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Sample records for butterfly larval midgut

  1. Activated host neutrophils in the larval midgut lumen of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

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    Leite, Antônio C R; Evangelista, L G

    2002-04-01

    Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils from mammalian hosts as well as invading bacteria in the midgut lumen of larvae of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis. Other resident or recruited cells associated with dermal myiasis were fed on by larvae and digested more rapidly than neutrophils. The latter were observed moving towards bacteria and particles of food, extending the filopodia and engulfing material to be digested within phagosomes. The larval midgut lumen, thus, appears to be a suitable environment to produce neutrophil activation at least for short periods, as seen in mammalian hosts. Although interactions between phagocytes and bacteria in the midgut lumen may be important in bot fly larval development, further studies are required to confirm this.

  2. Strategic larval decision-making in a bivoltine butterfly.

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    Friberg, Magne; Dahlerus, Josefin; Wiklund, Christer

    2012-07-01

    In temperate areas, insect larvae must decide between entering winter diapause or developing directly and reproducing in the same season. Long daylength and high temperature promote direct development, which is generally associated with a higher growth rate. In this work, we investigated whether the larval pathway decision precedes the adjustment of growth rate (state-independent), or whether the pathway decision is conditional on the individual's growth rate (state-dependent), in the butterfly Pieris napi. This species typically makes the pathway decision in the penultimate instar. We measured growth rate throughout larval development under two daylengths: slightly shorter and slightly longer than the critical daylength. Results indicate that the pathway decision can be both state-independent and state-dependent; under the shorter daylength condition, most larvae entered diapause, and direct development was chosen exclusively by a small subset of larvae showing the highest growth rates already in the early instars; under the longer daylength condition, most larvae developed directly, and the diapause pathway was chosen exclusively by a small subset of slow-growing individuals. Among the remainder, the choice of pathway was independent of the early growth rate; larvae entering diapause under the short daylength grew as fast as or faster than the direct developers under the longer daylength in the early instars, whereas the direct developers grew faster than the diapausers only in the ultimate instar. Hence, the pathway decision was state-dependent in a subset with a very high or very low growth rate, whereas the decision was state-independent in the majority of the larvae, which made the growth rate adjustment downstream from the pathway decision.

  3. Larval midgut modifications associated with Bti resistance in the yellow fever mosquito using proteomic and transcriptomic approaches

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    Tetreau Guillaume

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti is a natural larval mosquito pathogen producing pore-forming toxins targeting the midgut of Diptera larvae. It is used worldwide for mosquito control. Resistance mechanisms of an Aedes aegypti laboratory strain selected for 30 generations with field-collected leaf litter containing Bti toxins were investigated in larval midguts at two levels: 1. gene transcription using DNA microarray and RT-qPCR and 2. differential expression of brush border membrane proteins using DIGE (Differential In Gel Electrophoresis. Results Several Bti Cry toxin receptors including alkaline phosphatases and N-aminopeptidases and toxin-binding V-ATPases exhibited altered expression levels in the resistant strain. The under-expression of putative Bti-receptors is consistent with Bt-resistance mechanisms previously described in Lepidoptera. Four soluble metalloproteinases were found under-transcribed together with a drastic decrease of metalloproteinases activity in the resistant strain, suggesting a role in resistance by decreasing the amount of activated Cry toxins in the larval midgut. Conclusions By combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we detected expression changes at nearly each step of the ingestion-to-infection process, providing a short list of genes and proteins potentially involved in Bti-resistance whose implication needs to be validated. Collectively, these results open the way to further functional analyses to better characterize Bti-resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes.

  4. Receptor mediated endocytosis of vicilin in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval midgut epithelial cells.

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    Kunz, Daniele; Oliveira, Gabriel B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Silva, Carlos P

    2017-08-01

    The transport of proteins across the intestinal epithelium of insects is still not well understood. There is evidence that vicilin, a major storage protein of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata), is internalized in larvae of the seed-beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been reported that this vicilin interacts with proteins present in the microvillar membranes of columnar cells along the digestive tract of the larvae. In the present work, we studied the cellular pathway involved in endocytosis of vicilin in larval C. maculatus by employing ex vivo experiments. In the ex vivo approach, we incubated FITC-labelled vicilin with isolated midgut wholemounts in the absence or in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors. The fate of labelled or non-labelled globulins was monitored by confocal microscopy and fluorescence measurement. Our results suggest that the internalization of vicilins is due to receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here we report the identity of a microvillar vicilin-binding protein that was purified using affinity chromatography on a vicilin-sepharose column. The putative vicilin receptor showed high homology to proteins with the CRAL-TRIO domain, specifically the Sec14 superfamily member α-tocopherol transfer protein. The precise mechanism involved in vicilin internalization was defined through the use of specific inhibitors of the endocytosis pathway. The inhibitors filipin III and nystatin significantly inhibited the endocytosis of vicilin, while chlorpromazine and phenylarsine oxide had a much lower effect on endocytosis, suggesting that the endocytic pathway is predominantly mediated by caveolin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Positive effects of cyanogenic glycosides in food plants on larval development of the common blue butterfly.

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    Goverde, Marcel; Bazin, Alain; Kéry, Marc; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Erhardt, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    Cyanogenesis is a widespread chemical defence mechanism in plants against herbivory. However, some specialised herbivores overcome this protection by different behavioural or metabolic mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of presence or absence of cyanogenic glycosides in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, Fabaceae) on oviposition behaviour, larval preference, larval development, adult weight and nectar preference of the common blue butterfly (Polyommatus icarus, Lycaenidae). For oviposition behaviour there was a female-specific reaction to cyanogenic glycoside content; i.e. some females preferred to oviposit on cyanogenic over acyanogenic plants, while other females behaved in the opposite way. Freshly hatched larvae did not discriminate between the two plant morphs. Since the two plant morphs differed not only in their content of cyanogenic glycoside, but also in N and water content, we expected these differences to affect larval growth. Contrary to our expectations, larvae feeding on cyanogenic plants showed a faster development and stronger weight gain than larvae feeding on acyanogenic plants. Furthermore, female genotype affected development time, larval and pupal weight of the common blue butterfly. However, most effects detected in the larval phase disappeared for adult weight, indicating compensatory feeding of larvae. Adult butterflies reared on the two cyanogenic glycoside plant morphs did not differ in their nectar preference. But a gender-specific effect was found, where females preferred amino acid-rich nectar while males did not discriminate between the two nectar mimics. The presented results indicate that larvae of the common blue butterfly can metabolise the surplus of N in cyanogenic plants for growth. Additionally, the female-specific behaviour to oviposit preferably on cyanogenic or acyanogenic plant morphs and the female-genotype-specific responses in life history traits indicate the genetic flexibility of this

  6. Transcriptional Signatures in Response to Wheat Germ Agglutinin and Starvation in Drosophila melanogaster Larval Midgut

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    One function of plant lectins such as wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is to serve as defenses against herbivorous insects. The midgut is one critical site affected by dietary lectins. We observed marked cellular, structural, and gene expression changes in the midguts of Drosophila melanogaster third-i...

  7. The 3D structure and function of digestive cathepsin L-like proteinases of Tenebrio molitor larval midgut.

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    Beton, Daniela; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Farah, Chuck S; Terra, Walter R

    2012-09-01

    Cathepsin L-like proteinases (CAL) are major digestive proteinases in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Procathepsin Ls 2 (pCAL2) and 3 (pCAL3) were expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, purified and activated under acidic conditions. Immunoblot analyses of different T. molitor larval tissues demonstrated that a polyclonal antibody to pCAL3 recognized pCAL3 and cathepsin L 3 (CAL3) only in the anterior two-thirds of midgut tissue and midgut luminal contents of T. molitor larvae. Furthermore, immunocytolocalization data indicated that pCAL3 occurs in secretory vesicles and microvilli in anterior midgut. Therefore CAL3, like cathepsin L 2 (CAL2), is a digestive enzyme secreted by T. molitor anterior midgut. CAL3 hydrolyses Z-FR-MCA and Z-RR-MCA (typical cathepsin substrates), whereas CAL2 hydrolyses only Z-FR-MCA. Active site mutants (pCAL2C25S and pCAL3C26S) were constructed by replacing the catalytic cysteine with serine to prevent autocatalytic processing. Recombinant pCAL2 and pCAL3 mutants (pCAL2C25S and pCAL3C26S) were prepared, crystallized and their 3D structures determined at 1.85 and 2.1 Å, respectively. While the overall structure of these enzymes is similar to other members of the papain superfamily, structural differences in the S2 subsite explain their substrate specificities. The data also supported models for CAL trafficking to lysosomes and to secretory vesicles to be discharged into midgut contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Live Cell Imaging of Butterfly Pupal and Larval Wings In Vivo.

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    Yoshikazu Ohno

    Full Text Available Butterfly wing color patterns are determined during the late larval and early pupal stages. Characterization of wing epithelial cells at these stages is thus critical to understand how wing structures, including color patterns, are determined. Previously, we successfully recorded real-time in vivo images of developing butterfly wings over time at the tissue level. In this study, we employed similar in vivo fluorescent imaging techniques to visualize developing wing epithelial cells in the late larval and early pupal stages 1 hour post-pupation. Both larval and pupal epithelial cells were rich in mitochondria and intracellular networks of endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting high metabolic activities, likely in preparation for cellular division, polyploidization, and differentiation. Larval epithelial cells in the wing imaginal disk were relatively large horizontally and tightly packed, whereas pupal epithelial cells were smaller and relatively loosely packed. Furthermore, larval cells were flat, whereas pupal cells were vertically elongated as deep as 130 μm. In pupal cells, many endosome-like or autophagosome-like structures were present in the cellular periphery down to approximately 10 μm in depth, and extensive epidermal feet or filopodia-like processes were observed a few micrometers deep from the cellular surface. Cells were clustered or bundled from approximately 50 μm in depth to deeper levels. From 60 μm to 80 μm in depth, horizontal connections between these clusters were observed. The prospective eyespot and marginal focus areas were resistant to fluorescent dyes, likely because of their non-flat cone-like structures with a relatively thick cuticle. These in vivo images provide important information with which to understand processes of epithelial cell differentiation and color pattern determination in butterfly wings.

  9. Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.

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    Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of tannic acid on trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase activities in gypsy moth larval midgut

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    Mrdaković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of allelochemical stress on genetic variations in the specific activities of gypsy moth digestive enzymes (trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase and relative midgut mass (indirect measure of food consumption, as well as variability in their plasticity, were investigated in fifth instar gypsy moths originating from two populations with different trophic adaptations (oak and locust-tree forests. Thirty-two full-sib families from the Quercus population and twenty-six full-sib families from the Robinia population were reared on an artificial diet with or without supplementation with tannic acid. Between population differences were observed as higher average specific activity of trypsin and relative midgut mass in larvae from the Robinia population. Significant broad-sense heritabilities were observed for the specific activity of trypsin in the control state, and for specific activity of leucine aminopeptidase in a stressful environment. Significantly lower heritability for relative midgut mass was recorded in larvae from the Robinia population reared under stressful conditions. Significant variability of trypsin plasticity in larvae from both populations and significant variability of leucine aminopeptidase plasticity in larvae from the Robinia population point to the potential for the evolution of enzyme adaptive plastic responses to the presence of stressor. Non-significant across-environment genetic correlations do not represent a constraint for the evolution of enzyme plasticity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  11. THAP and ATF-2 regulated sterol carrier protein-2 promoter activities in the larval midgut of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

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    Rong Peng

    Full Text Available Expression of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2 in Aedes aegypti shows a distinct temporal/spatial pattern throughout the life cycle. In order to identify the transcription factors responsible for the larval temporal/spatial regulation of AeSCP-2 transcription, AeSCP-2 promoter activities were studied in vivo via transient transfection of promoter/reporter gene assays. Regulatory sequences upstream -1.3 kb of the transcription start site of AeSCP-2 were found to be critical for the in vivo temporal/spatial promoter activity. Interestingly, the -1.6 kb promoter sequence efficiently drove the larval midgut-specific siRNA expression, indicating that the -1.6 kb upstream sequence is sufficient for temporal/spatial AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity. Four transcription factors were identified in the midgut nuclear extract from feeding larvae via labeled -1.6/-1.3 kb DNA probe pull-down and proteomic analysis. Co-transfection of the promoter/reporter gene with inducible siRNA expression of each transcription factor was performed to confirm the regulatory function of individual transcription factor on AeSCP-2 transcriptional activities in the larval midgut. The results indicate that two of the identified transcription factors, Thanatos-associated protein (THAP and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2, antagonistically control AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity in the midgut of feeding larvae via the regulatory sequences between -1.6 to -1.3 kb 5' upstream of the transcription start site. In vivo expression knockdown of THAP and ATF-2 resulted in significant changes in developmental progression, which may be partially due to their effects on AeSCP-2 expression.

  12. Variation in butterfly larval acoustics as a strategy to infiltrate and exploit host ant colony resources.

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    Sala, Marco; Casacci, Luca Pietro; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona; Barbero, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    About 10,000 arthropods live as ants' social parasites and have evolved a number of mechanisms allowing them to penetrate and survive inside the ant nests. Many of them can intercept and manipulate their host communication systems. This is particularly important for butterflies of the genus Maculinea, which spend the majority of their lifecycle inside Myrmica ant nests. Once in the colony, caterpillars of Maculinea "predatory species" directly feed on the ant larvae, while those of "cuckoo species" are fed primarily by attendance workers, by trophallaxis. It has been shown that Maculinea cuckoo larvae are able to reach a higher social status within the colony's hierarchy by mimicking the acoustic signals of their host queen ants. In this research we tested if, when and how myrmecophilous butterflies may change sound emissions depending on their integration level and on stages of their life cycle. We studied how a Maculinea predatory species (M. teleius) can acoustically interact with their host ants and highlighted differences with respect to a cuckoo species (M. alcon). We recorded sounds emitted by Maculinea larvae as well as by their Myrmica hosts, and performed playback experiments to assess the parasites' capacity to interfere with the host acoustic communication system. We found that, although varying between and within butterfly species, the larval acoustic emissions are more similar to queens' than to workers' stridulations. Nevertheless playback experiments showed that ant workers responded most strongly to the sounds emitted by the integrated (i.e. post-adoption) larvae of the cuckoo species, as well as by those of predatory species recorded before any contact with the host ants (i.e. in pre-adoption), thereby revealing the role of acoustic signals both in parasite integration and in adoption rituals. We discuss our findings in the broader context of parasite adaptations, comparing effects of acoustical and chemical mimicry.

  13. Variation in butterfly larval acoustics as a strategy to infiltrate and exploit host ant colony resources.

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    Marco Sala

    Full Text Available About 10,000 arthropods live as ants' social parasites and have evolved a number of mechanisms allowing them to penetrate and survive inside the ant nests. Many of them can intercept and manipulate their host communication systems. This is particularly important for butterflies of the genus Maculinea, which spend the majority of their lifecycle inside Myrmica ant nests. Once in the colony, caterpillars of Maculinea "predatory species" directly feed on the ant larvae, while those of "cuckoo species" are fed primarily by attendance workers, by trophallaxis. It has been shown that Maculinea cuckoo larvae are able to reach a higher social status within the colony's hierarchy by mimicking the acoustic signals of their host queen ants. In this research we tested if, when and how myrmecophilous butterflies may change sound emissions depending on their integration level and on stages of their life cycle. We studied how a Maculinea predatory species (M. teleius can acoustically interact with their host ants and highlighted differences with respect to a cuckoo species (M. alcon. We recorded sounds emitted by Maculinea larvae as well as by their Myrmica hosts, and performed playback experiments to assess the parasites' capacity to interfere with the host acoustic communication system. We found that, although varying between and within butterfly species, the larval acoustic emissions are more similar to queens' than to workers' stridulations. Nevertheless playback experiments showed that ant workers responded most strongly to the sounds emitted by the integrated (i.e. post-adoption larvae of the cuckoo species, as well as by those of predatory species recorded before any contact with the host ants (i.e. in pre-adoption, thereby revealing the role of acoustic signals both in parasite integration and in adoption rituals. We discuss our findings in the broader context of parasite adaptations, comparing effects of acoustical and chemical mimicry.

  14. Intraspecific competition in the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria: Effect of rearing density and gender on larval life history

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    Melanie Gibbs

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In insects, the outcome of intraspecific competition for food during development depends primarily upon larval density and larval sex, but effects will also depend on the particular trait under consideration and the species under study. Experimental manipulations of larval densities of a Madeiran population of the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria confirmed that intraspecific competition affected growth. As densities increased P. aegeria adults were smaller and larval development periods were longer. Sexes responded differently to rearing density. Females were more adversely affected by high density than males, resulting in females having smaller masses at pupation. Survivorship was significantly higher for larvae reared at low densities. No density effect on adult sex ratios was observed. Intraspecific competition during the larval stage would appear to carry a higher cost for females than males. This may confer double disadvantage since females are dependent on their larval derived resources for reproduction as they have little opportunity to accumulate additional resources as adults. This suggests that shortages of larval food could affect fecundity directly. Males, however, may be able to compensate for a small size by feeding as adults and/or by altering their mate location tactics.

  15. Application of analytical electron microscopic methods to investigate the function of spherites in the midgut of the larval antlion Euroleon nostras (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae).

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    Lipovšek, Saška; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Hofer, Ferdinand; Pabst, Maria Anna; Devetak, Dušan

    2012-04-01

    This study presents an application of analytical electron microscopy in biology to investigate the chemical composition of the spherites and to elucidate the importance of these methods in the life sciences. The structure of the spherites in the midgut cells of first, second, and third instar larvae Euroleon nostras was investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy filtering TEM (EFTEM). The structure and chemical composition of the spherites changed during the metamorphosis. In first larvae, the spherites are composed of amorphous, flocculent material, containing C, N, and O. In second larvae and third ones, the spherites have concentric layers of alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent material. In second larvae, Si, P, Ca, and Fe are accumulated in the spherite organic matrix, composed of C, N, and O. In the spherites of third larvae, additionally Al was found. Therefore, the spherites are thought to store organic compounds in all three larval stages of E. nostras and additionally inorganic compounds in second and third ones. In first larvae, spherites are present in the midgut cells; in second and third larvae, they are present in the cells of the midgut and in its lumen. It could be suggested that the spherites might be involved in the regulation of the appropriate mineral composition of the internal environment and could serve as the accumulation site of nontoxic waste materials that cannot be metabolized. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Larval growth rate is associated with the composition of the gut microbiota in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

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    Ruokolainen, L; Ikonen, S; Makkonen, H; Hanski, I

    2016-07-01

    The rapidly increasing body of literature on commensal microbiota has revealed a large phylotypic and functional diversity of microbes associated with vertebrates and invertebrates. In insects, the gut microbiota plays a role in digestion and metabolism of the host as well as protects the host against pathogens. In the study reported here, we sampled gut microbiota of the larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). The larvae were collected from the field or reared in the laboratory. This butterfly has two host plant species, Plantago lanceolata and Veronica spicata, and the host plant species is known from previous studies to influence larval growth rate. However, our results demonstrate that about 50 % of the variation in larval growth rate can be attributed to the effect of the gut microbial composition plus the joint effect of microbiota and the host plant species, while host plant species alone makes no significant contribution. Our results support previous studies showing that diet influences the gut microbiota but, more unexpectedly, that the composition of the gut microbiota significantly influences larval growth rate. We suggest that host plant effects on larval growth and development observed in many previous studies may be mediated via the gut microbiota. While we measured the growth rate only in laboratory-reared larvae, the similarity of the gut microbial composition between samples from field-collected and laboratory-reared larvae suggests that the results can be generalized to natural conditions.

  17. Transcriptional profiling of midgut immunity response and degeneration in the wandering silkworm, Bombyx mori.

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    Qiuyun Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lepidoptera insects have a novel development process comprising several metamorphic stages during their life cycle compared with vertebrate animals. Unlike most Lepidoptera insects that live on nectar during the adult stage, the Bombyx mori silkworm adults do not eat anything and die after egg-laying. In addition, the midguts of Lepidoptera insects produce antimicrobial proteins during the wandering stage when the larval tissues undergo numerous changes. The exact mechanisms responsible for these phenomena remain unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the silkworm as a model and performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the midgut between the feeding stage and the wandering stage. Many genes concerned with metabolism, digestion, and ion and small molecule transportation were down-regulated during the wandering stage, indicating that the wandering stage midgut loses its normal functions. Microarray profiling, qRT-PCR and western blot proved the production of antimicrobial proteins (peptides in the midgut during the wandering stage. Different genes of the immune deficiency (Imd pathway were up-regulated during the wandering stage. However, some key genes belonging to the Toll pathway showed no change in their transcription levels. Unlike butterfly (Pachliopta aristolochiae, the midgut of silkworm moth has a layer of cells, indicating that the development of midgut since the wandering stage is not usual. Cell division in the midgut was observed only for a short time during the wandering stage. However, there was extensive cell apoptosis before pupation. The imbalance of cell division and apoptosis probably drives the continuous degeneration of the midgut in the silkworm since the wandering stage. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided an insight into the mechanism of the degeneration of the silkworm midgut and the production of innate immunity-related proteins during the wandering stage. The imbalance of cell division and apoptosis

  18. Histopathology of the larval midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner fed on Bacillus thuringiensis crystals and Bt-tomato plants

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    N.M. Abd El-Ghany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The histopathological effects of the spore-crystal complex of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt isolate, as well as Cry 2Ab gene expressed in transgenic tomato plants on the midgut of 4th instar larva of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidea has been investigated using the transmission electron microscope (TEM. Remarkable ultrastructural changes were observed in the columnar and goblet cells of the larval midgut after feeding on either transgenic tomato leaves, or spore-crystal complex of Bt. The effects observed included breakdown of microvilli of epithelial cells, increase in the electron density of the cytoplasm and vacuolation associated with different sizes of lysosomes; interruption of the goblet cells and distorted goblet cavities which lost their cytoplasmic projections; destruction of the mitochondria which lost their cristae; degeneration of the endoplasmic reticulum; collapse of the nucleus associated with rupture of nuclear envelope and clumped chromatin. Feeding the larvae on transgenic Bt-tomato plants caused in addition to the aforementioned changes severe vacuolation and degeneration of the nucleus in both columnar and goblet cells and the nuclear membrane was broken into electron dense ring spheres.

  19. Does skipping a meal matter to a butterfly's appearance? Effects of larval food stress on wing morphology and color in monarch butterflies.

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    Haley Johnson

    Full Text Available In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus, a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width, which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%. Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success.

  20. Does skipping a meal matter to a butterfly's appearance? Effects of larval food stress on wing morphology and color in monarch butterflies.

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    Johnson, Haley; Solensky, Michelle J; Satterfield, Dara A; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed) from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width), which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%). Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high) had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success.

  1. The evidence on the degradation processes in the midgut epithelial cells of the larval antlion Euroleon nostras (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785) (Myrmeleontidae, Neuroptera).

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    Lipovšek, Saška; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Hofer, Ferdinand; Leitinger, Gerd; Devetak, Dušan

    2012-04-01

    We analysed structural differences between midgut epithelial cells of fed instar antlions' larvae Euroleon nostras and starved ones. In starved larvae the presence of autophagolysosome-like structures was observed, which are characteristic structures associated with autophagy. The results presented here provide insight supporting the role of autophagy as a cell survival mechanism for the periods of food deprivation. Additional structural changes in the cytoplasm were seen in the spherites. The ultrastructure and chemical composition of spherites in the midgut epithelial cells of first, second and third instar larvae were observed with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A detailed characterization of the elemental composition of the spherites was studied using analytical electron microscopy; a combination of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy filtering TEM (EFTEM) was applied. The structure and elemental composition of the spherites changed during the period of larval life. Moreover, changes in chemical composition were found between spherites from fed and starved E. nostras. In fed first instar larvae, the spherites contained an organic matrix, composed of C, N and O. In this matrix, P, Cl, Ca and Fe were detected. In starved first instar larvae, only C, N and P were present. The spherites of fed second instar larvae were rich in organic and inorganic elements and were composed of C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn. In starved second instar larvae, the chemical elements N, O, P, Ca and Fe were found. In fed third instar larvae, the spherites contained C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn. In starved third larvae, C, O, Si, Ca, and Fe were detected. Generally, the spherites are exploited in starved larvae. These results suggest that the elemental supply of spherites may provide crucial support for physiological processes during starvation periods amongst

  2. Impact of nitrogen deposition on larval habitats: the case of the Wall Brown butterfly Lasiommata megera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, E.; Omon, B.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition is considered as one of the main threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain the detrimental effect of excess nitrogen on butterflies: loss of host plants, deterioration of food plant quality and microclimatic cooling in

  3. Microbial communities of lycaenid butterflies do not correlate with larval diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Whitaker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores possess many counteradaptations to plant defenses, and a growing body of research describes the role of symbiotic gut bacteria in mediating herbivorous diets among insects. However, persistent bacterial symbioses have not been found in Lepidoptera, despite the fact that perhaps 99% of the species in this order are herbivorous. We surveyed bacterial communities in the guts of larvae from 31 species of lycaenid butterflies whose caterpillars had diets ranging from obligate carnivory to strict herbivory. Contrary to our expectations, we found that the bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous caterpillars do not differ in richness, diversity, or composition. Many of the observed bacterial genera are commonly found in soil and plant surfaces, and we detected known homopteran endosymbionts in the guts of homopterophagous species, suggesting that larvae acquire gut bacteria from their food and environment. These results indicate that lycaenid butterflies do not rely on specific bacterial symbioses to mediate their diverse diets, and provide further evidence of taxonomically depauperate bacterial communities among Lepidoptera.

  4. Effects of Quinizarin and Five Synthesized Derivatives on Fifth Larval Instar Midgut Ecdysone 20-Monooxygenase Activity of the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Drummond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant allelochemical, quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone, and five anthraquinones that were synthesized from quinizarin, namely, 1,4-anthraquinone; 2-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; 2-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone; 9-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; and 9-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone, were assessed as to their effects on the essential, P450-dependent ecdysone 20-monooxygenase system of the insect model Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm. This steroid hydroxylase converts the arthropod molting hormone, ecdysone, to the physiologically required 20-hydroxyecdysone form. M. sexta fifth larval instar midgut homogenates were incubated with increasing concentrations (10−8 to 10−3 M of each of the six anthraquinones followed by ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assessments using a radioenzymological assay. Four of the five anthraquinones exhibited I50’s of about 4×10-6 to 6×10-2 M. The most effective inhibitors were 2-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone and 1,4-anthraquinone followed by 9-hydroxy-1,4 anthraquinone and 9-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone. At lower concentrations the latter anthraquinone stimulated E20M activity. Quinizarin was less inhibitory and 2-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone was essentially without effect. Significantly, these studies make evident for the first time that anthraquinones can affect insect E20M activity, and thus insect endocrine regulation and development, and that a relationship between anthraquinone structure and effectiveness is apparent. These studies represent the first demonstrations of anthraquinones affecting any steroid hydroxylase system.

  5. Which native milkweeds are acceptable host plants for larval monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) within the Midwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past two decades, the population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline. Habitat restoration within the summer breeding range is crucial to boost population numbers. Monarch butterfly larvae use milkweeds as their only host plant. However, l...

  6. Comprehensive microarray-based analysis for stage-specific larval camouflage pattern-associated genes in the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futahashi Ryo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body coloration is an ecologically important trait that is often involved in prey-predator interactions through mimicry and crypsis. Although this subject has attracted the interest of biologists and the general public, our scientific knowledge on the subject remains fragmentary. In the caterpillar of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus, spectacular changes in the color pattern are observed; the insect mimics bird droppings (mimetic pattern as a young larva, and switches to a green camouflage coloration (cryptic pattern in the final instar. Despite the wide variety and significance of larval color patterns, few studies have been conducted at a molecular level compared with the number of studies on adult butterfly wing patterns. Results To obtain a catalog of genes involved in larval mimetic and cryptic pattern formation, we constructed expressed sequence tag (EST libraries of larval epidermis for P. xuthus, and P. polytes that contained 20,736 and 5,376 clones, respectively, representing one of the largest collections available in butterflies. A comparison with silkworm epidermal EST information revealed the high expression of putative blue and yellow pigment-binding proteins in Papilio species. We also designed a microarray from the EST dataset information, analyzed more than five stages each for six markings, and confirmed spatial expression patterns by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Hence, we succeeded in elucidating many novel marking-specific genes for mimetic and cryptic pattern formation, including pigment-binding protein genes, the melanin-associated gene yellow-h3, the ecdysteroid synthesis enzyme gene 3-dehydroecdysone 3b-reductase, and Papilio-specific genes. We also found many cuticular protein genes with marking specificity that may be associated with the unique surface nanostructure of the markings. Furthermore, we identified two transcription factors, spalt and ecdysteroid signal-related E75, as genes

  7. Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins is correlated with the presence of high-affinity binding sites in the brush border membrane of target insect midguts.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, C; Vanderbruggen, H; Höfte, H.; Van Rie, J.; Jansens, S.; Van Mellaert, H

    1988-01-01

    Binding studies were performed with two 125I-labeled Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins on brush border membrane vesicles prepared from the larval midgut of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta or the cabbage butterfly Pieris brassicae. One delta-endotoxin, Bt2-protoxin, is a 130-kDa recombinant crystalline protein from B. thuringiensis subsp. berliner. It kills larvae of both insect species. The active Bt2-toxin is a 60-kDa proteolytic fragment of the Bt2-protoxin. It binds saturably and ...

  8. Unexpected mechanism of symbiont-induced reversal of insect sex: feminizing Wolbachia continuously acts on the butterfly Eurema hecabe during larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Satoko; Kageyama, Daisuke; Nomura, Masashi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-07-01

    When the butterfly Eurema hecabe is infected with two different strains (wHecCI2 and wHecFem2) of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, genetic males are transformed into functional females, resulting in production of all-female broods. In an attempt to understand how and when the Wolbachia endosymbiont feminizes genetically male insects, larval insects were fed an antibiotic-containing diet beginning at different developmental stages until pupation. When the adult insects emerged, strikingly, many of them exhibited sexually intermediate traits in their wings, reproductive organs, and genitalia. The expression of intersexual phenotypes was strong in the insects treated from first instar, moderate in the insects treated from third instar, and weak in the insects treated from fourth instar. The insects treated from early larval instar grew and pupated normally but frequently failed to emerge and died in the pupal case. The dead insects in the pupal case contained lower densities of the feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont than the successfully emerged insects, although none of them were completely cured of the symbiont infection. These results suggest the following: (i) the antibiotic treatment suppressed the population of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts; (ii) the suppression probably resulted in attenuated feminizing activity of the symbiont, leading to expression of intersexual host traits; (iii) many of the insects suffered pupal mortality, possibly due to either intersexual defects or Wolbachia-mediated addiction; and hence (iv) the feminizing Wolbachia endosymbiont continuously acts on the host insects during larval development for expression of female phenotypes under a male genotype. Our finding may prompt reconsideration of the notion that Wolbachia-induced reproductive manipulations are already complete before the early embryonic stage and provide insights into the mechanism underlying the symbiont-induced reversal of insect sex.

  9. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the aborted tip of the forewing. There is very little variation between individu- als in this form. Eyespots are found on the wings of certain butterflies sometimes only at certain seasons. The position, number, size and colour of these are determined in four stages during the late larval and early pupal stages. The eyes pots ...

  10. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the adult stage, butterflies depend largely on the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats for energy, especially during flight. The fats are obtained during the larval stage and stored in the body. Carbohydrates in the form of sugars are obtained from nectar, the sap of certain trees, over-ripe fruit and other natural sources.

  11. Insight into the Mode of Action of Celangulin V on the Transmembrane Potential of Midgut Cells in Lepidopteran Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Celangulin V (CV is the main insecticidal constituent of Celastrus angulatus. The V-ATPase H subunit of the midgut cells of lepidopteran larvae is the putative target protein of CV. Here, we compared the effects of CV on the midgut membrane potentials of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae with those of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis and with those of inactive CV-MIA, a synthetic derivative of CV. We investigated the changes in the apical membrane potentials (Vam and basolateral membrane potentials (Vbm of the midguts of sixth-instar larvae force-fed with the test toxins. We also measured the Vam and Vbm of larval midguts that were directly incubated with the test toxins. Similar to the effect of Cry1Ab, the Vam of CV-treated midguts rapidly decayed over time in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, CV-MIA did not influence Vam. Meanwhile, the Vam of A. ipsilon larval midguts directly incubated with CV decayed less than that of M. separata larval midguts, whereas that of larvae force-fed with CV did not significantly change. Similar to Cry1Ab, CV did not affect the Vbm of isolated midguts. CV significantly inhibited V-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, CV initially inhibits V-ATPase in the apical membrane and affects intracellular pH, homeostasis, and nutrient transport mechanisms in lepidopteran midgut cells.

  12. Nectar amino acids enhance reproduction in male butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Erhardt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    After over 30 years of research, it was recently shown that nectar amino acids increase female butterfly fecundity. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of nectar amino acids on male butterfly reproduction. Here, we show that larval food conditions (nitrogen-rich vs. nitrogen-poor host plants) and adult diet quality (nectar with or without amino acids) affected the amount of consumed nectar in Coenonympha pamphilus males. Furthermore, amino acids in the nectar diet of males increased progeny's larval hatching mass, irrespective of paternal larval reserves. Our study takes the whole reproductive cycle of male butterflies into account, and also considers the role of females in passing male nutrients to offspring, as males' realized reproduction was examined indirectly via nuptial gifts, by female performance. With this comprehensive approach, we demonstrate for the first time that nectar amino acids can improve male butterfly reproduction, supporting the old postulate that nectar amino acids generally enhance butterfly fitness.

  13. Interaction of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin with midgut brush border membrane vesicles proteins and its stability in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Harpal; Ranjan, Amol; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-12-01

    Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) binds to several proteins in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera and causes toxicity. Most of these were glycosylated. Six ASAL-binding proteins were selected for identification. PMF and MS/MS data showed their similarity with midgut aminopeptidase APN2, polycalins and alkaline phosphatase of H. armigera, cadherin-N protein (partial AGAP009726-PA) of Acyrthosiphon pisum, cytochrome P450 (CYP315A1) of Manduca sexta and alkaline phosphatase of Heliothis virescens. Some of the ASAL-binding midgut proteins were similar to the larval receptors responsible for the binding of δ-endotoxin proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Galanthus nivalis agglutinin also interacted with most of the ASAL-binding proteins. The ASAL showed resistance to midgut proteases and was detected in the larval hemolymph and excreta. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of ASAL in the body tissue also. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis toxins trigger receptor shedding from gypsy moth midgut cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the Cry1 insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) begins with the processing of these proteins in the larval gut. After proteolytic activation, the Bt toxins bind to specific midgut receptors and insert into the membrane of the gut epithelial cells, causing insect death.

  15. Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010 Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conducted by standard walk methods. Host plant and larval food plant was recorded during butterfly survey. Public perception on the development plan of butterfly garden was examined by questionnaire. The results showed that 26 species of butterfly was found in Bosscha area and Delias belisama belisama was the most dominant species. Public perceptions consider that the development plan of butterfly garden will give benefit to the community; not only providing new insight (40.41%, additional tourism object (23.97% and will gave aesthetical value (17.12%. Twelve local species should be considered for development plan of butterfly garden: Papilio agamemnon, P. demoleus, P. memnon, P. sarpedon, Delias belisama, Eurema hecabe, Danaus chrysippus, Argynis hiperbius, Cethosia penthesilea, Hypolimnas missipus, Melanitis phedima and Euthalia Adonijah. Host plant: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Citrus aurantium, Lantana camara, Macaranga tanarius and food plants: Citrus aurantium, Cosmos caudatus, Eupatorium inulifolium, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana camara, and Tithonia diversifolia.

  16. Perforated midgut diverticulitis: revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Milan; Naesgaard, Jens Marius; Ignjatovic, Dejan

    2012-09-14

    To study and provide data on the evolution of medical procedures and outcomes of patients suffering from perforated midgut diverticulitis. Three data sources were used: the Medline and Google search engines were searched for case reports on one or more patients treated for perforated midgut diverticulitis (Meckel's diverticulitis excluded) that were published after 1995. The inclusion criterion was sufficient individual patient data in the article. Both indexed and non-indexed journals were used. Patients treated for perforated midgut diverticulitis at Vestfold Hospital were included in this group. Data on symptoms, laboratory and radiology results, treatment modalities, surgical access, procedures, complications and outcomes were collected. The Norwegian patient registry was searched to find patients operated upon for midgut diverticulitis from 1999 to 2007. The data collected were age, sex, mode of access, surgical procedure performed and number of patients per year. Historical controls were retrieved from an article published in 1995 containing pertinent individual patient data. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS software. Group I: 106 patients (48 men) were found. Mean age was 72.2 ± 13.1 years (mean ± SD). Age or sex had no impact on outcomes (P = 0.057 and P = 0.771, respectively). Preoperative assessment was plain radiography in 53.3% or computed tomography (CT) in 76.1%. Correct diagnosis was made in 77.1% with CT, 5.6% without (P = 0.001). Duration of symptoms before hospitalization was 3.6 d (range: 1-35 d), but longer duration was not associated with poor outcome (P = 0.748). Eighty-six point eight percent of patients underwent surgery, 92.4% of these through open access where 90.1% had bowel resection. Complications occurred in 19.2% of patients and 16.3% underwent reoperation. Distance from perforation to Treitz ligament was 41.7 ± 28.1 cm. At surgery, no peritonitis was found in 29.7% of patients, local peritonitis in 47.5%, and diffuse

  17. Soil-applied imidacloprid translocates to ornamental flowers and reduces survival of adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles, and larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Krischik

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola, where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the

  18. Soil-Applied Imidacloprid Translocates to Ornamental Flowers and Reduces Survival of Adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens Lady Beetles, and Larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischik, Vera; Rogers, Mary; Gupta, Garima; Varshney, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient) /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed) translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon) pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in) cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI) to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola), where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the principles of IPM

  19. Soil-applied imidacloprid translocates to ornamental flowers and reduces survival of adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles, and larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischik, Vera; Rogers, Mary; Gupta, Garima; Varshney, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient) /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed) translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon) pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in) cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI) to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola), where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the principles of IPM.

  20. Study on Fungal Flora in the Midgut of the Larva and Adult of the Different Populations of the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Tajedin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Many microorganisms in midgut of mosquito challenge with their host and also other pathogens pre­sent in midgut. The aim of this study was presence of non-pathogens microorganisms like fungal flora which may be cru­cial on interaction between vectors and pathogens."nMethods: Different populations of Anopheles stephensi were reared in insectary and objected to determine fungal flora in their midguts. The midgut paunch of mosquito adults and larvae as well as breading water and larval food sam­ples transferred on Subaru-dextrose agar, in order to detect the environment fungus."nResults: Although four fungi, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Geotrichum and Sacharomyces were found in the food and wa­ter, but only Aspiragilus observed in the midgut of larvae. No fungus was found in the midgut of adults. This is the first report on fungal flora in the midgut of the adults and larvae of An. stephensi and possible stadial transmission of fungi from immature stages to adults."nConclusion: The midgut environment of adults is not compatible for survivorship of fungi but the larval midgut may con­tain few fungi as a host or even pathogen.

  1. Impact on bacterial community in midguts of the Asian corn borer larvae by transgenic Trichoderma strain overexpressing a heterologous chit42 gene with chitin-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Li

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H and the Simpson (1-D indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.

  2. Teaching and Learning with Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Saul

    1996-01-01

    Presents butterflies as an introduction to natural history. Describes observation tips and metamorphosis of butterflies in the classroom. Includes butterfly resources for naturalists and educators. (AIM)

  3. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  4. The Drosophila Hand gene is required for remodeling of the developing adult heart and midgut during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Patrick C H; Zaffran, Stéphane; Sénatore, Sébastien; Frasch, Manfred

    2007-11-15

    The Hand proteins of the bHLH family of transcriptional factors play critical roles in vertebrate cardiogenesis. In Drosophila, the single orthologous Hand gene is expressed in the developing embryonic dorsal vessel (heart), lymph glands, circular visceral musculature, and a subset of CNS cells. We demonstrate that the absence of Hand activity causes semilethality during the early larval instars. The dorsal vessel and midgut musculature are unaffected in null mutant embryos, but in a large fraction the lymph glands are missing. However, homozygous adult flies lacking Hand possess morphologically abnormal dorsal vessels characterized by a disorganized myofibrillar structure, reduced systolic and diastolic diameter, and abnormal heartbeat contractions, and suffer from premature lethality. In addition, their midguts are highly deformed; in the most severe cases, there is midgut blockage and a massive excess of ectopic peritrophic membrane tubules exiting a rupture in an anterior midgut bulge. Nevertheless, the visceral musculature appears to be relatively normal. Based on these phenotypes, we conclude that the expression of the Drosophila Hand gene in the dorsal vessel and circular visceral muscles is mainly required during pupal stages, when Hand participates in the proper hormone-dependent remodeling of the larval aorta into the adult heart and in the normal morphogenesis of the adult midgut endoderm during metamorphosis.

  5. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  6. Ecdysone-Induced Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP52F Regulates Drosophila Midgut Histolysis by Enhancement of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Abirami; Peng, Wen-Hsin; Yu, Ya-Ting; Sang, Tzu-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The rapid removal of larval midgut is a critical developmental process directed by molting hormone ecdysone during Drosophila metamorphosis. To date, it remains unclear how the stepwise events can link the onset of ecdysone signaling to the destruction of larval midgut. This study investigated whether ecdysone-induced expression of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP52F regulates this process. The mutation of the Ptp52F gene caused significant delay in larval midgut degradation. Transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (TER94), a regulator of ubiquitin proteasome system, was identified as a substrate and downstream effector of PTP52F in the ecdysone signaling. The inducible expression of PTP52F at the puparium formation stage resulted in dephosphorylation of TER94 on its Y800 residue, ensuring the rapid degradation of ubiquitylated proteins. One of the proteins targeted by dephosphorylated TER94 was found to be Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (DIAP1), which was rapidly proteolyzed in cells with significant expression of PTP52F. Importantly, the reduced level of DIAP1 in response to inducible PTP52F was essential not only for the onset of apoptosis but also for the initiation of autophagy. This study demonstrates a novel function of PTP52F in regulating ecdysone-directed metamorphosis via enhancement of autophagic and apoptotic cell death in doomed Drosophila midguts. PMID:24550005

  7. seasonal dynamics of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BioMAP

    larval hostplant, the near-endemic Sinai Thyme (Labiatae: Thymus decussatus Benth.) is patchily distributed among the mountains. Pseudophilotes sinaicus is one of only two endemic animals in the Protectorate (both butterflies), its endemicity making it a world conservation issue. It is therefore a flagship species for the ...

  8. Midgut proteinases of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae): Characterization and relationship to resistance in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lan.

    1989-01-01

    Midgut proteinases are vital to the insects which digest ingested food in the midgut. Insect midgut proteinases, therefore, have been considered as possible targets for the control of insect pests. Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors are very attractive for their potential use in developing insect resistant plant varieties via genetic engineering. Sitotroga cerealella is one of the major storage pests of cereals, and no antibiotic resistance in wheat against this insect has been identified to date. A series of diagnostic inhibitors, thiol-reducing agents and a metal-ion chelator were used in the identification of proteinases in crude extracts from S. cerealella larval midguts with both protein and ester substrates. The partial inhibition of proteolytic activity in crude midgut extract toward ({sup 3}H)-methemoglobin by pepstatin A suggested the presence of another proteinase which was sensitive to pepstatin A. The optimum pH range for the proteolytic activity, however, indicated that the major midgut proteinases were not carboxyl proteinases. Two proteinases were successfully purified by a combination of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the enzymes with the purified enzyme preparations confirmed that the two major proteinases were serine endoproteinases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities respectively. Bioassays were conducted using the artificial seeds to test naturally occurring proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors of potential value. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor had adverse effects on the development of the insect. A predictive model was constructed to evaluate effects of seed resistance in conjunction with other control methods on S. cerealella population dynamics.

  9. Light and electron microscopy studies of the midgut and salivary glands of second and third instars of the horse stomach bot, Gasterophilus intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfstra, L; Vlimant, M; Betschart, B; Pfister, K; Diehl, P-A

    2010-09-01

    A morphological study of the midgut and salivary glands of second and third instars of Gasterophilus intestinalis (De Geer) (Diptera: Oestridae) was conducted by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The midgut is anteriorly delimited by a proventriculus, without caeca, and is composed of posterior foregut and anterior midgut tissue from which a double-layered peritrophic matrix is produced. The midgut can be divided into anterior, median and posterior regions on the basis of the structural and physiological variations of the columnar cells which occur along its length. Two other types of cell were identified: regenerative cells scattered throughout the columnar cells, and, more rarely, endocrine cells of two structural types (closed and open). Different secretion mechanisms (merocrine, apocrine and microapocrine) occur along the midgut epithelium. Abundant microorganisms are observed in the endoperitrophic space of the anterior midgut. The origin and nature of these microorganisms remain unknown. No structural differences are observed between the second and third instar midguts. The salivary glands of G. intestinalis second and third instars consist of a pair of elongated tubular structures connected to efferent ducts which unite to form a single deferent duct linked dorsally to the pharynx. Several intermediate cells, without cuticle, make the junction with the salivary gland epithelium layer. Cytological characteristics of the gland epithelial cells demonstrate high cellular activity and some structural variations are noticed between the two larval stages.

  10. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M Crava

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV. We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity.

  11. On the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shnirelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The term "butterfly effect" means an extreme sensitivity of a dynamical system to small perturbations: "The beating of a butterfly wing in South America can result in the considerable change of positions and force of a tropical cyclon in Atlantic 2 weeks later". Numerical simulations of R.Robert show the absence of the butterfly effect in some simple flows of 2-d ideal incompressible fluid which is a model of the atmosphere. In this work a more complicated flow is considered. Numerical simulation demonstrates the butterfly effect in the strongest form. The effect is robust, and the experiment is 100% reproducible.

  12. Hindsight/RREB-1 functions in both the specification and differentiation of stem cells in the adult midgut of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Brittany L; McKnight, Cameron; Pruchnicki, Porsha C; Biro, Nicole A; Reed, Bruce H

    2015-12-10

    The adult Drosophila midgut is established during the larval/pupal transition from undifferentiated cells known as adult midgut precursors (AMPs). Four fundamental cell types are found in the adult midgut epithelium: undifferentiated intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their committed daughter cells, enteroblasts (EBs), plus enterocytes (ECs) and enteroendocrine cells (EEs). Using the Drosophila posterior midgut as a model, we have studied the function of the transcription factor Hindsight (Hnt)/RREB-1 and its relationship to the Notch and Egfr signaling pathways. We show that hnt is required for EC differentiation in the context of ISC-to-EC differentiation, but not in the context of AMP-to-EC differentiation. In addition, we show that hnt is required for the establishment of viable or functional ISCs. Overall, our studies introduce hnt as a key factor in the regulation of both the developing and the mature adult midgut. We suggest that the nature of these contextual differences can be explained through the interaction of hnt with multiple signaling pathways. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  14. Warning Color Changes in Response to Food Deprivation in the Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor

    OpenAIRE

    Pegram, Kimberly V.; Nahm, Alexandra C.; Ronald L. Rutowski

    2013-01-01

    Predation on distasteful animals should favor warning coloration that is relatively conspicuous and phenotypically invariable. However, even among similarly colored individuals there can be variation in their warning signals. In butterflies, individual differences in larval feeding history could cause this variation. The warning signal of the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) consists of both a blue iridescent patch and pigmentbased orange spots on...

  15. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A butterfly is the final stage of a life cycle consisting of an egg, larva, pupa and adult. In this adult stage, a butterfly has four main tasks: locating a mate and mating, laying eggs on suitable substrate, feeding and, of course, surviving long enough to achieve the first three. Since we are presently not in a position to attribute ...

  16. Sexual function in patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; van Ieperen, Ellen; Wymenga, A. N. Machteld; Boezen, H. Marike; Weijmar-Schultz, Willibrord C. M.; Kema, Ido P.; Meijer, Wim G.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; Links, Thera P.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction is a poorly studied aspect of quality of life in patients with midgut carcinoid tumours. We investigated whether carcinoid patients experience sexual problems. Methods: Patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid tumours filled in a validated questionnaire for sexual

  17. A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David R; Als, Thomas Damm; Maile, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry...... of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations......, but not between the butterflies and a second, sympatric host, Myrmica ruginodis, which has panmictic populations. Alternative hosts may therefore provide an evolutionary refuge for a parasite during periods of counteradaptation by their preferred hosts. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan-4...

  18. Penicillin-induced oxidative stress: effects on antioxidative response of midgut tissues in instars of Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükgüzel, Ender; Kalender, Yusuf

    2007-10-01

    Penicillin and other antibiotics are routinely incorporated in insect culture media. Although culturing insects in the presence of antibiotics is a decades-old practice, antibiotics can exert deleterious influences on insects. In this article, we test the hypothesis that one of the effects of dietary penicillin is to increase oxidative stress on insects. The effects of penicillin on midgut concentrations of the oxidative stress indicator malondialdehyde (MDA) and on midgut antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione S-transferase [GST], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) and transaminases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) activities in greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), were investigated. The insects were reared from first instars on artificial diets containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 g penicillin per 100 g of diets. MDA content was significantly increased in the midgut tissues of each larval instar reared in the presence of high penicillin concentrations. Activities of antioxidant and transaminase enzymes did not show a consistent pattern with respect to penicillin concentrations in diet or age of larvae. Despite the increased penicillin-induced oxidative stress in gut tissue, antioxidant and transaminase enzymes did not correlate with oxidative stress level or between each other in larvae of other age stages except for the seventh instar. We found a significant negative correlation of MDA content with SOD and GST activities in seventh instars. SOD activity was also negatively correlated with CAT activity in seventh instars. These results suggest that exposure to dietary penicillin resulted in impaired enzymatic antioxidant defense capacity and metabolic functions in wax moth larval midgut tissues and that the resulting oxidative stress impacts midgut digestive physiology.

