eight sites throughout the estuary and east to the East Australian Current (Coral Sea). Bacterioplankton communities had the highest operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, as measured by ARISA at eastern bay stations (S [total richness] = 84 to 85 OTU) and the lowest richness in the Coral Sea (S = 39 to 59 OTU). Richness correlated positively with bacterial abundance; however, there were no strong correlations between diversity and salinity, NO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-) concentrations, or chlorophyll a concentration. Bacterioplankton communities at the riverine stations were different from communities in the bay or Coral Sea. The main differences in OTU richness between stations were in taxa that each represented 0.1% (the detection limit) to 0.5% of the total amplified DNA, i.e., the "tail" of the distribution. We found that some bacterioplankton taxa are specific to distinct environments while others have a ubiquitous distribution from river to sea. Bacterioplankton richness and diversity patterns in the estuary are potentially a consequence of greater niche availability, mixing of local and adjacent environment communities, or intermediate disturbance. Furthermore, these results contrast with previous reports of spatially homogeneous bacterioplankton communities in other coastal waters. PMID:15184140

  13. Plant Species Richness After Revegetation on The Reclaimed Coal Mine Land of PT Adaro Indonesia, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Soendjoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of monitoring was the plant purposely cultivated because after re-vegetation, there were a very few of other plants growing naturally on reclimed coal mining area which were recorded, whereas these plants had important values. The research aimed to record all plants and to identify predominant plants over the reclaimed land of PT Adaro Indonesia. There were four sampling locations with 13 squares of 50 × 20 m2 on each location established and on each square there were 5 plots of 2 × 2 m2 plotse made. Both plant species and its individual number of woodyplantsaplings were recorded on each square, so in each plot, there were small species and its individual number of either woody-plant seedlings or non-woody plants (herbs/shrubs, grasses, ferns. The relative density and the relative frequency of woody or non-woody plants were summed to obtain the important value index (IVI of each successional stage. There were 107 plant species consisting of 32, 43, 27, and 5 species of saplings,seedlings/herbs/shrubs, grasses, and ferns respectively. From those species, 16 species of woody plants and 2 species of herbs were planted purposely,other species grew naturally and even some of them were dominants. Either the number of plants or the dominating plant is varied according to the sampling location and the growing stage.Keywords: plant, revegetation, richness, sapling, seedling

  14. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Montenegro (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera):

    OpenAIRE

    Švara, Vid; Verovnik, Rudi; Zakšek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009 to 2013, three visits to Montenegro were made to study the spring and early summer butterfly fauna. The focus of our study was on the south-western part of the country, especially the coastal region. A total of 31 localities were visited and some interesting observations were made. Altogether 112 species were recorded, confirming high diversity of the butterfly fauna of this country. Among the observed species, the following are rare or local in Montenegro: Papilio alexa...

  15. Habitat Preferences of Butterflies in the Bumbuna Forest, Northern Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Sundufu, Abu James; Dumbuya, Rashida

    2008-01-01

    The habitat preferences of the butterfly fauna were studied in the Bumbuna Forest Reserve in northern Sierra Leone. The intact forest reserve and a secondary forest regrowth, disturbed as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, were compared to savanna habitats. Of the 290 specimens collected, 195 butterfly species were included, of which significant proportion were Nymphalidae. Of the 147 forest species, 111 (75.5%) showed preferences for the forest habitats, while 70 (47.6%) and 34 (23.1%) ...

  16. Feeding responses by female Pieris brassicae butterflies to carbohydrates and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeis, J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    Most Lepidoptera feed during the adult stage on carbohydrate-rich food sources, primarily floral nectar. However, little is known about the factors leading to the acceptance of a possible food source. It is reported that butterflies select for nectar rich in sucrose and amino acids. This suggests th

  17. Feeding responses by female Pieris brassicae butterflies to carbohydrates and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeis, J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    Most Lepidoptera feed during the adult stage on carbohydrate- rich food sources, primarily floral nectar. However, little is known about the factors leading to the acceptance of a possible food source. It is reported that butterflies select for nectar rich in sucrose and amino acids. This suggests t

  18. A meta-analysis of dispersal in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Virginie M; Turlure, Camille; Baguette, Michel

    2010-08-01

    Dispersal has recently gained much attention because of its crucial role in the conservation and evolution of species facing major environmental changes such as habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, and their interactions. Butterflies have long been recognized as ideal model systems for the study of dispersal and a huge amount of data on their ability to disperse has been collected under various conditions. However, no single 'best' method seems to exist leading to the co-occurrence of various approaches to study butterfly mobility, and therefore a high heterogeneity among data on dispersal across this group. Accordingly, we here reviewed the knowledge accumulated on dispersal and mobility in butterflies, to detect general patterns. This meta-analysis specifically addressed two questions. Firstly, do the various methods provide a congruent picture of how dispersal ability is distributed across species? Secondly, is dispersal species-specific? Five sources of data were analysed: multisite mark-recapture experiments, genetic studies, experimental assessments, expert opinions, and transect surveys. We accounted for potential biases due to variation in genetic markers, sample sizes, spatial scales or the level of habitat fragmentation. We showed that the various dispersal estimates generally converged, and that the relative dispersal ability of species could reliably be predicted from their relative vagrancy (records of butterflies outside their normal habitat). Expert opinions gave much less reliable estimates of realized dispersal but instead reflected migration propensity of butterflies. Within-species comparisons showed that genetic estimates were relatively invariable, while other dispersal estimates were highly variable. This latter point questions dispersal as a species-specific, invariant trait. PMID:20055815

  19. Reservoirs of richness: least disturbed tropical forests are centres of undescribed species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giam, Xingli; Scheffers, Brett R; Sodhi, Navjot S; Wilcove, David S; Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a remarkable discovery of new species of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, in what have been called the new age of discovery. However, owing to anthropogenic impacts such as habitat conversion, many of the still unknown species may go extinct before being scientifically documented (i.e. 'crypto-extinctions'). Here, by applying a mathematical model of species descriptions which accounts for taxonomic effort, we show that even after 250 years of taxonomic classification, about 3050 amphibians and at least 160 land mammal species remain to be discovered and described. These values represent, respectively, 33 and 3 per cent of the current species total for amphibians and land mammals. We found that tropical moist forests of the Neotropics, Afrotropics and Indomalaya probably harbour the greatest numbers of undescribed species. Tropical forests with minimal anthropogenic disturbance are predicted to have larger proportions of undescribed species. However, the protected area coverage is low in many of these key biomes. Moreover, undescribed species are likely to be at a greater risk of extinction compared with known species because of small geographical ranges among other factors. By highlighting the key areas of undescribed species diversity, our study provides a starting template to rapidly document these species and protect them through better habitat management. PMID:21593037

  20. Large tree species richness is associated with topography, forest structure and spectral heterogeneity in a neotropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J. A.; Gillespie, T.; Meyer, V.; Hubbell, S. P.; Santo, F. E.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Large tropical canopy trees contain the majority of forest biomass in addition to being the primary producers in the forest ecosystem in terms of both food and structural habitat. The spatial distributions of large tropical trees are non-randomly distributed across environmental gradients in light, water and nutrients. These environmental gradients are a result of the biophysical processes related to topography and three-dimensional forest structure. In this study we examine large (>10 cm) diameter tree species richness across Barro Colorado Nature Monument in a tropical moist forest in Panama using active and passive remote sensing. Airborne light detection and ranging and high-resolution satellite imagery were used to quantify spectral heterogeneity, sub-canopy topography and vertical canopy structure across existing vegetation plots to model the extent to which remote sensing variables can be used to explain variation in large tree species richness. Plant species richness data was calculated from the stem mapped 50-ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island in addition to 8 large tree plots across the Barro Colorado Nature Monument at 1.0 ha and 0.25 ha spatial scales. We investigated four statistical models to predict large tree species richness including spectral, topographic, vertical canopy structure and a combined ';global' model which includes all remote sensing derived variables. The models demonstrate that remote sensing derived variables can capture a significant fraction (R2= 0.54 and 0.36) of observed variation in tree species richness across the 1.0 and 0.25 ha spatial scales respectively. A selection of remote sensing derived predictor variables. A) World View-2 satellite imagery in RGB/true color. B) False color image of the principal component analysis. C) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). D) Simple Ratio Index. E) Quickbird satellite imagery in RGB/true color. F) False color image of the principal component analysis. G) NDVI. H

  1. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the significance of light migration. PMID:24960099

  2. Butterflies and topological quantum numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Avron, J. E.; Osadchy, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Hofstadter model illustrates the notion of topological quantum numbers and how they account for the quantization of the Hall conductance. It gives rise to colorful fractal diagrams of butterflies where the colors represent the topological quantum numbers.

  3. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  4. Comparative study of Butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

  5. Diversity dynamics in Nymphalidae butterflies: effect of phylogenetic uncertainty on diversification rate shift estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Peña

    Full Text Available The species rich butterfly family Nymphalidae has been used to study evolutionary interactions between plants and insects. Theories of insect-hostplant dynamics predict accelerated diversification due to key innovations. In evolutionary biology, analysis of maximum credibility trees in the software MEDUSA (modelling evolutionary diversity using stepwise AIC is a popular method for estimation of shifts in diversification rates. We investigated whether phylogenetic uncertainty can produce different results by extending the method across a random sample of trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian run. Using the MultiMEDUSA approach, we found that phylogenetic uncertainty greatly affects diversification rate estimates. Different trees produced diversification rates ranging from high values to almost zero for the same clade, and both significant rate increase and decrease in some clades. Only four out of 18 significant shifts found on the maximum clade credibility tree were consistent across most of the sampled trees. Among these, we found accelerated diversification for Ithomiini butterflies. We used the binary speciation and extinction model (BiSSE and found that a hostplant shift to Solanaceae is correlated with increased net diversification rates in Ithomiini, congruent with the diffuse cospeciation hypothesis. Our results show that taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account when estimating net diversification rate shifts is of great importance, as very different results can be obtained when using the maximum clade credibility tree and other trees from the posterior distribution.

