WorldWideScience

Sample records for butter

  1. butter fingers和a butter ball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文成

    2000-01-01

    butter(黄油)fingers(手指), 是用手指来抠黄油吃?不是的。要是一个人的手指上沾了黄油,那他的手指就一定是很油腻、很滑,很难拿得住手里的东西。因此butter fingers是指那些笨手笨脚的人。例如,一个非常恼火的爸爸在谈论他的儿子: John is a rocket scientist and is supposed to be smart, but you are to see what a butter finger he is all around the house. For instance, if I asked him to wash the dishes he's sure to drop a dish or a cup. 约翰是个研究火箭的科学家,应该是很聪明的,可是你看看他在家里那笨手笨脚的样子。比如说,要是我让他洗盘子,他肯定会摔破一个盘子或摔破一个杯子。 butter ball(球),字面意思是一个黄油做成的球,但作为习惯用语它指很胖的人就象一个球一样。例如: Laura has a very beautiful face, but the way she keeps...

  2. CONSUMPTION OF REDUCED-FAT PEANUT BUTTER IN ADDITION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF REGULAR PEANUT BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    He, Senhui; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    A set of factors has been identified to affect consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter in addition to regular peanut butter. We found that consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter, which is an imperfect substitute for regular peanut butter, may expand total demand for peanut butter. Interestingly, for those who usually buy the same brand of peanut butter, their consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter is more likely in addition to consumption of regular peanut butter, implying promotion of a...

  3. DYNAMIC EFFECTS OF PEANUT BUTTER ADVERTISING ON PEANUT BUTTER DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Deodhar, Satish Y.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    1998-01-01

    Using error correction approach and nonlinear three-stage-squares, long-run and short-run effects of aggregate brand advertising on the U.S demand for peanut butter are estimated. Results indicate that demand for peanut butter is more responsive to advertising in the long-run. Moreover, demand is responsive to price only in the short-run.

  4. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  5. Butter, margarine and serum lipoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids unfavorably affects blood lipoproteins. As margarines are a major source of trans, claims for the advantages of margarines over butter need to be scrutinized. Here we review dietary trials that directly compared the effects of butter and margarine on blood lipids. We iden

  6. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.466 Almond butter. Almond butter as used in § 981.66(c) is hereby... produce chunky style almond butter, almond chunks or pieces may be added up to a maximum of 25 percent...

  7. 7 CFR 58.346 - Whipped butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whipped butter. 58.346 Section 58.346 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.346 Whipped butter. (a) The quality requirements for whipped butter shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Whipped Butter for U.S....

  8. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and... § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut butter is the food prepared by grinding one of the shelled and... preservatives, and color additives are not suitable ingredients in peanut butter. Oil products used as...

  9. 7 CFR 58.345 - Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter. 58.345 Section 58.345 Agriculture Regulations... Official Identification § 58.345 Butter. The quality requirements for butter shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Butter for U.S. Grade AA, U.S. Grade A, or U.S. Grade B,...

  10. Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

  11. Microbiological quality of karin butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokce, R.; Aslanalp, Y.; Nur Herken, E.

    2010-07-01

    Karin butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karin), is a traditional butter type. Karin used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karin butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were evaluated with respect to the legal stipulations of Turkey and other scientific studies related to the subject. The microbiological quality of karin butter samples was found to be poor in general. (Author)

  12. Microbiological quality of karın butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazan GÖKÇE; Aslanalp, Yeşim; Nur Herken, Emine

    2010-01-01

    Karın butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karın), is a traditional butter type. Karın used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karın butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were eval...

  13. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  14. Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

  15. Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

    2014-11-26

    The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (α and β') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (β) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents. PMID:25363450

  16. Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

    2014-11-26

    The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (α and β') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (β) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents.

  17. Has Butter Gotten a Bad Rap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for those who love the spread, but some nutritionists remain wary To use the sharing features on ... disease for people who favored the spread. One nutritionist said her views on butter remain unchanged, however. " ...

  18. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  19. Keeping the quality of cows’ butter by γ-irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rady, A. H.; Badr, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows’ butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter wa...

  20. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and...

  1. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  2. Effect of Churning Process on Heavy Metals in Cream, Butter and Butter Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz Aminzadeh Vahedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are appropriate source of fat, protein and minerals for human, thus it is important to control the level of toxic elements in these products. The aim of this research was investigation about existence of some elements (lead, Cadmium, Copper and iron in different types of samples including pasteurized and local cream, butter, and butter milk. The amount of elements was determined using flame atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The butter milk was evaluated as the most contaminated products, significantly (p<0.05. By passing time, concentration of heavy metals was increased even higher than Maximum residue levels (MRLS. Results show that elements have more tendencies toward serum phase.

  3. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CULTURED BUTTER DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Мусій, Л. Я.; Цісарик, О. Й.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the stability of the cultured butter to oxidation during storage. Starter composition DVS (Chr. Hansen, Denmark) Flora Danica (FD) and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (La-5) were used for fermenting cream. Four groups cultured butter were produced : Group I (samples KW1, KW2, KW3 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - fermentation at 30 ºC; Group II (KW4, KW5, KW6 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - fermentation at 37 ºC; Group III (KW7, KW8, KW9 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) – physi...

  4. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道庚

    2007-01-01

    @@ letter作"信"讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter,业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation 等等.还有一种信是a bread-and-butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread-and-butter letter就是"黄油面包信"吧?非也.

  5. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道庚

    2007-01-01

    letter作“信”讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter。业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation等等。还有一种信是a bread—and—butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread—and—butter leuer就是“黄油面包信”吧?非也。

  6. The effect of butter grains on physical properties of butter-like emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Buldo, Patrizia; Mortensen, Kell; Andersen, Ulf; Knudsen, Jes C; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat exists as globules in its natural state in milk. The potential of using globular fat to modulate the rheological properties and crystallization behavior in butter-like emulsions was studied in the present work. We conducted a comparative study of butter-like emulsions, with a fat phase consisting of 0, 10, 25, 50, or 100% anhydrous milk fat (AMF), the remaining fat being butter grains, and all samples containing 20% water, to obtain systematic variation in the ratio of globular fat. All emulsions were studied over 4wk of storage at 5°C. By combining small and large deformation rheology, we conducted a detailed characterization of the rheological behavior of butter-like emulsions. We applied differential scanning calorimetry to monitor thermal behavior, confocal laser scanning microscopy for microstructural analysis, and low-field pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry to measure solid fat content. By combining these techniques, we determined that increasing the fraction of globular fat (by mixing with butter grains) decreases the hardness of butter-like emulsions up to an order of magnitude at d 1. However, no difference was observed in thermal behavior as a function of butter grain content, as all emulsions containing butter grains revealed 2 endothermal peaks corresponding to the high (32.7°C ± 0.6) and medium (14.6°C ± 0.1) melting fractions of fatty acids. In terms of microstructure, decreasing the amount of butter grains in the emulsions resulted in formation of a denser fat crystal network, corresponding to increased hardness. Moreover, microstructural analysis revealed that the presence of butter grains resulted in faster formation of a continuous fat crystal network compared with the 100% AMF sample, which was dominated by crystal clusters surrounded by liquid oil. During storage, hardness remained stable and no changes in thermal behavior were observed, despite an increase in solid fat content of up to 5%. After 28d of storage, we

  7. Lipid metabolism in rats fed either butter or butter products as the fat source

    OpenAIRE

    Lalib, S.; Sitohy, M.; El-Massry, R.; El-Saadany, S.

    1991-01-01

    Albino rats were administered four different fat sources; corn oil, butter, samn and morta combined with corn oil. The butter rat group exhibited the highest rates of serum cholesterol, total lipids and triglycerides but the lowest one of phospholipid. The heart, liver and spleen organs of this group showed a similar trend. Both liver and renal functions of this group were impaired. Both samn and morta rat groups were close to the control in the distribution of lipid fractions either in serum...

  8. Expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Schouten, N.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature (40–110 °C), applied mechanical pressure (20–80 MPa), applied pressure profile (constant/linearly increasing) and moisture content (0–8 wt.%, wet basis) on the expression of cocoa nibs were investigated. The maximum cocoa butter yield is achieved at 100 °C. The optimum mois

  9. Preliminary Discrimination of Butter Adulteration by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Cuibus; Rubén Maggio; Vlad Mureșan; Zorița Diaconeasa; Oana Lelia Pop; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    The Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)  was applied for the discrimination of butter samples adulterated with solid fraction of palm oil. For FTIR fingerprinting of butter samples, with or without controlled additions of palm oil as adulterant was firstly obtained, using a Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, including a horizontal diamond ATR accessory with reflection in the MIR region (3873-690) cm-1.The spiked butter samples including 0 level...

  10. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A; Marriott, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity. PMID:27555345

  11. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A; Marriott, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  12. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  13. Microbiological quality of karın butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe, Ramazan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Karın butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karın, is a traditional butter type. Karın used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karın butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were evaluated with respect to the legal stipulations of Turkey and other scientific studies related to the subject. The microbiological quality of karın butter samples was found to be poor in general.

    La mantequilla Karin, que se caracteriza por ser envasada en el rumen (karin de oveja o cabra, es un tipo de mantequilla tradicional. El karin, usado como un material de envasado en la produción de la mantequilla, es un importante factor para que la mantequilla sea mas aromática y deliciosa. En este estudio, muestras de mantequilla karin, que se recogieron del mercado local y de las factorias de producción, fueron investigadas con respectos las bacteria mesófilas aeróbicas, bacterias coliforme, Staphilococcus aureus y mohos- levaduras. Los resultados fueron evaluados con respecto a los acuerdos legales de Turquía y otros estudios científicos relacionados con el tema. La calidad microbiológica de las muestras de mantequilla karin fue encontrada pobre en general.

  14. Butter Sculptures:Art to Melt the Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAJIANQING

    2004-01-01

    Butter sculptures originated in the Tar Monastery in Qinghai Province. They form a kind of carving art, but the material used is butter mixed with mineral colors. The Tibetans think those who pay sacrifices to Buddha and Buddhist guardians will enjoy peace and happiness.

  15. Chem I Supplement. Butter and Margarine: Their Chemistry, Their Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William R.; McGill, Diana Combs

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the differences between margarine and butter, focusing on the chemical differences. Provides a brief historical overview of the development of both commodities. Describes the manufacture of butter and of margarine, and details the differences in chemical composition and nutritive contents. (TW)

  16. Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Genis, Hüseyin Efe; Tamer, Ugur

    2013-12-15

    In this study, adulteration of butter with margarine was analysed using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS)) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Different butter and margarine samples were mixed at various concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% w/w. PCA analysis was applied for the classification of butters, margarines and mixtures. PCR, PLS and ANN were used for the detection of adulteration ratios of butter. Models were created using a calibration data set and developed models were evaluated using a validation data set. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values between actual and predicted values obtained for PCR, PLS and ANN for the validation data set were 0.968, 0.987 and 0.978, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics and ANN methods can be applied for testing butter adulteration.

  17. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  18. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (Pbutter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property.

  19. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2015-03-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an OFC for heated milk can consume butter. The milk-specific IgE value indicative of a negative predictive value of over 95% was 17.8 kUA/L, and patients with low milk-specific IgE values may be able to safely consume butter. Including butter in the diets of patients with milk-allergy after a butter challenge may improve quality of life.

  20. Preliminary Discrimination of Butter Adulteration by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR  was applied for the discrimination of butter samples adulterated with solid fraction of palm oil. For FTIR fingerprinting of butter samples, with or without controlled additions of palm oil as adulterant was firstly obtained, using a Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, including a horizontal diamond ATR accessory with reflection in the MIR region (3873-690 cm-1.The spiked butter samples including 0 level and seven increasing concentrations of palm fats, up to 50% were fingerprinted and the calibration curve was obtained (n=19. In parallel, the validation was realized using different set of spiked butter samples ranging 1-44.4 % of palm fat (n=7. Finally, an independent set of commercial samples was analized (n=14.Partial least squares (PLS model was used for statistical data processing in accordance with standard method. The value of the correlation coefficient (R2= 0.977 between actual and predicted values was statistically significant (p<0.001, considering the superposition of  "actual vs predicted” curves. This combined FTIR-PLS evaluation revealed that 3 out of  samples of butter were suspected of adulteration with palm oil, presented values 14 ranging 4-12%.In conclusion, ATR-FTIR methodology may offer an rapid evaluation of  butter samples authenticity. The low value for detection limit (3%palm oil in butter and the low limit of quantification (9.8% palm oil in butter confirms that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy  is a sensitive method to identify the adulteration of butter with  palm oil.   

  1. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.;

    2004-01-01

    and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further....

  2. Chemische Zusammensetzung und sensorisches Profil von UFA/CLA angereicherter Butter im Vergleich zu konventioneller Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, S.; Piccinali, P.; Rehberger, B.; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, there has been a growing demand by consumers for foods combining an increased nutritional value and benefits on human health. Butter enriched in unsaturated fatty acids/conjugated linoleic acids (UFA/CLA) could become a food with added value for its increased content in essential fatty acids, in vitamins and CLA, which has been reported to show potential anticarcinogenic and cholesterol lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composit...

  3. Occurrence and spatial distribution of pesticide residues in butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate, and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter (n = 55) and ghee (n = 56) samples collected from three different regions of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both selective ion monitoring (SIM) and scan mode. Results indicated the presence of hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p' DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee. Residues of HCH were detected in 25 and 23% samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of p,p' DDE were recorded in 29 and 25% of butter and ghee samples, respectively. None of the butter and ghee sample violated the MRL values of 200 ng g(-1) for HCH and 1250 ng g(-1) for dichorodiphenyl tricholorethane (DDT). The presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos were observed in a few butter and ghee samples at traces. The spatial variation for comparative occurrence of pesticide residues indicated higher levels in the south-western region of Punjab. Additionally, the temporal variation indicated the significant reduction of HCH and DDT levels in butter and ghee in Punjab.

  4. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  5. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Bilandžić; Marija Sedak; Maja Đokić; Đurđica Božić; Božica Solomun Kolanović; Ivana Varenina

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg): Al 0.01-3.93, Co

  6. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  7. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  8. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (Pproduct softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property. PMID:26868544

  9. Short communication: Macrocyclic lactone residues in butter from Brazilian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are commonly used in drug formulations for the treatment of parasites in cattle. In Brazil, except for drugs (or formulations) with long-term (half-life) effects, ML are registered for use in bovines. Indiscriminate use of ML may result in the presence of residues in milk and dairy products due to their lipophilic properties and thermal stability. This study applied a method of liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, recently developed and validated for the determination of residues of abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin in butter. The method was applied to 38 samples of commercial butter purchased in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between June and September 2013, analyzed in triplicate. Ivermectin was detected in 89.5% of the samples, with concentrations between 0.3 and 119.4 µg/kg; 76.3% of the samples contained doramectin (0.6 to 64.7 µg/kg) and 55.2% contained abamectin (0.7 to 4.5 µg/kg). Most butter samples (76.3%) contained residues of more than 1 ML; however, no residues of moxidectin were detected. The results showed a high incidence of the presence of avermectins in butter samples. Butter is not included in the Brazilian National Plan for Control of Residues and Contaminants in Animal Products. As ML residues concentrate in lipophilic compounds, butter and other fatty dairy products should be screened for the presence of ML residues.

  10. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  11. Quality of traditionally processed shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels and shea butter

    OpenAIRE

    Honfo, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The shea tree is an endogenous and multipurpose tree from the Savanah zone of Africa, mostly used for its fruits and the fat extracted from its kernels, commonly known as shea butter. The butter is used for cooking and medicinal purposes by local populations, and in cosmetic products as well as a cocoa butter substitute in chocolate in others areas of Africa and at the international level. The butter is generally extracted by traditional methods, which vary throughout the production...

  12. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of shea butter sold on Benin markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Hell, K.; Akissoe, N.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.

    2012-01-01

    Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter colle

  13. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  14. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum,...

  15. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67....67 Use of nutrient content claims for butter. (a) Claims may be made to characterize the level of nutrients, including fat, in butter if: (1) The claim complies with the requirements of § 101.13 and...

  16. 40 CFR 405.40 - Applicability; description of the butter subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... butter subcategory. 405.40 Section 405.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory § 405.40 Applicability; description of the butter subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. Letter to the Editor re: Bittman's "Butter is Back"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Bittman suggests that “Butter Is Back” (column, March 26) based on one highly controversial meta-analysis. There are a number of ways to summarize the available scientific data. The links? Conclusions of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, released last fall, ...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from palm oil.” The common or usual name for the triglyceride 1-3-distearoyl-2-olein is “cocoa butter substitute primarily from high-oleic safflower or sunflower oil.” (1) The ingredient 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3... 1,2,3-triglycerides (derived from high-oleic safflower or sunflower oil) with ethyl stearate...

  19. Seuss's Butter Battle Book: Is There Hidden Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in Seuss's…

  20. "The Butter Battle Book": Engaging Children's Thoughts of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how "The Butter Battle Book" by Dr. Seuss can be used to introduce the moral issue of war to young children. Studies the written responses of 1,187 children in grades kindergarten to 6 to the story. Notes that only the fourth- through sixth-grade students (who felt themselves beyond Dr. Seuss) understood the allegorical nature of the…

  1. DOES THE REDUCTION IN PEANUT PRICES BENEFIT PEANUT BUTTER CONSUMERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Nadolnyak, Denis A.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2004-01-01

    Using monthly data, we find evidence of both short- and long-run asymmetry of price transmission from peanut to peanut butter prices. This suggests that the asymmetry is more likely a result of imperfect competition than of competitive profit maximizing inventory management. Effects of producer support policy changes are discussed.

  2. Production of Biodiesel from Shea Butter Oil using Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude EJEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the production of biodiesel from shea butter oil using homogenous catalyst was carried out. The properties of the oil obtained were first determined, having an FFA value of 2.279 amongst other properties. Thus, the direct base-catalysis method was used, with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. In a 1 hour batch run, biodiesel was produced with a conversion of 92%, FAME content of 97.1%, cetane number of 46.84 and kinematic viscosity of 4.30mm2/s, conforming to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 international standards. As such, it was established that shea butter biodiesel could be produced by the direct base catalysis, over a shorter time with low cost chemicals.

  3. Tropical vegetable fats and butters: properties and new alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Salas Joaquín

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical fats and butters are characterized by their high contents of saturated fatty acids, which confer to them melting points and rheological properties adequate for the production of high valuable food commodities. We can distinguish 3 groups of tropical fats: those having medium chain fatty acids, like coconut or palm kernel oils, those rich in palmitic acid, like palm oil and its fractions, and those rich in stearic acid like cocoa butter. Modern biotechnology has provided with alternatives to these species in engineered common oil crops enriched in saturated fatty acids and processes aimed to enrich common oils in disaturated TAGs by enzymatic transesterification. The present and future of these new sources of saturated fats are discussed in this work.

  4. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing.

  5. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg: Al 0.01-3.93, Co<0.005, Cr 0.005-1.66, Li 0.008-0.056, Mn 0.068-5.37, Mo 0.003-0.225, Ni 0.01-0.163 and Sr 0.085-3.49. There were significant differences considering the concentrations of Mn, Cr and Al (p<0.01, all among the analysed dairy products. There were no significant differences in Sr, Mo, Ni and Li levels among products. The highest levels were found in following products (mg/kg: 4.23 Mn in semi-hard fat cheese, 2.43 Sr in cream cheese, 0.18 Mo in cream, 0.14 Ni and 0.028 Li in melted cheese, 1.13 Cr and 3.87 Al in butter. The trace element con¬centrations measured in cheeses and butter varied compared to the literature data. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn and Mo found in cheeses and Mn and Ni in butter were in line with contents reported in other countries. These results may demonstrate differences in production processes between countries. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs calculated for Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni in cheeses showed a low contribution (0.59-3.38 % to the reference values for the permitted daily exposure (PDE for these elements. However, the high contribution of Al concentrations (56 and 124 % to PTWI (provisional maximum tolerable daily intake calculated in fresh and melted cheese may pose a health risk to consumers.

  6. 健康食品花生酱%All Peanut Butters Healthy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Processed or Fresh, Peanut Butter Is Good Food无论是加工过还是新鲜的,花生酱都是好东西. Store-bought peanut butter is as good tor you as the fresh-ground-in-the-health-food-store variety, a study shows. That any kind of peanut butter is healthy seems too good to be true. But the lowly peanut is packed full of healthy oils and vitamin E.

  7. RESEARCH CONCERNING INSTALATION OF ALTERATIVE PROCESSES IN COW AND BUFFALO BUTTER DURING FREEZING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lup Dragomir; Flavia Pop

    2009-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and freshness indicators of cow and buffalo butter during freezing (-15 ... -18oC) storage were studied. Changes in freshness parameters and alterative processes installation, when butter becomes improperly for consumption were studied, inducing acidity, peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) andthe presence of epyhidrinic aldehyde. There was an increase of titrable acidity during storage, cow butter hydrolysis was installed after 35 days and after 30 days for ...

  8. Contemporary carbon content of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, T; Ondov, J M; Buchholz, B A; VanDerveer, M C

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of naturally produced bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous plasticizer known to contaminate packaged foods, was determined for each of five 1.10 kg samples of unsalted market butter by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After extraction and concentration enrichment with liquid-liquid extraction, flash column chromatography, and preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography, each sample provided ≈ 250 μg extracts of DEHP with carbon purity ranging from 92.5 ± 1.2% (n = 3, 1σ) to 97.1 ± 0.8% (n = 3, 1σ) as measured with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After corrections for method blank DEHP, co-eluting compounds, and unidentified carbon, the mean fraction of naturally produced DEHP in butter was determined to be 0.16 ± 0.12 (n = 5, 1σ). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the contemporary fraction of DEHP isolated from market butter in the U.S.

  9. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzlillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Rohman, Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2013-01-01

    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.

  10. Nutritional Composition of Shea Products and Chemical Properties of Shea Butter: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Akissoe, N.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand of shea products (kernels and butter) has led to the assessment of the state-of-the-art of these products. In this review, attention has been focused on macronutrients and micronutrients of pulp, kernels, and butter of shea tree and also the physicochemical properties of shea butte

  11. Contamination with Escherichia coli of fresh butter produced by cow’s milk in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENVER BAJRAMI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Processing of milk may produce undesirable effects and some microorganisms produce food infections carrying the pathogens that will increase the likelihood of infection of the consumer`s food. Contamination of milk and milk products is largely due to human factor and unhygienic conditions. Fresh butter is usually contaminated with different kinds and levels of pathogens. In Kosovo fresh butter is produced in home conditions and sometimes in not appropriate hygienic conditions. Sixty two butter samples were randomly collected from different localities of Kosovo for the isolation of E. coli a notorious contaminant. All the samples were inoculated on different bacteriological media and a number of biochemical tests were performed for the confirmation of the isolates. The results revealed that out of 62 fresh samples 22, 5% (16/62 showed growth of E. coli. The highest number of butter samples contaminated with E. coli is recorded from butter samples obtained from vending shops and houses. Among the 16 butter samples showed growth of E. coli the highest rate of contamination was found in butter samples collected in Ferizaj region. 5 butter samples collected in Ferizaj or 8% showed the values of E. coli from 10cfu/g to 100cfu/g

  12. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prattala, R. S.; Groth, Margit Velsing; Oltersdorf, U. S.;

    2003-01-01

    ,of cheese and butter (animal fat) for each study. FAO's food balance sheets were used to classify the countries according to consumption trends of these foodstuffs. Results: In all countries higher social classes used more cheese than lower classes. The results for butter were less consistent. In the Nordic...

  13. Effect of storage conditions on microbiological and physicochemical quality of shea butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honfo, Fernande; Hell, Kerstin; Akissoé, Noël; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Fandohan, Pascal; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Storage conditions are key constraints for quality assurance of the shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) butter. In the Sudan savannah Africa, storage conditions of butter produced by women vary across and among processors, traders and consumers. These conditions could impact the quality of the products and reduced their access to international market. The present study attempted to investigate the effect of storage duration and packaging materials on microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of shea butter under tropical climatic conditions. Five packaging materials traditionally used in shea butter value chain were tested for their efficacy in storing shea butter freshly produced. Total germs, yeasts and mould varied with packaging materials and storage duration. After 2 months of storage, moisture content of butter remained constant (5%) whereas acid value increased from 3.3 to 5.4 mg KOH/g, peroxide value from 8.1 to 10.1 meq O2/kg and iodine value dropped from 48.8 to 46.2 mg I2/100 g in shea butter irrespectively to the storage materials used. The basket papered with jute bag was the less effective in ensuring the quality of butter during storage while plastic containers and plastic bags seemed to be the best packaging materials. PMID:23572746

  14. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of the finished product. Microwave power (160, 500, and 850 W, microwave exposure time (2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 min, and size levels (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mm were tested for their effects on the yield of the mechanically extracted crude butter in wet basis percentage. The optimization procedures resulted to optimum pretreatment conditions of 160 W, 4.25 min, and 1.5 mm. Size level was the most significant factor in the crude butter yield. Sensory evaluation of the crude butter extracted at optimum pretreatment conditions through acceptance test by a test panel resulted to below neutral scores in visual appearance and odor, and above neutral score in texture, indicating the potential of mango butter as a good substitute to cocoa butter in cosmetic products.

  15. Verification of the geographical origin of European butters using PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macatelli, M.; Akkermans, W.; Koot, A.H.; Buchgraber, M.; Paterson, A.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in combination with partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was evaluated as a method for the prediction of the origin of European butters. Eighty-three commercial butters from three European regions were subjected

  16. Aflatoxin M1 in white cheese and butter consumed in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Hasan; Yarsan, Ender; Sarimehmetoglu, Belgin; Cakmak, Omer

    2002-10-01

    We studied the occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 183 sample of white cheese and butter in Istanbul, Turkey in 2001. The incidence of AFM1 in white cheese and butter samples was as high as 65 and 81, respectively. The particularly high AFM,concentrations imply that more importance should be given to routine analysis of these dairy products.

  17. Peanut Paste/ Butter Consumption Frequency in the Republic of Uganda: Count Data Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan-Nambiar, Padmanand; Florkowski, Wojciech J.

    2013-01-01

    Peanut paste/butter consumption frequency in the Republic of Uganda is analyzed using a household survey data. Estimation results from Zero-inflated Binomial regression conclude that education, household location, color of peanut paste, etc. are important. The ordinal logistic results conclude that peanut paste/butter consumption with vegetables is the most preferred option.

  18. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...

  19. 7 CFR 58.336 - Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., butter and related products. 58.336 Section 58.336 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products. (a) Microbiological. Samples... from the butter as often as is necessary to aid in the control of lipase activity. (d) Other...

  20. Polymorphism, microstructure and rheology of butter. Effects of cream heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2012-12-01

    The effect of cream heat treatment prior to butter manufacturing, fluctuating temperatures during storage and presence of fat globules vs. no fat globules was examined in laboratory scale produced butter. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry was used to study crystallization behaviour and nuclear magnetic resonance to measure solid fat content and water droplet size distribution. Furthermore, the crystal structure was linked to the rheological properties and microstructure of the butter using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Butter produced from non-matured cream mainly formed α- and β'-crystals with minor traces of β-crystals. Maturing of the cream caused a transition from α- to β'- and β-form. The rheological behaviour of slow cooled butter deviated from the matured ones by having a lower elastic modulus, caused by a weaker crystal network. Presence of fat globules did not affect the rheological properties significantly.

  1. Absorption difference between diacylglycerol oil and butter blend containing diacylglycerol oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating whether the intake of butter blends containing diacylglycerol (DAG) oil may result in reduced fat accumulation, in similarity to DAG oil, and the potential metabolic differences between butter blends and DAG oil. Four experimental diets containing either 10 wt% DAG...... was significantly higher for rats fed the BDAG‐diet than for rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets. To conclude, the beneficial effects of DAG oil in reducing body fat accumulation cannot be observed in DAG oil containing butter blends, and the effect of DAG on bone health requires further investigation....... butter blend (BDAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) butter blend (BTAG), DAG oil (ODAG) or TAG oil (OTAG) were prepared, and each was fed to a group of 8 male Wistar rats. The design of the experiment was a combined balance and feeding experiment. The rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets had a significantly higher...

  2. Keeping the quality of cows’ butter by γ-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rady, A. H.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows’ butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter was determined by rancimat. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at 2.5 kGy dose reduced the counts of total bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts, however, these counts gradually increased during cold storage. Also irradiation at 5 kGy dose greatly reduced the total bacterial count which gradually increased upon storage, while completely eliminated the other determined microorganisms. Irradiation treatments increased the acid value and peroxide value of butter, while the iodine number was not altered. Moreover, gas chromatographic analysis showed that gamma irradiation slightly increased the total volatile fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and total hydrocarbons, while slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids and total sterols. In addition, irradiation of butter decreased its stability as determined by rancimat and upon storage of both irradiated and non irradiated butter samples, the acid value gradually increased, while a flexuous changes in the peroxide value were observed. The present study proved that 2.5 and 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses could keep the quality of cows’ butter and increased its shelf life at 4±1ºC for 8 and 12 weeks as compared to 4 weeks for non irradiated butter (based on the visual appearance of mold growth on the surface of samples without any effects on its sensory properties.En esta investigación se estudió el uso de la radiación gamma para mantener la calidad de

  3. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4–16 min and 160–200°C...... in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis...

  4. Following butter flavour deterioration with an acoustic wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Cláudia R B S; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2012-09-15

    Off-flavours develop naturally in butter and the process is accelerated by heat. An acoustic wave sensor was used to detect the aroma compounds evolved from heated butter and the results have shown that registered marked changes were coincident to odour changes detected by sensory analysis. The flavour compounds have also been analysed by GC/MS for identification. The response of the sensor was fully characterized in terms of the sensitivity to each of the identified compounds, and sensitivities of the system SPME/sensor were compared with the sensitivities of the system SPME/GC/MS. It was found that the sensor analytical system was more sensitive to methylketones than to fatty acids. The SPME/GC/MS system also showed the highest sensitivity to 2-heptanone, followed by 2-nonanone, but third place was occupied by undecanone and butanoic acid, to which the sensor showed moderate sensitivity. 2-heptanone was found to be an appropriate model compound to follow odour changes till the 500 h, and the lower sensitivity of the sensor to butanoic acid showed to be a positive characteristic, as saturation was prevented, and other more subtle changes in the flavour could be perceived.

  5. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  6. Enzymatic treatment of peanut butter to reduce the concentration of major peanut allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jianmei; Goktepe, Ipek; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of enzymatic treatment of peanut butter on two-major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Home-made and commercial peanut butter samples were treated with alpha-chymotrypsin, trypsin or the combination of these enzymes and incubated at room temperature for 24�h or at 37��C for 3�h. Treated peanut butter samples were sampled weekly for evaluation of total soluble proteins and extractable Ara h 1/Ara h 2. Data show that 1:1 alpha-chymotrypsin: trypsin at 0...

  7. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  8. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25136602

  9. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  10. COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF COCOA BUTTER MADE FROM THE PROCESSING OF THE IVORIAN COCOA BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID KOFFI AKAKI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color of cocoa butters was measured using a CM-2002 Minolta Spectrocolorimeter. The results showed that the ‘’L’’ values (lightness varied from 73.11 to 84.76, the ‘’a’’ values (greenness varied from – 2.15 to – 1.08 and a redness of 4.99, and the ‘’b’’ values (yellowness varied from 28.63 to 41.11. Acidities of all typescocoa butters varied from 0.47 to 10.26. The best cocoa butters were obtained from staly and fully purple beans and cocoa beans of grades 4, 5, and 6. These butters had acidities of 0.48 and 0.56 for fully purple and staly beans and 2.41, 1.30, and 0.47 for grades 4, 5, and 6, respectively.

  11. Effect of storage conditions on microbiological and physicochemical quality of shea butter

    OpenAIRE

    Honfo, Fernande; Hell, Kerstin; Akissoé, Noël; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Fandohan, Pascal; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Storage conditions are key constraints for quality assurance of the shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) butter. In the Sudan savannah Africa, storage conditions of butter produced by women vary across and among processors, traders and consumers. These conditions could impact the quality of the products and reduced their access to international market. The present study attempted to investigate the effect of storage duration and packaging materials on microbiological and physicochemical charac...

  12. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory prof...

  13. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-10-01

    Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter.

  14. Lactic acid bacteria from Jijel's traditional butter: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Idoui, Tayeb; Karam, Nour-Eddine

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven (27) lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Jijel’s traditional butter. These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. The results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum was the predominant species in this traditional butter. It appears that these strains have some interesting technological properties.Se aíslan veintisiete (27) bacterias acidolácticas de la mantequilla tradicional de Jijel. Éstas pertenecen a los géneros Lactococcus, Lactobacill...

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (⁶⁰Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (ppeanut butter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality. PMID:24321602

  16. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-10-01

    Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter. PMID:25285482

  17. Crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter in the presence of sorbitan esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Podchong, Pawitchaya; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter crystallization in the presence of sorbitan mono- and triesters or canola oil was investigated. Solid-state surfactant esters accelerated early-stage cocoa butter solidification while suppressing later growth. Sorbitan tristearate showed the strongest effect, followed by sorbitan monostearate and sorbitan monopalmitate. Liquid-state surfactants suppressed cocoa butter crystallization at all time points, with sorbitan trioleate showing a stronger effect than sorbitan monooleate, which behaved in a similar fashion to canola oil. Via DSC, the palmitic and stearic-based surfactants only associated with cocoa butter's high-melting fraction, with the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola oil showing little influence. All sorbitan esters had little effect on polymorphism, whereas canola oil accelerated the form II-to-III-to-IV transition. The palmitic and stearic-based surfactants greatly reduced cocoa butter crystal size whereas the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola showed no notable effect. Overall, sorbitan esters impacted cocoa butter crystallization kinetics, though this depended on surfactant structure and concentration. PMID:27507503

  18. Optimization of cocoa butter analog synthesis variables using neural networks and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Tikani, Reza; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2014-09-01

    Cocoa butter analog was prepared from camel hump fat and tristearin by enzymatic interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Optimal process conditions were determined using neural networks and genetic algorithm optimization. Response surfaces methodology was used to design the experiments to collect data for the neural network modelling. A general regression neural network model was developed to predict the response of triacylglycerol (TAG) distribution of cocoa butter analog from the process pressure, temperature, tristearin/camel hump fat ratio, water content, and incubation time. A genetic algorithm was used to search for a combination of the process variables for production of most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. The combinations of the process variables during genetic algorithm optimization were evaluated using the neural network model. The pressure of 10 MPa; temperature of 40 °C; SSS/CHF ratio of 0.6:1; water content of 13 % (w/w); and incubation time of 4.5 h were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter.