  19. The larval midgut of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: light and electron microscopy studies of the epithelial cells Intestino médio de larvas de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: estudo das células epiteliais ao microscópio de luz e eletrônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Levy

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the midgut epithelium cells of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner larvae is described by light and transmission electron microscopy. The midgut of A. gemmatalis is the largest portion of the digestive tract, with three distinct regions: proximal, media and distal. Its wall is formed by pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue having four cell types: columnar, goblet, regenerative, and endocrine cells. The columnar cells are numerous and long, with the apical portion showing many lengthy microvilli and the basal portion invaginations forming a basal labyrinth. The goblet cells have a large goblet-shaped central cavity delimited by cytoplasmic projections filled with mitochondria. The regenerative cells present electron-dense cytoplasm and few organelles. The endocrine cells are characterized by electron-dense secretory granules, usually concentrated in the cytoplasm basal region.A morfologia das células epiteliais do intestino médio de larvas de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner é descrita em microscopia de luz e eletrônica de transmissão. O intestino médio de A. gemmatalis é a maior porção do trato digestivo, apresentando três regiões distintas: proximal, média e distal. Sua parede é formada por um tecido epitelial pseudo-estratificado colunar, com quatro tipos celulares: células colunares, caliciformes, regenerativas e endócrinas. As células colunares, observadas em maior quantidade, são altas, apresentam longas e numerosas microvilosidades na porção apical e na porção basal as invaginações da membrana formam o labirinto basal. As células caliciformes apresentam uma grande câmara central delimitada por projeções citoplasmáticas repletas de mitocôndrias no interior. As células regenerativas têm o citoplasma mais elétron-denso e com poucas organelas. As células endócrinas são caracterizadas pela presença de grânulos secretores bastante elétron-densos concentrados principalmente no citoplasma

  20. Midgut lysozymes of Lucilia sericata - new antimicrobials involved in maggot debridement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachova, I; Takac, P; Majtan, J

    2014-12-01

    Larvae of Lucilia sericata are used for maggot debridement therapy (MDT) because of their ability to remove necrotic tissue and eradicate bacterial pathogens of infected wounds. So far, very few antibacterial factors have been fully characterized (eg lucifensin). Using a molecular approach, some other putative antimicrobial compounds, including three novel lysozymes, have been previously identified and predicted to be involved in MDT. Nevertheless, data on lysozymes tissue origin and their functions have never been elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of three lysozymes in L. sericata and confirm their antibacterial effects within MDT. Moreover, we characterized the eradication process of bacteria within the digestive system of maggots and determined the role of lysozymes in this process. We found that three lysozymes are expressed in specific sections of the L. sericata midgut. Recombinant lysozymes displayed comparable antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus. Furthermore, the majority of Gram-positive bacteria were destroyed in vivo within the particular section of the L. sericata midgut where lysozymes are produced. Larval ingestion and subsequent eradication of wound pathogens during their passage through the intestine of maggots are due to, at least in part, antibacterial action of three midgut lysozymes. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. Malrotation complicating midgut volvulus: Ultrasonographic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Kwon; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Jin, Yong Hyun; Park, Dong Rib; Lee, Chang Hee [Kon Kuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-15

    The intestinal malrotation is one of disease representing jaundice and intermittent vomiting in neonatal period and its clinical manifestation varies from no symptom to fatal symptom requiring emergency operation. We report one case of malrotation with midgut volvulus representing 'whirl pool sign' on color ultrasound image.

  2. A lepidopteran-specific gene family encoding valine-rich midgut proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothini Odman-Naresh

    Full Text Available Many lepidopteran larvae are serious agricultural pests due to their feeding activity. Digestion of the plant diet occurs mainly in the midgut and is facilitated by the peritrophic matrix (PM, an extracellular sac-like structure, which lines the midgut epithelium and creates different digestive compartments. The PM is attracting increasing attention to control lepidopteran pests by interfering with this vital function. To identify novel PM components and thus potential targets for insecticides, we performed an immunoscreening with anti-PM antibodies using an expression library representing the larval midgut transcriptome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We identified three cDNAs encoding valine-rich midgut proteins of M. sexta (MsVmps, which appear to be loosely associated with the PM. They are members of a lepidopteran-specific family of nine VMP genes, which are exclusively expressed in larval stages in M. sexta. Most of the MsVMP transcripts are detected in the posterior midgut, with the highest levels observed for MsVMP1. To obtain further insight into Vmp function, we expressed MsVMP1 in insect cells and purified the recombinant protein. Lectin staining and glycosidase treatment indicated that MsVmp1 is highly O-glycosylated. In line with results from qPCR, immunoblots revealed that MsVmp1 amounts are highest in feeding larvae, while MsVmp1 is undetectable in starving and molting larvae. Finally using immunocytochemistry, we demonstrated that MsVmp1 localizes to the cytosol of columnar cells, which secrete MsVmp1 into the ectoperitrophic space in feeding larvae. In starving and molting larvae, MsVmp1 is found in the gut lumen, suggesting that the PM has increased its permeability. The present study demonstrates that lepidopteran species including many agricultural pests have evolved a set of unique proteins that are not found in any other taxon and thus may reflect an important adaptation in the highly specialized lepidopteran

  3. Unscrambling butterfly oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean-Michel; Baker, Simon C; Pink, Ryan; Carter, David R F; Collins, Aiden; Tomlin, Jeremie; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J

    2013-04-26

    Butterflies are popular model organisms to study physiological mechanisms underlying variability in oogenesis and egg provisioning in response to environmental conditions. Nothing is known, however, about; the developmental mechanisms governing butterfly oogenesis, how polarity in the oocyte is established, or which particular maternal effect genes regulate early embryogenesis. To gain insights into these developmental mechanisms and to identify the conserved and divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis, we analysed a de novo ovarian transcriptome of the Speckled Wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.), and compared the results with known model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. A total of 17306 contigs were annotated, with 30% possibly novel or highly divergent sequences observed. Pararge aegeria females expressed 74.5% of the genes that are known to be essential for D. melanogaster oogenesis. We discuss the genes involved in all aspects of oogenesis, including vitellogenesis and choriogenesis, plus those implicated in hormonal control of oogenesis and transgenerational hormonal effects in great detail. Compared to other insects, a number of significant differences were observed in; the genes involved in stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the germarium, establishment of oocyte polarity, and in several aspects of maternal regulation of zygotic development. This study provides valuable resources to investigate a number of divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis requiring further research. In order to fully unscramble butterfly oogenesis, we also now also have the resources to investigate expression patterns of oogenesis genes under a range of environmental conditions, and to establish their function.

  4. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to zinc stress: Zn accumulation, metallothionein and cell ultrastructure of the midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environments in Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Guren [State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Jianwu, E-mail: wangjw@scau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-Environments in Tropics, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2012-11-01

    Zn could be accumulated in larval midgut, which significantly led to the increase of metallothionein (MT) content, the induction of MT gene expression, and the presence of numerous granules with different types (Type A (black arrow), B granule (white arrow)). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dose-response was observed between Zn accumulations in S. litura larvae midgut and Zn concentrations in diet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallothionein in midgut of S. litura larvae was positively correlated with Zn accumulations in the midgut. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerous electron-dense granules and vacuoles appeared in cytoplasm of the midgut from Zn stress treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MT induction and EDGs are the effective detoxification mechanisms for S. litura larvae to protect against heavy metals.

  5. Midgut cysteine protease-inhibiting activity in Trichoplusia ni protects the peritrophic membrane from degradation by plant cysteine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changyou; Song, Xiaozhao; Li, Guoxun; Wang, Ping

    2009-10-01

    The action of plant cysteine proteases on the midgut peritrophic membrane (PM) of a polyphagous herbivorous lepidopteran, Trichoplusia ni, was studied. Proteins in PMs isolated from T. ni larvae were confirmed to be highly resistant to the serine proteinases trypsin and chymotrypsin, but were susceptible to degradation by plant cysteine proteases, which is consistent with the known molecular and biochemical characteristics of the T. ni PM proteins. However, the PM proteins were not degraded by plant cysteine proteases in larvae or in the presence of larval midgut fluid in vitro. With further biochemical analysis, cysteine protease-inhibiting activity was identified in the midgut fluid of T. ni larvae. The cysteine protease-inhibiting activity was heat resistant and active in the tested pH range from 6.0 to 10.0, but could be suppressed by thiol reducing reagents or reduced by treatment with catalase. In addition to T. ni, cysteine protease-inhibiting activity was also identified from two other polyphagous Lepidoptera species, Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens. In conclusion, results from this study uncovered that herbivorous insects may counteract the attack of plant cysteine proteases on the PM by inhibiting the potentially insecticidal cysteine proteases from plants in the digestive tract. However, the biochemical identity of the cysteine protease-inhibiting activity in midgut fluid has yet to be identified.

  6. Enhancing offspring quality or quantity? Different ways for using nectar amino acids in female butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Erhardt, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Butterfly-pollinated flowers offer nectar with higher amino acid concentrations than most flowers pollinated by other animals, and female butterflies of some species prefer to consume amino acid-rich nectar. However, for over 30 years, there has been an ongoing discussion about whether nectar amino acids benefit butterfly fitness. A clear positive effect was only shown for the nectar-feeding Araschnia levana, and females of the fruit-feeding Bicyclus anynana also increased offspring quality when they were fed amino acids as adults. Thus, severe doubts remain about the general significance of these single positive results. We therefore tested a further species from a phylogenetically different butterfly subfamily, the small heath (Coenonympha pamphilus L., Satyrinae), taking into account feeding conditions over the whole life cycle of this species. C. pamphilus females receiving nectar amino acids as adults, irrespective of larval food quality, produced heavier larvae and also increased the hatching success of their eggs over the oviposition period. Furthermore, females raised under nitrogen-poor larval conditions tended to use nectar amino acids to increase the number of eggs laid. Thus, C. pamphilus females used nectar amino acids primarily to increase their offspring quality, and secondly tended to increase offspring quantity, if larval resources were scarce, showing a resource allocation pattern differing from both B. anynana and A. levana. Our study supports the old postulate that nectar amino acids generally enhance butterfly fitness.

  7. Vicilins (7S storage globulins of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seed vicilins (7S storage proteins bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  8. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1) butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2) butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3) butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  9. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1 butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2 butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3 butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  10. Wingless is a positive regulator of eyespot color patterns in Bicyclus anynana butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsu, Nesibe; Chan, Qian Yi; Chen, Bin; Gupta, Mainak Das; Monteiro, Antónia

    2017-09-01

    Eyespot patterns of nymphalid butterflies are an example of a novel trait yet, the developmental origin of eyespots is still not well understood. Several genes have been associated with eyespot development but few have been tested for function. One of these genes is the signaling ligand, wingless, which is expressed in the eyespot centers during early pupation and may function in eyespot signaling and color ring differentiation. Here we tested the function of wingless in wing and eyespot development by down-regulating it in transgenic Bicyclus anynana butterflies via RNAi driven by an inducible heat-shock promoter. Heat-shocks applied during larval and early pupal development led to significant decreases in wingless mRNA levels and to decreases in eyespot size and wing size in adult butterflies. We conclude that wingless is a positive regulator of eyespot and wing development in B. anynana butterflies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana

    OpenAIRE

    Mouro, Lucas D.; Zato?, Micha?; Fernandes, Antonio C.S.; Waichel, Breno L.

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Midd...

  12. A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506 were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%> Pieridae 43%> Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae with body length 26.0±0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M±SD mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae with body length 11.5±0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M±SD mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.

  13. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Study of Butterflies - Intra-specific Variation. Peter Smetacek. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0008-0015 ...

  14. Project Lifescape: Butterfly Accounts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Project Lifescape: Butterfly Accounts. Krushnamegh J Kunte. Classroom Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 86-97. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0086-0097 ...

  15. Bonjour Papillon (Hello Butterfly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Donald G.; Ogrydziak, Dan

    This story in French about a butterfly who talks to children is presented in comic-book style and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Words and expressions peculiar to the Franco-American idiom are marked and translated into standard French. The drawings are in black and white. (AMH)

  16. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Other experts feel the word is a corruption of 'flutter-bys', referring to their flight. Whatever the origin, it is a pretty name that has stuck to these insects. In India, butterflies were more or less overlooked in the period prior to the advent of Europeans. They are not figured in the rich carvings, wall paintings or other works of art ...

  17. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3–1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  18. Optical and ultrastructural studies of midgut and salivary glands of first instar of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, L G; Leite, A C R

    2005-05-01

    Midguts and salivary glands of newly hatched larvae (L1) of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.) were studied using light and electron microscopy. The larval midgut has a tubular, sinusoidal form and consists of a monolayer of epithelial cells with an underlying basement membrane and a surrounding layer of connective tissue. The fine structure of the midgut shows digestive cells with short microvilli, large nuclei, and cytoplasm containing few visible organelles (mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosomes). In the basal region, the plasma membrane of the cells is folded into a labyrinth area. Hemidesmosomes link the basal surface to the basement membrane and septet junctions are present between adjacent cells. The connective tissue circling the basement membrane contains collagen fibrils, muscle fibers, and tracheal tubes. Prominent nuclei with evident nucleoli occur in the digestive cells. The salivary gland is simple and tubular. It has a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounded by basement membrane and connective tissue. The fine structure of the salivary gland shows epithelial cells, microvilli, secretion into the lumen, septate junctions at the lateral face and a basal labyrinth region. The cell nucleus is large and the cytoplasm contains rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and mitochondria.

  19. Plasma membranes from insect midgut cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Terra

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membranes from insect midgut cells are separated into apical and basolateral domains. The apical domain is usually modified into microvilli with a molecular structure similar to other animals. Nevertheless, the microvillar structure should differ in some insects to permit the traffic inside them of secretory vesicles that may budd laterally or pinch-off from the tips of microvilli. Other microvillar modifications are associated with proton-pumping or with the interplay with an ensheathing lipid membrane (the perimicrovilllar membrane observed in the midgut cells of hemipterans (aphids and bugs. The perimicrovillar membranes are thought to be involved in amino acid absorption from diluted diets. The microvillar and perimicrovillar membranes have densities (and protein content that depend on the insect taxon. The role played by the microvillar and perimicrovillar proteins in insect midgut physiology is reviewed here trying to provide a coherent picture of data and highlighting further research areas.As membranas plasmáticas das células intestinais dos insetos apresentam um domínio apical e outro basal. O domínio apical é geralmente modificado em microvilosidades com organização molecular similar a de outros animais, embora possam diferir naqueles insetos que apresentam vesículas secretoras em trânsito que brotam lateralmente ou destacam-se das extremidades das microvilosidades. Outras modificações microvilares estão associadas a bombeamento de prótons ou a interrelações com uma membrana lipídica (a membrana perimicrovilar que reveste as microvilosidades de células intestinais de hemípteros (pulgões e percevejos. Admite-se que as membranas perimicrovilares estejam envolvidas na absorção de aminoácidos a partir de dietas diluídas. As membranas microvilares e perimicrovilares tem densidades distintas (e conteúdo protéico que dependem do táxon do inseto. O papel desempenhado pelas proteínas microvilares e

  20. A Parallel Butterfly Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack

    2014-02-04

    The butterfly algorithm is a fast algorithm which approximately evaluates a discrete analogue of the integral transform (Equation Presented.) at large numbers of target points when the kernel, K(x, y), is approximately low-rank when restricted to subdomains satisfying a certain simple geometric condition. In d dimensions with O(Nd) quasi-uniformly distributed source and target points, when each appropriate submatrix of K is approximately rank-r, the running time of the algorithm is at most O(r2Nd logN). A parallelization of the butterfly algorithm is introduced which, assuming a message latency of α and per-process inverse bandwidth of β, executes in at most (Equation Presented.) time using p processes. This parallel algorithm was then instantiated in the form of the open-source DistButterfly library for the special case where K(x, y) = exp(iΦ(x, y)), where Φ(x, y) is a black-box, sufficiently smooth, real-valued phase function. Experiments on Blue Gene/Q demonstrate impressive strong-scaling results for important classes of phase functions. Using quasi-uniform sources, hyperbolic Radon transforms, and an analogue of a three-dimensional generalized Radon transform were, respectively, observed to strong-scale from 1-node/16-cores up to 1024-nodes/16,384-cores with greater than 90% and 82% efficiency, respectively. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. Amino acid metabolic signaling influences Aedes aegypti midgut microbiome variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Short

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito midgut microbiota has been shown to influence vector competence for multiple human pathogens. The microbiota is highly variable in the field, and the sources of this variability are not well understood, which limits our ability to understand or predict its effects on pathogen transmission. In this work, we report significant variation in female adult midgut bacterial load between strains of A. aegypti which vary in their susceptibility to dengue virus. Composition of the midgut microbiome was similar overall between the strains, with 81-92% of reads coming from the same five bacterial families, though we did detect differences in the presence of some bacterial families including Flavobacteriaceae and Entobacteriaceae. We conducted transcriptomic analysis on the two mosquito strains that showed the greatest difference in bacterial load, and found that they differ in transcript abundance of many genes implicated in amino acid metabolism, in particular the branched chain amino acid degradation pathway. We then silenced this pathway by targeting multiple genes using RNA interference, which resulted in strain-specific bacterial proliferation, thereby eliminating the difference in midgut bacterial load between the strains. This suggests that the branched chain amino acid (BCAA degradation pathway controls midgut bacterial load, though the mechanism underlying this remains unclear. Overall, our results indicate that amino acid metabolism can act to influence the midgut microbiota. Moreover, they suggest that genetic or physiological variation in BCAA degradation pathway activity may in part explain midgut microbiota variation in the field.

  2. First trimester fetal physiologic midgut herniation: Transvaginal sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae Hee; Park, Yong Hyun [CHA General Hospital. Pochon College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    To evaluate the sonographic features and appearance time of the physiologic midgut herniation early in pregnancy. Sonograms of 87 features ranging from 7 to 13 weeks were obtained over a 2-month period. The presence or absence, the size and echogenecity of the physiologic midgut herniation were evaluate on each examination. Disappearance of the midgut herniation was confirmed on follow-up sonogram at 13-20 weeks, 3-12 weeks after the first sonogram. The results were analyzed in terms of appearance or disappearance time of midgut herniation. In all cases of physiologic midgut herination, an echogenic mass measuring 0.4-0.7 cm wa demonstrated within the base of the umbilical cord at its insertion into the fetal abdomen. This herniation was detected in 3/6 cases (50%) at 8 weeks, in 15/16 cases (94%) at 9 weeks, in 22/24 cases (92%) at 10 weeks and in 12/27 cases (44%) at 11 weeks gestation. None of the features studied at 7 weeks and 12 weeks had a midgut herniation. Sonographic findings of a 0.4-0.7 cm sized echogenic mass within the base of the umbilical cord which appears from 8 weeks to 12 weeks pregnancy represent physiologic midgut herniation in early pregnancy and should not be confused with pathologic ventral wall defected such as omphalocele or gastroschisis.

  3. Phengaris (Maculinea) teleius butterflies select host plants close to Myrmica ants for oviposition, but P. nausithous do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynhoff, Irma; Langevelde, van Frank

    2017-01-01

    Many lycaenid butterfly species have interactions with ants, with 12% obligatorily depending on two sequential sources of larval food, namely host plants and host ants. When host plants are abundant but the density of host ant nests is relatively low, most host plants have no host ant nest in their

  4. Cloning and characterization of Manduca sexta and Plutella xylostella midgut aminopeptidase N enzymes related to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolf, P; Hendrickx, K; Van Damme, J; Jansens, S; Peferoen, M; Degheele, D; Van Rie, J

    1997-09-15

    We report the purification, cloning and characterization of an aminopeptidase N from the midgut epithelium of Manduca sexta that binds Cry1Ab5, an insecticidal crystal protein [ICP] from Bacillus thuringiensis. Sequence information derived from this M. sexta aminopeptidase N was used for the cloning of an aminopeptidase N from the midgut brush-border membrane of Plutella xylostella, an insect species of which some populations acquired resistance against Cry1Ab5. Affinity chromatography on a Cry1Ab5 matrix was used to isolate a 120-kDa glycoprotein from the larval midgut of the lepidopteran M. sexta. On ligand blots the purified 120-kDa protein discriminates between the lepidopteran-specific Cry1Ab5 and the coleopteran-specific Cry3A delta-endotoxin. Internal amino acid sequences from the 120-kDa protein were used for the design of degenerate oligonucleotides. From a nested PCR with M. sexta midgut cDNA as template, a DNA fragment was obtained which shows similarity to prokaryotic and eukaryotic aminopeptidase N genes. This PCR fragment was used to screen cDNA libraries of larval midguts from M. sexta and P. xylostella. From the M. sexta midgut cDNA library a 2973-bp nucleotide sequence was cloned. The ORF of the sequence encodes a 942-residue aminopeptidase N (M. sexta Apn2) containing two hydrophobic regions. The NH2-terminal hydrophobic region corresponds to a secretory signal sequence and the COOH-terminal hydrophobic region is typical of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (glycosyl-PtdIns)-anchored proteins. Low-stringency hybridization of the P. xylostella midgut cDNA library with M. sexta apn2 probes enabled the isolation of a 3118-bp sequence with an ORF encoding a 946-residue preproprotein. This aminopeptidase N (P. xylostella Apn1) displays 61% amino acid identity to M. sexta Apn2 and contains a COOH-terminal signal peptide for glycosyl-PtdIns anchor addition. Both M. sexta Apn2 and P. xylostella Apn1 contain four Cys residues, which are highly conserved among

  5. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  6. Side Effects of Neem Oil on the Midgut Endocrine Cells of the Green Lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, E L; Santos, D C

    2014-04-01

    We described the ultrastructure of Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás) midgut endocrine cells in larva, pupa, and adult, and evaluated the side effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), on these cells. During the larval period, C. claveri were fed (ad libitum) Diatraea saccharalis (F.) eggs treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, or 2%. Transmission electron microscopy showed that two subtypes of endocrine cells, namely granular and vesicular, occurred in the midgut epithelium during the three stages of the life cycle. Both cell types did not reach the midgut lumen and were positioned basally in the epithelium. The endocrine cells did not show extensive infoldings of the basal plasma membrane, and there were numerous secretory granules in the basal region of the cytoplasm. In the granular endocrine cells, the granules were completely filled with a dense matrix. In the vesicular endocrine cells, the main secretory products consisted of haloed vesicles. Ultrastructural examination indicated that only the granular endocrine cells exhibited signs of morphologic changes of cell injury present in all life cycle stages after the larvae were chronically exposed to neem oil by ingestion. The major cellular damage consisted of dilatation and vesiculation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial swelling. Our data suggest that cytotoxic effects on midgut endocrine cells can contribute to a generalized disruption of the physiological processes in this organ due to a general alteration of endocrine function.

  7. Sclerotium rolfsii lectin exerts insecticidal activity on Spodoptera litura larvae by binding to membrane proteins of midgut epithelial cells and triggering caspase-3-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, Vishwanathreddy; Bhat, Ganapati G; Inamdar, Shashikala R; Gudihal, Ravindra K; Swamy, Bale M

    2014-02-01

    The insect pest Spodoptera litura is considered a major threat to many economically important food and commercial crops. The present study establishes the toxic effects of Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) against S. litura larvae fed an artificial diet containing the purified lectin. The toxicity of SRL, as determined by feeding assays using different concentrations of the lectin, showed marginal effects on larval growth but a remarkable mortality rate of 68.52 ± 8.48% at the highest lectin concentration, 0.06% (600 μg/g), with an LC50 value of 430 μg/g of artificial diet. SRL is resistant to proteolysis by larval gut proteases even after 24-h incubation. Histochemical studies and western blot analyses of lectin binding revealed the interaction of the lectin with specific membrane glycoproteins on epithelial cells of the midgut. Identification of SRL-interacting midgut membrane proteins using lectin affinity chromatography and ESI-Q-TOF analysis revealed the involvement of these proteins in immunomodulatory responses in insects. Active caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation observed in the midgut epithelial cells of larvae fed a lectin-containing diet supported the mechanism of apoptosis-induced death. These findings suggested that SRL can be a valuable tool in plant biotechnology for developing insect-resistant transgenic crops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A report on butterfly diversity of Rawanwadi Reservoir, Bhandara (Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor G. Patil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations have been done to record diversity of butterflies around the area of Rawanwadi reservoir during April 2015 to March 2016. It is surrounded by hilly terrain and forest provides abundance of host and larval food plants, and vegetation which are the most dominant features for diversity of butterflies. It has abundant species of butterflies due to suitable surrounding environment. A total of 84 species belonging to 5 families and 54 genera were recorded. Amongst which 52.38% were common, 28.57% were occasional and 19.04% species were rare. Family Nymphalidae consist maximum number of species i.e. 32 from 19 genera. This number is followed by Lycaenidae with 19 genera and 26 species. Pieridae consist of 13 species of 7 genera and Hesperiidae consist 7 species of 6 genera. Minimum number of species were recorded in Papilionidae i.e. 6 species of 3 genera. Most species from Lycaenidae were found near water body.

  9. Butterfly valve. Spjeldventil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupedo, D.J.

    1984-02-06

    Butterfly valve comprising a body and a valve seat arranged therein, on which a valve member is supported. The valve member comprises an operating rod and the assembly of valve member and operating rod has a fixed pivot point at the bottom of the body. The operating rod can be moved by means of pins movable in grooves and slots in such a manner that when the valve is opened the valve member first pivots about the pivot point to lift the valve member from the seat and subsequently rotates about the pivot point to fully open the valve. 12 drawings.

  10. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. From Commensal to Pathogen: Translocation of Enterococcus faecalis from the Midgut to the Hemocoel of Manduca sexta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Katie L.; Stepien, Taylor A.; Blum, Jessamina E.; Holt, Jonathan F.; Labbe, Normand H.; Rush, Jason S.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Handelsman, Jo

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT A dynamic homeostasis is maintained between the host and native bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract in animals, but migration of bacteria from the gut to other organs can lead to disease or death. Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal of the gastrointestinal tract; however, Enterococcus spp. are increasingly frequent causes of nosocomial infections with a high mortality rate. We investigated the commensal-to-pathogen switch undergone by E. faecalis OG1RF in the lepidopteran model host Manduca sexta associated with its location in the host. E. faecalis persists in the harsh midgut environment of M. sexta larvae without causing apparent illness, but injection of E. faecalis directly into the larval hemocoel is followed by rapid death. Additionally, oral ingestion of E. faecalis in the presence of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin, a pore-forming toxin that targets the midgut epithelium, induces an elevated mortality rate. We show that the loss of gut integrity due to B. thuringiensis toxin correlates with the translocation of E. faecalis from the gastrointestinal tract into the hemolymph. Upon gaining access to the hemolymph, E. faecalis induces an innate immune response, illustrated by hemocyte aggregation, in larvae prior to death. The degree of hemocyte aggregation is dependent upon the route of E. faecalis entry. Our data demonstrate the efficacy of the M. sexta larval model system in investigating E. faecalis-induced sepsis and clarifies controversies in the field regarding the events leading to larval death following B. thuringiensis toxin exposure. PMID:21586646

  12. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  13. The 5'-UTR intron of the midgut-specific BmAPN4 gene affects the level and location of expression in transgenic silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Huang, Chunlin; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Huizhen; Cheng, Tingcai; Peng, Zhengwen; Dang, Yinghui; Liu, Weiqiang; Xu, Guowen; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Introns are important for regulating gene expression. BmAPN4, which has a 5'-UTR upstream intron (5 UI), is specifically expressed in the entire silkworm midgut. In our previous study, the promoter region upstream of the 5 UI of BmAPN4 was cloned and identified as the P3 promoter (P3P) with activity only in the anterior midgut. In this study, the sequence consisting of the P3P and the 5 UI was cloned and named as P3P+5 UI. A transgenic vector was constructed in which EGFP was controlled by P3P+5 UI. Transgenic P3+5 UI silkworms were generated by embryo microinjection. RT-PCR showed P3P+5 UI activity throughout the larval stage. Intense green fluorescence was seen only in the entire midgut of P3+5 UI silkworms and expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. qPCR revealed that expression of EGFP in the anterior midgut of P3+5 UI silkworms was 64% higher than in P3 silkworms, indicating the 5 UI sustained intron-mediated enhancement of gene expression. These results suggested that the BmAPN4 5 UI affected the level and site of expression. The 5 UI was cloned and added behind P2P, another specific promoter with activity only in the anterior midgut of silkworm, to construct the P2P+5 UI and transgenic P2+5 UI silkworms. Expression patterns were the same for P2P+5 UI and P2P, suggesting that the 5UI of BmAPN4 did not affect P2P. This study found that the BmAPN4 5 UI affected the amount and location of gene expression. Its influence appeared to be dependent on a specific promoter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cryogenic Cam Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A cryogenic cam butterfly valve has a body that includes an axially extending fluid conduit formed there through. A disc lug is connected to a back side of a valve disc and has a circular bore that receives and is larger than a cam of a cam shaft. The valve disc is rotatable for a quarter turn within the body about a lug axis that is offset from the shaft axis. Actuating the cam shaft in the closing rotational direction first causes the camming side of the cam of the cam shaft to rotate the disc lug and the valve disc a quarter turn from the open position to the closed position. Further actuating causes the camming side of the cam shaft to translate the valve disc into sealed contact with the valve seat. Opening rotational direction of the cam shaft reverses these motions.

  15. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion

    OpenAIRE

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choic...

  16. Evolution of color and vision of butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Butterfly eyes consist of three types of ommatidia, which are more or less randomly arranged in a spatially regular lattice. The corneal nipple array and the tapetum, Optical Structures that many but not all butterflies share with moths, Suggest that moths are ancestral to butterflies, in agreement

  17. Plasmodium ookinetes coopt mammalian plasminogen to invade the mosquito midgut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Anil K; Coppens, Isabelle; Gårdsvoll, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    inhibits oocyst development of both Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum, suggesting that enolase may act as an invasion ligand. Importantly, we demonstrate that surface enolase captures plasminogen from the mammalian blood meal via its lysine motif (DKSLVK) and that this interaction is essential...... for ookinete invasion. The results support the hypothesis that enolase on the surface of Plasmodium ookinetes plays a dual role in midgut invasion: by acting as a ligand that interacts with the midgut epithelium and, further, by capturing plasminogen, whose conversion to active plasmin promotes the invasion...

  18. Ultrastructure and immunolocalization of digestive enzymes in the midgut of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Maria do Carmo Q; Terra, Walter R; Moreira, Nathália R; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, Jose Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus has been utilized in biological control programs. Its midgut is anatomically divided into anterior, middle and posterior regions, which play different roles in the digestive process. We describe the midgut ultrastructure and the secretion of digestive enzymes in the midgut of P. nigrispinus. Midguts were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy and the digestive enzymes amylase, cathepsin L, aminopeptidase and α-glucosidase were immunolocalized. The ultrastructural features of the digestive cells in the anterior, middle and posterior midgut regions suggest that they play a role in digestive enzyme synthesis, ion and nutrient absorption, storage and excretion. The digestive enzymes have different distribution along the midgut regions of the predator P. nigrispinus. Amylase, aminopeptidase and α-glucosidase occur in three midgut regions, whereas cathepsin L occurs in the middle and posterior midgut regions. The anterior midgut region of P. nigrispinus seems to play a role in water absorption, the middle midgut may be involved in nutrient absorption and the posterior midgut region is responsible for water transport to the midgut lumen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extended season for northern butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  20. Long SAGE analysis of genes differentially expressed in the midgut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    epidermis, head, anterior silk gland (AMG), median silk gland (MSG), posterior silk gland (MSG), hemocyte, midgut (MG), malpighian tubule (MT), ovary and fat body (FB), were sampled on day three of the 5th ...... Chromosomes Cancer, 33: 252-261. Erdmann VA, Barciszewska MZ, Hochberg A, Groot N, Barciszewski J.

  1. Approach to the Interaction Studies of Aristolochia maxima and the Caterpillars of Butterflies Battus polydamas polydamas and Parides panares erythrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Claro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Most butterflies of the tribe Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae sequester aristolochic acids (AA for their protection. These acids are derived from their host plants -family Aristolochiaceae- upon which they feed on during their larval stages. Using analytical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC methods we were able to detect the presence of aristolochic acids I and II both in the young leaves of Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae and in the caterpillars of the butterflies Battus polydamas polydamas and Parides panares erythrus (Papilionidae, Papilioninae. Aristolochic acid I was the major constituent found, followed by lesser amounts of Aristoloquic acid II. These results confirm that the host-animal interaction among butterflies of the studied species and A. maxima plants is mediated, by aristolochic acids.

  2. Observations of Resource Use by the Threatened Diana Fritillary Butterfly (Speyeria diana in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie N. Wells

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present four summers (2006–2009 of field observations of the Diana fritillary, Speyeria diana (Cramer, 1777, throughout the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, in the eastern portion of its distribution. We describe our observations of resource use by S. diana in sites located in Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. Butterflies imbibed nectar from five genera (>11 species of flowering plants and also imbibed liquid from dirt roads and horse manure. The majority of butterflies (57% were observed feeding on milkweed, Asclepias spp., a high-quality nectar-producing plant which is known to be an important resource for many Lepidoptera. We documented 14 species of Viola spp., the larval host plant used by Speyeria, in our survey sites. All butterflies were marked to observe their movement. Recapture rates ranged from 17% to 56%, suggesting that dispersal of S. diana out of suitable habitat was somewhat limited.

  3. The ultrastructure of the midgut epithelium in millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinka, A; Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Vilimova, J; Tajovský, K; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M; Chajec, Ł; Sonakowska, L; Kamińska, K; Hyra, M; Poprawa, I

    2014-09-01

    The midgut epithelia of the millipedes Polyxenus lagurus, Archispirostreptus gigas and Julus scandinavius were analyzed under light and transmission electron microscopies. In order to detect the proliferation of regenerative cells, labeling with BrdU and antibodies against phosphohistone H3 were employed. A tube-shaped midgut of three millipedes examined spreads along the entire length of the middle region of the body. The epithelium is composed of digestive, secretory and regenerative cells. The digestive cells are responsible for the accumulation of metals and the reserve material as well as the synthesis of substances, which are then secreted into the midgut lumen. The secretions are of three types - merocrine, apocrine and microapocrine. The oval or pear-like shaped secretory cells do not come into contact with the midgut lumen and represent the closed type of secretory cells. They possess many electron-dense granules (J. scandinavius) or electron-dense granules and electron-lucent vesicles (A. gigas, P. lagurus), which are accompanied by cisterns of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The regenerative cells are distributed individually among the basal regions of the digestive cells. The proliferation and differentiation of regenerative cells into the digestive cells occurred in J. scandinavius and A. gigas, while these processes were not observed in P. lagurus. As a result of the mitotic division of regenerative cells, one of the newly formed cells fulfills the role of a regenerative cell, while the second one differentiates into a digestive cell. We concluded that regenerative cells play the role of unipotent midgut stem cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial and sex-specific dissection of the Anopheles gambiae midgut transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahairaki Vassiliki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The midgut of hematophagous insects, such as disease transmitting mosquitoes, carries out a variety of essential functions that mostly relate to blood feeding. The midgut of the female malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae is a major site of interactions between the parasite and the vector. Distinct compartments and cell types of the midgut tissue carry out specific functions and vector borne pathogens interact and infect different parts of the midgut. Results A microarray based global gene expression approach was used to compare transcript abundance in the four major female midgut compartments (cardia, anterior, anterior part of posterior and posterior part of posterior midgut and between the male and female Anopheles gambiae midgut. Major differences between the female and male midgut gene expression relate to digestive processes and immunity. Each compartment has a distinct gene function profile with the posterior midgut expressing digestive enzyme genes and the cardia and anterior midgut expressing high levels of antimicrobial peptide and other immune gene transcripts. Interestingly, the cardia expressed several known anti-Plasmodium factors. A parallel peptidomic analysis of the cardia identified known mosquito antimicrobial peptides as well as several putative short secreted peptides that are likely to represent novel antimicrobial factors. Conclusion The A. gambiae sex specific midgut and female midgut compartment specific transcriptomes correlates with their known functions. The significantly greater functional diversity of the female midgut relate to hematophagy that is associated with digestion and nutrition uptake as well as exposes it to a variety of pathogens, and promotes growth of its endogenous microbial flora. The strikingly high proportion of immunity related factors in the cardia tissue most likely serves the function to increase sterility of ingested sugar and blood. A detailed characterization of the

  5. Genetic transformation of midgut bacteria from the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Freder; Li, Haiwen; Vinson, S Bradleigh; Coates, Craig J

    2009-05-01

    In our previous study we isolated 10 bacterial species from fourth-instar larval midguts of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Here we report the genetic transformation and reintroduction of three species (Kluyvera cryocrescens, Serratia marcescens, and isolate 38) into the fire ant host. All three species were transformed with the plasmid vector, pZeoDsRed. High expression levels of DsRed were observed and the plasmid is maintained in these bacteria at 37 degrees C in the absence of antibiotic selection for at least 9 days of subculturing. The transformed bacteria were successfully reintroduced into fire ant larvae and survived in the fire ant gut for at least 7 days. Upon pupal emergence, 7 days after reintroduction, transformed bacteria can still be isolated, however, most were passed out in the meconium. We further demonstrated that the engineered bacteria could be spread within the colony by feeding this meconium to naive larvae with the aid of worker fire ants.

  6. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  7. Butterflies of the high-altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despland, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 5000 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low-altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life history strategies and relationships with host plants.

  8. Butterflies of the high altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eDespland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 500 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats as well as in high and low altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life-history strategies and relationships with host plants.

  9. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns.

  10. A physiologically-oriented transcriptomic analysis of the midgut of Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Nathalia R; Cardoso, Christiane; Dias, Renata O; Ferreira, Clelia; Terra, Walter R

    2017-05-01

    Physiological data showed that T. molitor midgut is buffered at pH 5.6 at the two anterior thirds and at 7.9 at the posterior third. Furthermore, water is absorbed and secreted at the anterior and posterior midgut, respectively, driving a midgut counter flux of fluid. To look for the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena and nutrient absorption as well, a transcriptomic approach was used. For this, 11 types of transporters were chosen from the midgut transcriptome obtained by pyrosequencing (Roche 454). After annotation with the aid of databanks and manual curation, the sequences were validated by RT-PCR. The expression level of each gene at anterior, middle and posterior midgut and carcass (larva less midgut) was evaluated by RNA-seq taking into account reference sequences based on 454 contigs and reads obtained by Illumina sequencing. The data showed that sugar and amino acid uniporters and symporters are expressed along the whole midgut. In the anterior midgut are found transporters for NH3 and NH4+ that with a chloride channel may be responsible for acidifying the lumen. At the posterior midgut, bicarbonate-Cl- antiporter with bicarbonate supplied by carbonic anhydrase may alkalinize the lumen. Water absorption caused mainly by an anterior Na+-K+-2Cl- symporter and water secretion caused by a posterior K+-Cl- may drive the midgut counter flux. Transporters that complement the action of those described were also found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Butterfly Diversity of Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprih Harsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study to find out the diversity of butterflies at the Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM, Bhopal, was carried out over a period of six months from October 2013 to March 2014. A total of 55 butterfly species belonging to 5 families, namely, Hesperiidae (7 species, Papilionidae (4 species, Pieridae (10 species, Lycaenidae (13 species, and Nymphalidae (21 species, were recorded (with photographic record during the study from three different habitats of campus: open scrub, dry deciduous, and urbanized habitat. Shannon diversity indices and Pielou’s evenness index were calculated for all the habitats. Shannon index was found to be highest for open scrub (3.76. Out of 54 species, Eurema brigitta was the most dominant species followed by Eurema hecabe, Junonia lemonias, and Phalanta phalantha. Dominance of these species can be explained by the presence of their larval and host plants in the campus.

  12. On butterfly effect in higher derivative gravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Davody, Ali; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2016-11-01

    We study butterfly effect in D-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. At critical point two velocities coincide.

  13. On butterfly effect in higher derivative gravities

    OpenAIRE

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Davody, Ali; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed

    2016-01-01

    We study butterfly effect in $D$-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. A...

  14. On butterfly effect in higher derivative gravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davody, Ali; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-07

    We study butterfly effect in D-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. At critical point two velocities coincide.

  15. Navigational Strategies of Migrating Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-10

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0339 NAVIGATIONAL STRATEGIES OF MIGRATING MONARCH BUTTERFLIES Steven Reppert UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS Final Report 11/10/2014...Final Progress Statement to (Dr. Patrick Bradshaw) Contract/Grant Title: Navigational Strategies of Migrating Monarch Butterflies Contract...Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0480 Reporting Period: 01-Sept-10 to 31-Aug-14 Overview of accomplishments: Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus

  16. Warning Color Changes in Response to Food Deprivation in the Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, Kimberly V.; Nahm, Alexandra C.; Rutowski, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Predation on distasteful animals should favor warning coloration that is relatively conspicuous and phenotypically invariable. However, even among similarly colored individuals there can be variation in their warning signals. In butterflies, individual differences in larval feeding history could cause this variation. The warning signal of the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) consists of both a blue iridescent patch and pigmentbased orange spots on the ventral hindwing. B. philenor males also display a dorsal surface iridescent patch that functions as a sexual indicator signal. A previous study of iridescence in B. philenor found that the iridescent blue on both the dorsal and ventral hind wings is variable and significantly different between lab-reared and field-caught individuals. These differences could be the result of larval food deprivation in the field. Through experimental manipulation of larval diet, larval food deprivation was evaluated as a potential cause of the differences observed between lab and field individuals, and if food deprivation is a source of inter-individual variation in warning signals. B. philenor larvae were food restricted starting at two points in the last larval instar, and one group was fed through pupation. Adult coloration was then compared. Food deprivation led to poorer adult condition, as indicated by lower adult body mass, forewing length, and fat content of stressed individuals. As the level of food deprivation increased, the hue of the iridescent patches on both the dorsal and ventral hind wing shifted to shorter wavelengths, and the chroma of the orange spots decreased. The shifts in iridescent color did not match the differences previously found between lab and field individuals. However, the treatment differences indicate that food deprivation may be a significant source of warning color variation. The differences between the treatment groups are likely detectable by predators

  17. Butterflies regulate wing temperatures using radiative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Shi, Norman Nan; Ren, Crystal; Pelaez, Julianne; Bernard, Gary D.; Yu, Nanfang; Pierce, Naomi

    2017-09-01

    Butterfly wings are live organs embedded with multiple sensory neurons and, in some species, with pheromoneproducing cells. The proper function of butterfly wings demands a suitable temperature range, but the wings can overheat quickly in the sun due to their small thermal capacity. We developed an infrared technique to map butterfly wing temperatures and discovered that despite the wings' diverse visible colors, regions of wings that contain live cells are the coolest, resulting from the thickness of the wings and scale nanostructures. We also demonstrated that butterflies use behavioral traits to prevent overheating of their wings.

  18. The fine structure of the midgut epithelium in Xerobiotus pseudohufelandi (Iharos, 1966 (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M. Rost-Roszkowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of our studies were to describe the ultrastructure of the midgut epithelial cells of the eutardigrade Xerobiotus pseudohufelandi and to determine if there are any differences in the ultrastructure of midgut epithelial cells between males and females. The analysis was performed with the use of the light and transmission electron microscopes. In X. pseudohufelandi the midgut epithelium is composed of digestive cells, but in the anterior portion of the midgut a group of cells with different ultrastructure has been observed. Histochemical staining showed the accumulation of reserve material in the cytoplasm of digestive cells. We suggest that some of them fulfil the role of regenerative cells (crescent-like cells, midgut stem cells, whereas others are differentiating cells which form new digestive cells. No differences in the ultrastructure of the midgut epithelium between males and females were distinguished except in the amount of multivesicular bodies.

  19. Ecology and evolution of mountain butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with speciation processes, thermal ecology and habitat use in Holarctic mountain and arctic butterflies. It demonstrates a crucial role of environmental heterogeneity for speciation, survival of butterfly lineages, coexistence of closely related species and, finally, for resource use of sexes with different habitats demands at the level of individual species.

  20. The Butterfly Effect for Physics Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Valentine, John H.

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost chaos dynamics lab is developed for quantitative demonstration of the butterfly effect using a magnetic pendulum. Chaotic motion is explored by recording magnetic time series. Students analyze the data in Excel® to investigate the butterfly effect as well as the reconstruction of the strange attractor using time delay plots. The lab…

  1. Numerical Analysis of Large Diameter Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngchul, Park; Xueguan, Song

    In this paper, a butterfly valve with the diameter of 1,800 mm was studied. Three-dimensional numerical technique by using commercial code CFX were conducted to observe the flow patterns and to measure flow coefficient, hydrodynamic torque coefficient and so on, when the large butterfly valve operated with various angles and uniform incoming velocity.

  2. Retinal regionalization and heterogeneity of butterfly eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Kinoshita, M; Yang, EC; Arikawa, K

    2001-01-01

    The regional characteristics of the eyes of butterflies from different families have been surveyed using epi-illumination microscopy, utilizing the eyeshine visible due to the tapetum situated proximally to the rhabdom. All butterflies studied have a high spatial acuity in the frontal region. The

  3. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  4. Consequences of Food Restriction for Immune Defense, Parasite Infection, and Fitness in Monarch Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Alexa Fritzsche; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have a finite pool of resources to allocate toward multiple competing needs, such as development, reproduction, and enemy defense. Abundant resources can support investment in multiple traits simultaneously, but limited resources might promote trade-offs between fitness-related traits and immune defenses. We asked how food restriction at both larval and adult life stages of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) affected measures of immunity, fitness, and immune-fitness interactions. We experimentally infected a subset of monarchs with a specialist protozoan parasite to determine whether parasitism further affected these relationships and whether food restriction influenced the outcome of infection. Larval food restriction reduced monarch fitness measures both within the same life stage (e.g., pupal mass) as well as later in life (e.g., adult lifespan); adult food restriction further reduced adult lifespan. Larval food restriction lowered both hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity at the larval stage, and the effects of larval food restriction on phenoloxidase activity persisted when immunity was sampled at the adult stage. Adult food restriction reduced only adult phenoloxidase activity but not hemocyte concentration. Parasite spore load decreased with one measure of larval immunity, but food restriction did not increase the probability of parasite infection. Across monarchs, we found a negative relationship between larval hemocyte concentration and pupal mass, and a trade-off between adult hemocyte concentration and adult life span was evident in parasitized female monarchs. Adult life span increased with phenoloxidase activity in some subsets of monarchs. Our results emphasize that food restriction can alter fitness and immunity across multiple life stages. Understanding the consequences of resource limitation for immune defense is therefore important for predicting how increasing constraints on wildlife resources will affect fitness and

  5. Autecology of the common mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, J B; Ramana, S P Venkata; Reddi, C Subba

    2002-04-01

    The adults of the common mormon butterfly Papilio polytes Linn. feed on a variety of floral species. The larval food plants in the study area included Citrus limon and Murraya koenigii both of the family Rutaceae. The eggs are laid singly, and the hatching time is three days. The larvae pass through five instars. The larval growth is directly correlated with the quantity of food consumed. The AD (approximate digestibility) values decreased from first instar to the last, whereas the ECD (efficiency of conversion of digested food) and ECI (efficiency of conversion of ingested food) values increased, thus bearing an inverse relationship with AD. The development time from egg to adult is 28-30, giving 11-12 generations in a year, but with better breeding during August-February. Thus P. polytes is multivoltine.

  6. The RNA interference pathway affects midgut infection- and escape barriers for Sindbis virus in Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Ken E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RNA interference (RNAi pathway acts as an innate antiviral immune response in Aedes aegypti, modulating arbovirus infection of mosquitoes. Sindbis virus (SINV; family: Togaviridae, genus: Alphavirus is an arbovirus that infects Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. SINV strain TR339 encounters a midgut escape barrier (MEB during infection of Ae. aegypti. The nature of this barrier is not well understood. To investigate the role of the midgut as the central organ determining vector competence for arboviruses, we generated transgenic mosquitoes in which the RNAi pathway was impaired in midgut tissue of bloodfed females. We used these mosquitoes to reveal effects of RNAi impairment in the midgut on SINV replication, midgut infection and dissemination efficiencies, and mosquito longevity. Results As a novel tool for studying arbovirus-mosquito interactions, we engineered a transgenic mosquito line with an impaired RNAi pathway in the midgut of bloodfed females by silencing expression of the Aa-dcr2 gene. In midgut tissue of the transgenic Carb/dcr16 line, Aa-dcr2 expression was reduced ~50% between 1-7 days post-bloodmeal (pbm when compared to the recipient mosquito strain. After infection with SINV-TR339EGFP, Aa-dcr2 expression levels were enhanced in both mosquito strains. In the RNAi pathway impaired mosquito strain SINV titers and midgut infection rates were significantly higher at 7 days pbm. There was also a strong tendency for increased virus dissemination rates among the transgenic mosquitoes. Between 7-14 days pbm, SINV was diminished in midgut tissue of the transgenic mosquitoes. Transgenic impairment of the RNAi pathway and/or SINV infection did not affect longevity of the mosquitoes. Conclusions We showed that RNAi impaired transgenic mosquitoes are a useful tool for studying arbovirus-mosquito interactions at the molecular level. Following ingestion by Ae. aegypti, the recombinant SINV-TR339EGFP was confronted with both

  7. Bacterial diversity analysis of larvae and adult midgut microflora using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods in lab-reared and field-collected Anopheles stephensi-an Asian malarial vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adak Tridibesh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are intermediate hosts for numerous disease causing organisms. Vector control is one of the most investigated strategy for the suppression of mosquito-borne diseases. Anopheles stephensi is one of the vectors of malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. The parasite undergoes major developmental and maturation steps within the mosquito midgut and little is known about Anopheles-associated midgut microbiota. Identification and characterization of the mosquito midgut flora is likely to contribute towards better understanding of mosquito biology including longevity, reproduction and mosquito-pathogen interactions that are important to evolve strategies for vector control mechanisms. Results Lab-reared and field-collected A. stephensi male, female and larvae were screened by "culture-dependent and culture-independent" methods. Five 16S rRNA gene library were constructed form lab and field-caught A. stephensi mosquitoes and a total of 115 culturable isolates from both samples were analyzed further. Altogether, 68 genera were identified from midgut of adult and larval A. stephensi, 53 from field-caught and 15 from lab-reared mosquitoes. A total of 171 and 44 distinct phylotypes having 85 to 99% similarity with the closest database matches were detected among field and lab-reared A. stephensi midgut, respectively. These OTUs had a Shannon diversity index value of 1.74–2.14 for lab-reared and in the range of 2.75–3.49 for field-caught A. stephensi mosquitoes. The high species evenness values of 0.93 to 0.99 in field-collected adult and larvae midgut flora indicated the vastness of microbial diversity retrieved by these approaches. The dominant bacteria in field-caught adult male A. stephensi were uncultured Paenibacillaceae while in female and in larvae it was Serratia marcescens, on the other hand in lab-reared mosquitoes, Serratia marcescens and Cryseobacterium meninqosepticum bacteria were found to be abundant. Conclusion

  8. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk, vi...