  6. Diversity dynamics in Nymphalidae butterflies: effect of phylogenetic uncertainty on diversification rate shift estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Carlos; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The species rich butterfly family Nymphalidae has been used to study evolutionary interactions between plants and insects. Theories of insect-hostplant dynamics predict accelerated diversification due to key innovations. In evolutionary biology, analysis of maximum credibility trees in the software MEDUSA (modelling evolutionary diversity using stepwise AIC) is a popular method for estimation of shifts in diversification rates. We investigated whether phylogenetic uncertainty can produce different results by extending the method across a random sample of trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian run. Using the MultiMEDUSA approach, we found that phylogenetic uncertainty greatly affects diversification rate estimates. Different trees produced diversification rates ranging from high values to almost zero for the same clade, and both significant rate increase and decrease in some clades. Only four out of 18 significant shifts found on the maximum clade credibility tree were consistent across most of the sampled trees. Among these, we found accelerated diversification for Ithomiini butterflies. We used the binary speciation and extinction model (BiSSE) and found that a hostplant shift to Solanaceae is correlated with increased net diversification rates in Ithomiini, congruent with the diffuse cospeciation hypothesis. Our results show that taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account when estimating net diversification rate shifts is of great importance, as very different results can be obtained when using the maximum clade credibility tree and other trees from the posterior distribution. PMID:25830910

  7. Robustness of the bacterial community in the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Courtney J; Schloss, Patrick; Ramos, Yolied; Raffa, Kenneth; Handelsman, Jo

    2010-02-01

    Microbial communities typically vary in composition and structure over space and time. Little is known about the inherent characteristics of communities that govern various drivers of these changes, such as random variation, changes in response to perturbation, or susceptibility to invasion. In this study, we use 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to describe variation among bacterial communities in the midguts of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) larvae and examine the influence of community structure on susceptibility to invasion. We compared communities in larvae experiencing the same conditions at different times (temporal variation) or fed different diets (perturbation). The most highly represented phylum was Proteobacteria, which was present in all midgut communities. The observed species richness ranged from six to 15, and the most abundant members affiliated with the genera Methylobacteria, Asaia, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. Individual larvae subjected to the same conditions at the same time harbored communities that were highly similar in structure and membership, whereas the communities observed within larval populations changed with diet and over time. In addition, structural changes due to perturbation coincided with enhanced susceptibility to invasion by Enterobacter sp. NAB3R and Pantoea stewartii CWB600, suggesting that resistance to invasion is in part governed by community structure. These findings along with the observed conservation of membership at the phylum level, variation in structure and membership at lower taxonomic levels, and its relative simplicity make the cabbage white butterfly larval community an attractive model for studying community dynamics and robustness. PMID:19924467

  8. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. PMID:27147100

  9. How a river course influences the species richness and ecological requirements on two opposite riverbanks in a forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present research was to find correlations between the topographic attributes of a river valley and local ground-floor vegetation and its habitat requirements expressed by ecological indicator values (EIV, using the geographical information systems (GIS, digital elevation model (DEM, and multivariate statistical analysis. We paid special attention to the river course, which determines the differentiation in slope aspects and the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground surface. The model object was an almost latitudinal, ca. 4-km-long break section of the Sopot river, crossing the escarpment zone of the Central Roztocze Highlands, southeastern Poland. The main material comprised species lists (with estimated abundance for each ca. 200-m-long section, according to the river valley course, separately for the left and right riverbanks, 40 sections altogether, ca. 15 000 vegetation records, and physical and chemical soil measurements. A 3-meter resolution DEM was derived from a 1:10 000 topographic map. We calculated the correlations between the topographic attributes of the valley, species richness, and the EIVs for all the species recognized in each section of the valley. We found 241 herb plant species in the ground-floor vegetation of the study area. We did not find significant differences between the two riversides (61 ±13 species per one section for the left and 63 ±17 for the right side. Thus, the parallel course of the river valley does not change the species richness on a more “sunny” and more “shiny” riverbank. However, this factor “cooperating” with other topographic attributes of the valley significantly differentiates the shape of species showing various requirements for basic habitat resources: light, moisture, soil trophy, reaction, dispersion, and organic-matter content.

  10. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  11. Avian succession along ecological gradients: Insight from species-poor and species-rich communities of Sylvia warblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban GUILLAUMET, Roger PRODON

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for species replacement during ecological successions is a long-standing and open debate. In this study, we examined the distribution of the Sardinian warbler Sylvia melanocephala along two grassland-to-forest gradients, one in a high-diversity area (Albera-Aspres chain in Catalonia: eight Sylvia warbler species and one in a low-diversity area (Mount Hymittos in Greece: four species. In Catalonia, distribution models suggested that the apparent exclusion of S. melanocephala from the open and forest ends of the gradient may be explained entirely by the preference of S. melanocephala for mid-successional shrublands. However, a joint analysis of both data sets revealed that: 1 S. melanocephala was more evenly distributed along the vegetation gradient in Greece, suggesting ecological release in the low-diversity area; and 2 a distribution model assuming interspecific competition (based on the distribution of Sylvia species showing a negative co-occurrence pattern with S. melanocephala had a significantly higher predictive ability than a distribution model based on habitat variables alone. Our study supports the view that species turnover along ecological gradients generally results from a combination of intrinsic preferences and interspecific competition [Current Zoology 57 (3: 307–317, 2011].

  12. The Butterfly House Industry: Conservation Risks and Education Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boppré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mass supply and use of butterflies for live exhibits, discusses the risks to biodiversity which this creates, and the educational opportunities it presents. Over the past 30 years a new type of insect zoo has become popular worldwide: the butterfly house. This has given rise to the global Butterfly House Industry (BHI based on the mass production of butterfly pupae as a cash crop. Production is largely carried out by privately-owned butterfly farms in tropical countries, notably Central America and Southeast Asia. Most pupae are exported to North America and Europe, although the number of butterfly houses in tropical countries is growing. The BHI is described with respect to its stakeholders, their diverse interests, and its extent. It is estimated that the global turnover of the BHI is in the order of USD 100 million. From a conservation perspective, there is a tension between risks and benefits. The risks to biodiversity are primarily unsustainable production, potential bastardisation of local faunas and floras, and genetic mixing within and even between butterfly species. This paper discusses general ways of managing these risks. Ethical concerns range from fair trade issues to animal husbandry and the use of wildlife for entertainment. For the risks to biodiversity and unresolved ethical issues to be tolerable, the BHI needs to make a significant contribution to conservation, primarily through effective education about butterfly biology as a means to raise public awareness of basic ecological processes, and conservation and environmental issues. It should also engage with local conservation initiatives. Currently the BHI′s great potential for public good in these respects is rarely realised. The paper concludes by looking at the special nature of the BHI, and its need for effective self-regulation if it is to continue to escape from public scrutiny and the introduction of restrictive regulations. The BHI needs to

  13. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb.) DC. (Rubiaceae), a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    A.J.S. Raju; K.V. Ramana; P.V. Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March-April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15-18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the non-essential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cyste...

  14. Long-term changes of species richness in a breeding bird community of a small Mediterranean archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Abraín, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the pattern of species richness changes in a bird–breeding bird community on a small western Mediterranean archipelago (Columbretes Islands over a 40–year period (1964–2003. The aim of this study was to qualitatively account for the relative roles of local and regional factors in shaping the community. As expected, we found that regional factors (at the metapopulation spatial scale increased diversity whereas local factors (i.e. ecological probably prevented further increases in diversity. We found that the archipelago gained four new species (two seabirds and two falconids during the study period, whereas no extinctions were recorded. The community seems partially or completely closed to some groups of species (e.g. small–sized birds such as passerines and storm–petrels, probably owing to predatory exclusion by Eleonora falcons (Falco eleonorae. As newly arrived species have breeding calendars that do not fully overlap with those of resident species, competition for space in a rather saturated area is prevented. Preservation of rare species which increase gamma (regional diversity rather than alpha diversity with common species should be the main local conservation goal.

  15. Urbanization Level and Woodland Size Are Major Drivers of Woodpecker Species Richness and Abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasz Myczko; Zuzanna M Rosin; Piotr Skórka; Piotr Tryjanowski

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influenc...

  16. Crustacean zooplankton species richness in Chilean lakes and ponds (23°-51°S)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Chilean inland-water ecosystems are characterized by their low species-level biodiversity. This study analyses available data on surface area, maximum depth, conductivity, chlorophyll-α concentration, and zooplankton crustacean species number in lakes and ponds between 23° and 51°S. The study uses multiple regression analysis to identify the potential factors affecting the species number. The partial correlation analysis indicated a direct significant correlation between chlorophyll-α concent...