  19. Crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter in the presence of sorbitan esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Podchong, Pawitchaya; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter crystallization in the presence of sorbitan mono- and triesters or canola oil was investigated. Solid-state surfactant esters accelerated early-stage cocoa butter solidification while suppressing later growth. Sorbitan tristearate showed the strongest effect, followed by sorbitan monostearate and sorbitan monopalmitate. Liquid-state surfactants suppressed cocoa butter crystallization at all time points, with sorbitan trioleate showing a stronger effect than sorbitan monooleate, which behaved in a similar fashion to canola oil. Via DSC, the palmitic and stearic-based surfactants only associated with cocoa butter's high-melting fraction, with the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola oil showing little influence. All sorbitan esters had little effect on polymorphism, whereas canola oil accelerated the form II-to-III-to-IV transition. The palmitic and stearic-based surfactants greatly reduced cocoa butter crystal size whereas the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola showed no notable effect. Overall, sorbitan esters impacted cocoa butter crystallization kinetics, though this depended on surfactant structure and concentration.

  20. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  1. 影响黄油生成量因素及黄油的外送方法%Factors affecting output of butter and butter delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建东

    2015-01-01

    烯烃生产过程中碱洗塔中会生成黄油。本文针对黄油产生的危害性,介绍了黄油生成的机理,并提出了减少黄油生成的优化方法及黄油外送方法。%The mechanism of butter generated in caustic tower during olefin production is introduced in this paper to provide solutions for reduction of the output and delivery methods of the butter.

  2. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise;

    2007-01-01

    into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden...... Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma......, erythrocytes, and liver. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in phospholipids than in triacylglycerols. The results suggest that enriching butter blends with small amounts of fish oil can be used as an alternative method for improving the level of n-3 PUFA in biological tissues....

  3. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  4. Spatial gradients of OCPs in European butter--integrating environmental and exposure information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jana; Müller, Anne; Vives, Ingrid; Mariani, Giulio; Umlauf, Gunther

    2013-05-01

    The Stockholm Convention and the Global Monitoring Plan encourage the production of monitoring data to effectively evaluate the presence of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in all regions, in order to identify changes in levels over time, as well as to provide information on their regional and global environmental transport. Here, we report the first step of two to investigate whether butter is a feasible matrix to screen with the purpose to reflect regional ambient atmospheric air levels of POPs. The first step described here is to generate monitoring data; the second is to investigate the relationship between the two matrixes, i.e., POP concentrations in air and butter, which will be reported in another article published in this journal. Here, the 27 organochlorine pesticides listed under the Stockholm Convention have been analyzed in 75 butter samples from Europe. The general conclusions were as follows: Total organochlorine pesticide concentration is lower in butter from northern and central Europe. The spatial gradient of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane and hexachlorocyclohexane is increasing in the eastern region of Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, and Ukraine), dieldrin towards France, and endosulfan levels were elevated on the Azores Island in the Atlantic Ocean. One butter sample from Romania exceeded the European Maximum Residue Limit value for lindane, but the other butter pesticide levels were all below the limit values. The dataset reported here can be used for the calibration of the air-grass-dairy products model, which would support the feasibility to use butter as biomonitor for measuring POP levels in ambient air.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (⁶⁰Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (pbutter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality.

  6. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers.

  7. The butter flavorant, diacetyl, exacerbates β-amyloid cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Swati S; Vartak, Ashish P; Vince, Robert

    2012-10-15

    Diacetyl (DA), an ubiquitous butter-flavoring agent, was found to influence several aspects of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation--one of the two primary pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease. Thioflavin T fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements revealed that DA accelerates Aβ¹⁻⁴² aggregation into soluble and ultimately insoluble β-pleated sheet structures. DA was found to covalently bind to Arg⁵ of Aβ¹⁻⁴² through proteolytic digestion-mass spectrometric experiments. These biophysical and chemical effects translated into the potentiation of Aβ¹⁻⁴² cytotoxicity by DA toward SH-SY5Y cells in culture. DA easily traversed through a MDR1-MDCK cell monolayer, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Additionally, DA was found not only to be resistant to but also inhibitory toward glyoxalase I, the primary initiator of detoxification of amyloid-promoting reactive dicarbonyl species that are generated naturally in large amounts by neuronal tissue. In light of the chronic exposure of industry workers to DA, this study raises the troubling possibility of long-term neurological toxicity mediated by DA.

  8. Oxidation and textural characteristics of butter and ice cream with modified fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S; Duncan, S E; O'Keefe, S F; Sumner, S S; Herbein, J H

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate oxidation and firmness of butter and ice cream made with modified milkfat containing enhanced amounts of linoleic acid or oleic acid. The influence of the fatty acid profile of the HO milkfat relating to product properties as compared with the influence the fatty acid profile of the HL milkfat was the main focus of the research. Altering the degree of unsaturation in milkfat may affect melting characteristics and oxidation rates, leading to quality issues in dairy products. Three milkfat compositions (high-oleic, high-linoleic, and control) were obtained by modifying the diets of Holstein cows. Ice cream and butter were processed from milkfat obtained from cows in each dietary group. Butter and ice cream samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid profile and firmness. High-oleic milkfat resulted in a softer butter. Solid fat index of high-oleic and high-linoleic milkfat was lower than the control. Control ice cream mix had higher viscosity compared with high-oleic and high-linoleic, but firmness of all ice creams was similar when measured between -17 and -13 degrees C. Nutritional and textural properties of butter and ice cream can be improved by modifying the diets of cows. PMID:12613850

  9. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  10. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Rozalli, N H; Chin, N L; Yusof, Y A; Mahyudin, N

    2016-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectively. The peanuts were ground using a high speed grinder for 2.5 and 3.0 min to produce peanut butter without addition of other ingredient. The natural peanut butter exhibited stability and had acceptable microbial count during storage. Storage at 10 °C gave similar textural quality with commercial product until week 8 and without appreciable loss in oxidative stability until week 12. At higher storage temperatures of 25 and 35 °C, oxidative stability was shortened to 4 weeks of storage. Among the factors of storage temperature and time, grinding time and peanut variety, storage temperature had the most significant effects on quality changes of natural peanut butter.

  11. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children.

  12. Study on Color and Antioxidant Properties of Rambutan Seed Fat as Cocoa Butter Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Khairy. H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the color (whiteness, L*, a*, b* and antioxidant properties (radical scavenging activity, total phenolic compound of rambutan seed fat (RSF and its mixture with cocoa butter (CB were investigated. Different proportions were applied in preparing the samples between (RSF and (CB. The results showed that significant differences among samples in the whiteness, (L* and (a* value, whereas (b* value had no significant differences. With regard antioxidant activity the results showed that total phenolic compound (TPC of cocoa butter was (47.37±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat, while the other mixtures between (RSF and (CB showed (40.49±0.01-11.12±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat. Radical scavenging activity (DPPH of cocoa butter valued (67.32±0.44 µmol trolox/100 g fat, similar to the mixture M1 (60.16±0.23. Based on the results the study recommended that mixture ratio up to 40% rambutan seed fat (RSF can benefit as a cocoa butter replacer whereas a higher ratio completely change original cocoa butter characteristics. Thus, there is the possibility of using the (RSF as replacer of (CB and could utilize by chocolate products.

  13. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Rozalli, N H; Chin, N L; Yusof, Y A; Mahyudin, N

    2016-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectively. The peanuts were ground using a high speed grinder for 2.5 and 3.0 min to produce peanut butter without addition of other ingredient. The natural peanut butter exhibited stability and had acceptable microbial count during storage. Storage at 10 °C gave similar textural quality with commercial product until week 8 and without appreciable loss in oxidative stability until week 12. At higher storage temperatures of 25 and 35 °C, oxidative stability was shortened to 4 weeks of storage. Among the factors of storage temperature and time, grinding time and peanut variety, storage temperature had the most significant effects on quality changes of natural peanut butter. PMID:26787989

  14. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children. PMID:25084642

  15. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  16. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  17. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, L.B.; Luccas, V.; Kieckbusch, T.G.

    2011-07-01

    The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend) and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w) cupuassu fat were determined. recrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL). Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the a-circumflex polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter (Author).

  18. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon...... on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO2e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level...... at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the whole value chain—from cow to consumer—is essential for efficient production....

  19. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2013-01-01

    Butter and other milk fat-based products are valuable products for the dairy industry due to their unique taste, their textural characteristics, and nutritional value. However, an increased consumer demand for low-fat-based products increases the need for an increased essential understanding...... of the effective factors governing the structure of milk fat-based products. Today, 2 manufacturing techniques are available: the churning method and the emulsification method. The first is typically used for production of butter with a globular structure, which has become increasingly popular to obtain low....... Parameters such as thermal treatment of cream prior to butter making, water content, and chemical composition influence not only crystal polymorphism, but also the number and sizes of fat crystals. The number of crystal–crystal interactions formed within the products is related to product hardness. During...

  20. Design of butter tube group filling method%黄油桶装方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞虎; 袁越锦

    2012-01-01

    A butter tube group filling method and a group filling system are designed to ensure the quality of butter filling and improve the filling efficiency. The system makes butter tube simultaneous group running, simultaneous primary group filling, simultaneous respective group measurement (respective compensation come true. The whole work process is controlled by PLC.%设计了成组灌装方法和灌装系统,实现黄油桶成组同步运行,成组同步初灌装,成组同步分别计量、分别补偿,保证黄油灌装质量,提高灌装效率.整个工作过程用PLC(Programmable Logic Controller,可编程控制器)控制.

  1. Development and performance evaluation of frustum cone shaped churn for small scale production of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Adarsh M; Sahu, C; Agrawal, A K; Bisen, P; Chavhan, B B; Sinha, Geetesh

    2016-05-01

    The present research was intended to develop a small scale butter churn and its performance by altering churning temperature and churn speed during butter making. In the present study, the cream was churned at different temperatures (8, 10 and 12 °C) and churn speeds (35, 60 and 85 rpm). The optimum parameters of churning time (40 min), moisture content (16 %) and overrun (19.42 %) were obtained when cream was churned at churning temperature of 10 °C and churn speed of 60 rpm. Using appropriate conditions of churning temperature and churn speed, high quality butter can be produced at cottage scale.

  2. Development and performance evaluation of frustum cone shaped churn for small scale production of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Adarsh M; Sahu, C; Agrawal, A K; Bisen, P; Chavhan, B B; Sinha, Geetesh

    2016-05-01

    The present research was intended to develop a small scale butter churn and its performance by altering churning temperature and churn speed during butter making. In the present study, the cream was churned at different temperatures (8, 10 and 12 °C) and churn speeds (35, 60 and 85 rpm). The optimum parameters of churning time (40 min), moisture content (16 %) and overrun (19.42 %) were obtained when cream was churned at churning temperature of 10 °C and churn speed of 60 rpm. Using appropriate conditions of churning temperature and churn speed, high quality butter can be produced at cottage scale. PMID:27407187

  3. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng;

    2008-01-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...... blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower...

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air-grass-yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air-butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP.

  5. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate...... if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory profile. 3. Generalized Procrustes Analysis is used to analyze the results. It is a relatively new technique...

  6. Fatty acid composition of cultured butter produced using mesophilic and probiotic cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Мусий, Любовь Ярославовна; Цисарык, Орыся Иосифовна; Голубец, Ольга Валерьевна; Шкаруба, Сергей Николаевич

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the possibility of modeling the composition of fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria in the production of cultured butter. For the cream culturing, fermenting compositions DVS (Chr.Hansen, Denmark) FloraDanica (FD) and Lbm. acidophilum La-5 (La-5) were used. Four groups of cultured butter were produced: I (samples K1, K2, K3 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - cream culturing at a temperature of 30ºC; II (K4, K5, K6 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - cream culturing at a tem...

  7. Lactic acid bacteria from Jijel's traditional butter: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoui, Tayeb

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven (27 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Jijel’s traditional butter. These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. The results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum was the predominant species in this traditional butter. It appears that these strains have some interesting technological properties.Se aíslan veintisiete (27 bacterias acidolácticas de la mantequilla tradicional de Jijel. Éstas pertenecen a los géneros Lactococcus, Lactobacillus y Leuconostoc. Los resultados muestran que Lactobacillus plantarum es la especie predominante en dicha mantequilla. Diversas cepas presentan algunas propiedades tecnológicas interesantes.

  8. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitore...

  9. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe;

    2014-01-01

    Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content. An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese...

  10. Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Miles, M. S.; Burton, T.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the us

  11. Monitoring of butter and animal fat oxidation stability by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Sadadinović

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of fat is one of the basic reactions which causes the depletion of butter and animal fat quality as well as other products containing them. Since the most of reaction products of fat oxidation are harmful for consumers' health, inadequate and scarce monitoring of edible fats and fat containing products quality, presents increased health risk as well as financial loss for the producers. In fat oxidation stability estimation, standard chemical methods were used (iodine number, acid number, peroxide number, anisidine number etc., which require time and chemical usage. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis presents the simple and efficient way for butter and animal fats oxidation stability estimation. Laboratory investigations were performed to monitor oxidation stability of butter and animal fat in fresh state, as well as in spent phase, used in frying process. The results obtained were compared to the results of standard chemical analysis, and they confirmed the reproducibility and applicability of differential scanning calorimetry in oxidation stability of butter and animal fats monitoring.

  12. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment.

  13. Physical and processing properties of milk, butter, and cheddar cheese from cows fed supplemental fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramis, C A; Wang, H; McBride, B W; Wright, T C; Hill, A R

    2003-08-01

    Physical, chemical, sensory and processing properties of milk produced by feeding a rumen-undegradable fish meal protein supplement to Holstein cows were investigated. The supplement contained (as fed basis) 25% soft-white wheat, 60% herring meal, and 15% feather meal. The total fat level in the milk decreased to 2.43%. For both pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed drinking milk, no difference was found between fish meal (FM) milk and control milk in terms of color, flavor and flavor stability; in particular, no oxidized flavor was observed. Cheddar cheese made from FM milk ripened faster after 3 mo of ripening and developed a more desirable texture and stronger Cheddar flavor. The yield efficiencies for FM and control cheese, 94.4 (+/- 2.44 SE) and 96.4 (+/- 2.26 SE), respectively, were not different. Relative to controls, average fat globule size was smaller in FM milk and churning time of FM cream was longer. FM butter had softer texture and better cold spreadability, and butter oils from FM enriched milk had lower dropping points compared to control butter oil (average 32.89 versus 34.06 degrees C). These differences in physical properties of butter fat were greater than expected considering that iodine values were not different. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing high quality products from milk naturally supplemented with FM, but the results also show that dietary changes affect processing properties.

  14. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

  15. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  16. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flysjö, A

    2011-12-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO₂e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO₂e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO₂e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the

  17. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination.

  18. Maternal dietary Alpine butter intake affects human milk: fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Isabelle; Collomb, Marius; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd; von Mandach, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of CLA by lactating women affects the composition of their milk, but the pattern of the different CLA isomers is still unknown. We determined the effects of short maternal supplementation with CLA-rich Alpine butter on the occurrence of FA and CLA isomers in human milk. In an open randomized controlled study with a two-period cross-over design, milk FA and CLA isomer concentrations were measured on postpartum days > or = 20 in two parallel groups of lactating women before, during, and after consumption of defined quantities of Alpine butter or margarine with comparable fat content (10 d of butter followed by 10 d of margarine for one group, and vice versa in the other). In the 16 women who completed the study (8/group), Alpine butter supplementation increased the C16 and C18 FA, the sum of saturated FA, the 18:1 trans FA, and the trans FA with CLA. The CLA isomer 18:2 c9,t11 increased by 49.7%. Significant increases were also found for the isomers t9,t11, t7,c9, t11,c13, and t8,c10 18:2. The remaining nine of the total 14 detectable isomers showed no changes, and concentrations were <5 mg/100 g fat. A breastfeeding mother can therefore modulate the FA/CLA supply of her child by consuming Alpine butter. Further studies will show whether human milk containing this FA and CLA isomer pattern acts as a functional food for newborns. PMID:16149737

  19. Method for determination of aflatoxin M₁ in cheese and butter by HPLC using an immunoaffinity column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Hisako; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive convenient method for determination of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) in cheese and butter by HPLC was developed and validated. The method employs a safe extraction solution (mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water) and an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up. Compared with the widely used method employing chloroform and a Florisil column, the IAC method has a short analytical time and there are no interference peaks. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the IAC method were 0.12 and 0.14 µg/kg, while those of the Florisil column method were 0.47 and 0.23 µg/kg in cheese and buffer, respectively. The recovery and relative standard deviation (RSD) for cheese (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) in the IAC method were 92% and 7%, respectively, while for the Florisil column method the corresponding values were 76% and 10%. The recovery and RSD for butter (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) in the IAC method were 97% and 9%, and those in the Florisil method were 74% and 9%, respectively. In the IAC method, the values of in-house precision (n=2, day=5) of cheese and butter (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) were 9% and 13%, respectively. The IAC method is superior to the Florisil column method in terms of safety, ease of handling, sensitivity and reliability. A survey of AFM₁ contamination in imported cheese and butter in Japan was conducted by the IAC method. AFM₁ was not detected in 60 samples of cheese and 30 samples of butter.

  20. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

  1. To process or not to process? Factors enabling and constraining shea butter production and income in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Elias, Marlène

    2013-01-01

    of locality of residence, defined as place of residence along the rural–urban continuum, on shea butter processing and income. We demonstrate that, among members of a shea butter producer Union, women living in urban areas produce significantly larger quantities of shea butter for sale to the Union and earn...... superior revenues from these sales than their rural counterparts. We relate these urban–rural discrepancies to the physical and socio-economic conditions that characterise life in different localities and propose policy recommendations based on our findings....

  2. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  3. Conditions associated with Clostridium sporogenes growth as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in nonthermally processed canned butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R H; Dunn, M L; Ogden, L V; Jefferies, L K; Eggett, D L; Steele, F M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the effect of butter composition and emulsion structure on growth and survival of Clostridium sporogenes, used as a surrogate for C. botulinum in canned butter. The lack of a thermal process step in commercially available canned butter raises questions of potential safety, because it is hermetically sealed and generally exhibits anaerobic growth conditions, which are optimal for Clostridium botulinum growth. Without thermal processing, low-acid canned foods must have inhibitory factors present to prevent C. botulinum growth. Some potential intrinsic inhibitory factors, or hurdles, within butter include: reduced water activity, acidity in cultured products, elevated salt content, and the micro-droplet nature of the aqueous phase in the butter emulsion. It was hypothesized that a normal, intact butter emulsion would have sufficient hurdles to prevent C. botulinum growth, whereas a broken butter emulsion would result in a coalesced aqueous phase that would allow for C. botulinum growth. Batch-churned butter was inoculated with C. sporogenes; butter samples with varying salt contents (0, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% wt/wt NaCl) were prepared and stored in coated steel cans for varying times (1 or 2 wk) and temperatures (22 or 41°C) to determine temperature and emulsion structure effects on C. sporogenes growth. Samples stored at 41°C showed a significant increase in C. sporogenes growth compared with those stored at 22°C. Furthermore, NaCl addition was found to have a significant effect on C. sporogenes growth, with 0.8% NaCl promoting more growth than 0%, but with decreases in growth observed at 1.6 and 2.4%. Uninoculated control plates were also found to have bacterial growth; this growth was attributed to other anaerobic bacteria present within the cream. It was concluded that removal of the hurdle created by the micro-droplet size of the emulsion aqueous phase could result in C. botulinum growth even at elevated salt

  4. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ting Hung; Chi-Te Liu; I-Chen Peng; Chin Hsu; Roch-Chui Yu; Kuan-Chen Cheng

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and doc...

  5. The incidence of Listeria spp. in soft cheeses, butter and raw milk in the province of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, S; Cesaroni, D; Poda, G; Trovatelli, L D

    1990-02-01

    Samples of soft cheese, butter and raw milk were examined for Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 1, haemolytic and virulent for mice) and L. innocua (the only other Listeria sp. isolated) were each found in 2/21 (1.6%) of soft cheese samples. Five per cent of butter samples were contaminated with L. innocua. No Listeria spp. were detected in 40 raw milk samples. The results were compared with similar studies in Italy and abroad.

  6. Studies on cocoa butter-replacer mixtures suitable for the local chocolate production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mallah, M. Hassan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cocoa butter with different replacers, added at different levels, were prepared. From their properties, and particularly solid fat index, helped much in selecting the more suitable mixture for local chocolate production. It was found that cocoa butter-Illexao mixtures, at levels 10% and 15% replacer, gave more satisfactory results with respect to mouthfeel, hardness and brittleness.

    Se prepararon mezclas de manteca de cacao con diferentes sucedáneos añadidos en diferentes proporciones. Sus propiedades y particularmente el índice de grasa sólida, ayudaron mucho en la selección de la mezcla más adecuada para la producción de chocolate local. Se encontró que las mezclas con el 10% o 15% de lllexao en manteca de cacao, dieron los resultados más satisfactorios con respecto a la palatabilidad, dureza y consistencia.

  7. High-pressure liquid chromatographic method for the determination of patulin in apple butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, G M

    1975-07-01

    Patulin is extracted from apple butter samples with ethyl acetate and the extract is cleaned up on a silica gel column, using benzene-ethyl acetate (75+25) as the eluant. High-pressure liquid chromatography, using a 25 cm ZorbaxSil column, isooctane-ethyl ether-acetic acid (750+250+0.5) as the mobile solvent, and a 254 nm ultraviolet detector, is used for the determinative step. Under these conditions, patulin is eluted before 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, a component of apple butter which interferes with other liquid chromatographic and thin layer chromatographic methods. Recoveries of patulin added at levels of 34.6, 138.4, and 276.8 mug/kg ranged from 89.0 to 112.1%. PMID:168176

  8. A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biong, Anne S; Müller, Hanne; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Veierød, Marit B; Pedersen, Jan I

    2004-11-01

    Milk fat contains considerable amounts of saturated fatty acids, known to increase serum cholesterol. Little is known, however, about the relative effect of different milk products on risk factors for CHD. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Jarlsberg cheese (a Norwegian variety of Swiss cheese) with butter on serum lipoproteins, haemostatic variables and homocysteine. A controlled dietary study was performed with twenty-two test individuals (nine men and thirteen women) aged 23-54 years. The subjects consumed three isoenergetic test diets, with equal amounts of fat and protein, and containing either cheese (CH diet), butter + calcium caseinate (BC diet) or butter + egg-white protein (BE diet). The study was a randomised cross-over study and the subjects consumed each diet for 3 weeks, with 1 week when they consumed their habitual diet in between. Fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline and at the end of each period. Serum was analysed for lipids and plasma for haemostatic variables and homocysteine. Total cholesterol was significantly lower after the CH diet than after the BC diet (-0.27 mmol/l; P=0.03), while the difference in LDL-cholesterol was found to be below significance level (-0.22 mmol/l; P=0.06). There were no significant differences in HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apo A-I, apo B or lipoprotein (a), haemostatic variables and homocysteine between the diets. The results indicate that, at equal fat content, cheese may be less cholesterol increasing than butter.

  9. Increased water activity reduces the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90 °C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

  10. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Butter Production and Resource Use by Urban and Rural Processors in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfred Seidu Jasaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of field experimentation in presenting an account of input inventory, material quantities, and the process flow for shea butter production in Ghana. The shea fruit is a non-timber forest product (NTFP that is indigenous to ecosystems in semi-arid regions of Africa. Current methods and equipment for processing shea kernel into butter impose a dilemma of excessive harvesting of fuel wood for heating and the use of large quantities of water. Thus, the nature of input requirement and production process presents implications for conflict over natural resource use and for sustainability as more processing takes place. Material flow analysis was applied to the data generated from the processing experiments. The outcome was discussed in focus group discussion sessions and individual interviews as a way of data triangulation to validate study parameters. Results from this experiment showed that the quantity of water used in urban processing sites was higher than that used in rural sites. On the other hand, fuel wood use and labor expended were found to be higher in rural sites per unit processing cycle. The nature of the processing equipment, accessibility to input resources, and target market for shea butter were key determinants of the varying resource quantities used in the production process.

  11. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.

  12. High concentrations of furan fatty acids in organic butter samples from the German market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-27

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are valuable antioxidants containing a furan moiety in the central part of the molecule. They occur in the lipids of different foodstuffs and plants, with grass being the main source for their presence in milk fat and butter. Because cows from organic farming receive higher portions of grass-based feed, it was tested whether organic butter samples (n = 26) contain more F-acids than conventional ones (n = 25) in Germany. For this purpose, samples were melted, and the lipid phase was separated and transesterified into methyl esters, which were enriched using silver ion chromatography and analyzed by GC-EI/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Levels of F-acids in butter were higher in summer than in winter, and in both seasons, organic samples contained significantly higher levels of F-acids than conventional ones (one-way ANOVA: p < 0.001). Furthermore, the daily intake of F-acids via milk fat and other foodstuffs was calculated.

  13. Toxic and essential elements in butter from the Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Guvenc, Dilek; Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 88 randomly selected samples of butter produced in the Black Sea region of Turkey were purchased from different retail markets during different periods and investigated for toxic and essential elements content. Quantitative analyses of elements in the samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Mean concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the butter samples were 18.93, 100.32, 384.66, 4199.1, 887.47, 168.64, 56.13, 16.34 and 384.66 µg kg(-1), respectively. Cd and Co were detected in 19 (mean content 0.29 µg kg(-1)) and 81 (mean content 3.81 µg kg(-1)) samples of 88 butter samples, respectively. However, the dietary intake of these elements by the population of the Black Sea region is currently well below the dietary reference intake (DRI) and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) levels of essential and toxic elements.

  14. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.

  15. The effects of co-administration of butter on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of catechins in rats after oral administration of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Yuhui; Xu, Liwei; Liang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    In Southwest China, tea polyphenols are usually utilized by way of butter tea. Tea polyphenols inhibit the absorption and biosynthesis of fatty acids in vivo, but the effects of butter on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols have drawn less concern. A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantitatively determine the catechins in the plasma, feces and bile of rats after the oral administration of tea polyphenol or its combination with butter. In comparison with the single tea polyphenol treatment, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG, GC and ECG significantly decreased after the co-administration of butter. The mean residence times (MRT) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GC and ECG were also significantly prolonged. When the plasma samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the total catechins (free and conjugated forms) were not affected by the co-administration of butter. These results indicated that the total absorption of catechins was not affected by butter, but the metabolism of catechins had been changed. Furthermore, the fecal catechins were significantly increased by butter. The total fecal amount and excretion ratio of all catechins were increased highly. The biliary excretion of EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG and GC was significantly increased by the co-administration of butter. To sum up, the butter changed the metabolism of catechins in vivo by decreasing the plasma concentration of the free catechins but increasing the conjugated catechins.

  16. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    .4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P ... was observed for triacylglycerol, hsCRP, insulin, and glucose concentrations. The intake of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher in the butter period than in the olive oil and run-in periods (P LDL...... cholesterol compared with the effects of olive oil intake and a habitual diet (run-in period). Furthermore, moderate butter intake was also followed by an increase in HDL cholesterol compared with the habitual diet. We conclude that hypercholesterolemic people should keep their consumption of butter...

  17. Butter, my love” Joy, Sorrow and Rehabilitation: Not simply Cholesterol and Saturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to his “love” for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of “cherry picking”, i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CVD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC, the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: “If you were to give

  18. ["Butter, my love" joy, sorrow and rehabilitation: not simply cholesterol and saturated fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G

    2014-01-01

    The author refers to his "love" for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD) epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of "cherry picking", i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC), the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: "If you were to give each the right amount of

  19. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  20. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  1. Comparison of butter quality parameters available on the Czech market with the use of FT NIR technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Dvořák

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available NIR spectroscopy offers very wide opportunities in the food quality control. This method allows measuring of the samples with minimal usage of chemicals. We used the NIR spectroscopy for the quality control of butters available on the Czech market. Creating a methodology to measure the butter, build calibration models for the fat content and dry matter and verify their functionality. We used 26 samples of butters, of which 13 came from the Czech production and 13 came from abroad. Using reference and instrumental methods were determined the contents of fat, dry matter and acid number. Samples were measured using a FT NIR Antaris spectroscope in reflectance mode on the integrating sphere. The results demonstrated that FT NIR could divide the measured samples of butters into two classes according to their origin. Statistical progressing of the results did not confirm conclusive differences in the amount of the measured components between Czech and foreign butters. Functionality of the calibration models for the fat content and dry matter was demonstrated, while the calibration model for the assessment of the acid number was unreliable.

  2. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter cracker sandwiches by radio-frequency heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kim, Sung-Youn; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2013-05-01

    A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium recently occurred in the USA, which was traced back to various food products made with contaminated peanut butter. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of radio-frequency (RF) heating to inactivate S. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter cracker sandwiches using creamy and chunky commercial peanut butter and to determine the effect on quality by measuring color changes and sensory evaluation. Samples were treated for a maximum time of 90 s in a 27.12 MHz RF heating system. Samples were prepared in the form of peanut butter cracker sandwiches and placed in the middle of two parallel-plate electrodes. After 90 s of RF treatment, the log reductions of S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were 4.29 and 4.39 log CFU/g, respectively, in creamy peanut butter. RF treatment of chunky peanut butter for 90 s also significantly (P peanut butter and crackers were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control. These results suggest that RF heating can be applied to control pathogens in peanut butter products without affecting quality. PMID:23498191

  3. Effect of churning temperature on water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter during four weeks of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Madsen, Ann Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of churning temperature (10 °C vs. 22 °C) is evaluated with respect to water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter produced using the batch churning method with a temperature ramp of 4 °C/min. Using pulsed-nuclear magnetic resonance, an increase in relative solid fat...... content from 44% to 49.5% was observed when decreasing the churning temperature. Due to lower solid fat content formed upon churning at high temperatures, average water droplet size significantly increased from 5.5 μm to 18.5 μm and less water could be incorporated into the butter during mixing. Using...... differential scanning calorimetry, it was observed that water addition as well as churning at low temperatures induced a transition toward more stable crystal structures, as the melting point in the high melting fraction was slightly lower for butter churned at high temperature. This did, however, not reflect...

  4. 藏式酥油茶生产工艺研究%Research on the Process of Tibet Buttered Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 杜金城; 于上富; 丁秀云; 霍贵成; 杜鹏

    2015-01-01

    利用黄油和砖茶为主要原料来研制适合藏民饮用的酥油茶饮品;通过单因素试验比较不同熬煮时间, 茶水比, 含盐量, 奶油添加量和单甘脂添加量对酥油茶口感的影响. 当添加2%砖茶,10%黄油,1.5%盐,0.5%单甘酯, 0.04%D-异抗坏血酸钠和熬煮时间30 min时,酥油茶的口感最好,适合于藏民饮用.本研究生产的酥油茶,颜色棕黄色,组织均匀,气味芬芳,口感香浓,保质期长;无分层、油浮、析水、颗料悬浮等现象.%To study a buttered tea which could be used for Tibet residents based on the combination of butter and tea. Through single-factor experiments, boiling time, ratio of tea and water, the addition of salt and butter were compared. When the condition:the content of the tea was 2%, the content of the butter was 10%, 1.5%salt was used, he content of the monoglyceride was 0.5%, 0.04%D-isoascorbic acid sodium was used and boiling time was 30 min, the quality of buttered tea was best and appropriate for Tibet residents;The developed buttered tea had a brown color, average constitution, sweet taste and a long keeping time, in addition, no other terrible conditions were found for this product.

  5. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  6. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin;

    2008-01-01

    Three commercial grades of polycarbonates (Lexan (R) 144, Lexan (R) 104 and Makrolon Rx1805) were studied with respect to resistance to environmental stress cracking (ESC) when exposed to butter and related chemicals. The polycarbonates (PCs) were extensively characterised to determine whether...... differences in ESC resistance could be related to their structural or chemical properties. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that Makrolon Rx:1805 contains a low molar mass material characterised as poly(propylene glycol)p, which was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and H-1 NMR. Some "non-absorbing" chemicals...

  7. MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE:"China Won't Let her Bread and Butter in Others' Hands"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yumei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Grain production: strategic industry to maintain socical stability Q: What is the grain issue of China? A: I'd like to answer this question with two sentences.First,grain production is a strategic industry to maintain social stability of China; our government should always consider feeding a population of 1.3 billion as the major priority and can never overlook this issue.Second,China,a heavily-populous nation,must stick to the principle of"relying mainly on her own to achieve self-sufficiency"to ensure food security;China cannot let her bread and butter be held in others' hands.

  8. Churning efficiency and microbial quality of butter made from camel milk alone and blending it with goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleme Asresie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the churning efficiency of milk sample for buttermaking from camel milk by blending it with goat milk and microbiological quality of butter made at different blending levels were assessed. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with five treatments: T1 (100% camel milk, T2 (75% camel and 25% goat milk, T3 (50% camel and 50% goat milk, T4 (25% camel and 75% goat milk and T5 (100% goat milk. The churning efficiency and microbiological quality of the milk and butter samples were analyzed following standard procedures. The fermentation time (11.33 days, churning time (121.7 min and churning temperature (28°C of T1 were significantly (P < 0.001 higher than the other milk samples. T1 had significantly (P < 0.001 lower churning pH (4.13 and butter yield (49.3 g/L than the other samples. T3 and T4 had significantly (P < 0.001 higher butter yield than the other milk samples. The fermentation time, churning time and churning temperature of T5 were significantly (P < 0.001 lower than the rest and T5 required significantly (P < 0.001 higher churning pH than the other milk samples. The coliform count (CC, enterobacteriaceae count (EBC, lipolytic bacteria count (LBC and yeast and mould count (YMC of T1 was significantly (P < 0.001 higher than the other butter samples. The CC, EC and total bacteria count (TBC of T5 was significantly (P < 0.001 higher than T2, T3 and T4 and it had significantly (P < 0.001 lower TBC than the others. The results showed that blending camel milk with goat milk improved churning efficiency and microbial quality of butter made from camel milk at different blending levels. Although butter can be made from pure camel milk, it took longer churning time and fermentation time. Thus, research is needed in order to reduce the churning time, improve the yield of butter and microbial quality made from pure and blended camel milk by manipulating the operating parameters viz., pH of the milk, churning

  9. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss the diel...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  10. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Hung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.

  11. ‘Don’t play the butter notes’: jazz in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bradner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally – attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing – his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, ‘Don’t play the butter notes’. In medical education, ‘don’t play the butter notes’ suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  12. ‘Don't play the butter notes’: jazz in medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V.; Ryan, Mark H.; Vanderbilt, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally – attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing – his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, ‘Don't play the butter notes’. In medical education, ‘don't play the butter notes’ suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years. PMID:27095009

  13. 'Don't play the butter notes': jazz in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V; Ryan, Mark H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  14. Lipidemic effects of an interesterified mixture of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol and safflower oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mascioli, E.A.; McLennan, C.E.; Schaefer, E.J.;

    1999-01-01

    either butter (B) or an interesterified mixture (IM) of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT),and safflower oils. Blood drawn during weeks 5 and 10 of feeding was analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C),LDL-C, and triacylglycerols (TAG). Mean plasma levels......The objective of this study was to determine if the positional structure of dietary triacylglycerol affected lipidemic responses. Thirty healthyadults (16 men and 14 postmenopausal women) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations >3.37 mM (130 mg/dL)enrolled in a prospective...... of TC (B, 6.98+/-1.06 mM; IM, 7.09+/-1.20 mM), HDL-C(B,1.30+/-0.35 mM; IM, 1.29+/-0.34 mM), and LDL-C (B, 4.91+/-0.95 mM; IM, 4.92+/-1.10 mM) were not significantly differentbetween the two dietary treatments. Mean TAG levels were higher for the interesterified B-MCT mixture (B, 1.75+/-0.72 mM; IM,1...