  9. Butterfly of Assam University Campus in Silchar: Can Academic Institutions Contribute to Conservation of Species Diversity in Northeastern Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrajit Deb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Northeast India is amongst most bio-diverse ecological communities although recent developmental activities marred the environment to a great extent. Assam University campus in Silchar is situated in Barak valley of Assam, boasting a variety of habitats supporting invertebrate diversity. Heavy rainfall during monsoon increases vegetation and in turn larval food plants and overall butterfly density. Total 38 butterfly species were identified belonging to 30 genera under 5 families: Nymphalidae having the maximum species richness (58%, followed by Hesperiidae (13%, Lycaenidae (13%, Pieridae (11% and Papilionidae (5%. This paper focuses on the problems and possible solutions towards butterfly conservation and highlights the role of academic institutions in conserving biodiversity by acting as green spaces for reducing effects of climate change, carbon sequestration and lowering of energy consumption among other benefits.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum ookinetes require mosquito midgut chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans for cell invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinglasan, R.R.; Alaganan, A.; Ghosh, A.K.; Saito, A.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Jacobs-Lorena, M.

    2007-01-01

    Malaria transmission entails development of the Plasmodium parasite in its insect vector, the Anopheles mosquito. Parasite invasion of the mosquito midgut is the critical first step and involves adhesion to host epithelial cell ligands. Partial evidence suggests that midgut oligosaccharides are

  11. Butterfly Diversity from Farmlands of Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Théodore Munyuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect information about the diversity of butterfly communities in the mixed coffee-banana mosaic (seminatural, agricultural landscapes of rural central Uganda. Data were collected for one year (2006 using fruit-bait traps, line transect walk-and-counts, and hand nets. A total of 56,315 individuals belonging to 331 species, 95 genera, and 6 families were sampled. The most abundant species was Bicyclus safitza (14.5% followed by Acraea acerata (6.3%, Catopsilia florella (6.5% and Junonia sophia (6.1%. Significant differences in abundance, species richness, and diversity of butterflies occurred between the 26 study sites. Farmland butterflies visited a variety of habitats within and around sites, but important habitats included woodlands, fallows, hedgerows, swampy habitats, abandoned gardens, and home gardens. The highest diversity and abundance of butterflies occurred in sites that contained forest remnants. Thus, forest reserves in the surrounding of fields increased the conservation values of coffee-banana agroforestry systems for butterflies. Their protection from degradation should be a priority for policy makers since they support a species-rich community of butterflies pollinating cultivated plants. Farmers are encouraged to protect and increase on-farm areas covered by complex traditional agroforests, linear, and nonlinear seminatural habitats to provide sufficient breeding sites and nectar resources for butterflies.

  12. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Intra-specific diversity of Serratia marcescens in Anopheles mosquito midgut defines Plasmodium transmission capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hironori; Okado, Kiyoshi; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Badolo, Athanase; Aonuma, Hiroka; Nelson, Bryce; Fukumoto, Shinya; Xuan, Xuenan; Sagnon, N'Fale; Kanuka, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    A critical stage in malaria transmission occurs in the Anopheles mosquito midgut, when the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, ingested with blood, first makes contact with the gut epithelial surface. To understand the response mechanisms within the midgut environment, including those influenced by resident microbiota against Plasmodium, we focus on a midgut bacteria species' intra-specific variation that confers diversity to the mosquito's competency for malaria transmission. Serratia marcescens isolated from either laboratory-reared mosquitoes or wild populations in Burkina Faso shows great phenotypic variation in its cellular and structural features. Importantly, this variation is directly correlated with its ability to inhibit Plasmodium development within the mosquito midgut. Furthermore, this anti-Plasmodium function conferred by Serratia marcescens requires increased expression of the flagellum biosynthetic pathway that is modulated by the motility master regulatory operon, flhDC. These findings point to new strategies for controlling malaria through genetic manipulation of midgut bacteria within the mosquito. PMID:23571408

  14. Systematic Review of the Effects of Chemical Insecticides on Four Common Butterfly Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Mulé

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Safeguarding crop productivity by protecting crops from pest attacks entails the wide use of plant protection products that provide a quick, easy and cheap solution. The objective of this study is to understand the effects of insecticides used in agriculture on non-target butterflies, specifically on the families Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Hesperiidae, and Papilionidae. To achieve this goal, a formal systematic review was performed according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA guidelines, by entering a combination of keywords on 3 online databases. Three reviewers independently extracted information on study characteristics and quality. The main results were collected and grouped by the insecticide used, butterflies species and family, and endpoints. The output was valuable but heterogeneous as the endpoints and methodologies of the studies reviewed were different. Few experimental studies on the effects of insecticides on the most common butterfly families have been published. Naled and permethrin are the most commonly used insecticides in the experiments, whilst the target organisms of these studies are Vanessa cardui, Danaus plexippus, Heliconius charitonius, belonging to the Nymphalidae family, and Eumaeus atala, belonging to the Lycaenidae family; the effects were evaluated on all developmental stages, with special attention to the larval phase. This systematic review highlights the need for more studies on the effects of chemical insecticides on non-target Lepidoptera in light of their ecological importance and the extensive use of these chemical products.

  15. Outbred genome sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyan; Fan, Dingding; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guichun; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Li; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Dong, Yang; Chen, Yuan; Ding, Yun; Zhao, Ruoping; Feng, Mingji; Zhu, Yabing; Feng, Yue; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhu, Deying; Xiang, Hui; Feng, Xikan; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie; Kronforst, Marcus R; Wang, Wen

    2015-09-10

    Butterflies are exceptionally diverse but their potential as an experimental system has been limited by the difficulty of deciphering heterozygous genomes and a lack of genetic manipulation technology. Here we use a hybrid assembly approach to construct high-quality reference genomes for Papilio xuthus (contig and scaffold N50: 492 kb, 3.4 Mb) and Papilio machaon (contig and scaffold N50: 81 kb, 1.15 Mb), highly heterozygous species that differ in host plant affiliations, and adult and larval colour patterns. Integrating comparative genomics and analyses of gene expression yields multiple insights into butterfly evolution, including potential roles of specific genes in recent diversification. To functionally test gene function, we develop an efficient (up to 92.5%) CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method that yields obvious phenotypes with three genes, Abdominal-B, ebony and frizzled. Our results provide valuable genomic and technological resources for butterflies and unlock their potential as a genetic model system.

  16. Outbred genome sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyan; Fan, Dingding; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guichun; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Li; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Dong, Yang; Chen, Yuan; Ding, Yun; Zhao, Ruoping; Feng, Mingji; Zhu, Yabing; Feng, Yue; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhu, Deying; Xiang, Hui; Feng, Xikan; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Wang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies are exceptionally diverse but their potential as an experimental system has been limited by the difficulty of deciphering heterozygous genomes and a lack of genetic manipulation technology. Here we use a hybrid assembly approach to construct high-quality reference genomes for Papilio xuthus (contig and scaffold N50: 492 kb, 3.4 Mb) and Papilio machaon (contig and scaffold N50: 81 kb, 1.15 Mb), highly heterozygous species that differ in host plant affiliations, and adult and larval colour patterns. Integrating comparative genomics and analyses of gene expression yields multiple insights into butterfly evolution, including potential roles of specific genes in recent diversification. To functionally test gene function, we develop an efficient (up to 92.5%) CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method that yields obvious phenotypes with three genes, Abdominal-B, ebony and frizzled. Our results provide valuable genomic and technological resources for butterflies and unlock their potential as a genetic model system. PMID:26354079

  17. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Matthew D; Daniels, Jaret C; Kobziar, Leda N; Colburn, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  18. Complex dynamics underlie the evolution of imperfect wing pattern convergence in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Susan D; Briscoe, Adriana D; Mullen, Sean P

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid diversification that is strongly associated with ecological specialization. However, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms fueling adaptive diversification requires a detailed knowledge of how natural selection acts at multiple life-history stages. Butterflies within the genus Adelpha represent one of the largest and most diverse butterfly lineages in the Neotropics. Although Adelpha species feed on an extraordinary diversity of larval hosts, convergent evolution is widespread in this group, suggesting that selection for mimicry may contribute to adaptive divergence among species. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted predation studies in Costa Rica using artificial butterfly facsimiles. Specifically, we predicted that nontoxic, palatable Adelpha species that do not feed on host plants in the family Rubiaceae would benefit from sharing a locally convergent wing pattern with the presumably toxic Rubiaceae-feeding species via reduced predation. Contrary to expectations, we found that the presumed mimic was attacked significantly more than its locally convergent model at a frequency paralleling attack rates on both novel and palatable prey. Although these data reveal the first evidence for protection from avian predators by the supposed toxic, Rubiaceae-feeding Adelpha species, we conclude that imprecise mimetic patterns have high costs for Batesian mimics in the tropics. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. The extremely long-tongued neotropical butterfly Eurybia lycisca (Riodinidae): proboscis morphology and flower handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, Julia A S; Lieskonig, Nora R; Krenn, Harald W

    2011-03-01

    Few species of true butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) have evolved a proboscis that greatly exceeds the length of the body. This study is the first to examine the morphology of an extremely long butterfly proboscis and to describe how it is used to obtain nectar from flowers with very deep corolla tubes. The proboscis of Eurybia lycisca (Riodinidae) is approximately twice as long as the body. It has a maximal length of 45.6 mm (mean length 36.5 mm ± 4.1 S.D., N = 20) and is extremely thin, measuring only about 0.26 mm at its maximum diameter. The proboscis has a unique arrangement of short sensilla at the tip, and its musculature arrangement is derived. The flower handling times on the preferred nectar plant, Calathea crotalifera (Marantaceae), were exceptionally long (mean 54.5 sec ± 28.5 S.D., N = 26). When feeding on the deep flowers remarkably few proboscis movements occur. The relationship between Eurybia lycisca and its preferred nectar plant and larval host plant, Calathea crotalifera, is not mutualistic since the butterfly exploits the flowers without contributing to their pollination. We hypothesize that the extraordinarily long proboscis of Eurybia lycisca is an adaptation for capitalizing on the pre-existing mutualistic interaction of the host plant with its pollinating long-tongued nectar feeding insects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-gradient variation in growth rate and development time of a broadly distributed butterfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Barton

    Full Text Available Widespread species often show geographic variation in thermally-sensitive traits, providing insight into how species respond to shifts in temperature through time. Such patterns may arise from phenotypic plasticity, genetic adaptation, or their interaction. In some cases, the effects of genotype and temperature may act together to reduce, or to exacerbate, phenotypic variation in fitness-related traits across varying thermal environments. We find evidence for such interactions in life-history traits of Heteronympha merope, a butterfly distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient in south-eastern Australia. We show that body size in this butterfly is negatively related to developmental temperature in the laboratory, in accordance with the temperature-size rule, but not in the field, despite very strong temperature gradients. A common garden experiment on larval thermal responses, spanning the environmental extremes of H. merope's distribution, revealed that butterflies from low latitude (warmer climate populations have relatively fast intrinsic growth and development rates compared to those from cooler climates. These synergistic effects of genotype and temperature across the landscape (co-gradient variation are likely to accentuate phenotypic variation in these traits, and this interaction must be accounted for when predicting how H. merope will respond to temperature change through time. These results highlight the importance of understanding how variation in life-history traits may arise in response to environmental change. Without this knowledge, we may fail to detect whether organisms are tracking environmental change, and if they are, whether it is by plasticity, adaptation or both.

  1. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Audusseau

    Full Text Available Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year. We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  2. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audusseau, Hélène; Kolb, Gundula; Janz, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io) to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year). We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  3. Use of space and resources in a Mediterranean population of the butterfly Euphydryas aurinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguira, Miguel L.; Martín, José; García-Barros, Enrique; Viejo, José Luis

    Population parameters of a central Spanish population of the marsh fritillary butterfly, Euphydryas aurinia (Rott.), were studied between 1990 and 1991. Numbers were very similar in the two study years, but adult emergence was delayed 15 days in the second year as a consequence of variation in weather conditions. The nectar sources used by adults were different in the two years and were correlated with the most abundant plants available during the flight period. Adult abundance was correlated with the presence of the larval foodplant ( Lonicera periclymenum) in open woodland and was higher where this habitat was mixed with open areas, where nectar sources abound. Estimates of male population numbers were higher than those of females, suggesting that males used wider ranges than females, or a higher residence rate for males. Nevertheless mobility did not differ significantly between the sexes. The conservation of the species in central Spain depends on maintaining patches of oak woodlands, important for the presence of larval foodplants. Large numbers of the butterfly in the Natural Park study area are favoured by traditional management including charcoal production and extensive grazing by cattle and goats.

  4. Why Small Is Beautiful: Wing Colour Is Free from Thermoregulatory Constraint in the Small Lycaenid Butterfly, Polyommatus icarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, Rien; Breuker, Casper J; Hails, Rosemary S; Dennis, Roger L H; Shreeve, Tim G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the roles of wing melanisation, weight, and basking posture in thermoregulation in Polyommatus Icarus, a phenotypically variable and protandrous member of the diverse Polyommatinae (Lycaenidae). Under controlled experimental conditions, approximating to marginal environmental conditions for activity in the field (= infrequent flight, long duration basking periods), warming rates are maximised with fully open wings and maximum body temperatures are dependent on weight. Variation in wing melanisation within and between sexes has no effect on warming rates; males and females which differ in melanisation had similar warming rates. Posture also affected cooling rates, consistent with cooling being dependent on convective heat loss. We hypothesise that for this small sized butterfly, melanisation has little or no effect on thermoregulation. This may be a factor contributing to the diversity of wing colours in the Polyommatinae. Because of the importance of size for thermoregulation in this small butterfly, requirements for attaining a suitable size to confer thermal stability in adults may also be a factor influencing larval feeding rates, development time and patterns of voltinism. Our findings indicate that commonly accepted views of the importance of melanisation, posture and size to thermoregulation, developed using medium and large sized butterflies, are not necessarily applicable to small sized butterflies.

  5. Why Small Is Beautiful: Wing Colour Is Free from Thermoregulatory Constraint in the Small Lycaenid Butterfly, Polyommatus icarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rien De Keyser

    Full Text Available We examined the roles of wing melanisation, weight, and basking posture in thermoregulation in Polyommatus Icarus, a phenotypically variable and protandrous member of the diverse Polyommatinae (Lycaenidae. Under controlled experimental conditions, approximating to marginal environmental conditions for activity in the field (= infrequent flight, long duration basking periods, warming rates are maximised with fully open wings and maximum body temperatures are dependent on weight. Variation in wing melanisation within and between sexes has no effect on warming rates; males and females which differ in melanisation had similar warming rates. Posture also affected cooling rates, consistent with cooling being dependent on convective heat loss. We hypothesise that for this small sized butterfly, melanisation has little or no effect on thermoregulation. This may be a factor contributing to the diversity of wing colours in the Polyommatinae. Because of the importance of size for thermoregulation in this small butterfly, requirements for attaining a suitable size to confer thermal stability in adults may also be a factor influencing larval feeding rates, development time and patterns of voltinism. Our findings indicate that commonly accepted views of the importance of melanisation, posture and size to thermoregulation, developed using medium and large sized butterflies, are not necessarily applicable to small sized butterflies.

  6. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, on the midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri were analyzed. C. claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% during throughout the larval period. Light and electron microscopy showed severe damages in columnar cells, which had many cytoplasmic protrusions, clustering and ruptured of the microvilli, swollen cells, ruptured cells, dilatation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of extracellular spaces of the basal labyrinth, intercellular spaces and necrosis. The indirect ingestion of neem oil with prey can result in severe alterations showing direct cytotoxic effects of neem oil on midgut cells of C. claveri larvae. Therefore, the safety of neem oil to non-target species as larvae of C. claveri was refuted, thus the notion that plants derived are safer to non-target species must be questioned in future ecotoxicological studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of soybean trypsin inhibitor on hypopharyngeal gland protein content, total midgut protease activity and survival of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Pankiw, Tanya; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2005-09-01

    Insecticidal properties of protease inhibitors have been established in transgenic plants. In the wake of continuous research and rapid development of protease inhibitors it is important to assess possible effects on beneficial insects like the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). In this study, newly emerged caged bees were fed pollen diets containing three different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5% and 1% w:w) of soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). Hypopharyngeal gland protein content, total midgut proteolytic enzyme activity of these bees, and survival were measured. Bees fed 1% SBTI had significantly reduced hypopharyngeal gland protein content and midgut proteolytic enzyme activity. There were no significant differences between control, 0.1% and 0.5% SBTI treatments. Bees fed a diet containing 1% SBTI had the lowest survival, followed by 0.5% and 0.1%, over a 30-day period. We concluded that nurse bees fed a pollen diet containing at least 1% SBTI would be poor producers of larval food, potentially threatening colony growth and maintenance.

  8. Butterfly effect in 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.

  9. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  10. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  11. Biology: Birds and butterflies in climatic debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    A European-wide analysis of changing species distributions shows that butterflies outrun birds in the race to move northwards in response to climate change, but that neither group keeps up with increasing temperatures.

  12. Butterfly Survey on Pinckney Island NWR (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Butterfly (adult Lepidoptera) survey conducted monthly (May-Nov 2001) at nine locations within Pinckney Island NWR. These nine locations include Ibis Pond, Woodstork...

  13. Germline transformation of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Jeffrey M; Ramos, Diane M; Monteiro, Antónia

    2004-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary theory has frequently been inspired by the diversity of colour patterns on the wings of butterflies. More recently, these varied patterns have also become model systems for studying the evolution of developmental mechanisms. A technique that will facilitate our understanding of butterfly colour-pattern development is germline transformation. Germline transformation permits functional tests of candidate gene products and of cis-regulatory regions, and provides a mea...

  14. A Rearing Method for Argynnis (Speyeria diana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae That Avoids Larval Diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie N. Wells

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rearing protocol that allowed us to raise the threatened butterfly, Argynnis diana (Nymphalidae, while bypassing the first instar overwintering diapause. We compared the survival of offspring reared under this protocol from field-collected A. diana females from North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee. Larvae were reared in the lab on three phylogenetically distinct species of Southern Appalachian violets (Viola sororia, V. pubescens, and V. pedata. We assessed larval survival in A. diana to the last instar, pupation, and adulthood. Males reared in captivity emerged significantly earlier than females. An ANOVA revealed no evidence of host plant preference by A. diana toward three native violet species. We suggest that restoration of A. diana habitat which promotes a wide array of larval and adult host plants, is urgently needed to conserve this imperiled species into the future.

  15. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more...... of the minute posture sensing setae, proprioceptors, than expected from the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The excess of proprioceptors is suggested to be necessary for sensory input concerning the larval posture within the seed chamber. The trunk musculature includes an autapomorphic radial ventral...... musculature made up of unique multisegmental muscles. The combined presence of additional proprioceptors and the unique ventral musculature is proposed to be related to the larval movement within the confined space of the seed chamber, especially to a proposed somersault movement that allows the larva...

  16. A Dual-Butterfly Structure Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangming; Xiao, Dingbang; Li, Wenyin; Xu, Qiang; Hou, Zhanqiang; Wu, Xuezhong

    2017-12-11

    This paper reports a dual-butterfly structure gyroscope based on the traditional butterfly structure. This novel structure is composed of two butterfly structures, each of which contains a main vibrational beam, four proof masses, and a coupling mechanism. The coupling mechanism in this proposed structure couples the two single butterfly structures and keeps the driving mode phases of the two single butterfly gyroscopes exactly opposite, increasing the double difference of traditional butterfly gyroscopes to a quad difference, which has the potential advantage of improving bias instability and g-sensitivity. The gyroscope was fabricated using a standard microfabrication method and tested in laboratory conditions. The experimental results show a Q-factor of 10,967 in driving mode and there were two peaks in the frequency responses curve of sensing direction due to unavoidable fabrication errors. Scale factor and bias instability were also measured, reaching a scale factor of 10.9 mV/°/s and a bias instability of 10.7°/h, according to the Allan Variance curve.

  17. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallick, Tapas K

    2015-07-31

    Man's harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies' wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies' thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  18. Can butterflies cope with city life? Butterfly diversity in a young megacity in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Dong, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wilson, John-James

    2016-09-01

    During 30 years of unprecedented urbanization, plant diversity in Shenzhen, a young megacity in southern China, has increased dramatically. Although strongly associated with plant diversity, butterfly diversity generally declines with urbanization, but this has not been investigated in Shenzhen. Considering the speed of urbanization in Shenzhen and the large number of city parks, we investigated butterfly diversity in Shenzhen parks. We measured butterfly species richness in four microhabitats (groves, hedges, flowerbeds, and unmanaged areas) across 10 parks and examined the relationship with three park variables: park age, park size, and distance from the central business district. Butterflies were identified based on wing morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 1933 butterflies belonging to 74 species from six families; 20% of the species were considered rare. Butterfly species richness showed weak negative correlations with park age and distance from the central business district, but the positive correlation with park size was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Among microhabitat types, highest species richness was recorded in unmanaged areas. Our findings are consistent with others in suggesting that to promote urban butterfly diversity it is necessary to make parks as large as possible and to set aside areas for limited management. In comparison to neighbouring cities, Shenzhen parks have high butterfly diversity.

  19. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  20. Abdominal surgery in patients with midgut carcinoid tumors. [Preoperative radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerstroem, G.; Makridis, C.; Johansson, H. (Uppsala Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Surgery)

    1991-01-01

    In patients with midgut carcinoid tumors a curative, radical tumor removal should be attempted when possible. As these tumors are generally malignant, irrespective of size, the radical surgery implies that intestinal resection for excision of a primary tumor should be combined with an extended mesenteric resection. When the patients present with the carcinoid syndrome the disease is, with few exceptions, too advanced for curative surgery. However, surgery often has to be performed also in patients with the advanced carcinoids. Patients with more extensive disease may thus benefit from surgical debulking of large mesenteric or hepatic metastases. Moreover, when the patients present with abdominal symptoms it is important to exclude a threatening major abdominal complication such as intestinal obstruction or ischemia. As these complications may cause malnutrion and deterioration, it is important to treat them properly, sometimes by repeated surgery. (orig.).

  1. Feeding on toxic prey. The praying mantis (Mantodea) as predator of poisonous butterfly and moth (Lepidoptera) caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Dietrich; Wunder, Cora; Pogoda, Werner; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-06-01

    Caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, feed on milkweed plants, Asclepias spp. (Apocynaceae), and sequester their toxic cardenolides aimed at deterring predators. Nevertheless, Chinese praying mantids, Tenodera sinensis, consume these caterpillars after removing the midgut ("gutting") including its plant content. In the present study, monarch caterpillars raised on A. curassavica, and those of the death's-head hawkmoth, Acherontia atropos, raised on Atropa belladonna containing atropine, were fed to mantids, Hierodula membranacea, which removed the gut of both species discarding about 59% of cardenolides and more than 90% of atropine, respectively. The ingestion of these compounds produced no apparent ill effects in the mantids and both were excreted with faeces. On the other hand, when mantids were fed with larvae of two moth species, Amata mogadorensis and Brahmaea certia, raised on non-poisonous host plants, the mantids showed the same gutting behaviour, thereby discarding indigestible plant material. As polar compounds, e.g. cardenolides and atropine, are not absorbed from the mantids midgut and do not pass the gut membrane, this enables the mantids to feed on toxic prey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly Using interactivity to excite and educate children about butterflies and the National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lydia

    The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html

  3. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge Butterflies and Dragonflies List

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following butterfly and dragonfly list contains 72 butterfly species and 31 dragonfly and damselfly species that have been recorded by Dr. Brian G Scholtens, Dr....

  4. Interaction of Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus (TSWV) Glycoproteins with a Thrips Midgut Protein, a Potential Cellular Receptor for TSWV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandla, M D; Campbell, L R; Ullman, D E; Sherwood, J L

    1998-02-01

    ABSTRACT Interactions between viral and cellular membrane fusion proteins mediate virus penetration of cells for many arthropod-borne viruses. Electron microscope observations and circumstantial evidence indicate insect acquisition of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is receptor mediated, and TSWV membrane glycoproteins (GP1 and GP2) serve as virus attachment proteins. The tospoviruses are plant-infecting members of the family Bunyaviridae and are transmitted by several thrips species, including Frankliniella occidentalis. Gel overlay assays and immunolabeling were used to investigate the putative role of TSWV GPs as viral attachment proteins and deter mine whether a corresponding cellular receptor may be present in F. occidentalis. A single band in the 50-kDa region was detected with murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the TSWV-GPs when isolated TSWV or TSWV-GPs were used to overlay separated thrips proteins. This band was not detected when blots were probed with antibody to the non-structural protein encoded by the small RNA of TSWV or the TSWV nucleocapsid protein, nor were proteins from nonvector insects labeled. Anti-idiotype antibodies prepared to murine MAbs against GP1 or GP2 specifically labeled a single band at 50 kDa in Western blots and the plasmalemma of larval thrips midguts. These results support the putative role of the TSWV GPs as viral attachment proteins and identified potential cellular receptor(s) in thrips.

  5. A NOVEL CADHERIN-LIKE GENE FROM WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM, DIABROTICA VIRGIFERA VIRGIFERA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE), LARVAL MIDGUT TISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...

  6. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  7. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouro, Lucas D.; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C. S.; Waichel, Breno L.

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea.

  8. How Does Garlic Mustard Lure and Kill the West Virginia White Butterfly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Samantha L; Frisch, Tina; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Cipollini, Don

    2015-10-01

    As it pertains to insect herbivores, the preference-performance hypothesis posits that females will choose oviposition sites that maximize their offspring's fitness. However, both genetic and environmental cues contribute to oviposition preference, and occasionally "oviposition mistakes" occur, where insects oviposit on hosts unsuitable for larval development. Pieris virginiensis is a pierine butterfly native to North America that regularly oviposits on an invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, but the caterpillars are unable to survive. Alliaria petiolata has high concentrations of the glucosinolate sinigrin in its tissues, as well as a hydroxynitrile glucoside, alliarinoside. We investigated sinigrin as a possible cause of mistake oviposition, and sinigrin and alliarinoside as possible causes of larval mortality. We found that sinigrin applied to leaves of Cardamine diphylla, a major host of P. virginiensis that does not produce sinigrin, had no effect on oviposition rates. We tested the effect of sinigrin on larval performance using two host plants, one lacking sinigrin (C. diphylla) and one with sinigrin naturally present (Brassica juncea). We found no effect of sinigrin application on survival of caterpillars fed C. diphylla, but sinigrin delayed pupation and decreased pupal weight. On B. juncea, sinigrin decreased survival, consumption, and caterpillar growth. We also tested the response of P. virginiensis caterpillars to alliarinoside, a compound unique to A. petiolata, which was applied to B. oleracea. We found a significant reduction in survival, leaf consumption, and caterpillar size when alliarinoside was consumed. The 'novel weapon' alliarinoside likely is largely responsible for larval failure on the novel host A. petiolata. Sinigrin most likely contributes to the larval mortality observed, however, we did not observe any effect of sinigrin on oviposition by P. virginiensis females. Further research needs to be done on non-glucosinolate contact cues, and

  9. Does reclaimed water induce morphological changes in midguts of honeybees (Apis mellifera syriaca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Hananeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the death rate and morphological changes in the midgut of honey worker bees when reclaimed water was the only source of drinking compared with the case when fresh water was the normal source of drinking. Two feeding solutions were implemented: fresh water sugar solution and reclaimed water sugar solution for eight consecutive days. The cages were inspected daily for any deaths of the honeybees. At the end of the experiments, midguts were removed; processed and pathological changes of the midguts were reported. The usage of reclaimed water as a drinking water had negative impacts on the average deaths of the honeybee colonies as well as the morphology of their midguts. To the best of our knowledge, no such studies have been conducted before and this is the first study that addresses the usage of reclaimed water as a sole source drinking water for honeybee colonies.

  10. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  11. Effect of midgut proteolytic activity on susceptibility of lepidopteran larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza eTalaei-Hassanloui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt is the most effective microbial control agent for controlling numerous species from different insect orders. All subspecies and strains of B. thuringiensis can produce a spore and a crystalline parasporal body. This crystal which contains proteinaceous protoxins is dissolved in the alkaline midgut, the resulting molecule is then cleaved and activated by proteolytic enzymes and acts as a toxin. An interesting aspect of this activation process is that variations in midgut pH and protease activity have been shown to account for the spectrum of some Bt proteins activity. Thus, an important factor that could be a determinant of toxin activity is the presence of proteases in the midgut microenvironment of susceptible insects. Reciprocally, any alteration in the midgut protease composition of the host can result in resistance to Bt. Here in this paper, we reviewed this processes in general and presented our assays to reveal whether resistance mechanism to Bt in Diamondback Moth larvae could be due to the function of the midgut proteases? We estimated LC50 for both probable susceptible and resistant populations in laboratory and greenhouse tests. Then, the midgut protease activities of the B. thuringiensis ind

  12. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Murdock, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant-insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology.

  13. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Raquel S M; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo F

    2015-10-30

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes.

  14. Exploring sub-lethal effects of exposure to a nucleopolyhedrovirus in the speckled wood (Pararge aegeria) butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Helen; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J; Van Dyck, Hans; Turner, Emma; Hails, Rosemary S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the sub-lethal effects of larval exposure to baculovirus on host life history and wing morphological traits using a model system, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.) and the virus Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus. Males and females showed similar responses to the viral infection. Infection significantly reduced larval growth rate, whilst an increase in development time allowed the critical mass for pupation to be attained. There was no direct effect of viral infection on the wing morphological traits examined. There was, however, an indirect effect of resisting infection; larvae that took longer to develop had reduced resource investment in adult flight muscle mass. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. RNA interference of chitin synthase genes inhibits chitin biosynthesis and affects larval performance in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Feng; Mu, Li-Li; Chen, Xu; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Dietary introduction of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has great potential for management of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Identification of the most attractive candidate genes for RNA interference (RNAi) is the first step. In the present paper, three complete chitin synthase cDNA sequences (LdChSAa, LdChSAb and LdChSB) were cloned. LdChSAa and LdChSAb, two splicing variants of LdChSA gene, were highly expressed in ectodermally-derived epidermal cells forming epidermis, trachea, foregut and hindgut, whereas LdChSB was mainly transcribed in midgut cells. Feeding bacterially expressed dsChSA (derived from a common fragment of LdChSAa and LdChSAb), dsChSAa, dsChSAb and dsChSB in the second- and fourth-instar larvae specifically knocked down their target mRNAs. RNAi of LdChSAa+LdChSAb and LdChSAa lowered chitin contents in whole body and integument samples, and thinned tracheal taenidia. The resulting larvae failed to ecdyse, pupate, or emerge as adults. Comparably, knockdown of LdChSAb mainly affected pupal-adult molting. The LdChSAb RNAi pupae did not completely shed the old larval exuviae, which caused failure of adult emergence. In contrast, silencing of LdChSB significantly reduced foliage consumption, decreased chitin content in midgut sample, damaged midgut peritrophic matrix, and retarded larval growth. As a result, the development of the LdChSB RNAi hypomorphs was arrested. Our data reveal that these LdChSs are among the effective candidate genes for an RNAi-based control strategy against L. decemlineata.

  16. Holographic butterfly effect at quantum critical points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-10-01

    When the Lyapunov exponent λL in a quantum chaotic system saturates the bound λL ≤ 2π k B T , it is proposed that this system has a holographic dual described by a gravity theory. In particular, the butterfly effect as a prominent phenomenon of chaos can ubiquitously exist in a black hole system characterized by a shockwave solution near the horizon. In this paper we propose that the butterfly velocity can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT) in holographic theories. We provide evidences for this proposal with an anisotropic holographic model exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT), in which the derivatives of the butterfly velocity with respect to system parameters characterizes quantum critical points (QCP) with local extremes in zero temperature limit. We also point out that this proposal can be tested by experiments in the light of recent progress on the measurement of out-of-time-order correlation function (OTOC).

  17. Butterfly velocity bound and reverse isoperimetric inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.

    2017-03-01

    We study the butterfly effect of the AdS planar black holes in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We find that the butterfly velocities can be expressed by a universal formula vB2=T S /(2 VthP ). In doing so, we come upon a near-horizon geometrical formula for the thermodynamical volume Vth . We verify the volume formula by examining a variety of AdS black holes. We also show that the volume formula implies that the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality follows straightforwardly from the null-energy condition, for static AdS black holes. The inequality is thus related to an upper bound of the butterfly velocities.

  18. Butterfly rash with periodontitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvi Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashes can occur in any part of the body. But rash which appears on face has got both psychological and cosmetic effect on the patient. Rashes on face can sometimes be very challenging to physicians and dermatologists and those associated with oral manifestations pose a challenge to dentists. Butterfly rash is a red flat facial rash involving the malar region bilaterally and the bridge of the nose. The presence of a butterfly rash is generally a sign of lupus erythematosus (LE, but it can also include a plethora of conditions. The case presented here is of a female with butterfly rash along with typical bright red discoloration of gingiva. The clinical, histopathological and biochemical investigations suggested the presence of rosacea.

  19. increased larval competitive ability without

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... tion at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpreted through the lens of α-selection. We show here that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult ...

  20. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    of the range experienced by larvae in the sea, larvae were able to initiate exogenous feeding. There is thus no need to postulate extraordinarily high densities of food in larval nursery areas in order for the larvae to initiate exogenous feeding and the present observations do not support the comprehension...

  1. Sex-specific and blood meal-induced proteins of Anopheles gambiae midguts: analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent-Winter C

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa. The mosquito midgut constitutes a barrier that the parasite must cross if it is to develop and be transmitted. Despite the central role of the mosquito midgut in the host/parasite interaction, little is known about its protein composition. Characterisation of An. gambiae midgut proteins may identify the proteins that render An. gambiae receptive to the malaria parasite. Methods We carried out two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of An. gambiae midgut proteins and compared protein profiles for midguts from males, sugar-fed females and females fed on human blood. Results Very few differences were detected between male and female mosquitoes for the approximately 375 silver-stained proteins. Male midguts contained ten proteins not detected in sugar-fed or blood-fed females, which are therefore probably involved in male-specific functions; conversely, female midguts contained twenty-three proteins absent from male midguts. Eight of these proteins were specific to sugar-fed females, and another ten, to blood-fed females. Conclusion Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins found only in blood-fed female midguts, together with data from the recent sequencing of the An. gambiae genome, should make it possible to determine the role of these proteins in blood digestion or parasite receptivity.

  2. Enlightening Butterfly Conservation Efforts: The Importance of Natural Lighting for Butterfly Behavioral Ecology and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Seymoure

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Light is arguably the most important abiotic factor for living organisms. Organisms evolved under specific lighting conditions and their behavior, physiology, and ecology are inexorably linked to light. Understanding light effects on biology could not be more important as present anthropogenic effects are greatly changing the light environments in which animals exist. The two biggest anthropogenic contributors changing light environments are: (1 anthropogenic lighting at night (i.e., light pollution; and (2 deforestation and the built environment. I highlight light importance for butterfly behavior, physiology, and ecology and stress the importance of including light as a conservation factor for conserving butterfly biodiversity. This review focuses on four parts: (1 Introducing the nature and extent of light. (2 Visual and non-visual light reception in butterflies. (3 Implications of unnatural lighting for butterflies across several different behavioral and ecological contexts. (4. Future directions for quantifying the threat of unnatural lighting on butterflies and simple approaches to mitigate unnatural light impacts on butterflies. I urge future research to include light as a factor and end with the hopeful thought that controlling many unnatural light conditions is simply done by flipping a switch.

  3. Life History of Aricoris propitia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae—A Myrmecophilous Butterfly Obligately Associated with Fire Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Kaminski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages of Aricoris propitia (Stichel are described and illustrated for the first time, using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Females oviposit in at least seven host-plant families, always in the presence of fire ants (Solenopsis saevissima (Smith complex, without being attacked by them. Larvae are tended by ants during all larval and pupal stages. From the fourth instar on, larvae feed at night and rest during the day inside underground shelters constructed by ants on the host plant roots, and where pupation occurs. Several observed features, including ant-mediated oviposition, persistent ant attendance throughout all instars, and high spatiotemporal fidelity indicate that A. propitia is a myrmecophile obligately associated with fire ants. We propose A. propitia as an extraordinary model for studies on ant-butterfly evolutionary history in the Neotropics.

  4. Ecological genetics and evolution of the Large Blue butterfly – consequences of an extraordinary lifecycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Line Vej

    The large blue butterflies (genus Maculinea) have received much attention from both scientists and the general public. The reason for this is their highly specialized life cycle that depends on the dual presence of a species specific larval food-plant and host-ant. The genus consists of at least...... in population viability – both in terms of colonizing new suitable habitats and by enabling gene flow among neighbouring populations. I estimated the effective dispersal of M. arion, which is considered a sedentary species. Interestingly, gene flow occurs over distances 15 times further than the maximum...... recorded dispersal distance, however this depends on the presence of interconnected sites. Habitat loss often leads to reductions in population sizes and increasing isolation of populations. Remaining populations will consequently be more vulnerable to stochastic demographic and environmental effects...

  5. A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report explores a unique and treatable "butterfly"- glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a "butterfly" lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosis cerebri with significant edema and marked corpus callosum and fornix thickening. Contrast-enhanced and perfusion images revealed a confluent tumefactive lesion with a characteristic "broken-ring" pattern of enhancement, mass-effect and low perfusion; features favoring an alternative inflammatory pathology. This was peculiar as calloso-forniceal involvement of this nature has not been previously reported in inflammatory demyelinating mass lesions. This was confirmed as a tumefactive demyelination on histopathology. Following treatment, on clinical and imaging follow-up, significant resolution was evident suggesting a monophasic illness. This case highlights the stringent clinico-radiological-pathological approach required in the evaluation and management of butterfly lesions despite the striking imaging appearances. Tumefactive demyelination in this patient represents a clinically isolated syndromic presentation of an inflammatory pathology that can resemble gliomatosis cerebri. These "butterfly"-glioma mimics are scarcely reported in the literature, are eminently treatable with variable prognosis and prone for relapse.

  6. Ed Lorenz: Father of the 'Butterfly Effect'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ed Lorenz, rightfully acclaimed as the father of the 'Butterfly Effect', was an American math- ematician and meteorologist whose early work on weather prediction convinced the world at large about the unpredictability of weather. His seminal work on a simplified model for convec- tions in the atmosphere led to the modern ...

  7. From medicine to butterflies and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmesan, Camille

    2014-01-01

    My research focuses on the current impacts of climate change on wildlife, from field-based work on butterflies to synthetic analyses of global impacts on a broad range of species across terrestrial and marine biomes. I work actively with governmental agencies and NGOs to help develop conservation assessment and planning tools aimed at preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change.

  8. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  9. Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

  10. South African Red data book - Butterflies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henning, SF

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently 632 species of butterfly are known to occur within the borders of South Africa. Using the well established IUCN definitions, 102 of these are considered to be exposed to some level of threat, two species as endangered, seven species...

  11. Monarch Butterflies: Spirits of Loved Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The study of the beautiful monarch butterfly lends itself to a vast array of subject matter, and offers the opportunity to meet a large and varied number of standards and objectives for many grade levels. Art projects featuring monarchs may include many cross-curricular units such as math (symmetry and number graphing), science (adaptation and…

  12. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  13. Reflections on colourful ommatidia of butterfly eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG

    The eye shine of butterflies from a large number of ommatidia was observed with a modified epi-illumination apparatus equipped with an objective lens of large numerical aperture. A few representative cases are presented: the satyrine Bicyclus anynana, the heliconian Heliconius melpomene, the small

  14. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

  15. Autecology of the tailed jay butterfly Graphium agamemnon (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, S P Venkata; Atluri, J B; Reddi, C Subba

    2003-07-01

    The Tailed Jay Graphium agamemnon is one of the attractive papilionid butterflies that enliven the environment of Visakhapatnam. It occurs throughout the year. It lays eggs singly on young leaves of the mast tree Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae). The eggs take 3-4 days to hatch. The larvae go through 5 instars over a period of 15-16 days. The pupal period is 13-14 days. The total period from egg to adult emergence spans over 33-36 days. Based on this short life cycle, and larval and pupal development success studied every month, this butterfly can be multivoltine with a minimum of 7-8 broods in a year. Both CI and GR decreased with the age of larva, their average figures being 3.78 and 0.43 respectively. AD values are high (average 92%) and decreased through successive instars. Both ECD and ECI followed a similar pattern with an increase from instar I up to II, then a decrease up to IV and again an increase in instar V and the highest value is with fifth instar. Adults frequently visited flowers (12-35 flowers in a min) spending 1.0 to 3.2 seconds on a flower. The nectar concentration ranged between 16 and 58%. Peak foraging activity mostly fell between 0900-1000 h. The proboscis received pollen in most of the floral species visited, thus satisfying one of the characteristics of butterfly pollination. Being a fast and strong flier it is treated as "high energy" pollinator promoting cross-pollination.

  16. Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Marit L; Roche, Leslie M; Young, Truman P

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions driven by livestock and wild herbivores are increasingly recognized as important aspects of community dynamics in savannas and rangelands. Large ungulate herbivores can both directly and indirectly impact the reproductive structures of plants, which in turn can affect the pollinators of those plants. We examined how wild herbivores and cattle each indirectly affect the abundance of a common pollinator butterfly taxon, Colotis spp., at a set of long-term, large herbivore exclosure plots in a semiarid savanna in central Kenya. We also examined effects of herbivore exclusion on the main food plant of Colotis spp., which was also the most common flowering species in our plots: the shrub Cadaba farinosa. The study was conducted in four types of experimental plots: cattle-only, wildlife-only, cattle and wildlife (all large herbivores), and no large herbivores. Across all plots, Colotis spp. abundances were positively correlated with both Cadaba flower numbers (adult food resources) and total Cadaba canopy area (larval food resources). Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that floral resources drove the abundance of Colotis butterflies. Excluding browsing wildlife increased the abundances of both Cadaba flowers and Colotis butterflies. However, flower numbers and Colotis spp. abundances were greater in plots with cattle herbivory than in plots that excluded all large herbivores. Our results suggest that wild browsing herbivores can suppress pollinator species whereas well-managed cattle use may benefit important pollinators and the plants that depend on them. This study documents a novel set of ecological interactions that demonstrate how both conservation and livelihood goals can be met in a working landscape with abundant wildlife and livestock. PMID:24198932

  17. Effect of cultivating croplands and grazing in arid grassland habitats on the conservation of melitaeine butterflies in a mountainous area in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YiFei; Chen, JieJun; Liu, WenHua; Xu, RuMei

    2007-02-01

    In the study area (Yanjiaping Village, Hebei Province, China), grazing extensity varies at different locations, small and discontinuous croplands are imbedded in some arid grassland, which are habitats for the melitaeine butterflies, Euphydryas aurinia and Melitaea phoebe. These two species of butterflies coexist in this area, in which grazing and cultivation are the main disturbances. Grazing and cultivation have a reciprocal effect on E. aurinia, rather than M. phoebe. We observed that E. aurinia preferred to occupy patches with moderate grazing and imbedded with small and discontinuous croplands, where E. aurinia also has high population density. The percentage of E. aurinia larval groups in the ribbings was significantly higher than that of M. phoebe, whereas larvae of both species tended to increase in recent years. Our data also showed that the population density and the patch occupancy rate of both E. aurinia and M. phoebe were the highest under moderate grazing. It indicates that cultivation of small and discontinuous croplands within the patch has a significant effect on the population density of both species of melitaeine butterflies. Thus, to artificially create or maintain semi-natural habitats, complemented by moderate grazing, might be an ecological strategy to conserve melitaeine butterflies effectively. Considering the distinct impacts of cultivation and grazing on the population distribution and dynamics of the two different species, human disturbance in the mountainous area might be strategically involved in proposing conservation plans for the target species in the future.

  18. Canine peritoneal larval cestodosis caused by Mesocestoides spp. larval stages

    OpenAIRE

    Häußler, Thomas C; Peppler, Christine; Schmitz, S; Bauer, Christian; Hirzmann, J; Kramer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In a female dog with unspecific clinical symptoms, sonography detected a hyperechoic mass in the middle abdomen and blood analysis a middle grade systemic inflammatory reaction. Laparotomy revealed a peritoneal larval cestodosis (PLC). The diagnosis of an infection with tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp. was confirmed by parasitological examination and molecularbiological analysis. Reduction of the intra-abdominal parasitic load as well as a high dose administration of fenbendazole over 3 mo...

  19. Conserved mechanisms of tumorigenesis in the Drosophila adult midgut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Òscar Martorell

    Full Text Available Whereas the series of genetic events leading to colorectal cancer (CRC have been well established, the precise functions that these alterations play in tumor progression and how they disrupt intestinal homeostasis remain poorly characterized. Activation of the Wnt/Wg signaling pathway by a mutation in the gene APC is the most common trigger for CRC, inducing benign lesions that progress to carcinomas due to the accumulation of other genetic alterations. Among those, Ras mutations drive tumour progression in CRC, as well as in most epithelial cancers. As mammalian and Drosophila's intestines share many similarities, we decided to explore the alterations induced in the Drosophila midgut by the combined activation of the Wnt signaling pathway with gain of function of Ras signaling in the intestinal stem cells. Here we show that compound Apc-Ras clones, but not clones bearing the individual mutations, expand as aggressive intestinal tumor-like outgrowths. These lesions reproduce many of the human CRC hallmarks such as increased proliferation, blockade of cell differentiation and cell polarity and disrupted organ architecture. This process is followed by expression of tumoral markers present in human lesions. Finally, a metabolic behavioral assay shows that these flies suffer a progressive deterioration in intestinal homeostasis, providing a simple readout that could be used in screens for tumor modifiers or therapeutic compounds. Taken together, our results illustrate the conservation of the mechanisms of CRC tumorigenesis in Drosophila, providing an excellent model system to unravel the events that, upon mutation in Apc and Ras, lead to CRC initiation and progression.

  20. Decoupling of female host plant preference and offspring performance in relative specialist and generalist butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, M; Posledovich, D; Wiklund, C

    2015-08-01

    The preference-performance hypothesis posits that the host plant range of plant-feeding insects is ultimately limited by larval costs associated with feeding on multiple resources, and that female egg-laying preferences evolve in response to these costs. The trade-off of either using few host plant species and being a strong competitor on them due to effective utilization or using a wide host plant range but being a poor competitor is further predicted to result in host plant specialization. This follows under the hypothesis that both females and offspring are ultimately favoured by utilizing only the most suitable host(s). We develop an experimental approach to identify such trade-offs, i.e. larval costs associated with being a host generalist, and apply a suite of experiments to two sympatric and syntopic populations of the closely related butterflies Pieris napi and Pieris rapae. These butterflies show variation in their level of host specialization, which allowed comparisons between more and less specialized species and between families within species. Our results show that, first, the link between female host preference and offspring performance was not significantly stronger in the specialist compared to the generalist species. Second, the offspring of the host plant specialist did not outperform the offspring of the generalist on the former's most preferred host plant species. Finally, the more generalized species, or families within species, did not show higher survival or consistently higher growth rates than the specialists on the less preferred plants. Thus, the preference and performance traits appear to evolve as largely separated units.

  1. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-06-06

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. [Morphofunctional changes in the midgut of the Ixodes females (Acari: Ixodidae) during the immunizing feedings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, L A

    2006-01-01

    The changes of the midgut in the females of the tick species Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus during the second and third immunizing feeding on rabbits were studied by the histological technics. The alternation of one generation of the digestive cells of nymphal stage and two generations of the digestive cells of adult stage was observed. The generation of secretory cells is absent. The tick completes feeding and drop off when the last generation of the digestive cells is on the initial activity stages. The amount of the blood consumed is not enough for the rhythmical functioning of the midgut. The feeding of tick is broken on the second phase and full satiation does not take place. It is apparently an effect of the interruption of the blood entrance into the midgut cavity of feeding tick as a probable result of anti-ticks resistance of unnatural hosts.