  17. Urban stress is associated with variation in microbial species composition-but not richness-in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Aspen T; Savage, Amy; Youngsteadt, Elsa; McGuire, Krista L; Koling, Adam; Watkins, Olivia; Frank, Steven D; Dunn, Robert R

    2016-03-01

    The biological diversity and composition of microorganisms influences both human health outcomes and ecological processes; therefore, understanding the factors that influence microbial biodiversity is key to creating healthy, functional landscapes in which to live. In general, biological diversity is predicted to be limited by habitat size, which for green areas is often reduced in cities, and by chronic disturbance (stress). These hypotheses have not previously been tested in microbial systems in direct comparison to macroorganisms. Here we analyzed bacterial, fungal and ant communities in small road medians (average area 0.0008 km(2)) and larger parks (average area 0.64 km(2)) across Manhattan (NYC). Bacterial species richness was not significantly different between medians and parks, but community composition was significantly distinct. In contrast, ant communities differed both in composition and richness with fewer ant species in medians than parks. Fungi showed no significant variation in composition or richness but had few shared taxa between habitats or sites. The diversity and composition of microbes appears less sensitive to habitat patchiness or urban stress than those of macroorganisms. Microbes and their associated ecosystem services and functions may be more resilient to the negative effects of urbanization than has been previously appreciated. PMID:26394011

  18. Nutrient limitation and nutrient-driven shifts in plant species composition in a species-rich fen meadow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, D. van der; Mierlo, A. van; Groenendael, J.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Question: We studied the development and persistence of the effects of nutrient pulses on biomass production and species composition in a fen meadow. Location: Nature reserve, central Netherlands, 5 m a.s.l. Methods: Single pulse fertilization with N and P in a factorial design on an undrained centr

  19. Rates of climatic niche evolution are correlated with species richness in a large and ecologically diverse radiation of songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, Pascal O; Burns, Kevin J

    2015-05-01

    By employing a recently inferred phylogeny and museum occurrence records, we examine the relationship of ecological niche evolution to diversification in the largest family of songbirds, the tanagers (Thraupidae). We test whether differences in species numbers in the major clades of tanagers can be explained by differences in rate of climatic niche evolution. We develop a methodological pipeline to process and filter occurrence records. We find that, of the ecological variables examined, clade richness is higher in clades with higher climatic niche rate, and that this rate is also greater for clades that occupy a greater extent of climatic space. Additionally, we find that more speciose clades contain species with narrower niche breadths, suggesting that clades in which species are more successful at diversifying across climatic gradients have greater potential for speciation or are more buffered from the risk of extinction. PMID:25808028

  20. A male gift to its partner? Cyanogenic glycosides in the spermatophore of longwing butterflies (Heliconius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Márcio Zikán; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

    2007-01-01

    Males of several insect species transfer nuptial gifts to females during mating, typically in the form of a protein-rich spermatophore. In chemically defended species, males could potentially enhance such a gift with chemicals that help protect the female, her eggs, or both. This was shown for lepidopteran species that accumulate pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Most Heliconius butterflies are presumably protected from predators by virtue of de novo synthesized and/or sequestered cyanogenic glycosides. Males of Heliconius species are known to transfer nutritional gifts to the females but whether defensive chemicals could also be transferred is not known. To ascertain whether transfer of cyanogens occurs, we dissected freshly mated females from nine different Heliconius species and analyzed spermatophores for cyanogenic glycosides. We found cyanogens in the spermatophores of all nine species. This is the first time cyanogenic glycosides are reported in the spermatophores of arthropods. We discuss the implications of these findings for Heliconius biology and for other cyanogenic insects as well. We suggest that chemically defended species commonly lace their nuptial gifts with defensive chemicals to improve gift quality.

  1. Patterns of species discovery in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity hot spot in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N A Aravind; B Tambat; G Ravikanth; K N Ganeshaiah; R Uma Shaanker

    2007-06-01

    Even since Linnaeus, naturalists and taxonomists have been systematically describing species new to science. Besides indicating gaps in taxonomic effort, understanding the temporal patterns of species discovery could help in identifying drivers that determine discovery. In this study we report the patterns of discovery of eight taxa – birds, butterflies, frogs, tiger beetles, grasses, asters, ferns and orchids – in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity centre in India. Our results indicate that the discovery curves for birds and butterflies have been saturated while those for frogs and grasses continue to increase. Within each taxon, the major drivers of discovery were commonness of the species and their size. The average years taken for discovery across taxa were directly related to the per cent endemicity and species richness of the taxa. We discuss the trajectories of discovery with respect to rarity or endemicity of the species and life history features, and the implications these might have for strategizing the discovery process in India.

  2. Physical factors affecting the abundance and species richness of fishes in the shallow waters of the southern Bothnian Sea (Sweden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1986-03-01

    The relationship between the composition of the fish assemblages and the abiotic environment in seven shallow areas within the same geographical range in the southern Bothnian Sea were studied in May, July, September and November 1982. Eighteen species were found in the areas and the major species were Pungitius pungitius (L.), Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.), Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) and Gobius niger L. The main purpose of the study was to examine the possible effects of exposure, organic contents in sediments and habitat heterogeneity on species richness and abundance of the assemblages. There was a negative correlation between the organic contents of the sediment and exposure. There were no significant correlations between exposure, organic contents, size of the areas and species numbers but habitat heterogeneity was positively correlated with species number. There were no correlations between fish abundance and heterogeneity of the areas. Negative correlations occurred between the exposure of the areas and fish abundance. The amounts of the pooled benthic fauna were negatively correlated to the exposure. The species/area hypothesis finds no support in the results, because there was no correlation between habitat heterogeneity of an area and its size. The effective fetch combined with the heterogeneity measurement of the areas seemed to be useful indicators of the species composition and fish abundance. Habitat heterogeneity and exposure were the most important structuring factors of these shallow water fish assemblages during the ice-free period and within the local geographical range. The assemblages consist of a mixture of species with marine or limnic origin and they have probably not evolved in the Bothnian Sea or together. They are most likely regulated by their physiological plasticity and not by interactions with other species.

  3. Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) parasitizing butterfly fishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae) from the coral reefs of Palau, Moorea, Wallis, New Caledonia, and Australia: species of Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. and Aliatrema n. gen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Laetitia; Kritsky, Delane C

    2004-04-01

    Seven species of Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. and 1 species of Aliatrema n. gen. (Monogenoidea; Dactylogyridae) are described and reported from the gills of 15 species of butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae) from the coral reefs of Moorea (French Polynesia), Wallis (Wallis and Futuna), Heron and Lizard (Australia), Palau (Micronesia), and New Caledonia: Aliatrema cribbi n. sp. from Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Chaetodon trifasciatus, Chaetodon ulietensis, Chaetodon vagabundus, Forcipiger flavisissimus, and Heniochus chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides annulocirrus n. comb. from C. auriga, C. lunula, and C. vagabundus; Euryhaliotrematoides aspistis n. sp. from C. auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, C. lunula, Chaetodon reticulatus, C. ulietensis, and C. vagabundus; Euryhaliotrematoides berenguelae n. sp. from C. citrinellus, Chaetodon ornatissimus, and F. flavisissimus; Euryhaliotrematoides grandis n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon kleinii, Chaetodon lineolatus, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. trifasciatus, C. vagabundus, and H. chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides microphallus n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium, C. kleinii, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. reticulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis, C. trifasciatus, C. vagabundus, F. flavisissimus, and H. chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides pirulum n. sp. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. lunula, C. trifasciatus, and C. vagabundus; and Euryhaliotrematoides triangulovagina n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. kleinii, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. vagabundus, F. flavisissimus, H. chrysostomus, and Hemitaurichthys polylepis. All reports of previously described species are new locality records. With exceptions of E. grandis and E. annulocirrus on C. auriga and C. lunula and E. triangulovagina and E. microphallus on C. auriga, all reports are new host records. Haliotrema hainanensis and H. affinis are considered junior subjective synonyms of E. triangulovagina and E

  4. Status of six endangered California Butterflies 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted from March-September 1977 to determine the current status of six federally endangered butterflies which reside in California. The butterflies...

  5. Evolution of Epiphytism and Fruit Traits Act Unevenly on the Diversification of the Species-Rich Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzke, Lena; Goetghebeur, Paul; Neinhuis, Christoph; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Wanke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The species-rich genus Peperomia (Black Pepper relatives) is the only genus among early diverging angiosperms where epiphytism evolved. The majority of fruits of Peperomia release sticky secretions or exhibit hook-shaped appendages indicative of epizoochorous dispersal, which is in contrast to other flowering plants, where epiphytes are generally characterized by fruit morphological adaptations for anemochory or endozoochory. We investigate fruit characters using Cryo-SEM. Comparative phylogenetic analyses are applied for the first time to include life form and fruit character information to study diversification in Peperomia. Likelihood ratio tests uncover correlated character evolution. We demonstrate that diversification within Peperomia is not homogenous across its phylogeny, and that net diversification rates increase by twofold within the most species-rich subgenus. In contrast to former land plant studies that provide general evidence for increased diversification in epiphytic lineages, we demonstrate that the evolution of epiphytism within Peperomia predates the diversification shift. An epiphytic-dependent diversification is only observed for the background phylogeny. An elevated frequency of life form transitions between epiphytes and terrestrials and thus evolutionary flexibility of life forms is uncovered to coincide with the diversification shift. The evolution of fruits showing dispersal related structures is key to diversification in the foreground region of the phylogeny and postdates the evolution of epiphytism. We conclude that the success of Peperomia, measured in species numbers, is likely the result of enhanced vertical and horizontal dispersal ability and life form flexibility but not the evolution of epiphytism itself. PMID:27555851

  6. The regional species richness and genetic diversity of Arctic vegetation reflect both past glaciations and current climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, L.; Alsos, Inger G.; Bay, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Arctic has experienced marked climatic differences between glacial and interglacial periods and is now subject to a rapidly warming climate. Knowledge of the effects of historical processes on current patterns of diversity may aid predictions of the responses of vegetation to future clima......, it will most probably also exhibit lags in response to current and future climate change. Our results also suggest that local species richness at the plot scale is more determined by local habitat factors......Aim The Arctic has experienced marked climatic differences between glacial and interglacial periods and is now subject to a rapidly warming climate. Knowledge of the effects of historical processes on current patterns of diversity may aid predictions of the responses of vegetation to future climate...... change. We aim to test whether plant species and genetic diversity patterns are correlated with time since deglaciation at regional and local scales. We also investigate whether species richness is correlated with genetic diversity in vascular plants. Location Circumarctic. Methods We investigated...