  15. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  16. Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Kaphueakngam, Phimnipha; Flood, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was produced from a blend of mango kernel fat (MKF) and palm oil mid-fraction (PMF). Five fat blends with different ratios of MKF/PMF (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 (%wt)) and pure MKF, PMF and cocoa butter (CB) were characterized. Similar to CB, all fat blends contained palmitic (P), stearic (S) and oleic (O) acids as the main fatty acid components. The triglyceride compositions of all blends were significantly different from CB. However, blend 80/20, which contained higher content of SOS, similar content of POP and lower content of POS compared to CB, exhibited a slip melting point, crystallization and melting behavior most similar to CB and hence it was recommended as CBE. The chosen CBE was then mixed with CB in a ratio of 1:5.64 (wt), mimicking that of typical dark chocolate where 5 % of CBE is added to the finished product. The crystallization behavior, the crystal morphology and bloom behavior of the mixture was investigated and was found to be not significantly different from CB.

  17. Lactic acid bacteria from "Sheep's Dhan", a traditional butter: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep’s Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep’s milk in Jijel (East of Algeria. These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactis ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exopolysaccharide.

    Veintiséis bacterias lácticas fueron aisladas de “Sheep´s Dhan”, una mantequilla tradicional hecha con leche de oveja en Jijel (al Este de Argelia. Estas cepas pertenecen a tres géneros: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc y Lactobacillus. Los resultados mostraron que Lactococcus lactis ssp diacetylactis fue la especie predominante en esta mantequilla tradicional. Los resultados de la evaluación de la aptitud tecnológica indican que la principal cepa tiene una buena aptitud de acidificación, algunas de ellas mostraron una buena actividad proteolítica y únicamente Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum fue capaz de producir exopolisacárido.

  18. 'Don't play the butter notes': jazz in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V; Ryan, Mark H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years. PMID:27095009

  19. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration.

  20. Safety of Butter and Influencing Factors%奶油的安全性及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫蓓红

    2016-01-01

    Dairy safety is increasingly subject to public concern , while domestic butter industry uses the tradtional batch churn methods and lacks of experience of safety studies , risk control and crises handling about butter. Factors that affect product safety were introduced and risk of microbial contamination for butter products was also presented in this review. This review provided theoretical support for developing and manufacturing of butter in China.%乳制品安全问题受到社会公众高度关注,目前国内奶油的生产主要采用传统的批次法,对奶油的安全性研究、风险控制和危机处理更是缺乏相关经验。阐述奶油微生物方面的风险以及影响产品安全性的主要因素,为国内奶油产品的开发与生产提供理论参考。

  1. Marketing of butter in the European Community, demand functions and policy alternatives with a restriction to four member countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Oskam; B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn this article optimum instrument values for two different objectives of an EC marketing policy for butter are considered. In the first part of the study the demand equations of four EC countries, le., West Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Denmark, are estimated and disc

  2. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration. PMID:26678129

  3. Preliminary report on the Oldenburg “butter shale” in the Upper Ordovician (Katian; Richmondian Waynesville Formation, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Aucoin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician; upper Katian of the Cincinnati Arch region, Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky contains several bed packages informally referred to as “butter shales” or “trilobite shales”. These packages are typically 1–2 m of relatively pure, homogeneous claystone with isolated, lenticular limestone beds. These claystones are most widely known for their excellent preservation of abundant trilobites, especially Isotelus and Flexicalymene, as well as diverse and commonly articulated bivalves, and nautiloids. A newly recognized butter shale interval in the Clarksville Member of the Waynesville Formation contains a typical butter-shale fossil assemblage, dominated by bivalves, orthoconic cephalopods and trilobites. To better study the fabric of this claystone, a large, epoxy-coated block of the claystone was dry-cut. Polished surfaces show a variety of otherwise cryptic features, including pervasive bioturbation and the presence of probable lingulid escape burrows (Lingulichnus, as well as abundant fodinichnia (Chondrites, Planolites, Teichichnus. Preservation of articulated trilobites and closed bivalves in approximate living position, as well as escape burrows, indicates deposition as a series of mud burial events or obrution deposits. We suggest that the butter shales resulted from net accumulation of multiple episodes of re-suspended mud deposition, which rapidly smothered organisms and resulted in exceptional preservation. Between events the seafloor was colonized by abundant deposit-feeding infaunal organisms, which destabilized the substrate and generated turbidity near the sediment–water interface, thus inhibiting sessile suspension feeders. Rapid net deposition was also interrupted by more prolonged periods (tens to hundreds of years of low sedimentation that permitted colonization by epifaunal brachiopod-dominated communities. While most butter shale units are regionally extensive, the Oldenburg is

  4. Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not

  5. [Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G; Losi, G; Frega, N; Lercker, G; Cocchi, M; Gori, A; Cerretani, L

    2012-01-01

    The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation) ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not all fats are harmful

  6. Application of peanut butter to improve fatty acid composition of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajera, H P; Kapopara, M B; Patel, V H

    2010-06-01

    Biscuits prepared with different levels of hydrogenated fat (vanaspati) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) butter (PB) (100:00, 75:25, 50;50, 25;75, 00:100) were evaluated for their fatty acid composition and textural property. Saturated fatty acids like myristic, palmitic, stearic acids were higher in control biscuits (100% vanaspati), which decreased with increasing proportion of PB in the experimental biscuits. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were lowest in control biscuits and it gradually increased upon incorporation of PB. The hardness of biscuits also increased with increasing proportion of PB. Overall sensory quality of experimental biscuits improved when 50% vanaspati replaced by PB in the standard biscuits recipe. Biscuits prepared with 50% supplementation of PB had better fatty acid composition with balanced oil quality and also had a greater acceptability by sensory evaluation panel.

  7. Bees wax and its unsaponifiables as natural preservative for butter and cottonseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag, R. S.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Simple model systems consisting of butter oil or refined cottonseed oil mixed with melted bees wax and its unsaponifiables were designated to study their hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity during storage. Whole bees wax at 0,5 and 1% levels possessed significant pro-hydrolytic activity whilst its unsaponifiables at 0,25 and 0,5% exhibited antihydrolytic effect on butter oil. The addition of whole bees wax at 0,5 and 1 % caused no effect on peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of butter oil. However, bees wax unsaponifiables significantly reduced both peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of stored butter oil. Bees wax unsaponifiables added to refined cottonseed oil had no effect on the acid value, whilst whole bees wax possessed significant prohydrolytic activity. The data for peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of refined cottonseed oil demonstrated that both whole bees wax and its unsaponifiables had approximately the same antioxidant efficacy. The effectiveness of the added materials on the secondary oxidation products of refined cottonseed oil can be ranked according to its inhibition activity as follows: BHT (200 ppm > bees wax (1% > bees wax (0,5% > bees wax unsaponifiables (0,5% > bees wax unsaponifiables (0,25% > control.

    aceites de semilla de algodón Sistemas modelo simples consistentes en aceite de mantequilla o aceite de semilla de algodón refinado mezclado con cera de abeja derretida y su insaponificable fueron diseñados para estudiar su rancidez oxidativa e hidrolítica durante el almacenamiento. La cera de abeja íntegra a niveles del 0,5 y 1% tuvo una actividad pro-hidrolítica significativa, mientras que su insaponificable al 0,25 y 0,5% exhibió efecto antihidrolítico sobre el aceite de mantequilla. La adición de cera de abeja íntegra al 0,5 y 1% no causó efecto sobre el índice de peróxido y ácido tiobarbitúrico del aceite de mantequilla. Sin embargo, el insaponificable de cera de abeja redujo

  8. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    e.g. fatty acid composition of the diet, are important factors with regard to development of metabolic syndrome. There is a controversy between the fact that several studies has shown that intake of saturated fatty acids are strongly correlated to the development of metabolic related diseases......The still growing obesity epidemic is a major risk for our society, as it is associated with the development of the so called metabolic syndrome, which is a clinical diagnosis correlated to development of metabolic disorders. Lack of physical activity, excess energy intake, and nutritional factors...... dairy fat in general and phytanic acid on metabolic parameters, we performed several studies. First, we investigated effects on hepatic lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and circulating metabolic markers, of high fat diets based on butter from high- or low-yield production, a diet based on high...

  9. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO 4 (D 50 = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach 150 mAh g -1 or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0 C/0.2 C are between 94.4 and 98.9%.

  10. Long term effects on human plasma lipoproteins of a formulation enriched in butter milk polar lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Åke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids (SL, in particular sphingomyelin (SM are important components of milk fat polar lipids. Dietary SM inhibits cholesterol absorption in rats (Nyberg et al. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 and SLs decrease both cholesterol and TG concentrations in lipid- and cholesterol fed APOE*3Leiden mice (Duivenvoorden et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006. This human study examines effects of a butter milk formulation enriched in milk fat globule membrane material, and thereby in SLs, on blood lipids in healthy volunteers. In a four week parallel group study with 33 men and 15 women we examined the effects of an SL-enriched butter milk formulation (A and an equivalent control formulation (B on plasma lipid levels. Plasma concentrations of HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols (TG, apolipoproteins AI and B, and lipoprotein (a were measured. The daily dose of SL in A was 975 mg of which 700 mg was SM. The participants registered food and drink intake four days before introducing the test formula and the last four days of the test period. Results A daily increase of SL intake did not significantly influence fasting plasma lipids or lipoproteins. In group B TG, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and apolipoprotein B concentrations increased, however, but not in group A after four weeks. The difference in LDL cholesterol was seen primarily in women and difference in TG primarily in men. No significant side effects were observed. Conclusion The study did not show any significant decrease on plasma lipids or lipoprotein levels of an SL-enriched formulation containing 2-3 times more SL than the normal dietary intake on cholesterol, other plasma lipids or on energy intake. The formulation A may, however, have counteracted the trend towards increased blood lipid concentrations caused by increased energy intake that was seen with the B formulation.

  11. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M.; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra;

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut...... oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian...... national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure...

  12. Development and validation of a method for the determination of low-ppb levels of macrocyclic lactones in butter, using HPLC-fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Resende, Michele Fabri; Brasil, Taila Figueiredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-07-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of four macrocyclic lactones (ML) (abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and moxidectin) in butter, using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The method employed heated liquid-liquid extraction and a mixture of acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and water, with preconcentration and derivatization, to produce stable fluorescent derivatives. The chromatographic run time was butter samples. The figures of merit obtained, e.g. recovery (72.4-106.5%), repeatability (8.8%), within-laboratory reproducibility (15.7%) and limits of quantification (0.09-0.16 μg kg(-1)) were satisfactory for the desired application. The application of the method to real samples showed that ML residues were present in six of the ten samples evaluated. The method proved to be simple, easy and appropriate for simultaneous determination of ML residues in butter. To our knowledge, this is the first method described for the evaluation of ML in butter.

  13. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

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    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  14. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Benhamada, N.; Leghouchi, E.

    2010-07-01

    This is the first report describing microbiological, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East of Algeria. Five butter samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the traditional method used by people in the Jijel areas (Eastern Algeria). Our results show the presence of lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts, while staphylococci or lipolytic bacteria were not detected. Important differences were found in chemical values among butter samples. The pH values ranged from pH4.64 and pH5.53. Moisture and impurities exceeded 17.5% and 9.19% respectively. The values for acid index, peroxide index, saponification index and iodine index ranged from: 23.56-31.35mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g respectively. Finally, the fatty acid composition showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. (Author) 20 refs.

  15. Antioxidant activity of date palm fruit (phoenix dactylifra L.) extract for oxidative stabilisation of butter oil at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, long term preservation of butter oil was achieved through ethanolic extract of date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Butter oil was supplemented with date palm fruit extract (DPFE) at three different concentrations i.e. 250, 500 and 750 ppm (T 1, T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/) and compared with a control. Total phenolic content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation of the DPFE was 5.19 GAE, 74.2 and 81%, respectively. IC/sub 50/ value of date extract for the inhibition of DPPH and linoleic acid peroxidation was 2.45 and 0.82 mg/mL, respectively. The loss of oleic acid and linoleic acid in control after six months of storage was 16 and 52% as compared to T/sub 3/ which was 4% and 14%.T/sub 3/ yielded the lowest concentration of primary and secondary oxidation products with no effect on sensory attributes. DPFE can be used to enhance the shelf life of butter oil at ambient temperature. (author)

  16. Simultatenous determination of diacetyl and acetoin in traditional turkish butter stored in sheep’s rumen (Karinyagi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce, R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Commercial Karinyagi (traditionally named karin is made of cows’ milk cream and is produced by filling butter in cleaned sheep’s rumen. The effect of butter storage in sheep’s rumen on the production of diacetyl and acetoin was investigated. These compounds were determined by GC-MS and they are the typical butter flavor commonly found in fermented dairy products. The modified method for the simultaneous extraction of diacetly and acetoin from butter samples was accurate and precise. The recoveries of diacetyl and acetoin were 94.7 and 110.8%, respectively, while the detection limits were 1.83 and 0.51 mg·L-1, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the monitoring of aroma compounds in Karin butter samples during different time intervals. The concentration of acetoin remained stable through 0–50 days while the concentration of diacetyl increased to 33.0 μg·g-1 up to 40 days and remained constant through 40–50 days.El Karinyagi comercial (nombre tradicional Karin está hecho de crema de leche de vaca, y producido llenando con mantequilla el rumen limpio de ovejas. Se ha investigado el efecto del almacenamiento de la mantequilla en el rumen de ovejas sobre la formación de diacetilo y acetoína. Estos compuestos son el típico flavor a mantequilla que se detecta comúnmente en los productos lácteos fermentados y han sido determinados mediante GC-MS. El método modificado para la extracción simultánea de diacetilo y acetoína en mantequilla resultó ser exacto y preciso y las recuperaciones de 94,7 y 110,8 % respectivamente, mientras que los límites de detección fueron 1.83 y 0,51 mg·L-1, respectivamente. El método propuesto se aplicó al control de compuestos aromáticos en Karin y muestras de mantequilla, durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. La concentración de acetoína se mantuvo estable entre 0–50 días mientras que la concentración de diacetilo aumentó a 33,0 mg·g-1 hasta 40 días y se mantuvo constante

  17. Effect of fermented wastewaters from butter production on phosphates removal in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Thornton, Arthur; Czaplicka, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    This study determined the potential for fermented wastewaters from butter production plant to act as a carbon source to facilitate phosphates removal. Synthetic dairy wastewaters were treated using SBR, with doses of fermented wastewaters. An increase in the fermented wastewater doses were found to improve the effluent quality in respect of phosphates and nitrates. The lowest concentrations of phosphate and nitrates, respectively 0.10 ± 0.04 mg PO(4)-PL(-1) and 1.03 ± 0.22 mg NO(3)-NL(-1), were noted in the effluent from the reactor fed with fermented wastewaters in a dose of 0.25 L d(-1) per 0.45 L d(-1) of wastewaters fed to the reactor. In the case of the two highest doses, an increase in effluent COD was stated. The higher effectiveness resulted from the fact that the introduction of fermented wastewaters caused an increase in the easily-available carbon compounds content and the predominance of acetic acid amongst VFAs available to dephosphatating and denitrifying bacteria.

  18. Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

    2015-01-01

    Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with β' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase.

  19. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenius Marja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690

  20. Estabilidade de pasta de amêndoa de castanha de caju Stability of cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou avaliar a estabilidade de pasta de castanha de caju obtida pela moagem de amêndoas quebradas com açúcar, sal e lecitina de soja. A influência de diferentes embalagens (potes de vidro e de polipropileno e do uso de antioxidantes (BHA, BHT e tocoferóis na qualidade do produto também foi investigada. Características físico-químicas (atividade de água, índice de acidez, cor e textura instrumentais, microbiológicas (coliformes totais e fecais, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e bolores e leveduras e aceitação sensorial (aparência, aroma, sabor e textura, foram acompanhadas durante 300 dias de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (28 °C. Foi observado aumento do índice de acidez, redução da maciez e descoloração. No entanto, essas alterações pouco afetaram a aceitação sensorial, que ficou entre "gostei ligeiramente" e "gostei moderadamente", após os 300 dias de armazenamento. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram boa qualidade do produto, estando dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira: contagem de coliformes a 45 °C (fecais menor que 10 NMP.g -1 e ausência de Salmonella spp. em 25 gramas. Os resultados demonstraram que as pastas podem ser armazenadas nas condições e tempo testados, e que não houve influência dos materiais de embalagem utilizados e nem dos antioxidantes na estabilidade do produto.This work involved an evaluation of the stability of cashew nut butter obtained by grinding up broken cashew kernels with sugar, salt and soy lecithin. The influence of different packaging materials (glass and polypropylene containers and antioxidants (BHA, BHT and tocopherols on product quality was also evaluated. Physicochemical (water activity, acidity index, instrumental color and texture and microbiological characteristics (total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeast and mold and

  1. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication. PMID:27346602

  2. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  3. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication.

  4. Effects of dietary calcium soaps of unsaturated fatty acids on digestion, milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Vernay, M; Moncoulon, R

    1997-05-01

    Dairy cows fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were utilized to investigate the effects of feeding with Ca soaps (CaS) of palm fatty acids (FA) and rapeseed FA. Diets compared were control diet based on maize silage and concentrate, and two diets with 40 g CaS of palm oil FA or rapeseed oil FA/kg diet, replacing part of the concentrates of the control diet. Total digestibilities of dry matter, fibre and fat, and ruminal fermentation were not significantly altered by giving CaS; the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation of total unsaturated C18 FA was significantly reduced by both CaS diets. Apparent intestinal digestibility of FA was not different among diets, although the amount of FA absorbed with the CaS diets was twice that with the control diet. No difference among diets was observed for milk production, or fat and protein contents. Giving CaS diets decreased the proportions of 4:0 to 14:0 FA in milk fat, and increased cis-18:1n-9, compared with control diet. The rapeseed diet lowered the content of 16:0, and increased the contents of 18:0 and trans-18:1n-7. CaS diets did not result in a marked increase of polyunsaturated FA content in milk fat. Butter from cows fed on the CaS diets contained more liquid fat at 6 and 14 degrees C than butter from the cows fed on the control diet. Incorporating CaS, particularly those from rapeseed, in dairy cows' diets increased C18 FA in milk and improved butter spreadability. PMID:9161912

  5. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  6. Processing Methods and Physical Properties of Butter and Its Nutrient Analysis%黄油的加工方法及其物理性质和营养成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙剑锋; 王颉

    2011-01-01

    Processing methods of butter and food additives allowed to be used in butter were introduced.The physical properties of butter were discribed from aspects of components,color,structural status and flavor.A preliminary evaluation of nutritional value of butter was also carried out,which had a certain reference value for butter producers and consumers.%介绍了黄油的加工方法及加工中允许使用的食品添加剂,从成分、色泽、组织状态、风味等方面介绍了黄油的物理性质,并初步评价了黄油的营养价值,对黄油的生产者和消费者具有一定的参考价值。

  7. Effect of feeding fresh forage and marine algae on the fatty acid composition and oxidation of milk and butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K E; Budge, S; Rose, M; Rupasinghe, H P V; Maclaren, L; Green-Johnson, J; Fredeen, A H

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feeding fresh forage either as pasture plus a concentrate (PAS) or as a silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), combined with either a ruminally inert lipid supplement high in saturated fatty acids (-) or a ruminally protected microalgae containing 22 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/100 g of fatty acids (+) on the fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidation of milk and butter. For the 8 mid-lactation Holstein cows in this study, milk yield was not significantly affected by treatment, averaging 32.3 ± 1.28 kg/d. Milk fat content was higher for PAS⁻, averaging 5.05 compared with 4.10 ± 0.17% for the mean of other treatments, and was significantly depressed with microalgae supplementation (3.97 vs. 4.69 ± 0.17%). The saturated fatty acid level in the milk of cows fed TMR⁻ was significantly higher than that of the other treatments (66.9 vs. 61.2 g/100 g of FA). The level of monounsaturated FA was lowered by feeding TMR⁻ (27.4 vs. 32.0 g/100 g of FA), whereas levels of polyunsaturated FA were elevated by feeding PAS+ compared with the mean of the other treatments (6.54 vs. 5.07 g/100 g of FA). Feeding the rumen-protected microalgae increased the DHA content of milk more than 4-fold (0.06 to 0.26 g/100g of FA) with the PAS treatment. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk was highest for PAS+ compared with the other treatments (4.18 vs. 3.41 g/100g of FA). In general, the fatty acid composition of butter followed that of milk. Overall, feeding the TMR supplemented with the rumen-protected microalgae increased the levels of volatile products of oxidation in milk and butter. No effect of forage type or microalgae supplementation was observed on the oxidative stability or antioxidant capacity of milk, although the oxidative stability of butter exposed to UV was reduced with microalgae supplementation, particularly with TMR, as assessed by using the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay.

  8. Popcorn worker's lung: In vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., 'popcorn worker's lung' (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10-7 M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  9. Application of Plackett-Burman Experimental Design for Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger Using Shea Butter Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyu Salihu; Muntari Bala; Bala, Shuaibu M.

    2013-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production by Aspergillus niger using shea butter cake as the main substrate. Out of the eleven medium components screened, six comprising of sucrose, (NH4)2SO4, Na2HPO4, MgSO4, Tween-80, and olive oil were found to contribute positively to the overall lipase production with a maximum production of 3.35 U/g. Influence of tween-80 on lipase production was investigated, and 1.0% (v/w) of tween...

  10. Comparison of Expansion During Fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols Oil-Based and Butter Fat-Based Doughs

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki; Yasuhide Sakane and Michio Kasai

    2010-01-01

    Expansion during fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols (MCT) oil-based doughs compared to butter fat-based doughs were studied, and the mechanism of fermentation accelerator of MCT oilbased in dough was also investigated. The results obtained as follows; the concentration of MCT oil-based accelerator on the fermentation of dough was confirmed maximum at 6.0%. The rate of expansion became the maximum a 60% of gluten contents at the dough with MCT oil-based. Mechanism of expansion of fe...

  11. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat. PMID:26246145

  12. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat.

  13. Lactic acid bacteria from Sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter from sheep's milk: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Boudjerda, J.; Leghouchi, E.; Karam, N. E.

    2009-07-01

    Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep's milk in Jijel (East of Algeria). These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactic ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exo polysaccharide. (Author) 42 refs.

  14. TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-09-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare structured TG from coconut oil TG by partially replacing some of the atherogenic saturated FA with stearic acid, which is known to have a neutral effect on lipid levels in the body. The level of stearic acid was increased from 4% in the native coconut oil to 40% in the structured lipids, with most of the stearic acid being incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TG. When structured lipids were fed to rats at a 10% level for a period of 60 d, a 15% decrease in total cholesterol and a 23% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels in the serum were observed when compared to those fed coconut oil. Similarly, the total and free cholesterol levels in the livers of the rats fed structured lipids were lowered by 31 and 36%, respectively, when compared to those fed coconut oil. The TG levels in the serum and in the liver showed decreases of 14 and 30%, respectively, in animals fed structured lipids. Rats fed cocoa butter and structured lipids having a similar amount of stearic acid had similar lipid levels in the serum and liver. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potential of coconut oil lipids can be reduced significantly by enriching them with stearic acid. This also changed the physical properties of coconut oil closer to those of cocoa butter as determined by DSC.

  15. Pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de sabores Flavored cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se as características de pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de chocolate e canela. As formulações foram elaboradas pela moagem dos ingredientes até obtenção de uma pasta homogênea. Analisaram-se: umidade, pH, cinzas, proteína, gordura, índice de acidez, atividade de água, textura e aceitação sensorial. Os produtos obtidos caracterizaram-se por baixos valores de atividade de água (Characteristics of cashew nut butter with added chocolate and cinnamon were evaluated. Formulations were obtained by grinding ingredients onto a homogeneous paste, which was analyzed for moisture, pH, ash, protein, fat, acid value, water activity, texture and sensory acceptance. Products obtained showed low water activity (<0.32 as well as moisture content (<1.4%. Fat (45.3 to 49.1% and protein (15.4 to 16.3% content were high. Nut butter formulations showed good sensory acceptance (82.9 to 100.0% and purchase intent (60.0 to 80.0% by the tasters.

  16. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  17. Isothermal Crystallization Behavior of Cocoa Butter at 17 and 20 °C with and without Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolle, Annelien; Goderis, Bart; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2016-05-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and real-time X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation were used to elucidate isothermal cocoa butter crystallization at 17 and 20 °C in the absence and presence of different limonene concentrations. At 17 °C, a three-step crystallization process was visible for pure cocoa butter, whereby first an unknown structure with long spacings between a 2L and 3L structure was formed that rapidly transformed into the more stable α structure, which in turn was converted into more stable β' crystals. At 20 °C, an α-mediated β' crystallization was observed. The addition of limonene resulted in a reduction of the amount of unstable crystals and an acceleration of polymorphic transitions. At 17 °C, the crystallization process was accelerated due to the acceleration of the formation of more stable polymorphic forms, whereas there were insufficient α crystals for an α-mediated β' nucleation at 20 °C, resulting in a slower crystallization process.

  18. Levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, M; Read, W A; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and total phthalate ester plasticizer levels were determined in milk, cream, butter and cheese samples from a variety of sources from three European countries (UK, Norway and Spain). Samples of milk (from Norway) obtained at various stages during collection, transportation and packaging operations showed no apparent trends in phthalate contamination with total phthalate levels (expressed as DEHP equivalents) in the raw milk of between 0.12 and 0.28 mg/kg. On processing the DEHP was concentrated in the cream at levels up to 1.93 mg/kg, whereas low fat milk contained from cheese, butter and other fatty products varied considerably in their levels of contamination, the highest being cheese samples containing 17 mg/kg of DEHP and 114 mg/kg total phthalate. However, the majority of samples contained 0.6-3.0 mg/kg DEHP and 4-20 mg/kg total phthalate. UK cream samples contained levels of 0.2-2.7 mg/kg DEHP and 1.8-19.0 mg/kg total phthalate. The level found in these products was too high to have resulted solely from milk by concentration in the fat phase and must therefore have arisen in other ways.

  19. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  20. The effect of flow rate at different pressures and temperatures on cocoa butter extracted from cocoa nib using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asep, E K; Jinap, S; Russly, A R; Jahurul, M H A; Ghafoor, Kashif; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-05-01

    The effects of flow rate, different pressures and temperatures on cocoa butter extracted from cocoa nib using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were investigated. The yield was analyzed for total fat content, triacylglycerol (TG) profile, and fatty acid (FA) profile. Extractions were carried out at pressures of 20 and 35 MPa, temperatures of 50 and 60 °C, and CO2 flow rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 4 mL min(-1). The result shows that the yield of cocoa butter extract increased with increasing pressure, temperature, and flow rate and the optimum conditions for the maximum cocoa butter extraction were 35 MPa, 60 °C and 2 mL min(-1), repectively. TGs and FAs were found to be similar in composition to those of cocoa butter obtained by conventional methods. The lower molecular weight TGs and FAs showed higher selectivity compared to higher molecular weight TGs and FAs. PMID:27407195

  1. The effect of flow rate at different pressures and temperatures on cocoa butter extracted from cocoa nib using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asep, E K; Jinap, S; Russly, A R; Jahurul, M H A; Ghafoor, Kashif; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-05-01

    The effects of flow rate, different pressures and temperatures on cocoa butter extracted from cocoa nib using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were investigated. The yield was analyzed for total fat content, triacylglycerol (TG) profile, and fatty acid (FA) profile. Extractions were carried out at pressures of 20 and 35 MPa, temperatures of 50 and 60 °C, and CO2 flow rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 4 mL min(-1). The result shows that the yield of cocoa butter extract increased with increasing pressure, temperature, and flow rate and the optimum conditions for the maximum cocoa butter extraction were 35 MPa, 60 °C and 2 mL min(-1), repectively. TGs and FAs were found to be similar in composition to those of cocoa butter obtained by conventional methods. The lower molecular weight TGs and FAs showed higher selectivity compared to higher molecular weight TGs and FAs.

  2. [Immunologic analysis of milk, hen egg, and soybean proteins in butter and margarine, and clinical assessment for availability of hypoallergenic margarine (HAM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, S; Takahashi, Y; Aihara, Y; Kurihara, K; Suguro, H; Matsuyama, S

    1996-12-01

    To determine the allergenic proteins in commercially available butter and margarine, protein fractions were extracted and immunologically analyzed against milk, hen egg, and soybean antigens. Butter and 10 kinds of margarine were proved to contain these proteins in various concentrations by ELISA and immunoblotting methods by use of the rabbit antisera developed against each food proteins. However, hypoallergenic margarine was found to contain no such proteins at all. Using sera obtained from atopic dermatitis patients, previously detected high levels of IgE antibodies to milk, hen egg, or soybeans, the extracted protein fraction from butter and margarine was analyzed whether these proteins react with IgG antibodies in patients' sera. The sera with high levels of specific IgE recognized protein antigens in these extracts except those from hypoallergenic margarine, suggesting that proteins in butter and margarine may become allergenic for the patients sensitive to the proteins, and that hypoallergenic margarine will be a reasonable alternative for the allergic patients to milk, hen egg, or soybeans.

  3. Effect of growth on the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella Tennessee and Oranienburg in peanut butter, measured by a new thin-layer thermal death time device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A; Fleischman, Gregory J; Chirtel, Stuart J; Grove, Stephen F

    2012-06-01

    In published data the thermal destruction of Salmonella species in peanut butter deviates from pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reasons for such deviation are unknown. This study examined both the method used to measure the thermal destruction rate and the method of growth of the microorganisms to explain variations in destruction kinetics. Growth on a solid matrix results in a different physiological state that may provide greater resistance to adverse environments. In this study, Salmonella Tennessee and Oranienburg were grown for 24 h at 37°C under aerobic conditions in broth and agar media to represent planktonic and sessile cell growth, respectively. Peanut butter was held at 25°C and tested for Salmonella levels immediately after inoculation and at various time intervals up to 2 weeks. Thermal resistance was measured at 85°C by use of a newly developed thin-layer metal sample holder. Although thermal heat transfer through the metal device resulted in longer tau values than those obtained with plastic bags (32.5 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 1.9 s), the bags have a relative variability of about 15 % compared with about 3 % in the plates, allowing improved uniformity of sample treatment. The two serovars tested in the thin-layer device showed similar overall thermal resistance levels in peanut butter regardless of growth in sessile or planktonic states. However, thermal destruction curves from sessile cultures exhibited greater linearity than those obtained from planktonic cells (P = 0.0198 and 0.0047 for Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Tennessee, respectively). In addition, both Salmonella serovars showed significantly higher survival in peanut butter at 25°C when originally grown on solid media (P = 0.001) with a environment such as peanut butter. PMID:22691482

  4. Compatibility study of a low-calorie cocoa butter alternative%一种低热代可可脂的相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志华; 黄健花; 韩璐; 金青哲; 王兴国

    2015-01-01

    采用等温曲线和ΔSFC 曲线分析法,研究了自制短长碳链低热代可可脂(LCSL)与市售可可脂(CB)、非月桂酸类代可可脂(CBR)、月桂酸类代可可脂(CBS)、类可可脂(CBE)产品的相容性,结果表明:LCSL 与市售产品在低温下的相容性较好,其中与 CBS 的相容性最好,温度低于20℃时 LCSL 与 CBS 可任何比例相容;LCSL 适合完全取代 CB 用于生产糖果或巧克力制品,且在配方中需控制 CB 含量低于5%。%The compatibility of the blends of a low–calorie cocoa butter alternative(LCSL)prepared in laboratory and commercially cocoa butter(CB),non–lauric cocoa butter replacers(CBR), lauric cocoa butter substitute(CBS)and cocoa butter equivalents(CBE)were studied. The solid fat isothermal curve and solid fat difference(ΔSFC)curve indicated the good compatibility of LCSL with CB or CB alternatives at lower temperature. The mixture of LCSL and CBS was the best one. Any proportion of compatibility between LCSL and CBS was detected when the temperature was lower than 20 ℃ . LCSL was suitable for replacing CB completely in chocolate,chocolate coating and other confectionery products,and the content of CB should be lower than 5%.

  5. Application of Plackett-Burman Experimental Design for Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger Using Shea Butter Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Aliyu; Bala, Muntari; Bala, Shuaibu M.

    2013-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production by Aspergillus niger using shea butter cake as the main substrate. Out of the eleven medium components screened, six comprising of sucrose, (NH4)2SO4, Na2HPO4, MgSO4, Tween-80, and olive oil were found to contribute positively to the overall lipase production with a maximum production of 3.35 U/g. Influence of tween-80 on lipase production was investigated, and 1.0% (v/w) of tween-80 resulted in maximum lipase production of 6.10 U/g. Thus, the statistical approach employed in this study allows for rapid identification of important medium parameters affecting the lipase production, and further statistical optimization of medium and process parameters can be explored using response surface methodology. PMID:25937979

  6. Comparison of Expansion During Fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols Oil-Based and Butter Fat-Based Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion during fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols (MCT oil-based doughs compared to butter fat-based doughs were studied, and the mechanism of fermentation accelerator of MCT oilbased in dough was also investigated. The results obtained as follows; the concentration of MCT oil-based accelerator on the fermentation of dough was confirmed maximum at 6.0%. The rate of expansion became the maximum a 60% of gluten contents at the dough with MCT oil-based. Mechanism of expansion of fermentation on MCT oil-based doughs was discussed. Gluten is formed of gliadin and glutenin. Gluten was denatured by MCT oil-based, which gluten molecule grows large. Fermentation is promoted by this phenomenon. This fact can provide new information to the bread-making industry.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of odour-active methionyl esters of fatty acids via esterification and transesterification of butter oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Sun, Jingcan; Fu, Caili; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan; Li, Tianhu; Huang, Dejian

    2014-02-15

    Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID.