  3. Apoptosis and autophagy in the midgut epithelium of Acheta domesticus (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M; Poprawa, Izabela; Chachulska-Zymełka, Alina

    2010-09-01

    The midgut epithelium of Acheta domesticus (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae), which is composed of columnar digestive cells and regenerative crypts, degenerates in two manners: necrotic and apoptotic. While necrosis was described in our previous paper, programmed cell death was the aim of the present studies. The first morphological signs of programmed cell death in midgut epithelium cells are alterations in the cytoplasm connected with shrinkage of the cells. Gradual modifications in a cell's structure cause it to be discharged into the midgut lumen, where it disintegrates. Autophagy is involved in the disintegration of organelles. The transitions of apoptotic cells are described at the ultrastructural level. Immunostaining methods were used in order to indicate the early stages of apoptosis when DNA fragmentation, which results from apoptotic signaling cascades, occurs.

  4. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this

  5. Effect of Bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the Peacock butterfly (Inachis io) (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felke, Martin; Langenbruch, Gustav-Adolf; Feiertag, Simon; Kassa, Adane

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years after registration of the first Bt maize cultivar in Europe, there still exists a remarkable lack of data on effects on Lepidoptera which would be necessary for a complete and comprehensive environmental risk assessment. So far only very few European butterfly species have been tested in this aspect. In our study the effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize pollen (event Bt-176) on the development and survival of neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly, Inachis io (L.) was for the first time shown. The results of our study suggest that the Peacock butterfly may serve as a model organism for assessing potential side effects of new developed transgenic Bt crops on non-target butterflies in a GMO environmental risk assessment. The study was done under laboratory conditions by exposing larvae of the Peacock butterfly to various pollen doses of transgenic maize event Bt-176 (cv. PACTOL CB) or the conventional isogenic maize (cv. PACTOL) using a no-choice test. Larvae feeding for 48 h on nettle plants (Urtica dioica) that were contaminated with higher pollen concentrations from Bt-176 maize (205 and 388 applied pollen.cm⁻²) suffered a significantly higher mortality rate (68 and 85% respectively) compared to larvae feeding on leaves with no pollen (11%), or feeding on leaves with pollen from conventional maize (6 to 25%). At lower Bt maize pollen doses (23-104 applied pollen.cm⁻²),mortality ranged from 11-25% and there were no apparent differences among treatments. The corresponding LC₅₀-and LC₉₀-values for neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly were 187 and 448 applied pollen grains.cm⁻² of Bt-176, respectively.Weight of larvae surviving consumption of Bt-176 maize pollen declined between 10 and 81% with increased pollen doses (r = -0.95). The highest weight reduction (81%) corresponded to the highest pollen concentration (388 pollen grains applied.cm⁻²). Ingestion of pollen from the conventional maize hybrid did not

  6. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Andrew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Steinberg, Julia [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity — a speed at which quantum information propagates — may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength “hydrodynamic' disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  7. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  8. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Steinberg, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity — a speed at which quantum information propagates — may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength "hydrodynamic" disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  9. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  10. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yi, E-mail: lingy@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China); School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: liup51@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin, E-mail: jianpinwu@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2017-05-10

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  11. Increased centrosome amplification in aged stem cells of the Drosophila midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Na, Hyun-Jin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin [Department of Molecular Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Arking, Robert, E-mail: aa2210@wayne.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Yoo, Mi-Ae, E-mail: mayoo@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of aged Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of oxidative stressed Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be responsible for abnormal ISC polyploid cells. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be a useful marker for aging stem cells. - Abstract: Age-related changes in long-lived tissue-resident stem cells may be tightly linked to aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. Centrosomes play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Supernumerary centrosomes are known to be an early event in tumorigenesis and senescence. However, the age-related changes of centrosome duplication in tissue-resident stem cells in vivo remain unknown. Here, using anti-γ-tubulin and anti-PH3, we analyzed mitotic intestinal stem cells with supernumerary centrosomes in the adult Drosophila midgut, which may be a versatile model system for stem cell biology. The results showed increased centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of aged and oxidatively stressed Drosophila midguts. Increased centrosome amplification was detected by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT in intestinal stem cells/enteroblasts, known to mimic age-related changes including hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells and hyperplasia in the midgut. Our data show the first direct evidence for the age-related increase of centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells and suggest that the Drosophila midgut is an excellent model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying centrosome amplification in aging adult stem cells in vivo.

  12. Ultrastructure of the midgut endocrine cells in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Neves

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the ultrastructure of the endocrine cells observed in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. This bee has two types of endocrine cells, which are numerous on the posterior midgut region. Cells of the closed type are smaller and have irregular secretory granules with lower electrondensity than those of the open cell type. The open cell type has elongated mitochondria mainly on the basal area, where most of the secretory granules are also found. Besides the secretion granules and mitochondria, endocrine cells in this species have well-developed autophagic vacuoles and Golgi complex elements.

  13. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Mount Sago, West Sumatra: Diversity and Flower Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rusman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of butterfly depends on the availability of food plant and habitat quality. The aims of this study were to assess diversity and flower preference of butterflies in Mount Sago, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Observations were performed by scan sampling method in four types of habitats, i.e. secondary forests, pine forests, rubber forests, and agricultural areas. Our results showed that at least 184 species of butterflies and 56 species of nectar plants have been identified in Mount Sago. Nymphalid butterfly, Neptis hylas, was the most dominant species of butterflies. Two species, i.e. Trogonoptera brookiana and Troides amphrysus, were found as the protected butterflies. Diversity of butterfly in secondary forests was highest, whereas the lowest diversity was found in pine forest. Papilionid butterflies were found frequently feeding on tube blossoms, nymphalid butterflies on head blossoms, and lycaenid butterflies on flag blossom. Our results also showed that habitat change impacts composition and diversity of butterfly.

  14. Butterflies Do Not Alter Conspecific Avoidance in Response to Variation in Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Sarah; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2017-08-01

    High conspecific densities are associated with increased levels of intraspecific competition and a variety of negative effects on performance. However, changes in life history strategy could compensate for some of these effects. For instance, females in crowded conditions often have fewer total offspring, but they may invest more in each one. Such investment could include the production of larger offspring, more time spent engaging in parental care, or more choosy decisions about where offspring are placed. For animals that have a relatively immobile juvenile stage, the costs of competition can be particularly high. Females may be able to avoid such costs by investing more in individual reproductive decisions, rearing young or laying eggs in locations away from other females. We tested the hypothesis that conspecific density cues during juvenile and adult life stages lead to changes in life history strategy, including both reproduction and oviposition choices. We predicted that high-density cues during the larval and adult stages of female Pieris rapae butterflies lead to lower fecundity but higher conspecific avoidance during oviposition, compared to similar low-density cues. We used a 2×2 factorial design to examine the effects of low and high conspecific density during the larval and adult stages of butterflies on avoidance behavior and fecundity. We found that past information about conspecific density did not matter; all butterflies exhibited similar levels of fecundity and a low level of conspecific avoidance during oviposition regardless of their previous experience as larvae and adults. These results suggest that P. rapae females use a fixed, rather than flexible, conspecific avoidance strategy when making oviposition decisions, and past information about conspecific density has no effect on life history and current reproductive investment. We speculate that this may be partially because past conspecific density per se is not a reliable cue for predicting

  15. Can pesticides and larval competition alter susceptibility of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to arbovirus infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Costanzo, Katie; Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Alto, Barry W

    2011-03-01

    Density-dependent processes such as larval competition may be important regulatory factors among some mosquito species. The application of pesticides used for control may alter these density-dependent interactions with consequences for the number of survivors and associated sublethal and chronic effects on these individuals. We examined how intraspecific competition among larvae and low concentrations of malathion alter Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse adult life history traits and competence for arboviruses using Sindbis virus as a model system. Larvae were reared at densities of 150 and 300 larvae per container and in the absence or presence of 0.04 parts per million of malathion, before surviving females were exposed to an infectious blood meal containing 10(5) plaque-forming units/ml Sindbis virus. For both species, competition and the presence of malathion reduced survival to adulthood. The presence of malathion eliminated the negative effects of competition that resulted in lengthened development time and smaller-sized adults. For Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus, high competition conditions and the presence of malathion independently and not interactively led to an increase in virus dissemination from the midgut. Our results suggest that larval competition and chemical contaminants may influence disease transmission directly by altering adult mosquito fitness and indirectly by altering vector interactions with arboviruses.

  16. Comments on compressible flow through butterfly valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, John G.

    In the flow analysis of process piping systems, it is desirable to treat control valves in the same way as elbow, reducers, expansions, and other pressure loss elements. In a recently reported research program, the compressible flow characteristics of butterfly valves were investigated. Fisher Controls International, Inc., manufacturer of a wide range of control valves, publishes coefficients that can be used to calculate flow characteristics for the full range of valve movement. The use is described of the manufacturer's data to calculate flow parameters as reported by the researchers who investigated compressible flow through butterfly valves. The manufacturer's data produced consistent results and can be used to predict choked flow and the pressure loss for unchoked flow.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of swallowtail butterflies of the tribe Papilionini (Papilionidae, Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, J; Legal, L; Descimon, H; Michel, F

    1999-07-01

    Swallowtail butterflies of the tribe Papilionini number about 225 species and are currently used as model organisms in several research areas, including genetics, chemical ecology and phylogenetics of host plant utilization and mimicry, mechanisms of speciation, and conservation. We have inferred phylogenetic relationships for a sample of 18 species of the genus Papilio (sensu lato) and five outgroup taxa by sequencing two stretches of mitochondrial DNA that correspond to segments 12886-13370 and 12083-12545 of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA and consist of sections of the genes for the large ribosomal RNA and subunit 1 of NADH-dehydrogenase. Our data support the monophyly of Papilio and, within it, of several traditionally recognized subgroups. Species belonging to groups that utilize primarily Rutaceae as larval foodplants form two clusters, corresponding to Old World and American taxa, respectively, while two previously recognized clades-of American and South Asian-Austronesian origin-whose members were known to feed mostly on Lauraceae and Magnoliaceae, are observed to form a clade. The sister group of Papilio is found to be the South Asian genus Meandrusa, which also happens to feed on Lauraceae. The latter plant family is therefore the probable larval host of the ancestor Papilio and the shift to Rutaceae (which four-fifths of extant Papilio species use as foodplants) is more likely to have occurred only after the initial diversification of the genus. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Specialist and generalist oviposition strategies in butterflies: maternal care or precocious young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäpers, Alexander; Nylin, Sören; Carlsson, Mikael A; Janz, Niklas

    2016-02-01

    Herbivorous insects specialized on a narrow set of plants are believed to be better adapted to their specific hosts. This hypothesis is supported by observations of herbivorous insect species with a broader diet breadth which seemingly pay a cost through decreased oviposition accuracy. Despite many studies investigating female oviposition behavior, there is a lack of knowledge on how larvae cope behaviorally with their mothers' egg-laying strategies. We have examined a unique system of five nymphalid butterfly species with different host plant ranges that all feed on the same host plant. The study of this system allowed us to compare at the species level how oviposition preference is related to neonate larval responses in several disadvantageous situations. We found a general co-adaptation between female and larval abilities, where species with more discriminating females had larvae that were less able to deal with a suboptimal initial feeding site. Conversely, relatively indiscriminate females had more precocious larvae with better abilities to cope with suboptimal sites. Despite similarities between the tested species with similar host ranges, there were also striking differences. Generalist and specialist species can be found side by side in many clades, with each clade having a specific evolutionary history. Such clade-specific, phylogenetically determined preconditions apparently have affected how precisely a broad or narrow diet breadth can be realized.

  19. Secondary Defense Chemicals in Milkweed Reduce Parasite Infection in Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowler, Camden D; Leon, Kristoffer E; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2015-06-01

    In tri-trophic systems, herbivores may benefit from their host plants in fighting parasitic infections. Plants can provide parasite resistance in two contrasting ways: either directly, by interfering with the parasite, or indirectly, by increasing herbivore immunity or health. In monarch butterflies, the larval diet of milkweed strongly influences the fitness of a common protozoan parasite. Toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides correlate strongly with parasite resistance of the host, with greater cardenolide concentrations in the larval diet leading to lower parasite growth. However, milkweed cardenolides may covary with other indices of plant quality including nutrients, and a direct experimental link between cardenolides and parasite performance has not been established. To determine if the anti-parasitic activity of milkweeds is indeed due to secondary chemicals, as opposed to nutrition, we supplemented the diet of infected and uninfected monarch larvae with milkweed latex, which contains cardenolides but no nutrients. Across three experiments, increased dietary cardenolide concentrations reduced parasite growth in infected monarchs, which consequently had longer lifespans. However, uninfected monarchs showed no differences in lifespan across treatments, confirming that cardenolide-containing latex does not increase general health. Our results suggest that cardenolides are a driving force behind plant-derived resistance in this system.

  20. Butterflies of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty percent of butterfly species that occur in India are found in the Garhwal region of the western Himalaya, which comprise six districts of Uttarakhand State with five major vegetation types lying between the catchments of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.  The annotated checklist compiled here for this region comprises 407 species and takes into account all the species recorded since 1899, when the first list of 323 species was prepared by Mackinnon & de Nicéville on the ‘butterflies of Mussoorie and its adjacent areas’.  Over a 20 year period (1986–1990; 2000–June 2015 the present authors maintained detailed notes and were able personally to record 349 species.  This information is presented in a checklist, together with details of the month, year and site of each record, relative abundance, Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972 (IWPA status, as well as references of earlier records made by other authors in Garhwal for those species that the authors were not able to record themselves.  Forty-nine species recorded in the region have been placed under various schedules of IWPA; only one species, the Golden Emperor Dilipa morgiana Westwood, is listed in Schedule I Part IV, the others being mainly included under Schedule II Part II.  The paper also discusses new range extensions and significant records (past and present, identifies major biotic factors that threaten butterfly diversity in Garhwal, and suggests the scope for butterfly ecotourism in the state as an option for long term conservation.  

  1. Butterfly valve in a virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talekar, Aniruddha; Patil, Saurabh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    Assembly of components is one of the processes involved in product design and development. The present paper deals with the assembly of a simple butterfly valve components in a virtual environment. The assembly has been carried out using virtual reality software by trial and error methods. The parts are modelled using parametric software (SolidWorks), meshed accordingly, and then called into virtual environment for assembly.

  2. Changes is genes coding for laccases 1 and 2 may contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from the isolated population in Pieniny National Park (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    An isolated population of apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) occurs in Pieniny National Park (Poland). Deformations and reductions of wings in a relatively large number of individuals from this population is found, yet the reasons for these defects are unknown. During studies devoted to identify cause(s) of this phenomenon, we found that specific regions of genes coding of enzymes laccases 1 and 2 could not be amplified from DNA samples isolated from large fractions of malformed insects while expected PCR products were detected in almost all (with one exception) normal butterflies. Laccases (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductases) are oxidases containing several copper atoms. They catalyse single-electron oxidations of phenolic or other compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. In insects, their enzymatic activities were found previously in epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, salivary glands, and reproductive tissues. Therefore, we suggest that defects in genes coding for laccases might contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterflies, though it seems obvious that deficiency in these enzymes could not be the sole cause of these developmental improperties in P. apollo from Pieniny National Park.

  3. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Shosaku; Nakatsuma, Sumiya (Kubota Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Sasaki, Iwao; Aoki, Naoshi

    1982-08-01

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported.

  4. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Theresa Sigle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2. Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited α-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited α-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania.

  5. Variation in vector competence for dengue viruses does not depend on mosquito midgut binding affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Cox

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus genotypes of Southeast Asian origin have been associated with higher virulence and transmission compared to other genotypes of serotype 2 (DEN-2. We tested the hypothesis that genetic differences in dengue viruses may result in differential binding to the midgut of the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, resulting in increased transmission or vectorial capacity.Two strains of each of the four DEN-2 genotypes (Southeast Asian, American, Indian, and West African were tested to determine their binding affinity for mosquito midguts from two distinct populations (Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico and McAllen, Texas, USA. Our previous studies demonstrated that Southeast Asian viruses disseminated up to 65-fold more rapidly in Ae. aegypti from Texas and were therefore more likely to be transmitted to humans. Results shown here demonstrate that viruses from all four genotypes bind to midguts at the same rate, in a titer-dependent manner. In addition, we show population differences when comparing binding affinity for DEN-2 between the Tapachula and McAllen mosquito colonies.If midgut binding potential is the same for all DEN-2 viruses, then viral replication differences in these tissues and throughout the mosquito can thus probably explain the significant differences in dissemination and vector competence. These conclusions differ from the established paradigms to explain mosquito barriers to infection, dissemination, and transmission.

  6. Variation in vector competence for dengue viruses does not depend on mosquito midgut binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jonathan; Brown, Heidi E; Rico-Hesse, Rebeca

    2011-05-01

    Dengue virus genotypes of Southeast Asian origin have been associated with higher virulence and transmission compared to other genotypes of serotype 2 (DEN-2). We tested the hypothesis that genetic differences in dengue viruses may result in differential binding to the midgut of the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, resulting in increased transmission or vectorial capacity. Two strains of each of the four DEN-2 genotypes (Southeast Asian, American, Indian, and West African) were tested to determine their binding affinity for mosquito midguts from two distinct populations (Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico and McAllen, Texas, USA). Our previous studies demonstrated that Southeast Asian viruses disseminated up to 65-fold more rapidly in Ae. aegypti from Texas and were therefore more likely to be transmitted to humans. Results shown here demonstrate that viruses from all four genotypes bind to midguts at the same rate, in a titer-dependent manner. In addition, we show population differences when comparing binding affinity for DEN-2 between the Tapachula and McAllen mosquito colonies. If midgut binding potential is the same for all DEN-2 viruses, then viral replication differences in these tissues and throughout the mosquito can thus probably explain the significant differences in dissemination and vector competence. These conclusions differ from the established paradigms to explain mosquito barriers to infection, dissemination, and transmission.

  7. Short Communication A Iycaeoid butterfly (Anthene amarah Guerin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-06-29

    Jun 29, 1989 ... 84. Short Communication. A Iycaeoid butterfly (Anthene amarah. Guerin) selects unseasonal young ... torti/is in the northern Transvaal revealed that Anthene smarah butterflies oviposit on unseasonal new coppice .... MILTON, S.J. 1988. The effects of pruning on shoot production. S. Afr. J. Bot. 54: 109-117.

  8. Flow Characteristics of Butterfly Valve by PIV and CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Lee, Y. H.

    Butterfly valves are widely used as on-off and control valves for industrial process. The importance of butterfly valves as control valves has been increasing because the pressure loss is smaller than other types of valves and compactness is very desirable for installation. These features are desirable for saving energy and high efficiency of instruments.

  9. Gas absorption studies in a butterfly valve scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, S.A.; Taheri, M.

    1974-09-01

    Gas absorption and pressure drop in a wetted butterfly valve constituting a novel scrubber system are investigated. The exceptional suitability of the butterfly device is demonstrated by its flexibility to adjust to large variations in both gas and liquid flow rates. (1 diagram, 5 graphs, 19 references)

  10. Unique wing scale photonics of male Rajah Brooke's birdwing butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultrastructures in butterfly wing scales can take many shapes, resulting in the often striking coloration of many butterflies due to interference of light. The plethora of coloration mechanisms is dazzling, but often only single mechanisms are described for specific animals. Results: We

  11. Competition: Butterflies eliminate milkweed bugs from a Caribbean Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Nigel R; Dingle, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    By eliminating the food plant, Asclepias curassavica, monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, have virtually eliminated milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus spp., from the island of Barbados. The relatively open terrain of Barbados means the plants have no refuge; the butterflies survive on an alternate milkweed food plant, Calotropis procera, whose thick-walled pods make seeds unavailable to the bugs.

  12. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre S. Gilburn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture.

  13. Evidence for mate guarding behavior in the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria J. Bennett; Winston P. Smith; Matthew G. Betts

    2011-01-01

    Discerning the intricacies of mating systems in butterflies can be difficult, particularly when multiple mating strategies are employed and are cryptic and not exclusive. We observed the behavior and habitat use of 113 male Taylor's checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas editha taylori). We confirmed that two distinct mating strategies were...

  14. Butterfly response and successional change following ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy E. M. Waltz; W. Wallace Covington

    2001-01-01

    The Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) can be useful indicators of ecosystem change as a result of a disturbance event. We monitored changes in butterfly abundance in two restoration treatment units paired with adjacent untreated forest at the Mt. Trumbull Resource Conservation Area in northern Arizona. Restoration treatments included thinning trees to density levels...

  15. Monitoring of the endemic Sinai Baton Blue butterfly Pseudophilotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the monitoring of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly in its stronghold of Farsh Shoeib on Gebel Safsafa in the St Katherine Protectorate between 2004-9 is analysed to compare them with the detailed study of Mike James in 2002-3. The butterfly appears to have a three-year population cycle, with its population crashing ...

  16. Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known to infect various lepidopteran insects. However, so far only a few butterfly species harbouring this bacterium have been thoroughly studied. The current study aims to identify the infection status of these bacteria in some of the commonly found butterfly species in ...

  17. Developing "Butterfly Warriors": A Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen…

  18. Propagating native milkweeds for restoring monarch butterfly habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten. Dumroese

    2015-01-01

    The number of monarch butterflies, charismatic nomads of North America, is rapidly declining. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), which are the sole food source for monarch caterpillars, have also experienced a decline throughout the breeding range of this butterfly. Milkweeds can be grown from seeds or vegetatively from root cuttings or rhizomes. Seed germination is often...

  19. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craik Charles S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

  20. The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

    1998-01-01

    Larvae of the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, feed solely on wild lupine, Lupinus perennis, from the emergence to summer senescence of the plant. Wild lupine is most abundant in open areas but Karner blue females oviposit more frequently on lupines growing in moderate shade. Can differences in lupine quality between open and shaded areas help explain this disparity in resource use? Furthermore, many lupines are senescent before the second larval brood completes development. How does lupine senescence affect larval growth? We addressed these questions by measuring growth rates of larvae fed lupines of different phenological stages and lupines growing under different shade conditions. The habitat conditions under which lupines grew and plant phenological stage did not generally affect final larval or pupal weight but did significantly affect duration of the larval period. Duration was shortest for larvae fed leaves from flowering lupines and was negatively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration. Ovipositing in areas of moderate shade should increase second-brood larval exposure to flowering lupines. In addition, larval growth was significantly faster on shade-grown lupines that were in seed than on similar sun-grown lupines. These are possible advantages of the higher-than-expected oviposition rate on shade-grown lupines. Given the canopy-related trade-off between lupine abundance and quality, maintenance of canopy heterogeneity is an important conservation management goal. Larvae were also fed leaves growing in poor soil conditions and leaves with mildew infection. These and other feeding treatments that we anticipated would inhibit larval growth often did not. In particular, ant-tended larvae exhibited the highest weight gain per amount of lupine eaten and a relatively fast growth rate. This represents an advantage of ant tending to Karner blue larvae.

  1. Midgut Transcriptome of the Cockroach Periplaneta americana and Its Microbiota: Digestion, Detoxification and Oxidative Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    Full Text Available The cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is an obnoxious and notorious pest of the world, with a strong ability to adapt to a variety of complex environments. However, the molecular mechanism of this adaptability is mostly unknown. In this study, the genes and microbiota composition associated with the adaptation mechanism were studied by analyzing the transcriptome and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of the P. americana midgut, respectively. Midgut transcriptome analysis identified 82,905 unigenes, among which 64 genes putatively involved in digestion (11 genes, detoxification (37 genes and oxidative stress response (16 genes were found. Evaluation of gene expression following treatment with cycloxaprid further revealed that the selected genes (CYP6J1, CYP4C1, CYP6K1, Delta GST, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase were upregulated at least 2.0-fold at the transcriptional level, and four genes were upregulated more than 10.0-fold. An interesting finding was that three digestive enzymes positively responded to cycloxaprid application. Tissue expression profiles further showed that most of the selected genes were midgut-biased, with the exception of CYP6K1. The midgut microbiota composition was obtained via 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was found to be mainly dominated by organisms from the Firmicutes phylum, among which Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Burkholderiales were the main orders which might assist the host in the food digestion or detoxification of noxious compounds. The preponderant species, Clostridium cellulovorans, was previously reported to degrade lignocellulose efficiently in insects. The abundance of genes involved in digestion, detoxification and response to oxidative stress, and the diversity of microbiota in the midgut might provide P. americana high capacity to adapt to complex environments.

  2. Constitutive activation of the midgut response to Bacillus thuringiensis in Bt-resistant Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández-Martínez

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is the most effective microbial control agent for controlling numerous species from different insect orders. The main threat for the long term use of B. thuringiensis in pest control is the ability of insects to develop resistance. Thus, the identification of insect genes involved in conferring resistance is of paramount importance. A colony of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was selected for 15 years in the laboratory for resistance to Xentari™, a B. thuringiensis-based insecticide, reaching a final resistance level of greater than 1,000-fold. Around 600 midgut ESTs were analyzed by DNA-macroarray in order to find differences in midgut gene expression between susceptible and resistant insects. Among the differentially expressed genes, repat and arylphorin were identified and their increased expression was correlated with B. thuringiensis resistance. We also found overlap among genes that were constitutively over-expressed in resistant insects with genes that were up-regulated in susceptible insects after exposure to Xentari™, suggesting a permanent activation of the response to Xentari™ in resistant insects. Increased aminopeptidase activity in the lumen of resistant insects in the absence of exposure to Xentari™ corroborated the hypothesis of permanent activation of response genes. Increase in midgut proliferation has been proposed as a mechanism of response to pathogens in the adult from several insect species. Analysis of S. exigua larvae revealed that midgut proliferation was neither increased in resistant insects nor induced by exposure of susceptible larvae to Xentari™, suggesting that mechanisms other than midgut proliferation are involved in the response to B. thuringiensis by S. exigua larvae.

  3. Catalase protects Aedes aegypti from oxidative stress and increases midgut infection prevalence of Dengue but not Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, José Henrique M; Talyuli, Octávio A C; Goncalves, Renata L S; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela Oliveira; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique F; Alvarenga, Patricia Hessab; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2017-04-01

    Digestion of blood in the midgut of Aedes aegypti results in the release of pro-oxidant molecules that can be toxic to the mosquito. We hypothesized that after a blood meal, the antioxidant capacity of the midgut is increased to protect cells against oxidative stress. Concomitantly, pathogens present in the blood ingested by mosquitoes, such as the arboviruses Dengue and Zika, also have to overcome the same oxidative challenge, and the antioxidant program induced by the insect is likely to influence infection status of the mosquito and its vectorial competence. We found that blood-induced catalase mRNA and activity in the midgut peaked 24 h after feeding and returned to basal levels after the completion of digestion. RNAi-mediated silencing of catalase (AAEL013407-RB) reduced enzyme activity in the midgut epithelia, increased H2O2 leakage and decreased fecundity and lifespan when mosquitoes were fed H2O2. When infected with Dengue 4 and Zika virus, catalase-silenced mosquitoes showed no alteration in infection intensity (number of plaque forming units/midgut) 7 days after the infectious meal. However, catalase knockdown reduced Dengue 4, but not Zika, infection prevalence (percent of infected midguts). Here, we showed that blood ingestion triggers an antioxidant response in the midgut through the induction of catalase. This protection facilitates the establishment of Dengue virus in the midgut. Importantly, this mechanism appears to be specific for Dengue because catalase silencing did not change Zika virus prevalence. In summary, our data suggest that redox balance in the midgut modulates mosquito vectorial competence to arboviral infections.

  4. Butterfly diversity in Kolkata, India: An appraisal for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnali Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An appraisal of butterfly species diversity was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Random sampling of rural, suburban, and urban sites in and around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 96 butterfly species, dominated by Lycaenidae (31.25% over Nymphalidae (28.13%, Hesperiidae (18.75%, Pieridae (12.50%, and Papilionidae (9.38%. Suburban sites accounted for 96 species, followed by rural (81 species and urban (53 species over the study period. The relative abundance of the butterflies varied with the site, month, and family significantly. It is apparent that the urban areas of Kolkata can sustain diverse butterfly species which includes species of requiring conservation effort. Considering the landscape of Kolkata, steps to enhance urban greening should be adopted to maintain butterfly diversity and sustain the ecosystem services derived from them.

  5. The evolution of chemical defenses in passion vine butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina

    The bright and colorful Neotropical butterflies of the Heliconius genus are avoided by most insectivorous predators. Inexperienced birds and lizards may bite Heliconius butterflies, but immediately release them due to their toxic taste. The distastefulness of these butterflies is associated...... with the presence of defense compounds called cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs), which deter predators because of their bitterness and the release of hydrogen cyanide upon degradation. Heliconius butterflies and basal heliconiines biosynthesize the aliphatic CNglcs linamarin and lotaustralin. Additionally, Heliconius...... heliconiine subfamily. Despite sequestration of these compounds being an older adaptation than expected, biosynthesis of aliphatic CNglcs is hypothesized to be even more ancient, arising in lepidopterans before butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor. In addition, this study shows...

  6. Maternal effects, flight versus fecundity trade-offs, and offspring immune defence in the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hails Rosemary S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal condition can generate resource-related maternal effects through differential egg provisioning, and can greatly affect offspring performance. In the present study, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L. was used to investigate whether (after controlling for egg size maternal age, and increased flight during the oviposition period, resulted in changes in egg provisioning and whether this contributed to variation in offspring performance, i early in development (egg stage and early post-hatching development, and ii later in larval development after being exposed to the model viral pathogen system; the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV. Results Age-related changes in maternal egg provisioning were observed to influence egg stage development only. Flight-induced changes in maternal egg provisioning had direct consequences for offspring growth and survival across each life stage from egg to adulthood; offspring from forced flight mothers had lower larval masses and longer development times. Offspring with lower larval masses also had reduced survival after exposure to the viral pathogen. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that a change in maternal provisioning as a result of increased flight during the oviposition period has the potential to exert non-genetic cross-generational fitness effects in P. aegeria. This could have important consequences for population dynamics, particularly in fragmented anthropogenic landscapes.

  7. [Canine peritoneal larval cestodosis caused by Mesocestoides spp. larval stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häußler, T C; Peppler, C; Schmitz, S; Bauer, C; Hirzmann, J; Kramer, M

    2016-01-01

    In a female dog with unspecific clinical symptoms, sonography detected a hyperechoic mass in the middle abdomen and blood analysis a middle grade systemic inflammatory reaction. Laparotomy revealed a peritoneal larval cestodosis (PLC). The diagnosis of an infection with tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp. was confirmed by parasitological examination and molecularbiological analysis. Reduction of the intra-abdominal parasitic load as well as a high dose administration of fenbendazole over 3 months led to a successful treatment which could be documented sonographically and by decreased concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). Seven months after discontinuation of fenbendazole administration, PLC recurred, pre-empted by an elevation of serum CRP values. According to the literature a life-long fenbendazole treatment was initiated. In cases of unclear chronic granulomatous inflammations in the abdominal cavity in dogs, PLC should be considered. CRP concentration and sonographic examinations are suitable to control for treatment success and a possibly occurring relapse.

  8. Models of prey capture in larval fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The food uptake of larval carp and pike is described from high speed movies with synchronous lateral and ventral views.

    During prey intake by larval fishes the velocities of the created suction flow are high relative to their own size: 0.3 m/s for carp larvae of 6

  9. Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of larval fishes in the Sundays Estuary, South Africa. K. Sutherland, N.A. Strydom, T.H. Wooldridge. Abstract. The larval fish assemblage was studied in the permanently open Sundays Estuary on the southeast coast of South Africa. Seasonal samples were collected ...

  10. Assessing of α-Amylase Activity of Midgut in Wheat Bug Eurygaster maura

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehrabadi; Ali R. Bandani

    2009-01-01

    To determine of α-amylase activity in the midgut of Eurygaster maura, some of adult insect was collected and their gut isolated and characterized. Enzyme samples from midguts of adults were prepared by the method of Cohen with slight modifications. α-Amylase activity was assayed based on Bernfeld method by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) procedure. The activity of α-amylase in midgut was 0.083 U/insect. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme activity was determined to be...

  11. Not only the butterflies: managing ants on road verges to benefit Phengaris (Maculinea) butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynhoff, I.; Gestel, van R.; Swaay, van C.; Langevelde, van F.

    2011-01-01

    Obligate myrmecophilic butterfly species, such as Phengaris (Maculinea) teleius and P. nausithous, have narrow habitat requirements. Living as a caterpillar in the nests of the ant species Myrmica scabrinodis and M. rubra, respectively, they can only survive on sites with both host ants and the host

  12. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  13. The Butterfly Effect on Peace Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Cerdas-Agüero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper on peace education is to generate a reflection, through the metaphor of the butterfly effect, on the importance of educating for peace during the change process of human beings and society.  It proposes education for peace as a human right, an experience and learning process that is put into practice by human beings.  It aims at changing attitudes and actions to create harmonious relationships based on the respect and recognition of human rights, and the freedom and dignity of every person.

  14. Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiroto [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 60 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

  15. Do malaria ookinete surface proteins P25 and P28 mediate parasite entry into mosquito midgut epithelial cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranford-Cartwright Lisa C

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P25 and P28 are related ookinete surface proteins highly conserved throughout the Plasmodium genus that are under consideration as candidates for inclusion in transmission-blocking vaccines. Previous research using transgenic rodent malaria parasites lacking P25 and P28 has demonstrated that these proteins have multiple partially redundant functions during parasite infection of the mosquito vector, including an undefined role in ookinete traversal of the mosquito midgut epithelium, and it has been suggested that, unlike wild-type parasites, Dko P25/P28 parasites migrate across the midgut epithelium via an intercellular, rather than intracellular, route. Presentation of the hypothesis This paper presents an alternative interpretation for the previous observations of Dko P25/P28 parasites, based upon a recently published model of the route of ookinete invasion across the midgut epithelium. This model claims ookinete invasion is intracellular, with entry occurring through the lateral apical plasma membrane of midgut epithelial cells, and is associated with significant invagination of the midgut epithelium localised at the site of parasite penetration. Following this model, it is hypothesized that: (1 a sub-population of Dko P25/P28 ookinetes invaginate, but do not penetrate, the apical surface of the midgut epithelium and thus remain within the midgut lumen; and (2 another sub-population of Dko P25/P28 parasites successfully enters and migrates across the midgut epithelium via an intracellular route similar to wild-type parasites and subsequently develops into oocysts. Testing the hypothesis These hypotheses are tested by showing how they can account for previously published observations and incorporate them into a coherent and consistent explanatory framework. Based upon these hypotheses, several quantitative predictions are made, which can be experimentally tested, about the relationship between the densities of invading Dko P

  16. Butterfly wings shaped by a molecular cookie cutter: evolutionary radiation of lepidopteran wing shapes associated with a derived Cut/wingless wing margin boundary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Warren P; Martin, Arnaud; Reed, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Butterflies and moths show a remarkable diversity of specialized wing shapes, yet little is known about the molecular basis of wing shape determination. To learn more about this process we examined the expression of dorsoventral (DV) boundary candidate genes in developing wings of several species of Lepidoptera. We found that the transcription factor Cut and mRNA for the signaling molecule wingless (wg) are strongly co-expressed in a discrete zone around the larval wing disc margin. Surprisingly, the expression boundary of Cut and wg clearly presages complex future adult wing shapes, including the hindwing tails of swallowtail butterflies, very early in final-instar wing disc development. During pupal wing development the cells in this zone undergo apoptosis, thereby defining the actual margin of the adult wing. Comparison with gene expression in beetle and fly wings suggests that this delineation of a topologically independent boundary running parallel to the DV boundary is a derived feature of Lepidoptera. We propose that the developmental decoupling of wing margin determination and DV boundary formation was a major developmental innovation that facilitated the radiation of specialized wing shapes in moths and butterflies.

  17. Ant-Related Oviposition and Larval Performance in a Myrmecophilous Lycaenid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Trager

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally assessed ant-related oviposition and larval performance in the Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri. Ant tending had sex-dependent effects on most measures of larval growth: female larvae generally benefitted from increased tending frequency whereas male larvae were usually unaffected. The larger size of female larvae tended by ants resulted in a substantial predicted increase in lifetime egg production. Oviposition by adult females that were tended by C. floridanus ants as larvae was similar between host plants with or without ants. However, they laid relatively more eggs on plants with ants than did females raised without ants, which laid less than a third of their eggs on plants with ants present. In summary, we found conditional benefits for larvae tended by ants that were not accompanied by oviposition preference for plants with ants present, which is a reasonable result for a system in which ant presence at the time of oviposition is not a reliable indicator of future ant presence. More broadly, our results emphasize the importance of considering the consequences of variation in interspecific interactions, life history traits, and multiple measures of performance when evaluating the costs and benefits of mutualistic relationships.

  18. Illustrate the Butterfly Effect on the Chaos Rikitake System

    OpenAIRE

    Gholipour, Yousof; Ramezani, Amin; Mola, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents butterfly effect on a Chaos system. In this letter we want to briefly introduce Chaos Rikitake system and monitor the butterfly effect on this system. In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependency on initial conditions. For this goal at the first we suppose initiation point and plot it, for base of work, later will apply small change on one item of initiation point and monitor behavior of Rikitake system. At the end we want to reclaim the famous lectur...

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of partially open butterfly valve flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.; Kim, R.H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science

    1996-09-01

    A numerical simulation of butterfly valve flows is a useful technique to investigate the physical phenomena of the flow field. A three-dimensional numerical analysis was carried out on incompressible fluid flows in a butterfly valve by using FLUENT, which solves difference equations. Characteristics of the butterfly valve flows at different valve disk angles with a uniform incoming velocity were investigated. Comparisons of FLUENT results with other results, i.e., experimental results, were made to determine the accuracy of the employed method. Results of the three-dimensional analysis may be useful in the valve design.

  20. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  1. Neuroethology of ultrasonic hearing in nocturnal butterflies (Hedyloidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, Jayne E.; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2007-01-01

    Nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies possess ultrasound-sensitive ears that mediate evasive flight maneuvers. Tympanal ear morphology, auditory physiology and behavioural responses to ultrasound are described for Macrosoma heliconiaria, and evidence for hearing is described for eight other hedylid....... Extracellular recordings from IIN1c reveal sensory responses to ultrasonic (>20 kHz), but not low frequency(butterflies exposed to ultrasound exhibit a variety of evasive maneuvers...... of evolutionary divergence, since we demonstrate that the ears are homologous to low frequency ears in some diurnal Nymphalidae butterflies....

  2. Ingestional and transgenerational effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Sakauchi, Ko; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-12-01

    One important public concern in Japan is the potential health effects on animals and humans that live in the Tohoku-Kanto districts associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated with artificial radionuclides from the collapsed Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, transgenerational or heritable effects of radiation exposure are also important public concerns because these effects could cause long-term changes in animal and human populations. Here, we concisely review our findings and implications related to the ingestional and transgenerational effects of radiation exposure on the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, which coexists with humans. The butterfly larval ingestion of contaminated leaves found in areas of human habitation, even at low doses, resulted in morphological abnormalities and death for some individuals, whereas other individuals were not affected, at least morphologically. This variable sensitivity serves as a basis for the adaptive evolution of radiation resistance. The distribution of abnormality and mortality rates from low to high doses fits well with a Weibull function model or a power function model. The offspring generated by morphologically normal individuals that consumed contaminated leaves exhibited high mortality rates when fed contaminated leaves; importantly, low mortality rates were restored when they were fed non-contaminated leaves. Our field monitoring over 3 years (2011-2013) indicated that abnormality and mortality rates peaked primarily in the fall of 2011 and decreased afterwards to normal levels. These findings indicate high impacts of early exposure and transgenerationally accumulated radiation effects over a specific period; however, the population regained normality relatively quickly after ∼15 generations within 3 years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. Hostplant change and paleoclimatic events explain diversification shifts in skipper butterflies (Family: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Warren, Andrew D; Collins, Steve C; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2017-08-02

    Skippers (Family: Hesperiidae) are a large group of butterflies with ca. 4000 species under 567 genera. The lack of a time-calibrated higher-level phylogeny of the group has precluded understanding of its evolutionary past. We here use a 10-gene dataset to reconstruct the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of the group, and explore factors that affected the diversification of these butterflies. Ancestral state reconstructions show that the early hesperiid lineages utilized dicots as larval hostplants. The ability to feed on monocots evolved once at the K-Pg boundary (ca. 65 million years ago (Mya)), and allowed monocot-feeders to diversify much faster on average than dicot-feeders. The increased diversification rate of the monocot-feeding clade is specifically attributed to rate shifts in two of its descendant lineages. The first rate shift, a four-fold increase compared to background rates, happened ca. 50 Mya, soon after the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, in a lineage of the subfamily Hesperiinae that mostly fed on forest monocots. The second rate shift happened ca. 40 Mya in a grass-feeding lineage of Hesperiinae when open-habitat grasslands appeared in the Neotropics owing to gradual cooling of the atmospheric temperature. The evolution of monocot feeding strongly influenced diversification of skippers. We hypothesize that although monocot feeding was an intrinsic trait that allowed exploration of novel niches, the lack of extensive availability of monocots comprised an extrinsic limitation for niche exploration. The shifts in diversification rate coincided with paleoclimatic events during which grasses and forest monocots were diversified.

  4. Fine structure of the midgut epithelium in the millipede Telodeinopus aoutii (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) with special emphasis on epithelial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M; Marchewka, A; Poprawa, I

    2017-06-14

    The midgut of millipedes is composed of a simple epithelium that rests on a basal lamina, which is surrounded by visceral muscles and hepatic cells. As the material for our studies, we chose Telodeinopus aoutii (Demange, 1971) (Kenyan millipede) (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida), which lives in the rain forests of Central Africa. This commonly reared species is easy to obtain from local breeders and easy to culture in the laboratory. During our studies, we used transmission and scanning electron microscopes and light and fluorescent microscopes. The midgut epithelium of the species examined here shares similarities to the structure of the millipedes analyzed to date. The midgut epithelium is composed of three types of cells-digestive, secretory, and regenerative cells. Evidence of three types of secretion have been observed in the midgut epithelium: merocrine, apocrine, and microapocrine secretion. The regenerative cells of the midgut epithelium in millipedes fulfill the role of midgut stem cells because of their main functions: self-renewal (the ability to divide mitotically and to maintain in an undifferentiated state) and potency (ability to differentiate into digestive cells). We also confirmed that spot desmosomes are common intercellular junctions between the regenerative and digestive cells in millipedes.

  5. Alpha-arylphorin is a mitogen in the Heliothis virescens midgut cell secretome upon Cry1Ac intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anais Castagnola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt target cells in the midgut epithelium of susceptible larvae. While the mode of action of Cry toxins has been extensively investigated, the midgut response to Cry intoxication and its regulation are not well characterized. In this work, we describe the secreted proteome (secretome of primary mature midgut cell cultures from Heliothis virescens larvae after exposure to Cry1Ac toxin compared to control buffer treatment. The Cry1Ac-induced secretome caused higher proliferation and differentiation and an overall reduction in total cell mortality over time in primary H. virescens midgut stem cell cultures when compared to treatment with control buffer secretome. Differential proteomics identified four proteins with significant differences in abundance comparing Cry1Ac-treated and control secretomes. The most significant difference detected in the Cry1Ac secretome was an arylphorin subunit alpha protein not detected in the control secretome. Feeding of purified alpha-arylphorin to H. virescens larvae resulted in midgut hyperplasia and significantly reduced susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin compared to controls. These data identify alpha-arylphorin as a protein with a new putative role in the midgut regeneration process in response to Cry1Ac intoxication and possibly pathogen/abiotic stress, identifying alpha-arylphorin as a potential gene to target with insecticidal gene silencing for pest control.

  6. Broad relays hormone signals to regulate stem cell differentiation in Drosophila midgut during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiankun; Hou, Steven X

    2012-11-01

    Like the mammalian intestine, the Drosophila adult midgut is constantly replenished by multipotent intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Although it is well known that adult ISCs arise from adult midgut progenitors (AMPs), relatively little is known about the mechanisms that regulate AMP specification. Here, we demonstrate that Broad (Br)-mediated hormone signaling regulates AMP specification. Br is highly expressed in AMPs temporally during the larva-pupa transition stage, and br loss of function blocks AMP differentiation. Furthermore, Br is required for AMPs to develop into functional ISCs. Conversely, br overexpression drives AMPs toward premature differentiation. In addition, we found that Br and Notch (N) signaling function in parallel pathways to regulate AMP differentiation. Our results reveal a molecular mechanism whereby Br-mediated hormone signaling directly regulates stem cells to generate adult cells during metamorphosis.

  7. Midgut ultrastructure of the third instar of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Cuterebridae) based on transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, L G; Leite, A C R

    2003-03-01

    The midgut ultrastucture of the third-instar of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.) was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tubular midgut bears a monolayer of epithelial cells with the plasma membrane showing multiple folding where it adjoins the basement membrane. Septate junctions bound the epithelial cells on each side. These cells have electrolucent cytoplasm containing mitochondria, vacuoles, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticula, lamellar bodies, and a prominent nucleus with dispersed chromatin. The peritrophic matrix is close to elongate microvilli, which are sometimes forked. Regenerative cells, in an undifferentiated state when closest to the basement membrane, are scattered throughout the epithelial cells. A thick basement membrane, surrounded by thick connective tissue including muscle, tracheal tubes, and extracellular matrix is linked to epithelial cells by hemidesmosome-like structures. Entero-endocrine, goblet or cuprophilic cells were not observed.

  8. An atypical clinical presentation of acute appendicitis in a young man with midgut malrotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Antonio [Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche no 2, 90127 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: pinto@neomedia.it; Di Raimondo, Domenico [Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche no 2, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Tuttolomondo, Antonino [Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche no 2, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Fernandez, Paola [Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche no 2, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Caronia, Aurelio [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche - Sezione di Radiologia, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro no 129, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Lagalla, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche - Sezione di Radiologia, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro no 129, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Arnao, Valentina [Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche no 2, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Law, Robert L. [Department of Radiology, Frenchay Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); Licata, Giuseppe [Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche no 2, 90127 Palermo (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    Midgut malrotation occurs as a result of failure in normal intestinal rotation and fixation during early pregnancy. Pathological conditions reported in the literature involving midgut malrotation predominantly relate to infants and children. In adults malrotation is often revealed as an incidental finding on computed tomography (CT), or the associated altered anatomy can be the cause of atypical clinical symptoms of relatively common intestinal disorders. An unusual presentation of acute appendicitis, with fever and recurrent pain in left iliac fossa is reported. Underlying intestinal malrotation delayed the correct clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. It was not until a CT scan was performed that a malrotation was identified. The predominant appearances of malrotation are the siting of the ascending colon, caecum (and appendix) in the left side of the abdomen and the right-sided placement of the duodenojejunal junction.

  9. Fine-structural changes in the midgut of old Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Erxleben, F.; Miquel, J.; Philpott, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Senescent fine-structural changes in the midgut of Drosophila melanogaster are investigated. A large number of midgut mitochondria in old flies exhibit nodular cristae and a tubular system located perpendicular to the normal cristae orientation. Anterior intestinal cells show a senescent accumulation of age pigment, either with a surrounding two-unit membrane or without any membrane. The predominant localization of enlarged mitochondria and pigment in the luminal gut region may be related to the polarized metabolism of the intestinal cells. Findings concur with previous observations of dense-body accumulations and support the theory that mitochondria are involved in the aging of fixed post-mitotic cells. Demonstrated by statistical analyses is that mitochondrial size increase is related to mitochondrial variation increase.

  10. Comparative morphology of the prothoracic leg in heliconian butterflies: Tracing size allometry, podite fusions and losses in ontogeny and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gilson R P; Silva, Denis S; Gonçalves, Gislene L

    2017-07-01

    Prothoracic legs of heliconian butterflies (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae, Heliconiini) are reduced in size compared to mesothoracic and metathoracic legs. They have no apparent function in males, but are used by females for drumming on host plants, a behavior related to oviposition site selection. Here, taking into account all recognized lineages of heliconian butterflies, we described their tarsi using optical and scanning electron microscopy and searched for podite fusions and losses, and analyzed allometry at the static, ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels. Female tarsi were similar, club-shaped, showing from four to five tarsomeres, each bearing sensilla chaetica and trichodea. Male tarsi were cylindrical, formed from five (early diverging lineages) to one (descendant lineages) either partially or totally fused tarsomeres, all deprived of sensilla. Pretarsi were reduced in both sexes, in some species being either vestigial or absent. Tarsal lengths were smaller for males in almost all species. An abrupt decrease in size was detected for the prothoracic legs during molting to the last larval instar at both histological and morphometric levels. In both sexes, most allometric coefficients found at the population level for the prothoracic legs were negative compared to the mesothoracic leg and also to wings. Prothoracic tarsi decreased proportionally in size over evolutionary time; the largest and smallest values being found for nodes of the oldest and youngest lineages, respectively. Our results demonstrate that evolution of the prothoracic leg in heliconian butterflies has been based on losses and fusions of podites, in association with negative size allometry at static, ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels. These processes have been more pronounced in males. Our study provided further support to the hypothesis that evolution of these leg structures is driven by females, by changing their use from walking to drumming during oviposition site selection. In males the

  11. Decoupling habitat fragmentation from habitat loss: butterfly species mobility obscures fragmentation effects in a naturally fragmented landscape of lake islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Zachary G; Anderson, Iraleigh D; Acorn, John H; Nielsen, Scott E

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of the theory of island biogeography, ecologists have postulated that fragmentation of continuous habitat presents a prominent threat to species diversity. However, negative fragmentation effects may be artifacts; the result of species diversity declining with habitat loss, and habitat loss correlating positively with degree of fragmentation. In this study, we used butterfly assemblages on islands of Lake of the Woods, Ontario, Canada to decouple habitat fragmentation from habitat loss and test two competing hypotheses: (1) the island effect hypothesis, which predicts that decreasing fragment size and increasing fragment isolation reduces species diversity beyond the effects of habitat loss, and (2) the habitat amount hypothesis, which negates fragmentation effects and predicts that only total habitat area determines the diversity of species persisting on fragmented landscapes. Using eight independent size classes of islands (ranging from 0.1 to 8.0 ha) that varied in number of islands while holding total area constant, species diversity comparisons, species accumulation curves, and species-area relationship extrapolations demonstrated that smaller insular habitats contained at least as many butterfly species as continuous habitat. However, when highly mobile species occurring on islands without their larval food plants were excluded from analyses, island effects on potentially reproducing species became apparent. Similarily, generalized linear models suggested that effects of island isolation and vascular plant richness on insular butterfly richness were confounded by species of high mobility. We conclude that inter-fragment movements of highly mobile species may obscure important fragmentation effects on potentially reproducing populations, questioning support for the habitat amount hypothesis.