  7. Simulated geographic variations of plant species richness, evenness and abundance using climatic constraints on plant functional diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the most pronounced large-scale geographic patterns of plant biodiversity are the increase in plant species richness towards the tropics, a more even distribution of the relative abundances of plant species in the tropics, and a nearly log-normal relative abundance distribution. Here we use an individual-based plant diversity model that relates climatic constraints to feasible plant growth strategies to show that all three basic diversity patterns can be predicted merely from the climatic constraints acting upon plant ecophysiological trade-offs. Our model predicts that towards objectively 'harsher' environments, the range of feasible growth strategies resulting in reproductive plants is reduced, thus resulting in lower functional plant species richness. The reduction of evenness is attributed to a more rapid decline in productivity from the most productive to less productive plant growth strategies since the particular setup of the strategy becomes more important in maintaining high productivity in harsher environments. This approach is also able to reproduce the increase in the deviation from a log-normal distribution towards more evenly distributed communities of the tropics. Our results imply that these general biodiversity relationships can be understood primarily by considering the climatic constraints on plant ecophysiological trade-offs.

  8. Simulated geographic variations of plant species richness, evenness and abundance using climatic constraints on plant functional diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleidon, Axel; Pavlick, Ryan; Reu, Bjoern [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Postfach 100164, 07701 Jena (Germany); Adams, Jonathan [Department of Biological Science, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ (United States)], E-mail: akleidon@bgc-jena.mpg.de

    2009-01-15

    Among the most pronounced large-scale geographic patterns of plant biodiversity are the increase in plant species richness towards the tropics, a more even distribution of the relative abundances of plant species in the tropics, and a nearly log-normal relative abundance distribution. Here we use an individual-based plant diversity model that relates climatic constraints to feasible plant growth strategies to show that all three basic diversity patterns can be predicted merely from the climatic constraints acting upon plant ecophysiological trade-offs. Our model predicts that towards objectively 'harsher' environments, the range of feasible growth strategies resulting in reproductive plants is reduced, thus resulting in lower functional plant species richness. The reduction of evenness is attributed to a more rapid decline in productivity from the most productive to less productive plant growth strategies since the particular setup of the strategy becomes more important in maintaining high productivity in harsher environments. This approach is also able to reproduce the increase in the deviation from a log-normal distribution towards more evenly distributed communities of the tropics. Our results imply that these general biodiversity relationships can be understood primarily by considering the climatic constraints on plant ecophysiological trade-offs.

  9. Sown species richness and realized diversity can influence functioning of plant communities differently

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rychtecká, Terezie; Lanta, V.; Weiterová, I.; Lepš, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 8 (2014), s. 637-644. ISSN 0028-1042 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * realized diversity * species pool Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  10. The effects of global change on the distribution, species richness and life history of European dragonflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and human land-use strongly impacts ranges and distributional borders of dragonfly (Odonata) species which are therefore a good model group for understanding how the strength of such impacts depend on species specific ecology and functional traits. The specificity of their larvae...... to habitat type, their amphibious life cycle, and the ease of identification of the adult, combined with the good knowledge of their distribution and ecological requirement, make dragonfly species particularly well suited for studying effects of climate change and human land-use in the short term — which...... is related to structural changes of running and standing waters — and in the long term — which is related to species conservation and biogeography. A major challenge in conservation ecology is to understand interspecific differences in response to climate change and human land-use, i.e., what enables some...

  11. An evaluation of species richness estimators for tardigrades of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane R. NELSON

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available For the past 5 years we have been conducting a large-scale, multi-habitat inventory of the tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S.A. as part of the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI (see www.dlia.org. In terrestrial habitats, we collected moss, lichen, and soil samples from 19 permanent ATBI plots, representing all major land cover types within the park. Each ATBI plot is 100 × 100 m. In each plot, when available, 16 moss samples, 16 lichen samples, and 4 soil samples were collected in paper bags and air dried in the laboratory. Specimens were isolated with LudoxAM centrifugation, and for each sample up to 50 adults plus eggs were individually mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium and identified using phase contrast and DIC microscopy. Additional collections were made in the limestone caves of the Cades Cove region of the park, bird nests, and 13 different streams. To date (1-Jun-06, 589 samples have been collected, and of these 401 have been analyzed, yielding a total of 8133 identifiable tardigrades or, in some cases, species groups. A total of 73 species have been found in the park, 14 of which we believe are new to science. Seven species richness estimators have been developed to predict total species richness (see EstimateS 7.5 software, viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates, and these were evaluated by comparing predictions from half of our data to the actual numbers from the total database. The results of this comparison indicate that different estimators work best in different habitats. Using the best estimators in each habitat, EstimateS 7.5 indicates that a total of 96 species are likely to occur throughout the park. Thus, Great Smoky Mountains National Park tardigrade diversity represents 10% of the world's known tardigrade fauna.

  12. Coral Reefs at the Northernmost Tip of Borneo: An Assessment of Scleractinian Species Richness Patterns and Benthic Reef Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarinah Waheed

    Full Text Available The coral reefs at the northernmost tip of Sabah, Borneo will be established under a marine protected area: the Tun Mustapha Park (TMP by the end of 2015. This area is a passage where the Sulu Sea meets the South China Sea and it is situated at the border of the area of maximum marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle. The TMP includes fringing and patch reefs established on a relatively shallow sea floor. Surveys were carried out to examine features of the coral reefs in terms of scleractinian species richness, and benthic reef assemblages following the Reef Check substrate categories, with emphasis on hard coral cover. Variation in scleractinian diversity was based on the species composition of coral families Fungiidae (n = 39, Agariciidae (n = 30 and Euphylliidae (n = 15. The number of coral species was highest at reefs with a larger depth gradient i.e. at the periphery of the study area and in the deep South Banggi Channel. Average live hard coral cover across the sites was 49%. Only 7% of the examined reefs had > 75% hard coral cover, while the majority of the reef sites were rated fair (51% and good (38%. Sites with low coral cover and high rubble fragments are evidence of blast fishing, although the observed damage appeared old. Depth was a dominant factor in influencing the coral species composition and benthic reef communities in the TMP. Besides filling in the information gaps regarding species richness and benthic cover for reef areas that were previously without any data, the results of this study together with information that is already available on the coral reefs of TMP will be used to make informed decisions on zoning plans for conservation priorities in the proposed park.

  13. Coral Reefs at the Northernmost Tip of Borneo: An Assessment of Scleractinian Species Richness Patterns and Benthic Reef Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Zarinah; van Mil, Harald G. J.; Syed Hussein, Muhammad Ali; Jumin, Robecca; Golam Ahad, Bobita; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2015-01-01

    The coral reefs at the northernmost tip of Sabah, Borneo will be established under a marine protected area: the Tun Mustapha Park (TMP) by the end of 2015. This area is a passage where the Sulu Sea meets the South China Sea and it is situated at the border of the area of maximum marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle. The TMP includes fringing and patch reefs established on a relatively shallow sea floor. Surveys were carried out to examine features of the coral reefs in terms of scleractinian species richness, and benthic reef assemblages following the Reef Check substrate categories, with emphasis on hard coral cover. Variation in scleractinian diversity was based on the species composition of coral families Fungiidae (n = 39), Agariciidae (n = 30) and Euphylliidae (n = 15). The number of coral species was highest at reefs with a larger depth gradient i.e. at the periphery of the study area and in the deep South Banggi Channel. Average live hard coral cover across the sites was 49%. Only 7% of the examined reefs had > 75% hard coral cover, while the majority of the reef sites were rated fair (51%) and good (38%). Sites with low coral cover and high rubble fragments are evidence of blast fishing, although the observed damage appeared old. Depth was a dominant factor in influencing the coral species composition and benthic reef communities in the TMP. Besides filling in the information gaps regarding species richness and benthic cover for reef areas that were previously without any data, the results of this study together with information that is already available on the coral reefs of TMP will be used to make informed decisions on zoning plans for conservation priorities in the proposed park. PMID:26719987

  14. Sample size and the detection of a hump-shaped relationship between biomass and species richness in Mediterranean wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinar, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Questions: What is the observed relationship between biomass and species richness across both spatial and temporal scales in communities of submerged annual macrophytes? Does the number of plots sampled affect detection of hump-shaped pattern? Location: Don??ana National Park, southwestern Spain. Methods: A total of 102 plots were sampled during four hydrological cycles. In each hydrological cycle, the plots were distributed randomly along an environmental flooding gradient in three contrasted microhabitats located in the transition zone just below the upper marsh. In each plot (0.5 m x 0.5 m), plant density and above- and below-ground biomass of submerged vegetation were measured. The hump-shaped model was tested by using a generalized linear model (GLM). A bootstrap procedure was used to test the effect of the number of plots on the ability to detect hump-shaped patterns. Result: The area exhibited low species density with a range of 1 - 9 species and low values of biomass with a range of 0.2 - 87.6 g-DW / 0.25 m2. When data from all years and all microhabitats were combined, the relationships between biomass and species richness showed a hump-shaped pattern. The number of plots was large enough to allow detection of the hump-shaped pattern across microhabitats but it was too small to confirm the hump-shaped pattern within each individual microhabitat. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of hump-shaped patterns across microhabitats when GLM analysis is used. In communities of submerged annual macrophytes in Mediterranean wetlands, the highest species density occurs in intermediate values of biomass. The bootstrap procedure indicates that the number of plots affects the detection of hump-shaped patterns. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  15. First record of the cycad blue, Chilades pandava, in Egypt – a new invasive butterfly species in the Mediterranean region and on the African continent (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fric, Zdeněk; Dickinson, R.; Fetouh, G.; Larsen, T. B.; Schön, W.; Wiemers, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2014), s. 315-319. ISSN 1021-3589 Grant ostatní: GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : invasive species * mitochondrial DNA * haplotype network Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.365, year: 2014 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.4001/003.022.0205

  16. How too much care kills species: Grassland reserves, agri-environmental schemes and extinction of Colias myrmidone butterfly from its former stronghold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Beneš, Jiří; Čížek, Oldřich; Kopeček, F.; Konvička, O.; Vitaz, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2008), s. 519-525. ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : endangered species * habitat quality * landscape management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2008

  17. Birds and butterflies respond to soil-induced habitat heterogeneity in experimental plantings of tallgrass prairie species managed as agroenergy feedstocks in Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The positive association between habitat heterogeneity and species diversity has been well-documented for many taxa at various spatial and temporal scales, and the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity in agricultural landscapes has been promoted as a key strategy in efforts to conserve biodiversity....