  8. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

  9. The Quality of Milk Chocolate Bars by Substitution of Cocoa Butter, Milk Powder and Lecithin Soya – A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasni Dian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk chocolate is most important products of confectionary that are well-known for its consumer, and a precious ended product in entirely value added chain in cacao. In chocolate industry, each ingredient plays an important role in product quality. This research aims to assess the possibility of substitution of cocoa butter and its impact on physiological appearance and sensory quality hedonically, to formulate optimum formulation of palm oil as cocoa butter substitute (0%; 10%; 20%, milk powder (0%; 10%; 20% and lechitin (0.5%; 1%; 1.5%. Melting point and attribute preferences test were conducted for aroma, texture and flavour. Melting point were indicated that interaction within palm oil replacement and milk powder had significant impact to lowering the melting point of milk chocolate, whilst addition of lechitin up to 1% also decreased the melting point range. Attribute preference test from 40 untrained panellists evaluated that palm oil replacement up to 20% had improved the panellists preferences for aroma whereas it had contradiction effect for texture. For taste, additional milk powder up to 20% definitely enhances the taste preferences. Partial Least Regression shows that palm oil replacement had negative effect on aroma and flavour of milk chocolate, whereas it has positive impact on texture. The increase of additional of milk powder plays an negative impact as well to panellist perceptions towards aroma, flavour and texture. Lechitin as emulsifier influences significantly towards the aroma and flavour of milk chocolate, but not for texture. Sensory evaluation revealed that milk chocolate made from 10% palm oil substitution, 10% milk powder and 1% lechitin as more accepted hedonically as conventional milk chocolate.

  10. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Brown, Eric; Keys, Chris; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Muruvanda, Tim; Grim, Christopher; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Jarvis, Karen; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc W; Musser, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee) to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana), which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs), suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts during future

  11. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Wilson

    Full Text Available Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana, which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs, suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts

  12. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Brown, Eric; Keys, Chris; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Muruvanda, Tim; Grim, Christopher; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Jarvis, Karen; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc W; Musser, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee) to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana), which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs), suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts during future

  13. A Case for Regular Aflatoxin Monitoring in Peanut Butter in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from a 3-Year Survey in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Monyo, Emmanuel S

    2016-05-01

    A 3-year comprehensive analysis of aflatoxin contamination in peanut butter was conducted in Zambia, sub-Saharan Africa. The study analyzed 954 containers of 24 local and imported peanut butter brands collected from shops in Chipata, Mambwe, Petauke, Katete, and Nyimba districts and also in Lusaka from 2012 to 2014. For analysis, a sample included six containers of a single brand, from the same processing batch number and the same shop. Each container was quantitatively analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in six replicates by using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; thus, aflatoxin contamination level of a given sample was derived from an average of 36 test values. Results showed that 73% of the brands tested in 2012 were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 130 μg/kg. In 2013, 80% of the brands were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 10,740 μg/kg. Compared with brand data from 2012 and 2013, fewer brands in 2014, i.e., 53%, had aflatoxin B1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 1,000 μg/kg. Of the eight brands tested repeatedly across the 3-year period, none consistently averaged ≤20 μg/kg. Our survey clearly demonstrates the regular occurrence of high levels of AF B1 in peanut butter in Zambia. Considering that some of the brands tested originated from neighboring countries such as Malawi, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, the current findings provide a sub-Saharan regional perspective regarding the safety of peanut butter.

  14. Influence of water activity on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in peanut butter by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different electric power levels to inactivate three pathogens in peanut butter with different aw. Peanut butter inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 aw) were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4, and 6 kW for up to 5 min. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three pathogens by 1.97 to >5.17 log CFU/g. Four kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these pathogens by 0.41-1.98 log CFU/g. Two kW microwave heating did not inactivate pathogens in peanut butter. Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models were used to describe the survival curves of three pathogens because they exhibited shouldering behavior. Td and T5d values were calculated based on the Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models. Td values of the three pathogens were similar to D-values of Salmonella subjected to conventional heating at 90 °C but T5d values were much shorter than those of conventional heating at 90 °C. Generally, increased aw resulted in shorter T5d values of pathogens, but not shorter Td values. The results of this study can be used to optimize microwave heating pasteurization system of peanut butter. PMID:27554151

  15. Influence of water activity on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in peanut butter by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different electric power levels to inactivate three pathogens in peanut butter with different aw. Peanut butter inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 aw) were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4, and 6 kW for up to 5 min. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three pathogens by 1.97 to >5.17 log CFU/g. Four kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these pathogens by 0.41-1.98 log CFU/g. Two kW microwave heating did not inactivate pathogens in peanut butter. Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models were used to describe the survival curves of three pathogens because they exhibited shouldering behavior. Td and T5d values were calculated based on the Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models. Td values of the three pathogens were similar to D-values of Salmonella subjected to conventional heating at 90 °C but T5d values were much shorter than those of conventional heating at 90 °C. Generally, increased aw resulted in shorter T5d values of pathogens, but not shorter Td values. The results of this study can be used to optimize microwave heating pasteurization system of peanut butter.

  16. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Letícia A; Nunes, Juliana C; Gama, Marco Antônio S; Leite, Paulo Emilio C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2013-12-01

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) depletion-repletion study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary c9,t11 CLA on C-reactive protein, transcription factor NFκB, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inflammatory mediators (adiponectin, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10), body composition, and erythrocyte membrane composition in healthy normal-weight human adults. CLA depletion was achieved through an 8-week period of restricted dairy fat intake (depletion phase; CLA intake was 5.2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day). The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers (19 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 36 years), with body mass index between 18.0 and 29.9 kg m(-2). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of both depletion and repletion phases. The content of CLA in erythrocytes decreased during CLA-depletion and increased during CLA-repletion. Intake of CLA-enriched butter increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but reduced transcription factor NFκB in blood and serum levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-8 and inactive metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, reduced activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in serum was observed during the CLA-repletion period. In contrast, intake of CLA-enriched butter had no effects on body composition (DXA analysis) as well as on serum levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and IL-4. Taken together, our results indicate that the intake of a c9,t11 CLA-enriched butter by normal-weight subjects induces beneficial changes in immune modulators associated with sub-clinical inflammation in overweight individuals.

  17. A Case for Regular Aflatoxin Monitoring in Peanut Butter in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from a 3-Year Survey in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Monyo, Emmanuel S

    2016-05-01

    A 3-year comprehensive analysis of aflatoxin contamination in peanut butter was conducted in Zambia, sub-Saharan Africa. The study analyzed 954 containers of 24 local and imported peanut butter brands collected from shops in Chipata, Mambwe, Petauke, Katete, and Nyimba districts and also in Lusaka from 2012 to 2014. For analysis, a sample included six containers of a single brand, from the same processing batch number and the same shop. Each container was quantitatively analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in six replicates by using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; thus, aflatoxin contamination level of a given sample was derived from an average of 36 test values. Results showed that 73% of the brands tested in 2012 were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 130 μg/kg. In 2013, 80% of the brands were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 10,740 μg/kg. Compared with brand data from 2012 and 2013, fewer brands in 2014, i.e., 53%, had aflatoxin B1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 1,000 μg/kg. Of the eight brands tested repeatedly across the 3-year period, none consistently averaged ≤20 μg/kg. Our survey clearly demonstrates the regular occurrence of high levels of AF B1 in peanut butter in Zambia. Considering that some of the brands tested originated from neighboring countries such as Malawi, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, the current findings provide a sub-Saharan regional perspective regarding the safety of peanut butter. PMID:27296427

  18. 智能酥油提炼机的设计与实现%Design and implementation of intelligent butter refining machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧玲; 肖伟; 益西拉姆; 普顿

    2011-01-01

    本设计结合西藏地区酥油提炼过程繁琐且提炼成品不理想,造成市场上酥油价格昂贵的现状,设计出了具有最佳提炼速度与提炼时间的酥油提炼机。该提炼机是以SPCE061A为主控制器,通过调节电机驱动控制板的控制信号,使其占空比发生变化.从而实现对电机的精确控制。该酥油提炼机操作简单,实用性强,与西藏地区的实际需求相结合,具有一定的推广前景。%Combined with the butter refining process complex and most refined product disqualified in Tibet area, which results in high price of butter in current market, a butter refining machine is achieved, which can provide optimal refining speed and time. The refining machine adopts SPCE061A as main controller processor, which adjusts the control signal's dutyfactor to control motor precisely. The refining machine has characteristic of simple operation rule, strong practicality, and combines with actual demand of Tibet area, which has certain promotion prospects.

  19. Effects of Development Interventions on the Productivity and Profitability of Women Shea Butter Processors in the West Gonja District of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afishata Mohammed Abujaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of development agencies’ interventions on productivity and profitability of women shea butter processors in contributing to the development of the shea nut industry in Northern Ghana. A survey of 114 women shea butter processors, comprising of 57 each of both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of development interventions in the West Gonja District were sampled and interviewed with a semi structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also held to obtain qualitative data. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA conducted at 5% level of significance found that labour productivity of beneficiaries of development interventions by way of training, equipment and machinery provisions do not differ significantly from that of respondents who had never benefited from such interventions. Similar results were found with regard to average monthly profit made by beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. Market sourcing was identified as a major problem affecting women shea butter processors in the district. The study therefore recommends that development agencies programs should highlight follow-up trainings, monitoring and supervisions to ensure the sustainability of projects so that they can continue to yield expected impacts. Also, development agents should include market sourcing opportunities in rural enterprise improvement interventions since that remains a challenge to the realization of development interventions

  20. Role of butter layer in low-cycle fatigue behavior of modified 9Cr and CrMoV dissimilar rotor welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Modified 9Cr–CrMoV dissimilar turbine rotor was successfully welded by NG-SAW. • LCF properties of both welded joints were approximate at smaller strain amplitude. • Tempered martensite with amounts of carbides in HAZ contributed to weakest zones. • Matched BL determined LCF properties of whole joint for dissimilar welded rotor. - Abstract: The present work aims at studying the role of butter layer (BL) in low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of modified 9Cr steel and CrMoV steel dissimilar welded joint. The significant difference of the chemical composition of base metals (BMs) makes it a challenge to achieve sound welded joint. Therefore, buttering was considered to obtain a transition layer between the dissimilar steels. The LCF tests of two kinds of specimens without and with butter layer were performed applying strain-controlled cyclic load with different axial strain amplitudes. The test results indicated that the number of cycles at higher strain amplitudes of welded joint without butter layer was greatly higher than that of the joint with butter layer, while the fatigue lifetime to crack initiation (2Nf) became closer to each other at low and middle strain amplitudes. The failure was in the tempered heat affected zone (HAZ) at the CrMoV side for specimens without BL, while the fracture occurred at the tempered HAZ in the BL for specimens with BL. The microstructure details of BM, BL, HAZ and weld metals (WMs) were revealed by optical microscopy (OM). It was found that the tempered martensite was major microstructure for welded joint and much more carbides were observed in tempered HAZ than other parts due to the repeated tempering. Microhardness test indicated a softest zone existing tempered HAZ of BL and also there was a softer zone in tempered HAZ at the CrMoV side due to repeated tempering during welding and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). And scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to observe the fractography. It was

  1. Interesterification of butter fat by partially purified extracellular lipases from Pseudomonas putida, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabai, F; Kermasha, S; Morin, A

    1995-11-01

    Three extracellular lipases were produced by batch fermentation of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 795, Aspergillus niger CBS 131.52 and Rhizopus oryzae ATCC 34612 during the late phase of growth, at 72, 96 and 96 h, respectively. The lipases were partially purified by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation. The lipase of P. putida was optimal at pH 8.0 whereas those from A. niger and R. oryzae were optimal at pH 7.5. The A. niger lipase had the lowest V max value (0.51×10(-3) U/min) and R. oryzae the highest (1.86×10(-3) U/min). The K m values for P. putida, A. niger and R. oryzae lipases were 1.18, 0.97, and 0.98 mg/ml, respectively. Native PAGE of the partially-purified lipase extracts showed two to four major bands. The interesterification of butter fat by A. niger lipase decreased the water activity as well as the hydrolytic activity. The A. niger lipase had the highest interesterification yield value (26%) and the R. oryzae lipase the lowest (4%). In addition, A. niger lipase exhibited the highest decrease (17%) in long-chain hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0) at the sn-2-position; the P. putida lipase demonstrated the least favourable changes in specificity at the same position. PMID:24415019

  2. Studies in vitro to discern the structural requirements for carcinogenicity in analogues of the carcinogen 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (butter yellow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, J; Styles, J A; Paton, D

    1980-01-01

    4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (butter yellow, DAB), is the parent member of a large family of 'azo-carcinogens'. Experiments have been conducted in vitro to determine the key structural requirements for carcinogenic activity in this chemical class, and it is suggested, based on the activity observed for 4-cyano-N,N-dimethylaniline, that the 4-phenylazo group of DAB is not an essential structural feature per se. The N-oxide derivative of DAB has been evaluated in vitro and the positive response observed related to its metabolic activation. It is concluded that cyclic amines, such as pyrrolidine, can replace the N-dimethyl group of DAB with a retention of biological activity. The confusion that exists in the literature concerning the chemical identity and carcinogenic status of 2-dimethylaminobenzo[c]cinnoline has been investigated, and it is concluded that it is a potential animal carcinogen. This observation also indicates that the phenylazo group of DAB can be incorporated within an aromatic ring system with a retention of biological activity. As observed earlier with a mixture of azobenzene and DAB, azobenzene also potentiates the cell transforming properties of the above cinnoline derivative in vitro. Two charts are presented. The first attempts to integrate DAB within a much larger family of carcinogens, and the second illustrates the usefulness of structure-activity studies in general.

  3. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  4. Detection of Butter Adulteration with Lard by Employing (1)H-NMR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Man, Yaakob bin Che; Rohman, Abdul; Rosman, Arieff Salleh; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2015-01-01

    The authentication of food products from the presence of non-allowed components for certain religion like lard is very important. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of butter adulterated with lard by simultaneously quantification of all proton bearing compounds, and consequently all relevant sample classes. Since the spectra obtained were too complex to be analyzed visually by the naked eyes, the classification of spectra was carried out.The multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) regression was used for modelling the relationship between actual value of lard and predicted value. The model yielded a highest regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998 and the lowest root mean square error calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0091% and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0090, respectively. Cross validation testing evaluates the predictive power of the model. PLS model was shown as good models as the intercept of R(2)Y and Q(2)Y were 0.0853 and -0.309, respectively.

  5. Buttered Tea and Buttered Tea Party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    YEYULINFOLKLOREKetlesusedtomakebuterandbutercontainers.WhenIrecentlyvisitedafriendinLhasa,thewholefamilywasdrinkingbuteredtea...

  6. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seven, Serap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES. In the kernels and peanut butter, acidity, iodine and peroxide value, relative density, refractive index, tocopherol, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter have been determined. In the seed and butter oils of ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars, respectively; myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, gadoleic and behenic acids were identified mainly by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of peanut seeds and butter of both cultivar were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Both variety exhibited higher concentrations of oleic acid. Consequently, peanut seeds and butters of ÇOM and NC-7 were found rich in oil, protein, oleic and linoleic acids and mineral compositions. Increasing of high oleic / linoleic ratio and tocopherol contents are very important due to stability of oil. Also, the peanut butter are nutritionally equivalent to peanut kernel.En las muestras de dos diferentes tipos de cacahuete y manteca de cacahuete, obtenidas de localidades diferentes de la misma región, se han determinado: humedad, proteína, grasa, celulosa, ceniza y energía. Por otro lado, se ha medido el peso de 1000 semillas y sus tamaños. En las muestras se han estudiado mediante un Espectrofotómetro de Emisión Atómica - Plasma con Acoplamiento Inductivo (ICP-AES el contenido en Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se y V. En los granos y en la manteca de cacahuete se ha determinado la acidez, el índice de iodo, el índice de per

  7. Effects of pH values on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldaiem, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pH values (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads. Sensory evaluation of the samples decreased with an increase in pH values and during the storage periods. In addition, phase separation occurred with pH 6, 6.5 and 7. The differences in peroxide values and oil stability index among the samples compared to the control samples were slight, while peroxide values and oil stability index decreased during the storage periods. Changes in fatty acid composition among the pH treatments and during the storage periods were detected. Differences in solid fat contents among pH treatments separately and during the storage periods were negligible. A decline in the hardness and viscosity of the samples were accompanied by an increase in pH values, and the treatments had increased effects during the storage periods. Generally, an increase of pH values did not affect the melting profiles of the spreads. Additionally, changes between the melting profiles of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads were detected.El objetivo fue determinar los efectos del pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 y 7 en las propiedades de mantequillas para untar bajas en grasa de búfalos y vacas. La puntuación sensorial de las muestras disminuyó con el aumento del pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento, además, la separación de fases se produjo con pH de 6, 6,5 y 7. Se observaron diferencias en los valores de peróxido e índice de estabilidad de la grasa de las muestras en comparación con las muestras control, mientras que los valores de peróxido incrementaron, el índice de estabilidad de la grasa disminuyó durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Se observan cambios en la composición de ácidos grasos entre los tratamientos de pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa sólida entre los tratamientos de pH por separado y durante los

  8. Effects of butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins, incorporation of fatty acids into lipid classes, plasma C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, hemostatic variables, and insulin in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Raff, M.; Basu, S.;

    2006-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that ruminant trans fatty acids (FAs), such as vaccenic acid, do not increase the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, the effects of ruminant trans FAs on risk markers of IHD have been poorly investigated. Objective: The objective was to investigate...... that was high in vaccenic acid (3.6 g vaccenic acid/d) or a control butter with a low content of vaccenic acid. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after the intervention. Results: The intake of the vaccenic acid-rich diet resulted in 6% and 9% lower total cholesterol and plasma HDL-cholesterol...... observed. Conclusions: Butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated FAs resulted in significantly lower total and HDL cholesterol than did the control butter with higher amounts of saturated FAs. It may be that the differences were due to the greater content of monounsaturated FAs and the lesser...

  9. Production of 1, 3 Regiospecific Lipase From Bacillus sp. RK-3: Its Potential to Synthesize Cocoa Butter Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutt, K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bacillus sp. RK-3 isolated from soil initially produced 3.28 IU/mL of 1, 3 regiospecific lipase in medium containing 1.0% olive oil. After process optimization, 10.56 IU/mL of lipase was produced in medium containing sunflower oil 1.5 %, tryptone 2 %, Ca2+ 20 mM using 3 % inoculum in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask containing 50 mL of the medium at pH 7.0, 250 rpm and 30 °C for 36 h. Scale up in 10 L bioreactor with 7.5 L of the optimized medium yielded 16.41 IU/mL in 30 h resulting in net 6.0 fold increase in enzyme units as against initial units of 3.28 IU/mL obtained under unoptimized conditions. The productivity in 10 L bioreactor is 0.547 IU/mL/h as against initial of 0.091 IU/mL/h. The lipase exhibited 95.12 % stability in hexane, followed by THF (75.83 % and petroleum ether (73.85 % after 24 h of incubation. Cocoa butter substitute (CBS synthesis was attempted in a reaction containing 1.2 IU/mg of lipase using palm oil and methyl stearate in hexane. The reaction product being formed was analyzed qualitatively using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and quantified by gas chromatography (GC which showed 83.17 % conversion efficiency for CBS in 24 h.

  10. Multi-residue determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceutical residues in milk powder, butter, fish tissue and eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-06-23

    A simple and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals, belonging in more than 20 different classes, in butter, milk powder, egg and fish tissue has been developed. The method involves a simple generic solid-liquid extraction step (solvent extraction, SE) with 0.1% formic acid in aqueous solution of EDTA 0.1% (w/v)-acetonitrile (ACN)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1:1, v/v) with additional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Precipitation of lipids and proteins was promoted by subjecting the extracts at very low temperature (-23°C) for 12h. Further cleanup with hexane ensures fat removal from the matrix. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Two separate runs were performed for positive and negative ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Particular attention was devoted to extraction optimization: different sample-to-extracting volume ratios, different concentrations of formic acid in the extraction solvent and different ultrasonic extraction temperatures were tested in butter, egg and milk powder samples. The method was also applied in fish tissue samples. It was validated, on the basis of international guidelines, for all four matrices. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 50% and 120% in all matrices studied, with RSD values in the range of 1-18%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.008 μg kg(-1) (oxfendazole in butter) to 3.15 μg kg(-1) (hydrochlorthiazide in egg). The evaluated method provides reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 115 veterinary drug and pharmaceutical residues in foods of animal origin and has been successfully applied in real samples.

  11. Effect of Emulsifiers on Crystallization Behavior of Cocoa Butter%乳化剂对可可脂结晶行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风艳; 王兴国; 孙小玲; 徐春伟; 马素琴; 黄凯; 刘元法

    2012-01-01

    从结晶热力学、动力学及形态学3个方面考察了5种乳化剂对可可脂结晶行为的影响.结果表明:单甘脂的添加降低了可可脂在25~30℃温度范围内的固体脂肪含量,不利于巧克力的加工.山梨醇酐单硬脂酸酯(Span60)的添加使可可脂晶体的三维球晶生长方式向二维平面晶体生长方式转变,并显著加快可可脂的结晶速率.Span60和聚乙氧基硬脂酸山梨糖醇(Tween60)缩短了可可脂的半结晶时间,而单甘脂、卵磷脂及聚甘油多聚蓖麻酸酯(PGPR)使可可脂的半结晶时间延长.偏光显微镜结果表明乳化剂的添加使得可可脂球晶的直径增大.%The effect of emulsifiers on crystallization behavior of cocoa butter were evaluated from the aspects of thermodynamics,dynamics and morphology. Results indicated that;the addition of monoglyceride reduced the solid fat content of cocoa butter at 25~30 ℃, which was not conducive to the processing of chocolate. The three dimensional sphere -crystal growth was changed by the addition of Span60 to two - dimensional crystal growth. Meanwhile,the crystallization rate was significantly increased by the addition of Span60. The hypocrystalline time(t1/2) of cocoa butter was reduced by the addition of Span60 and Tween60,while prolonged by the addition of monoglyceride,lecithin,and PGPR. The polarized microscopy results indicated that addition of emulsifiers increased the diameter of cocoa butter sphere - crystals.

  12. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Seven, Serap; Özcan, Musa

    2003-01-01

    In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). In the kernels an...

  13. 不同年龄・胎次和泌乳月对奶牛乳脂率的影响%Effects of Dairy Cow Age, Fetal Times and Lactation Month on the Butter-fat Percentage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双军; 尚娇; 尚海彬; 李强子; 张丽

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究不同年龄、胎次和泌乳月对奶牛乳脂率的影响。[方法]对宁夏平吉堡奶牛场1500头成年奶牛乳脂率进行测定,研究不同年龄、胎次和泌乳月对奶牛乳脂率的影响。[结果]奶牛平均乳脂率为3.64%,随着年龄的增长而逐渐下降,乳脂率由4岁的3.94%降至9岁的3.54%;奶牛平均乳脂率随着胎次的增加也逐渐下降,由1胎的4.03%降至8胎的3.26%;奶牛平均乳脂率随着泌乳月的延长而呈两头高中间低的变化趋势。[结论]该研究结果对今后的奶牛生产具有一定的指导意义。%Objective] To research the effects of dairy cow age, fetal times and lactation month on the butter-fat percentage.[Method] Butter-fat percentage of 1 500 adult cows was detected in Ningxia Pingjibao Dairy Farm.Effects of dairy cow age, fetal times and lactation month on the butter-fat percentage were researched.[Result] The average butter-fat percentage of dairy cow was 3.64%, which gradually reduced as the age increased.The butter-fat percentage reduced from 3.94% at 4-year old to 3.54% at 9-year old.The average butter-fat percentage of dairy cow gradually reduced as the dairy cow enhanced, which declined from 4.03% of the first fetus time to the eighth fetus.The average butter-fat per-centage of dairy cow showed a change trend of peaking at both sides.[Conclusion] This research provides certain guidance for the dairy cow pro-duction in future.

  14. 代可可脂花生夹心糖制作工艺优化%Optimization of Ingredient Composition for Cocoa Butter Substitute/Peanut Bonbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆梅; 靳靖; 魏春燕; 吴聪; 黄博英

    2012-01-01

    以花生糖为糖芯,代可可脂为主要包衣材料,制作代可可脂巧克力花生夹心糖。利用响应面分析法优化糖芯制作工艺。根据Box-Behnken中心组合试验设计原理对工艺条件进行优化,在分析各因素显著性及其交互作用的基础上,得出花生糖芯口感最佳配方为:糖芯的最佳配料为白糖-淀粉糖浆-花生粉末-猪油(添加量质量配比为3.33:4.02:7.24:1),包衣材料的最佳配料为白糖30%、乳化剂0.5%、代可可脂-可可粉8:1(m/m);包衣厚度1.4mm,包衣温度50℃。%In this study,cocoa butter substitute/peanut bonbons were made with peanut sugar as the core and cocoa butter substitute as the main coating material.Response surface methodology was used to optimize the ingredient composition of bonbon core and coating based on a central composite design.According the results of significance analysis of various variables and their interactions,the optimal bonbon core was composed of sugar,starch syrup,peanut powder and lard at a mass ratio of 3.33:4.02:7.24:1,and the optimal bonbon coating was composed of 30% sugar,0.5% emulsifier,and cocoa butter substitute:cocoa powder at a mass ratio of 8:1,1.4 mm in thickness,and formed at 50 ℃.

  15. Optimization on butter oil powder formulations and emulsifying conditions%牛油粉末油脂配方及乳化条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范婷婷; 杨富民; 王炳祥

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop the butter powder formulation,to optimize the process conditions of the emulsion,based on emulsion stability and viscosity index,the butter powder formulation with carbohy-drates,proteins,stabilizers,composition and consumption of emulsifier and emulsifying conditions were studied by using the single factor test combined with orthogonal test.The results showed that composition of 30% butter,mass ratio of maltodextrin and glucose syrup was 5∶1,the consumption of 65%,sodium ca-seinate 3.5%,arabic gum 2.5%,emulsifier SE-13 0.5%,GMS 0.4%,CITREM 0.9%,under emulsifying temperature 75 ℃,emulsifying time for 15 min,the rotational speed of shearing machine 9 000 r/min,the e-mulsifying stability and embedding rate of the product was 96.7% and 92.49% respectively.%为了研制牛油粉末油脂配方,优化乳化工艺条件,以乳化稳定性和粘度为指标,采用单因素试验结合正交试验,对牛油粉末油脂配方中的碳水化合物、蛋白质、稳定剂、乳化剂组成和用量以及乳化条件进行了优化筛选.结果表明:最佳乳化条件为牛油30%,麦芽糊精∶葡萄糖浆为5∶1、用量65%,酪朊酸钠3.5%,阿拉伯胶2.5%,乳化剂SE-130.5%,GMS 0.4%,CITREM 0.9%,乳化温度75℃,乳化时间15 min,乳化剪切机转速9000 r/min的条件下,乳化稳定性为96.7%,产品包埋率达92.49%.

  16. Windmills, Butter, and Bacon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In spite of ideological concerns due to N.F.S. Grundtvig’s reservations about the natural sciences and the traditional education of his day, the Grundtvigian movement and, especially, teachers at the People’s High Schools and the agricultural schools played an important role in the dissemination ...

  17. Bread and Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiConsiglio, John

    2010-01-01

    Annual giving is the number one indicator that someone will make a major or planned gift. Annual funds are the meat and potatoes of fundraising. But if the annual fund has recently taken a backseat to major and megagifts, the recession made a bad situation even worse. Today, most annual fund performance indicators have plummeted. Virtually all…

  18. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Carla J.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  19. Guns, Butter, or Sheepskins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Solomon

    1985-01-01

    Some of the uneven effects of the coming enrollment decline are delineated. This condition may be exacerbated by the competition for 18-year-olds from the military and business and industry. Statistical comparisons are included. (MLW)

  20. Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strains from traditional butter made from camel milk in arid regions (Sahara of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem, Kaid Harche

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains previously isolated from the traditional butter made from camel milk (shmen were evaluated for some probiotic criteria. Among 38 strains investigated for bile resistance, 14 were tolerant to 2% oxgall with survival percentages ranging from 69 to 75%. Out of these, only 4 strains (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 were sufficiently resistant to pH 2.0 for 2 to 6 h incubation periods. Only crude extracts of L. plantarum SH12 and L. plantarum SH24 were inhibitory against Lactococcus lactis B8, the strain used as indicator. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts was completely lost after treatment with α-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. L. plantarum SH12 and SH24 strains were susceptible to penicillin G, oxacillin, vancomycin and clindamycin, but resistant to tetracycline and kanamycin. These strains showed rapid acidification activity (0.921 and 1.075 mmol/l of lactic acid, respectively, a good proteolytic activity (5.45 and 3.49 mg/l tyrosine at 72 h, respectively and high survival percentage after freeze-drying. None of the strains produced polysaccharides or haemolysin in sheep blood.Se evalúan algunas características probióticas de cepas de Lactobacillus plantarum aisladas de la mantequilla tradicional elaborada a partir de leche de camello (shmen. De 38 cepas investigadas para resistencia biliar, 14 fueron tolerantes a un 2% oxgall con porcentajes de supervivencia entre 69 y 75%. De éstas, sólo 4 cepas (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 fueron suficientemente resistentes a pH 2 con periodos de incubación entre 2 y 6 h. Únicamente los extractos crudos de L. plantarum SH12 y L. plantarum SH24 fueron inhibitorios frente a Lactococcus lactis B8, la cepa utilizada como indicador. La actividad antibacteriana de los extractos crudos se perdió completamente después de tratamiento con α-quimotripsina y proteinasa K. Las cepas SH12 y SH24 fueron susceptibles a la penicilina G, oxacilina

  1. Effect of fractional crystallization on composition and thermal properties of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla seed fat and cocoa butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanty, N. A.M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The fractional crystallization behaviors of cocoa butter (CB and enkabang fat (EF in acetone were investigated. Melted samples of CB and EF were mixed separately with acetone in 1:2 a (w/v ratio and partitioned into solid and liquid fractions under controlled temperature conditions. The isolated fractions were compared to their respective native samples with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as gas liquid chromatography (GLC, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. According to the results, partitioning of either CB or EF under solvent assisted crystallization conditions yielded a major solid and a minor liquid fraction. The solid and liquid fractions of both fats were found to display many similarities, but few differences with regard to their composition and thermal properties. While the solid fractions may be useful as a hard stock in hard margarine and cosmetic product formulation, the liquid fraction would be useful as an ingredient for food applications.Se investigan los comportamientos de una cristalización fraccionada de la manteca de cacao (CB y la grasa de enkabang (EF en acetona. Las muestras fundidas de CB y EF se mezclaron por separado con acetona en una relación 1:02 (w/v y se dividen en fracciones sólida y líquida bajo condiciones de temperatura controlada. Las fracciones aisladas se compararon con sus respectivas muestras nativas con respecto a diversos parámetros físico-químicos utilizando métodos químicos estándar, así como técnicas instrumentales, como la cromatografía gas-líquido (GLC, cromatografía líquida de fase inversa de alta resolución (RP-HPLC, y calorimetría de barrido diferencial (DSC. De acuerdo con los resultados, el fraccionamiento tanto de CB como EF bajo condiciones de cristalización asistida con disolvente produjo una fracción s

  2. "When Does It Stop Being Peanut Butter?": FDA Food Standards of Identity, Ruth Desmond, and the Shifting Politics of Consumer Activism, 1960s-1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Angie M

    2016-01-01

    This article uses a historical controversy over the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's standard of identity for peanut butter as a site for investigating three topics of high importance for historians of technology, consumption, and food activism: how new industrial food-processing technologies have become regulatory problems; how government, industry, and consumer actors negotiate standards development; and how laypeople try to shape technological artifacts in spaces dominated by experts. It examines the trajectory of consumer activist Ruth Desmond, co-founder of the organization the Federation of Homemakers. By following Desmond's evolving strategies, the article shows how the broader currents of the 1960s-70s consumer movement played out in a particular case. Initially Desmond used a traditional style that heavily emphasized her gendered identity, working within a grassroots organization to promote legislative and regulatory reforms. Later, she moved to a more modern advocacy approach, using adversarial legal methods to fight for consumer protections. PMID:26971728

  3. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar;

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha concentration compared with the control, P...

  4. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric J; Goldsmith, W Travis; Shimko, Michael J; Wells, J R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A; Case, Shannon L; Thompson, Janet A; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance,we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity.We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport,without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro.

  5. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric J; Goldsmith, W Travis; Shimko, Michael J; Wells, J R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A; Case, Shannon L; Thompson, Janet A; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance,we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity.We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport,without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. PMID:26454031

  6. Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serotype Tennessee Strain CDC07-0191, Implicated in the 2006-2007 Multistate Food-Borne Outbreak Linked to Peanut Butter in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangyu; Salazar, Joelle K; Frezet, Stephanie; Maccannell, Duncan; Ribot, Efrain M; Fields, Patricia I; Fricke, W Florian; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee strain CDC07-0191 was isolated from the 2006-2007 multistate food-borne outbreak linked to peanut butter in the United States. Here we report a high-quality draft assembly of the genome sequence of this strain, derived from a patient. This is the first reported high-quality draft genome sequence for S. enterica serotype Tennessee, which will enable in-depth studies of its transmission and virulence. PMID:23704182

  7. Analysis of Oil Components of Mango Seed Butter and Its Penetration Enhancing Effect in Vitro%芒果脂油脂成分分析和体外促渗作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文澜; 梁菊; 董亚南; 陈姗

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the oil components of mango seed butter were analyzed by GC-MS. The results show that the six main components of mango seed butter are hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, 11 -dodecenoicacid, arachidic acid,behenic acid, and tetracosanoic acid. The mass fraction of these components are 15.235% , 78. 041% ,0.425% ,4.681% ,0.674% ,0.549% respectively. Skin penetration experiments in vitro show that the oil components of mango seed butter can significantly increase the transdermal penetrance of lidocaine. The accumulated permeation amounts of azone group and mango seed butter group are 794. 84 u,g and 1208. 7 g respectively,while the accumulated permeability are 7.95% and 12.8%. Penetration enhancing effect of mango seed butter in vitro for lidocaine is superior to azone in some degree.%利用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)分析了芒果脂所含的油脂成分.分析结果显示,芒果脂的6个主要成分及其质量分数分别是:棕榈酸为15.235%,油酸为78.041%,11-二十碳烯酸为0.425%,花生酸为4.681%,山俞酸为0.674%,木质素酸为0.549%.体外经皮渗透试验显示,芒果脂能够显著增加经皮给药制剂的皮肤透过率,氮酮组和芒果脂组对利多卡因的累积透皮量分别为794.840μg和1208.700μg,累积透皮率分别为7.95%和12.80%,芒果脂对模型药利多卡因的体外促渗作用一定程度上优于氮酮.