  12. Fractional statistics and the butterfly effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingfei; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Fractional statistics and quantum chaos are both phenomena associated with the non-local storage of quantum information. In this article, we point out a connection between the butterfly effect in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characterization of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix and conformal spins. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  13. Wolbachia Sequence Typing in Butterflies Using Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmi; Shin, Su-Kyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Yi, Hana

    2015-09-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate symbiotic bacteria that is ubiquitous in arthropods, with 25-70% of insect species estimated to be infected. Wolbachia species can interact with their insect hosts in a mutualistic or parasitic manner. Sequence types (ST) of Wolbachia are determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of housekeeping genes. However, there are some limitations to MLST with respect to the generation of clone libraries and the Sanger sequencing method when a host is infected with multiple STs of Wolbachia. To assess the feasibility of massive parallel sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing, we used pyrosequencing for sequence typing of Wolbachia in butterflies. We collected three species of butterflies (Eurema hecabe, Eurema laeta, and Tongeia fischeri) common to Korea and screened them for Wolbachia STs. We found that T. fischeri was infected with a single ST of Wolbachia, ST41. In contrast, E. hecabe and E. laeta were each infected with two STs of Wolbachia, ST41 and ST40. Our results clearly demonstrate that pyrosequencing-based MLST has a higher sensitivity than cloning and Sanger sequencing methods for the detection of minor alleles. Considering the high prevalence of infection with multiple Wolbachia STs, next-generation sequencing with improved analysis would assist with scaling up approaches to Wolbachia MLST.

  14. Fractional statistics and the butterfly effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yingfei; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-08-23

    Fractional statistics and quantum chaos are both phenomena associated with the non-local storage of quantum information. In this article, we point out a connection between the butterfly effect in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characterization of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix and conformal spins. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  15. Properties Of A Midgut Trypanolysin From The Tsetse Fly Glossina Morsitans Morsitans

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    Mahamat H.Abakar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a bloodmeal-induced trypanolysin from the midgut of the tsetse G. m. morsitans was studied in vitro. The semi-purified trypanolysin from twice-fed tsetse had the highest trypanolysin activity against bloodstream trypanosomes followed by those once-fed and the unfed flies. Serum found to display trypanolysin activity. The trypanolysin had no trypsin activity nor even affected by the enzyme. In addition trypanolysin was not affected by protease inhibitors such as soy bean trypsin inhibitor STI N-a-p-Tosyl-L-lysine chromethyl ketone TLCK phenylmethyl sulphonyl fluoride PMSF diisopropyl fluoro-phosphate DFP and tosylamide-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone TPCK. However the activity was completely inhibited by diethyl pyrocarbonate DEPC and partially by aprotinin. The induction of trypanolysin activity by bloodmeal increased gradually reaching a peak at 72-120 h after the bloodmeal and then decreased rapidly with only 25 of the peak activity remaining after 192 h. The trypanolysin was inactivated during storage at 27amp8451 and 4amp8451 after 15 and 32 days respectively. Similarly heating the midguts trypanolysin to 60 - 80amp8451 led to loss of activity. On the other hand 50amp8451 was found to be the optimum temperature for trypanolysin activity. The activity was also unstable by freeze-thaw at 80amp8451 -70amp8451 -20amp8451 and 0amp8451 after 33 41 55 and 63 days respectively. Trypanolysin caused lyses of bloodstream-form T. b. brucei while the procyclic trypanosomes were unaffected. The highest trypanolysin activity in different tsetse species was found with Glossina longipennis followed by Glossina pallidipes Glossina morsitans centralis Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. m. morsitans. When the midgut homogenate was separated by anion-exchange chromatography the trypanolysin activity was recovered in the bound fraction. These results suggest that the midgut trypanolysin plays an important role in the establishment of

  16. PINK1 is required for timely cell-type specific mitochondrial clearance during Drosophila midgut metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Minjie; Chen, Kai; Yang, Shengxi; Wang, Qun; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; Zhou, Yongjian; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Fei; Yang, Yufeng

    2016-11-15

    Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy, which is an important mitochondrial quality and quantity control process. During Drosophila metamorphosis, the degradation of midgut involves a large change in length and organization, which is mediated by autophagy. Here we noticed a cell-type specific mitochondrial clearance process that occurs in enterocytes (ECs), while most mitochondria remain in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) during metamorphosis. Although PINK1/PARKIN represent the canonical pathway for the elimination of impaired mitochondria in varied pathological conditions, their roles in developmental processes or normal physiological conditions have been less studied. To examine the potential contribution of PINK1 in developmental processes, we monitored the dynamic expression pattern of PINK1 in the midgut development by taking advantage of a newly CRISPR/Cas9 generated knock-in fly strain expressing PINK1-mCherry fusion protein that presumably recapitulates the endogenous expression pattern of PINK1. We disclosed a spatiotemporal correlation between the expression pattern of PINK1 and the mitochondrial clearance or persistence in ECs or ISCs respectively. By mosaic genetic analysis, we then demonstrated that PINK1 and PARKIN function epistatically to mediate the specific timely removal of mitochondria, and are involved in global autophagy in ECs during Drosophila midgut metamorphosis, with kinase-dead PINK1 exerting dominant negative effects. Taken together, our studies concluded that the PINK1/PARKIN is crucial for timely cell-type specific mitophagy under physiological conditions and demonstrated again that Drosophila midgut metamorphosis might serve as an elegant in vivo model to study autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lufenuron impact upon Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) midgut and its reflection in gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Hilton Nobre; da Cunha, Franklin Magliano; Cruz, Glaucilane Santos; D'assunção, Carolline Guimarães; Rolim, Guilherme Gomes; Barros, Maria Edna Gomes; Breda, Mariana Oliveira; Teixeira, Alvaro Aguiar Coelho; Teixeira, Valéria Wanderley

    2017-04-01

    The insecticide Match® (lufenuron), one of the main insect growth regulators used in pest control, has been presented as a viable alternative against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), by inhibiting chitin synthesis. Thus, this study aimed to examine whether Match® interferes in the synthesis of the peritrophic matrix, leading to changes in the midgut epithelium, resulting in nutritional deficiency and reflecting, thereby, in the gametogenesis process of A. grandis. Floral cotton buds were immersed in the insecticide solution (800μL of Match®+200mL of distilled water) and offered to the adult insects. The midguts of the insects were evaluated after 24 and 120h after feeding. The gonads were evaluated after 120h. The results showed that Match®, in both evaluation periods, induced histopathological alterations such as disorganization, vacuolization and desquamation of the midgut epithelium; histochemical modifications in the distribution patterns of carbohydrates, although without quantitative changes; and a strong decrease in protein levels. No apoptosis were observed, however, there was an increase in the number of regenerative cell nests. In the testicles, a reduction in the amount of spermatozoids and reduced carbohydrate levels were observed, but no difference in protein levels. The ovarioles presented structural disorganization of follicular cells, yolk reduction and decrease in protein levels, however, no change in carbohydrates levels was noted. Therefore, it is concluded that Match® performs histopathologic and histochemical alterations in the midgut epithelium and the gonads of A. grandis adults, reflecting in the gametogenesis process, presenting itself as a promising tool in the management of this pest on cotton crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ellenberg's indicator values support prediction of suitable habitat for pre-diapause larvae of endangered butterfly Euphydryas aurinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielech, Remigiusz; Zając, Krzysztof; Kadej, Marcin; Malicki, Marek; Malkiewicz, Adam; Tarnawski, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the great popularity of Ellenberg's Indicator Values (EIVs) in plant ecology, animal ecologists seldom use EIVs to address ecological questions. In this study we used EIVs to test their potential usefulness for the prediction of suitable habitat for pre-diapause larvae of the endangered butterfly species Euphydryas aurinia. Nine transects crossing grasslands in SW Poland with abundant populations of E. aurinia were designed. We sampled 76 vegetation plots along the transects. In addition, the presence of the larval webs of E. aurinia in sampled plots was also recorded. We then calculated the mean community EIVs of light, nitrogen, soil reaction, moisture and temperature for each sample plots. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMMs) were used to assess which factors determine the local occurrence of larval webs of E. aurinia. We found the larval webs only in 12 plots, while the host plant was present in 39 of the examined plots. The presence of the host plant was the most important predictor in both models including all plots or including only plots with host plants. The other significant predictor was the mean EIV of light, and its importance increased in models considering all plots. We attributed the importance of the EIV of light to the site openness and density of the vegetation layer. A positive relationship between this predictor and the presence of larval webs indicates that sites with looser vegetation, a lower contribution of shrubs and tall herbs and better penetration of photosynthetically active radiation to lower vegetation layers are preferred by E. aurinia for oviposition. Moreover, the significance of EIV of light may be linked with management practices. Many light-demanding species decline after cessation of mowing as a result of litter accumulation and the dominance of tall herbs. An absence of light-demanding species decreases the community's mean EIV of light and thus indicates the influence of meadow abandonment.

  19. Ellenberg's indicator values support prediction of suitable habitat for pre-diapause larvae of endangered butterfly Euphydryas aurinia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Pielech

    Full Text Available In spite of the great popularity of Ellenberg's Indicator Values (EIVs in plant ecology, animal ecologists seldom use EIVs to address ecological questions. In this study we used EIVs to test their potential usefulness for the prediction of suitable habitat for pre-diapause larvae of the endangered butterfly species Euphydryas aurinia. Nine transects crossing grasslands in SW Poland with abundant populations of E. aurinia were designed. We sampled 76 vegetation plots along the transects. In addition, the presence of the larval webs of E. aurinia in sampled plots was also recorded. We then calculated the mean community EIVs of light, nitrogen, soil reaction, moisture and temperature for each sample plots. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMMs were used to assess which factors determine the local occurrence of larval webs of E. aurinia. We found the larval webs only in 12 plots, while the host plant was present in 39 of the examined plots. The presence of the host plant was the most important predictor in both models including all plots or including only plots with host plants. The other significant predictor was the mean EIV of light, and its importance increased in models considering all plots. We attributed the importance of the EIV of light to the site openness and density of the vegetation layer. A positive relationship between this predictor and the presence of larval webs indicates that sites with looser vegetation, a lower contribution of shrubs and tall herbs and better penetration of photosynthetically active radiation to lower vegetation layers are preferred by E. aurinia for oviposition. Moreover, the significance of EIV of light may be linked with management practices. Many light-demanding species decline after cessation of mowing as a result of litter accumulation and the dominance of tall herbs. An absence of light-demanding species decreases the community's mean EIV of light and thus indicates the influence of meadow

  20. Histological description of the midgut and the pyloric valve of Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813 (Orthopetera: Romaleidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wanderley-Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present research describes the histology of the midgut, gastric caeca, and pyloric valve of Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813, (Orthopetera: Romaleidae. We used light microscopy, staining (Gomori's trichrome and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, and a routine histological analysis method (hematoxilin-eosin. The insects were obtained from, and also bred in, the Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Biology, of the Rural Federal University of Pernambuco (UFRPE. The collected material was fixed in alcoholic Boüin and embedded in paraplast. The results demonstrated that the midgut wall is composed of an inner epithelial layer and two outer layers of striate muscles: one internal (circular and the other external (longitudinal, with connective tissue between the muscle fibers. The epithelium is single-layered, with two cell types: regenerative and elongated columnar. The gastric caeca presents muscle layers similar to those of the midgut. Simple columnar epithelium lines the gastric caeca, which presents villi and projects towards the lumen. The pyloric valve is of striate muscle tissue, covered by a single epithelial-cell layer.

  1. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against midgut of ixodid tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mie; Kodama, Michi; Yanase, Haruko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Mulenga, Albert; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Onuma, Misao

    2003-08-14

    There are concerted efforts toward development of tick vaccines to replace current chemical control strategies that have serious limitations [Parasitologia 32 (1990) 145; Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (1999) 209-226]. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to Haemaphysalis longicornis midgut proteins were produced and characterized. Eight antibody-secreting hybridomas were cloned and the mAbs typed as IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b. On immunoblots, all mAbs reacted with a midgut protein band of about 76 kDa. All mAbs uniformly immunogold-stained the surface or epithelial layers of H. longicornis midgut and endosomes. Adult ticks (50%) that fed on an ascitic mouse producing the IgGs developed a red coloration and did not oviposit. As such, the 76 kDa protein that reacted with the mAbs could, therefore, be a potential candidate for tick vaccine development.

  2. Effects of physico-chemical treatments on haemagglutination activity of Anopheles gambiae haemolymph and midgut extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, H A; Ingram, G A

    1994-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae midgut extracts and haemolymph possessed agglutinins, titre 1:16 to 1:256, against human red blood cells (RBCs). Subjection of both tissues to protein precipitation reagents, organic chemical and selected protease, neuraminidase and other glycosidic hydrolase treatments revealed the haemagglutinins to be protein, most likely glycoprotein, in nature--not lipoprotein, lipid, glycolipid or nucleic acid. An.gambiae agglutinins were thermo-labile > 40 degrees C, affected by freezing and thawing treatments, and contained disulphide and hydrogen bonds on the basis of sensitivity following exposure to dithiothreitol and urea respectively. Optimum haemagglutination depended generally on slightly acid to neutral pH conditions and agglutinin activity was Ca2+ ion, albeit to a lesser extent Mg2+ ion, dependent. The midgut extract agglutinin subunit molecule had a relative molecular weight (M(r)) of 65 kDa whilst that of haemolymph was 40 kDa. This study presents the first report on selected physico-chemical properties, the glycoproteinaceous nature and tentative subunit M(r) of mosquito midgut extract and haemolymph anti-RBC agglutinin(s).

  3. Midgut serine proteinases and alternative host plant utilization in Pieris brassicae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh eKumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pieris brassicae L. is a serious pest of cultivated crucifers in several parts of theworld. Larvae of P. brassicae also feed prolifically on garden nasturtium (Tropaeolummajus L., of the family Tropaeolaceae. Proteolytic digestion was studied in larvaefeeding on multiple hosts. Fourth instars were collected from cauliflower fields beforetransfer onto detached, aerial tissues of selected host plants in the lab. Variable levels ofmidgut serine proteinases were detected in larvae fed on different hosts using proteinsubstrates (casein and recombinant RBCL cloned from cauliflower and diagnostic,synthetic substrates. Qualitative changes in midgut trypsin activities and quantitativechanges in midgut chymotrypsin activities were implicated in physiological adaptation oflarvae transferred to T. majus. Midgut proteolytic activities were inhibited to differentextents by serine proteinase inhibitors, including putative trypsin inhibitors isolated fromherbivore-attacked and herbivore-free leaves of cauliflower (CfTI and T. majus (TpTI.Transfer of larvae to T. majus significantly influenced feeding parameters but notnecessarily when transferred to different tissues of the same host. Results obtained arerelevant for devising sustainable pest management strategies, including transgenicapproaches using genes encoding plant protease inhibitors.

  4. Differential expression profiles in the midgut of Triatoma infestans infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego S Buarque

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and is transmitted by insects from the Triatominae subfamily. To identify components involved in the protozoan-vector relationship, we constructed and analyzed cDNA libraries from RNA isolated from the midguts of uninfected and T. cruzi-infected Triatoma infestans, which are major vectors of Chagas disease. We generated approximately 440 high-quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from each T. infestans midgut cDNA library. The sequences were grouped in 380 clusters, representing an average length of 664.78 base pairs (bp. Many clusters were not classified functionally, representing unknown transcripts. Several transcripts involved in different processes (e.g., detoxification showed differential expression in response to T. cruzi infection. Lysozyme, cathepsin D, a nitrophorin-like protein and a putative 14 kDa protein were significantly upregulated upon infection, whereas thioredoxin reductase was downregulated. In addition, we identified several transcripts related to metabolic processes or immunity with unchanged expressions, including infestin, lipocalins and defensins. We also detected ESTs encoding juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP, which seems to be involved in insect development and could be a target in control strategies for the vector. This work demonstrates differential gene expression upon T. cruzi infection in the midgut of T. infestans. These data expand the current knowledge regarding vector-parasite interactions for Chagas disease.

  5. Phylogenetically Diverse Burkholderia Associated with Midgut Crypts of Spurge Bugs, Dicranocephalus spp. (Heteroptera: Stenocephalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechler, Stefan Martin; Matsuura, Yu; Dettner, Konrad; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2016-06-25

    Diverse phytophagous heteropteran insects, commonly known as stinkbugs, are associated with specific gut symbiotic bacteria, which have been found in midgut cryptic spaces. Recent studies have revealed that members of the stinkbug families Coreidae and Alydidae of the superfamily Coreoidea are consistently associated with a specific group of the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia, called the "stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental (SBE)" group, and horizontally acquire specific symbionts from the environment every generation. However, the symbiotic system of another coreoid family, Stenocephalidae remains undetermined. We herein investigated four species of the stenocephalid genus Dicranocephalus. Examinations via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the typical arrangement and ultrastructures of midgut crypts and gut symbionts. Cloning and molecular phylogenetic analyses of bacterial genes showed that the midgut crypts of all species are colonized by Burkholderia strains, which were further assigned to different subgroups of the genus Burkholderia. In addition to the SBE-group Burkholderia, a number of stenocephalid symbionts belonged to a novel clade containing B. sordidicola and B. udeis, suggesting a specific symbiont clade for the Stenocephalidae. The symbiotic systems of stenocephalid bugs may provide a unique opportunity to study the ongoing evolution of symbiont associations in the stinkbug-Burkholderia interaction.

  6. Cross-shelf Larval Migrations Regulating Larval Supply and Connectivity in a Network of Marine Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Steven; Largier, John

    2013-01-01

    1. Does larval transport and recruitment vary markedly across an upwelling cell? 2. Do interspecific differences in larval behavior affect transport and recruitment? 3. How far from natal populations do larvae with different dispersal “strategies” travel at and away from a major upwelling center? 4. How should spatial variation in larval transport affect the placement, size, spacing and evaluation of MPAs across upwelling cells?

  7. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of midgut in silkworm infected with Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Shang, Meng-Ke; Qin, Guang-Xing; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Xi-Jie

    2017-01-30

    Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) specifically infects the epithelial cells in the midgut of silkworm and causes them to death, which negatively affects the sericulture industry. In order to determine the midgut response at the protein levels to the virus infection, differential proteomes of the silkworm midgut responsive to BmCPV infection were identified with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 193, 408, 189 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were reliably quantified by iTRAQ analysis in the midgut of BmCPV-infected and control larvae at 24, 48, 72h post infection (hpi) respectively. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that Oxidative phosphorylation, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, steroid hormone biosynthesis were the significant pathways (Q value≤0.05) both at 24 and 48hpi. qRT-PCR was used to further verify gene transcription of 30 DEPs from iTRAQ, showing that the regulations of 24 genes at the transcript level were consistent with those at the proteomic level. Moreover, the cluster analysis of the three time groups showed that there were seven co-regulated DEPs including BGIBMGA002620-PA, which was a putative p62/sequestosome-1 protein in silkworm. It was upregulated at both the mRNA level and the proteomic level and may play an important role in regulating the autophagy and apoptosis (especially apoptosis) induced by BmCPV infection. This was the first report using an iTRAQ approach to analyze proteomes of the silkworm midgut against BmCPV infection, which contributes to understanding the defense mechanisms of silkworm midgut to virus infection. The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is renowned for silk production as well as being a traditional lepidopteron model insect served as a subject for morphological, genetic, physiological, and developmental studies. Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis

  8. Holographic butterfly effect and diffusion in quantum critical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Xian, Zhuo-Yu

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the butterfly effect and charge diffusion near the quantum phase transition in holographic approach. We argue that their criticality is controlled by the holographic scaling geometry with deformations induced by a relevant operator at finite temperature. Specifically, in the quantum critical region controlled by a single fixed point, the butterfly velocity decreases when deviating from the critical point. While, in the non-critical region, the behavior of the butterfly velocity depends on the specific phase at low temperature. Moreover, in the holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, the universal behavior of the butterfly velocity is absent. Finally, the tendency of our holographic results matches with the numerical results of Bose-Hubbard model. A comparison between our result and that in the O( N ) nonlinear sigma model is also given.

  9. Numerical study of solid particle erosion in butterfly valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhao, Jiangang; Qian, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    In the actual operation of butterfly valve, the butterfly valve is found severe erosion wear. A solid particle erosion analysis of butterfly valve based on the erosion theory is researched in this study. A CFD model has been built to simulate the flow erosion. Different parameters of butterfly valve including inlet velocity, particle mass fraction and solid particle diameter are separately analysed. The results show that erosion rate increase with the increase of inlet velocity, particle mass fraction and solid particle diameter. The peak erosion rate is up to 4.63E-5 (kg/m2/s) and erosion of valve disc mainly occurs around the upstream edge and the cylinder face.

  10. Some Possible Cases of Escape Mimicry in Neotropical Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the "bright blue bands" ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the "creamy bands" ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation.

  11. Organization of the olfactory system of nymphalidae butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Schäpers, Alexander; Nässel, Dick R; Janz, Niklas

    2013-05-01

    Olfaction is in many species the most important sense, essential for food search, mate finding, and predator avoidance. Butterflies have been considered a microsmatic group of insects that mainly rely on vision due to their diurnal lifestyle. However, an emerging number of studies indicate that butterflies indeed use the sense of smell for locating food and oviposition sites. To unravel the neural substrates for olfaction, we performed an anatomical study of 2 related butterfly species that differ in food and host plant preference. We found many of the anatomical structures and pathways, as well as distribution of neuroactive substances, to resemble that of their nocturnal relatives among the Lepidoptera. The 2 species differed in the number of one type of olfactory sensilla, thus indicating a difference in sensitivity to certain compounds. Otherwise no differences could be observed. Our findings suggest that the olfactory system in Lepidoptera is well conserved despite the long evolutionary time since butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor.

  12. Study of structural colour of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Pryakhina, V. I.; Kosobokov, M. S.; Zubarev, I. V.; Boymuradova, S. K.; Volchetskaya, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    Structural colours of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales have been studied experimentally using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Visualization of scales structures and computer simulation allowed distinguishing correlation between nanostructures on the scales and their colour.

  13. Karner blue butterfly: Annual summary for Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses research being conducted on the Karner blue butterfly and historic landscape changes in Necedah National Wildlife Refuge.

  14. Butterfly morphology in a molecular age -- does it still matter in butterfly systematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Thomas J; de Jong, Rienk; Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri

    2012-07-01

    We review morphological characters considered important for understanding butterfly phylogeny and evolution in the light of recent large-scale molecular phylogenies of the group. A number of the most important morphological works from the past half century are reviewed and morphological character evolution is reassessed based on the most recent phylogenetic results. In particular, higher level butterfly morphology is evaluated based on a very recent study combining an elaborate morphological dataset with a similar molecular one. Special attention is also given to the families Papilionidae, Nymphalidae and Hesperiidae which have all seen morphological and molecular efforts come together in large, combined works in recent years. In all of the examined cases the synergistic effect of combining elaborate morphological datasets with ditto molecular clearly outweigh the merits of either data type analysed on its own (even for 'genome size' molecular datasets). It is evident that morphology, far from being obsolete or arcane, still has an immensely important role to play in butterfly (and insect) phylogenetics. Not least because understanding morphology is essential for understanding and evaluating the evolutionary scenarios phylogenetic trees are supposed to illustrate. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High quality RNA isolation from Aedes aegypti midguts using laser microdissection microscopy

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    Gobert Geoffrey N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser microdissection microscopy (LMM has potential as a research tool because it allows precise excision of target tissues or cells from a complex biological specimen, and facilitates tissue-specific sample preparation. However, this method has not been used in mosquito vectors to date. To this end, we have developed an LMM method to isolate midgut RNA using Aedes aegypti. Results Total RNA was isolated from Ae. aegypti midguts that were either fresh-frozen or fixed with histological fixatives. Generally, fresh-frozen tissue sections are a common source of quality LMM-derived RNA; however, our aim was to develop an LMM protocol that could inactivate pathogenic viruses by fixation, while simultaneously preserving RNA from arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. Three groups (10 - 15 mosquitoes per group of female Ae. aegypti at 24 or 48-hours post-blood meal were intrathoracically injected with one of seven common fixatives (Bouin's, Carnoy's, Formoy's, Cal-Rite, 4% formalin, 10% neutral buffered formalin, or zinc formalin to evaluate their effect on RNA quality. Total RNA was isolated from the fixed abdomens using a Trizol® method. The results indicated that RNA from Carnoy's and Bouin's fixative samples was comparable to that of fresh frozen midguts (control in duplicate experiments. When Carnoy's and Bouin's were used to fix the midguts for the LMM procedure, however, Carnoy's-fixed RNA clearly showed much less degradation than Bouin's-fixed RNA. In addition, a sample of 5 randomly chosen transcripts were amplified more efficiently using the Carnoy's treated LMM RNA than Bouin's-fixed RNA in quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR assays, suggesting there were more intact target mRNAs in the Carnoy's fixed RNA. The yields of total RNA ranged from 0.3 to 19.0 ng per ~3.0 × 106 μm2 in the LMM procedure. Conclusions Carnoy's fixative was found to be highly compatible with LMM, producing high quality RNA from Ae. aegypti midguts while

  16. Modal-Based Design Improvement of a Butterfly Valve Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Draghiciu; Zoltan-Iosif Korka; Gilbert-Rainer Gillich

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour control of a butterfly valve is important because, when one of the valve disc natural frequency is close to the frequency of vortex shedding, which appears when the valve is fully open or partially closed, resonance may appear and vibration with significant amplitudes is generated. This paper presents an example by how the design of a butterfly valve disc can be improved by using a modal analysis performed by means of the finite element method. For this purpose, the rese...

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Butterfly Valve Performance Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Del Toro, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Butterfly valves are commonly used in industrial applications to control the internal flow of both compressible and incompressible fluids. A butterfly valve typically consists of a metal disc formed around a central shaft, which acts as its axis of rotation. As the valve's opening angle is increased from 0 degrees (fully closed) to 90 degrees (fully open), fluid is able to more readily flow past the valve. Characterizing a valve's performance factors, such as pressure drop, hydrodynamic torqu...

  18. Infrared detection based on localized modification of Morpho butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangyu; Shen, Qingchen; Shi, Xindong; Li, Shipu; Wang, Wanlin; Luo, Zhen; He, Gufeng; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-02-01

    Inspired by butterflies an advanced detection and sensing system is developed. The hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Morpho butterfly wings is shown to facilitate the selective modification of such a structure, which results in a sensitive infrared response. These findings offer a new path both for detecting infrared photons and for generating nanostructured bimaterial systems for high-performance sensing platforms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp., Pieridae (17 spp, Lycaenidae (47 spp., Nymphalidae (40 spp. and Hesperiidae (28 spp.. The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  20. Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer; painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury; species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar. In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus; yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus; small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

  1. AFM study of structure influence on butterfly wings coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva; Pavel Tomanek

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body,...

  2. Hearing in a diurnal, mute butterfly, Morpho peleides (Papilionoidea, Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Karla A; Lucas, Kathleen M; Yack, Jayne E

    2008-06-10

    Butterflies use visual and chemical cues when interacting with their environment, but the role of hearing is poorly understood in these insects. Nymphalidae (brush-footed) butterflies occur worldwide in almost all habitats and continents, and comprise more than 6,000 species. In many species a unique forewing structure--Vogel's organ--is thought to function as an ear. At present, however, there is little experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. We studied the functional organization of Vogel's organ in the common blue morpho butterfly, Morpho peleides, which represents the majority of Nymphalidae in that it is diurnal and does not produce sounds. Our results confirm that Vogel's organ possesses the morphological and physiological characteristics of a typical insect tympanal ear. The tympanum has an oval-shaped outer membrane and a convex inner membrane. Associated with the inner surface of the tympanum are three chordotonal organs, each containing 10-20 scolopidia. Extracellular recordings from the auditory nerve show that Vogel's organ is most sensitive to sounds between 2-4 kHz at median thresholds of 58 dB SPL. Most butterfly species that possess Vogel's organ are diurnal, and mute, so bat detection and conspecific communication can be ruled out as roles for hearing. We hypothesize that Vogel's organs in butterflies such as M. peleides have evolved to detect flight sounds of predatory birds. The evolution and taxonomic distribution of butterfly hearing organs are discussed.

  3. The effects of seasonally variable dragonfly predation on butterfly assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiitsaar, Anu; Kaasik, Ants; Teder, Tiit

    2013-01-01

    Where predation is seasonally variable, the potential impact of a predator on individual prey species will critically depend on phenological synchrony of the predator with the prey. Here we explored the effects of seasonally variable predation in multispecies assemblages of short-lived prey. The study was conducted in a landscape in which we had previously demonstrated generally high, but spatially and seasonally variable dragonfly-induced mortality in adult butterflies. In this system, we show that patterns of patch occupancy in butterfly species flying during periods of peak dragonfly abundance are more strongly associated with spatial variation in dragonfly abundance than patch occupancy of species flying when dragonfly density was low. We provide evidence indicating that this differential sensitivity of different butterfly species to between-habitat differences in dragonfly abundance is causally tied to seasonal variation in the intensity of dragonfly predation. The effect of dragonfly predation could also be measured at the level of whole local butterfly assemblages. With dragonfly density increasing, butterfly species richness decreased, and butterfly species composition tended to show a shift toward a greater proportion of species flying during periods of off-peak dragonfly abundance.

  4. Criticality in third order lovelock gravity and butterfly effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2018-01-01

    We study third order Lovelock Gravity in D=7 at the critical point which three (A)dS vacua degenerate into one. We see there is not propagating graviton at the critical point. And also we compute the butterfly velocity for this theory at the critical point by considering the shock wave solutions near horizon, this is important to note that although there is no propagating graviton at the critical point, due to boundary gravitons the butterfly velocity is non-zero. Finally we observe that the butterfly velocity for third order Lovelock Gravity at the critical point in D=7 is less than the butterfly velocity for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity at the critical point in D=7 which is less than the butterfly velocity in D = 7 for Einstein Gravity, vB^{E.H}>vB^{E.G.B}>vB^{3rd Lovelock} . Maybe we can conclude that by adding higher order curvature corrections to Einstein Gravity the butterfly velocity decreases.

  5. Colour constancy in the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, M; Arikawa, K

    2000-12-01

    We have recently shown that the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus uses colour vision when searching for food. In the field, these butterflies feed on nectar provided by flowers of various colours not only in direct sunlight but also in shaded places and on cloudy days, suggesting that they have colour constancy. Here, we tested this hypothesis. We trained newly emerged Papilio xuthus to feed on sucrose solution on a paper patch of a certain colour under white illumination. The butterflies were then tested under both white and coloured illumination. Under white illumination, yellow- and red-trained butterflies selected the correctly coloured patch from a four-colour pattern and from a colour Mondrian collage. Under four different colours of illumination, we obtained results that were fundamentally similar to those under white illumination. Moreover, we performed critical tests using sets of two similar colours, which were also correctly discriminated by trained butterflies under coloured illumination. Taken together, we conclude that the butterfly Papilio xuthus exhibits some degree of colour constancy when searching for food.

  6. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Basis of Melanin Pigmentation in Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Martin, Arnaud; Perry, Michael W; van der Burg, Karin R L; Matsuoka, Yuji; Monteiro, Antónia; Reed, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Despite the variety, prominence, and adaptive significance of butterfly wing patterns, surprisingly little is known about the genetic basis of wing color diversity. Even though there is intense interest in wing pattern evolution and development, the technical challenge of genetically manipulating butterflies has slowed efforts to functionally characterize color pattern development genes. To identify candidate wing pigmentation genes, we used RNA sequencing to characterize transcription across multiple stages of butterfly wing development, and between different color pattern elements, in the painted lady butterfly Vanessa cardui This allowed us to pinpoint genes specifically associated with red and black pigment patterns. To test the functions of a subset of genes associated with presumptive melanin pigmentation, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in four different butterfly genera. pale, Ddc, and yellow knockouts displayed reduction of melanin pigmentation, consistent with previous findings in other insects. Interestingly, however, yellow-d, ebony, and black knockouts revealed that these genes have localized effects on tuning the color of red, brown, and ochre pattern elements. These results point to previously undescribed mechanisms for modulating the color of specific wing pattern elements in butterflies, and provide an expanded portrait of the insect melanin pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Developing `Butterfly Warriors': a Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-12-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen scientists. The butterfly unit included five lessons. The researchers observed the lessons and interviewed students and the classroom teacher. The students completed a unit evaluation survey after the unit. Findings indicate that the students enjoyed and were interested in activities such as reading about butterflies, learning and using new vocabulary, drawing butterfly life cycles, as well as hunting, tagging and releasing butterflies and publishing the data they had collected on a dedicated website. Through their participation in the unit, students had opportunities to act locally and globally, and to `see themselves' in science through `being there' experience. Units like this have the potential to develop students' interest for longer-term engagement in science, even those students who may never envision themselves as professional scientists.

  9. Interspecific and intersexual learning rate differences in four butterfly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Ikuo; Yamaki, Takafumi; Okuyama, Sei-Ichi; Sakamoto, Noboru; Yokoi, Tomoyuki

    2009-12-01

    Learning plays an important role in food acquisition for a wide range of insects and has been demonstrated to be essential during flower foraging in taxa such as bees, parasitoid wasps, butterflies and moths. However, little attention has been focused on differences in floral cue learning abilities among species and sexes. We examined the associative learning of flower colour with nectar in four butterfly species: Idea leuconoe, Argyreus hyperbius, Pieris rapae and Lycaena phlaeas. All butterflies that were trained learned the flower colours associated with food. The flower colour learning rates were significantly higher in I. leuconoe and A. hyperbius than in P. rapae and L. phlaeas. Among the four species examined, the larger and longer-lived species exhibited higher learning rates. Furthermore, female butterflies showed a significantly higher learning rate than males. This study provides the first evidence that learning abilities related to floral cues differ among butterfly species. The adaptive significance of superior learning abilities in the larger and longer-lived butterfly species and in females is discussed.

  10. The fine structure of the midgut epithelium in a centipede, Scolopendra cingulata (Chilopoda, Scolopendridae), with the special emphasis on epithelial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajec, Lukasz; Sonakowska, Lidia; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M

    2014-01-01

    Scolopendra cingulata has a tube-shaped digestive system that is divided into three distinct regions: fore-, mid- and hindgut. The midgut is lined with a pseudostratified columnar epithelium which is composed of digestive, secretory and regenerative cells. Hemocytes also appear between the digestive cells of the midgut epithelium. The ultrastructure of three types of epithelial cells and hemocytes of the midgut has been described with the special emphasis on the role of regenerative cells in the protection of midgut epithelium. The process of midgut epithelium regeneration proceeds due to the ability of regenerative cells to proliferate and differentiate according to a circadian rhythm. The regenerative cells serve as unipotent stem cells that divide in an asymmetric manner. Additionally, two types of hemocytes have been distinguished among midgut epithelial cells. They enter the midgut epithelium from the body cavity. Because of the fact that numerous microorganisms occur in the cytoplasm of midgut epithelial cells, we discuss the role of hemocytes in elimination of pathogens from the midgut epithelium. The studies were conducted with the use of transmission electron microscope and immunofluorescent methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multidisciplinary optimization of a butterfly valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xue Guan; Wang, Lin; Baek, Seok Heum; Park, Young Chul

    2009-07-01

    A butterfly valve is a type of flow control device, typically used to regulate fluid flow. This paper proposes a new process to meet desired needs in valve design that is characterized by the complex configuration. First, the need is identified according to the valve user/company, and then the problem is defined with a characteristic function. Second, the initial model of valve is made, and then the initial analysis including fluid and/or structural analysis is carried out to predict the fluid and/or structural performance of the valve. Third, the optimization in the form of mathematical functions, which considers single or multiple objective and/or discipline, is handled. This part includes the design of computer experiment, approximation technique, topology optimization and sizing optimization. Finally, the validation experiment is conducted based on the optimum result to verify the accuracy of the optimization. An example is provided to confirm the availability of the process proposed here.

  12. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  13. Coloration mechanisms and phylogeny of Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M A; Yoshioka, S; Liu, C; Stavenga, D G

    2016-12-15

    Morpho butterflies are universally admired for their iridescent blue coloration, which is due to nanostructured wing scales. We performed a comparative study on the coloration of 16 Morpho species, investigating the morphological, spectral and spatial scattering properties of the differently organized wing scales. In numerous previous studies, the bright blue Morpho coloration has been fully attributed to the multi-layered ridges of the cover scales' upper laminae, but we found that the lower laminae of the cover and ground scales play an important additional role, by acting as optical thin film reflectors. We conclude that Morpho coloration is a subtle combination of overlapping pigmented and/or unpigmented scales, multilayer systems, optical thin films and sometimes undulated scale surfaces. Based on the scales' architecture and their organization, five main groups can be distinguished within the genus Morpho, largely agreeing with the accepted phylogeny. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Symmetry Breaking in Hofstadter's Butterfly in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Carlos; Dean, Cory; Wang, Lei; Maher, Patrick; Ghahari, Fereshte; Moon, Pilkyung; Koshino, Mikito; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Shepard, Ken; Hone, Jim; Kim, Philip

    2013-03-01

    We will present magnetotransport measurements in hBN encapsulated bilayer graphene devices where one of hBN substrates provides a weak modulation of lattice potential. Under a strong magnetic field, interplay between periodic electric potential and quantizing magnetic field lead to a fractal energy spectrum known as Hofstadter's butterfly. In graphene, while spin and layer symmetry breakings are expected in dual gated devices under large magnetic fields, valley symmetry breaking in the Hofstadter regime is not so easily understood. We will present the observance of these measured gaps along with a discussion of symmetry breaking in our BLG-hBN devices. Further quantitative analysis of these breakings will be presented through the temperature dependence of quantized conductance at these gaps. Through careful modulation of temperature and electron density, we have extracted a range of activation energies associated with symmetry breakings. the speaker acknowledges support from the Columbia Optics and Quantum Electronics IGERT under NSF grant DGE-1069420

  15. Feeding-induced phenol production in Capsicum annuum L. influences Spodoptera litura F. larval growth and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Vijaya; Pathipati, Usha Rani

    2017-05-01

    We studied the role of induced plant phenols as a defense response to insect herbivory. Phenolic compounds were induced in Capsicum annuum L., the source of many culinary peppers, after feeding by different stages of the insect pest, Spodoptera litura F. The phenols were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and effects produced by these phenols on larval development were studied. Vanillic acid was identified in plants challenged by second, fourth, and fifth instar larvae, but not in plants challenged by third instar nor unchallenged plants. Syringic acid production was induced in chili plants infested with second (0.429 ± 0.003 μg/g fresh weight, fourth (0.396 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight), and fifth instar (5.5 ± 0.06 μg/g fresh weight) larvae, compared to untreated plants (0.303 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight) plants. Leaves surface treated with the rutin deterred oviposition. Dietary exposure to chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin led to enhanced activities of detoxifying enzymes, β-glucosidase, carboxyl esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase in the midgut tissues of all the larval instars, indicating the toxic nature of these compounds. Protein carbonyl content and acetylcholinesterase activity was analyzed to appreciate the role of induced plant phenols in insect protein oxidation and terminating nerve impulses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Determining optimal population monitoring for rare butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick M; Hudgens, Brian; Damiani, Chris; Gross, Kevin; Kuefler, Daniel; Pollock, Ken

    2008-08-01

    Determining population viability of rare insects depends on precise, unbiased estimates of population size and other demographic parameters. We used data on the endangered St. Francis' satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitchellii francisci) to evaluate 2 approaches (mark-recapture and transect counts) for population analysis of rare butterflies. Mark-recapture analysis provided by far the greatest amount of demographic information, including estimates (and standard errors) of population size, detection, survival, and recruitment probabilities. Mark-recapture analysis can also be used to estimate dispersal and temporal variation in rates, although we did not do this here. Models of seasonal flight phenologies derived from transect counts (Insect Count Analyzer) provided an index of population size and estimates of survival and statistical uncertainty. Pollard-Yates population indices derived from transect counts did not provide estimates of demographic parameters. This index may be highly biased if detection and survival probabilities vary spatially and temporally. In terms of statistical performance, mark-recapture and Pollard-Yates indices were least variable. Mark-recapture estimates were less likely to fail than Insect Count Analyzer, but mark-recapture estimates became less precise as sampling intensity decreased. In general, count-based approaches are less costly and less likely to cause harm to rare insects than mark-recapture. The optimal monitoring approach must reconcile these trade-offs. Thus, mark-recapture should be favored when demographic estimates are needed, when financial resources enable frequent sampling, and when marking does not harm the insect populations. The optimal sampling strategy may use 2 sampling methods together in 1 overall sampling plan: limited mark-recapture sampling to estimate survival and detection probabilities and frequent but less expensive transect counts.

  17. Sex-dependent effects of larval food stress on adult performance under semi-natural conditions: only a matter of size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Elena; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2017-07-01

    Organisms with complex life-cycles acquire essential nutrients as juveniles, and hence even a short-term food stress during development can impose serious fitness costs apparent in adults. We used the Glanville fritillary butterfly to investigate the effects of larval food stress on adult performance under semi-natural conditions in a population enclosure. We were specifically interested in whether the negative effects observed were due to body mass reduction only or whether additional effects unrelated to pupal mass were evident. The two sexes responded differently to the larval food stress. In females, larval food stress reduced pupal mass and reproductive performance. The reduced reproductive performance was partially mediated by pupal mass reduction. Food stressed females also had reduced within-patch mobility, and this effect was not dependent on pupal mass. Conversely, food stress had no effect on male pupal mass, suggesting a full compensation via prolonged development time. Nonetheless, food stressed males were less likely to sire any eggs, potentially due to changes in their territorial behavior, as indicated by food stress also increasing male within-patch mobility (i.e., patrolling behavior). When males did sire eggs, the offspring number and viability were unaffected by male food stress treatment. Viability was in general higher for offspring sired by lighter males. Our study highlights how compensatory mechanisms after larval food stress can act in a sex-specific manner and that the alteration in body mass is only partially responsible for the reduced adult performance observed.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of butterfly population in DAE Campus, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal population trends of butterflies inhabiting the campus of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE at Kalpakkam were recorded by setting a permanent line transect of 300m and recording all species of butterflies observed within a 5m distance. The survey yielded 2177 individuals of 56 butterfly species, belonging to the families Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae and Hesperiidae. Nymphalidae were found to be the dominant family during all seasons. Species richness and abundance were highest during the northeast monsoon and winter periods, indicating that in the southern plains of India butterflies prefer cool seasons for breeding and emergence. The taxonomic structure of the butterflies sampled resembles that of the Western Ghats and other regions of India in two ways: (a dominance of nymphalids and (b peak abundance during wet seasons. A detailed study of ecologically important local butterfly fauna and their host plants is in progress, to construct a butterfly garden in Kalpakkam to attract and support butterflies.

  19. Using a phenological network to assess weather influences on first appearance of butterflies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, Van Der Henk Jan; Wallis de Vries, Michiel; Vliet, Van Arnold J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Phenological responses of butterflies to temperature have been demonstrated in several European countries by using data from standardized butterfly monitoring schemes. Recently, phenological networks have enabled volunteers to record phenological observations at project websites. In this study,

  20. Distribution of Glycan Motifs at the Surface of Midgut Cells in the Cotton Leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis Demonstrated by Lectin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Walski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycans are involved in many biological phenomena, including signal transduction, cell adhesion, immune response or differentiation. Although a few papers have reported on the role of glycans in the development and proper functioning of the insect midgut, no data are available regarding the localization of the glycan structures on the surface of the cells in the gut of insects. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial distribution of glycans present on the surface of the midgut cells in larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, an important agricultural pest insect worldwide. For this purpose, we established primary midgut cell cultures, probed these individual cells that are freely suspended in liquid medium with a selection of seven fluorescently labeled lectins covering a range of different carbohydrate binding specificities [mannose oligomers (GNA and HHA, GalNAc/Gal (RSA and SSA, GlcNAc (WGA and Nictaba and Neu5Ac(α-2,6Gal/GalNAc (SNA-I], and visualized the interaction of these lectins with the different zones of the midgut cells using confocal microscopy. Our analysis focused on the typical differentiated columnar cells with a microvillar brush border at their apical side, which are dominantly present in the Lepidopteran midgut and function in food digestion and absorption, and as well as on the undifferentiated stem cells that are important for midgut development and repair. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that the GalNAc/Gal-binding lectins SSA and RSA and the terminal GlcNAc-recognizing WGA bound preferentially to the apical microvillar zone of the differentiated columnar cells as compared to the basolateral pole. The reverse result was observed for the mannose-binding lectins GNA and HHA, as well as Nictaba that binds preferentially to GlcNAc oligomers. Furthermore, differences in lectin binding to the basal and lateral zones of the cell membranes of the columnar cells were apparent. In the midgut stem cells, GNA and

  1. Molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography, and divergence time estimates for swallowtail butterflies of the genus Papilio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Evgueni V; Caterino, Michael S; Sperling, Felix A H

    2004-04-01

    Swallowtail butterflies are recognized as model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, genetics, and conservation biology but present numerous unresolved phylogenetic problems. We inferred phylogenetic relationships for 51 of about 205 species of the genus Papilio (sensu lato) from 3.3-Kilobase (kb) sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (2.3 kb of cytochrome oxidases I and II and 1.0 kb of elongation factor 1 alpha). Congruent phylogenetic trees were recovered within Papilio from analyses of combined data using maximum likelihood, Bayesian analysis, and maximum parsimony bootstrap consensus. Several disagreements with the traditional classification of Papilio were found. Five major previously hypothesized subdivisions within Papilio were well supported: Heraclides, Pterourus, Chilasa, Papilio (sensu stricto), and Eleppone. Further studies are required to clarify relationships within traditional "Princeps," which was paraphyletic. Several biologically interesting characteristics of Papilio appear to have polyphyletic origins, including mimetic adults, larval host associations, and larval morphology. Early diversification within Papilio is estimated at 55-65 million years ago based on a combination of biogeographic time constraints rather than fossils. This divergence time suggests that Papilio has slower apparent substitution rates than do Drosophila and fig-pollinating wasps and/or divergences corrected using best-fit substitution models are still being consistently underestimated. The amount of sequence divergence between Papilio subdivisions is equivalent to divergences between genera in other tribes of the Papilionidae, and between genera of moths of the noctuid subfamily Heliothinae.

  2. The toxicity of a lipid transfer protein (Cc-LTP1) from Coffea canephora Seeds on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zottich, Umberto; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Rabelo, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir A; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski S; do Nascimento, Viviane V; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of coffee seed proteins, especially Cc-LTP1 on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a bruchid pest of beans and the most important insect pest of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Artificial seed assay, which incorporated the F/0-90 fraction from Coffea canephora seeds, resulted in the reduction of oviposition and caused an inhibition of C. maculatus larval development in a dose-dependent manner. The F/0-90 fraction used at a 4 % concentration resulted in the survival of no larvae. The purified Cc-LTP1, at a concentration of 0.5 %, also demonstrated effective inhibition of larval development, reducing both females oviposition and the weight and number of larvae. Cc-LTP1 was also able to inhibit the C. maculatus gut α-amylase activity, and immunolabeling by an anti-LTP serum was observed in the midgut tissues of the C. maculatus larvae. Cc-LTP1 has shown binding affinity towards microvillar cells, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as demonstrated by micrographic images taken by a transmission electron microscope. The results from this study indicate that Cc-LTP1 has insecticidal actions toward C. maculatus and exerts anti-nutritional effects with direct actions on intestinal tissues.

  3. The butterfly effect: an investigation of sectioned roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Assil A; Chandler, Nicholas P; Hauman, Catharina; Siddiqui, Amna Y; Tompkins, Geoffrey R

    2013-02-01

    The butterfly effect is an optical phenomenon seen in some sections of tooth roots. The aim of this work was to investigate the density of dentinal tubules in mesiodistal and buccolingual cross-sections of roots exhibiting the butterfly effect and to determine if the effect is featured throughout the length of roots and is age related. Thirty extracted single-rooted teeth were allocated to the following groups according to patient age: group 1: 15-24 years, group 2: 25-44 years, and group 3: 45 years and over. The teeth were decoronated, and their roots were embedded in acrylic and cut into ten 1 mm-thick cross-sections. Sections were viewed under a light microscope and coded (1 or 2) according to presence or absence of the butterfly effect. A root scored 20 when all levels exhibited the butterfly appearance. The 2 teeth with the highest score from each group and 2 control teeth with the minimum score (of 10) were selected. Two adjacent, consecutive cross-sections were chosen with the most coronal cut mesiodistally and the other buccolingually. Scanning electron micrographs (×850) were taken of the central portion of their canal lumina and the density of the dentinal tubules determined. The butterfly effect was found at all levels in the roots of the affected teeth. The tubule density was highest in the buccolingual root sections (45,348 mm(-2)) and lowest mesiodistally (12,605 mm(-2)), a significant difference (P = .02). This trend was found across all age groups. Root sections with the butterfly effect have a lower density of dentinal tubules mesiodistally corresponding to the wings of the butterfly. The pattern was observed in teeth from all age groups and was absent in controls. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The butterflies and land snails of Ndere Island National Park, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After a survey of Ndere Island National Park between October and November 2004, we recorded 18 species of butterflies and 3 species of land snails. Eurema brigitta brigitta was the most abundant butterfly whereas Thapsia karamwegasensis was the most abundant land snail. Majority of the butterfly species are found in ...