  18. Low predictive power of mid-domain effect to explain geographic species richness patterns in Palearctic songbirds

    OpenAIRE

    Aliabadian, M.; Roselaar, C.S. (Kees); Sluys, R.; Nijman, V.

    2007-01-01

    In the study of diversity patterns, the Mid-domain effect (MDE), which explains gradients in diversity solely on the basis of geometric constraints, has emerged as a null-model against which other hypotheses can be tested. The effectiveness, measured by its predictive power, of these MDE models appears to depend on the size of the study area and the range-sizes of the taxa considered. Here we test the predictive power of MDE on the species richness patterns of birds and assess its effectivene...

  19. Pre-Dispersal Seed Predation in a Species-Rich Forest Community: Patterns and the Interplay with Determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xu

    Full Text Available Pre-dispersal seed predation (PDSP is commonly observed in woody plants, and recognized as a driver of seed production variability that is critical for successful regeneration. Earlier studies on PDSP and its determinants were mostly species specific, with community-level PDSP rarely estimated; and the interactions between the temporal variability of seed production and PDSP remain elusive. In this study, the community seed rain of woody plants in a mixed evergreen-deciduous broadleaf forest was monitored for seven years. We examined predation on collected seeds and analyzed the determinants of PDSP. PDSP was recorded in 17 out of 44 woody plant species, and three-quarters of PDSP was due to insect predators. Annual seed production varied substantially at community level, reversely linked with the temporal variation of PDSP rate. The PDSP rate was biased regarding fruit types, and being significantly correlated with seed mass when using phylogenetic independent contrasts (PICs or without taking into account phylogenetic relations, especially for nuts. PDSP rate was also negatively correlated with seed density, showing a threshold-related predator satiation effect. The community-level PDSP rate was primarily determined by tree height, fruit type, and interannual variation of seed production and seed mass. Our analysis revealed a causal link between seed production and the dynamics of PDSP rate at the community level. The predator satiation effect was primarily contributed by the dominant species, whereas the rare species seemed to apply a distinct "hide-and-seek" strategy to control the risk of PDSP. The mechanistic difference of seed production between the common and rare species can shed new light on species coexistence and community assembly. Long-term monitoring of both seed rain and seed predation is required for understanding the ecological and evolutionary implications of species regeneration strategies in a species-rich forest community.

  20. Tree species richness, diversity, and regeneration status in different oak (Quercus spp. dominated forests of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan forests are dominated by different species of oaks (Quercus spp. at different altitudes. These oaks are intimately linked with hill agriculture as they protect soil fertility, watershed, and local biodiversity. They also play an important role in maintaining ecosystem stability. This work was carried out to study the diversity and regeneration status of some oak forests in Garhwal Himalaya, India. A total of 18 tree species belonging to 16 genera and 12 families were reported from the study area. Species richness varied for trees (4–7, saplings (3–10, and seedlings (2–6. Seedling and sapling densities (Ind/ha varied between 1,376 Ind/ha and 9,600 Ind/ha and 167 Ind/ha and 1,296 Ind/ha, respectively. Species diversity varied from 1.27 to 1.86 (trees, from 0.93 to 3.18 (saplings, and from 0.68 to 2.26 (seedlings. Total basal area (m2/ha of trees and saplings was 2.2–87.07 m2/ha and 0.20–2.24 m2/ha, respectively, whereas that of seedlings varied from 299 cm2/ha to 8,177 cm2/ha. Maximum tree species (20–80% had “good” regeneration. Quercus floribunda, the dominant tree species in the study area, showed “poor” regeneration, which is a matter of concern, and therefore, proper management and conservation strategies need to be developed for maintenance and sustainability of this oak species along with other tree species that show poor or no regeneration.

  1. Pre-Dispersal Seed Predation in a Species-Rich Forest Community: Patterns and the Interplay with Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Shen, Zehao; Li, Daoxin; Guo, Qinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Pre-dispersal seed predation (PDSP) is commonly observed in woody plants, and recognized as a driver of seed production variability that is critical for successful regeneration. Earlier studies on PDSP and its determinants were mostly species specific, with community-level PDSP rarely estimated; and the interactions between the temporal variability of seed production and PDSP remain elusive. In this study, the community seed rain of woody plants in a mixed evergreen-deciduous broadleaf forest was monitored for seven years. We examined predation on collected seeds and analyzed the determinants of PDSP. PDSP was recorded in 17 out of 44 woody plant species, and three-quarters of PDSP was due to insect predators. Annual seed production varied substantially at community level, reversely linked with the temporal variation of PDSP rate. The PDSP rate was biased regarding fruit types, and being significantly correlated with seed mass when using phylogenetic independent contrasts (PICs) or without taking into account phylogenetic relations, especially for nuts. PDSP rate was also negatively correlated with seed density, showing a threshold-related predator satiation effect. The community-level PDSP rate was primarily determined by tree height, fruit type, and interannual variation of seed production and seed mass. Our analysis revealed a causal link between seed production and the dynamics of PDSP rate at the community level. The predator satiation effect was primarily contributed by the dominant species, whereas the rare species seemed to apply a distinct "hide-and-seek" strategy to control the risk of PDSP. The mechanistic difference of seed production between the common and rare species can shed new light on species coexistence and community assembly. Long-term monitoring of both seed rain and seed predation is required for understanding the ecological and evolutionary implications of species regeneration strategies in a species-rich forest community. PMID:26575270

  2. Attack risk for butterflies changes with eyespot number and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sebastian; Schachat, Sandra R; Piel, William H; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly eyespots are known to function in predator deflection and predator intimidation, but it is still unclear what factors cause eyespots to serve one function over the other. Both functions have been demonstrated in different species that varied in eyespot size, eyespot number and wing size, leaving the contribution of each of these factors to butterfly survival unclear. Here, we study how each of these factors contributes to eyespot function by using paper butterfly models, where each factor is varied in turn, and exposing these models to predation in the field. We find that the presence of multiple, small eyespots results in high predation, whereas single large eyespots (larger than 6 mm in diameter) results in low predation. These data indicate that single large eyespots intimidate predators, whereas multiple small eyespots produce a conspicuous, but non-intimidating signal to predators. We propose that eyespots may gain an intimidation function by increasing in size. Our measurements of eyespot size in 255 nymphalid butterfly species show that large eyespots are relatively rare and occur predominantly on ventral wing surfaces. By mapping eyespot size on the phylogeny of the family Nymphalidae, we show that these large eyespots, with a potential intimidation function, are dispersed throughout multiple nymphalid lineages, indicating that phylogeny is not a strong predictor of eyespot size. PMID:26909190

  3. Evolution of color and vision of butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Butterfly eyes consist of three types of ommatidia, which are more or less randomly arranged in a spatially regular lattice. The corneal nipple array and the tapetum, Optical Structures that many but not all butterflies share with moths, Suggest that moths are ancestral to butterflies, in agreement

  4. Citizen Science: The First Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, John-James; Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Lim, Aik-Hean; Lim,Voon-Ching; Lee, Ping-Shin; Sing,Kong-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past 50 years, Southeast Asia has suffered the greatest losses of biodiversity of any tropical region in the world. Malaysia is a biodiversity hotspot in the heart of Southeast Asia with roughly the same number of mammal species, three times the number of butterfly species, but only 4% of the land area of Australia. Consequently, in Malaysia, there is an urgent need for biodiversity monitoring and also public engagement with wildlife to raise awareness of biodiver...

  5. Rapid diversification associated with ecological specialization in Neotropical Adelpha butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, ER; Dacosta, JM; Sorenson, MD; Hill, RI; Briscoe, AD; Willmott, KR; Mullen, SP

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Rapid diversification is often associated with morphological or ecological adaptations that allow organisms to radiate into novel niches. Neotropical Adelpha butterflies, which comprise over 200 species and subspecies, are characterized by extraordinary breadth in host plant use and wing colour patterns compared to their closest relatives. To examine the relationship between phenotypic and species diversification, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Adel...