  8. 原料特性与花生酱品质间关系模型的建立%Establishment of Relationship Model Between Peanut Material Characteristics and Peanut Butter Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩阿娜; 刘红芝; 刘丽; 石爱民; 王强

    2016-01-01

    为解决“普通花生品种过多和原料过剩、专用加工品种和原料缺乏”的问题,本研究对26个品种花生的感官特性、理化与营养特性、加工特性与其花生酱品质之间的关系进行研究,建立原料特性与花生酱品质间的关系模型。以26个品种花生制备的花生酱为原料,分析各品种花生特性与花生酱品质间的关系,采用20个品种的原料特性数据构建评价模型,另外6个品种品质数据进行验证。结果显示,花生原料的百仁重、粗蛋白、粗脂肪、总维生素E、油酸/亚油酸等5个指标与花生酱品质在0.05水平上关系显著,采用统计学分析建立花生酱用花生原料特性评价模型,验证模型的R2为0.788。研究结果表明,花生的原料特性显著影响花生酱品质,粗蛋白、总维生素E与油酸/亚油酸等指标的含量越高,花生酱品质越好。该方法可为不同花生品种的加工利用和专用品种的选择提供依据。%In order to solve the adverse situation, which ordinary peanut varieties and ingredients are lack and special processing varieties and ingredients are surplus. This paper mainly discussed the relationship between peanut quality ( sensory quality, physicochemical quality and processing quality ) and peanut butter, and to establish the relationship model between peanut material characteristics and peanut butter quality. 26 peanut varieties were used to prepare the peanut butter, and the relationship between the characteristics of peanut and peanut butter was analyzed. 20 varieties were assigned to the calibration set, whereas the remaining 6 varieties constituted the validation set. The results showed that the characteristics of different peanuts varieties and its preparation peanut butter had significantly difference. Hundred ker﹣nel weight, the content of protein and fat, the total vitamin content and O/L ratio had significant relation﹣ships with peanut butter

  9. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for trace multi-element determination in vegetable oils, margarine and butter after stabilization with propan-1-ol and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Roseli M. de [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ), 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mathias, Barbara M. [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ), 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silveira, Carmem Lucia P. da [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ), 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Aucelio, Ricardo Q. [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ), 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: aucelior@rdc.puc-rio.br

    2005-06-30

    The quantitative evaluation of trace elements in foodstuffs is of considerable interest due to the potential toxicity of many elements, and because the presence of some metallic species might affect the overall quality (flavor and stability) of these products. In the present work, an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric method has been developed for the determination of six elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Mn) in olive oil, soy oil, margarine and butter. Organic samples (oils and fats) were stabilized using propan-1-ol and water, which enabled long-time sample dispersion in the solution. This simple sample preparation procedure, together with an efficient sample introduction strategy (using a Meinhard K3 nebulizer and a twister cyclonic spray chamber), facilitated the overall analytical procedure, allowing quantification using calibration curves prepared with inorganic standards. Internal standardization (Sc) was used for correction of matrix effects and signal fluctuations. Good sensitivities with limits of detection in the ng g{sup -1} range were achieved for all six elements. These sensitivities were appropriate for the intended application. The method was tested through the analysis of laboratory-fortified samples with good recoveries (between 91.3% and 105.5%)

  10. Postprandial lipid responses do not differ following consumption of butter or vegetable oil when consumed with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cintia B; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2015-04-01

    Dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake has been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and increased risk for the development of chronic diseases. However, some animal studies have demonstrated that dietary SFA may not raise blood lipid levels when the diet is sufficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). Therefore, in a randomised cross-over design, we investigated the postprandial effects of feeding meals rich in either SFA (butter) or vegetable oil rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), in conjunction with n-3PUFA, on blood lipid profiles [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG)] and n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma lipids over a 6-h period. The incremental area under the curve for plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG and n-3PUFA levels over 6 h was similar in the n-6PUFA compared to SFA group. The postprandial lipemic response to saturated fat is comparable to that of n-6PUFA when consumed with n-3PUFA; however, sex-differences in response to dietary fat type are worthy of further attention.

  11. Alternative method of oral administration by peanut butter pellet formulation results in target engagement of BACE1 and attenuation of gavage-induced stress responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Zaleska, M M; Riddell, D R; Atchison, K P; Robshaw, A; Zhou, H; Sukoff Rizzo, S J

    2014-11-01

    Development of novel therapeutic agents aimed at treating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases require chronic and preferentially oral dosing in appropriate preclinical rodent models. Since many of these disease models involve transgenic mice that are frequently aged and fragile, the commonly used oro-gastric gavage method of drug administration often confounds measured outcomes due to repeated stress and high attrition rates caused by esophageal complications. We employed a novel drug formulation in a peanut butter (PB) pellet readily consumed by mice and compared the stress response as measured by plasma corticosterone levels relative to oral administration via traditional gavage. Acute gavage produced significant elevations in plasma corticosterone comparable to those observed in mice subjected to stress-induced hyperthermia. In contrast, corticosterone levels following consumption of PB pellets were similar to levels in naive mice and significantly lower than in mice subjected to traditional gavage. Following sub-chronic administration, corticosterone levels remained significantly higher in mice subjected to gavage, relative to mice administered PB pellets or naive controls. Furthermore, chronic 30day dosing of a BACE inhibitor administered via PB pellets to PSAPP mice resulted in expected plasma drug exposure and Aβ40 lowering consistent with drug treatment demonstrating target engagement. Taken together, this alternative method of oral administration by drug formulated in PB pellets results in the expected pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with attenuated stress levels, and is devoid of the detrimental effects of repetitive oral gavage. PMID:25242810

  12. 不同包装条件下精酥油的品质变化研究%Changes of the quality of pure butter under different package conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪蕾; 杨丽杰; 陈雪; 霍贵成

    2012-01-01

    The fresh pure butter made in the laboratory were packaged with vacuum packaging,film packaging and common plastic packing respectively,and they were stored in the 4℃ and room temperature.In order to study the changes of the quality of pure butter during storage,the assessment of moisture content,acid value,peroxide value,the total bacteria count and the sense organ were measured every other day according to the relevant test methods and standards.The result showed that under the 4℃ storage conditions,vacuum packaging could keep the moisture content of the pure butter better than the other two packages.Vacuum packaging could inhibit the increase of the acid value effectively during the storage period,followed by film packaging and common plastic packing.In the aspect of oxidation resistance,the film packaging was similar to the vacuum packaging,and was better under the 4℃ storage condition.Under the film packaging,the total bacteria count of the pure butter was lower compared with the other two packages,according to the sensory evaluation standard,the shelf life of pure butter was 61d under the room temperature,however,that of pure butter was over 76d under the 4℃ storage condition.%对实验室制作的新鲜精酥油,采用真空、薄膜和普通塑料进行包装,并分别置于4℃和室温下进行贮存,依据相关检测方法及标准,定期测定水分含量、酸价、过氧化值、菌落总数及感官指标,研究精酥油在不同贮存条件下的品质变化。结果表明,在4℃冷藏条件下,真空包装相对于其他两种包装可以更好保持精酥油的水分含量;真空包装能够有效的抑制精酥油在贮存期间内的酸价增加,其次是薄膜包装和普通塑料包装;薄膜包装在抗氧化方面与真空包装效果相差不大,并且在4℃冷藏条件下相较于真空包装可以更好的防止精酥油的氧化;相比于其他两种包装,精酥油在薄膜包装下的菌落总数较低;依据感官评定标

  13. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A; Kreil, Katherine R; Melka, David C; Boden, William D; Dion, Jamie L; Miller, Zachary A; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B; Zink, Donald L

    2015-09-01

    Background.  In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods.  A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production information from Retail Chain A's sole supplier of PB, Company A. The PB samples collected from case-patients and Company A were tested for Salmonella. Results.  Forty-two case-patients from 20 states were identified. Of 33 case-patients from whom food exposure information was obtained, 25 (76%) shopped at Retail Chain A and 25 (100%) purchased Company A PB. Three state health departments isolated the outbreak strain from opened jars of PB collected from case-patients. The FDA investigators identified multiple deficiencies in current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) in Company A's manufacturing facility and determined that internal controls were insufficient to prevent shipment of contaminated product. The FDA isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney from implicated product collected at the firm and the environment of the firm's food production facility. Conclusions.  Timely laboratory, investigational, and epidemiologic data led to the voluntary recall of PB by Company A. The FDA suspended Company A's food facility registration, prohibiting the firm from introducing food into interstate commerce. This outbreak underscores the need for effective preventive controls, including robust internal environmental monitoring programs, appropriate action in response to contamination findings, and an improved understanding of food safety at the managerial and corporate levels.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter improved memory and up-regulated phospholipase A2 encoding-genes in rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Marco A S; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mury, Fábio B; Lopes, Fernando C F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2015-10-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in blood cells and in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and there is evidence that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates the activity of PLA2 groups in non-brain tissues. As CLA isomers were shown to be actively incorporated and metabolized in the brains of rats, we hypothesized that feeding a diet naturally enriched in CLA would affect the activity and expression of Pla 2 -encoding genes in rat brain tissue, with possible implications for memory. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task and fed a commercial diet (control) or experimental diets containing either low CLA- or CLA-enriched butter for 4 weeks. After this period, the rats were tested for memory retrieval and killed for tissue collection. Hippocampal expression of 19 Pla 2 genes was evaluated by qPCR, and activities of PLA2 groups (cPLA2, iPLA2, and sPLA2) were determined by radioenzymatic assay. Rats fed the high CLA diet had increased hippocampal mRNA levels for specific PLA2 isoforms (iPla 2 g6γ; cPla 2 g4a, sPla 2 g3, sPla 2 g1b, and sPla 2 g12a) and higher enzymatic activity of all PLA2 groups as compared to those fed the control and the low CLA diet. The increment in PLA2 activities correlated significantly with memory enhancement, as assessed by increased latency in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task after 4 weeks of treatment (rs = 0.69 for iPLA2, P PLA2 activity in AD brains, the present findings suggest that dairy products enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA may be useful in the treatment of this disease. PMID:25913570

  15. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A; Kreil, Katherine R; Melka, David C; Boden, William D; Dion, Jamie L; Miller, Zachary A; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B; Zink, Donald L

    2015-09-01

    Background.  In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods.  A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production information from Retail Chain A's sole supplier of PB, Company A. The PB samples collected from case-patients and Company A were tested for Salmonella. Results.  Forty-two case-patients from 20 states were identified. Of 33 case-patients from whom food exposure information was obtained, 25 (76%) shopped at Retail Chain A and 25 (100%) purchased Company A PB. Three state health departments isolated the outbreak strain from opened jars of PB collected from case-patients. The FDA investigators identified multiple deficiencies in current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) in Company A's manufacturing facility and determined that internal controls were insufficient to prevent shipment of contaminated product. The FDA isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney from implicated product collected at the firm and the environment of the firm's food production facility. Conclusions.  Timely laboratory, investigational, and epidemiologic data led to the voluntary recall of PB by Company A. The FDA suspended Company A's food facility registration, prohibiting the firm from introducing food into interstate commerce. This outbreak underscores the need for effective preventive controls, including robust internal environmental monitoring programs, appropriate action in response to contamination findings, and an improved understanding of food safety at the managerial and corporate levels. PMID:26389125

  16. Modified QuEChERS method combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of 26 mycotoxins in sesame butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Han, Shen; Lu, Meiling; Wang, Peiyue; Han, Jing; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-11-01

    A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of 26 mycotoxins in sesame butter was developed by coupling the modified Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The samples were sequentially extracted using 20 mL (80:20, v/v) and 5 mL (20:80, v/v) acetonitrile aqueous solutions, followed by salting out by the addition of magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride. Finally, the samples were purified using hexane and dispersed C18 solid phase extraction (dSPE). The mycotoxins were further separated using a C18 column and detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) in the multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. Using this detection technique, 16 mycotoxins were detected as positive ions using methanol and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase, whereas the other 10 mycotoxins were detected as negative ions using methanol and water as the mobile phase. With the matrix-matched quantification calibration, the developed method showed a good linear dynamic range with regression coefficients of 0.995 or higher. This method allowed for the detection of the 26 mycotoxins at LOQs significantly lower than the available maximum residue levels currently regulated by EU regulations. Additionally, at the three spiking levels examined, the majority of recoveries were within 60-120%, with RSDs within 15%. The method developed herein has the advantages of high sensitivity, accuracy and throughput, and it can be applied to the target screening of mycotoxins in real samples.

  17. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Y.L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades of Cocos nucifera (coconut, Elaeis guineensis (oil palm and Carapa procera (gobi were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 ± 37.0 mn and 74.6 ± 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 ± 30.0 mn and 60.8 ± 33.9 mn. On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8 % and 35.9 % for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7 % and 47.4 % against An. gambiae. Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less than the vaseline's.

  18. 牛油火锅底料品质变化特征及货架期预测%Quality Changes during Storage and Shelf Life Prediction of Butter Hotpot Seasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽兰; 尼海峰; 闫志农; 卢晓黎

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated changes in the sensory quality, acid value, peroxide value and total bacterial count of butter hotpot seasoning during storage at different temperatures (5, 25 ℃ and 37 ℃). Acid value was found to be a reliable indicator for predicting the shelf life of butter hotpot seasoning. A kinetic model of acid value for predicting the shelf life of butter hotpot seasoning was developed with E (activation energy) and K0 (regression coefficient) of 21.82 J/mol and 32.62, respectively. The reliability of the prediction model was validated.%以牛油火锅底料为研究对象,在不同贮藏温度(5、25、37℃)条件,对牛油火锅底料的感官品质、酸价、过氧化值及菌落总数变化情况进行研究。结果表明预测牛油火锅底料货架期采用酸价变化动力学模型较为可靠。以酸价为指标建立动力学模型预测牛油火锅底料的货架期,模型的活化能(E)和回归系数(K0)分别为21.82J/mol和32.62。经验证,此动力学模型可较准确的预测火锅底料货架期。

  19. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Y L; Sylla, M S; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-06-01

    Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades) of Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) and Carapa procera (gobi) were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 +/- 37.0 mn and 74.6 +/- 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti) are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 +/- 30.0 mn and 60.8 +/- 33.9 mn). On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8% and 35.9% for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7% and 47.4% against An. gambiae). Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less) than the vaseline's.

  20. Antioxidation activity of natural cocoa butter and its application in skin cream%天然可可脂的抗氧化活性及其在护肤霜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭惠玲; 李晨晨; 俞苓

    2015-01-01

    The vitro antioxidation activity of cocoa butter was evaluated by the determination of scavenging ratio of DPPH free radicals and ABTS+ free radicals,as well as oil peroxide value (POV). Results showed that the cocoa butter polyphenols display good antioxidation activity,the half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) value of DPPH free radicals and ABTS+ free radicals is 11.61 and 10.59 mg/L respectively,which are better than that of vitamin C and vitamin E. Natural cocoa butter can effectively restrain the oxidation of oils and fats, and the effect is directly correlated with the dosage. Adding natural cocoa butter into cosmetic creams can effectively raise the moisturizing performance,upgrade the whitening effect and improve the skin elasticity. Meanwhile,it is safe for human skin and no skin irritation displays.%通过DPPH自由基和ABTS+自由基清除率以及油脂过氧化值的测定,对可可脂体外抗氧化能力进行评价,并将可可脂应用于护肤霜中,对其功效进行评价。结果表明:可可脂多酚具有很好的抗氧化活性,其清除DPPH自由基和ABTS+自由基的半数效应浓度(EC50)分别为11.61和10.59 mg/L,优于维生素C和维生素E;天然可可脂能有效抑制油脂的氧化,效果与用量呈正相关;添加可可脂能有效提高护肤霜的保湿性,增强美白效果,改善皮肤弹性,对皮肤安全、无刺激性。

  1. BUTTER:一种基于主题模型和异构网络的缺陷分发方法%BUTTER:An Approach to Bug Triage with Topic Modeling and Heterogeneous Network Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广乐; 张文; 王青

    2014-01-01

    当软件缺陷被提交到缺陷跟踪系统并经过确认之后,它会被分发给开发人员进行缺陷修复.这个过程就叫做缺陷分发.随着被提交到系统的缺陷报告日益增多,手工分发缺陷报告会变得越来越困难.提出了一种自动分发缺陷的方法BUTTER.与其他方法不同的是, BUTTER不仅利用主题模型分析缺陷报告中的文本信息,而且创新性地建立了一个包含提交者、缺陷和开发者三种节点及其相互关系的异构网络,从该异构网络中抽取了更多的结构信息.实验证明, BUTTER进行自动缺陷分发较其他缺陷自动分发方法要好.%When a bug was reported to the bug tracking system, it should be assigned to a developer who is responsible for its resolution after it is confirmed. This processing is called bug triage. With increasing number of bug reports submitted to the bug tracking system, it is more and more difficult to assign appropriate developers to the reported bugs manually. In this paper, we propose an approach called BUTTER (BUg Triage by topic modeling and heTERogeneous network analysis) to automatically assign bugs to developers. Different from existing work, BUTTER not only uses topic model to analyze the text information from bug reports, but also innovatively takes structural information into consideration by constructing a heterogeneous network which includes relationships among submitters, bugs and developers. Experiment shows that BUTTER outperforms other methods on automated bug triage.

  2. 西藏两种来源酥油的脂肪酸和卫生品质分析%Analysis of fatty acid and health quality of butter from two sources in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪蕾; 霍贵成; 田辉

    2012-01-01

    The content of fatty acid and health quality of butter from two sources (famers and factory) in Tibet were evaluated by fatty acid composition,chemical and microbiological analysis.Chemical analysis involved moisture,fat,free fattyjicid and peroxide value.In microbiological analysis.the total bacteria count and the counts of moulds,coliforms and staphylococcus aureus were detected respectiveh/.The detection results showed that the major saturated fatty acid in butter was palmitic acid,the content of which was 13.21%-25.17%;the major unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid.the content of which was 11.26-46.01%;the quality analysis of butter from two sources was similar to the others and both of them have health safety problems in some degree and difference exists in the different regions from the same source;the moisture content、 acid value peroxide value and the total bacteria count were higher than normal,edible safety were lower,the production conditions of Tibet butter need to be further improved.%以西藏地区两种来源(农户及工厂)的酥油为研究对象,分别测定了其脂肪酸组成、理化指标和微生物指标,分析了西藏酥油的脂肪酸含量及卫生质量品质.结果表明:酥油中的主要饱和脂肪酸为棕榈酸,质量分数范围为13.21%~25.17%;不饱和脂肪酸为油酸,质量分数范围为11.26%~46.01%;两种来源的酥油卫生品质相似,且都存在一定程度的卫生安全问题,同种来源间存在地区差异性;12份样品其水分质量分数、酸价、过氧化值和茵落总数偏高,食用安全性较低,西藏地区酥油的生产条件有待于进一步提高.

  3. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction by Box-Behnken design for determination of acetoin in butter followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosta, Mostafa; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Daneshfar, Ali

    2014-10-15

    A novel approach, ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (USA-RM-DLLME) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for selective determination of acetoin in butter. The melted butter sample was diluted and homogenised by n-hexane and Triton X-100, respectively. Subsequently, 400μL of distilled water was added and the microextraction was accelerated by 4min sonication. After 8.5min of centrifugation, sedimented phase (surfactant-rich phase) was withdrawn by microsyringe and injected into the HPLC system for analysis. The influence of effective variables was optimised using Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with desirability function (DF). Under optimised experimental conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 0.6-200mgL(-1). The detection limit of method was 0.2mgL(-1) and coefficient of determination was 0.9992. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5% (n=5) while the recoveries were in the range of 93.9-107.8%. PMID:24837929

  4. The pollution and control of microorganism in the production line of butter%浅谈酥油生产过程中微生物污染及防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达娃卓玛

    2015-01-01

    通过对酥油制作过程中微生物污染的途径、污染的类型及主要的污染防控措施进行介绍,为西藏地区引入先进的奶牛饲养、管理、挤奶等方法和相关卫生标准,制定相应的酥油微生物危害防控措施提供一定的理论依据。%The types of microorganism clusters,ways of pollution,and the main pollution prevention and control measures were introduced of the production line of butter.In order to draw into advanced methods of milk cow breeding,management,and related standards,or provide certain theoretical basis to formulate corresponding prevention and control measures of microor-ganism pollution in the production of butter.

  5. 出口花生酱生产加工过程HACCP体系模式的建立%Establishment of HACCP System in Peanut Butter Processing for Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 刘靖

    2016-01-01

    依据HACCP体系的前提条件和基本原理,研究建立了出口花生酱生产加工管理的HACCP体系模式。通过对花生酱生产加工过程进行危害分析,确定了加工前的原料收购及验收、烘烤、管道磁铁过滤花生酱、过筛等四个关键控制点(CCP),并建立了相应的预防和监控措施,确保出口花生酱的质量安全。%Based on prerequisites and basic principles of the HACCP system,the establishing of HACCP system in Peanut Butter processing for Export was researched. By critical control points analysis,four CCPs including acquisition and acceptance of raw materials,baking,filtration by pipeline magnet and sieving,relatively preventive and monitoring measures were determined.It can ensure the quality and safety of export Peanut Butter.

  6. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction by Box-Behnken design for determination of acetoin in butter followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosta, Mostafa; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Daneshfar, Ali

    2014-10-15

    A novel approach, ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (USA-RM-DLLME) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for selective determination of acetoin in butter. The melted butter sample was diluted and homogenised by n-hexane and Triton X-100, respectively. Subsequently, 400μL of distilled water was added and the microextraction was accelerated by 4min sonication. After 8.5min of centrifugation, sedimented phase (surfactant-rich phase) was withdrawn by microsyringe and injected into the HPLC system for analysis. The influence of effective variables was optimised using Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with desirability function (DF). Under optimised experimental conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 0.6-200mgL(-1). The detection limit of method was 0.2mgL(-1) and coefficient of determination was 0.9992. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5% (n=5) while the recoveries were in the range of 93.9-107.8%.

  7. Fatty acid profile of "bottled butter fat" produced in the region of Salinas, Minas Gerais Perfil dos ácidos graxos de "manteigas de garrafa" produzidas na região de Salinas - Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Clemente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic history of Salinas, Minas Gerais is largely based on cattle-breeding. The discoverers found in the city's region a large potential for the progress of their activities, either in agriculture or in cattle-breeding (OLIVEIRA, 2000. Even today, milk production plays an important role in family farming activities, which besides raw milk, provides curdal cheese, cottage cheese, and "bottled butter fat", which is manufactured with fat extracted from whey. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the fatty acid profile of "bottled butter fat" produced in Salinas, in the northern region of Minas Gerais , and also to analyze the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid of these butters. The fatty acid profile of the "bottled butter fat" was determined by chromatographic analysis, according to methodology advanced by Luddy et al. (1960, and later modified by Abreu (1993. Analysis of variance was applied for comparison of the averages by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The fatty acid profiles of all the "bottled butter fat" were found to be similar. The concentration of saturated fatty acids was higher than that of the unsaturated, with averages of 60,36% and 39,64%, respectively.A história econômica de Salinas apóia-se em grande parte na pecuária. Os desbravadores encontraram na região do município, um grande potencial para o desenvolvimento de suas atividades, seja na lavoura de mantimentos, seja na pecuária (OLIVEIRA, 2000. Até hoje, a produção de leite ocupa certo destaque nas atividades da agricultura familiar que, além do leite "in natura", fornece também o queijo de coalho, o requeijão e, dos soros obtidos desses produtos elabora-se a manteiga de garrafa. Assim, esse estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de analisar o perfil dos ácidos graxos de manteigas de garrafa produzidas em Salinas, norte de Minas Gerais e análise da relação de ácidos graxos saturados: ácidos graxos insaturados dessas manteigas. O

  8. Physicochemical and microbiological study of “shmen”, a traditional butter made from camel milk in the Sahara (Algeria: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad, Kacem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs, lipolytic bacteria and yeasts were isolated from 20 samples of shmen, a traditional clarified butter made from sour camel milk in the Algerian Sahara. The values of pH, titratable acidity, NaCl, total solid, moisture, and fat content ranged from : 3.11-4.97, 0.19-0.36%, 1.04-2.15%, 64.03-65.11%, 34.40-34.99%, and 49.90-56% respectively. A total of 181 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (40 strains, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 strains, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 strains, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 strains and Leuconostoc gelidum (12 strains Enterococcus faecium (35 strains. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (55 isolates. Of these, 40 were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 15 isolates were identified as Saccharomyces sp.Se aislaron los microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, bacterias acido lácticas, bacterias lipolíticas y levaduras de 20 muestras de “shmen”, una matequilla tradicional del Sahara argelino hecha a partir de leche de camella. Los valores de pH, acidez, libre, Nacl, solidos totales, humedad y grasa oscilaron entre 3,11-4,97, 0,19-0,36%, 1.04-2,15%, 64,03-65,11%, 34,40-34,99% y 49,90-56,00%, respectivamente. Entre los 181 cultivos puros de bacterias lácticas se identificaron Lactobacillus plantarum (40 cepas, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 cepas, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 cepas, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 cepas and Leuconostoc gelidum (12cepas Enterococcus faecium (35 cepas. Asimismo, se detectaron levaduras en todas las muestras (55 cultivos puros. De estos, 40 se identificaron como

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter improved memory and up-regulated phospholipase A2 encoding-genes in rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Marco A S; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mury, Fábio B; Lopes, Fernando C F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2015-10-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in blood cells and in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and there is evidence that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates the activity of PLA2 groups in non-brain tissues. As CLA isomers were shown to be actively incorporated and metabolized in the brains of rats, we hypothesized that feeding a diet naturally enriched in CLA would affect the activity and expression of Pla 2 -encoding genes in rat brain tissue, with possible implications for memory. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task and fed a commercial diet (control) or experimental diets containing either low CLA- or CLA-enriched butter for 4 weeks. After this period, the rats were tested for memory retrieval and killed for tissue collection. Hippocampal expression of 19 Pla 2 genes was evaluated by qPCR, and activities of PLA2 groups (cPLA2, iPLA2, and sPLA2) were determined by radioenzymatic assay. Rats fed the high CLA diet had increased hippocampal mRNA levels for specific PLA2 isoforms (iPla 2 g6γ; cPla 2 g4a, sPla 2 g3, sPla 2 g1b, and sPla 2 g12a) and higher enzymatic activity of all PLA2 groups as compared to those fed the control and the low CLA diet. The increment in PLA2 activities correlated significantly with memory enhancement, as assessed by increased latency in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task after 4 weeks of treatment (rs = 0.69 for iPLA2, P < 0.001; rs = 0.81 for cPLA2, P < 0.001; and rs = 0.69 for sPLA2, P < 0.001). In face of the previous reports showing reduced PLA2 activity in AD brains, the present findings suggest that dairy products enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA may be useful in the treatment of this disease.

  10. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  11. Parallelizing a peanut butter sandwich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenette, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    This poster aims to demonstrate, in a novel way, why contemporary computational code development is seemingly hard to a geodynamics modeler (i.e. a non-computer-scientist). For example, to utilise comtemporary computer hardware, parallelisation is required. But why do we chose the explicit approach (MPI) over an implicit (OpenMP) one? How does this relate to the typical geodynamics codes. And do we face this same style of problems in every day life? We aim to demonstrate that the little bit of complexity, fore-thought and effort is worth its while.

  12. Características de identidade, qualidade e estabilidade da manteiga de garrafa. Parte II - estabilidade The stability of a Brazilian regional butter "Manteiga de Garrafa"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Lygia Burgos Ambrósio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com vistas a estabelecer o tempo de vida útil da manteiga de garrafa, duas marcas deste produto (A e B de ampla comercialização na cidade do Recife foram avaliadas quanto a estabilidade durante o armazenamento a 25ºC a intervalos de 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias através da determinação do índice de peróxido, acidez, análise cromatográfica de ácidos graxos e análise sensorial. Segundo os resultados, a acidez apresentou uma elevação acentuada nos primeiros 30 dias de armazenamento estabilizando-se a seguir até 120 dias. O índice de peróxido aumentou ao longo do tempo sendo acompanhado pela intensificação do "flavour" de ranço para ambas amostras que a partir dos 90 dias de armazenamento foi referido como extremamente forte por 50% dos provadores. Quanto aos ácidos graxos, foi constatada diminuição do percentual do linoléico (18:2 na manteiga A embora nenhuma mudança tenha ocorrido no conteúdo de ácidos graxos trans para as duas manteigas. Os resultados demonstram que o tempo de armazenamento não exerce influência significativa e que a manteiga de garrafa apresenta uma curta vida-de-prateleira face a oxidação lipídica que a torna inadequada para consumo após 60 dias a partir da data de fabricação.Trying to establish the time of shelf-life of "manteiga de garrafa" (a kind of regional Brazilian butter, two brands of this product (A and B of wide commercialization in the city of Recife were analyzed as the stability during the storage at 25ºC to intervals of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days through the determination of the peroxide value,% free fattty acid, fatty acid composition and sensorial evaluation. According to the results, acidity increased in the first 30 days of storage being stabilized up to 120 days, the peroxide value increased along the time being accompanied by the intensification of the "flavour" of rancidity for both samples that it was referred as extremely strong for 50% of the panelists starting from the

  13. 各向异性堆焊结构中超声传播模拟与缺陷回波预测%Ultrasonic Beam Simulation and Flaw Signal Prediction in Anisotropic Buttering Weldment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新玉; 刚铁; 徐春广; 卢宗兴

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection on the welded seam of austenitic stainless steels is a difficult and hot issue since the typical anisotropic behaviors will appear in this kind of welded joint.The propagation behaviors of ultrasonic beam in the tubing weldment with austenitic buttering are investigated with the help of multi-Gaussian beam models.The anisotropic coefficients used in the multi-Gaussian beam model are discussed and provided.The beam propagations in Lucite wedges, buttering layers and base steels are simulated, and the beam steering and focusing influences due to both of the curved surface and the anisotropic behavior are analyzed in detail.Furthermore, an ultrasonic measurement model for the tubing weldment with austenitic buttering is developed by combining the multi-Gaussian beam model and a scattering model with the separation variable method.This model can be used to predict the testing signals from the side-drilled holes below the anisotropic buttering layer.Also the accuracy of the provided model is verified by the comparisons of the model predictions with the experimental results, and the signal amplitude and phase of the both are in good agreement.%奥氏体不锈钢呈现出明显声学各向异性,如何检测与评价这类材料成为声学检测领域的研究难点和热点问题.应用多高斯声束模型来研究超声换能器向各向异性圆管堆焊结构中辐射声场的特征.给出声场模型中材料各向异性系数的具体求解方法;并应用该声场模型计算超声束在有机玻璃楔块、各向异性堆焊层和低合金钢基体三层介质中的传播特征,重点分析堆焊层各向异性和圆管曲率变化两种因素对纵波声束偏转和聚焦形态的影响.进一步,将多高斯声束模型与分离变量法缺陷散射模型相结合,建立适用于各向异性圆管堆焊结构的超声测量模型,用于预测各向异性堆焊层下的横通孔缺陷回波信号.试验测量结果与模型预测结果的

  14. The Evolution of Shea Butter's "Paradox of paradoxa" and the Potential Opportunity for Information and Communication Technology (ICT to Improve Quality, Market Access and Women's Livelihoods across Rural Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bello-Bravo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shea trees grow across 4 million km2 of sub-Saharan Africa. Shea parklands provide a sustainable source of edible fat (shea butter that, in terms of volume, is currently second only to cocoa butter as a vegetal source of stearic acid in the multi-billion dollar chocolate and cosmetic sectors. However, in terms of international trade, shea has been opaque to consumers of edible products (where the majority of shea exports end their global journey and actually only well-known in western markets as a cosmetic ingredient. The millions of women collectors have been disconnected from global supply chains, as the majority of their sheanuts are factory processed, supplied by traders who, in many cases, do not understand quality issues nor share knowledge with their village-based collectors—this is the “Paradox of paradoxa”. This review provides the background to this issue by contextualizing the industry and describing how weak post-harvest quality control impacts the shea supply chain. The paper then explains how this knowledge was incorporated into a 3D animation available for free transmission to rural African audiences and viewing on portable devices like video capable mobile phones. This tool offers the potential of low-cost multiple benefits to users, which we term here a win-cubed [win3] opportunity, where women collectors can receive free knowledge of using less resources to produce higher quality shea kernels which in turn offer higher extraction yields, lowering production costs, of a better and more marketable product.

  15. Rancimat法与Schaal烘箱法测定花生油和花生酱氧化稳定性的对比%Comparative of Rancimat Method and the Schaal Oven Method for the Determination of Oxidation Stability of Peanut Oil and Peanut Butter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克; 崔春; 赵谋明; 马浩

    2011-01-01

    分别采用Rancimat法与Schaal烘箱法测定花生油和花生酱的氧化稳定性,并对2种方法的相关性进行了分析。结果表明:用Rarmimat法替代传统的过氧化值测定法评价花生油和花生酱的氧化稳定性是可行的。%This paper studied on the Rancimat method and the Schaal oven method for the determination of the oxidation stability of peanut oil and peanut butter, the correlation between the two methods were also analyzed. Results show that, using the Rancimat method to replace the traditional evaluation of peroxide value to determine the oxidation stability of peanut oil and peanut butter is feasible.

  16. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE IDENTIDADE, QUALIDADE E ESTABILIDADE DA MANTEIGA DE GARRAFA: PARTE I -- CARACTERÍSTICAS DE IDENTIDADE E QUALIDADE IDENTITY AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF A BRAZILIAN REGIONAL BUTTER "Manteiga de Garrafa"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Lygia Burgos AMBRÓSIO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Em determinadas regiões do nordeste do Brasil é produzido um tipo de manteiga artesanal denominada manteiga de garrafa que não possui parâmetros de identidade e qualidade estabelecidos pela legislação. Com vistas a propor padrões de identidade e qualidade para este produto, duas marcas de manteiga de garrafa (A e B de ampla comercialização na cidade do Recife foram avaliadas através da determinação do percentual de lipídios, umidade, cloretos e extrato seco desengordurado, cromatografia de ácidos graxos, índices de iodo, saponificação, refração e peróxido, ponto de fusão, reação de Kreiss, acidez, análises microbiológicas e análise sensorial. Segundo os resultados, a manteiga de garrafa contém 99,65 -- 99,75% de lipídios, umidade de 0,2%, ausência de cloretos e extrato seco desengordurado; ambas manteigas apresentaram elevados índices de peróxido (1,97 -- 2,90mEq/Kg, acidez (0,39 -- 0,62 ácido oléico %, reação de Kreiss negativa e reduzido teor de ácidos graxos trans; índices de iodo, saponificação, refração, ponto de fusão e composição de ácidos graxos similares aos produtos lácteos; ausência de microrganismos e leve flavour de ranço como característica intrínseca. Estes resultados demonstram estreita similaridade, quanto às características de identidade, entre a manteiga de garrafa e o "butteroil" diferindo, entretanto, quanto aos parâmetros de qualidade, o que permite propor padrão de identidade e qualidade similar ao estabelecido para o "butteroil" na legislação vigente.In certain areas of Brazil's Northeast a kind of handmade butter denominated "manteiga de garrafa" is produced that doesn't present identity and quality parameters established by legislation. With views to propose identity and quality patterns for this product, two brands of this butter (A and B of wide commercialization in the city of Recife were analyzed through determination of lipids, moisture, sodium chloride and

  17. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cui, Xiaobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully automated method based on dual column switching using turbulent flow chromatography followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected to the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated into the clean-up loading column. Through purge switching, the analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rate, transfer time were optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of this method ranged between 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-4.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins in different matrixes, respectively. Recoveries of aflatoxins were in range of 83-108.1% for all samples, matrix effects were in range of 34.1-104.7%. The developed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in real samples. PMID:25683560

  18. Alguns grupos de microrganismos em manteigas vendidas no município de São Paulo Microorganism groups found in butter sold in the City of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelito Assis dos Reis Filho

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram colhidas 105 amostras de manteiga de 5 marcas diferentes vendidas em supermercados da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil com a finalidade de verificar as condições microbiológicas de manteigas e compará-las com os padrões recomendados. Semanalmente foi colhida uma amostra de cada marca, durante 21 semanas. A partir da parte aquosa de cada amostra, foram realizadas as contagens de bactérias mesófilas e psicrófilas (em ágar padrão e ágar gelisato, coliformes, proteolíticas e de bolores e leveduras e os resultados comparados com alguns parâmetros propostos por vários pesquisadores. Os valores obtidos nas contagens dos vários grupos de microrganismos estudados, em muitos casos podem ser considerados altos, os quais podem ser resultado do processamento e/ou conservação, realizados em condições não satisfatórias.One hundred and five samples of five different brands of butter in the supermarkets of the City of S. Paulo, Brazil were brought in for testing every week for 21 weeks. From the aqueous phase, counts were made for mesophilic and psichrophilic (using the standard plate count, agar and gelysate agar, coliform, proteolytic, and lipolytic bacteria, as well as for yeasts and molds. Results were compared with parameters proposed by several researchers. In many cases, the count values can be considered high, but these high counts may be due to inadequate processing and/or inadequate storage.