  5. Occurrence of sarmentosin and other hydroxynitrile glucosides in Parnassius (papilionidae) butterflies and their food plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnholt, Nanna; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Kędziorski, Andrzej; Debinski, Diane M; Matter, Stephen F; Olsen, Carl Erik; Zagrobelny, Mika

    2012-05-01

    Sequestration of plant secondary metabolites is a widespread phenomenon among aposematic insects. Sarmentosin is an unsaturated γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside known from plants and some Lepidoptera. It is structurally and biosynthetically closely related to cyanogenic glucosides, which are commonly sequestered from food plants and/or de novo synthesized by lepidopteran species. Sarmentosin was found previously in Parnassius (Papilionidae) butterflies, but it was not known how the occurrence was related to food plants or whether Parnassius species could biosynthesize the compound. Here, we report on the occurrence of sarmentosin and related compounds in four different Parnassius species belonging to two different clades, as well as their known and suspected food plants. There were dramatic differences between the two clades, with P. apollo and P. smintheus from the Apollo group containing high amounts of sarmentosin, and P. clodius and P. mnemosyne from the Mnemosyne group containing low or no detectable amounts. This was reflected in the larval food plants; P. apollo and P. smintheus larvae feed on Sedum species (Crassulaceae), which all contained considerable amounts of sarmentosin, while the known food plants of the two other species, Dicentra and Corydalis (Fumariaceae), had no detectable levels of sarmentosin. All insects and plants containing sarmentosin also contained other biosynthetically related hydroxynitrile glucosides in patterns previously reported for plants, but not for insects. Not all findings could be explained by sequestration alone and we therefore hypothesize that Parnassius species are able to de novo synthesize sarmentosin.

  6. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  8. Requirement of matrix metalloproteinase-1 for intestinal homeostasis in the adult Drosophila midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Park, Joung-Sun [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Science, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Shin [Research Institute of Genetic Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hae-Young [Molecular Inflammation Research Center for Aging Intervention (MRCA), College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Mi-Ae, E-mail: mayoo@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Science, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-10

    Stem cells are tightly regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), proteolytic enzymes, modulate the turnover of numerous substrates, including cytokine precursors, growth factors, and ECM molecules. However, the roles of MMPs in the regulation of adult stem cells are poorly understood. In the present study, we utilize the Drosophila midgut, which is an excellent model system for studying stem cell biology, to show that Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The results showed that Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut and that its expression increases with age and with exposure to oxidative stress. Mmp1 knockdown or Timp-overexpressing flies and flies heterozygous for a viable, hypomorphic Mmp1 allele increased ISC proliferation in the gut, as shown by staining with an anti-phospho-histone H3 antibody and BrdU incorporation assays. Reduced Mmp1 levels induced intestinal hyperplasia, and the Mmp1depletion-induced ISC proliferation was rescued by the suppression of the EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that Mmp1 regulates ISC proliferation through the EGFR signaling pathway. Furthermore, adult gut-specific knockdown and whole-animal heterozygotes of Mmp1 increased additively sensitivity to paraquat-induced oxidative stress and shortened lifespan. Our data suggest that Drosophila Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation for maintenance of gut homeostasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1-related ISC proliferation is associated with EGFR signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 in the gut is required for the intestinal homeostasis and longevity.

  9. Origin and dynamic lineage characteristics of the developing Drosophila midgut stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Shigeo; Aghajanian, Patrick; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2016-08-15

    Proliferating intestinal stem cells (ISCs) generate all cell types of the Drosophila midgut, including enterocytes, endocrine cells, and gland cells (e.g., copper cells), throughout the lifetime of the animal. Among the signaling mechanisms controlling the balance between ISC self-renewal and the production of different cell types, Notch (N) plays a pivotal role. In this paper we investigated the emergence of ISCs during metamorphosis and the role of N in this process. Precursors of the Drosophila adult intestinal stem cells (pISCs) can be first detected within the pupal midgut during the first hours after onset of metamorphosis as motile mesenchymal cells. pISCs perform 2-3 rounds of parasynchronous divisions. The first mitosis yields only an increase in pISC number. During the following rounds of mitosis, dividing pISCs give rise to more pISCs, as well as the endocrine cells that populate the midgut of the eclosing fly. Enterocytes do not appear among the pISC progeny until around the time of eclosion. The "proendocrine" gene prospero (pros), expressed from mid-pupal stages onward in pISCs, is responsible to advance the endocrine fate in these cells; following removal of pros, pISCs continue to proliferate, but endocrine cells do not form. Conversely, the onset of N activity that occurs around the stage when pros comes on restricts pros expression among pISCs. Loss of N abrogates proliferation and switches on an endocrine fate among all pISCs. Our results suggest that a switch depending on the activity of N and pros acts at the level of the pISC to decide between continued proliferation and endocrine differentiation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Early responses of silkworm midgut to microsporidium infection--A Digital Gene Expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ya-Jie; Tang, Xu-Dong; Xu, Li; Yan, Wei; Li, Qian-Long; Xiao, Sheng-Yan; Fu, Xu-Liang; Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Shen, Zhong-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are complex processes, which have been studied extensively in recent years. In insects, the midgut is a vital organ of digestion and nutrient absorption, and also serves as the first physiological and immune barrier against invading pathogenic microorganisms. Our focus is on Nosema bombycis, which is a pathogen of silkworm pebrine and causes great economic losses to the silk industry. A complete understanding of the host response to infection by N. bombycis and the interaction between them is necessary to prevent this disease. Silkworm midgut infected with N. bombycis is a good model to investigate the early host responses to microsporidia infection and the interaction between the silkworm and the microsporidium. Using Digital Gene Expression analysis, we investigated the midgut transcriptome profile of P50 silkworm larvae orally inoculated with N. bombycis. At 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-infection (hpi), 247, 95, 168, 450, 89, 80, and 773 DEGs were identified, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis showed the influence of N. bombycis infection on many biological processes including folate biosynthesis, spliceosome, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, protein export, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, biosynthesis of amino acids, ribosome, and RNA degradation. In addition, a number of differentially expressed genes involved in the immune response were identified. Overall, the results of this study provide an understanding of the strategy used by silkworm as a defense against the invasion by N. bombycis. Similar interactions between hosts and pathogens infection may exist in other species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of thiamethoxam in the midgut and malpighian tubules of Africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catae, Aline Fernanda; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; De Oliveira, Regiane Alves; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2014-04-01

    Due to its expansion, agriculture has become increasingly dependent on the use of pesticides. However, the indiscriminate use of insecticides has had additional effects on the environment. These products have a broad spectrum of action, and therefore the insecticide affects not only the pests but also non-target insects such as bees, which are important pollinators of agricultural crops and natural environments. Among the most used pesticides, the neonicotinoids are particularly harmful. One of the neonicotinoids of specific concern is thiamethoxam, which is used on a wide variety of crops and is toxic to bees. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the effects of this insecticide in the midgut and Malpighian tubule cells of Africanized Apis mellifera. Newly emerged workers were exposed until 8 days to a diet containing a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam equal to 1/10 of LC₅₀ (0.0428 ng a.i./l L of diet). The bees were dissected and the organs were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that thiamethoxam is cytotoxic to midgut and Malpighian tubules. In the midgut, the damage was more evident in bees exposed to the insecticide on the first day. On the eighth day, the cells were ultrastructurally intact suggesting a recovery of this organ. The Malpighian tubules showed pronounced alterations on the eighth day of exposure of bees to the insecticide. This study demonstrates that the continuous exposure to a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam can impair organs that are used during the metabolism of the insecticide. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Tigutcystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor from Triatoma infestans midgut expressed in response to Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buarque, Diego S.; Spindola, Leticia M.N. [Department of Biochemistry, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, 04044-020 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Rafael M. [Biology of Host Parasite Interactions Unit, Institute Pasteur, 75015 Paris (France); Braz, Gloria R.C. [Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tanaka, Aparecida S., E-mail: Tanaka.bioq@epm.br [Department of Biochemistry, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, 04044-020 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Tigutcystatin inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi cysteine proteases with high specificity. {yields} Tigutcystatin expression is up-regulated in response to T. cruzi infection. {yields} It is the first cysteine proteases inhibitor characterized from a triatomine insect. -- Abstract: The insect Triatoma infestans is a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. A cDNA library was constructed from T. infestans anterior midgut, and 244 clones were sequenced. Among the EST sequences, an open reading frame (ORF) with homology to a cystatin type 2 precursor was identified. Then, a 288-bp cDNA fragment encoding mature cystatin (lacking signal peptide) named Tigutcystatin was cloned fused to a N-terminal His tag in pET-14b vector, and the protein expressed in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta gami. Tigutcystatin purified and cleaved by thrombin to remove His tag presented molecular mass of 11 kDa and 10,137 Da by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, respectively. Purified Tigutcystatin was shown to be a tight inhibitor towards cruzain, a T. cruzi cathepsin L-like enzyme (K{sub i} = 3.29 nM) and human cathepsin L (K{sub i} = 3.78 nM). Tissue specific expression analysis showed that Tigutcystatin was mostly expressed in anterior midgut, although amplification in small intestine was also detected by semi quantitative RT-PCR. qReal time PCR confirmed that Tigutcystatin mRNA is significantly up-regulated in anterior midgut when T. infestans is infected with T. cruzi. Together, these results indicate that Tigutcystatin may be involved in modulation of T. cruzi in intestinal tract by inhibiting parasite cysteine proteases, which represent the virulence factors of this protozoan.

  13. Identification of microRNAs expressed in the midgut of Aedes albopictus during dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianxin; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yingmei; Yan, Ting; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Minghui; Xing, Dan; Dong, Yande; Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Tongyan

    2017-02-03

    The midgut is the first barrier to dengue virus (DENV) infections of mosquitoes and therefore is a major bottleneck for the subsequent development of vector competence. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this barrier are unknown. We constructed three small RNA libraries from the midguts of adult Aedes albopictus females that had been fed on either sugar solution, an uninfected blood meal, or a blood meal infected with DENV-2, and112 conserved microRNAs represented by 173 miRNA sequences were identified, with 34 novel microRNAs predicted by Mireap, RNAfold and Sfold software. In addition, the expression of aal-miR-1174, aal-miR-2951 and aal-miR-956 was confirmed via stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Compared with microRNA expression profiles of mosquitoes that had ingested a regular blood meal, 43 microRNAs were upregulated and 4were downregulated in mosquitoes that had ingested a DENV-2-infected blood meal. Among the differentially expressed microRNAs, miR-1767, miR-276-3p, miR-4448 and miR-4728-5p were verified via stem-loop qRT-PCR. Analyses indicated that the changing patterns in miRNA expression during DENV-2 infection were significant and varied at different time points post infection. Most miRNA were upregulated at 24 h but were downregulated at 48 h post DENV-2 intake. The aal-miR-4728-5p was chosen for an in vitro transient transfection assay, and the results show that this miRNA enhances DENV replication in C6/36 cells. This study provides the first information on microRNAs expressed in the midgut of Ae. albopictus and describes species-specific changes in their expression levels following infection by DENV-2.

  14. Anopheles Gambiae PRS1 Modulates Plasmodium Development at Both Midgut and Salivary Gland Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Sylvie; Sautereau, Jean; Jacques, Jean-Claude; Thiery, Isabelle; Bourgouin, Catherine; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Background Invasion of the mosquito salivary glands by Plasmodium is a critical step for malaria transmission. From a SAGE analysis, we previously identified several genes whose expression in salivary glands was regulated coincident with sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. To get insights into the consequences of these salivary gland responses, here we have studied one of the genes, PRS1 (Plasmodium responsive salivary 1), whose expression was upregulated in infected glands, using immunolocalization and functional inactivation approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings PRS1 belongs to a novel insect superfamily of genes encoding proteins with DM9 repeat motifs of uncharacterized function. We show that PRS1 is induced in response to Plasmodium, not only in the salivary glands but also in the midgut, the other epithelial barrier that Plasmodium has to cross to develop in the mosquito. Furthermore, this induction is observed using either the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei or the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. In the midgut, PRS1 overexpression is associated with a relocalization of the protein at the periphery of invaded cells. We also find that sporozoite invasion of salivary gland cells occurs sequentially and induces intra-cellular modifications that include an increase in PRS1 expression and a relocalization of the corresponding protein into vesicle-like structures. Importantly, PRS1 knockdown during the onset of midgut and salivary gland invasion demonstrates that PRS1 acts as an agonist for the development of both parasite species in the two epithelia, highlighting shared vector/parasite interactions in both tissues. Conclusions/Significance While providing insights into potential functions of DM9 proteins, our results reveal that PRS1 likely contributes to fundamental interactions between Plasmodium and mosquito epithelia, which do not depend on the specific Anopheles/P. falciparum coevolutionary history. PMID:20634948

  15. Anopheles gambiae PRS1 modulates Plasmodium development at both midgut and salivary gland steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chertemps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasion of the mosquito salivary glands by Plasmodium is a critical step for malaria transmission. From a SAGE analysis, we previously identified several genes whose expression in salivary glands was regulated coincident with sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. To get insights into the consequences of these salivary gland responses, here we have studied one of the genes, PRS1 (Plasmodium responsive salivary 1, whose expression was upregulated in infected glands, using immunolocalization and functional inactivation approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PRS1 belongs to a novel insect superfamily of genes encoding proteins with DM9 repeat motifs of uncharacterized function. We show that PRS1 is induced in response to Plasmodium, not only in the salivary glands but also in the midgut, the other epithelial barrier that Plasmodium has to cross to develop in the mosquito. Furthermore, this induction is observed using either the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei or the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. In the midgut, PRS1 overexpression is associated with a relocalization of the protein at the periphery of invaded cells. We also find that sporozoite invasion of salivary gland cells occurs sequentially and induces intra-cellular modifications that include an increase in PRS1 expression and a relocalization of the corresponding protein into vesicle-like structures. Importantly, PRS1 knockdown during the onset of midgut and salivary gland invasion demonstrates that PRS1 acts as an agonist for the development of both parasite species in the two epithelia, highlighting shared vector/parasite interactions in both tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While providing insights into potential functions of DM9 proteins, our results reveal that PRS1 likely contributes to fundamental interactions between Plasmodium and mosquito epithelia, which do not depend on the specific Anopheles/P. falciparum coevolutionary history.

  16. Why stay in a bad relationship? The effect of local host phenology on a generalist butterfly feeding on a low-ranked host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audusseau, Hélène; de la Paz Celorio-Mancera, Maria; Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Sören

    2016-06-29

    In plant-feeding insects, the evolutionary retention of polyphagy remains puzzling. A better understanding of the relationship between these organisms and changes in the metabolome of their host plants is likely to suggest functional links between them, and may provide insights into how polyphagy is maintained. We investigated the phenological change of Cynoglossum officinale, and how a generalist butterfly species, Vanessa cardui, responded to this change. We used untargeted metabolite profiling to map plant seasonal changes in both primary and secondary metabolites. We compared these data to differences in larval performance on vegetative plants early and late in the season. We also performed two oviposition preference experiments to test females' ability to choose between plant developmental stages (vegetative and reproductive) early and late in the season. We found clear seasonal changes in plant primary and secondary metabolites that correlated with larval performance. The seasonal change in plant metabolome reflected changes in both nutrition and toxicity and resulted in zero survival in the late period. However, large differences among families in larval ability to feed on C. officinale suggest that there is genetic variation for performance on this host. Moreover, females accepted all plants for oviposition, and were not able to discriminate between plant developmental stages, in spite of the observed overall differences in metabolite profile potentially associated with differences in suitability as larval food. In V. cardui, migratory behavior, and thus larval feeding times, are not synchronized with plant phenology at the reproductive site. This lack of synchronization, coupled with the observed lack of discriminatory oviposition, obviously has potential fitness costs. However, this "opportunistic" behavior may as well function as a source of potential host plant evolution, promoting for example the acceptance of new plants.

  17. Acute appendicitis in a young adult with midgut malrotation: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bider, K.; Kaim, A.; Wiesner, W.; Bongartz, G. [Dept. of Radiology University Hospital Basel (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    Midgut malrotation is defined as a developmental anomaly that may cause atypical clinical symptoms in relatively common intestinal disorders due to altered anatomy. A 27-year-old woman presented with acute left-sided abdominal pain. Underlying type Ia malrotation prevented the correct clinical diagnosis of perforated, ulcerated appendicitis. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated all the typical signs of this type of malrotation, i.e., right-sided duodenojejunal junction, left positioned cecum and ascending colon, inverted position of the superior mesenteric vessels, and hypoplasia of the uncinate process of pancreas, and surgical treatment was initiated. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of two novel midgut-specific promoters driving transgene expression in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Nolan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tissue-specific promoters controlling the expression of transgenes in Anopheles mosquitoes represent a valuable tool both for studying the interaction between these malaria vectors and the Plasmodium parasites they transmit and for novel malaria control strategies based on developing Plasmodium-refractory mosquitoes by expressing anti-parasitic genes. With this aim we have studied the promoter regions of two genes from the most important malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, whose expression is strongly induced upon blood feeding. RESULTS: We analysed the A. gambiae Antryp1 and G12 genes, which we have shown to be midgut-specific and maximally expressed at 24 hours post-bloodmeal (PBM. Antryp1, required for bloodmeal digestion, encodes one member of a family of 7 trypsin genes. The G12 gene, of unknown function, was previously identified in our laboratory in a screen for genes induced in response to a bloodmeal. We fused 1.1 kb of the upstream regions containing the putative promoter of these genes to reporter genes and transformed these into the Indian malaria vector A. stephensi to see if we could recapitulate the expression pattern of the endogenous genes. Both the Antryp1 and G12 upstream regions were able to drive female-predominant, midgut-specific expression in transgenic mosquitoes. Expression of the Antryp1-driven reporter in transgenic A. stephensi lines was low, undetectable by northern blot analysis, and failed to fully match the induction kinetics of the endogenous Antryp1 gene in A. gambiae. This incomplete conservation of expression suggests either subtle differences in the transcriptional machinery between A. stephensi and A. gambiae or that the upstream region chosen lacked all the control elements. In contrast, the G12 upstream region was able to faithfully reproduce the expression profile of the endogenous A. gambiae gene, showing female midgut specificity in the adult mosquito and massive induction PBM, peaking at 24

  19. A small molecule glycosaminoglycan mimetic blocks Plasmodium invasion of the mosquito midgut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick K Mathias

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission-blocking (T-B interventions are essential for malaria elimination. Small molecules that inhibit the Plasmodium ookinete-to-oocyst transition in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes, thereby blocking sporogony, represent one approach to achieving this goal. Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs on the Anopheles gambiae midgut surface are putative ligands for Plasmodium falciparum ookinetes. We hypothesized that our synthetic polysulfonated polymer, VS1, acting as a decoy molecular mimetic of midgut CS-GAGs confers malaria T-B activity. In our study, VS1 repeatedly reduced midgut oocyst development by as much as 99% (P<0.0001 in mosquitoes fed with P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. Through direct-binding assays, we observed that VS1 bound to two critical ookinete micronemal proteins, each containing at least one von Willebrand factor A (vWA domain: (i circumsporozoite protein and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein-related protein (CTRP and (ii vWA domain-related protein (WARP. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed that VS1 stains permeabilized P. falciparum and P. berghei ookinetes but does not stain P. berghei CTRP knockouts or transgenic parasites lacking the vWA domains of CTRP while retaining the thrombospondin repeat region. We produced structural homology models of the first vWA domain of CTRP and identified, as expected, putative GAG-binding sites on CTRP that align closely with those predicted for the human vWA A1 domain and the Toxoplasma gondii MIC2 adhesin. Importantly, the models also identified patches of electropositive residues that may extend CTRP's GAG-binding motif and thus potentiate VS1 binding. Our molecule binds to a critical, conserved ookinete protein, CTRP, and exhibits potent malaria T-B activity. This study lays the framework for a high-throughput screen of existing libraries of safe compounds to identify those with potent T-B activity. We envision that such compounds when

  20. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  1. Citizen Science: The First Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Lim, Aik-Hean; Lim, Voon-Ching; Lee, Ping-Shin; Sing, Kong-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, Southeast Asia has suffered the greatest losses of biodiversity of any tropical region in the world. Malaysia is a biodiversity hotspot in the heart of Southeast Asia with roughly the same number of mammal species, three times the number of butterfly species, but only 4% of the land area of Australia. Consequently, in Malaysia, there is an urgent need for biodiversity monitoring and also public engagement with wildlife to raise awareness of biodiversity loss. Citizen science is "on the rise" globally and can make valuable contributions to long-term biodiversity monitoring, but perhaps more importantly, involving the general public in science projects can raise public awareness and promote engagement. Butterflies are often the focus of citizen science projects due to their charisma and familiarity and are particularly valuable "ambassadors" of biodiversity conservation for public outreach. Here we present the data from our citizen science project, the first "Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count". Participants were asked to go outdoors on June 6, 2015, and (non-lethally) sample butterfly legs for species identification through DNA barcoding. Fifty-seven citizens responded to our adverts and registered to take part in the butterfly count with many registering on behalf of groups. Collectively the participants sampled 220 butterfly legs from 26 mostly urban and suburban sampling localities. These included our university campus, a highschool, several public parks and private residences. On the basis of 192 usable DNA barcodes, 43 species were sampled by the participants. The most sampled species was Appias olferna, followed by Junonia orithya and Zizina otis. Twenty-two species were only sampled once, five were only sampled twice, and four were only sampled three times. Three DNA barcodes could not be assigned species names. The sampled butterflies revealed that widely distributed, cosmopolitan species, often those recently arrived to the

  2. Midgut volvulus: a rare cause of episodes of intestinal obstruction in an adult; Volvulo de intestino medio: una rara causa de crisis oclusivas en el adulto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, V.; Higuera, A.; Munoz, R.; Sanchez, F. [Hospital Alto Guadalquivir. Andujar. Jaen (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Midgut volvulus occurs frequently in infants and children, but is uncommon in adults. We present a case of intestinal malrotation complicated by midgut volvulus in a young woman who complained of chronic intermittent abdominal pain of increasing intensity. The radiologies diagnosis was based mainly on upper gastrointestinal barium study, and was confirmed intraoperatively. (Author) 11 refs.

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis pore-forming toxins trigger massive shedding of GPI-anchored aminopeptidase N from gypsy moth midgut epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis strains are pore-forming toxins (PFTs) that bind to the midgut brush border membrane and cause extensive damage to the midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Force-feeding B. thuringiensis PFTs to Lymantria dispar larvae elicited...

  4. Imidacloprid impairs the post-embryonic development of the midgut in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K M; Gonzaga, W G; Pascini, T V; Miranda, F R; Tomé, H V V; Serrão, J E; Martins, G F

    2015-09-01

    The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector for the dengue and yellow fever viruses. As blood digestion occurs in the midgut, this organ constitutes the route of entry of many pathogens. The effects of the insecticide imidacloprid on the survival of St. aegypti were investigated and the sub-lethal effects of the insecticide on midgut development were determined. Third instar larvae were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid (0.15, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0 and 15.0 p.p.m.) and survival was monitored every 24 h for 10 days. Midguts from imidacloprid-treated insects at different stages of development were dissected and processed for analyses by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assays. Imidacloprid concentrations of 3.0 and 15.0 p.p.m. were found to affect midgut development similarly. Digestive cells of the fourth instar larvae (L4) midgut exposed to imidacloprid had more multilamellar bodies, abundantly found in the cell apex, and more electron-lucent vacuoles in the basal region compared with those from untreated insects. Moreover, imidacloprid interfered with the differentiation of regenerative cells, dramatically reducing the number of digestive and endocrine cells and leading to malformation of the midgut epithelium in adults. The data demonstrate that imidacloprid can reduce the survival of mosquitoes and thus indicate its potentially high efficacy in the control of St. aegypti populations. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Characterization of a midgut mucin-like glycoconjugate of Lutzomyia longipalpis with a potential role in Leishmania attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myšková, Jitka; Dostálová, Anna; Pěničková, Lucie; Halada, Petr; Bates, Paul A; Volf, Petr

    2016-07-25

    Leishmania parasites are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies and a crucial step in their life-cycle is the binding to the sand fly midgut. Laboratory studies on sand fly competence to Leishmania parasites suggest that the sand flies fall into two groups: several species are termed "specific/restricted" vectors that support the development of one Leishmania species only, while the others belong to so-called "permissive" vectors susceptible to a wide range of Leishmania species. In a previous study we revealed a correlation between specificity vs permissivity of the vector and glycosylation of its midgut proteins. Lutzomyia longipalpis and other four permissive species tested possessed O-linked glycoproteins whereas none were detected in three specific vectors examined. We used a combination of biochemical, molecular and parasitological approaches to characterize biochemical and biological properties of O-linked glycoprotein of Lu. longipalpis. Lectin blotting and mass spectrometry revealed that this molecule with an apparent molecular weight about 45-50 kDa corresponds to a putative 19 kDa protein with unknown function detected in a midgut cDNA library of Lu. longipalpis. We produced a recombinant glycoprotein rLuloG with molecular weight around 45 kDa. Anti-rLuloG antibodies localize the native glycoprotein on epithelial midgut surface of Lu. longipalpis. Although we could not prove involvement of LuloG in Leishmania attachment by blocking the native protein with anti-rLuloG during sand fly infections, we demonstrated strong binding of rLuloG to whole surface of Leishmania promastigotes. We characterized a novel O-glycoprotein from sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. It has mucin-like properties and is localized on the luminal side of the midgut epithelium. Recombinant form of the protein binds to Leishmania parasites in vitro. We propose a role of this molecule in Leishmania attachment to sand fly midgut.

  6. Butterfly Learning and the Diversification of Plant Leaf Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dalbosco Dell'aglio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual cues are important for insects to find flowers and host plants. It has been proposed that the diversity of leaf shape in Passiflora vines could be a result of negative frequency dependent selection driven by visual searching behavior among their butterfly herbivores. Here we tested the hypothesis that Heliconius butterflies use leaf shape as a cue to initiate approach towards a host plant. We first tested for the ability to recognize shapes using a food reward conditioning experiment. Butterflies showed an innate preference for flowers with three and five petals. However, they could be trained to increase the frequency of visits to a non-preferred flower with two petals, indicating an ability to learn to associate shape with a reward. Next we investigated shape learning specifically in the context of oviposition by conditioning females to lay eggs on two shoots associated with different artificial leaf shapes: their own host plant, Passiflora biflora, and a lanceolate non-biflora leaf shape. The conditioning treatment had a significant effect on the approach of butterflies to the two leaf shapes, consistent with a role for shape learning in oviposition behavior. This study is the first to show that Heliconius butterflies use shape as a cue for feeding and oviposition, and can learn shape preference for both flowers and leaves. This demonstrates the potential for Heliconius to drive negative frequency dependent selection on the leaf shape of their Passiflora host plants.

  7. Developmental lead exposure has mixed effects on butterfly cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Kinsey H; Kobiela, Megan E; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of lead pollution have been well studied in vertebrates, it is unclear to what extent lead may negatively affect insect cognition. Lead pollution in soils can elevate lead in plant tissues, suggesting it could negatively affect neural development of insect herbivores. We used the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a model system to study the effect of lead pollution on insect cognitive processes, which play an important role in how insects locate and handle resources. Cabbage white butterfly larvae were reared on a 4-ppm lead diet, a concentration representative of vegetation in polluted sites; we measured eye size and performance on a foraging assay in adults. Relative to controls, lead-reared butterflies did not differ in time or ability to search for a food reward associated with a less preferred color. Indeed, lead-treated butterflies were more likely to participate in the behavioral assay itself. Lead exposure did not negatively affect survival or body size, and it actually sped up development time. The effects of lead on relative eye size varied with sex: lead tended to reduce eye size in males, but increase eye size in females. These results suggest that low levels of lead pollution may have mixed effects on butterfly vision, but only minimal impacts on performance in foraging tasks, although follow-up work is needed to test whether this result is specific to cabbage whites, which are often associated with disturbed areas.

  8. Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles. PMID:22208893

  9. Butterfly fauna in Mount Gariwang-san, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Min Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to elucidate butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, Korea. A field survey was conducted from 2010 to 2015 using the line transect method. A literature survey was also conducted. A total of 2,037 butterflies belonging to 105 species were recorded. In the estimation of species richness of butterfly, 116 species were estimated to live in Mt. Gariwang-san. In butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, the percentage of northern species was very high and the percentage of grassland species was relatively higher than that of forest edge species and forest interior species. Sixteen red list species were found. In particular, Mimathyma nycteis was only recorded in Mt. Gariwang-san. When comparing the percentage of northern species and southern species including those recorded in previous studies, the percentage of northern species was found to have decreased significantly whereas that of southern species increased. We suggest that the butterfly community, which is distributed at relatively high altitudes on Mt. Gariwang-san, will gradually change in response to climate change.

  10. The Urban Heat Island and its spatial scale dependent impact on survival and development in butterflies of different thermal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Aurélien; Merckx, Thomas; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-06-01

    Climate alteration is one of the most cited ecological consequences of urbanization. However, the magnitude of this impact is likely to vary with spatial scale. We investigated how this alteration affects the biological fitness of insects, which are especially sensitive to ambient conditions and well-suited organisms to study urbanization-related changes in phenotypic traits. We monitored temperature and relative air humidity in wooded sites characterized by different levels of urbanization in the surroundings. Using a split-brood design experiment, we investigated the effect of urbanization at the local (i.e., 200 × 200 m) and landscape (i.e., 3 × 3 km) scale on two key traits of biological fitness in two closely related butterfly species that differ in thermal sensitivity. In line with the Urban Heat Island concept, urbanization led to a 1°C increase in daytime temperature and an 8% decrease in daytime relative humidity at the local scale. The thermophilous species Lasiommata megera responded at the local scale: larval survival increased twofold in urban compared to rural sites. Urbanized sites tended to produce bigger adults, although this was the case for males only. In the woodland species Pararge aegeria, which has recently expanded its ecological niche, we did not observe such a response, neither at the local, nor at the landscape scale. These results demonstrate interspecific differences in urbanization-related phenotypic plasticity and larval survival. We discuss larval pre-adaptations in species of different ecological profiles to urban conditions. Our results also highlight the significance of considering fine-grained spatial scales in urban ecology.

  11. Preliminary investigation on the effects of biological and synthetic insecticides on large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L. larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of cabbage pests is oriented towards the use of efficient but high-risk insecticides, some of them being endocrine disruptors. Biopesticides are more environment-friendly, operator-and consumers-safe, but they have low initial toxicity, low efficacy to advanced larval stages, and they require certain knowledge of pest and host biology. In our laboratory experiments we have investigated the effects of formulated synthetic pyrethroid cypermethrin (0.3 l/ha and biological products - formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (2 and 3/ha and Spinosad (0.1 l/ha - on large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L. larvae-instars 2, 3, 4 and 5. The effect of insecticides was inversely proportional to larval instars. Btk effect could be improved if tank-mixed with cypermethrin. The mixing of ready-made products allows a reduction 3 and 6 times compared with the recommended dose, still obtaining satisfactory results. Rate of leaf damage was reduced when tank mixtures were used. Use of two products in mixture would be of significance especially for control of advanced late instars late in season, when Btk action alone is insufficient. Spinosad was effective in inducing mortality and reducing leaf damage by all larval instars, therefore we assume that the dose could be reduced. Feeding rate and mortality are equally important parameters when assessing biopesticide efficacy. This strategy should also reduce the possibility of inducing resistance in pest population. It also tends to reduce the residues in commodities and is good solution in production of hygienic and health safe food.

  12. Egg-laying by the butterfly Iphiclides podalirius (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae on alien plants: a broadening of host range or oviposition mistakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu, C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iphiclides podalirius is an oligophagous butterfly which feeds on plants of the Rosaceae family. In 2002 and 2005 in NE Spain, we recorded for the first time oviposition on two alien plant species, Cotoneaster franchetii and Spiraea cantoniensis. To ascertain if this unusual behaviour represents a broadening of host range or, alternatively, an oviposition mistake, larval performance on the new plants was investigated in the laboratory and compared with performance on the most common host plants used in the study area. Although larval performance on common hosts differed to some extent, the use of a wide range of plants of different quality at population level may in fact respond to the so-called “spreading of risk” strategy in variable environments. On the other hand, larval performance and survival to adulthood were so low on the two new hosts that our observations probably represent a case of maladaptive oviposition behaviour. This may be due to an evolutionary lag between the newly introduced plants and the insect, although other possible explanations are also taken into account.

  13. Morphological changes in the midgut of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae following exposure to an Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M S; Pinheiro, D O; Serrão, J E; Pereira, M J B

    2012-08-01

    Bioinsecticides are important in the control of disease vectors, but data regarding their physiological effects on target insects are incomplete. This study describes morphological changes that occur in the midgut of third instar Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) following treatment with a methanolic extract of Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae). Dissected midguts were subdivided into anterior and posterior regions and analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Insects exposed to the extract displayed intense, destructive cytoplasmic vacuolization in columnar and regenerative midgut cells. The apical surfaces of columnar cells exhibited cytoplasmic protrusions oriented toward the lumen, suggesting that these cells could be involved in apocrine secretory processes and/or apoptosis. We report that A. coriacea extracts induced morphological alterations in the midgut of A. aegypti midgut larvae, supporting the use of plant extracts for control of the dengue vector.

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera Larval Midgut Response to BmNPV in Susceptible and Near-Isogenic Resistant Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV is one of the primary pathogens causing severe economic losses in sericulture. However, the molecular mechanism of silkworm resistance to BmNPV remains largely unknown. Here, the recurrent parent P50 (susceptible strain and the near-isogenic line BC9 (resistance strain were used in a comparative transcriptome study examining the response to infection with BmNPV. A total of 14,300 unigenes were obtained from two different resistant strains; of these, 869 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified after comparing the four transcriptomes. Many DEGs associated with protein metabolism, cytoskeleton, and apoptosis may be involved in the host response to BmNPV infection. Moreover, some immunity related genes were also altered following BmNPV infection. Specifically, after removing genetic background and individual immune stress response genes, 22 genes were found to be potentially involved in repressing BmNPV infection. These genes were related to transport, virus replication, intracellular innate immune, and apoptosis. Our study provided an overview of the molecular mechanism of silkworm resistance to BmNPV infection and laid a foundation for controlling BmNPV in the future.

  15. Changing biodiversity scenario in the Himalayan ecosystem: Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India, as revealed by the study of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Sidhu

    2011-01-01

    Any change in the population of butterflies is an early warning of pollution or other kinds of habitat degradation. An area rich in butterfly diversity has its own significance in the ecosystem. The current status of butterflies in Mussoorie (Uttarakhand) is reviewed. The degradation of the butterfly-rich spots of Mussoorie is discussed. A comparative chart of 66 species of Lycaenid butterflies compares species collected by earlier authors from Mussoorie with current observations. Some of the...

  16. Bioinformatic analysis of neuropeptide and receptor expression profiles during midgut metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Paul R F; Tobe, Stephen S

    2006-03-01

    Neuropeptides are important messenger molecules in invertebrates, serving as neuromodulators in the nervous system and as regulatory hormones released into the circulation. Understanding the function of neuropeptides will require the integration of genetic, biochemical, physiological and behavioral information. The advent of DNA microarrays and bioinformatic databases provides a wealth of data describing the expression profiles of thousands of genes during biological processes. One such array catalogs the developmental patterns of gene expression during the metamorphic transformation of the Drosophila midgut. We have mined the data from this experiment to explore changes of expression in genes coding for known neuropeptides, peptide hormones, and their receptors during the metamorphosis of the midgut. We found small but significant changes in the expression of the peptides diuretic hormone, FGLa-type allatostatins, myoinhibiting peptide, ecdysis-triggering hormone, drosokinin and the burs subunit of bursicon, as well as the receptors DAR-2, NPFR1, ALCR-2, Lkr and DH-R. Just as advances have been made in understanding the molecular basis of invertebrate neuropeptide action by analysis of genome projects, data mining of gene expression databases can help to integrate molecular, biochemical and physiological knowledge of biological processes.

  17. Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs), retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies. PMID:21672186

  18. Exosome Secretion by the Parasitic Protozoan Leishmania within the Sand Fly Midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Diniz Atayde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite several studies describing the secretion of exosomes by Leishmania in vitro, observation of their formation and release in vivo has remained a major challenge. Herein, we show that Leishmania constitutively secretes exosomes within the lumen of the sand fly midgut through a mechanism homologous to the mammalian pathway. Through egestion experiments, we demonstrate that Leishmania exosomes are part of the sand fly inoculum and are co-egested with the parasite during the insect’s bite, possibly influencing the host infectious process. Indeed, co-inoculation of mice footpads with L. major plus midgut-isolated or in-vitro-isolated L. major exosomes resulted in a significant increase in footpad swelling. Notably, co-injections produced exacerbated lesions through overinduction of inflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-17a. Our data indicate that Leishmania exosomes are an integral part of the parasite’s infectious life cycle, and we propose to add these vesicles to the repertoire of virulence factors associated with vector-transmitted infections.

  19. Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the larval fish assemblage in the intermittently-open Mngazi Estuary, in the subtropical/warm-temperate biogeographic boundary region of South Africa. Larvae were collected by means of boat-based plankton tows in summer and winter for a period of three years between 2003 and 2005. Within the Mngazi ...

  20. Larval development of Lecanogaster chrysea Briggs, 1957

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Paseo Nacional sIn, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Received 18 February 1986; accepted 7 November 1986. The first description of the larval development of Lecanogasterchrysea Briggs, 1957 (Gobiesocidae) is presented. Adults of this species have been reported only off Ghana. The larvae ...

  1. Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, R B; Thomas, A L R

    2002-12-12

    Flying insects generate forces that are too large to be accounted for by conventional steady-state aerodynamics. To investigate these mechanisms of force generation, we trained red admiral butterflies, Vanessa atalanta, to fly freely to and from artificial flowers in a wind tunnel, and used high-resolution, smoke-wire flow visualizations to obtain qualitative, high-speed digital images of the air flow around their wings. The images show that free-flying butterflies use a variety of unconventional aerodynamic mechanisms to generate force: wake capture, two different types of leading-edge vortex, active and inactive upstrokes, in addition to the use of rotational mechanisms and the Weis-Fogh 'clap-and-fling' mechanism. Free-flying butterflies often used different aerodynamic mechanisms in successive strokes. There seems to be no one 'key' to insect flight, instead insects rely on a wide array of aerodynamic mechanisms to take off, manoeuvre, maintain steady flight, and for landing.

  2. Light trapping structures in wing scales of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Niu, Shichao; Shang, Chunhui; Liu, Zhenning; Ren, Luquan

    2012-04-28

    The fine optical structures in wing scales of Trogonoptera brookiana, a tropical butterfly exhibiting efficient light trapping effect, were carefully examined and the reflectivity was measured using reflectance spectrometry. The optimized 3D configuration of the coupling structure was determined using SEM and TEM data, and the light trapping mechanism of butterfly scales was studied. It is found that the front and back sides of butterfly wings possess different light trapping structures, but both can significantly increase the optical path and thus result in almost total absorption of all incident light. An optical model was created to check the properties of this light trapping structure. The simulated reflectance spectra are in concordance with the experimental ones. The results reliably confirm that these structures induce efficient light trapping effect. This functional "biomimetic structure" would have a potential value in wide engineering and optical applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  3. Numerical Analysis for Structural Safety Evaluation of Butterfly Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myung-Seob; Yoon, Joon-Yong; Park, Han-Yung

    2010-06-01

    Butterfly valves are widely used in current industry to control the fluid flow. They are used for both on-off and throttling applications involving large flows at relatively low operating pressure especially in large size pipelines. For the industrial application of butterfly valves, it must be ensured that the valve could be used safety under the fatigue life and the deformations produced by the pressure of the fluid. In this study, we carried out the structure analysis of the body and the valve disc of the butterfly valve and the numerical simulation was performed by using ANSYS v11.0. The reliability of valve is evaluated under the investigation of the deformation, the leak test and the durability of the valve.

  4. Evasive response to ultrasound by the crepuscular butterfly Manataria maculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Jens; Kaerma, Sirje; Hedelin, Henrik; Skals, Niels

    2003-02-01

    The crepuscular nymphalid butterfly Manataria maculata was studied in Monteverde cloud forest, Costa Rica, during the dry season reproductive diapause. M. maculata has ears in the form of Vogel's organs located near the base of the forewings. Its behaviour in response to bursts of ultrasonic pulses (26 kHz, 110 dB SPL at 1 m) was condition-dependent. At dusk and dawn the sound consistently elicited evasive responses, similar to those of moths, in flying individuals. In contrast day-roosting individuals always remained motionless although they were alert to other stimuli. The daily movements between day- and night-roosts coincided in time and light intensity with the activity of insectivorous bats. This is the first reported case of ultrasonic hearing connected to evasive flights in a true butterfly (Papilionoidea). It strongly supports the idea that echolocating bats were involved in the evolution of hearing in butterflies.

  5. A Monarch Butterfly Optimization for the Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP is a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP in which customers appear dynamically. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total travel distance. In this paper, we propose a monarch butterfly optimization (MBO algorithm to solve DVRPs, utilizing a greedy strategy. Both migration operation and the butterfly adjusting operator only accept the offspring of butterfly individuals that have better fitness than their parents. To improve performance, a later perturbation procedure is implemented, to maintain a balance between global diversification and local intensification. The computational results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms the existing approaches in the literature for average performance by at least 9.38%. In addition, 12 new best solutions were found. This shows that this proposed technique consistently produces high-quality solutions and outperforms other published heuristics for the DVRP.

  6. A checklist of butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Naik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary study on the butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, located in the southwestern part of the Karnataka along the Western Ghats in Karnataka State in India, a total of 172 species of butterflies belonging to 117 genera, from six families was prepared by visiting various landscapes during the period September 2012 to December 2015.  Of the various species recorded, Papilio clytia (Linnaeus, Papilio lio medon (Moore, Pachlio ptahector (Linnaeus, Castalius rosimon (Fabricius, Acytolepis puspa (Horsefield, Lethe europa (Fabricius, Neptis jumbah (Moore, Dophlae velina (Stoll, Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus and Doleschallia bisaltide (Cramer comes under the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.  The present study provides the baseline data of butterfly species of Dakshina Kannada. 

  7. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  8. Both Palatable and Unpalatable Butterflies Use Bright Colors to Signal Difficulty of Capture to Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L; Campos, V C; DeVries, P J; Penz, C M

    2016-04-01

    Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of capture to predators is a widespread phenomenon in butterflies, and this ability may not be limited to palatable butterflies. The possibility that both palatable and unpalatable species signal difficulty of capture has not been fully explored, but helps explain the existence of aposematic coloration and escape mimicry in butterflies lacking defensive chemicals. This possibility may also change the role that putative Müllerian and Batesian mimics play in a variety of classical mimicry rings, thus opening new perspectives in the evolution of mimicry in butterflies.

  9. Biophysical models of larval dispersal in the Benguela Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We synthesise and update results from the suite of biophysical, larval-dispersal models developed in the Benguela Current ecosystem. Biophysical models of larval dispersal use outputs of physical hydrodynamic models as inputs to individual-based models in which biological processes acting during the larval life are ...

  10. Holotrichia oblita Midgut Proteins That Bind to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry8-Like Toxin and Assembly of the H. oblita Midgut Tissue Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian; Huang, Ying; Shu, Changlong; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Liu, Chunqing; Song, Fuping; Lai, Jinsheng; Zhang, Jie

    2017-06-15

    The Bacillus thuringiensis strain HBF-18 (CGMCC 2070), containing two cry genes (cry8-like and cry8Ga), is toxic to Holotrichia oblita larvae. Both Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins are active against this insect pest, and Cry8-like is more toxic. To analyze the characteristics of the binding of Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in H. oblita larvae, binding assays were conducted with a fluorescent DyLight488-labeled Cry8-like toxin. The results of saturation binding assays demonstrated that Cry8-like bound specifically to binding sites on BBMVs from H. oblita, and heterologous competition assays revealed that Cry8Ga shared binding sites with Cry8-like. Furthermore, Cry8-like-binding proteins in the midgut from H. oblita larvae were identified by pulldown assays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, the H. oblita midgut transcriptome was assembled by high-throughput RNA sequencing and used for identification of Cry8-like-binding proteins. Eight Cry8-like-binding proteins were obtained from pulldown assays conducted with BBMVs. The LC-MS/MS data for these proteins were successfully matched with the H. oblita transcriptome, and BLASTX results identified five proteins as serine protease, transferrin-like, uncharacterized protein LOC658236 of Tribolium castaneum, ATPase catalytic subunit, and actin. These identified Cry8-like-binding proteins were different from those confirmed previously as receptors for Cry1A proteins in lepidopteran insect species, such as aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and cadherin.IMPORTANCEHolotrichia oblita is one of the main soil-dwelling pests in China. The larvae damage the roots of crops, resulting in significant yield reductions and economic losses. H. oblita is difficult to control, principally due to its soil-dwelling habits. In recent years, some Cry8 toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis were shown to be active against this pest. Study of the mechanism of action

  11. Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Teh-Hwa; Gupta, Mool C; Robins, Bruce; Levendusky, Thomas L

    2003-12-01

    The wings of the morpho butterfly demonstrate an iridescent blue color over wide viewing angles. The mechanism that generates this blue color is studied. Optical and transmission electron microscopy of the butterfly wings reveal a complex wing structure with as many as 24 layers with periodic structures. The color generation is caused by interference of the multilayer structure as well as diffraction. It is possible to specially design grating structures so that a specific blue color can be generated and observed over wider angles. To demonstrate the grating concept, complex multigratings are designed and fabricated with electron-beam lithography. The light-diffraction properties of these gratings are presented.

  12. AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration

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    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

  13. Reciprocal tripartite interactions between the Aedes aegypti midgut microbiota, innate immune system and dengue virus influences vector competence.

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    Jose Luis Ramirez

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is one of the most important arboviral pathogens and the causative agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. It is transmitted between humans by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and at least 2.5 billion people are at daily risk of infection. During their lifecycle, mosquitoes are exposed to a variety of microbes, some of which are needed for their successful development into adulthood. However, recent studies have suggested that the adult mosquito's midgut microflora is critical in influencing the transmission of human pathogens. In this study we assessed the reciprocal interactions between the mosquito's midgut microbiota and dengue virus infection that are, to a large extent, mediated by the mosquito's innate immune system. We observed a marked decrease in susceptibility to dengue virus infection when mosquitoes harbored certain field-derived bacterial isolates in their midgut. Transcript abundance analysis of selected antimicrobial peptide genes suggested that the mosquito's microbiota elicits a basal immune activity that appears to act against dengue virus infection. Conversely, the elicitation of the mosquito immune response by dengue virus infection itself influences the microbial load of the mosquito midgut. In sum, we show that the mosquito's microbiota influences dengue virus infection of the mosquito, which in turn activates its antibacterial responses.

  14. Reciprocal tripartite interactions between the Aedes aegypti midgut microbiota, innate immune system and dengue virus influences vector competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jose Luis; Souza-Neto, Jayme; Torres Cosme, Rolando; Rovira, Jose; Ortiz, Alma; Pascale, Juan M; Dimopoulos, George

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus is one of the most important arboviral pathogens and the causative agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. It is transmitted between humans by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and at least 2.5 billion people are at daily risk of infection. During their lifecycle, mosquitoes are exposed to a variety of microbes, some of which are needed for their successful development into adulthood. However, recent studies have suggested that the adult mosquito's midgut microflora is critical in influencing the transmission of human pathogens. In this study we assessed the reciprocal interactions between the mosquito's midgut microbiota and dengue virus infection that are, to a large extent, mediated by the mosquito's innate immune system. We observed a marked decrease in susceptibility to dengue virus infection when mosquitoes harbored certain field-derived bacterial isolates in their midgut. Transcript abundance analysis of selected antimicrobial peptide genes suggested that the mosquito's microbiota elicits a basal immune activity that appears to act against dengue virus infection. Conversely, the elicitation of the mosquito immune response by dengue virus infection itself influences the microbial load of the mosquito midgut. In sum, we show that the mosquito's microbiota influences dengue virus infection of the mosquito, which in turn activates its antibacterial responses.

  15. Effects of periplocoside X on midgut cells and digestive enzymes activity of the soldiers of red imported fire ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zeng, Xin-Nian

    2013-07-01

    The pathological effects of ingested periplocoside X, an insecticidal component isolated from the root of Periploca sepium Bunge, on the midgut epithelial cells of the soldiers of red imported fire ant were studied and the symptom was described. The results showed that periplocoside X could induce a severe, time-dependent cytotoxicity in the midgut epithelial cells. An optical microscopy showed that epithelial cells swelled firstly and then lysed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that numerous swollen lysosomes were appeared, microvilli were disrupted and sloughed off, and the numbers of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria decreased sharply in earlier stage. Numerous vacuoles were observed in the later stage. Finally, periplocoside X resulted in cell death by cytolysis. Assay of main three digestive enzymes activity indicated that amylase activity was significantly inhibited, but no significant changes were seen for lipase activity and total protease activity. So it is suggested that periplocoside X induced mainly to organic damage of midgut epithelium cells of insect. In all, insect midgut is one of targets for periplocoside X. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The four serotypes of dengue recognize the same putative receptors in Aedes aegypti midgut and Ae. albopictus cells

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    Camacho-Nuez Minerva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV attach to the host cell surface and subsequently enter the cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several primary and low affinity co-receptors for this flavivirus have been identified. However, the presence of these binding molecules on the cell surface does not necessarily render the cell susceptible to infection. Determination of which of them serve as bona fide receptors for this virus in the vector may be relevant to treating DENV infection and in designing control strategies. Results (1 Overlay protein binding assay showed two proteins with molecular masses of 80 and 67 kDa (R80 and R67. (2 Specific antibodies against these two proteins inhibited cell binding and infection. (3 Both proteins were bound by all four serotypes of dengue virus. (4 R80 and R67 were purified by affinity chromatography from Ae. aegypti mosquito midguts and from Ae albopictus C6/36 cells. (5 In addition, a protein with molecular mass of 57 kDa was purified by affinity chromatography from the midgut extracts. (6 R80 and R67 from radiolabeled surface membrane proteins of C6/36 cells were immunoprecipitated by antibodies against Ae. aegypti midgut. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that R67 and R80 are receptors for the four serotypes of dengue virus in the midgut cells of Ae. aegypti and in C6/36 Ae. albopictus cells.