  6. A List of Butterfly Fauna in Jahangirnagar University Campus in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During January to Decmber, 2003 in an extensive survey of butterfly in Jahangirnagar University campus, a total of 80 species of butterfly were identified. Among them 44 species were common and 36 were completely new. These species belonged to 10 families, 11 species belong to the family Nymphalidae, 14 to Pieridae, 23 to Lycaenidae, 3 to Satyridae, 7 to Papilionidae, 4 to Danaidae, 15 to Hesperiidae and 1 species to each family of Acraeidae, Riodinidae and Amathusiidae. The three families viz., Acraeidae, Riodinidae and Amathusiidae were completely new report in Bangladesh.(author)

  7. Elevational gradient in species richness pattern of epigaeic beetles and underlying mechanisms at east slope of Balang Mountain in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Lü, Liang; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2013-01-01

    We report on the species richness patterns of epigaeic beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) along a subtropical elevational gradient of Balang Mountain, southwestern China. We tested the roles of environmental factors (e.g. temperature, area and litter cover) and direct biotic interactions (e.g. foods and antagonists) that shape elevational diversity gradients. Beetles were sampled at 19 sites using pitfall traps along the studied elevational gradient ranging from 1500 m-4000 m during the 2004 growing season. A total of 74416 specimens representing 260 species were recorded. Species richness of epigaeic beetles and two families showed unimodal patterns along the elevational gradient, peaking at mid-elevations (c. 2535 m), and the ranges of most beetle species were narrow along the gradient. The potential correlates of both species richness and environmental variables were examined using linear and second order polynomial regressions. The results showed that temperature, area and litter cover had strong explanatory power of beetle species richness for nearly all richness patterns, of beetles as a whole and of Carabidae and Staphylinidae, but the density of antagonists was associated with species richness of Carabidae only. Multiple regression analyses suggested that the three environmental factors combined contributed most to richness patterns for most taxa. The results suggest that environmental factors associated with temperature, area and habitat heterogeneity could account for most variation in richness pattern of epigaeic beetles. Additionally, the mid-elevation peaks and the small range size of most species indicate that conservation efforts should give attention to the entire gradient rather than just mid-elevations. PMID:23874906

  8. Elevational gradient in species richness pattern of epigaeic beetles and underlying mechanisms at east slope of Balang Mountain in southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Yu

    Full Text Available We report on the species richness patterns of epigaeic beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae along a subtropical elevational gradient of Balang Mountain, southwestern China. We tested the roles of environmental factors (e.g. temperature, area and litter cover and direct biotic interactions (e.g. foods and antagonists that shape elevational diversity gradients. Beetles were sampled at 19 sites using pitfall traps along the studied elevational gradient ranging from 1500 m-4000 m during the 2004 growing season. A total of 74416 specimens representing 260 species were recorded. Species richness of epigaeic beetles and two families showed unimodal patterns along the elevational gradient, peaking at mid-elevations (c. 2535 m, and the ranges of most beetle species were narrow along the gradient. The potential correlates of both species richness and environmental variables were examined using linear and second order polynomial regressions. The results showed that temperature, area and litter cover had strong explanatory power of beetle species richness for nearly all richness patterns, of beetles as a whole and of Carabidae and Staphylinidae, but the density of antagonists was associated with species richness of Carabidae only. Multiple regression analyses suggested that the three environmental factors combined contributed most to richness patterns for most taxa. The results suggest that environmental factors associated with temperature, area and habitat heterogeneity could account for most variation in richness pattern of epigaeic beetles. Additionally, the mid-elevation peaks and the small range size of most species indicate that conservation efforts should give attention to the entire gradient rather than just mid-elevations.

  9. Elevational pattern of species richness in the Three Gorges region of the Yangtze River: effect of climate, geometric constraints, area and topographical heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Qiaoyan Li; Xiangping Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore altitudinal richness of vascular plant species in the Three Gorges region of the Yangtze River and test several hypotheses concerning geographic diversity patterns. Multivariate regression and variation partitioning analyses were used to examine the relative effects of area, climate, geometric constraints and topographical heterogeneity on altitudinal richness patterns, and also the differences among ecological groups (including species with different range sizes, gr...

  10. Invasibility and species richness of a community: A neutral model and a survey of published data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Mandák, Bohumil; Bímová, Kateřina; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 12 (2004), s. 3223-3233. ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6005301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : meta-analysis * disturbance rate * alien species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2004

  11. Complementary effects of soil organism and plant propagule introductions in restoration of species-rich grassland communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Bezemer, T Martijn [Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW); van der Putten, Wim H. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW)

    2009-01-01

    A common practice in biodiversity conservation is restoration of former species-rich grassland on ex-arable land. Major constraints for grassland restoration are high soil fertility and limited dispersal ability of plant species to target sites. Usually, studies focus on soil fertility or on methods to introduce plant seeds. However, the question is whether soil fertility reduction is always necessary for getting plant species established on target sites. In a three-year field experiment with ex-arable soil with intensive farming history, we tested single and combined effects of soil fertility reduction and sowing mid-successional plant species on plant community development and soil biological properties. A controlled microcosm study was performed to test short-term effects of soil fertility reduction measures on biomass production of mid-successional species. Soil fertility was manipulated by adding carbon (wood or straw) to incorporate plant-available nutrients into organic matter, or by removing nutrients through top soil removal (TSR). The sown species established successfully and their establishment was independent of carbon amendments. TSR reduced plant biomass, and effectively suppressed arable weeds, however, created a desert-like environment, inhibiting the effectiveness of sowing mid-successional plant species. Adding straw or wood resulted in short-term reduction of plant biomass, suggesting a temporal decrease in plant-available nutrients by microbial immobilisation. Straw and wood addition had little effects on soil biological properties, whereas TSR profoundly reduced numbers of bacteria, fungal biomass and nematode abundance. In conclusion, in ex-arable soils, on a short term sowing is more effective for grassland restoration than strategies aiming at soil fertility reduction.

  12. Restoration of species-rich grasslands on ex-arable land: seed addition outweighs soil fertility reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardol, Paul [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    A common practice in biodiversity conservation is restoration of former species-rich grassland on ex-arable land. Major constraints for grassland restoration are high soil fertility and limited dispersal ability of plant species to target sites. Usually, studies focus on soil fertility or on methods to introduce plant seeds. However, the question is whether soil fertility reduction is always necessary for getting plant species established on target sites. In a three-year field experiment with ex-arable soil with intensive farming history, we tested single and combined effects of soil fertility reduction and sowing mid-successional plant species on plant community development and soil biological properties. A controlled microcosm study was performed to test short-term effects of soil fertility reduction measures on biomass production of mid-successional species. Soil fertility was manipulated by adding carbon (wood or straw) to incorporate plant-available nutrients into organic matter, or by removing nutrients through top soil removal (TSR). The sown species established successfully and their establishment was independent of carbon amendments. TSR reduced plant biomass, and effectively suppressed arable weeds, however, created a desert-like environment, inhibiting the effectiveness of sowing mid-successional plant species. Adding straw or wood resulted in short-term reduction of plant biomass, suggesting a temporal decrease in plant-available nutrients by microbial immobilisation. Straw and wood addition had little effects on soil biological properties, whereas TSR profoundly reduced numbers of bacteria, fungal biomass and nematode abundance. In conclusion, in ex-arable soils, on a short term sowing is more effective for grassland restoration than strategies aiming at soil fertility reduction.

  13. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.mrdakovic.popic@umb.no; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ({sup 232}Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the {sup 232}Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ({sup 238}U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 {mu}Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of

  14. The effect of nitrogen deposition on the species richness of acid grasslands in Denmark: A comparison with a study performed on a European scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the species richness of acid grasslands was investigated by combining data from a large Danish monitoring program with a large European data set, where a significant non-linear negative effect of nitrogen deposition had been demonstrated (). The nitrogen deposition range in Denmark is relatively small and when only considering the Danish data a non-significant decrease in the species richness with nitrogen deposition was observed. However, when both data sets were combined, then the conclusion of the European survey was further corroborated by the results of the Danish monitoring. Furthermore, by combining the two data sets a more comprehensive picture of the threats to the biodiversity of acid grasslands emerge; i.e., species richness in remnant patches of acid grassland in intensively cultivated agricultural landscapes is under influence not only from nitrogen deposition, but also from current and historical land use. - Highlights: → Decreasing trend in species richness with nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands. → Historical land use affects species richness in acid grasslands. → Comparison of different studies of the effect of nitrogen deposition. - Both nitrogen deposition as well as current and historical land use affect the species richness in remnant patches of acid grassland in intensively cultivated agricultural landscapes.

  15. Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are decoupled in five species-rich tropical-subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; McCormack, M Luke; Ma, Chengen; Kong, Deliang; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyong; Zeng, Hui; Niinemets, Ülo; Guo, Dali

    2015-09-01

    Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are critical to leaf photosynthesis, yet it is debated whether these two sets of traits vary in a fully coordinated manner or there is room for independent variation. Here, we tested the relationship between leaf economics traits, including leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf dry mass per area, and leaf hydraulic traits including stomatal density and vein density in five tropical-subtropical forests. Surprisingly, these two suites of traits were statistically decoupled. This decoupling suggests that independent trait dimensions exist within a leaf, with leaf economics dimension corresponding to light capture and tissue longevity, and the hydraulic dimension to water-use and leaf temperature maintenance. Clearly, leaf economics and hydraulic traits can vary independently, thus allowing for more possible plant trait combinations. Compared with a single trait dimension, multiple trait dimensions may better enable species adaptations to multifarious niche dimensions, promote diverse plant strategies and facilitate species coexistence. PMID:26108338

  16. Higher plant and vertebrate species richness in Spanish and some mediterranean mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Rica, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the biodiversity of the Spanish and some other Mediterranean mountains. These have some of the richest areas for vascular plants recorded apart from some areas in the tropics. The number of endemic species is substantial. Six areas in Spain and four other Mediterranean areas are described in detail. A special plea is made for a comprehensive detailed vegetation map for European mountains to include the Spanish and Mediterranean mountains.

    [fr] Ce travail ...