  19. Study on the antioxidative effect of antioxidant compound on low-calorie cocoa butter equivalent%复配抗氧化剂对低能量类可可脂抗氧化作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志强; 吴炜亮; 潘露云; 姜土; 郑建仙

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant activities on low-calorie cocoa butter equivalent of butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT),phytic acid(PA)and Vitamin E(VE)were studied by Schaal experiment,with peroxide value as the evaluation index.Response surface methodology was used to optimize and determine the antioxidant compound.The results showed that the compositions of the optimized antioxidant compound were BHT 0.11‰,PA 0.11‰,VE 0.13‰ and every component of the antioxidant compound had obvious synergistic effect.The antioxidant activity of the optimized was much better,compared with that of single antioxidant.%采用Schaal烘箱加速氧化法,以过氧化值为评价指标,研究了二丁基羟基甲苯、植酸、维生素E三种抗氧化剂对低能量类可可脂的抗氧化效果。采用响应曲面法优化并确定了复配抗氧化剂的最优配方,结果表明:复配抗氧化剂的最优组成比例为BHT0.11‰,PA0.11‰,VE0.13‰,复配抗氧化剂各组分间具有显著的协同增效作用。通过比较最优复配抗氧化剂与单一抗氧化剂对低能量类可可脂的抗氧化效果,得出其抗氧化活性明显优于单一抗氧化剂。

  20. Consistencia de indicadores de especialización en el comercio internacional. Aplicación al caso de la mantequilla en Argentina y Uruguay // Consistency of Specialization Indicators. An Application to Argentina and Uruguay Butter International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depetris Guiguet, Edith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo evaluar, en términos de su consistencia cardinal, ordinal y dicotómica, cinco indicadores alternativos de especialización comercial. Tres están basados en el enfoque de las ventajas comparativas reveladas: una versión simétrica del índice de Balassa, el chi-cuadrado y el índice de Ventajas Relativas del Comercio. Los otros dos están basados en el enfoque de la balanza comercial: una variante del índice de Michaely y otra del índice de Iapadre. Se aplica al caso particular del comercio mundial de mantequilla de Argentina y Uruguay en el período 1995-2006. Los resultados varían entre los dos países, habiéndose encontrado que algunos indicadores podrían utilizarse de manera sustitutiva mientras que otros deberían utilizarse de manera complementaria. En términos económicos, se detecta una especialización fluctuante según los años en Argentina y mucha estabilidad en Uruguay. // This study aims to evaluate, in terms of their cardinal, ordinal, and dichotomy consistency, five alternative comercial specialization indicators: a Balassa symmetric index version; a Chi-Squared Index; and the Relative Trade Advantage Index, all these three based on revealed comparative advantage theory; and two additional: Michaely Index variation, and Iapadre Index variation, based on trade balance flows. It is applied to the particular case of Argentina and Uruguay butter world trade during 1995-2006. The results vary for both countries. Some indicators are found to be useful as substitutes while other in a complementary manner. Economically, the indicators show that the Argentine specialization fluctuates among years while the Uruguayan is very stable.

  1. Research on Complex Emulsifiers-thickeners and its Application in Peanut Butter Protein Milk%乳化增稠剂的复配及其在花生酱蛋白饮料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申利娟; 郑海平; 朱锡忠; 朱宵鹏

    2012-01-01

    Peanut protein milk was produced by using peanut butter, milk powder, and sugar as the main materials. The stability of the peanut protein milk was investigated after added with complex emulsifiers-thickeners and then subjected to a range of 10 to 50 MPa for homogenization. It indicated when added complex emulsifiers-thickeners 0.46% (polyglycerol esters of fatty acids 0.10%, sodium stearoyl lactylate 0.03%, CMC 0.03%,biopolymer cellulose 0.25%, k-carrageenan 0.05%), and the pressure of homogenization is 40 MPa at 70°C, its stability was satisfactory. No precipitation or obvious fat-floating of the samples were found after a 6-month constant temperature storage.%以花生酱、奶粉、白糖等原辅料制成的花生蛋白饮料为试样,进行不同均质压力,乳化增稠剂组合试验,考察其体系的稳定性.结果表明:采用均质温度70℃,均质压力40 MPa,添加复配乳化增稠剂0.46%(聚甘油脂肪酸酯0.10%,硬脂酰乳酸钠0.03%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.03%,微晶纤维素0.25%,卡拉胶0.05%)时,产品的稳定效果最好.经常温贮存6个月观察,试样无沉淀,无明显脂肪上浮.

  2. Determinação de substitutos da manteiga de cacau em coberturas de chocolate através da análise de triacilgliceróis Determination of cocoa butter substitutes in coating chocolate.by analysis the triacylglycerol composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Paula Rodrigues MINIM

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A legislação brasileira proíbe a adição de substitutos da manteiga de cacau ao chocolate. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o padrão de qualidade de coberturas comercializadas na região de Campinas. Para isso, foram analisadas cinco marcas de cobertura de chocolate ao leite e quatro de cobertura de chocolate amargo. Para verificar a possível adição de substitutos determinou-se, por cromatografia gasosa a alta temperatura (CGAT, a composição em triacilgliceróis da gordura extraída e os resultados foram analisados pelo método matemático de Padley & Timms. Não foi detectada a presença de substitutos da manteiga de cacau nas amostras de cobertura de chocolate analisadas.Brazilian regulations prohibit the addition of cocoa butter replacements to chocolate, in total or partial substitution. The objective of the present work was to check the quality standards of four of coating bitter Brasilian chocolate bars and five of coating milk chocolate bars, commercialized in Campinas. In order to check the possible addition of substitutes, the triacylglycerol composition was determined, and the results were analysed by Padley & Timms mathematical method. The triacylglycerol composition of each sample was determined by high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC. The presence of cocoa butter replacements was not detected in the brands of coating chocolate.

  3. 反应堆压力容器下底圆J型坡口隔离层堆焊预热问题分析及其处理%Analysis and Treatment of Preheating Deviation Problems of J Type Groove Buttering on Lower Dome of Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义党; 杨志鹏; 刘鸣宇; 朱从斌; 徐晓冬; 张春来

    2012-01-01

    介绍了反应堆压力容器下底圆中子测量管的焊接工艺.基于某制造厂发生的该焊缝相关的下底圆J型坡口隔离层堆焊预热质量问题,分析了预热、层间温度等焊缝质量影响要素及该质量问题的处理方案,为今后类似问题的处理和提高J型坡口隔离层的堆焊质量提供参考.%The welding procedure of instruction tube on lower dome of reactor pressure vessel was briefly introduced. The affecting factors for quality of welding joint such as preheating and interpass temperature were analyzed based on a preheating quality problem of J type groove buttering happened on a certain manufacturer. Additionally, the related disposition measures were summarized. The analysis can provide the reference for the treatment of similar problem and help improve the welding quality of J type groove buttering layer.

  4. 液相色谱法测定花生酱中植物生长调节剂%Determination of plant growth regulators in peanut butter by liquid chromatograpHy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩朝家; 周建科; 唐翠苓

    2012-01-01

    采用固相分散萃取-高效液相色谱法同时测定花生酱中的吲哚乙酸(IAA)、吲哚丁酸(IBA)和α-萘乙酸(NAA)三种植物生长调节剂。无水硫酸钠作分散剂、甲醇作萃取剂。色谱条件:Diamonsil C18柱;甲醇-水(55:45,V/V,甲酸调PH=3.0)为流动相;流速:1.0mL/min;检测波长:272nm。在0.50~100μg/mL范围内线性良好。方法检出限均为1.25μg/g,平均回收率为98.97%、86.41%和84.24%,相对标准偏差为2.23%、1.75%和1.90%。%3-indolyacetic acid (IAA), 3-indolybutyric acid (IBA) and 1-napHthylacetic acid (NAA)in peanut butter by solid-pHase dispersive extraction with high performance liquid chromatograpHy (HPLC) . Anhydrous sodium sulfate was used as dispersant and methyl alcohol as extractive agent. The three components were separated by Diamonsil C18 column at the wavelength of 272nm. The mobile pHase was the mixture of methanol and water (55:45, V/V,the PH was adjusted by methanoicacid until it was three) with the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The linear ranges were 0.50-100 μ g/mL with correlation coefficient greater than 0.9999. The determination limits were all 1.25 μ g/g with the average recoveries of 98.97% ,86.41% and 84.24% .The relative standard deviations were 2.23%, 1.75% and 1.90% respectively.

  5. Colorful Folk Art-Butter Sculpture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ColorfulFolkArt-ButterSculptureBYDAINZINTa'erTempleinnorthernQinghaiProvinceisoneofthesixgreatTibetanBuddhisttemplesinChina.X...

  6. Yuk! Peanut Butter Again: Avoiding Instructional Monotony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Mary Alice; Hotchkiss, Phyllis Riley

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for instructional variety based on the differences in the learning style of the students and on the objectives of the curriculum. A models of teaching approach for planning is described. A long-term professional development plan to implement teaching models for instructional variety is presented. (MT)

  7. 高效液相色谱法测定食品中的黄色2G、奶油黄和柑橘红2%Determination of yellow 2G, butter yellow and citrus red 2 in foods by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚星林; 邵仕萍; 徐娟; 王岚; 邹志飞; 吴宏中; 庞世琦

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立食品中黄色2G、奶油黄和柑橘红2含量的高效液相色谱测定方法,采用液质联用法定性.方法:样品中的黄色2G、奶油黄和柑橘红2用正己烷提取,中性氧化铝固相萃取柱净化,采用C18色谱柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm)分离,以甲醇和水溶液为流动相梯度洗脱,二极管阵列检测器检测定量.结果:黄色2G、奶油黄和柑橘红2标准曲线范围为0.5 mg/L~ 10.0 mg/L,回收率范围为80.3% ~95.8%,相对标准偏差为1.51% ~5.75%.结论:该法准确度高,分离效果好,结果稳定可靠,适合于食品中黄色2G、奶油黄和柑橘红2含量的测定.%Objective: To develop a method for the quantitative analysis of yellow 2 G, butter yellow and citrus Red 2 in foods and identification by liquid chromagraphy mass spectrometry. Methods: The target chemicals in foods were extracted with hexane and purified with neutral alumina solid phase extraction column. The separation was carried out on C18 column (4. 6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm) at 30℃ with MeOH + H2O as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1. 0 ml. Diode - array detector was used for quantitative analysis. Results: There was good linear relation-ship in the range of 0. 5 mg/L ~ 10. 0 mg/L for the three target chemicals. The recovery rate of the method were be-tween 80. 3% and 95. 8% with RSDs of 1. 51% ~5. 75% . Conclusion: The method is simple, accurate and suit-able for the determination of yellow 2G, butter yellow and citrus Red 2 in foods.

  8. 蔗糖形态对氢化棕榈仁油/可可脂混合体系结晶性质的影响%Influence of sugar forms on crystallization properties of hydrogenated palm kernel oil/cocoa butter mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雯雯; 王风艳; 王兴国; 刘元法

    2012-01-01

    The mixture system of hydrogenated palm kernel oil and cocoa butter( mass ratio 9:1) was used as material, and the effects of different forms of sugar (crystaline sugar, powder sugar) and lecithin on the crystallization and melting behavior were evaluated by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results showed that the influence of sugar forms on the crystallization and melting behavior of oil was not remarkable without adding lecithin; however, with the addition of lecithin, the melting point and crystallization point increased as the sugar particle size decreased; lecithin decreased the crystallization point of the oil mixture in both sugar forms.%以氢化棕榈仁油/可可脂(质量比9∶1)混合体系为基料油,采用差示扫描量热仪( DSC)考察不同形态蔗糖(结晶糖、糖粉)和卵磷脂对熔化结晶性质的影响.结果表明:未添加卵磷脂时,蔗糖形态对基料油的熔化结晶性质影响不大;添加卵磷脂后,蔗糖颗粒越细,熔化和结晶温度越高;两种形态的蔗糖体系,添加卵磷脂均使结晶温度显著降低.

  9. HPLC-柱后光化学衍生法检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素%Determination of Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Peanut Butter by HPLC with On-Line Post-Column Photochemical Derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽; 王晓; 滕振勇

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in peanut butter using on-line post-column photo-chemical derivatization-HPLC-FLD method. The samples were extracted with acetonitril-H2O (80:20) and purified with inmunoafinity column,aflatoxins were analyzed by HPLC -FLD with post -column photochemical derivatizaton. On optimum conditions,aflatoxin B1,G1 ranging 0.30 mg/L-10 mg/L showed a good linear relationship with aflatoxin B2,G2 ranging 0.06 mg/L-3.0mg/L with r>0.998. The recoveries ranged between 80 % and 101 % ,with RSDs all bellow 5.9 %. LOD of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 were 0.10,0.03,0.15,0.04μg/kg,respectively.%建立高效液相色谱-在线柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2的含量.样品以乙腈-水(80:20)溶液提取,经免疫亲和柱净化后,利用在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD进行分析测定.结果:在优化条件下,黄曲霉毒素B1、G1在0.30 mg/L~10 mg/L,黄曲霉毒素B2、G2在0.06 mg/L~3.0mg/L线性关系良好,r>0.998 ,回收率80%~101%,RSD<5.9%.黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2的检测限(LOD)分别为0.10、0.03、0.15、0.04μg/kg.

  10. Sticky decisions: Peanut butter in a time of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present a consumer-focused perspective on creating communications regarding potentially contaminated foods. It is illustrated with decisions that might have faced US consumers during the 2009 recalls of peanut and pistachio products. The example shows how knowledge about test results and regulato

  11. Peanut butter consumption and hepatocellular carcinoma in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Hadi Omer, R.

    2001-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world with 80% of cases occurring in developing countries in sub-Saharan regions in Africa, South-East Asia and China. The cancer is highly fatal and survival is generally less than 1 year from diagnosis. Clinical records suggest

  12. Political Cycles in Public Expenditure: Butter vs Guns

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, V.; Efthyvoulou, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the timing of elections and government ideological motivations influence the dynamics of social and military expenditure in a panel of 22 OECD countries over the period 1988-2008. Three basic results emerge. First, governments tend to bias outlays towards social expenditure and away from military expenditure at election times. Second, membership in the NATO alliance affects the timing of election-driven military spending manipulations. Third, partisan distinctions ...

  13. Ultrasonic wave propagation in cocoa butter during crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Rigolle, Annelien; Descheemaeker, Jan; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2012-01-01

    In the production of fat containing food products, insight in the crystallization behaviour of fats is of utmost importance to obtain the desired product functionality and product quality. The aim of this research is to study the potential of advanced ultrasonic techniques to monitor fat crystallization. For reasons of sensitivity and signal quality during the entire process, we concentrate on shear wave reflectivity measurements at the interface between a fat sample and ...

  14. Sticky decisions: Peanut butter in a time of Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B

    2010-01-01

    We present a consumer-focused perspective on creating communications regarding potentially contaminated foods. It is illustrated with decisions that might have faced US consumers during the 2009 recalls of peanut and pistachio products. The example shows how knowledge about test results and regulatory processes might be made more useful to consumers.

  15. The College Dean, or, It's Difficult to Save Your Sanity When You're the Peanut Butter in a Peanut Butter Sandwich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Richard S.

    1975-01-01

    Changing conditions dictate an active rather than passive role for college deans. Instructional technology can be an effective tool in the dean's active search for information to enable him to effect change in curriculum and instruction. (NHM)

  16. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic aci...

  17. The Bread and Butter of Classical Organizational Approaches: The Time-and-Motion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dan W.

    2007-01-01

    The thought of learning about the principles of classical management and the machine metaphor of organizing can get many organizational communication students yawning just by seeing the subject in a syllabus. Abundant movie and television examples associated with the machine-like nature of workplace productivity are often used to demonstrate…

  18. The role of mixing temperature on microstructure and rheological properties of butter blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Wiking, Lars

    2012-01-01

    firmness, independently of the content of rapeseed oil. By increasing the percentage of RO and the mixing temperature, a decrease in melting point (Mp) and in SFC was observed in the blends. The microstructure of the blends was analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which explains...... until analyzed. Microstructure, rheological properties, melting behavior and solid fat content (SFC) of the blends were examined. The viscoelastic properties of the blends were measured by rheological oscillation analysis. Mixing at 23 °C always resulted in the softest products, hence the lowest...

  19. Big Data from Pharmaceutical Patents: A Computational Analysis of Medicinal Chemists' Bread and Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Tarselli, Michael A; Landrum, Gregory A

    2016-05-12

    Multiple recent studies have focused on unraveling the content of the medicinal chemist's toolbox. Here, we present an investigation of chemical reactions and molecules retrieved from U.S. patents over the past 40 years (1976-2015). We used a sophisticated text-mining pipeline to extract 1.15 million unique whole reaction schemes, including reaction roles and yields, from pharmaceutical patents. The reactions were assigned to well-known reaction types such as Wittig olefination or Buchwald-Hartwig amination using an expert system. Analyzing the evolution of reaction types over time, we observe the previously reported bias toward reaction classes like amide bond formations or Suzuki couplings. Our study also shows a steady increase in the number of different reaction types used in pharmaceutical patents but a trend toward lower median yield for some of the reaction classes. Finally, we found that today's typical product molecule is larger, more hydrophobic, and more rigid than 40 years ago. PMID:27028220

  20. The Church of Deaf Sociality: Deaf Churchgoing Practices and "Sign Bread and Butter" in Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedner, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This article ethnographically analyzes the practices of deaf young adults in Bangalore, India. As sign language is not used by families, schools, or other institutions, the church is a crucial educational space. Churchgoing provides deaf young adults with opportunities to orient themselves toward other deaf young adults, to develop new ideas of…

  1. Performance of a Batch System Hydrolic Press for Cocoa Butter Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not significant different with carbofuran treatment which could suppress nematoda population by 89.7%. The same result also occur on the treatment of P. diminuta at density level 2.108 cfu/seedling, which could suppress nematoda population by 64.2%. Seedling growth were treated with MHB also significantly increase compared with seedling without treatment and inoculation of nematodas, especially on the treatment of B.subtilis at density level 108 cfu and P.diminuta at density level of 108 cfu, with increasing level of 35.4% and 34.2 %, respectively.Keywords: MHB (Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria, Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.,  Pratylenchus coffeae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas diminuta.

  2. Oxidation and Textural Characteristics of Butter and Ice Cream with Modified Fatty Acid Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Milk fat composition determines specific rheological, sensory and physicochemical properties of dairy products such as texture, melting point, flavor, color, oxidation rates, and viscosity. Previous studies have shown that milkfats containing higher levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have lower melting points and decreased solid fat contents which leads to softer-textured products. An increased risk of higher oxidation rates can be a disadvantage of high levels of polyunsaturate...

  3. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs and edible oils from oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The current methods used to recover high quality oil from oilseeds have low yields (mechanical expression, aqueous extraction), require the use of toxic chemicals and rigorous purification processes that can reduce the quality of the oil (solvent extraction with hexane) or are unsuitable for the rec

  4. Performance of a Batch System Hydrolic Press for Cocoa Butter Extraction Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Mulato; Sukrisno Widyotomo; Hadi K. Purwadaria

    2008-01-01

    AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM) program, which integrated between the use of cof...

  5. 滋养生命的黄油(下)%Nourishing Butter in Life(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟昱

    2006-01-01

    在西餐烹饪中永远担任配角的黄油,它的地位却与面包不相上下,在英语词汇中“bread and butters”本意是涂上黄油的面包,意指生活必需品,等同于中文中的“柴米油盐酱醋茶”,也许,正是有了黄油的滋养,平淡的生活才变得丰富多彩,有滋有味。

  6. Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the ethanolic extracts of seed, leaf and stem bark of Vitellaria paradoxa were investigated. The extracts were tested against three clinical bacterial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using the agar diffusion and the broth dilution techniques. Ethanolic extracts of the plant parts showed activity against all the bacterial pathogens tested. At the highest extract concentration (200 mg/ml, the leaf extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity, while no activity was detected at the lowest concentration (3.13 mg/ml against the tested isolates. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were more susceptible to all extracts of V. paradoxa, while Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the least sensitivity. The efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa was compared to a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. There were differences in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of all the Vitellaria paradoxa ethanolic extracts with respect to the type of organism. All extracts exhibited bacteriostatic effects against the tested organisms at the experimented concentrations. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins and alkaloids as the active principles of Vitellaria paradoxa's antimicrobial activity. V. paradoxa could be used as a potential source of antibiotic substance for a drug development.

  7. Production zones and systems, markets, benefits and constraints of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn butter processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bup Divine Nde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The shea tree is a multipurpose tree crop indigenous to Sub Saharan African. The tree is highly cherished for the oil that is extracted from its kernels and used nationally and internationally in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and in chocolate formulations. The processing and sales represent significant income earning opportunities for rural women who are the main stakeholders in the production chain. Shea nuts and its products are listed among the top ten Non-Traditional Exports of Ghana. In Burkina Faso it is the fourth most important export crop after gold, cotton and livestock and makes a contribution of about 6 million USD to the national economy. Today the shea tree is the second most important oil crop in Africa after the palm nut tree. About 500 million shea trees grow in Africa which has the potential of producing shea nuts worth about 150 million USD yearly. This represents substantial earnings for the Sub-Saharan African economies when fully exploited. Shea trees grow in 21 Sub-Saharan African countries that can be grouped into 3 zones following their potentials for shea nut production per year: high production zone comprising of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D’Ivoire Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda that have potentials of producing 70 000–300 000 tons per year; average production zone comprising of Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Guinea Conakry, Senegal and Togo with potentials of 10 000–70 000 tons per year and low production zones made up of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Niger and Sierra Leone with yearly production potentials less than 10 000 metric tons. Though semi mechanized and some few fully mechanized productions methods are employed in the major shea producing countries of West Africa, most of the rural women still used traditional processing procedures. Major importers of shea are European Union, Japan and the USA. The sector is still constrained by lack of mechanized processing in most localities, dwindling number of shea trees (due to bush burning, exploitation for wood, dependence on natural regeneration which is not very effective, lack of adequate technical and financial support to the sector and limited research on proper propagation methods that may shorten commencement of fruit production period from 10–15 years to about 3–5 years.

  8. Quality of traditionally processed shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels and shea butter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

  9. From Peanut Butter to Eid ... Blending Perspectives: Teaching Urdu to Children in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Rahat

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this article is to examine the notions of language learning, heritage (referring to tradition) and ancestry (descendants & properties passed on), and cultural identification for Urdu-speaking immigrant children now living in Canada. This article provides a detailed ethnographic account of an innovative language program developed to…

  10. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  11. Like peanut butter and chocolate: Problem-based learning and the ACRL Framework in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Vukas, Rachel; Collins, Heather; Yankee, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) offers a rich context for teaching using the Framework. This pairing requires planning in order to interprofessionally infuse faculty knowledge content with information literacy expertise. Explore the foundations of PBLs and a method to directly teach practical and efficient research strategies while also addressing evaluative critical thinking processes.

  12. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C) were evaluated during storage period of 21 days. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and free fatty acids (FFA) of ghee samples were analyzed during the study. PV, TBA and FFA of ghee samples increased significantly while radical scavenging activity (RSA) of ghee samples decreased significantly at accelerated temperature (T3) as compared to the temperatures at T1 and T2. Effect of storage temperature on development of peroxides and TBA of ghee samples was significantly higher than the effect of treatment and storage period while treatment had more significant effect on the change in FFA and RSA as compared to storage temperature and storage period. Ghee incorporated with orange peel extract (OPE) showed stronger activity in quenching DPPH radicals and least development of PV, TBA and FFA than ghee incorporated with BHA and control. The study revealed that orange peel could be a good natural source of antioxidants which can be used in fat rich food products like ghee to retard oxidative deterioration.

  13. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    Background: In several recent studies, it has been shown that markers of milk-fat intake, are strongly correlated to a low fasting-insulin level, indicating a positive correlation between milk-fat intake and improved glucose-tolerance [1, 2]. This is in contradiction to the general findings...

  14. Preparation of stabilized peanut butter%稳定型花生酱的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师延路

    2004-01-01

    本文探讨了在花生原酱的基础上,加入稳定剂、食盐、白砂糖等辅料制成的幼滑型花生酱.本文对幼滑型花生酱中稳定剂的选择、主要生产工艺的确定等方面进行了详细描述.

  15. Reducing the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter by phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds are known to form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if phenolics, such as, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids form insoluble and irreversible complexes with major peanut allergens. We also tested whether such complexat...

  16. Effect of phenolic compounds on the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are phytochemicals and antioxidants with known health benefits. They are known to bind to proteins as soluble and insoluble complexes. As soluble complexes, with major peanut allergens formed in the presence of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), PCs have been shown to be able to redu...

  17. Acute malnutrition is common in Malawian patients with a Wilms tumour: a role for peanut butter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Israëls; E. Borgstein; M. Jamali; J. de Kraker; H.N. Caron; E.M. Molyneux

    2009-01-01

    Background. Children with cancer in resource limited Countries are often Malnourished at diagnosis. Acute malnutrition is associated with more infectious complications and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in major surgery. Methods. All new patients with the clinical diagnosis of a Wilms

  18. Columbia University Today: Why the Peanut Butter Revolution Didn't Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larned, Deborah

    1975-01-01

    A 1970 graduate of Columbia, who was involved in the 1968 student protests, returns to assess the mood of students and the Columbia Corporation (the University as a legal entity) and concludes that students are less militant, possibly because of admissions policies, but that the Columbia Corporation has not changed. (JT)

  19. Pilot batch production of cocoa butter-like fats from chinese vegetable tallow by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Hu, X.; Balchen, Steen;

    1997-01-01

    Chinese vegetable tallow (CVT) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil fatty acids (FHSOFA) as substrates. CVT is a naturally-rich-in-POP vegetable fat containing 80% Sn-POP which is obtained from the outer covering of the seed of the Chinese tallow tree. The FHSOFA contained about 86% stearic acid...

  20. Healthy Breakfasts for Kids: It's All about Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muffins with zucchini and carrots, and spread with peanut butter or almond butter for protein with a glass ... mix or a whole-wheat tortilla spread with peanut butter or almond butter and a carton of milk. “ ...

  1. Analyses and Nutrition Comparison of Cocoa Butter and Cocoa Butter Substitute in Chocolate with GC-MS%巧克力中可可脂与代可可脂的GC-MS分析与营养比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑函; 马越; 李晓燕; 宋金慧

    2015-01-01

    根据可可脂与代可可脂中脂肪酸组成的不同,采用气相色谱-质谱联用法(GC-MS)分析巧克力中代可可脂(CBS)及可可脂(CB)的含量.从脂肪酸组成角度比较巧克力与代可可脂巧克力的营养价值.

  2. Compatibility and crystal morphology of cocoa butter substitutes and cocoa butter%代可可脂与可可脂相容性及晶体形态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风艳; 王兴国; 胡鹏; 常桂芳; 刘元法

    2009-01-01

    利用等温相图和偏光显微镜技术,对可可脂(CB)含量1%~9%的氢化棕榈仁油(HPKO)混合物(HPKO/CB)的相容性及晶体形态进行了研究.结果表明,在0~35 ℃范围内相容性良好,但在15 ℃和20 ℃时HPKO对CB的敏感度高于其他温度.晶体形态分析表明,CB和HPKO晶体形态显著不同,添加少量CB就会出现明显的共晶现象.

  3. In the shadow of the butter mountain - Take-back and recycling; Im Schatten des Butterbergs - Ruecknahme und Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    In the future old solar cells are covered by the laws on electronic waste. From 2014 new rules will apply, without exception. Each manufacturer and importer is then responsible. [German] Kuenftig fallen alte Solarmodule unter die Gesetze zum Elektroschrott. Ab 2014 gelten neue Vorschriften, ohne Ausnahme. Dann steht jeder einzelne Hersteller und Importeur in der Verantwortung.

  4. [PLASTICITY OF THE THERMAL REACTION NORMS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN PEACOCK BUTTERLY INACHIS IO (LEPIDOPTERA, NYMPHALIDAE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkova, M V; Lopatina, E B

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the plasticity of the thermal reaction norms for development in the European Peacock butterfly Inachis io under the effect of different photoperiodic conditions and group versus individual maintenance. The overwintered imagoes were collected in Old Peterhof (near Saint-Petersburg) in May, 2010 and 2012-2013. 12 experimental regimens were used: 4 temperatures (16, 18, 20 and 22 degrees C) and 3 photoperiods (12, 18 and 22 h of light a day). It was found that under short-day conditions (12 h) the caterpillars developed a little faster than under long-day ones (22 h). The developmental temperature thresholds in these two cases did not differ. A linear regression coefficient characterizing thermal sensitivity of development was significantly higher only in males with their development affected by short-day photoperiod stronger than in females. At 18-h day length, the caterpillar development was less temperature-sensitive and characterized by a lower threshold than in shorter and longer days. The influence of short-day photoperiod on the caterpillar development manifested itself most distinctly in the emerging pupae' weight changes: in all the temperature regimens the pupae were lighter at short than at long days. The pupal weight increased as the temperature rose. The found dependence does not agree with the "temperature-size rule". Individual rearing led to a longer duration and lower thermal sensitivity of caterpillar and pupal development as well as to a reduced weight of the pupae. Individual rearing had a stronger impact on the mineral of females than males.

  5. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed;

    1999-01-01

    healthy free-living young men (age 21-26 y) fulfilled the study. INTERVENTIONS: At thebeginning and end of each diet period two venous blood samples were collected. Triacylglycerol and cholesterolconcentrations in total plasma and VLDL, LDL, IDL and HDL fractions were measured, as were apo A-1 and apo...... Bconcentrations. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, plasma cholesterol ester and platelets was alsodetermined. RESULTS: Significantly (P LDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed after theBR and BS period, compared to BG. The effect of BR and BS did not differ. BG and BR...... resulted in equalconcentrations of HDL-C, but significantly higher than BS. Consequently, a significantly lower LDL-C/HDL-C ratio wasseen after the BR treatment compared to BG and BS. Apo A-1 concentrations were not significantly different, but ApoB was significantly increased after BG. CONCLUSIONS...

  6. Pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de sabores Flavored cashew nut butter

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Ribeiro Lima; Elianne de Alencar Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Neste trabalho avaliaram-se as características de pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de chocolate e canela. As formulações foram elaboradas pela moagem dos ingredientes até obtenção de uma pasta homogênea. Analisaram-se: umidade, pH, cinzas, proteína, gordura, índice de acidez, atividade de água, textura e aceitação sensorial. Os produtos obtidos caracterizaram-se por baixos valores de atividade de água (

  7. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, C.; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    Background The nutritional effect of the regiospecific distribution of fatty acids in edible fats is currently discussed due to an increased use of interesterification of fats for human consumption. However, disagreeing results have been reported which may be due to the varying composition...

  8. 稳定型花生酱的研制%Study on Preparation of Stabilized Peanut Butter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎杰

    2005-01-01

    确定了稳定型花生酱生产的操作要点,重点研究了工艺流程、稳定剂种类及用量对成品酱体态、口感及稳定性的影响.结果表明,花生仁经破碎、混合配料、粗磨、精磨,以14%蛋白粉、1.5%单甘酯混合作为稳定剂,再辅以适量的抗氧化剂和调味料,可得到风味、色泽、质地、口感均极佳的产品.

  9. Notes from the field: Salmonella Bredeney infections linked to a brand of peanut butter--United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    In 2012, CDC collaborated with state health and agricultural agencies and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate an outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney infections associated with exposure to peanut products manufactured by Sunland, Inc. of Portales, New Mexico. PMID:23407127

  10. Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or squash seeds, hulled, roasted) • 1 tablespoon of peanut butter or almond butter • ¼ cup of cooked beans ( ... or seeds = 2-oz equivalents • 2 tablespoons of peanut butter = 2-oz equivalents • 1 cup split pea soup = ...

  11. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these foods. Sauces. Many cooks use peanuts or peanut butter to thicken chili and other sauces. Always proceed ... the knife another family member used to make peanut butter sandwiches is not used to butter your bread ...

  12. All About the Protein Foods Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cup cooked beans, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon of peanut butter, or ½ ounce of nuts or seeds can ... or squash seeds, hulled, roasted) 1 Tablespoon of peanut butter or almond butter 1 ounce of nuts of ...

  13. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your meals: butter, margarine, sour cream, cream cheese, peanut butter gravy, sour cream, cream cheese, grated cheese avocados, ... immune system. whole grains, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, peanut butter, and nuts Limit to 400 mcg per day. ...

  14. School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat. In addition to old standbys, such as peanut butter and jelly, try pitas or wrap sandwiches stuffed ... crackers filled with low-fat cream cheese or peanut butter and jelly) peanut butter and celery sticks veggie ...

  15. Food Allergy Treatment and Avoidance (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe reaction. As an example, the smell of peanut butter is related to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), substances that evaporate easily. The smell of peanut butter is not related to particles of peanut butter ...

  16. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, Magdalena Jacomina

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the expression of cocoa nibs and a way to optimise the cocoa butter yield (defined as the mass of cocoa butter recovered as a percentage of the total cocoa butter content) obtainable from cocoa nibs without modifying the composition of the cocoa butter

  17. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa nibs

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Magdalena Jacomina

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the expression of cocoa nibs and a way to optimise the cocoa butter yield (defined as the mass of cocoa butter recovered as a percentage of the total cocoa butter content) obtainable from cocoa nibs without modifying the composition of the cocoa butter.