  17. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As

  18. Exploring the mialome of ticks: an annotated catalogue of midgut transcripts from the hard tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Valenzuela Jesus G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are obligate blood feeders. The midgut is the first major region of the body where blood and microbes ingested with the blood meal come in contact with the tick's internal tissues. Little is known about protein expression in the digestive tract of ticks. In this study, for analysis of global gene expression during tick attachment and feeding, we generated and sequenced 1,679 random transcripts (ESTs from cDNA libraries from the midguts of female ticks at varying stages of feeding. Results Sequence analysis of the 1,679 ESTs resulted in the identification of 835 distinct transcripts, from these, a total of 82 transcripts were identified as proteins putatively directly involved in blood meal digestion, including enzymes involved in oxidative stress reduction/antimicrobial activity/detoxification, peptidase inhibitors, protein digestion (cysteine-, aspartic-, serine-, and metallo-peptidases, cell, protein and lipid binding including mucins and iron/heme metabolism and transport. A lectin-like protein with a high match to lectins in other tick species, allergen-like proteins and surface antigens important in pathogen recognition and/or antimicrobial activity were also found. Furthermore, midguts collected from the 6-day-fed ticks expressed twice as many transcripts involved in bloodmeal processing as midguts from unfed/2-day-fed ticks. Conclusion This tissue-specific transcriptome analysis provides an opportunity to examine the global expression of transcripts in the tick midgut and to compare the gut response to host attachment versus blood feeding and digestion. In contrast to those in salivary glands of other Ixodid ticks, most proteins in the D. variabilis midgut cDNA library were intracellular. Of the total ESTs associated with a function, an unusually large number of transcripts were associated with peptidases, cell, lipid and protein binding, and oxidative stress or detoxification. Presumably, this is consistent with

  19. Negative density-distribution relationship in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotiaho Janne S

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship between density and distribution within a given taxonomic assemblage; that is, locally abundant species are more widespread than locally sparse species. Several mechanisms have been proposed to create this positive relationship, and the testing of these mechanisms is attracting increasing attention. Results We report a strong, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between density and distribution in the butterfly fauna of Finland. With an exceptionally comprehensive data set (data includes all 95 resident species in Finland and over 1.5 million individuals, we have been able to submit several of the mechanisms to powerful direct empirical testing. Without exception, we failed to find evidence for the proposed mechanisms creating a positive density-distribution relationship. On the contrary, we found that many of the mechanisms are equally able to generate a negative relationship. Conclusion We suggest that one important determinant of density-distribution relationships is the geographical location of the study: on the edge of a distribution range, suitable habitat patches are likely to be more isolated than in the core of the range. In such a situation, only the largest and best quality patches are likely to be occupied, and these by definition can support a relatively dense population leading to a negative density-distribution relationship. Finally, we conclude that generalizations about the positive density-distribution relationship should be made more cautiously.

  20. Human IGF1 regulates midgut oxidative stress and epithelial homeostasis to balance lifespan and Plasmodium falciparum resistance in Anopheles stephensi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Drexler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS regulates cell death, repair, autophagy, and renewal in response to stress, damage, and pathogen challenge. Therefore, IIS is fundamental to lifespan and disease resistance. Previously, we showed that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 within a physiologically relevant range (0.013-0.13 µM in human blood reduced development of the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum in the Indian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Low IGF1 (0.013 µM induced FOXO and p70S6K activation in the midgut and extended mosquito lifespan, whereas high IGF1 (0.13 µM did not. In this study the physiological effects of low and high IGF1 were examined in detail to infer mechanisms for their dichotomous effects on mosquito resistance and lifespan. Following ingestion, low IGF1 induced phosphorylation of midgut c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK, a critical regulator of epithelial homeostasis, but high IGF1 did not. Low and high IGF1 induced midgut mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS synthesis and nitric oxide (NO synthase gene expression, responses which were necessary and sufficient to mediate IGF1 inhibition of P. falciparum development. However, increased ROS and apoptosis-associated caspase-3 activity returned to baseline levels following low IGF1 treatment, but were sustained with high IGF1 treatment and accompanied by aberrant expression of biomarkers for mitophagy, stem cell division and proliferation. Low IGF1-induced ROS are likely moderated by JNK-induced epithelial cytoprotection as well as p70S6K-mediated growth and inhibition of apoptosis over the lifetime of A. stephensi to facilitate midgut homeostasis and enhanced survivorship. Hence, mitochondrial integrity and homeostasis in the midgut, a key signaling center for IIS, can be targeted to coordinately optimize mosquito fitness and anti-pathogen resistance for improved control strategies for malaria and other vector-borne diseases.

  1. Female-Specific Specialization of a Posterior End Region of the Midgut Symbiotic Organ in Plautia splendens and Allied Stinkbugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshinari; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Meng, Xian-Ying; Koga, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Many stinkbugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) are associated with bacterial symbionts in a posterior region of the midgut. In these stinkbugs, adult females excrete symbiont-containing materials from the anus for transmission of the beneficial symbionts to their offspring. For ensuring the vertical symbiont transmission, a variety of female-specific elaborate traits at the cellular, morphological, developmental, and behavioral levels have been reported from diverse stinkbugs of the families Plataspidae, Urostylididae, Parastrachiidae, etc. Meanwhile, such elaborate female-specific traits for vertical symbiont transmission have been poorly characterized for the largest and economically important stinkbug family Pentatomidae. Here, we investigated the midgut symbiotic system of a pentatomid stinkbug, Plautia splendens. A specific gammaproteobacterial symbiont was consistently present extracellularly in the cavity of numerous crypts arranged in four rows on the midgut fourth section. The symbiont was smeared on the egg surface upon oviposition by adult females, orally acquired by newborn nymphs, and thereby transmitted vertically to the next generation and important for growth and survival of the host insects. We found that, specifically in adult females, several rows of crypts at the posterior end region of the symbiotic midgut were morphologically differentiated and conspicuously enlarged, often discharging the symbiotic bacteria from the crypt cavity to the main tract of the symbiotic midgut. The female-specific enlarged end crypts were also found in other pentatomid stinkbugs Plautia stali and Carbula crassiventris. These results suggest that the enlarged end crypts represent a female-specific specialized morphological trait for vertical symbiont transmission commonly found among stinkbugs of the family Pentatomidae. PMID:25636847

  2. Dengue virus serotype 2 infection alters midgut and carcass gene expression in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Hanley, Kathryn A; Sundararajan, Anitha; Devitt, Nicholas P; Schilkey, Faye D; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus is currently an important vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, and its role in transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may increase in the future due to its ability to colonize temperate regions. In contrast to Aedes aegypti, the dominant vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, genetic responses of Ae. albopictus upon infection with an arbovirus are not well characterized. Here we present a study of the changes in transcript expression in Ae. albopictus exposed to dengue virus serotype 2 via feeding on an artificial bloodmeal. We isolated midguts and midgut-free carcasses of Ae. albopictus fed on bloodmeals containing dengue virus as well as controls fed on virus-free control meals at day 1 and day 5 post-feeding. We confirmed infection of midguts from mosquitoes sampled on day 5 post-feeding via RT-PCR. RNAseq analysis revealed dynamic modulation of the expression of several putative immunity and dengue virus-responsive genes, some of whose expression was verified by qRT-PCR. For example, a serine protease gene was up-regulated in the midgut at 1 day post infection, which may potentially enhance mosquito susceptibility to dengue infection, while 14 leucine-rich repeat genes, previously shown to be involved in mosquito antiviral defenses, were down-regulated in the carcass at 5 days post infection. The number of significantly modulated genes decreased over time in midguts and increased in carcasses. Dengue virus exposure results in the modulation of genes in a time- and site-specific manner. Previous literature on the interaction between mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens suggests that most of the changes that occurred in Ae. albopictus exposed to DENV would favor virus infection. Many genes identified in this study warrant further characterization to understand their role in viral manipulation of and antiviral response of Ae. albopictus.

  3. Dengue virus serotype 2 infection alters midgut and carcass gene expression in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Tsujimoto

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus is currently an important vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, and its role in transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses may increase in the future due to its ability to colonize temperate regions. In contrast to Aedes aegypti, the dominant vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, genetic responses of Ae. albopictus upon infection with an arbovirus are not well characterized. Here we present a study of the changes in transcript expression in Ae. albopictus exposed to dengue virus serotype 2 via feeding on an artificial bloodmeal.We isolated midguts and midgut-free carcasses of Ae. albopictus fed on bloodmeals containing dengue virus as well as controls fed on virus-free control meals at day 1 and day 5 post-feeding. We confirmed infection of midguts from mosquitoes sampled on day 5 post-feeding via RT-PCR. RNAseq analysis revealed dynamic modulation of the expression of several putative immunity and dengue virus-responsive genes, some of whose expression was verified by qRT-PCR. For example, a serine protease gene was up-regulated in the midgut at 1 day post infection, which may potentially enhance mosquito susceptibility to dengue infection, while 14 leucine-rich repeat genes, previously shown to be involved in mosquito antiviral defenses, were down-regulated in the carcass at 5 days post infection. The number of significantly modulated genes decreased over time in midguts and increased in carcasses.Dengue virus exposure results in the modulation of genes in a time- and site-specific manner. Previous literature on the interaction between mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens suggests that most of the changes that occurred in Ae. albopictus exposed to DENV would favor virus infection. Many genes identified in this study warrant further characterization to understand their role in viral manipulation of and antiviral response of Ae. albopictus.

  4. Human IGF1 Regulates Midgut Oxidative Stress and Epithelial Homeostasis to Balance Lifespan and Plasmodium falciparum resistance in Anopheles stephensi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Anna L.; Pietri, Jose E.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Hauck, Eric; Wang, Bo; Glennon, Elizabeth K. K.; Georgis, Martha; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) regulates cell death, repair, autophagy, and renewal in response to stress, damage, and pathogen challenge. Therefore, IIS is fundamental to lifespan and disease resistance. Previously, we showed that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) within a physiologically relevant range (0.013–0.13 µM) in human blood reduced development of the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum in the Indian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Low IGF1 (0.013 µM) induced FOXO and p70S6K activation in the midgut and extended mosquito lifespan, whereas high IGF1 (0.13 µM) did not. In this study the physiological effects of low and high IGF1 were examined in detail to infer mechanisms for their dichotomous effects on mosquito resistance and lifespan. Following ingestion, low IGF1 induced phosphorylation of midgut c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), a critical regulator of epithelial homeostasis, but high IGF1 did not. Low and high IGF1 induced midgut mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and nitric oxide (NO) synthase gene expression, responses which were necessary and sufficient to mediate IGF1 inhibition of P. falciparum development. However, increased ROS and apoptosis-associated caspase-3 activity returned to baseline levels following low IGF1 treatment, but were sustained with high IGF1 treatment and accompanied by aberrant expression of biomarkers for mitophagy, stem cell division and proliferation. Low IGF1-induced ROS are likely moderated by JNK-induced epithelial cytoprotection as well as p70S6K-mediated growth and inhibition of apoptosis over the lifetime of A. stephensi to facilitate midgut homeostasis and enhanced survivorship. Hence, mitochondrial integrity and homeostasis in the midgut, a key signaling center for IIS, can be targeted to coordinately optimize mosquito fitness and anti-pathogen resistance for improved control strategies for malaria and other vector-borne diseases. PMID:24968248

  5. Integration of Ixodes ricinus genome sequencing with transcriptome and proteome annotation of the naïve midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramaro, Wibke J; Revets, Dominique; Hunewald, Oliver E; Sinner, Regina; Reye, Anna L; Muller, Claude P

    2015-10-28

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus ticks are the most important vectors of diseases threatening humans, livestock, wildlife and companion animals. Nevertheless, genomic sequence information is missing and functional annotation of transcripts and proteins is limited. This lack of information is restricting studies of the vector and its interactions with pathogens and hosts. Here we present and integrate the first analysis of the I. ricinus genome with the transcriptome and proteome of the unfed I. ricinus midgut. Whole genome sequencing was performed on I. ricinus ticks and the sequences were de novo assembled. In parallel, I. ricinus ticks were dissected and the midgut transcriptome sequenced. Both datasets were integrated by transcript discovery analysis to identify putative genes and genome contigs were screened for homology. An alignment-based and a motif-search-based approach were combined for the annotation of the midgut transcriptome. Additionally, midgut proteins were identified and annotated by mass spectrometry with public databases and the in-house built transcriptome database as references and results were cross-validated. The de novo assembly of 1 billion DNA sequences to a reference genome of 393 Mb length provides an unprecedented insight into the I. ricinus genome. A homology search revealed sequences in the assembled genome contigs homologous to 89% of the I. scapularis genome scaffolds indicating coverage of most genome regions. We identified moreover 6,415 putative genes. More than 10,000 transcripts from naïve midgut were annotated with respect of predicted function and/or cellular localization. By combining an alignment-based with a motif-search-based annotation approach, we doubled the number of annotations throughout all functional categories. In addition, 574 gel spots were significantly identified by mass spectrometry (pricinus, paving the way for further in-depth analysis of the most important European disease vector and its interactions with

  6. Nitrogen enrichment of host plants has mostly beneficial effects on the life-history traits of nettle-feeding butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurze, Susanne; Heinken, Thilo; Fartmann, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Butterflies rank among the most threatened animal groups throughout Europe. However, current population trends differ among species. The nettle-feeding butterflies Aglais io and Aglais urticae cope successfully with the anthropogenic land-use change. Both species are assumed to be pre-adapted to higher nitrogen contents in their host plant, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). However, it is currently unknown, whether this pre-adaptation enables both Aglais species to cope successfully or even to benefit from the excessive nitrogen availabilities in nettles growing in modern farmlands. For this reason, this study focused on the response of both Aglais species to unfertilized nettles compared to nettles receiving 150 or 300 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (i.e., common fertilizer quantities of modern-day agriculture). Fertilized nettles were characterized by higher nitrogen concentrations and lower C:N ratios compared to the control group. In both Aglais species, the individuals feeding on fertilized nettles had higher survival rates, shorter larval periods and heavier pupae and, in A. urticae also longer forewings. All these trait shifts are beneficial for the individuals, lowering their risk to die before reproduction and increasing their reproductive potential. These responses agree with the well-accepted nitrogen-limitation hypothesis predicting a positive relationship between the nitrogen content of the diet and the performance of herbivorous insects. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the increasing abundance of both Aglais species may result not only from the increasing spread of nettles into the farmland but also from changes in their quality due to the eutrophication of the landscape during recent decades.

  7. Diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a mountaintop archipelago of rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanne Carla Novais Pereira

    Full Text Available We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra do Espinhaço, southeastern Brazil. Butterflies were collected with bait traps in eleven forest islands through both dry and rainy seasons for two consecutive years. The influence of local and landscape parameters and seasonality on butterfly species richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. We also examined the partitioning and decomposition of temporal and spatial beta diversity. Five hundred and twelve fruit-feeding butterflies belonging to thirty-four species were recorded. Butterfly species richness and abundance were higher on islands with greater canopy openness in the dry season. On the other hand, islands with greater understory coverage hosted higher species richness in the rainy season. Instead, the butterfly species richness was higher with lower understory coverage in the dry season. Butterfly abundance was not influenced by understory cover. The landscape metrics of area and isolation had no effect on species richness and abundance. The composition of butterfly communities in the forest islands was not randomly structured. The butterfly communities were dependent on local and landscape effects, and the mechanism of turnover was the main source of variation in β diversity. The preservation of this mountain rainforest island complex is vital for the maintenance of fruit-feeding butterfly community; one island does not reflect the diversity found in the whole archipelago.

  8. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. Diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a mountaintop archipelago of rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Geanne Carla Novais; Coelho, Marcel Serra; Beirão, Marina do Vale; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra do Espinhaço, southeastern Brazil. Butterflies were collected with bait traps in eleven forest islands through both dry and rainy seasons for two consecutive years. The influence of local and landscape parameters and seasonality on butterfly species richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. We also examined the partitioning and decomposition of temporal and spatial beta diversity. Five hundred and twelve fruit-feeding butterflies belonging to thirty-four species were recorded. Butterfly species richness and abundance were higher on islands with greater canopy openness in the dry season. On the other hand, islands with greater understory coverage hosted higher species richness in the rainy season. Instead, the butterfly species richness was higher with lower understory coverage in the dry season. Butterfly abundance was not influenced by understory cover. The landscape metrics of area and isolation had no effect on species richness and abundance. The composition of butterfly communities in the forest islands was not randomly structured. The butterfly communities were dependent on local and landscape effects, and the mechanism of turnover was the main source of variation in β diversity. The preservation of this mountain rainforest island complex is vital for the maintenance of fruit-feeding butterfly community; one island does not reflect the diversity found in the whole archipelago.

  10. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  11. Editorial: Butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Huigens, M.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2005-01-01

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts1, 2, 3. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to

  12. Colors and pterin pigmentation of pierid butterfly wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, B.; Leertouwer, H. L.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    The reflectance of pierid butterfly wings is principally determined by the incoherent scattering of incident light and the absorption by pterin pigments in the scale structures. Coherent scattering causing iridescence is frequently encountered in the dorsal wings or wing tips of male pierids. We

  13. Effects of altitude on the climbing performance of Monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Kwon; Sridhar, Madhu; Landrum, David; Aono, Hikaru

    2016-11-01

    Millions of Monarchs annually travel up to 4,000km, the longest migration distance among insects. They fly and overwinter at high altitudes. However, the aerodynamic mechanism enabling the long-range flight of Monarch butterflies is unknown. To study the effects of altitude on the aerodynamic performance of Monarch butterflies, a unique combination of a motion tracking system and a variable pressure chamber that allows controlling the density is used. The condition inside the chamber is systematically varied to simulate high altitude conditions up to 3,000 m. An optical tracking technique is used to characterize the climbing trajectories of freely flying Monarch butterflies. Customized reflective markers are designed to minimize the effects of marker addition. Flapping amplitude and frequency as well as climbing trajectories are measured. Lift acting on the butterfly is also determined by considering the force balance. Results show that the average flight speed and the Reynolds number, in general, decreased with the altitude, whereas, interestingly, the lift coefficient increased with the altitude. More detailed measurements and analyses will be performed in the future to explain the lift enhancement by flying at higher altitudes. This work is partly supported by NSF Grant CBET-1335572 and in part by CK's startup fund provided by UAH.

  14. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  15. Immigration and emigration in the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... patch was composed of immigrants, most of which were females. Individuals assumed to be immigrants arrived in the patch throughout the adult flight period, but older individuals generally arrived later in the season. Timing of migration was almost certainly linked to phenology of the butterfly's only hostplant, Sinai Thyme.

  16. Investigation of dentin hardness in roots exhibiting the butterfly effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Assil A; Chris He, Li Hong; Chandler, Nicholas P

    2014-06-01

    Most vertical root fractures occur in root canal treated teeth, and they usually run in a buccolingual direction. The butterfly effect is an optical phenomenon seen in some sections of tooth roots. The aim was to investigate the microhardness of dentin in mesiodistal and buccolingual cross sections of roots exhibiting the effect. Thirty extracted single-rooted teeth were allocated according to patient age: group 1, 15-24 years; group 2, 25-44 years; and group 3, 45 years and older. Roots were embedded in acrylic and cut into ten 1-mm-thick cross sections. Sections were viewed under a light microscope and coded (1 or 2) according to presence or absence of the butterfly effect. A root scored 20 when all levels featured the butterfly appearance. The 2 teeth with the highest score from each group and 2 control teeth with the minimum score (10) were selected. Two adjacent, consecutive cross sections were chosen from the middle of the roots. Vickers microhardness testing was carried out on the dentin walls. Mean hardness scores were highest mesiodistally (83.7 kgf/mm(2)) and lowest buccolingually (56.4 kgf/mm(2)), a significant difference (P = .028). This trend was found across all age groups. Root sections with the butterfly effect are harder mesiodistally. This might explain the high prevalence of vertical root fractures that run buccolingually. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, G.; Catana, I.; Magheti, I.; Safta, C. A.; Savu, M.

    2010-08-01

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  18. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, G; Safta, C A [Department of Hydraulic and Hydraulic Machineries, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Catana, I [Department of Control and Computer Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Magheti, I; Savu, M, E-mail: baran_gheorghe@yahoo.co.u [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  19. Noise Caused by Cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    HASSIS, H.

    1999-08-01

    An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar values. Focus is particularly placed on both unsteady pressure and acoustic pressure fluctuations. In this paper, the effects of cavitation on local fluctuation pressure (turbulence), acoustic propagation (damping and sound velocity), resonance frequencies and level of noise are presented.

  20. Butterfly wing colours : scale beads make white pierid wings brighter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Stowe, S; Siebke, K; Zeil, J; Arikawa, K

    2004-01-01

    The wing-scale morphologies of the pierid butterflies Pieris rapae (small white) and Delias nigrina (common jezabel), and the heliconine Heliconius melpomene are compared and related to the wing-reflectance spectra. Light scattering at the wing scales determines the wing reflectance, but when the

  1. Evolutionary genetics of dorsal wing colour in Colias butterflies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Boggs, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of butterfly wing colouration is strongly affected by its multiple functions and by the correlated evolution of wing colour elements. Both factors may prevent local adaptation to ecological conditions. We investigated one aspect of wing colouration, the degree of dorsal wing

  2. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous–Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae. PMID:21920981

  3. Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The presence of the Wolbachia super group 'B' in the butterflies Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus (Guerin) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and Blue Mormon, Papilio polymnestor Cramer (Papilionidae), is documented for the first time in India. The study also gives an account on the lifetime fecundity and female-biased sex ratio in T.

  4. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  5. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šašić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.

  6. A role of abdomen in butterfly's flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Jeeva; Senda, Kei; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2017-11-01

    Butterfly's forward flight with periodic flapping motion is longitudinally unstable, and control of the thoracic pitching angle is essential to stabilize the flight. This study aims to comprehend roles which the abdominal motion play in the pitching stability of butterfly's flapping flight by using a two-dimensional model. The control of the thoracic pitching angle by the abdominal motion is an underactuated problem because of the limit on the abdominal angle. The control input of the thorax-abdomen joint torque is obtained by the hierarchical sliding mode control in this study. Numerical simulations reveal that the control by the abdominal motion provides short-term pitching stabilization in the butterfly's flight. Moreover, the control input due to a large thorax-abdomen joint torque can counteract a quite large perturbation, and can return the pitching attitude to the periodic trajectory with a short recovery time. These observations are consistent with biologists' view that living butterflies use their abdomens as rudders. On the other hand, the abdominal control mostly fails in long-term pitching stabilization, because it cannot directly alter the aerodynamic forces. The control for the long-term pitching stabilization will also be discussed.

  7. High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph James; Eskildsen, Anne; Hansen, Rikke Reisner

    2015-01-01

    size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500...

  8. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-03-22

    Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae.

  9. Butterfly hematoma after traumatic intercourse | Hajji | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butterfly hematoma after traumatic intercourse. F Hajji, A Ameur. Abstract. No Abstract. http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.20.317.6660 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

  10. The Nation and the Subaltern in Yvonne Vera's Butterfly Burning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne Vera's death in 2005 brought to a tragic close the career of one of Zimbabwe's, indeed Africa's, more engaging contemporary writers. But her powerful novel, Butterfly Burning continues to mirror an aspect of Vera's enduring concern: the place of African women in the context of power both within the colonial and the ...

  11. The Study of Butterflies-Flight, Fuels and Senses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 8. The Study of Butterflies - Flight, Fuels and Senses. Peter Smetacek. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 8 August 2000 pp 4-12. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/08/0004-0012 ...

  12. Diversity and abundance of butterfly species (Lepidoptera) fauna in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butterflies belong to one of the most important taxa of insects. Understanding their significance in an ecosystem as an environmental health indicator and pollination of flowering plants is crucial to achieving sustainability and conservation of floral diversity. Owing to habitat destruction due to some anthropogenic activities, ...

  13. Preliminary assessment of fruit-feeding butterfly communities in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness, diversity and composition of fruit-feeding Nymphalid butterflies in the three different flora communities (Celtis-Triplochiton forest, Cassia siamea plantation and Riverine forest) in Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary (OWS) were studied and subsequently compared. OWS has three distinct flora communities.

  14. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories of a child soldier | Dahms | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 40, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories ...

  15. Becoming Butterflies: Making Metamorphosis Meaningful for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Baggett, Paige V.; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although butterflies are a common topic of study in many early childhood classrooms, integrating art production broadens the scope of the study and allows children to deepen their knowledge and understanding through creative self-expression. This article presents a set of integrated activities that focus on helping children fully grasp the process…

  16. Design and Analysis of Butterfly Valve Disc Using Aluminium (1100 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study butterfly valve which is commonly used for water line application was designed by using Pro-E software and analyzed its deflection using Ansys software. For the analysis, two materials such as aluminium (1100) and aluminium carbon nanotube 4% was used and compared these two materials ...

  17. Contrasting supercooling ability in lowland and mountain European Colias butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, P.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Konvička, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 63-69 ISSN 0749-8004 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; GA JU(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterfly ecology * diapause * frost survival Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2014

  18. Butterfly effects in reading? The relationship between decoding and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the metaphor of butterfly effects, this paper considers how literacy inequalities in comprehension performance amongst Grade 6 learners in high poverty schools can be linked to skills that should have been developed in earlier stages of reading development. The reading comprehension skills of Grade 6 learners in ...

  19. Wing coloration and pigment gradients in scales of pierid butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    Depending on the species, the individual scales of butterfly wings have a longitudinal gradient in structure and reflectance properties, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. White scales of the male Small White, Pieris rapae crucivora, show a strong gradient in both

  20. Far field scattering pattern of differently structured butterfly scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M. A.; Yoshioka, S.; Stavenga, D. G.

    The angular and spectral reflectance of single scales of five different butterfly species was measured and related to the scale anatomy. The scales of the pierids Pieris rapae and Delias nigrina scatter white light randomly, in close agreement with Lambert's cosine law, which can be well understood

  1. BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

  2. The influence of ants on patterns of colonization and establishment within a set of coexisting lycaenid butterflies in a south-east Asian tropical rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufert, Peter; Fiedler, Konrad

    1996-04-01

    In Peninsular Malaysia ten species of lycaenid butterflies use leaf flushes or inflorescences of the legume tree Saraca thaipingensis as larval hostplant. Resource partitioning among these species is regulated by a complex mixture of patterns of interaction with ants. Females of obligately myrmecophilous species lay their eggs exclusively on trees colonized by their specific host ants. On trees colonized by weaver ants, only specialist mutualists adapted to these territorial ants are able to survive, while larvae of other species are killed. The formicine ant Cladomyrma petalae, which inhabits hollow twigs of the myrmecophytic hostplant, likewise precludes oviposition by female butterflies. Lycaenid larvae confronted with this ant species never survive, but one concealed feeding species (Jamides caeruleus) escapes removal due to the cryptic life-habits of the larvae. Two facultative myrmecophiles associate in a mutualistic way with a wide and largely overlapping range of ant genera which forage at the extrafloral nectaries of leaf flushes. One species (Cheritra freja) is not myrmecophilous, but is tolerated by all but the most territorial ants. Ant-dependent hostplant selection and egg-clustering characterize the obligate mutualists, whereas facultative myrmecophiles and the non-myrmecophile distribute their eggs singly over appropriate hostplants. Signals mediating caterpillar-ant communication are highly specialized in one obligate myrmecophile (Drupadia theda), but rather unspecific in four other species tested. Altogether our observations indicate that colonization and establishment of lycaenid butterflies on S. thaipingensis trees are governed by specializations as well as opportunistic use of resources (ants and hostplant parts). Therefore, the diversity of this species assemblage is maintained by deterministic as well as stochastic factors.

  3. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seasons (winter, spring, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon lasting 18 days from January 2009 to March 2010. Pollard walk method was used to assess the diversity on four-line transects within 10-12 km radius of the proposed dam site. Two hundred and thirteen species, including 22 papilionids, were thus sampled. Eleven species amongst these are listed in Schedules I and II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972, of which 10 taxa (Pareronia avatar avatar, Nacaduba pactolus continentalis, Porostas aluta coelestis, Elymnias vasudeva vasudeva, Mycalesis mestra retus, Melanitis zitenius zitenius, Charaxes marmax, Athyma ranga ranga, Neptis manasa manasa and Neptis soma soma are of conservation priority as they are ‘rare’ in occurrence across their distribution range in the region. The maximum number of species (128 were recorded during the spring season (March and lowest (66 during July (monsoon. The seasonal pattern of variation in diversity was very typical of the pattern found in other areas of the lower foothills and adjoining plains of the Himalaya. Relative abundances of butterflies during spring varied significantly (p<0.05 as compared to winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. However, species composition changed with every season as Sorensen’s similarity index varied between 0.3076 to 0.5656. All these findings suggest that the lowland forests of Bhutan hold a rich and unique diversity of butterflies during every season of the year thus having

  4. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Host plant-specific remodeling of midgut physiology in the generalist insect herbivore Trichoplusia ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herde, Marco; Howe, Gregg A

    2014-07-01

    Species diversity in terrestrial ecosystems is influenced by plant defense compounds that alter the behavior, physiology, and host preference of insect herbivores. Although it is established that insects evolved the ability to detoxify specific allelochemicals, the mechanisms by which polyphagous insects cope with toxic compounds in diverse host plants are not well understood. Here, we used defended and non-defended plant genotypes to study how variation in chemical defense affects midgut responses of the lepidopteran herbivore Trichoplusia ni, which is a pest of a wide variety of native and cultivated plants. The genome-wide midgut transcriptional response of T. ni larvae to glucosinolate-based defenses in the crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana was characterized by strong induction of genes encoding Phase I and II detoxification enzymes. In contrast, the response of T. ni to proteinase inhibitors and other jasmonate-regulated defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was dominated by changes in the expression of digestive enzymes and, strikingly, concomitant repression of transcripts encoding detoxification enzymes. Unbiased proteomic analyses of T. ni feces demonstrated that tomato defenses remodel the complement of T.ni digestive enzymes, which was associated with increased amounts of serine proteases and decreased lipase protein abundance upon encountering tomato defense chemistry. These collective results indicate that T. ni adjusts its gut physiology to the presence of host plant-specific chemical defenses, and further suggest that plants may exploit this digestive flexibility as a defensive strategy to suppress the production of enzymes that detoxify allelochemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  7. Dynamic remodeling of lipids coincides with dengue virus replication in the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunya Chotiwan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first comprehensive analysis of the midgut metabolome of Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Transmission of these viruses depends on their ability to infect, replicate and disseminate from several tissues in the mosquito vector. The metabolic environments within these tissues play crucial roles in these processes. Since these viruses are enveloped, viral replication, assembly and release occur on cellular membranes primed through the manipulation of host metabolism. Interference with this virus infection-induced metabolic environment is detrimental to viral replication in human and mosquito cell culture models. Here we present the first insight into the metabolic environment induced during arbovirus replication in Aedes aegypti. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we have analyzed the temporal metabolic perturbations that occur following dengue virus infection of the midgut tissue. This is the primary site of infection and replication, preceding systemic viral dissemination and transmission. We identified metabolites that exhibited a dynamic-profile across early-, mid- and late-infection time points. We observed a marked increase in the lipid content. An increase in glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and fatty acyls was coincident with the kinetics of viral replication. Elevation of glycerolipid levels suggested a diversion of resources during infection from energy storage to synthetic pathways. Elevated levels of acyl-carnitines were observed, signaling disruptions in mitochondrial function and possible diversion of energy production. A central hub in the sphingolipid pathway that influenced dihydroceramide to ceramide ratios was identified as critical for the virus life cycle. This study also resulted in the first reconstruction of the sphingolipid pathway in Aedes aegypti. Given conservation in the replication mechanisms of several

  8. A hypothetical model of crossing Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus through its host midgut physical barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cheng

    Full Text Available Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV is a primary pathogen of silkworm (B. mori that causes severe economic losses each year. However, the molecular mechanisms of silkworm-BmNPV interactions, especially the silkworm proteins that can interact with the virus, are still largely unknown. In this study, the total and membrane proteins of silkworm midguts were displayed using one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. A virus overlay assay was used to detect B. mori proteins that specifically bind to BmNPV particles. Twelve proteins were located and identified using mass spectrometry, and the different expression of the corresponding genes in BmNPV susceptible and resistant silkworm strains also indicated their involvement in BmNPV infection. The 12 proteins are grouped based on their potential roles in viral infection, for example, endocytosis, intracellular transportation, and host responses. Based on these results, we hypothesize the following: I vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B may be implicated in the process of the membrane fusion of virus and the release of the nucleocapsid into cytoplasm; II actin, enolase and phosphoglycerate kinase are cytoskeleton associated proteins and may play an important role in BmNPV intracellular transportation; III mitochondrial prohibitin complex protein 2, ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein, calreticulin, regucalcin-like isoform X1 and 60 kDa heat shock protein are involved in cell apoptosis regulation during BmNPV infection in larvae midguts; IV ribosomal P0 may be associated with BmNPV infection by regulating gene expression of BmNPV; V arginine kinase has a role in the antiviral activities against BmNPV. Our work should prove informative by providing multiple protein targets and a novel direction to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between silkworms and BmNPV.

  9. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Flavio Alves; Pohl, Paula C.; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Ferreira, Jessica da Silva; Nascimento-Silva, Maria Clara; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Almeida, Igor C.; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA), a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may represent a new

  10. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Niewalda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila.

  11. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. PMID:24907371

  12. Among-population variation in tolerance to larval herbivory by Anthocharis cardamines in the polyploid herb Cardamine pratensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin A E König

    Full Text Available Plants have two principal defense mechanisms to decrease fitness losses to herbivory: tolerance, the ability to compensate fitness after damage, and resistance, the ability to avoid damage. Variation in intensity of herbivory among populations should result in variation in plant defense levels if tolerance and resistance are associated with costs. Yet little is known about how levels of tolerance are related to resistance and attack intensity in the field, and about the costs of tolerance. In this study, we used information about tolerance and resistance against larval herbivory by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines under controlled conditions together with information about damage in the field for a large set of populations of the perennial plant Cardamine pratensis. Plant tolerance was estimated in a common garden experiment where plants were subjected to a combination of larval herbivory and clipping. We found no evidence of that the proportion of damage that was caused by larval feeding vs. clipping influenced plant responses. Damage treatments had a negative effect on the three measured fitness components and also resulted in an earlier flowering in the year after the attack. Tolerance was related to attack intensity in the population of origin, i.e. plants from populations with higher attack intensity were more likely to flower in the year following damage. However, we found no evidence of a relationship between tolerance and resistance. These results indicate that herbivory drives the evolution for increased tolerance, and that changes in tolerance are not linked to changes in resistance. We suggest that the simultaneous study of tolerance, attack intensity in the field and resistance constitutes a powerful tool to understand how plant strategies to avoid negative effects of herbivore damage evolve.

  13. Using citizen science butterfly counts to predict species population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily B; Morgan, Byron J T; Brereton, Tom M; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Citizen scientists are increasingly engaged in gathering biodiversity information, but trade-offs are often required between public engagement goals and reliable data collection. We compared population estimates for 18 widespread butterfly species derived from the first 4 years (2011-2014) of a short-duration citizen science project (Big Butterfly Count [BBC]) with those from long-running, standardized monitoring data collected by experienced observers (U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme [UKBMS]). BBC data are gathered during an annual 3-week period, whereas UKBMS sampling takes place over 6 months each year. An initial comparison with UKBMS data restricted to the 3-week BBC period revealed that species population changes were significantly correlated between the 2 sources. The short-duration sampling season rendered BBC counts susceptible to bias caused by interannual phenological variation in the timing of species' flight periods. The BBC counts were positively related to butterfly phenology and sampling effort. Annual estimates of species abundance and population trends predicted from models including BBC data and weather covariates as a proxy for phenology correlated significantly with those derived from UKBMS data. Overall, citizen science data obtained using a simple sampling protocol produced comparable estimates of butterfly species abundance to data collected through standardized monitoring methods. Although caution is urged in extrapolating from this U.K. study of a small number of common, conspicuous insects, we found that mass-participation citizen science can simultaneously contribute to public engagement and biodiversity monitoring. Mass-participation citizen science is not an adequate replacement for standardized biodiversity monitoring but may extend and complement it (e.g., through sampling different land-use types), as well as serving to reconnect an increasingly urban human population with nature. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published

  14. Pure and Poetic: Butterfly in the Quantum World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Indubala

    Story of the Hofstadter butterfly is a magical occurrence in a quantum flatland of two-dimensional crystals in a magnetic field. In this drama, the magnetic flux plays the role of Planck constant, linking the variables x and p in the butterfly Hamiltonian H = cosx + cosp as [ x , p ] = iℏ . It is a story of reunion of Descartes and Pythagoras and tale of this quantum fractal is related to Integral Apollonian gaskets. Integers rule the butterfly landscape as quantum numbers of Hall conductivity while irrational numbers emerge as the asymptotic magnification of these topological integers in the kaleidoscopic images of the butterfly. Simple variations of the above Hamiltonian generates a wide spectrum of physical phenomenon. For example, the Hamiltonian H = cosx + λcosp with the parameter λ ≠ 1 in its zero energy solution hides the critical point of a topological transition in a superconducting chain and thus barely misses the Majorana fermions. Another example is the Hamiltonian obtained by including terms like cos (x +/- p) which for flux half exhibits Dirac semi-metallic states in addition to all integer quantum Hall states corresponding to all possible solutions of the Diophantine equation for this value of the magnetic flux. In this analytically tractable model where the parameter λ varies periodically with time, the topological states are described by edge modes whose dispersion is given by a pure cosine function. Finally, nature has composed beautiful variations of the Hofstadter butterfly not only in systems such as Penrose and Kagame lattices and also in the relativistic colorful world of quarks and antiquarks.

  15. Changing biodiversity scenario in the Himalayan ecosystem: Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India, as revealed by the study of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sidhu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Any change in the population of butterflies is an early warning of pollution or other kinds of habitat degradation. An area rich in butterfly diversity has its own significance in the ecosystem. The current status of butterflies in Mussoorie (Uttarakhand is reviewed. The degradation of the butterfly-rich spots of Mussoorie is discussed. A comparative chart of 66 species of Lycaenid butterflies compares species collected by earlier authors from Mussoorie with current observations. Some of the rare butterflies species have disappeared, probably due the loss of habitat to developmental activities, use of pesticides in farming, urbanization and other anthropogenic activities.

  16. Single master regulatory gene coordinates the evolution and development of butterfly color and iridescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Mazo-Vargas, Anyi; Reed, Robert D

    2017-10-03

    The optix gene has been implicated in butterfly wing pattern adaptation by genetic association, mapping, and expression studies. The actual developmental function of this gene has remained unclear, however. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to show that optix plays a fundamental role in nymphalid butterfly wing pattern development, where it is required for determination of all chromatic coloration. optix knockouts in four species show complete replacement of color pigments with melanins, with corresponding changes in pigment-related gene expression, resulting in black and gray butterflies. We also show that optix simultaneously acts as a switch gene for blue structural iridescence in some butterflies, demonstrating simple regulatory coordination of structural and pigmentary coloration. Remarkably, these optix knockouts phenocopy the recurring "black and blue" wing pattern archetype that has arisen on many independent occasions in butterflies. Here we demonstrate a simple genetic basis for structural coloration, and show that optix plays a deeply conserved role in butterfly wing pattern development.

  17. Plant-determined variation in the cardenolide content, thin-layer chromatography profiles, and emetic potency of monarch butterflies,Danaus plexippus reared on the milkweed,Asclepias eriocarpa in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, L P; Seiber, J N; Nelson, C J; Lynch, S P; Tuskes, P M

    1982-03-01

    This paper is the first in a series on cardenolide fingerprinting of the monarch butterfly. New methodologies are presented which allow both qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the constituent cardenolides which these insects derive in the wild from specificAsclepias foodplants. Analyses of thin-layer Chromatographic profiles ofAsclepias eriocarpa cardenolides in 85 individual plant-butterfly pairs collected at six widely separate localities in California indicate a relatively invariant pattern of 16-20 distinct cardenolides which we here define as theAsclepias eriocarpa cardenolide fingerprint profile. Cardenolide concentrations vary widely in the plant samples, but monarchs appear able to regulate total storage by increasing their concentrations relative to their larval host plant when reared on plants containing low concentrations, and vice versa. Forced-feeding of blue jays with powdered butterfly and plant material and with one of the constituent plant cardenolides, labriformin, established that theA. eriocarpa cardenolides are extremely emetic, and that monarchs which have fed on this plant contain an average of 16 emetic-dose fifty (ED50) units. The relatively nonpolar labriformin and labriformidin in the plant are not stored by the monarch but are metabolized in vivo to desglucosyrioside which the butterfly does store. This is chemically analogous to the way in which monarchs and grasshoppers metabolize another series of milkweed cardenolides, those found inA. curassavica. It appears that the sugar moiety through functionality at C-3' determines which cardenolides are metabolized and which are stored. The monarch also appears able to store several lowR f cardenolides fromA. eriocarpa without altering them. Differences in the sequestering process in monarchs and milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus) may be less than emphasized in the literature. The monarch is seen as a central organism involved in a coevolutionary triad simultaneously affecting and affected

  18. A study on modelling of a butterfly-type control valve by a pneumatic actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, I Cheol [Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Jae [Daegu University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper studies on the modelling of a butterfly-type control valve actuating by an on-off pneumatic solenoid valve. The mathematical model is composed of nonlinear differential equations three parts: (i) a solenoid valve, (ii) a pneumatic cylinder, (iii) a rotary-type butterfly valve. The flow characteristics of the butterfly control valve is analysed by a computer simulator, then its simple transfer function is identified from the step responses.

  19. K+ excretion: the other purpose for puddling behavior in Japanese Papilio butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi A; Ito, Tetsuo; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Niihara, Kinuko

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+.

  20. An assessment of riparian environmental quality by using butterflies and disturbance susceptibility scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S. Mark; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    The butterfly community at a revegetated riparian site on the lower Colorado River near Parker, Arizona, was compared to that found in a reference riparian site. Data indicated that the herbaceous plant community, which was lacking at the revegetated site, was important to several butterfly taxa. An index using butterfly sensitivity to habitat change (species classified into risk groups) and number of taxa was developed to monitor revegetation projects and to determine restoration effectiveness.

  1. Diversity of Butterflies (Lepidoptera) in Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri, Roni; Maabuat, Pience V

    The degradation of a habitat will affect the population of butterflies living in it. This study aims to analyse the diversity of butterflies in the area of Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi. Employing purposive sampling, the study was conducted for five months. The collection of butterflies was done by using the sweeping technique, following the transect line applied randomly along 1000 m to three types of habitat (the primary forest, riverside in the forest and agricultural land). The species diversity was determined by using diversity index (Shannon-Wiener). The study identified 4 families, 44 species and 748 individual butterflies. Nymphalidae was a family predominantly found (71.12%), while the species mostly found was Ideopsis juventa tontoliensis (10.16%). Abundance (76.50), richness (20.25), diversity (2.66) and species evenness (0.88) were mostly found in riverside habitats in the forest, while the lowest was found in the primary forest. The similarities of butterfly communities in the different types of habitats indicate that the highest similarity index of butterfly communities is in the habitats of the primary forest and riverside in the forest wi a value of 80%. The highest diversity of butterflies in all types of habitats found in riverside. The high diversity of butterflies in the river is strongly influenced by the presence of vegetation as food and host plants of butterflies and this habitat should be conserved for the survival of the butterfly in a wildlife reserve Manembo-Nembo, North Sulawesi. It is expected that the results of this study could become important data of the diversity of butterflies and effects of changes of habitats on the diversity of butterflies in Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi.

  2. Both Palatable And Unpalatable Butterflies Use Bright Colors To Signal Difficulty Of Capture To Predators

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, De, Cristiane Garboggini Melo; CEG; Freitas; AVL; Campos; VC; DeVries; PJ; Penz; CM

    2016-01-01

    Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of ...

  3. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) seed coat on the embryonic and larval development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Leonardo Figueira Reis; Wermelinger, Tierry Torres; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio

    2014-01-01

    Bruchid beetles infest various seeds. The seed coat is the first protective barrier against bruchid infestation. Although non-host seed coats often impair the oviposition, eclosion and survival of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, morphological and biochemical aspects of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here we show that Phaseolus vulgaris (non-host) seed coat reduced C. maculatus female oviposition about 48%, increased 83% the seed penetration time, reduced larval mass and survival about 62 % and 40 % respectively. Interestingly, we found no visible effect on the major events of insect embryogenesis, namely the formation of the cellular blastoderm, germ band extension/retraction, embryo segmentation, appendage formation and dorsal closure. Larvae fed on P. vulgaris seed coat have greater FITC fluorescence signal in the midgut than in the feces, as opposed to what is observed in control larvae fed on Vigna unguiculata. Cysteine protease, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were reduced in larvae fed on P. vulgaris natural seed coat. Taken together, our results suggest that although P. vulgaris seed coat does not interfere with C. maculatus embryonic development, food digestion was clearly compromised, impacting larval fitness (e.g. body mass and survivability). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF BUTTERFLIES (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera IN CAMPUS AREA INDRALAYA SRIWIJAYA UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrina Lamin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on Diversity and distribution of butterflies, was held at the Campus Indralaya Sriwijaya University of South Sumatra. The purpose of this study was to obtain information species diversity of butterflies at the Sriwijaya University of Inderalaya and distribution of species of butterflies in several different habitat types in the campus area Unsri Indralaya. The study used purposive and collection methods in November 2014-january 2015. Sampling sites were divided into five locations: Arboretum, Science Faculty, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Agriculture and Swamp Cape Disconnect. The parameters used are the index of species diversity, dominance index, and evenness index. The results showed that the diversity of butterflies in the region is classified as moderate. Overall found as many as 40 species of butterflies with a number of 609 individuals consisting of 5 the Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, and Hesperiidae. Regions Sriwijaya University has a diversity of butterflies that were moderate with criteria (H'1≤H'≤3, in each different habitat types, and not found butterfly species that dominate in every type of habitat in this Unsri region. Distribution of butterflies found in the campus area Unsri Indralaya categorized fairly evenly with a range of values from 0.58 to 0.68. Keywords: Butterflies,  Diversity,  Distribution , Sriwijaya University of Indralaya

  5. [Butterfly species diversity and its conservation in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Zhou, Hong-Chun; Tan, Ji-Cai; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2011-06-01

    By using line-transect method, an investigation was conducted on the species diversity of butterfly in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Changde City of Hunan Province from June 2008 to September 2010. Aiming at the main factors including plant species richness (D) , mean elevation (E) , average distance from stream/river (F), and human interference level (K) that affecting the species richness of butterfly in 31 segment-level transects in 4 line-transects, multiple regression analysis was made, and the diversity and similarity of the butterfly communities in the experimental zone, buffer zone, and core zone of the Reserve were compared. A total of 147 butterfly species were collected, belonging to 94 genera and 10 families, among which, 4 species was nationally conserved species. Multiple regression analysis showed that D, E, and K were the three most major factors affecting the distribution of butterfly. The species richness of butterfly had significant positive correlation with D (P correlations with E and K (P species diversity and evenness index of butterfly were higher in core zone than in experimental zone and buffer zone, dominance index was the highest in experimental zone, and a higher similarity index (0.526) was observed between buffer zone and core zone. To conserve the species diversity of butterfly in the Reserve, efforts should be made to protect the plant species richness, keep the natural forest succession, decrease the human interference properly, and tighten up the management of butterfly habitat.

  6. Butterfly Species Diversity in Protected and Unprotected Habitat of Ise Forest Reserve, Ise Ekiti, Ekiti State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Olufemi Orimaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated butterfly diversity in the protected area (PA and unprotected area (UPA of Ise Forest reserve, Ise Ekiti, Ekiti State, using sweep net along existing trails. Butterfly species seen in the study sites were captured and released after proper identification was made. The results indicated that a total of 837 butterflies were identified in the study sites with 661 species observed in PA and 176 species in UPA. Butterfly species diversity was significantly different (p≤0.05 between PA and UPA. Shannon diversity index was higher in PA (3.59 than UPA (3.27 as against Menhinick’s index, higher in UPA (2.11 than in PA (1.52. Likewise, 10 families of butterflies were recorded in PA and 8 families in UPA. The family with highest species occurrence was Satyridae (17.9% in PA and Lycaenidae in UPA with 20.1%. Butterfly families’ diversity was not significant (p≥0.05 between the two study sites. Ise Forest Reserve recorded approximately 6.6% of all butterflies recorded in West Africa. The findings indicated that mature secondary and regenerated forests supported high butterfly diversity and species richness, while cultivated land and grassland had a negative impact on butterfly community suggesting the negative effect of agricultural activities on the ecosystem.