  17. Species Richness, Community Organization, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Earthworms in the Pineapple Agroecosystems of Tripura, India

    OpenAIRE

    Animesh Dey; Chaudhuri, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    The impact that plant communities may have on underground faunal diversity is unclear. Therefore, understanding the links between plants and organisms is of major interest. Earthworm population dynamics were studied in the pineapple agroecosystems of Tripura to evaluate the impact of monoculture plantation on earthworm communities. A total of thirteen earthworm species belonging to four families and five genera were collected from different sampling sites. Application of sample-based rarefact...

  18. Species Richness and Community Structure on a High Latitude Reef: Implications for Conservation and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Houston; Jones, Alison M.; Ray Berkelmans

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of research on the Great Barrier Reef, few detailed biodiversity assessments of its inshore coral communities have been conducted. Effective conservation and management of marine ecosystems begins with fine-scale biophysical assessments focused on diversity and the architectural species that build the structural framework of the reef. In this study, we investigate key coral diversity and environmental attributes of an inshore reef system surrounding the Keppel Bay Islan...

  19. Grassland Resistance and Resilience after Drought Depends on Management Intensity and Species Richness

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Vogel; Michael Scherer-Lorenzen; Alexandra Weigelt

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which biodiversity may promote the stability of grasslands in the light of climatic variability, such as prolonged summer drought, has attracted considerable interest. Studies so far yielded inconsistent results and in addition, the effect of different grassland management practices on their response to drought remains an open question. We experimentally combined the manipulation of prolonged summer drought (sheltered vs. unsheltered sites), plant species loss (6 levels of 60 do...

  20. Rodents of Italy: species richness maps and forma Italiae

    OpenAIRE

    Longino Contoli

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The most effective way of mapping species diversity, is to choose an abundant, sedentary, small and widespread taxon, such as rodents are. At present, thanks to a recent improvement of karyology and genetics, knowledge is growing faster at the macro - regional level than at the local level. This is due to a delay in assessing the whole territory. In fact new findings often come from one or very few and small localities. This implies new problems in map...

  1. Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: meta-analysis of species richness in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Paillet; Bergès, L.; Hjältén, J.; Odor, P.; Avon, C.; Bernhardt Römermann, M.; Bijlsma, R.J.; De Bruyn, L; Fuhr, M.; Grandin, U., , Ulf; Kanka, R.; Lundin, L.; Luque, S.; T. Magura; Matesanz, S.

    2010-01-01

    Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. However, the possible biodiversity gains and losses due to forest management (i.e. anthropogenic pressures related to direct forest resource use) have never been assessed at a pan-European scale. We used meta-analysis to review 49 publis...

  2. Small-Scale Variation in Fuel Loads Differentially Affects Two Co-Dominant Bunchgrasses in a Species-Rich Pine Savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R Gagnon; Harms, Kyle E.; Platt, William J.; Passmore, Heather A.; Myers, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological disturbances frequently control the occurrence and patterning of dominant plants in high-diversity communities like C(4) grasslands and savannas. In such ecosystems disturbance-related processes can have important implications for species, and for whole communities when those species are dominant, yet mechanistic understanding of such processes remains fragmentary. Multiple bunchgrass species commonly co-dominate disturbance-dependent and species-rich pine savannas, where small-sca...

  3. Monitoring species richness and abundance of shorebirds in the western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, N.; Haig, Susan M.; Oring, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Broad-scale avian surveys have been attempted within North America with mixed results. Arid regions, such as the Great Basin, are often poorly sampled because of the vastness of the region, inaccessibility of sites, and few ornithologists. In addition, extreme variability in wetland habitat conditions present special problems for conducting censuses of species inhabiting these areas. We examined these issues in assessing multi-scale shorebird (order: Charadriiformes) censuses conducted in the western Great Basin from 1992-1997. On ground surveys, we recorded 31 species of shorebirds, but were unable to accurately estimate population size. Conversely, on aerial surveys we were able to estimate regional abundance of some shorebirds, but were unable to determine species diversity. Aerial surveys of three large alkali lakes in Oregon (Goose, Summer, and Abert Lakes) revealed > 300,000 shorebirds in one year of this study, of which 67% were American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and 30% phalaropes (Phalaropus spp.). These lakes clearly meet Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network guidelines for designation as important shorebird sites. Based upon simulations of our monitoring effort and the magnitude and variation of numbers of American Avocets, detection of S-10% negative declines in populations of these birds would take a minimum of 7-23 years of comparable effort. We conclude that a combination of ground and aerial surveys must be conducted at multiple sites and years and over a large region to obtain an accurate picture of the diversity, abundance, and trends of shorebirds in the western Great Basin.

  4. Past Human Disturbance Effects upon Biodiversity are Greatest in the Canopy; A Case Study on Rainforest Butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Whitworth

    Full Text Available A key part of tropical forest spatial complexity is the vertical stratification of biodiversity, with widely differing communities found in higher rainforest strata compared to terrestrial levels. Despite this, our understanding of how human disturbance may differentially affect biodiversity across vertical strata of tropical forests has been slow to develop. For the first time, how the patterns of current biodiversity vary between three vertical strata within a single forest, subject to three different types of historic anthropogenic disturbance, was directly assessed. In total, 229 species of butterfly were detected, with a total of 5219 individual records. Butterfly species richness, species diversity, abundance and community evenness differed markedly between vertical strata. We show for the first time, for any group of rainforest biodiversity, that different vertical strata within the same rainforest, responded differently in areas with different historic human disturbance. Differences were most notable within the canopy. Regenerating forest following complete clearance had 47% lower canopy species richness than regenerating forest that was once selectively logged, while the reduction in the mid-storey was 33% and at ground level, 30%. These results also show for the first time that even long term regeneration (over the course of 30 years may be insufficient to erase differences in biodiversity linked to different types of human disturbance. We argue, along with other studies, that ignoring the potential for more pronounced effects of disturbance on canopy fauna, could lead to the underestimation of the effects of habitat disturbance on biodiversity, and thus the overestimation of the conservation value of regenerating forests more generally.

  5. Past Human Disturbance Effects upon Biodiversity are Greatest in the Canopy; A Case Study on Rainforest Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Andrew; Villacampa, Jaime; Brown, Alice; Huarcaya, Ruthmery Pillco; Downie, Roger; MacLeod, Ross

    2016-01-01

    A key part of tropical forest spatial complexity is the vertical stratification of biodiversity, with widely differing communities found in higher rainforest strata compared to terrestrial levels. Despite this, our understanding of how human disturbance may differentially affect biodiversity across vertical strata of tropical forests has been slow to develop. For the first time, how the patterns of current biodiversity vary between three vertical strata within a single forest, subject to three different types of historic anthropogenic disturbance, was directly assessed. In total, 229 species of butterfly were detected, with a total of 5219 individual records. Butterfly species richness, species diversity, abundance and community evenness differed markedly between vertical strata. We show for the first time, for any group of rainforest biodiversity, that different vertical strata within the same rainforest, responded differently in areas with different historic human disturbance. Differences were most notable within the canopy. Regenerating forest following complete clearance had 47% lower canopy species richness than regenerating forest that was once selectively logged, while the reduction in the mid-storey was 33% and at ground level, 30%. These results also show for the first time that even long term regeneration (over the course of 30 years) may be insufficient to erase differences in biodiversity linked to different types of human disturbance. We argue, along with other studies, that ignoring the potential for more pronounced effects of disturbance on canopy fauna, could lead to the underestimation of the effects of habitat disturbance on biodiversity, and thus the overestimation of the conservation value of regenerating forests more generally. PMID:26950438

  6. Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera of district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Inayatullah Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%, which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.

  7. Regional Variation in Parasite Species Richness and Abundance in the Introduced Range of the Invasive Lionfish, Pterois volitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Andrew J; Ruiz, Gregory M; Leung, Brian; Torchin, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Parasites can play an important role in biological invasions. While introduced species often lose parasites from their native range, they can also accumulate novel parasites in their new range. The accumulation of parasites by introduced species likely varies spatially, and more parasites may shift to new hosts where parasite diversity is high. Considering that parasitism and disease are generally more prevalent at lower latitudes, the accumulation of parasites by introduced hosts may be greater in tropical regions. The Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) has become widely distributed across the Western Atlantic. In this study, we compared parasitism across thirteen locations in four regions, spanning seventeen degrees of latitude in the lionfish's introduced range to examine potential spatial variation in parasitism. In addition, as an initial step to explore how indirect effects of parasitism might influence interactions between lionfish and ecologically similar native hosts, we also compared parasitism in lionfish and two co-occurring native fish species, the graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata, and the lizardfish, Synodus intermedius, in the southernmost region, Panama. Our results show that accumulation of native parasites on lionfish varies across broad spatial scales, and that colonization by ectoparasites was highest in Panama, relative to the other study sites. Endoparasite richness and abundance, on the other hand, were highest in Belize where lionfish were infected by twice as many endoparasite species as lionfish in other regions. The prevalence of all but two parasite species infecting lionfish was below 25%, and we did not detect an association between parasite abundance and host condition, suggesting a limited direct effect of parasites on lionfish, even where parasitism was highest. Further, parasite species richness and abundance were significantly higher in both native fishes compared to lionfish, and parasite abundance was negatively

  8. Regional Variation in Parasite Species Richness and Abundance in the Introduced Range of the Invasive Lionfish, Pterois volitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Sellers