  18. Preparation and distribution of materials for 2 BcR intercomparisons of methods for determination of aflatoxins in peanut meal and peanut butter, and deoxynivalenol in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond; H.P.van; Paulsch; W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Standaardoplossingen werden bereid van de afzonderlijke aflatoxinene B1, B2, G1 en G2 in chloroform (0.1 ug/ml) en een oplossing van aflatoxinen B1, B2, G1 en G2 in chloroform (ca 2,1,4 en 1 ug/ml resp.). De oplossingen werden in ampullen afgevuld. (ca 100 ampullen van elke oplossing.) Van iede

  19. Influence of hydrogenated oil as cocoa butter replacers in the development of sugar-free compound chocolates: Use of inulin as stabilizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Baracco, Yanina; Lecot, Javier; Zaritzky, Noemi; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2017-02-15

    The effect of the addition of inulin as a surfactant or stability agent on white compound chocolate sweetened with sucralose and Stevia was studied. Samples were stored at 7, 15 and 30°C during 100days and the influence of inulin on rheological properties, sensorial attributes, shelf-life, physical properties such as melting, crystallization and blooming were analyzed. The shelf-life of the compound chocolate with the incorporation of inulin was higher than the control sample without replacement. Compound chocolate with inulin at 10%w/w showed a dense matrix structure, reducing the size and number of fat crystals formed during storage; furthermore they presented higher values of brightness and WI. This chocolate also showed less fracturability and improved thermal properties. DSC studies revealed increased values of onset and peak temperatures and enthalpy of melting of the polymorphic form V, at higher storage temperatures, achieving greater stability against degradation processes. PMID:27664681

  20. Foxfire 3: Animal Care, Banjos and Dulcimers, Hide Tanning, Summer and Fall Wild Plant Foods, Butter Churns, Ginseng, and Still More Affairs of Plain Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigginton, Eliot, Ed.

    A window into the customs, folklore, and cultural heritage of Appalachia is provided in this volume, the third in the series of "Foxfire" books. Compiled by high school students at Rabun Gap-Nacoochee school, it is based on personal interviews with long-time residents of Appalachian Georgia. In many cases the material is in the words of the…

  1. "Dude! You mean you've never eaten a peanut butter and jelly sandwich?!?" Nut allergy as stigma in comic books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, Sarah; Weaver, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the representation of nut allergy in comics aimed at children and young people. It maps the signification and stigma of nut allergy in comics, and includes an outline of the imagery, stereotypes, and connotations that are created on this condition. Three texts are examined: first, Allergic, a semi-autobiographical story by Adrian Tomine aimed at young adults; second, What's Up With Paulina? from the Medikidz series of comic books that aim to help a pre-teenage audience learn about medical conditions; and third, Peanut, a forthcoming comic book by Ayun Halliday aimed at those in their early to mid teenage years. Using textual analysis, we focus on three principal areas of the texts. First, we consider the way in which the allergic character is represented in relation to examples of felt stigma, typified by feelings of shame and rejection, and compare this representation to common stereotypes of disability. Second, we look at the representation of other characters, drawing attention to the way in which stigma is enacted, highlighting acts of overt discrimination. Last, we examine the way in which the event of an allergic reaction is portrayed, considering how this might be used to help children and young people better understand nut allergy and combat the stigma attached to it. Throughout the article we compare the representation of stigma in comics with that depicted in empirical research on children living with nut allergies.

  2. Aluminium dynamics and proton buttering in undistributed samples of acidified forest soils; Aluminium-Dynamik und Protonenpufferung in ungestoerten Proben versauerter Waldboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, E.

    1992-12-31

    In this work non-displaced soil samples were used to test the reaction of acidified forest soils in the aluminium buffering range to different proton concentrations. The examined quantities were the proton buffering rate in the macropore spaces and the correlated rate of aluminium release. Furthermore, the types of aluminium bondage occuring in the soil solution and their influence on the aluminium dynamics within the profile were determined. The significance of species distribution for the interpretation of the toxic potential of aluminium is illuminated. The influence of soil structure on proton buffering, aluminium release and species distribution is described from a global viewpoint. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird an natuerlich gelagerten Bodenproben die Reaktion versauerter Waldboeden im Aluminium-Pufferbereich auf unterschiedlich starke Protonenbelastungen untersucht. Dabei interessiert die Rate der Protonenpufferung im Makroporenraum einhergehend mit der Menge freigesetzten Aluminiums. Darueberhinaus wird untersucht, welche Aluminium-Bindungsformen in der Bodenloesung vorliegen und welchen Einfluss diese auf die Aluminium-Dynamik innerhalb des Profils haben. Die Bedeutung der Speziesverteilung fuer die Interpretation potentieller Aluminium-Toxizitaet wird beleuchtet. Uebergreifend wird der Einfluss der Bodenstruktur auf Protonenpufferung, Aluminium-Freisetzung sowie Speziesverteilung herausgestellt. (orig.)

  3. The Roles of Branding for a Brand Entering Overseas Markets : A Case Study of a Danish Butter Launching in Hong Kong with Success

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Catherine; Lau, Tat Pui

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose ofthis research is to investigate how branding is applied in a challengingindustry for an overseas market.  In other words, we would look into the aspects that are important for building and strengthening a brand in overseas market. Design/Methodology/Approach – Our qualitative research is developed according to the interpretive approach which seeks to understand the aspects of brandings foroverseas market.  This research would beconducted as a deductive study; the valid...

  4. HPLC法测定花生酱中BHA、BHT和TBHQ%Detection for BHA, BHT and TBHQ in peanut butter by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞晔; 刘一军; 舒永兰

    2005-01-01

    采用甲醇浸提花生酱中的抗氧化剂BHA、BHT和TBHQ,浓缩后用甲醇-水淋洗的反相高效液相色谱法测定其中的抗氧化剂含量,检测波长为280nm;流动相甲醇:水=20:80;梯度:20%~80%甲醇/5~20min,80%甲醇保持5min.3种抗氧化剂的回收率在85.25%~103.91%,变异系数为2.07%~3.80%,该方法简便、快速、准确,适用于花生酱中BHA、BHT和TBHQ的检测.

  5. Study on emulsifiers-thickeners for peanut butter protein milk%花生酱蛋白饮料复配乳化增稠剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海平; 申利娟

    2012-01-01

    以花生酱、奶粉、白糖等原辅料制成的花生蛋白饮料为试样,进行不同均质压力、不同乳化增稠剂组合试验,考察其体系的稳定性.结果表明:采用均质温度70℃、均质压力40MPa,添加复配乳化增稠剂0.46%(聚甘油脂肪酸酯0.10%、硬脂酰乳酸钠0.03%、羧甲基纤维素钠0.03%、微晶纤维素0.25%、卡拉胶0.05%)时,产品的稳定效果最好.经常温贮存6个月观察,试样无沉淀,无明显脂肪上浮.

  6. 花生酱中微量金属元素及其营养成分分析%Determination of microelements and nutrition ingredients of peanut butter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊生

    2011-01-01

    采用火焰原子吸收法(FAAS)测定了花生酱中的钙、铜、铁、锌四种对人体有益的微量元素,并对其中的水分、脂肪、总糖、蛋白质、氯化钠等营养成分进行了测定.该测定方法简单易行,方便快捷,结果可靠.

  7. 提高花生酱稳定性的工艺研究%Study on Technology of Improving the Stability of Peanut Butter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德培

    2005-01-01

    为了提高花生酱的稳定性,探讨了花生酱在储存过程中出现分层现象的主要原因和解决方法,对影响花生酱风味、色泽、口感、稳定性的工艺作了初步研究,研制出具有半流动性,口感、风味、色泽良好的稳定型花生酱.

  8. 香蕉花生酱加工工艺研究%Study on Processing Technology of Banana and Peanut Butter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲艳; 肖丹; 邓放明

    2008-01-01

    本试验以香蕉和花生为原料对香蕉的护色、干燥方法及香蕉花生酱的加工工艺进行了研究.试验结果表明,香蕉去皮后,用0. 2%柠檬酸+0. 01%VC 溶液浸泡10min 护色、打浆,在75℃下热风干燥60min,得到香蕉粉.香蕉花生酱的最佳配方为花生酱73%、香蕉粉15%、单甘酯2%、蔗糖5%、植物油5%.

  9. ROC曲线法在花生酱感官评定中的应用%Application of ROC Curves in Sensory Evaluation of Peanut Butter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 杨波涛; 曹文明; 穆昭; 陈凤香; 胡敏

    2009-01-01

    本文用秩和检验与基于Thustonian模型的ROC曲线法检验感官评定了4个不同配方的花生酱,通过R指数测定了4个花生酱间的差异性.ROC曲线法分析结果表明4个花生酱配方具有显著差异.R指数能够比较两个或多个产品的差异程度,是测定信号检测理论的简易方法,适用于评价食品.

  10. Study on the processing technology of banana and peanut butter%香蕉粉及香蕉花生酱的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲艳; 邓放明; 肖丹

    2007-01-01

    该试验以香蕉和花生为原料对香蕉的护色、干燥方法及香蕉花生酱的加工工艺进行了研究.试验结果表明:香蕉去皮后,用0.2%柠檬酸+0.01%维生素C溶液浸泡10min护色、打浆,在75℃下热风干燥60min,得到香蕉粉,香蕉花生酱的最佳配方为花生酱73%、香蕉粉15%、单甘酯2%、蔗糖5%、植物油5%;香蕉花生酱适宜的杀菌条件为121℃,16min.

  11. The preservative effect of the citral on peanut butter%柠檬醛对花生酱的防腐效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余伯良; 周健; 罗惠波

    2002-01-01

    采用平板法比较柠檬醛与合成食用防腐剂苯甲酸钠、山梨酸钾对8种霉菌的抗菌效力.结果表明,在花生酱pH5.5时,柠檬醛对多数霉菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)为0.10%,山梨酸钾为0.10%,而苯甲酸钠的MIC值在0.35%或0.35%以上.同时,从柠檬醛与黄曲霉产毒关系的试验中发现,柠檬醛对黄曲霉产生黄曲霉毒素有较强的抑制作用.

  12. 香蕉粉及香蕉花生酱的加工工艺研究%Study on the processing technology of banana powder and peanut butter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲艳; 邓放明; 肖丹

    2007-01-01

    该试验以香蕉和花生为原料,对香蕉的护色、干燥方法及香蕉花生酱的加工工艺进行了研究.试验结果表明:香蕉去皮后,用0.2%柠檬酸+0.01%维生素C溶液浸泡10 min护色、打浆,在75 ℃下热风干燥60 min,得到香蕉粉;香蕉花生酱的最佳配方为花生酱73%、香蕉粉15%、单甘酯2%、蔗糖5%、植物油5%.

  13. Quality characteristics analysis of different varieties of peanut butter%不同品种花生酱品质特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩阿娜; 刘红芝; 刘丽; 石爱民; 林伟静; 王强

    2015-01-01

    为研究不同品种花生酱的品质差异及筛选出适宜加工花生酱的优良品种,本实验选取6个花生品种,对其制备花生酱的感官品质、理化营养品质及稳定性等三个方面进行研究,并对各指标间的关系进行相关性分析.研究结果表明:不同品种花生酱中,感官总体得分差异较小,其分值最高的品种为山花9号(7.53分);营养品质中脂肪、蛋白质平均含量分别达48.75%和24.58%,品种间差异较小;稳定性值差异较大,其中过氧化值变异系数最高(73.64%),其值最低的品种为四粒红.花生酱的硬度和粘度呈极显著正相关(r=0.982);色泽中L*(明亮度)值与C *(色角饱和度)值和H(色度)值呈显著相关性(r=-0.921,r=0.996).最后根据感官品质、理化营养品质和稳定性等指标,筛选出适合制备花生酱的花生品种为四粒红,其感官评分6.30分;色泽的L*为50.61;硬度和粘度分别为138.53 g和97.91 g;蛋白质与脂肪含量分别为27.29%和48.19%;稳定性中过氧化值和酸值最低分别为0.004 g/100 g和0.17 g[KOH]/g.

  14. Identification of Volatile Flavor Components in Peanut Butter%花生酱挥发性风味成分的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼飞; 刘源; 孙晓红; 潘迎捷; 赵俊红; 赵勇

    2009-01-01

    采用电子鼻法对两种知名品牌花生酱A和B中的挥发性风味物质进行主成分分析.采用顶窄固相微萃取方法提取花生酱A和B中的挥发性风味物质,结合气相色谱.质谱联用技术对提取的挥发性风味物质进行分离鉴定.电子鼻法能很好的区分花生酱A和B.从花生酱A中共鉴定出62种化合物,占总检出化合物的94.68%,吡嗪类化合物含量最高,有19种,占总挥发性成分的51.86%;花生酱B中共鉴定出42种化合物,占总检出化合物的90.98%,吡嗪类化合物含量最高,有13种,占总挥发性成分的44.40%.两种花生酱中含有39种相同的挥发性风味物质,主要是吡嗪、醛类、呋喃、吡咯、酮类、醇类等化合物,相对百分含最有差别.本研究表明,花生酱主要的挥发性化合物是吡嗪类化合物,而且电子鼻结合顶空固相微萃取以及气-质联用技术可以对不同品牌花生酱的风味进行很好区分.

  15. 21 CFR 1250.26 - Special food requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements. Milk, fluid milk products, ice cream and other frozen desserts, butter, cheese, and shellfish... used in lieu of address. (b) Ice cream, other frozen desserts, and butter shall be manufactured...

  16. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products (cheese, yogurt, butter, and cream) Vitamin E: Avocado Dark green vegetables (spinach, broccoli, asparagus, and turnip ... juice Peanut butter Wheat germ Niacin (vitamin B3): Avocado Eggs Enriched breads and fortified cereals Fish (tuna ...

  17. Celiac Disease and Gluten-Free Diet Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Foods Once Again Nut Butter Sauce Goddess CSA Leadership Professional Advisors History of CSA CSA Development Program ... Foods Once Again Nut Butter Sauce Goddess CSA Leadership Professional Advisors History of CSA CSA Development Program ...

  18. Lymphatic fat absorption varies among rats administered dairy products differing in physiochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Five dairy products (cream cheese, cream, sour cream, butter, and mixed butter) with minor differences in fatty acid composition were administered by gavage to rats, and lymphatic fat...... absorption was examined. Absorption was followed for 8 h after administration of 300 mg fat from the dairy products. Administration of cream and sour cream resulted in faster lymphatic fat absorption than cream cheese, butter, and mixed butter, and at 8 h the accumulated absorption of fat was significantly...... higher. The lymphatic absorption of fat after cream cheese administration was similar to the absorption after butter and mixed butter administration up to the 4-h time point; then it increased to a level between that of rats administered cream or sour cream and butter or mixed butter. Overall...

  19. Kidney Stones in Children (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods: All unsalted crackers and snack foods, unsalted peanut butter, unsalted nuts or seeds Salted crackers and snack items (chips, pretzels, popcorn), regular peanut butter, prepared dips/spreads, salted nuts or seeds Pasta, ...

  20. Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cheese or one-half of a sandwich with peanut butter. It is important not to eat too much ... protein, such as crackers and cheese or a peanut butter sandwich. If the patient is not conscious within ...

  1. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waffle is a compact disc Two tablespoons of peanut butter is a ping-pong ball You should eat ... apple with string cheese, whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter, or baby carrots with hummus. To control your ...

  2. Raising Confident Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... son wants to learn how to make a peanut butter sandwich, demonstrate, set up the ingredients, and let ... instance, after your son has mastered making that peanut butter sandwich you might show your confidence by saying, " ...

  3. Eating Well with Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 percent milk, one to two tablespoons of peanut butter, one to three tea- spoons of canola oil, ... nuts, especially almonds, walnuts, flaxseeds, pine nuts, natural peanut butter Avoid trans fats from hydroge- nated and partially ...

  4. With Protein Foods, Variety Is Key: 10 Tips for Choosing Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey, roast beef, canned tuna or salmon, or peanut butter for sandwiches. Many deli meats, such as regular ... cup cooked beans or peas; 1 tablespoon of peanut butter; or ½ ounce of nuts or seeds can ...

  5. College Eating and Fitness 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein-rich ingredients such as eggs, hummus, beans, peanut butter, tofu, or cheese. What if I have class ... Maintain muscle Try having fish, beans, eggs, tofu, peanut butter, chicken, dairy, or lean beef at each meal. ...

  6. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cooked meat (including bacon), fish, poultry, eggs, smooth peanut butter, and tofu. Make sure your meats are tender ... with gristle. Avoid deli meats, hot dogs, crunchy peanut butter, nuts, beans, tempeh, and peas. Fats, oils, and ...

  7. Nutrition for Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colas, canned iced teas and lemonade, nuts, and peanut butter are high in phosphorus. A renal dietitian can ... yogurt) Beans (baked, kidney, lima, pinto) Nuts and peanut butter Processed meats (hot dogs, canned meat) Cola Canned ...

  8. Aflatoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be found in the following foods: Peanuts and peanut butter Tree nuts such as pecans Corn Wheat Oil ... tests foods that may contain aflatoxin. Peanuts and peanut butter are some of the most rigorously tested products ...

  9. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ½ cup cooked beans or lentils 1 Tbsp peanut butter Low fat dairy is also a good source ... and seeds, including almonds, hazelnuts, mixed nuts, peanuts, peanut butter, sunflower seeds, or walnuts (just watch how much ...

  10. Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Eggs. Cheese. Whole milk. Ice cream. Nuts. Peanut butter. Meat. Poultry. Fish. If constipation is a problem, ... deviled ham on crackers, or cream cheese or peanut butter on crackers or celery. Chocolate. Add extra calories ...

  11. Learning about Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need from peanuts alone, but if you have peanut butter on whole-grain bread, you're set. Likewise, ... protein in a day: 2 tablespoons (15 milliliters) peanut butter (7 grams protein) 1 cup (240 milliliters) low- ...

  12. Becoming a Vegetarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are providing vegetarian options — way beyond a basic peanut butter and jelly sandwich. If you're choosing a ... good sources of protein, but also try nuts, peanut butter, tofu, beans, seeds, soy milk, grains, cereals, and ...

  13. Utilisation de beurres en cosmétique

    OpenAIRE

    Paquatte Olivier

    2009-01-01

    There is a clear consumer need for new textures and for natural and food inspired ingredients in cosmetics. Natural butters are fully in line with these trends. As a result, more and more products containing butters are launched on the European cosmetic market. They are found mainly in skincare and colour cosmetic products. Butters are used as emollients, texturing agents or to perfume finished products. Depending on their composition, their sensorial profiles will vary. Butters are also very...

  14. 76 FR 34004 - Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... functions for the program. NASS publishes sales information for cheddar cheese, butter, dry whey, and nonfat... plants that produce butter, cheese, NFDM, and dry whey with the precise specifications included in the... the manufacturer. Dairy products reported include cheddar cheese, butter, dry whey, and NFDM....

  15. 78 FR 9247 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... permanently adopt amendments to the manufacturing (make) allowances for cheese, butter, nonfat dry milk (NFDM... from 1.20). The make allowances serve to approximate the average cost of producing cheese, butter, NFDM... allowances for butter, cheese, NFDM and dry whey using the most currently available data, and a portion...

  16. 77 FR 8717 - Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... cheddar cheese, butter, dry whey, and nonfat dry milk (NFDM) on a weekly basis. NASS began publishing cheddar cheese sales information in 1997 and butter, nonfat dry milk (NFDM), and dry whey sales... manufacturer. Dairy products reported include cheddar cheese, butter, dry whey, and NFDM. Dairy...

  17. Impact of the consumption of a rich diet in butter and it replacement for a rich diet in extra virgin olive oil on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Vasquez, Hazel Ester; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ortega Fernández, Pablo; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: analizar el impacto de la sustitución de una dieta rica en grasas saturadas por una dieta rica en grasas monoinsaturadas sobre el perfil antropométrico, metabólico y lipídico en mujeres postmenopáusicas. Material y método: estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y comparativo en el que 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas participaron en dos períodos de intervención dietética de 28 días cada uno: 1) (dieta SAT) consumieron mantequilla. Fórmula calórica (FC) = 15% de proteínas, 38% grasas. [20% grasas saturadas (AGS), 12% grasas monoinsaturadas (AGM) y 47% carbohidratos y 6% poliinsaturadas (AGPI)]. 2) Periodo MONO: con aceite de oliva virgen extra (AOVE). Fórmula calórica = 15% de proteínas, 38% grasas (.

  18. 花生酱制备工艺、品质分析及安全性评价研究进展%Recent Process in Peanut Butter Preparation, Quality Analysis and Safety Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩阿娜; 刘红芝; 刘丽; 石爱民; 王强

    2015-01-01

    花生酱含有丰富的蛋白质、维生素和矿物质等,营养丰富,风味独特.本文在文献统计基础上,重点阐述了花生酱制备工艺、品质分析及安全性评价的研究进展.其制备工艺的流程为烘烤、冷却、去皮、一次碾磨、搅拌、二次碾磨和装罐;品质分析包括食用品质(色泽、质构与风味物质)、理化品质(粗蛋白、粗脂肪等)、稳定性分析(货架期和油分离);安全性评价包括黄曲霉毒素、沙门氏菌等.最后对花生酱制备工艺、品质分析及安全性评价研究中存在的问题和重点方向进行了总结和展望.

  19. Effect of starch sodium octenyl succinate on the stability of peanut butter%辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉钠对花生酱稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安昕; 李凌峰; 郇延军

    2014-01-01

    采用正交实验分析法对花生酱的稳定性工艺进行优化,研究了辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉钠用量、原浆与水比例、匀浆速度及时间对花生酱离心乳析率、离心沉淀率的影响,并进行了花生酱储存稳定性和感官特性的比较.实验结果表明:原浆与水比例为1∶1、辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉钠用量为8%、匀浆速度为900r/min、匀浆时间为3min时,制得的花生酱的离心乳析率和离心沉淀率最低,分别为0.92%和1.60%.相较原浆具有更好的稳定性与更高的感官评价得分,且粘度也最接近花生原浆.

  20. IMPROVING PRETREATMENT METHOD OF ELISA DETERMINING AFLATOXIN B1 IN PEANUT BUTTER%ELISA法检测花生酱中AFB1样品前处理方法的改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建荣; 赵春城; 赵晓联

    2005-01-01

    通过ELISA法,对检测花生酱中AFB1含量的前处理方法进行了改进研究.通过对样品提取条件的优化,提取液稀释度的改变,建立了新的前处理方法,并利用回收率的测定与国标法进行比较.结果表明:利用改进的提取方法处理花生酱样品,对常见浓度加标回收率达75%~120%.新的提取方法不仅简化了操作步骤,减少了工作量,又提高了回收率.

  1. Effect of wheat fiber and compound emulsifier on the stability of peanut butter%小麦纤维及复合乳化剂对花生酱稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌峰; 徐延良; 王金来; 史春娟; 郇延军

    2013-01-01

    采用响应面分析法(RSM),研究了小麦纤维用量、复合乳化剂的HLB值及其用量对花生酱离心乳析率的影响,并进行了花生酱储存稳定性和感官特性的比较.实验结果表明,小麦纤维用量为3%、复合乳化剂HLB值为7.08、复合乳化剂用量为0.41%时,制得的花生酱离心乳析率最低,为4.23%.相比于纯花生酱的离心乳析率下降了57.5%,且拥有更好的储存稳定性和更高的感官评价得分.

  2. Study on the manufacture processing of peanut drinks with whole peanut butter%全料花生酱制备花生乳的生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪梓申; 王银安; 洪文生; 胡德亮

    2008-01-01

    研究以全料花生酱为主要原料制备花生乳生产过程的最佳工艺条件.采用对照试验对影响工艺的主要因素进行研究.结果表明:20 μM以下的花生酱配合使用0.25%复合稳定剂SA-5A(花生酱),65~75℃,经过两次均质:25~30 MPa/40~50 MPa,121~127 ℃/15 min高压灭菌,可制备成稳定的花生乳饮料.

  3. 双柱固相萃取-HPLC检测花生和花生酱中赭曲霉毒素A%Determining ochratoxin A in peanut and peanut butter by double-column solid phase extraction-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛斌; 曹文明; 吕艳春; 何志军; 莫文莲; 周喆宇

    2008-01-01

    研究建立了一种用C18固相萃取柱联用离子交换混合反相固相萃取柱的双柱固相萃取技术来提取、净化和富集浓缩花生和花生酱中赭曲霉毒素A,再用高效液相色谱荧光检测器检测赭曲霉毒素A的技术.花生中赭曲霉毒素A的回收率在86.7%~107%之间,总体平均回收率为95.5%,平均RSD为5.30%;花生酱中赭曲霉毒素A的回收率在77%~99.1%之间,总体平均回收率为87.1%,平均RSD为6.66%.

  4. Procédés traditionnels de production et circuit de commercialisation du beurre de karité dans le nord Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameni, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionnal Production and Commercialization of Shea Butter in North-Cameroon. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa from the Sapotaceae family yields fruits with an oily seed from which is extracted a butter commonly used for food and cosmetics. The present study aimed at investigating the traditional production processes and the commercialisation of shea butter in North- Cameroon. Surveys were carried out in the main production areas, butter produced locally and analysed for its quality. Results obtained showed that the shea butter is produced traditionally and the commercialisation is not organized. Two production processes were identified: the wet and the dry way. A significant difference (p< 0.05 was observed in butter quality according to the production locality.

  5. Development and storage study of reduced sugar soy containing compound chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Alka; Singh, Gurmukh

    2010-01-01

    Possibility of using full fat soy flour (FFSF) for replacer for whole milk powder (WMP), stevia-mannitol blend as replacer for sugar and soybean oil (SBO) as replacer for cocoa butter in chocolate manufacture without impairing the sensory quality characteristics of chocolate was explored. Data on the sensory evaluation of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter substituted chocolates revealed that 40% (w/w) of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter can be successfully substituted by FFSF, stevia-mannitol blend and ...

  6. Production, obtention et valorisation des beurres exotiques

    OpenAIRE

    Pages Xavier

    2009-01-01

    By definition, “butters” are anhydrous and solid fats at room temperature. A lot of different crude fats and butters are available in Africa and other tropical countries, and their characteristics make often them interesting to valorise. This presentation will focus on a personal experience dealing with production and development of African butters. The production of butters and particularly the shea fat, is done by one of the two basic methods, roughly described as “traditional or modern”. T...

  7. 7 CFR Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to... - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Tokyo round Uruguay round NON-CHEESE ARTICLES BUTTER (NOTE 6) 5,278,428 1,698,572 EU-25 75,459 20,702...,981 Canada 161,161 New Zealand 11,000 52,820 BUTTER SUBSTITUTES CONTAINING OVER 45 PERCENT OF BUTTERFAT AND/OR BUTTER OIL (NOTE 14) 6,080,500 Any Country 6,080,500 TOTAL: NON-CHEESE ARTICLES...

  8. Studies on application of annatto (Bixa orellena L.) dye formulations in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiya Mala, Kripanand; Prabhakara Rao, Pamidighantam; Prabhavathy, Manda Babu; Satyanarayana, Akula

    2013-01-01

    Annatto is often used to add color to dairy products such as butter, cheese, or puddings. In India usage of annatto is restricted to butter and cheese, however there are no tailor made formulations available to obtain standardized colour shades for the products. Hence a study was initiated to develop the appropriate annatto dye formulations and level of application in few dairy products (butter, cheese, paneer, biscuit cream, icing cream). Dye extracted from annatto seeds was used for the pre...

  9. INTRODUKSI PENGOLAHAN SELE KACANG TANAH SEBAGI PANGAN KAYA NUTRISI DAN ENERGI DI DESA NEGARI KLUNGKUNG

    OpenAIRE

    AGUS SELAMET DUNIAJI; WISANIYASA WISANIYASA

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Almost all of the production of peanut in Indonesia is locally consumed. The peanuts are consumed in various ways, mostly through direct consumption such as boiled peanut, fried peanut, roasted peanut, peanut convectors and peanut butter.Peanut Butter is by far the most important product made from peanuts. It is the pasta forming food that is usually consumed with bread. Peanut Butter is the most popular as a high and medium class food and almost found it at the restaurant and...

  10. Utilisation de beurres en cosmétique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquatte Olivier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear consumer need for new textures and for natural and food inspired ingredients in cosmetics. Natural butters are fully in line with these trends. As a result, more and more products containing butters are launched on the European cosmetic market. They are found mainly in skincare and colour cosmetic products. Butters are used as emollients, texturing agents or to perfume finished products. Depending on their composition, their sensorial profiles will vary. Butters are also very effective marketing tools.

  11. Connaissance indigène des procédés de production du beurre de Pentadesma butyracea Sabine au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïssi, MV.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Knowledge on Production Processes of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine Butter in Benin. Pentadesma butyracea Sabine is a tree that produces fruits containing oleaginous seeds from which butter, similar to shea butter, is extracted. This butter, so far insufficiently known, is obtained traditionally by a poorly documented process. Based on a technological investigation in the rural area and a factorial correspondences analysis (FCA, this study contributes to a better knowledge of the traditional technology of the P. butyracea butter production in Benin. P. butyracea butter is extracted by twelve main successive unit operations. The transformers involved in the butter production belong to eight different ethnic groups. Two types of thermal pretreatments, namely cooking with water and roasting in a traditional furnace are applied to P. butyracea seeds. The influence of the ethnic group was reported, especially on the type of the thermal pretreatment applied to the seeds as well as the various unit operations of transformation implemented from fruit picking up to obtaining butter. This better knowledge will allow improving the traditional processes of the P. butyracea butter production in rural environment.

  12. 48 CFR 32.904 - Determining payment due dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and food products prepared from edible fats or oils. Liquid milk, cheese, certain processed cheese products, butter, yogurt, ice cream, mayonnaise, salad dressings, and other similar products fall...

  13. Effet des prétraitements post-récolte des amandes de Pentadesma butyracea (Sabine sur la technologie d’extraction en milieu réel et la qualité du beurre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissi M. Vahid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pentadesma butter is still traditionally extracted starting from pretreated almonds by traditional techniques of heating. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the almonds post-harvest pretreatments on the physicochemical characteristics, the extraction yield and the quality of the Pentadesma butter. In addition, the effect of the various unit operations of the extraction technology on the quality of the extracted butter from pretreated almonds was studied. According to the same traditional process of extraction, two various butters of Pentadesma were extracted starting from almonds differing only by the post-harvest pretreatment applied (roasting or boiling. The color, the aspect and the breaking strength of the almonds were different. The butter extraction yield varied according to the pretreatment applied. The best yields (33.5 ± 4.1% were obtained from boiled almonds, but their transformation was more difficult than that of roasted. The analysis of the samples at different stages of the transformation allowed the appreciation of the effect of the almonds pretreatments on the acidity and the peroxide value variations at each unit operation of the butter extraction. The fatty acid composition and the tocopherol content of the two extracted butters varied with the almonds pretreatments. The roasted almonds provided a richer butter in stearic acid, a and d-tocopherols and less rich in oleic acid than that provided by the boiled almonds. The pretreatments allowed a total loss of the contained linolenic acid, b and dtocopherols in the butters and decreased the oleic acid and a- tocopherol contents. The physico-chemical characteristics of the Pentadesma butter varied according to the almonds pretreatments. Thus, it would be interesting to make a reasoned choice of the most suitable post-harvest pretreatment in order to obtain a butter with a good quality and an acceptable extraction yield.

  14. Analysis of collective performance in the Malian shea sector: from fields to markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidibe, A.

    2013-01-01

    Shea butter extracted from kernels can be found in cosmetic and food products. Organising women to make butter for international markets has been central to development strategies in the Malian shea sector. However, only a limited number of women are actually member of and benefit from such groups.

  15. 7 CFR 58.340 - Printing and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Printing and packaging. 58.340 Section 58.340... Procedures § 58.340 Printing and packaging. Printing and packaging of consumer size containers of butter... packaging equipment should be provided. The outside cartons should be removed from bulk butter in a...

  16. The influence of process parameters on Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that increased cocoa butter yields can be achieved with Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs when compared to conventional expression of cocoa nibs [Venter, M.J., Willems, P., Kuipers, N.J.M. & de Haan, A.B. (2006). Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of cocoa butter fr

  17. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Preserved Mushrooms: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 77 FR 66580... limited to water, brine, butter or butter sauce. Preserved mushrooms may be imported whole, sliced, diced... Review: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India for a full discussion of our corroboration analysis....

  18. Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of butter or margarine when cooking vegetables or protein foods... Try trans-free margarine and oils like olive oil or vegetable oil. Why? No trans fat, less saturated fat and more heart-healthy unsaturated fats. Instead of butter or margarine when ...

  19. 21 CFR 168.180 - Table sirup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... and oils, except that, in products designated as “buttered sirups”, butter as provided for in..., or buffering agents. (11) Defoaming agents. (12) Any other ingredient (e.g., shredded coconut,...

  20. Effect of Structural Heterogeneity on In Situ Deformation of Dissimilar Weld Between Ferritic and Austenitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, M.; Santosh, R.; Das, S. K.; Das, G.; Mahato, B.; Korody, J.; Kumar, S.; Singh, P. K.

    2015-08-01

    Low-alloy steel and 304LN austenitic stainless steel were welded using two types of buttering material, namely 309L stainless steel and IN 182. Weld metals were 308L stainless steel and IN 182, respectively, for two different joints. Cross-sectional microstructure of welded assemblies was investigated. Microhardness profile was determined perpendicular to fusion boundary. In situ tensile test was performed in scanning electron microscope keeping low-alloy steel-buttering material interface at the center of gage length. Adjacent to fusion boundary, low-alloy steel exhibited carbon-depleted region and coarsening of matrix grains. Between coarse grain and base material structure, low-alloy steel contained fine grain ferrite-pearlite aggregate. Adjacent to fusion boundary, buttering material consisted of Type-I and Type-II boundaries. Within buttering material close to fusion boundary, thin cluster of martensite was formed. Fusion boundary between buttering material-weld metal and weld metal-304LN stainless steel revealed unmixed zone. All joints failed within buttering material during in situ tensile testing. The fracture location was different for various joints with respect to fusion boundary, depending on variation in local microstructure. Highest bond strength with adequate ductility was obtained for the joint produced with 309L stainless steel-buttering material. High strength of this weld might be attributed to better extent of solid solution strengthening by alloying elements, diffused from low-alloy steel to buttering material.

  1. The hand operated bridge press for ground nut and shea nut processing: A financial and socio-economic appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Stringfellow, Rachel

    1995-01-01

    The present report presents the findings of the socio-economist who visited Ghana in March 1995 as a member of a team to carry out an appraisal of two technologies with potential for field use in Ghana. These were (a) a mincer/extruder for extraction of oil from groundnuts; (b) a bridge press for the extraction of cocoa butter and shea butter.

  2. Les méthodes traditionnelle et améliorée de fabrication du beurre de karité dans le nord de la Côte d'Ivoire. Résultats d'une étude comparative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly, S.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional And Improved Methods Of Shea Butter Production In The North Of Ivory Coast. Shea butter production from Butyrospermum paradoxum is particulary made by traditional methods by women in the North of Ivory Coast during the summer time. The use of some modem equipments does not improve really the yield, but it presents many advantages during production steps.

  3. Eating out

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sauce are healthier than sauces made with cream, butter, or cheese, or pesto. Look for the word primavera, which ... medium-sized baked potato with a touch of butter or low-fat sour ... toppings such as cheese or bacon. Ask for your dressing on the ...