  7. Energy and lipid metabolism during direct and diapause development in a pierid butterfly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Posledovich, Diana; Carlsson, Mikael; Käkelä, Reijo; Tang, Patrik; Nylin, Sören; Wheat, Christopher W; Wiklund, Christer; Gotthard, Karl

    2016-01-01

    .... Diapause intensity, metabolic rate trajectories and lipid profiles of directly developing and diapausing animals were studied using pupae and adults of Pieris napi butterflies from a population...

  8. Lantana Camara and Butterfly Abundance in an Urban Landscape: Benefits for Conservation or Species Invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Swarnali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes host a range of diverse plants that, in turn, facilitate maintenance of different species of pollinators, including butterflies. In this context, the importance of Lantana camara, an invasive plant species, was assessed highlighting its role in maintenance of butterfly diversity, using Kolkata, India as a study area. Initial study revealed consistent presence of L. camara in both urban and rural sites with at least 25 different butterfly species association. The proportional relative load and the preferences of butterfly species for the each plant species were inclined towards L. camara. Irrespective of the sites, the diurnal and seasonal variations in the butterfly species abundance varied with the flowering pattern of L. camara. A positive correlation of different butterfly species with the flowering time and number of L. camara was for all the sites. The segregation of the L. camara associated butterfly species was made following discriminant function analysis using the extent of flower density of L. camara as explanatory variable. Despite being an invasive species, it is apparent that L. camara can be a prospective host plant that facilitates sustenance of butterflies in both urban and rural sites. Thus, existence of L. camara in urban gardens and forests may prove beneficial in sustenance of the butterflies.

  9. Larval and juvenile development of dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus reared in mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, M E; Ré, P; Quental-Ferreira, H; Gavaia, P J; Pousão-Ferreira, P

    2013-09-01

    The larval development of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus up to the benthic juvenile stage is described in detail to establish a reference for their larval identification. Development is described in terms of ontogenetic changes in morphology, growth, pigmentation, fin structure and skeletal structure. Larvae were reared in mesocosms at a mean temperature of 24·3° C, salinity of 36·5, dissolved oxygen of 6·4 mg l(-1) and pH of 8·2. Newly hatched larvae had an estimated total length (LT ) of 2·3 mm. On the second day post hatching the yolk was almost fully absorbed with traces of the oil globule still present, the eyes were already pigmented and mouth and gut functional. At this stage the cranial skeletal elements for feeding and breathing (mouth and gills) and the pectoral-fin support were already present. About 50% of the observed larvae had food in their guts. Pigmentation was very characteristic, consisting of two large chromatophores visible on the edge of the primordial fin, close to the midpoint of the post-anal region of the body and over the midgut and hindgut and post-anal portion of the body. At 2·9 mm LT the emergence of the second dorsal-fin spine, characteristic of the Epinephilinae, was clearly visible. The pre-flexion stage started in larva of 3·2 mm LT . At 5·5 mm LT the larvae possessed posterior preopercular angle spines, and the dorsal and pelvic spines presented serrated edges and were pigmented. The water surface-tension-related death of the yolk sac and pre-flexion larvae described in the rearing of several other grouper species did not occur during E. marginatus culture. Notochord flexion, with initial ossification of the caudal-fin supporting elements, started at 6·6 mm LT . At this stage the major melanophores, preopercular, dorsal and pelvic spines and mandibular teeth were already present. Transformation of larvae into juveniles occurred when larvae averaged 13·8 mm LT . Juveniles with a mean LT of 20

  10. Virulence evolution in response to anti-infection resistance: toxic food plants can select for virulent parasites of monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roode, J C; de Castillejo, C Lopez Fernandez; Faits, T; Alizon, S

    2011-04-01

    Host resistance to parasites can come in two main forms: hosts may either reduce the probability of parasite infection (anti-infection resistance) or reduce parasite growth after infection has occurred (anti-growth resistance). Both resistance mechanisms are often imperfect, meaning that they do not fully prevent or clear infections. Theoretical work has suggested that imperfect anti-growth resistance can select for higher parasite virulence by favouring faster-growing and more virulent parasites that overcome this resistance. In contrast, imperfect anti-infection resistance is thought not to select for increased parasite virulence, because it is assumed that it reduces the number of hosts that become infected, but not the fitness of parasites in successfully infected hosts. Here, we develop a theoretical model to show that anti-infection resistance can in fact select for higher virulence when such resistance reduces the effective parasite dose that enters a host. Our model is based on a monarch butterfly-parasite system in which larval food plants confer resistance to the monarch host. We carried out an experiment and showed that this environmental resistance is most likely a form of anti-infection resistance, through which toxic food plants reduce the effective dose of parasites that initiates an infection. We used these results to build a mathematical model to investigate the evolutionary consequences of food plant-induced resistance. Our model shows that when the effective infectious dose is reduced, parasites can compensate by evolving a higher per-parasite growth rate, and consequently a higher intrinsic virulence. Our results are relevant to many insect host-parasite systems, in which larval food plants often confer imperfect anti-infection resistance. Our results also suggest that - for parasites where the infectious dose affects the within-host dynamics - vaccines that reduce the effective infectious dose can select for increased parasite virulence.

  11. The developmental race between maturing host plants and their butterfly herbivore - the influence of phenological matching and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posledovich, Diana; Toftegaard, Tenna; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan; Gotthard, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between herbivorous insects and their host plants that are limited in time are widespread. Therefore, many insect-plant interactions result in a developmental race, where herbivores need to complete their development before plants become unsuitable, while plants strive to minimize damage from herbivores by outgrowing them. When spring phenologies of interacting species change asymmetrically in response to climate warming, there will be a change in the developmental state of host plants at the time of insect herbivore emergence. In combination with altered temperatures during the subsequent developmental period, this is likely to affect interaction strength as well as fitness of interacting species. Here, we experimentally explore whether the combined effect of phenological matching and thermal conditions influence the outcome of an insect-host interaction. We manipulated both developmental stages of the host plants at the start of the interaction and temperature during the subsequent developmental period in a model system of a herbivorous butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, and five of its Brassicaceae host plant species. Larval performance characteristics were favoured by earlier stages of host plants at oviposition as well as by higher developmental temperatures on most of the host species. The probability of a larva needing a second host plant covered the full range from no influence of either phenological matching or temperature to strong effects of both factors, and complex interactions between them. The probability of a plant outgrowing a larva was dependent only on the species identity. This study demonstrates that climatic variation can influence the outcome of consumer-resource interactions in multiple ways and that its effects differ among host plant species. Therefore, climate warming is likely to change the temporal match between larval and plant development in some plant species, but not in the others. This is likely to have important

  12. Egg laying of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae on Arabidopsis thaliana affects subsequent performance of the larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Geiselhardt

    Full Text Available Plant resistance to the feeding by herbivorous insects has recently been found to be positively or negatively influenced by prior egg deposition. Here we show how crucial it is to conduct experiments on plant responses to herbivory under conditions that simulate natural insect behaviour. We used a well-studied plant--herbivore system, Arabidopsis thaliana and the cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae, testing the effects of naturally laid eggs (rather than egg extracts and allowing larvae to feed gregariously as they do naturally (rather than placing single larvae on plants. Under natural conditions, newly hatched larvae start feeding on their egg shells before they consume leaf tissue, but access to egg shells had no effect on subsequent larval performance in our experiments. However, young larvae feeding gregariously on leaves previously laden with eggs caused less feeding damage, gained less weight during the first 2 days, and suffered twice as high a mortality until pupation compared to larvae feeding on plants that had never had eggs. The concentration of the major anti-herbivore defences of A. thaliana, the glucosinolates, was not significantly increased by oviposition, but the amount of the most abundant member of this class, 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate was 1.8-fold lower in larval-damaged leaves with prior egg deposition compared to damaged leaves that had never had eggs. There were also few significant changes in the transcript levels of glucosinolate metabolic genes, except that egg deposition suppressed the feeding-induced up-regulation of FMOGS-OX2 , a gene encoding a flavin monooxygenase involved in the last step of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate biosynthesis. Hence, our study demonstrates that oviposition does increase A. thaliana resistance to feeding by subsequently hatching larvae, but this cannot be attributed simply to changes in glucosinolate content.

  13. The evolutionary ecology of generalization: among-year variation in host plant use and offspring survival in a butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Christer; Friberg, Magne

    2009-12-01

    The majority of phytophagous insects are relatively specialized in their food habits, and specialization in resource use is expected to be favored by selection in most scenarios. Ecological generalization is less common and less well understood, but it should be selected for by (1) rarity of resources, (2) resource inconstancy, or (3) unreliability of resource quality. Here, we test these predictions by studying egg distribution and offspring survival in the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, on different host plants in Sweden over a five-year period. A total of 3800 eggs were laid on 16 of the 18 crucifers available at the field site during the five years. Three main factors explained host plant generalization: (1) a rarity of food resources in which the female encounter rate of individual crucifer plants was low and within-year phenological succession of flowering periods of the different crucifers meant that individual species were suitable for oviposition only within a short time window, which translates to a low effective abundance of individual crucifer species as experienced by females searching for host plants, making specialization on a single crucifer species unprofitable; (2) variation in food resources in which among-year variation in availability of any one host plant species was high; and (3) larval survivorship varied unpredictably among years on all host plants, thereby necessitating a bet-hedging strategy and use of several different host plants. Unpredictable larval survival was caused by variation in plant stand habitat characteristics, which meant that drowning and death from starvation affected different crucifers differently, and by parasitism, which varied by host plant and year. Hence, our findings are in agreement with the theoretical explanation of ecological generalization above, helping to explain why A. cardamines is a generalist throughout its range with respect to genera within the Cruciferae.

  14. Experimental Examination of Intraspecific Density-Dependent Competition during the Breeding Period in Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Martin, Tara G.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    A central goal of population ecology is to identify the factors that regulate population growth. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America re-colonize the breeding range over several generations that result in population densities that vary across space and time during the breeding season. We used laboratory experiments to measure the strength of density-dependent intraspecific competition on egg laying rate and larval survival and then applied our results to density estimates of wild monarch populations to model the strength of density dependence during the breeding season. Egg laying rates did not change with density but larvae at high densities were smaller, had lower survival, and weighed less as adults compared to lower densities. Using mean larval densities from field surveys resulted in conservative estimates of density-dependent population reduction that varied between breeding regions and different phases of the breeding season. Our results suggest the highest levels of population reduction due to density-dependent intraspecific competition occur early in the breeding season in the southern portion of the breeding range. However, we also found that the strength of density dependence could be almost five times higher depending on how many life-stages were used as part of field estimates. Our study is the first to link experimental results of a density-dependent reduction in vital rates to observed monarch densities in the wild and show that the effects of density dependent competition in monarchs varies across space and time, providing valuable information for developing robust, year-round population models in this migratory organism. PMID:22984614

  15. Experimental examination of intraspecific density-dependent competition during the breeding period in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D T Tyler Flockhart

    Full Text Available A central goal of population ecology is to identify the factors that regulate population growth. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus in eastern North America re-colonize the breeding range over several generations that result in population densities that vary across space and time during the breeding season. We used laboratory experiments to measure the strength of density-dependent intraspecific competition on egg laying rate and larval survival and then applied our results to density estimates of wild monarch populations to model the strength of density dependence during the breeding season. Egg laying rates did not change with density but larvae at high densities were smaller, had lower survival, and weighed less as adults compared to lower densities. Using mean larval densities from field surveys resulted in conservative estimates of density-dependent population reduction that varied between breeding regions and different phases of the breeding season. Our results suggest the highest levels of population reduction due to density-dependent intraspecific competition occur early in the breeding season in the southern portion of the breeding range. However, we also found that the strength of density dependence could be almost five times higher depending on how many life-stages were used as part of field estimates. Our study is the first to link experimental results of a density-dependent reduction in vital rates to observed monarch densities in the wild and show that the effects of density dependent competition in monarchs varies across space and time, providing valuable information for developing robust, year-round population models in this migratory organism.

  16. Veronica longifolia L. as an important initial larval food plant of Scarce Fritillary Euphydryas maturna (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: the ecological uniqueness of populations from the Natura 2000 area “Dolina Biebrzy” (Biebrza Valley in NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sielezniew Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euro-Siberian Scarce Fritillary Euphydryas maturna is considered a vulnerable species in the European Union and is listed in Annexes II and IV of the Habitats Directive. The butterfly shows a complex pattern of larval plant use throughout its range. In central Europe females oviposit on some trees and bushes, especially Fraxinus spp., on which hatched larvae spend their pre-diapause phase of development feeding gregariously in conspicuous webs. However, some herbal plants are also reported in the north and east. During a study performed in the Natura 2000 area “Dolina Biebrzy” (Biebrza Valley in NE Poland we recorded populations showing a unique mixture of ecological characteristics. Both Fraxinus excelsior and Veronica longifolia were used as larval food plants before hibernation, and some local populations seemed to be completely dependent on the latter plant. Moreover, in the spring, at one site, we observed larvae feeding on Salix rosmarinifolia - the first host record for this plant species. The importance of our findings for conservation, as well as for the monitoring of the butterfly, is discussed.

  17. Evaluating sampling strategies for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.T.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Black, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    To improve our ability to assess larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in Lake Superior, we conducted a study to compare several sampling strategies. First, we compared density estimates of larval cisco concurrently captured in surface waters with a 2 x 1-m paired neuston net and a 0.5-m (diameter) conical net. Density estimates obtained from the two gear types were not significantly different, suggesting that the conical net is a reasonable alternative to the more cumbersome and costly neuston net. Next, we assessed the effect of tow pattern (sinusoidal versus straight tows) to examine if propeller wash affected larval density. We found no effect of propeller wash on the catchability of larval cisco. Given the availability of global positioning systems, we recommend sampling larval cisco using straight tows to simplify protocols and facilitate straightforward measurements of volume filtered. Finally, we investigated potential trends in larval cisco density estimates by sampling four time periods during the light period of a day at individual sites. Our results indicate no significant trends in larval density estimates during the day. We conclude estimates of larval cisco density across space are not confounded by time at a daily timescale. Well-designed, cost effective surveys of larval cisco abundance will help to further our understanding of this important Great Lakes forage species.

  18. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben ePortugues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 seconds from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  19. A Lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with Midgut Surface of Lutzomyia migonei, Unlike Its Homologues, Cratylia floribunda Lectin and Canavalia gladiata Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Montezuma Barbosa Monteiro Tínel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe, D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL. Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania.

  20. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Niewalda; Ines Jeske; Birgit Michels; Bertram Gerber

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group ...

  1. Developmental and Digestive Flexibilities in the Midgut of a Polyphagous Pest, the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarate, P.J.; Tamhane, V.A.; Kotkar, H.M.; Ratnakaran, N.; Susan, N.; Gupta, V.S.; Giri, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental patterns and survival of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous insect pest, have been studied with reference to the effect of diet on major gut digestive enzymes (amylases, proteases, and lipases). Significant correlations between nutritional quality of the diet and larval and pupal mass were observed when H. armigera larvae were fed on various host plants viz. legumes (chickpea and pigeonpea), vegetables (tomato and okra), flowers (rose and marigold), and cereals (sorghum and maize). Larvae fed on diets rich in proteins and/or carbohydrates (pigeonpea, chickpea, maize, and sorghum) showed higher larval mass and developed more rapidly than larvae fed on diets with low protein and carbohydrate content (rose, marigold, okra, and tomato). Low calorific value diets like rose and marigold resulted in higher mortality (25–35%) of H. armigera. Even with highly varying development efficiency and larval/pupal survival rates, H. armigera populations feeding on different diets completed their life cycles. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera displayed variable expression levels and were found to be regulated on the basis of macromolecular composition of the diet. Post—ingestive adaptations operating at the gut level, in the form of controlled release of digestive enzymes, might be a key factor contributing to the physiological plasticity in H. armigera. PMID:22954360

  2. Alteration of carbohydrates metabolism and midgut glucose absorption in Gromphadorhina portentosa after subchronic exposure to imidacloprid and fenitrothion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczyn, Tomasz; Dolezych, Bogdan; Klosok, Marcin; Augustyniak, Maria; Stygar, Dominika; Buldak, Rafal J; Kukla, Michal; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Karcz-Socha, Iwona; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that following exposure to insecticides, changes take place in the metabolism of carbohydrates and absorption in the midgut of insects. The Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) was chosen for the experiment as a model organism, due to it being easy to breed and its relatively large alimentary tract, which was important when preparing the microperfusion midgut bioassay. In each group of cockroaches treated with imidacloprid and fenitrothion, absorption of glucose, expressed as the area under the curve (AUC), was elevated compared to the control group. Glucose in the hemolymph of the examined insects was present in a vestigial amount, often below the threshold of determination, so the determinable carbohydrate indices were: hemolymph trehalose concentration and fat body glycogen content. The level of trehalose found in the hemolymph of insects when exposed to fenitrothion, and irrespective of the level of concentration mixed into food, were significantly lower when comparing to the control samples. Imidacloprid acted analogically with one exception at the concentration of 10 mg·kg(-1) dry food where trehalose concentration did not differ from the control values. Coupling with fat body glycogen concentration was less visible and appeared only at the concentrations of 5 and 10 mg imidacloprid·kg(-1) dry food. As described in this study changes in the sugar distribution and midgut glucose absorption indicate that insects cover the increased energy needs induced by insecticides; also at the gastrointestinal tract level. The result indicates that the midgut glucose absorption parameters could be considered as a non-specific biomarker of insecticide toxicity.

  3. [Ultrastructural changes in the midgut epithelium of Ixodes sinensis after infesting the rabbits immunized by purified ixodic protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-gang; Ye, Bing-hui; Zhu, Qing-xian

    2004-02-28

    To observe the ultrastructural changes in the midgut epithelium of Ixodes sinensis after infesting rabbits immunized with Mr 105000 purified tick antigen. New Zealand rabbits were inoculated with Mr 105000 purified antigen by means of mutiple intradermal injection in foot pad, groin and back. Each immunized rabbit was infested by 30 female Ixodes sinensis. At 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, 5 days and 8 days after infestation, three Ixodes sinensis in each group were observed for ultrastructural changes in the epithelium of their midgut. Histological examinations showed that with the time going, digestive cells of the ticks after infesting hosts became more and larger with dense and regularly arranged microvilli, enriched organella, distinct unit-membrane structure, and the appearance of tubli, small vacuole, numerous lipid droplets and hematin granules. These cells also developed a highly infolded basal lamina, forming a labyrinth system. The digestive cells of immunized group were however greatly damaged, whose number and volume were significantly different from control groups. From 24 to 48 hours after infestation, the midgut epithelium of Ixodes snenss showed pathological changes with the basal lamina becoming thinner, looser and broken; digestive cells damaged and vacuolated; microvilli decreased, shortened and irregularly arranged; the mitochondria swollen and its crests reduced, shortened and even with myeloid changes; the rough endoplasmic reticulum dilated; lipid droplets and hematin granules decreased; phagocytic and pinocytic activity weakened; and basal labyrinth system vacuolated. From 72 hours to 8 days after infestation, cells were severely damaged, organella were denatured and necrotic, nuclei showed pyknosis and cells lysed. The rabbits immunized with Mr 105000 purified ixodic protein have acquired the adoptive immunity against Ixodes sinensis; in the anti-tick immunity described above, the midgut of Ixodes sinensis is the major affected site.

  4. Butterfly monitoring using systematically placed transects in contrasting climatic regions - exploring an established spatial design for sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Videvall, Elin; Öckinger, Erik; Pettersson, Lars B.

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly monitoring schemes are recording programs initiated to monitor nationwide butterfly abundance and distribution patterns, often with help from volunteers. The method generates high-resolution data, but may be associated with a degree of habitat sampling bias if volunteers prefer to survey areas perceived to be high-quality butterfly habitats. This can result in habitats becoming underrepresented in the data set, leading to less information about the butterfly populations there. In th...

  5. Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host......-ant-dependent oviposition in this and other Maculinea species have, however, shown equivocal results, leading to a long-term controversy over support for this hypothesis. We therefore conducted a controlled field experiment to study the egg-laying behaviour of M. alcon. Matched potted Gentiana plants were set out close...... to host-ant nests and non-host-ant nests, and the number and position of eggs attached were assessed. Our results show no evidence for host-ant-based oviposition in M. alcon, but support an oviposition strategy based on plant characteristics. This suggests that careful management of host-ant distribution...

  6. A fast butterfly algorithm for generalized Radon transforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Jingwei

    2013-06-21

    Generalized Radon transforms, such as the hyperbolic Radon transform, cannot be implemented as efficiently in the frequency domain as convolutions, thus limiting their use in seismic data processing. We have devised a fast butterfly algorithm for the hyperbolic Radon transform. The basic idea is to reformulate the transform as an oscillatory integral operator and to construct a blockwise lowrank approximation of the kernel function. The overall structure follows the Fourier integral operator butterfly algorithm. For 2D data, the algorithm runs in complexity O(N2 log N), where N depends on the maximum frequency and offset in the data set and the range of parameters (intercept time and slowness) in the model space. From a series of studies, we found that this algorithm can be significantly more efficient than the conventional time-domain integration. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. Pretreated Butterfly Wings for Tuning the Selective Vapor Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Piszter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in the scales of Blue butterflies are responsible for their vivid blue wing coloration. These nanoarchitectures are quasi-ordered nanocomposites which are constituted from a chitin matrix with embedded air holes. Therefore, they can act as chemically selective sensors due to their color changes when mixing volatile vapors in the surrounding atmosphere which condensate into the nanoarchitecture through capillary condensation. Using a home-built vapor-mixing setup, the spectral changes caused by the different air + vapor mixtures were efficiently characterized. It was found that the spectral shift is vapor-specific and proportional with the vapor concentration. We showed that the conformal modification of the scale surface by atomic layer deposition and by ethanol pretreatment can significantly alter the optical response and chemical selectivity, which points the way to the efficient production of sensor arrays based on the knowledge obtained through the investigation of modified butterfly wings.

  8. Reliability Evaluation of Concentric Butterfly Valve Using Statistical Hypothesis Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Mu Seong; Choi, Jong Sik; Choi, Byung Oh; Kim, Do Sik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    A butterfly valve is a type of flow-control device typically used to regulate a fluid flow. This paper presents an estimation of the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution, characteristic life, and B10 life for a concentric butterfly valve based on a statistical analysis of the reliability test data taken before and after the valve improvement. The difference in the shape and scale parameters between the existing and improved valves is reviewed using a statistical hypothesis test. The test results indicate that the shape parameter of the improved valve is similar to that of the existing valve, and that the scale parameter of the improved valve is found to have increased. These analysis results are particularly useful for a reliability qualification test and the determination of the service life cycles.

  9. Modal-Based Design Improvement of a Butterfly Valve Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Draghiciu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behaviour control of a butterfly valve is important because, when one of the valve disc natural frequency is close to the frequency of vortex shedding, which appears when the valve is fully open or partially closed, resonance may appear and vibration with significant amplitudes is generated. This paper presents an example by how the design of a butterfly valve disc can be improved by using a modal analysis performed by means of the finite element method. For this purpose, the research reveals the way in which the natural frequencies of the disc can be modified by applying stiffening ribs or changing the dimensions, respective the position of these ribs.

  10. Estimating the age of Heliconius butterflies from calibrated photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dalbosco Dell’Aglio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mating behaviour and predation avoidance in Heliconius involve visual colour signals; however, there is considerable inter-individual phenotypic variation in the appearance of colours. In particular, the red pigment varies from bright crimson to faded red. It has been thought that this variation is primarily due to pigment fading with age, although this has not been explicitly tested. Previous studies have shown the importance of red patterns in mate choice and that birds and butterflies might perceive these small colour differences. Using digital photography and calibrated colour images, we investigated whether the hue variation in the forewing dorsal red band of Heliconius melpomene rosina corresponds with age. We found that the red hue and age were highly associated, suggesting that red colour can indeed be used as a proxy for age in the study of wild-caught butterflies.

  11. Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Verovnik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Albania has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. However, due to its political isolation, it has never been studied in great depth, and consequently, the existing list of butterfly species is outdated and in need of radical amendment. In addition to our personal data, we have studied the available literature, and can report a total of 196 butterfly species recorded from the country. For some of the species in the list we have given explanations for their inclusion and made other annotations. Doubtful records have been removed from the list, and changes in taxonomy have been updated and discussed separately. The purpose of our paper is to remove confusion and conflict regarding published records. However, the revised checklist should not be considered complete: it represents a starting point for further research.

  12. Detailed electromagnetic simulation for the structural color of butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R Todd; Smith, Glenn S

    2009-07-20

    Many species of butterflies exhibit interesting optical phenomena due to structural color. The physical reason for this color is subwavelength features on the surface of a single scale. The exposed surface of a scale is covered with a ridge structure. The fully three-dimensional, periodic, finite-difference time-domain method is used to create a detailed electromagnetic model of a generic ridge. A novel method for presenting the three-dimensional observed color pattern is developed. Using these tools, the change in color that is a result of varying individual features of the scale is explored. Computational models are developed that are similar to three butterflies: Morpho rhetenor, Troides magellanus, and Ancyluris meliboeus.

  13. Adaptive introgression across species boundaries in Heliconius butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pardo-Diaz

    Full Text Available It is widely documented that hybridisation occurs between many closely related species, but the importance of introgression in adaptive evolution remains unclear, especially in animals. Here, we have examined the role of introgressive hybridisation in transferring adaptations between mimetic Heliconius butterflies, taking advantage of the recent identification of a gene regulating red wing patterns in this genus. By sequencing regions both linked and unlinked to the red colour locus, we found a region that displays an almost perfect genotype by phenotype association across four species, H. melpomene, H. cydno, H. timareta, and H. heurippa. This particular segment is located 70 kb downstream of the red colour specification gene optix, and coalescent analysis indicates repeated introgression of adaptive alleles from H. melpomene into the H. cydno species clade. Our analytical methods complement recent genome scale data for the same region and suggest adaptive introgression has a crucial role in generating adaptive wing colour diversity in this group of butterflies.

  14. Polyphenol-Rich Diets Exacerbate AMPK-Mediated Autophagy, Decreasing Proliferation of Mosquito Midgut Microbiota, and Extending Vector Lifespan.

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    Rodrigo Dutra Nunes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols.Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK positively regulated midgut autophagy leading to a decrease in bacterial proliferation and an increase in vector lifespan. Suppression of AMPK activity resulted in a 6-fold increase in midgut microbiota. Similarly, inhibition of polyphenol-induced autophagy induced an 8-fold increase in bacterial proliferation. Mosquitoes maintained on the polyphenol diet were readily infected by dengue virus.The present findings uncover a new direct route by which exacerbation of autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway leads to a more efficient control of mosquito midgut microbiota and increases the average mosquito lifespan. Our results suggest for the first time that the polyphenol content and availability of the surrounding vegetation may increase the population of mosquitoes prone to infection with arboviruses.

  15. Induction of Manduca sexta Larvae Caspases Expression in Midgut Cells by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Porta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis produces crystal toxins known as Cry that are highly selective against important agricultural and human health-related insect pests. Cry proteins are pore-forming toxins that interact with specific receptors in the midgut cell membrane of susceptible larvae making pores that cause osmotic shock, leading finally to insect death. In the case of pore-forming toxins that are specific to mammalian cells, death responses at low doses may induce apoptosis or pyroptosis, depending on the cell type. The death mechanism induced by Cry toxins in insect midgut cells is poorly understood. Here, we analyze the caspases expression by RT-PCR analysis, showing that the initial response of Manduca sexta midgut cells after low dose of Cry1Ab toxin administration involves a fast and transient accumulation of caspase-1 mRNA, suggesting that pyroptosis was activated by Cry1Ab toxin as an initial response but was repressed later. In contrast, caspase-3 mRNA requires a longer period of time of toxin exposure to be activated but presents a sustained activation, suggesting that apoptosis may be a cell death mechanism induced also at low dose of toxin.

  16. The effect of starvation and re-feeding on mitochondrial potential in the midgut of Neocaridina davidi (Crustacea, Malacostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Sonakowska, Lidia; Kamińska, Karolina; Marchewka, Angelika; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Student, Sebastian; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The midgut in the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi (previously named N. heteropoda) (Crustacea, Malacostraca) is composed of a tube-shaped intestine and a large hepatopancreas that is formed by numerous blind-ended tubules. The precise structure and ultrastructure of these regions were presented in our previous papers, while here we focused on the ultrastructural changes that occurred in the midgut epithelial cells (D-cells in the intestine, B- and F- cells in the hepatopancreas) after long-term starvation and re-feeding. We used transmission electron microscopy, light and confocal microscopes and flow cytometry to describe all of the changes that occurred due to the stressor with special emphasis on mitochondrial alterations. A quantitative assessment of cells with depolarized mitochondria helped us to establish whether there is a relationship between starvation, re-feeding and the inactivation/activation of mitochondria. The results of our studies showed that in the freshwater shrimp N. davidi that were analyzed, long-term starvation activates the degeneration of epithelial cells at the ultrastructural level and causes an increase of cells with depolarized (non-active) mitochondria. The process of re-feeding leads to the gradual regeneration of the cytoplasm of the midgut epithelial cells; however, these changes were observed at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, re-feeding causes the regeneration of mitochondrial ultrastructure. Therefore, we can state that the increase in the number of cells with polarized mitochondria occurs slowly and does not depend on ultrastructural alterations.

  17. The effect of starvation and re-feeding on mitochondrial potential in the midgut of Neocaridina davidi (Crustacea, Malacostraca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Włodarczyk

    Full Text Available The midgut in the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi (previously named N. heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca is composed of a tube-shaped intestine and a large hepatopancreas that is formed by numerous blind-ended tubules. The precise structure and ultrastructure of these regions were presented in our previous papers, while here we focused on the ultrastructural changes that occurred in the midgut epithelial cells (D-cells in the intestine, B- and F- cells in the hepatopancreas after long-term starvation and re-feeding. We used transmission electron microscopy, light and confocal microscopes and flow cytometry to describe all of the changes that occurred due to the stressor with special emphasis on mitochondrial alterations. A quantitative assessment of cells with depolarized mitochondria helped us to establish whether there is a relationship between starvation, re-feeding and the inactivation/activation of mitochondria. The results of our studies showed that in the freshwater shrimp N. davidi that were analyzed, long-term starvation activates the degeneration of epithelial cells at the ultrastructural level and causes an increase of cells with depolarized (non-active mitochondria. The process of re-feeding leads to the gradual regeneration of the cytoplasm of the midgut epithelial cells; however, these changes were observed at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, re-feeding causes the regeneration of mitochondrial ultrastructure. Therefore, we can state that the increase in the number of cells with polarized mitochondria occurs slowly and does not depend on ultrastructural alterations.

  18. Differential Midgut Attachment of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in the Sand Flies Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Soares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between Leishmania and sand flies has been demonstrated in many Old and New World species. Besides the morphological differentiation from procyclic to infective metacyclic promastigotes, the parasite undergoes biochemical transformations in its major surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG. An upregulation of β-glucose residues was previously shown in the LPG repeat units from procyclic to metacyclic phase in Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, which has not been reported in any Leishmania species. LPG has been implicated as an adhesion molecule that mediates the interaction with the midgut epithelium of the sand fly in the Subgenus Leishmania. These adaptations were explored for the first time in a species from the Subgenus Viannia, L. (V. braziliensis with its natural vectors Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani. Using two in vitro binding techniques, phosphoglycans (PGs derived from procyclic and metacyclic parasites were able to bind to the insect midgut and inhibit L. braziliensis attachment. Interestingly, L. braziliensis procyclic parasite attachment was ∼11-fold greater in the midgut of L. whitmani than in L. intermedia. The epidemiological relevance of L. whitmani as a vector of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in Brazil is discussed.

  19. Polyphenol-Rich Diets Exacerbate AMPK-Mediated Autophagy, Decreasing Proliferation of Mosquito Midgut Microbiota, and Extending Vector Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Rodrigo Dutra; Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Moretti, Débora Monteiro; Medeiros-Castro, Priscilla; Rocha-Santos, Carlucio; Daumas-Filho, Carlos Renato de Oliveira; Bittencourt-Cunha, Paula Rego Barros; Martins-Cardoso, Karina; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Oliveira, José Henrique Maia; Gusmão, Desiely Silva; Alves Lemos, Francisco José; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad; Lowenberger, Carl; Majerowicz, David; Oliveira, Ricardo Melo; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Atella, Georgia Correa

    2016-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols. Results Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK positively regulated midgut autophagy leading to a decrease in bacterial proliferation and an increase in vector lifespan. Suppression of AMPK activity resulted in a 6-fold increase in midgut microbiota. Similarly, inhibition of polyphenol-induced autophagy induced an 8-fold increase in bacterial proliferation. Mosquitoes maintained on the polyphenol diet were readily infected by dengue virus. Conclusion The present findings uncover a new direct route by which exacerbation of autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway leads to a more efficient control of mosquito midgut microbiota and increases the average mosquito lifespan. Our results suggest for the first time that the polyphenol content and availability of the surrounding vegetation may increase the population of mosquitoes prone to infection with arboviruses. PMID:27732590

  20. Dynamics and regulation of glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid metabolism in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Luo, W; Fan, L F; Liu, F L; Gu, J; Deng, H M; Zhang, C; Huang, L H; Feng, Q L

    2016-04-01

    Significant changes usually take place in the internal metabolism of insects during metamorphosis. The glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid (glycolysis-TCA) pathway is important for energy metabolism. To elucidate its dynamics, the mRNA levels of genes involved in this pathway were examined in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis, and the pyruvate content was quantified. The expression patterns of these genes in response to starvation were examined, and the interaction between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was studied. The results revealed that the expression or activities of most glycolytic enzymes was down-regulated in prepupae and then recovered in some degree in pupae, and all TCA-related genes were remarkably suppressed in both the prepupae and pupae. Pyruvate was enriched in the pupal midgut. Taken together, these results suggest that insects decrease both glycolysis and TCA in prepupae to save energy and then up-regulate glycolysis but down-regulate TCA in pupae to increase the supply of intermediates for construction of new organs. The expression of all these genes were down-regulated by starvation, indicating that non-feeding during metamorphosis may be a regulator of glycolysis-TCA pathway in the midgut. Importantly, interaction between PP1 and PFK was identified and is suggested to be involved in the regulation of glycolysis. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. Tissue- and time-dependent transcription in Ixodes ricinus salivary glands and midguts when blood feeding on the vertebrate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Schwarz, Alexandra; Erhart, Jan; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a tick that transmits the pathogens of Lyme and several arboviral diseases. Pathogens invade the tick midgut, disseminate through the hemolymph, and are transmitted to the vertebrate host via the salivary glands; subverting these processes could be used to interrupt pathogen transfer. Here, we use massive de novo sequencing to characterize the transcriptional dynamics of the salivary and midgut tissues of nymphal and adult I. ricinus at various time points after attachment on the vertebrate host. Members of a number of gene families show stage- and time-specific expression. We hypothesize that gene expression switching may be under epigenetic control and, in support of this, identify 34 candidate proteins that modify histones. I. ricinus-secreted proteins are encoded by genes that have a non-synonymous to synonymous mutation rate even greater than immune-related genes. Midgut transcriptome (mialome) analysis reveals several enzymes associated with protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion, transporters and channels that might be associated with nutrient uptake, and immune-related transcripts including antimicrobial peptides. This publicly available dataset supports the identification of protein and gene targets for biochemical and physiological studies that exploit the transmission lifecycle of this disease vector for preventative and therapeutic purposes. PMID:25765539

  2. Vital staining of the stick insect digestive system identifies appendices of the midgut as novel system of excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomi, Matan; Kimsey, Lynn S

    2014-06-01

    The stick insects or phasmids (Phamsatodea) have a series of pyriform ampulles with long, thin filaments on the posterior end of their midgut referred to as the "appendices of the midgut." Found only in phasmids, their function had never been determined until now. Their similarity to the Malpighian tubules, which are ubiquitous insect organs of excretion, suggested a similar function. To differentiate between the appendices and the Malpighian tubules and compare functional differences between the two tissue types, vital staining (the injection of histological stains into living organisms) was done in conjunction with light and scanning electron microscopy in multiple phasmid species. The results showed that the appendices originated in the basal phasmids (Timematidae) and grew more numerous in derived species. The appendices stain selectively, notably failing to pick up the indicators of the two known systems of invertebrate excretory function, indigo carmine and ammonium carmine. Appendices sequester stains in the ampule portion before eliminating the compounds into the midgut. We conclude by confirming that the appendices do have an excretory function, but one unlike any other known in invertebrates. Their function is likely cation excretion, playing a role in calcium regulation and/or organic alkaloid sequestration. The appendices must thus be considered distinct organs from the Malpighian tubules. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Social benefits of ecotourism : the monarch butterfly reserve in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrubio Cordero, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez Muñoz, Gregoria; Mendoza Ontiveros, Martha Marivel

    2013-01-01

    Ecotourism can contribute to both positive and negative socioeconomic impacts at the local level. However, ecotourism’s socioeconomic impacts have received limited scholarly attention in the context of developing countries. Based on qualitative interviews and observations, this paper looks at the socioeconomic benefits of ecotourism in a local community in the Monarch Butterfly Reserve in Mexico. It was found that ecotourism replaced most of the economic activities in the lo...

  4. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect in Holographic Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Mike

    2016-08-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by Dc=C vB2/(2 π T ), where vB is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality C depends only on the scaling exponents of the infrared theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  5. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  6. Metapopulation Structure and Dynamics of an Endangered Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    J. Slansky, & J. G. Rodriguez (Eds.), Nutritional ecology of insects, mites, spiders , and related invertebrates (pp. 369–391). New York: John Wiley...structure and dynamics of an endangered butterfly Margaret S. Guineya,∗, David A. Andowb, Timothy T. Wilderc aDepartment of Conservation Biology , 200...Recovery plans for endangered invertebrates will improve with a better understanding of population dynamics and structure. Some spatially distributed

  7. Density estimates of monarch butterflies overwintering in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E. Thogmartin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapid population decline and recent petition for listing of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L. under the Endangered Species Act, an accurate estimate of the Eastern, migratory population size is needed. Because of difficulty in counting individual monarchs, the number of hectares occupied by monarchs in the overwintering area is commonly used as a proxy for population size, which is then multiplied by the density of individuals per hectare to estimate population size. There is, however, considerable variation in published estimates of overwintering density, ranging from 6.9–60.9 million ha−1. We develop a probability distribution for overwinter density of monarch butterflies from six published density estimates. The mean density among the mixture of the six published estimates was ∼27.9 million butterflies ha−1 (95% CI [2.4–80.7] million ha−1; the mixture distribution is approximately log-normal, and as such is better represented by the median (21.1 million butterflies ha−1. Based upon assumptions regarding the number of milkweed needed to support monarchs, the amount of milkweed (Asclepias spp. lost (0.86 billion stems in the northern US plus the amount of milkweed remaining (1.34 billion stems, we estimate >1.8 billion stems is needed to return monarchs to an average population size of 6 ha. Considerable uncertainty exists in this required amount of milkweed because of the considerable uncertainty occurring in overwinter density estimates. Nevertheless, the estimate is on the same order as other published estimates. The studies included in our synthesis differ substantially by year, location, method, and measures of precision. A better understanding of the factors influencing overwintering density across space and time would be valuable for increasing the precision of conservation recommendations.

  8. Butterflies of Kerala Agricultural University (KAU campus, Thrissur, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Aneesh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to understand the species richness of butterflies in the Kerala Agricultural University main campus. The area lies between 10032 -10033 N and 76016-76017 E and is located very close to the Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary. A total of 139 species in six families were recorded from the campus. Family Nymphalidae dominated with 44 species followed by Lycaenidae (35, Hesperiidae (34, Pieridae (13, Papilionidae (12 and Riodinidae (1

  9. Density estimates of monarch butterflies overwintering in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Oberhauser, Karen; Pleasants, John M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Semmens, Darius J.; Taylor, Orley R.; Wiederholt, Ruscena

    2017-01-01

    Given the rapid population decline and recent petition for listing of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) under the Endangered Species Act, an accurate estimate of the Eastern, migratory population size is needed. Because of difficulty in counting individual monarchs, the number of hectares occupied by monarchs in the overwintering area is commonly used as a proxy for population size, which is then multiplied by the density of individuals per hectare to estimate population size. There is, however, considerable variation in published estimates of overwintering density, ranging from 6.9–60.9 million ha−1. We develop a probability distribution for overwinter density of monarch butterflies from six published density estimates. The mean density among the mixture of the six published estimates was ∼27.9 million butterflies ha−1 (95% CI [2.4–80.7] million ha−1); the mixture distribution is approximately log-normal, and as such is better represented by the median (21.1 million butterflies ha−1). Based upon assumptions regarding the number of milkweed needed to support monarchs, the amount of milkweed (Asclepias spp.) lost (0.86 billion stems) in the northern US plus the amount of milkweed remaining (1.34 billion stems), we estimate >1.8 billion stems is needed to return monarchs to an average population size of 6 ha. Considerable uncertainty exists in this required amount of milkweed because of the considerable uncertainty occurring in overwinter density estimates. Nevertheless, the estimate is on the same order as other published estimates. The studies included in our synthesis differ substantially by year, location, method, and measures of precision. A better understanding of the factors influencing overwintering density across space and time would be valuable for increasing the precision of conservation recommendations.

  10. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  11. Large reorganizations in butterfly communities during an extreme weather event

    OpenAIRE

    De Palma, Adriana; Dennis, Roger L. H.; Brereton, Tom; Leather, Simon R.; Oliver, Tom H.

    2016-01-01

    Drought events are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude, which may alter the composition of ecological communities. Using a functional community metric that describes abundance, life history traits and conservation status, based upon Grime's CSR (Competitive – Stress tolerant – Ruderal) scheme, we investigated how British butterfly communities changed during an extreme drought in 1995. Throughout Britain, the total abundance of these insects had a significant tendency to increase,...

  12. Impact of Canopy Cover on Butterfly Abundance and Diversity in Intermediate Zone Forest of Sri Lanka

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    B.M.B Weerakoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify the influence of canopy cover on butterfly abundance in young secondary forest and regenerating forest at Maragamuwa area of Kumaragala forest reserve in Naula, Matale district of Sri Lanka. Line transect method was used to collect data. Hundred meter long five transects were established in each forest area. Butterfly abundance data were collected weekly for eight months from January to August 2014. Regenerating forest had low canopy cover (<50% than young secondary forest (20-90%. Total of 2,696 butterflies belonging to 87 species in six families were recorded. Some butterfly species were restricted to shady areas, but most butterflies were abundant in sunny areas. Butterflies in some families (Family Lycanidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae were abundant in sunny conditions and some families (Family Hesperiidae, Papilionidae abundant in shade. ANOVA was conducted to identify the variation of number of species (F=54.05, p<0.001 and among abundance (F=10.49, p<0.05 with the canopy cover. Species richness was high in moderate canopy cover (20±5%. Negative Pearson correlation coefficient stated butterfly abundance decreased with the canopy cover (r=-0.91 and species richness decreased with canopy cover (r=-0.85.Some butterflies were common in sunny areas and some species were confined to shady areas. However, most of the species were generally found throughout the area. Regenerating forest encountered more shrubs than in young secondary forest, which butterflies preferred to food on. Main findings of the study were that butterfly abundance was high in sunny areas and butterfly species richness was high in moderate shady areas.

  13. Changes in butterfly abundance in response to global warming and reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Sung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chun, Jung Hwa; Byun, Bong-Kyu; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Shin, Joon Hwan

    2010-04-01

    In the Republic of Korea, most denuded forest lands have been restored since the 1960s. In addition, the annual mean temperature in the Republic of Korea has increased approximately 1.0 degrees C during the last century, which is higher than the global mean increase of 0.74 degrees C. Such rapid environmental changes may have resulted in changes in the local butterfly fauna. For example, the number of butterflies inhabiting forests may have increased because of reforestation, whereas the number of butterflies inhabiting grasslands may have declined. Furthermore, the number of northern butterflies may have declined, whereas the number of southern butterflies may have increased in response to global warming. Therefore, we compared current data (2002 approximately 2007) regarding the abundance of butterfly species at two sites in the central portion of the Korean Peninsula to data from the late 1950s and early 1970s for the same sites. Changes in the abundance rank of each species between the two periods were evaluated to determine whether any patterns corresponded to the predicted temporal changes. The predicted changes in butterfly abundance were confirmed in this study. In addition, the results showed a different response to habitat change between northern and southern species. In northern butterfly species, butterflies inhabiting forests increased, whereas those inhabiting grasslands declined. However, the opposite was true when southern butterfly species were evaluated. Changes in the abundance indicate that habitat change may be one of the key factors related to the survival of populations that remain around the southern boundary of butterfly species.

  14. Neuroethology of ultrasonic hearing in nocturnal butterflies (Hedyloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Jayne E; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2007-06-01

    Nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies possess ultrasound-sensitive ears that mediate evasive flight maneuvers. Tympanal ear morphology, auditory physiology and behavioural responses to ultrasound are described for Macrosoma heliconiaria, and evidence for hearing is described for eight other hedylid species. The ear is formed by modifications of the cubital and subcostal veins at the forewing base, where the thin (1-3 microm), ovoid (520 x 220 microm) tympanal membrane occurs in a cavity. The ear is innervated by nerve IIN1c, with three chordotonal organs attaching to separate regions of the tympanal membrane. Extracellular recordings from IIN1c reveal sensory responses to ultrasonic (>20 kHz), but not low frequency (Hearing is broadly tuned to frequencies between 40 and 80 kHz, with best thresholds around 60 dB SPL. Free flying butterflies exposed to ultrasound exhibit a variety of evasive maneuvers, characterized by sudden and unpredictable changes in direction, increased velocity, and durations of approximately 500 ms. Hedylid hearing is compared to that of several other insects that have independently evolved ears for the same purpose-bat detection. Hedylid hearing may also represent an interesting example of evolutionary divergence, since we demonstrate that the ears are homologous to low frequency ears in some diurnal Nymphalidae butterflies.

  15. Cavitation detection of butterfly valve using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Suk; Hwang, Won-Woo; Ko, Myung-Han; Lee, Soo-Jong

    2005-10-01

    Butterfly valves are popularly used in service in the industrial and water works pipeline systems with large diameter because of its lightweight, simple structure and the rapidity of its manipulation. Sometimes cavitation can occur, resulting in noise, vibration and rapid deterioration of the valve trim, and do not allow further operation. Thus, monitoring of cavitation is of economic interest and is very important in industry. This paper proposes a condition monitoring scheme using statistical feature evaluation and support vector machine (SVM) to detect the cavitation conditions of butterfly valve which used as a flow control valve at the pumping stations. The stationary features of vibration signals are extracted from statistical moments. The SVMs are trained, and then classify normal and cavitation conditions of control valves. The SVMs with the reorganized feature vectors can distinguish the class of the untrained and untested data. The classification validity of this method is examined by various signals acquired from butterfly valves in the pumping stations. And the classification success rate is compared with that of self-organizing feature map neural network (SOFM).

  16. Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manela, Ofer; Segev, Mordechai [Department of Physics and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Christodoulides, Demetrios N [College of Optics/CREOL, University of Central Florida, FL 32816-2700 (United States); Kip, Detlef, E-mail: msegev@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Helmut Schmidt University, 22043 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

  17. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Butterfly Species Richness in Selected West Albertine Rift Forests

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    Patrice Kasangaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly species richness of 17 forests located in the western arm of the Albertine Rift in Uganda was compared using cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA to assess similarities among the forests. The objective was to compare the butterfly species richness of the forests. A total of 630 butterfly species were collected in 5 main families. The different species fell into 7 ecological groupings with the closed forest group having the most species and the swamp/wetland group with the fewest number of species. Three clusters were obtained. The first cluster had forests characterized by relatively high altitude and low species richness despite the big area in the case of Rwenzori and being close to the supposed Pleistocene refugium. The second cluster had forests far away from the supposed refugium except Kisangi and moderate species richness with small areas, whereas the third cluster had those forests that were more disturbed, high species richness, and low altitudinal levels with big areas.

  19. Investigations and Mimicry of the Optical Properties of Butterfly Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Christopher J.; Gaillot, Davy P.; Crne, Matija; Blair, John; Park, Jung O.; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Deparis, Olivier; Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    Structural color in Nature has been observed in plants, insects and birds, and has led to a strong interest in these phenomena and a desire to understand the mechanisms responsible. Of particular interest are the optical properties of butterflies. In this paper, we review three investigations inspired by the unique optical properties exhibited in a variety of butterfly wings. In the first investigation, conformal atomic layer depositions (ALDs) were used to exploit biologically defined 2D photonic crystal (PC) templates of Papilio blumei with the purpose of increasing the understanding of the optical effects of naturally formed dielectric architectures, and of exploring any novel optical effects. In the second study, it was demonstrated that faithful mimicry of Papilio palinurus can be achieved by physical fabrication methods through using breath figures to provide templates and ALD routines to enable optical properties. Finally, knowledge of the optical structure properties of the Princeps nireus butterfly has resulted in bioinspired designs to enhanced scintillator designs for radiation detection.

  20. Rhabdom evolution in butterflies: insights from the uniquely tiered and heterogeneous ommatidia of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Atsuko; Awata, Hiroko; Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Takemura, Shin-ya; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The eye of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis, a ‘living fossil’ species of the family Papilionidae, contains three types of spectrally heterogeneous ommatidia. Electron microscopy reveals that the Apollo rhabdom is tiered. The distal tier is composed exclusively of photoreceptors expressing opsins of ultraviolet or blue-absorbing visual pigments, and the proximal tier consists of photoreceptors expressing opsins of green or red-absorbing visual pigments. This organization is unique because the distal tier of other known butterflies contains two green-sensitive photoreceptors, which probably function in improving spatial and/or motion vision. Interspecific comparison suggests that the Apollo rhabdom retains an ancestral tiered pattern with some modification to enhance its colour vision towards the long-wavelength region of the spectrum. PMID:22628477