    Full Text Available Parasites can play an important role in biological invasions. While introduced species often lose parasites from their native range, they can also accumulate novel parasites in their new range. The accumulation of parasites by introduced species likely varies spatially, and more parasites may shift to new hosts where parasite diversity is high. Considering that parasitism and disease are generally more prevalent at lower latitudes, the accumulation of parasites by introduced hosts may be greater in tropical regions. The Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans has become widely distributed across the Western Atlantic. In this study, we compared parasitism across thirteen locations in four regions, spanning seventeen degrees of latitude in the lionfish's introduced range to examine potential spatial variation in parasitism. In addition, as an initial step to explore how indirect effects of parasitism might influence interactions between lionfish and ecologically similar native hosts, we also compared parasitism in lionfish and two co-occurring native fish species, the graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata, and the lizardfish, Synodus intermedius, in the southernmost region, Panama. Our results show that accumulation of native parasites on lionfish varies across broad spatial scales, and that colonization by ectoparasites was highest in Panama, relative to the other study sites. Endoparasite richness and abundance, on the other hand, were highest in Belize where lionfish were infected by twice as many endoparasite species as lionfish in other regions. The prevalence of all but two parasite species infecting lionfish was below 25%, and we did not detect an association between parasite abundance and host condition, suggesting a limited direct effect of parasites on lionfish, even where parasitism was highest. Further, parasite species richness and abundance were significantly higher in both native fishes compared to lionfish, and parasite

  9. Associations of Two Ecologically Significant Social Insect Taxa in the Litter of an Amazonian Rainforest: Is There a Relationship between Ant and Termite Species Richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Mertl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the ecological dominance of Neotropical ants and termites, little is understood about how their interactions influence their species richness and distribution. We surveyed ground-dwelling termite and ant species in a primary rainforest in Ecuador and analyzed ecological correlates of diversity. Termite richness was positively correlated with ant richness and abundance of twig-nesting ants. We found no evidence of competition for twigs between termites and ants. No ecological factors were correlated with termite diversity although elevation and twig and log abundance influenced ant diversity. When ant richness was compared to the richness of termites employing different predator defenses, a positive correlation was found with soldierless termites, but not genera employing chemical or mechanical defense. Our results suggest that multiple ecological factors influence ant and termite diversity, and that ant predation on termites may have a greater effect than competition between ant and termites for nest sites and food sources.

  10. Antiphytoviral Activity of Sesquiterpene-Rich Essential Oils from Four Croatian Teucrium Species

    OpenAIRE

    Franko Burčul; Ivica Blažević; Valerija Dunkić; Elma Vuko; Nada Bezić; Mirko Ruščić

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the essential oil profiles of four Croatian Teucrium species (Lamiaceae), as determined by GC and GC/MS, with their antiphytoviral efficiency. A phytochemical analysis showed that T. polium, T. flavum, T. montanum and T. chamaedrys are characterized by similar essential oil compositions. The investigated oils are characterized by a high proportion of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons β-caryophyllene (7.1–52.0%) and germacrene D (8.7–17.0%). Other importan...

  11. Deimatic display in the European swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to

  12. Flavonoid wing pigments increase attractiveness of female common blue (Polyommatus icarus) butterflies to mate-searching males

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Frank; Knüttel, Helge; Becker, Mechthild; Fiedler, Konrad

    2000-01-01

    Common blue butterflies (Polyommatus icarus) sequester flavonoids from their larval host plants and allocate these UV-absorbing pigments to the wings. In field experiments using dummies constructed from female butterflies, mate-searching males inspected flavonoid-rich dummies more intensively than those with little or no flavonoids. Flavonoid content as signalled by UV-wing pattern may indicate ontogenetically determined female quality or enhance detectability to males.

  13. Wild Prunus Fruit Species as a Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Sircelj, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits. PMID:27464261

  14. Shrub encroachment affects mammalian carnivore abundance and species richness in semiarid rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaum, Niels; Rossmanith, Eva; Popp, Alexander; Jeltsch, Florian

    2007-01-01

    Shrub encroachment due to overgrazing has led to dramatic changes of savanna landscapes and is considered to be one of the most threatening forms of rangeland degradation e.g. via habitat fragmentation. Mammalian carnivores are particularly vulnerable to local extinction in fragmented landscapes. However, our understanding of how shrub encroachment affects mammalian carnivores is poor. Here we investigated the relative sensitivities of ten native carnivores to different levels of shrub cover ranging from low (25%) in 20 southern Kalahari rangeland sites. Relative abundance of carnivores was monitored along 40 sand transects (5 m × 250 m) for each site. Our results show that increasing shrub cover affects carnivore species differently. African wild cats, striped polecats, cape foxes and suricates were negatively affected, whereas we found hump-shaped responses for yellow mongooses, bat-eared foxes and small-spotted genets with maximum abundance at shrub covers between 10 and 18%. In contrast, black-backed jackals, slender mongooses and small spotted cats were not significantly affected by increasing shrub cover. However, a negative impact of high shrub cover above 18% was congruent for all species. We conclude that intermediate shrub cover (10-18%) in savanna landscapes sustain viable populations of small carnivores.

  15. Antiphytoviral activity of sesquiterpene-rich essential oils from four croatian teucrium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezić, Nada; Vuko, Elma; Dunkić, Valerija; Ruščić, Mirko; Blažević, Ivica; Burčul, Franko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the essential oil profiles of four Croatian Teucrium species (Lamiaceae), as determined by GC and GC/MS, with their antiphytoviral efficiency. A phytochemical analysis showed that T. polium, T. flavum, T. montanum and T. chamaedrys are characterized by similar essential oil compositions. The investigated oils are characterized by a high proportion of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons β-caryophyllene (7.1-52.0%) and germacrene D (8.7-17.0%). Other important components were β-pinene from T. montanum and α-pinene from T. flavum. The investigated essential oils were proved to reduce lesion number in the local host Chenopodium quinoa Willd. infected with Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), with reductions of 41.4%, 22.9%, 44.3% and 25.7%, respectively. PMID:21937971

  16. Antiphytoviral Activity of Sesquiterpene-Rich Essential Oils from Four Croatian Teucrium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franko Burčul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the essential oil profiles of four Croatian Teucrium species (Lamiaceae, as determined by GC and GC/MS, with their antiphytoviral efficiency. A phytochemical analysis showed that T. polium, T. flavum, T. montanum and T. chamaedrys are characterized by similar essential oil compositions. The investigated oils are characterized by a high proportion of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons β-caryophyllene (7.1–52.0% and germacrene D (8.7–17.0%. Other important components were β-pinene from T. montanum and α-pinene from T. flavum. The investigated essential oils were proved to reduce lesion number in the local host Chenopodium quinoa Willd. infected with Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, with reductions of 41.4%, 22.9%, 44.3% and 25.7%, respectively.

  17. High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph James; Eskildsen, Anne; Hansen, Rikke Reisner;

    2015-01-01

    The response of body size to increasing temperature constitutes a universal response to climate change that could strongly affect terrestrial ectotherms, but the magnitude and direction of such responses remain unknown in most species. The metabolic cost of increased temperature could reduce body...... species could face severe challenges in response to ongoing rapid climate change....... size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500...

  18. A simulation study on the behavior of allelic richness and inbreeding coefficient over generations in fragmented populations of tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulations were employed in this study aiming to understand the effects of repeated cycles of inbred mating in isolated populations of tree species with different effective sizes and over up to 1000 generations. The results revealed a susceptibility of allelic richness to both, population size and repeated generations under inbred mating and a low but significant increase of the inbreeding coefficient over generations in populations with 50 and 100 plants, but not in populations with 500 and 1000 individuals. The loss of alleles occurred throughout all generations and was largely influenced by the population size. The most outstanding increase in the inbreeding coefficient occurred from the initial generation to the 5th generation, independent of the population size. The comparison of simulated results with data obtained from a field studie corroborated the hy pothesis that isolated populations tend to more drastically suffer with loss of alleles and increase of inbreeding coefficient, wh ile continuous forests, with effective production of fertile seeds and regeneration of seedlings, are inclined to preserve comparatively higher allelic richness and lower inbreeding coefficient over generations. In general, the results obtained highlight the importance of special care in selecting ESUs and preserving isolated populations, towards the conservation of forest genetic resources and adapatedness preservation

  19. A simulation study on the behavior of allelic richness and inbreeding coefficient over generations in fragmented populations of tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulations were employed in this study aiming to understandthe effects of repeated cycles of inbred mating in isolated populations of tree species with different effective sizes and over up to 1000 generations. The results revealed a susceptibility of allelic richness to both, population size and repeated generationsunder inbred mating and a low but signifi cant increase of the inbreeding coeffi cient over generations in populations with 50 and 100 plants, but not in populations with500 and 1000 individuals. The loss of alleles occurred throughout all generations and was largely infl uenced by the population size. The most outstanding increase in the inbreeding coeffi cient occurred from the initial generation to the 5th generation, independent of the population size. The comparison of simulated results with data obtained from a fi eld studie corroborated the hypothesis that isolated populations tend to more drastically suffer with loss of alleles and increase of inbreeding coeffi cient, while continuous forests, with effective production of fertile seeds and regenerationof seedlings, are inclined to preserve comparatively higher allelic richness and lower inbreeding coeffi cient over generations. In general, the results obtained highlight the importance of special care in selecting ESUs and preserving isolated populations, towards the conservation of forest genetic resources and adapatedness preservation.

  20. Analysis and exploitation of bacterial population from natural uranium-rich soils: selection of a model specie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that soils play a key role in controlling the mobility of toxic metals and this property is greatly influenced by indigenous bacterial communities. This study has been conducted on radioactive and controls soils, collected in natural uraniferous areas (Limousin). A physico-chemical and mineralogical analysis of soils samples was carried out.The structure of bacterial communities was estimated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The community structure is remarkably more stable in the uranium-rich soils than in the control ones, indicating that uranium exerts a high selection from the soils was constructed and screened for uranium resistance in order to study bacteria-uranium interactions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a phylo-genetically diverse set of uranium-resistant species ware able to chelate uranium at the cell surface. (author)