  4. 75 FR 53565 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Origin Tokyo Round Uruguay Round NON-CHEESE ARTICLES BUTTER (NOTE 6) 5,217,229 1,759,771 EU-25 75,000 21...,500 PERCENT OF BUTTERFAT AND/OR BUTTER OIL (NOTE 14) Any Country 6,080,500 TOTAL: NON-CHEESE ARTICLES... Part 6 Agricultural commodities, Cheese, Dairy products, Imports, Reporting and...

  5. Fiber and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fiber-rich sandwich with whole-grain bread, peanut butter, and bananas. Serve whole-grain rolls with dinner ... cookies and muffins. Top whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter or low-fat cheese. Offer air-popped popcorn — ...

  6. INTRODUKSI PENGOLAHAN SELE KACANG TANAH SEBAGI PANGAN KAYA NUTRISI DAN ENERGI DI DESA NEGARI KLUNGKUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS SELAMET DUNIAJI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Almost all of the production of peanut in Indonesia is locally consumed. The peanuts are consumed in various ways, mostly through direct consumption such as boiled peanut, fried peanut, roasted peanut, peanut convectors and peanut butter.Peanut Butter is by far the most important product made from peanuts. It is the pasta forming food that is usually consumed with bread. Peanut Butter is the most popular as a high and medium class food and almost found it at the restaurant and supermarket in Indonesia. However, to process peanut butter is not so difficult for everybody who wants to do it. Peanut Butter processing is very simple with the equipment and ways properly such as to prepare good quality peanuts, sorted, drying, testa separated, grounding and boiling with mixing sugar and salt. Peanut butter has a high calorie with a good nutrition such as protein, fat, vitamins and trace element like calcium, zinc and magnesium. Reformulation and process improvement of Peanut Butter had been done at Department of agricultural products technology, Udayana University and had been disseminated to the housewife’s group and farmer’s group in Negari Village. Through the technology transfer of the Peanut Butter processing, we hope will be achieved a good quality and many several of peanuts processing in the future.

  7. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fiber-rich sandwich with whole-grain bread, peanut butter, and bananas. Use whole-grain spaghetti and other ... cookies and muffins. Top whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter or low-fat cheese. Go easy on the ...

  8. Importance of the fat content within the cheese-matrix for blood lipid profile, faecal fat excretion, and gut microbiome in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup;

    2016-01-01

    and energy excretion and gut microbiome in pigs. A 14-d run-in period was followed by 14-d interventions with macronutrient-matched diets. Fasting total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol after 14 days were higher in REG compared with BUT, but only tended to be higher in RED. Compared with BUT, REG and RED had...... higher faecal fat excretion. Faecal energy excretion was only higher in REG, and this correlated with a lower microbiome Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. In conclusion, dairy fat consumed as cheese or butter caused different metabolic effects. Differences between reduced-fat cheese+butter and butter...

  9. HPLC-柱后光化学衍生法检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素%Determination of Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Peanut Butter by HPLC with On-Line Post-Column Photochemical Derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽; 王晓; 滕振勇

    2015-01-01

    建立高效液相色谱-在线柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2的含量.样品以乙腈-水(80:20)溶液提取,经免疫亲和柱净化后,利用在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD进行分析测定.结果:在优化条件下,黄曲霉毒素B1、G1在0.30 mg/L~10 mg/L,黄曲霉毒素B2、G2在0.06 mg/L~3.0mg/L线性关系良好,r>0.998 ,回收率80%~101%,RSD0.998. The recoveries ranged between 80 % and 101 % ,with RSDs all bellow 5.9 %. LOD of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 were 0.10,0.03,0.15,0.04μg/kg,respectively.

  10. Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Zaida do Rego Cavalcanti; Alfredo Pereira Leite de Albuquerque Filho; Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira; Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar quatro casos de bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Descrevemos os achados clínicos, espirométricos e tomográficos nos quatro pacientes, assim como achados de biópsia pulmonar em um dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Os quatro pacientes eram homens jovens, não fumantes, e desenvolveram obstrução persistente ao fluxo aéreo (relação VEF1/CVF reduzida e VEF1 de 25-44% do previsto) após 1-3 anos de exposição...

  11. 电化学衍生-高效液相色谱和荧光光度法检测花生酱中的黄曲霉毒素%Determination of aflatoxins in peanut butter by combining HPLC with electrochemical derivatization and fluorometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏凡; 杨丽君; 王静; 李兆杰; 刘玉敏

    2010-01-01

    建立了免疫亲和柱净化-柱后电化学衍生-高效液相色谱结合荧光光度法检测花生酱中4种黄曲霉毒素(B_1、B_2、G_1和G_2)的方法.样品经过体积分数为60%的甲醇提取,通过免疫亲和柱净化后,以Kobra Cell装置柱后衍生,高效液相色谱法分离定量.黄曲霉毒素B_1、B_2、G_1和G_2能达到完全的基线分离,检测限分别为0.5、0.15、0.5和0.15 μg/kg,线性相关系数>0.999,回收率可达74.2%~96.5%,相对标准偏差低于11%.该方法能够满足花生酱中黄曲霉毒素检测的需要.

  12. 固相分散萃取-离子对液相色谱法测定花生酱中苯甲酸和山梨酸%Determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in peanut butter by solid-phase dispersive extraction coupled with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建科; 唐翠苓; 韩朝家; 林森

    2011-01-01

    采用固相分散萃取技术处理样品,无水硫酸钠为分散剂,反相离子对色谱法测定花生酱中苯甲酸和山梨酸.色谱条件:C18柱,甲醇-5 mmol/L四丁基溴化铵水溶液(40:60,V/V)为流动相,检测波长230 nm.在0.5~100 μg/mL范围内线性良好,相关系数均为0.9997.两组分平均回收率91.7%和77.4%,相对标准偏差2.02%和2.99%,检出限分别为0.90 μg/g和1.35 μg/g.

  13. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Peanut Butter Wolf presents "Stones Throw Ten Years", Red Hot Chili Peppers "Stadium Arcadium", "Pearl Jam", Azymuth "Pure. Best Of Far Out", Bajofondo Tangoclub "Bajofondo Remixed", Kapusta ja ? "Sisekosmosemasin", Hedvig Hanson "Ema laulud"

  14. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amounts of monounsaturated fats include: Nuts Avocado Canola oil Olive oil Safflower oil (high oleic) Sunflower oil Peanut oil ... and sandwiches. Replace butter and solid fats with olive or canola oil.

  15. Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Claus; Storm, Hanne; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2003-01-01

    butter, and the control meal plus 80 g olive oil. Triacylglycerol responses were measured in total plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and a chylomicron-poor fraction. RESULTS: No significant differences in the glucose, insulin, or fatty acid responses to the 2 fat-rich meals were seen. The plasma...... triacylglycerol and chylomicron triacylglycerol responses were highest after the butter meal. HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly after the butter meal but did not change significantly after the olive oil meal. GLP-1 responses were highest after the olive oil meal. CONCLUSIONS: Olive oil...... induced lower triacylglycerol concentrations and higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did butter, without eliciting significant changes in glucose, insulin, or fatty acids. Furthermore, olive oil induced higher concentrations of GLP-1, which may indicate a relation between fatty acid composition...

  16. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking the wrong types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in ... such as chocolate, peanut butter, and dark-colored soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...

  17. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell pepper, oatmeal ] or are they mostly calorie dense, like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older ...

  18. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  19. Take Charge of Your Health: A Guide for Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... butter on whole-wheat crackers Be media smart. Advertisements, TV shows, the Internet, and other media can ... Follow Us Contact Us Get Email Updates Twitter Facebook Follow Us Privacy Policy | Freedom of Information Act | ...

  20. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and coconut oils, cheese, and red meat have high amounts of saturated fat. Too much saturated fat in your diet can lead to heart disease and other health problems.

  1. Keeping Your Heart Healthy: What You Should Know about Lipids When You Have Chronic Kidney Disease (Stages 1-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jelly beans and hard candy; plain popcorn Chocolate, potato chips, nachos, buttered popcorn Fruit juices, tea, coffee, ... for transplantation. With offices nationwide, the NKF provides early detection screenings and other vital patient and community ...

  2. Diet - full liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid when they are at room temperature, like ice cream. It also includes: Strained creamy soups Tea Juice ... Butter, margarine, oil, cream, custard, and pudding Plain ice cream, frozen yogurt, and sherbet. Fruit ices and popsicles ...

  3. Formulation and evaluation of exotic fat based cosmeceuticals for skin repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandawgade S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango butter was explored as a functional, natural supplement and active skin ingredient in skin care formulations. A foot care cream was developed with mango butter to evaluate its medicinal value and protective function in skin repair. Qualitative comparison and clinical case studies of the product were carried out. Wound healing potential of foot care cream was investigated on the rat excision and incision wound models. Results of the clinical studies demonstrated complete repair of worn and cracked skin in all the human volunteers. Furthermore, foot care cream exhibited significant healing response in both the wound models. The project work could be concluded as establishment of high potential for mango butter to yield excellent emolliency for better skin protection. Improving the product features and medicinal functionality further validate mango butter as a specialty excipient in development of cosmeceuticals and has an immense value for its commercialization.

  4. 5 CFR 1315.4 - Prompt payment standards and required notices to vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., when the contract specifies that the delivery ticket may serve as an invoice. (c) Review of invoice... minimum, liquid milk, cheese, certain processed cheese products, butter, yogurt, and ice cream,...

  5. 48 CFR 552.232-25 - Prompt Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... invoice has been received. Liquid milk, cheese, certain processed cheese products, butter, yogurt, ice... audit or other review of a specific financing request is required to ensure compliance with the...

  6. Helsingis kerkib jääst kirik : Euroopa kultuuripealinn 2000 Helsingi võlub sauna ja maailmakultuuriga / Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tali, Piret, 1972-

    2000-01-01

    Helsingisse püstitatavatest lume- ja jääskulptuuridest, valgusinstallatsioonidest (Kide, Vahemere sosin). Arhitektid Kari Leppänen, Peter Ch. Butter, Dusan Janovich, Jyrki Sandell. Ürituste loetelu

  7. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: Richard: In the ... is okay. Narrator: Richard and Gloria are older adults who choose to eat nutrient-dense foods, foods ...

  8. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell pepper, oatmeal ] or are they mostly calorie dense, like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some ...

  9. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in high fat meat and high fat dairy products, like butter. Choosing when to eat fats is ... worse. Never drink energy drinks before exercising. These products contain a large amount of caffeine and other ...

  10. 78 FR 7750 - Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... flakes, corn flakes, oat cereal, rice cereal, corn cereal, and corn and rice cereal; the following canned..., spaghetti, macaroni, oats, peanut butter, roasted peanuts, brown and white rice, whole grain rotini,...

  11. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid into lipids from rat tissues and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Pia; Sejrsen, Kristen; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) of tissues and plasma, and to interpret the role of dietary-derived vaccenic acid (VA) in increasing the tissue content of CLA (c9,t11) and the...... influence on the fatty acid profile. We fed five groups of rats semi-purified diets with varying levels of CLA and VA: control butter with low CLA (c9,t11) and VA; control butter added 5% CLA (c9,t11); control butter added 5% Tonalin [equal amount of CLA (c9,t11) and CLA (t10,c12)]; control butter added 5...

  12. How Much Protein Do You Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others.” Vegetarian food combinations that give you complete protein, for example, include rice and beans or peanut butter and bread. Eggs are also a good source of complete protein. People who don’t eat eggs or dairy ...

  13. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are fish, lean meats and poultry, eggs, dairy, nuts, soy, and peanut butter. Carb Charge Carbohydrates provide ... found in most vegetable oils, some fish, and nuts and seeds. Try to not to eat too ...

  14. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: ... more than the equivalent of 6 teaspoons of oil. Narrator: Remember to adjust these amounts depending on ...

  15. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: ... more than the equivalent of 6 teaspoons of oil. Narrator: Remember to adjust these amounts depending on ...

  16. Environ: E00576 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00576 Aconitum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum kusnesoffii, Aconitum [TAX:49188] Ranunculaceae (butter...t plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00576 Aconitum tuberous root ...

  17. 77 FR 8213 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ..., shipments, and selling prices for such products as butter, cheese, dry whey, and nonfat dry milk. Cheddar cheese prices are collected weekly and used by USDA to assist in the determination of the fair...

  18. 75 FR 15401 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... nearly all cheese made from cow's milk (except soft-ripened cheese such as Brie) and certain non-cheese dairy products (including butter and dried milk) are subject to TRQs and the Regulation. Licenses...

  19. Celiac Disease and Gluten-Free Diet Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nut Butter Sauce Goddess CSA Leadership Professional Advisors History of CSA CSA Development Program Get CSA Membership/ ... Symposium Celiac Disease 2013 Peer Review Research Application History of Gluten Induced Diseases Celiac Disease & Gluten-Free ...

  20. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... peels off like butter and it’s really a beautiful operation. Now, one of the advantages of robotic ... seeking our expertise, coming from all over the world for that reason. In case you need to ...

  1. What I Need to Know about Lactose Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and all foods made with milk, such as ice cream cream butter cheese cottage cheese yogurt Rarely, people ... lactose intolerance with a medical, family, and diet history; a physical exam; and medical tests. Most people ...

  2. Digestive Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be avoided include whole milk and dairy products (ice cream, cheese, butter); commercially baked goods (cookies and crackers); ... surgery. Diagnosis of IBD is based on: Family history, travel history, current medications Stool sample to rule ...

  3. Getting on Track: Physical Activity and Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cheese = 4 stacked dice 1/2 cup of ice cream = 1/2 baseball 2 tablespoons of peanut butter = ... for Scientists Current Funding Opportunities Funded Grants & Grant History Funding Process Research Programs & Contacts Research Training & Career ...

  4. Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Baehr, Melanie; Rohrer, Carsten; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    To determine trans fatty acid (TFA) distribution of contemporary foods, especially regarding individual trans octadecenoic acids (trans C18:1), 339 German foods of six categories (semi-solid fats, deep-fried potato products, bakery products, confectioneries, instant products and butter) were analysed using two GC methods. Results showed a high variation of TFA content between and within the categories containing between 0 and 40.5% of FAME except in butter, which is a source of natural TFA. T...

  5. Lurpak: Ready for another 100 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    The Lur mark - the forerunner and very foundation of Lurpak butter - celebrates its 100th anniversary this year. That is an unusual and impressive lifetime for a consumer goods brand and something Danish dairy sector can be proud of.......The Lur mark - the forerunner and very foundation of Lurpak butter - celebrates its 100th anniversary this year. That is an unusual and impressive lifetime for a consumer goods brand and something Danish dairy sector can be proud of....

  6. Comparing the thermo-physical characteristics of lard and selected plant fats

    OpenAIRE

    Yanty, N. A. M.; Marikkar, J. M. M.; Miskandar, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of the thermo-physical properties of lard and plant fats may help to formulate alternative fat substitutes for halal food applications. In this study, plant-based fats, namely avocado butter (Persea americana), cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao L.), palm oil (Elaeis guinensis) and mee fat (Madhuca longifolia) are compared to lard with respect to the basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylgly...

  7. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  8. PRICE AND QUANTITY EFFECTS OF CANADA'S DAIRY ADVERSTISING PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnucan, Henry W.; Belleza, Evelyn T.

    1995-01-01

    An equilibrium-displacement model is combined with econometric estimates of key model parameters to identify the impacts of Canada's dairy advertising programs on prices and quantity. Results suggest increased advertising of fluid milk enhances the farm value of milk but has minimal effect on government costs of the dairy price-support program. Owing to government intervention in the butter market, increased butter advertising has no effect on the farm value of milk, at least in the short run...

  9. Functional characteristics, nutritional value and industrial applications of Madhuca longifolia seeds: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Mohdaly, Adel Abdelrazek Abdelazim; Assiri, Adel M A; Tadros, Monier; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    New sustainable edible oil sources are desired to achieve supply chain flexibility and cost saving opportunities. Non-traditional fruit seeds are being considered because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of nutritional and functional products. Madhuca longifolia Syn. M. indica (Sapotaceae) is an important economic tree growing throughout the subtropical region of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Information concerning the exact composition of mahua butter (known also as mowrah butter) from fruit-seeds of buttercup or Madhuca tree is scare. Few studies investigated mahua butter for its composition, nutritional value, biological activities and antioxidative properties. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the chemical composition, nutritional value and industrial applications of mahua butter is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which mahua butter can be put gives this substance great industrial importance. This review summarizes recent knowledge on bioactive compounds, functional properties as well as food and non-food industrial applications of mahua butter. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  10. Functional characteristics, nutritional value and industrial applications of Madhuca longifolia seeds: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Mohdaly, Adel Abdelrazek Abdelazim; Assiri, Adel M A; Tadros, Monier; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    New sustainable edible oil sources are desired to achieve supply chain flexibility and cost saving opportunities. Non-traditional fruit seeds are being considered because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of nutritional and functional products. Madhuca longifolia Syn. M. indica (Sapotaceae) is an important economic tree growing throughout the subtropical region of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Information concerning the exact composition of mahua butter (known also as mowrah butter) from fruit-seeds of buttercup or Madhuca tree is scare. Few studies investigated mahua butter for its composition, nutritional value, biological activities and antioxidative properties. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the chemical composition, nutritional value and industrial applications of mahua butter is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which mahua butter can be put gives this substance great industrial importance. This review summarizes recent knowledge on bioactive compounds, functional properties as well as food and non-food industrial applications of mahua butter. Graphical abstractᅟ. PMID:27407181

  11. EFFECT OF TWO TYPES OF DIETARY GHEE ON SERUM LIPID LEVELS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamaradi S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ghee is also known as clarified butter, utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. Ghee which is known as “Gritha” in Ayurveda, described as the best among lipid media due to its quality of inheriting and enhancing the drug potency. Even though ghee is an animal fat, earlier studies have shown that larger doses given for cleansing purpose did not increase the level of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL. Instead increased High Density Lipoprotein (HDL or some time did not alter lipid profile at all. Earlier studies in rats, which were fed up to 10% dietary ghee showed dose dependent decrease in cholesterol and other lipid profiles. There are two methods in preparation of butter. One is from milk cream, clarified butter and the other from curds, cultured butter. Butter will be further processed to convert it into ghee. None of the earlier studies have shown, which type of ghee is better and compared their effects on lipid profiles. So, our objective of the study was to know the effects of 5% and 10% milk cream ghee (Ghee from clarified Butter and curd ghee (Ghee made out of Cultured Butter supplementation on lipid profile in Wistar rats. So we supplied 5% and 10% dietary ghee in a nutritionally balanced diet to 8 weeks old male rats for 12 weeks and estimated Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL and Triglycerides (TGL levels after 12 weeks. These results indicate that 5% and 10% of cream ghee and 10% curds ghee did increase body weight after 12 weeks of consumption and 5% curds ghee was found not to increase the body weight; 5% Curd Ghee has shown to lower total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides levels and cholesterol ratio more than other groups in our experimental model. HDL levels were increased in all the groups, which was not statistically significant in 5% cream and 5% curd ghee groups.

  12. Molecularly imprinted hydrogels as functional active packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Peña, Elena; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Rico-Yuste, Alberto; Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Cruz, José Manuel; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of novel molecularly imprinted hydrogels (MIHs) for the natural antioxidant ferulic acid (FA), and their application as packaging materials to prevent lipid oxidation of butter. A library of MIHs was synthesized using a synthetic surrogate of FA, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HFA), as template molecule, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker, and 1-allylpiperazine (1-ALPP) or 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), in combination with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as functional monomers, at different molar concentrations. The DMAEMA/HEMA-based MIHs showed the greatest FA loading capacity, while the 1-ALLP/HEMA-based polymers exhibited the highest imprinting effect. During cold storage, FA-loaded MIHs protected butter from oxidation and led to TBARs values that were approximately half those of butter stored without protection and 25% less than those recorded for butter covered with hydrogels without FA, potentially extending the shelf life of butter. Active packaging is a new field of application for MIHs with great potential in the food industry. PMID:26213001

  13. Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandacek, R.J.; Ramirez, M.M.; Crouse, J.R. III (Procter Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01).

  14. Formulation and evaluation of tramadol hydrochloride rectal suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal suppositories of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared using different bases and polymers like PEG, cocoa butter, agar and the effect of different additives on in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride was studied. The agar-based suppositories were non-disintegrating/non-dissolving, whereas PEGs were disintegrating/dissolving and cocoa butter were melting suppositories. All the prepared suppositories were evaluated for various physical parameters like weight variation, drug content and hardness. The PEG and cocoa butter suppositories were evaluated for macromelting range, disintegration and liquefaction time. In vitro release study was performed by USP type I apparatus. The prepared suppositories were within the permissible range of all physical parameters. In vitro drug release was in the order of PEG>Agar>cocoa butter. Addition of PVP, HPMC in agar suppositories retards the release. The mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled and follows first order kinetics. The results suggested that blends of PEG of low molecular weight (1000 with high molecular weight (4000 and 6000 in different percentage and agar in 10% w/w as base used to formulate rapid release suppositories. The sustained release suppositories can be prepared by addition of PVP, HPMC in agar-based suppositories and by use of cocoa butter as base.

  15. Are salty liquid food flavorings in vitro antitumor substances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Francisco R S; Moura, Antonio G; Rodrigues, Gardenia F; Nunes, Narcia M F; Lima, Daisy J B; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa, Marcilia P; Ferreira, Paulo M P; Peron, Ana Paula

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of salty liquid synthetic flavorings of Butter, Cheddar Cheese and Onion. The antiproliferative potential (2.9-1500 µg/mL) was assessed by MTT assay after 72h using the human tumor lines SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovarian), HCT-116 (colon) and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia) and primary cultures of murine Sarcoma 180 (S180) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to growing respective doses (1 mL and 2 mL). Only Butter and Cheddar flavorings revealed cytotoxic activity on cancer cells, with IC50 values ranging from 125.4 µg/mL (Cheddar - HCT-116) to 402.6 µg/mL (Butter - OVCAR-8). Butter flavoring was the most cytotoxic on PBMC (136.3 µg/mL) and increased cell division rate in relation to the mitotic index but did not cause cellular aberrations. Onion and Cheddar flavorings reduced the mitotic index after 24h and 48h exposure, but only Onion flavoring resulted in cellular aberrations and mitotic spindle abnormalities, such as anaphase and telophase bridges, micronucleated cells, conchicine-metaphases and amplifications. So, Butter, Onion and/or Cheddar flavorings caused significant changes in the division of meristematic cells of A. cepa and presented cytotoxic action even on decontrolled proliferating human tumor cells.

  16. Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oils and butter of seed from Brazilian biodiversity are extending the range of innovative products for cosmetics development. They have a fat potential similar to skin composition, leading to the improved performance of these product. Aims: Improve the emulsions spreadability through prior screening of grease composition and studying the viscosity, and the emulsions accelerated stability. Methods: Emulsions were formulated using oils from semiarid plants from Bahia: Syagrus coronate, Pachira retusa, and Pachira aquatica, so as to compare them with oils already standard in the production of cosmetics. Spreadability and stability tests were made comparing the results. The same criteria were used with Amazon seed butter: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum. For the emulsions screening and performance, a system was developed for oil/ butter, following tests of accelerated stability, viscosity, and spreadability. Results: The combined system of spreadability was optimized using screening. Emollients containing oleic and palmitic acids, and light chain fatty acids obtained good spreadability. The oil emulsion containing Pachira retusa and Virola surinamensis butter had a higher viscosity. Conclusions: With high content of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic or the light chain fatty acids obtain an appropriated appearance, texture, and spreadability for cosmetic use. Thus, oils with a low fatty acid content may be combined with butter that have a high fatty acid content and vice-versa. Analyzing and strategically combining grease composition, one can optimize the performance of cosmetic formulations.

  17. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... of CVD compared to butter intake with an equal fat content. It was found that cheese intake lowered total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and increased glucose concentrations when compared to butter. Additionally, butter intake resulted in higher...... total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol when compared to habitual diet whereas no difference was observed between cheese intake and habitual diet. Calcium has been suggested to increase fecal fat and bile acid excretions which could explain the lower cholesterol concentrations with cheese intake. Although...

  18. Survival of Salmonella in Cookie and Cracker Sandwiches Containing Inoculated, Low-Water Activity Fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2015-10-01

    A study was done to determine the rate of inactivation of Salmonella in cookie and cracker snack sandwiches. Two cookie bases (chocolate and vanilla) and cheese crackers, along with high-sugar chocolate and peanut butter-based crème cookie fillings and peanut butter- and cheese-based cracker fillings, were obtained from commercial sources. Fillings and sandwiches containing fillings that had been dry- or wet-inoculated with Salmonella were stored at 25°C for 1, 6, 21, 35, 70, 112, and 182 days (6 months). At initial populations of 3.4 and 3.6 log CFU/g of cookie sandwiches containing chocolate crème and peanut butter crème fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 days; initially at 0.36 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 35 and 70 days. Initially at 2.9 and 3.4 log CFU/g of cracker sandwiches containing peanut butter- and cheese-based fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 and 112 days; initially at 0.53 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 6 and 35 days. Inactivation of Salmonella was more rapid in wet-inoculated peanut butter crème cookie filling than in dry-inoculated filling but was less affected by type of inoculum in peanut butter-based cracker filling. Chocolate cookie base (water activity [aw] 0.39) and chocolate crème filling (aw 0.30) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.38 within 15 days at 25°C; vanilla cookie base (aw 0.21) and peanut butter-based crème filling (aw 0.27) equilibrated to aw 0.24 between 50 and 80 days. Cheese cracker (aw 0.14) and peanut butter-based filling (aw 0.31) or cheese-based filling (aw 0.33) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.33 in 80 days. The ability of Salmonella to survive for at least 182 days in fillings of cookie and cracker sandwiches demonstrates a need to assure that filling ingredients do not contain the pathogen and that contamination does not occur during manufacture. PMID:26408131

  19. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...

  20. Market Power Effects of Supply Control and Dairy Market Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the Bresnahan-Lau framework to analyze whether policy reforms specifically affecting Swedish dairy cooperatives, i.e. the two-price system (an input quota, 1986-1991) and the general deregulation of dairy policy (1991-1994), had any market power effects on the Swedish butter market. It is hypothesized that the two-price system enhanced market power, while the deregulation, making exports of butter less profitable, led to a lower level of market power exercised by dairy coopera...

  1. Survival of Salmonella in Cookie and Cracker Sandwiches Containing Inoculated, Low-Water Activity Fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2015-10-01

    A study was done to determine the rate of inactivation of Salmonella in cookie and cracker snack sandwiches. Two cookie bases (chocolate and vanilla) and cheese crackers, along with high-sugar chocolate and peanut butter-based crème cookie fillings and peanut butter- and cheese-based cracker fillings, were obtained from commercial sources. Fillings and sandwiches containing fillings that had been dry- or wet-inoculated with Salmonella were stored at 25°C for 1, 6, 21, 35, 70, 112, and 182 days (6 months). At initial populations of 3.4 and 3.6 log CFU/g of cookie sandwiches containing chocolate crème and peanut butter crème fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 days; initially at 0.36 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 35 and 70 days. Initially at 2.9 and 3.4 log CFU/g of cracker sandwiches containing peanut butter- and cheese-based fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 and 112 days; initially at 0.53 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 6 and 35 days. Inactivation of Salmonella was more rapid in wet-inoculated peanut butter crème cookie filling than in dry-inoculated filling but was less affected by type of inoculum in peanut butter-based cracker filling. Chocolate cookie base (water activity [aw] 0.39) and chocolate crème filling (aw 0.30) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.38 within 15 days at 25°C; vanilla cookie base (aw 0.21) and peanut butter-based crème filling (aw 0.27) equilibrated to aw 0.24 between 50 and 80 days. Cheese cracker (aw 0.14) and peanut butter-based filling (aw 0.31) or cheese-based filling (aw 0.33) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.33 in 80 days. The ability of Salmonella to survive for at least 182 days in fillings of cookie and cracker sandwiches demonstrates a need to assure that filling ingredients do not contain the pathogen and that contamination does not occur during manufacture.

  2. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – at least for some types of oils...

  3. Concentrations of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers in Human Plasma Reflect Intake of Dairy Products with Enhanced cis-9, trans-11 or tran-10, cis-12 Isomer Content

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Brian David

    2006-01-01

    Dairy products are a primary source of c9, t11-CLA, an anti-carcinogenic agent, in the diet of humans. The t10, c12-CLA isomer, typically in trace amounts in bovine milk fat, also may benefit human health. Four cows received abomasal infusions of c9, t11-CLA or t10, c12-CLA to obtain milk fat used to prepare butter and yogurt with enhanced c9, t11-CLA or t10, c12-CLA content. Human subjects (3 males, 3 females, ages 22 to 29) received CLA-enhanced butter and yogurt (14% of total kcal) in a...

  4. The demand for dairy products in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Akaichi, Faiçal; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a multi-stage almost ideal demand system with censoring was estimated to assess Malawians’ demand for six dairy products (viz. fresh milk, powdered milk, margarine and butter, chambiko, yogurt and cheese). We found that the consumption of dairy products depended on whether the household was rural or urban, the region of the country (viz. North, Centre, South) and the household poverty status. The results also show that the demand for fresh and powdered milk, butter and margari...

  5. La manteca de karité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Méndez, M. V.

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographical review of the extraction, composition properties and applications of shea butter is made.

    Se hace una revisión bibliográfica sobre la extracción, composición, propiedades y aplicaciones de la manteca de karité.

  6. Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the tree from which cocoa butter and chocolate is derived, is conserved in field genebanks. The largest of these ex situ collections in the public domain is the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Reduction of genetic redundancy is essential to improve the acc...

  7. Stress and food deprivation: linking physiological state to migration success in a teleost fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, J.D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2016-01-01

    of the glucocorticoid stress response in determining life-history strategy and survival of a migratory species. Using an experimental approach, the relative influences of short-term FD and experimental cortisol elevation (i.e., intra-coelomic injection of cortisol suspended in cocoa butter) on migratory status...

  8. Comparisons of Interventions for Rumination Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Rebecca A.; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of four antecedent treatments for rumination was compared for two individuals with autism, severe intellectual disabilities and long histories (at least 20 years) of rumination. Comparisons of increased meal size, supplemental feedings, fixed-time provision of peanut butter, and liquid rescheduling found liquid rescheduling to be…

  9. 7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Print and bulk packaging rooms. 58.313 Section 58.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related...

  10. Quiescent water-in-oil Pickering emulsions as a route toward healthier fruit juice infused chocolate confectionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skelhon, T.S.; Grossiord, N.; Morgan, A.R.; Bon, S.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a route toward the preparation of healthier fruit juice infused chocolate candy. Up to 50 wt% of the fat content in chocolate, that is cocoa butter and milk fats, is replaced with fruit juice in the form of emulsion droplets using a quiescent Pickering emulsion fabrication strategy. F

  11. Deposition of Thin Lipid Films Prepared by Electrospraying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.K.I.; Mujawar, L.H.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient way to apply coatings on complex surfaces is electrospraying. We report on coating of porous model surfaces with well-defined properties using a multiple nozzle electrospraying system to spray sunflower oil and butter-based coating materials. Selected model surfaces were nickel membrane

  12. Processing Coordination Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

  13. University Students' Conceptions of Bonding in Melting and Dissolving Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Nakhleh, Mary B.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate students' predictions and submicroscopic level explanations for the melting of four materials (salt, chalk, sugar, and butter), and for the mixing of these solutes in two solvents (water and cooking oil) were collected. Twenty-three undergraduate students and seven graduate students participated in the study, and data…

  14. Consumption of fatty foods and incident type 2 diabetes in populations from eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.; Boeing, H.; Drogan, D.; Schulze, M. B.; Feskens, E. J.; Amiano, P.; Barricarte, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; De Lauzon-Guillain, B.; Fagherazzi, G.; Fonseca-Nunes, A.; Franks, P. W.; Huerta, J. M.; Jakobsen, M. U.; Kaaks, R.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Masala, G.; Moskal, A.; Nilsson, P. M.; Overvad, K.; Pala, V.; Panico, S.; Redondo, M. L.; Ricceri, F.; Rolandsson, O.; Sánchez, M. J.; Sluijs, I.; Spijkerman, A. M.; Tjonneland, A.; Tumino, R.; Van Der A, D. L.; Van Der Schouw, Y. T.; Langenberg, C.; Sharp, S. J.; Forouhi, N. G.; Riboli, E.; Wareham, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Diets high in saturated and trans fat and low in unsaturated fat may increase type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, but studies on foods high in fat per unit weight are sparse. We assessed whether the intake of vegetable oil, butter, margarine, nuts and seeds and cakes and cookies is re

  15. Consumption of fatty foods and incident type 2 diabetes in populations from eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.; Boeing, H.; Drogan, D.; Schulze, M.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Amiano, P.; The InterAct Consortium, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Diets high in saturated and trans fat and low in unsaturated fat may increase type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, but studies on foods high in fat per unit weight are sparse. We assessed whether the intake of vegetable oil, butter, margarine, nuts and seeds and cakes and cookies is re

  16. Optimization of a SNP assay for Genotyping Theobroma cacao under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical tree crop Theobroma cacao L. is grown commercially for its beans, which are used in the production of cocoa butter and chocolate. Although the upper Amazon region is the center of origin for cacao, 70% of the world’s supply of cacao beans currently comes from small farms in West Africa...

  17. Toward a Cosmic Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We old warriors of ideology critique and "wissensoziologie" should not be too hard on ourselves for having forgotten reflexivity and the labors of putting paradigms, including our own, back into the context of history and social movement. Normal science is our necessary bread and butter. We achieved a lot by shaking the liberal…

  18. Effect of oil and dry roasting of peanuts at various temperatures and times on survival of Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of outbreaks of salmonellosis since 2006 associated with the consumption of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter have increased concerns about this food and the associated processing methods. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the level of Salmonella reduction associated with o...

  19. Cross-modal interactions for custard desserts differ in obese and normal weight Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Cristina; Laureati, Monica; Invitti, Cecilia; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Pagliarini, Ella

    2016-05-01

    The effects of variation in odors and thickening agents on sensory properties and acceptability of a model custard dessert were investigated in normal weight and obese women. Subjects rated their liking and the intensity of sensory properties (sweetness, vanilla and butter flavors, and creaminess) of 3 block samples (the first varied in vanilla aroma, the second varied in butter aroma and the third varied in xanthan gum). Significant differences were found in acceptability and intensity ratings in relation to body mass index. The addition of butter aroma in the custard was the most effective way to elicit odor-taste, odor-flavor and odor-texture interactions in obese women. In this group, butter aroma, signaling energy dense products, increased the perception of sweetness, vanilla flavor and creaminess, which are all desirable properties in a custard, while maintaining a high liking degree. Understanding cross-modal interactions in relation to nutritional status is interesting in order to develop new food products with reduced sugar and fat, that are still satisfying for the consumer. This could have important implications to reduce caloric intake and tackle the obesity epidemic. PMID:26911260

  20. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    : Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. CONCLUSIONS: Wine buyers...